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Sample records for african development coordination

  1. Developing anatomical terms in an African language.

    PubMed

    Madzimbamuto, Farai Daniel

    2012-02-23

    Clinical and technical information imparted in most African languages involves inexact terminology and code switching, so it lacks the explanatory power characterised by the English language. African languages are absent in the tertiary science education environment and forums where African scientists could present scientific material in the medium of African languages. This limits the development of African languages in the scientific domain. There has recently been a trend in several African languages to develop and intellectualise them, especially in the field of medical sciences. The ChiShona language is used to explore the ability of an African language to develop new terminology, to name the vertebral skeleton and describe it scientifically. It uses word compounding to demonstrate terminology development. ChiShona has similarities with several hundred other Bantu languages in East, Central and Southern Africa. Advancing this language can promote similar developments in others, making them more explanatory for the lay public and health professionals.

  2. 75 FR 2844 - African Development Foundation, Board of Directors Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-19

    ...; ] AFRICAN DEVELOPMENT FOUNDATION African Development Foundation, Board of Directors Meeting Time: Tuesday, January 26, 2010, 8:30 a.m. to 1 p.m. Place: African Development Foundation, Conference Room, 1400...

  3. 75 FR 45600 - African Development Foundation, Board of Directors Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-03

    ...; ] AFRICAN DEVELOPMENT FOUNDATION African Development Foundation, Board of Directors Meeting Time: Tuesday, August 17, 2010, 8:30 a.m. to 1 p.m. Place: African Development Foundation, Conference Room, 1400...

  4. Development of Coordination in Time Estimation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiefer, Adam W.; Wallot, Sebastian; Gresham, Lori J.; Kloos, Heidi; Riley, Michael A.; Shockley, Kevin; Van Orden, Guy

    2014-01-01

    How to best characterize cognitive development? The claim put forward in this article is that development is the improvement of a kind of coordination among a variety of factors. To determine the development of coordination in a cognitive task, children between 4 and 12 years of age and adults participated in a time estimation task: They had to…

  5. African Outreach Workshop 1974.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Nancy J.

    This report discusses the 1974 African Outreach Workshop planned and coordinated by the African Studies Program at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. Its major aim was to assist teachers in developing curriculum units on African using materials available in their local community. A second aim was for the African Studies Program to…

  6. Coordinating chemists for global development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2016-06-01

    Chemistry research and education face challenges anywhere in the world, but more so in less developed -- or less stable -- economies. These countries and their more economically fortunate neighbours can all contribute to the development of chemistry and its ability to tackle local and global issues.

  7. Development of the Jackson Heart Study Coordinating Center

    PubMed Central

    Campbell-Jenkins, Brenda W.; Addison, Clifton C.; Young, Lavon; Anugu, Pramod; Wilson, Gregory; Sarpong, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    The public health burden caused by cardiovascular disease (CVD) continues to adversely affect individuals in terms of cost, life expectancy, medical, pharmaceutical and hospital care. This burden has been excessive in the case of African Americans. The objective of this paper is to chronicle the procedures and processes that were implemented in the development of the Jackson Heart Study Coordinating Center. The Jackson Heart Study (JHS) is a population-based investigation of traditional and emerging risk factors that predict progression to CVD among African Americans. In response to the struggle against CVD, the Jackson Heart Study has convened a professional, technical, and administrative staff with specific competence in the operation of a coordinating center to handle the wide variety of areas related to CVD studies. The Jackson Heart Study Coordinating Center (JHSCC) was created to assure validity of the JHS findings and provide the resources necessary to meet comprehensive statistical needs (planning, implementing and monitoring data analysis); data management (designing, implementing and managing data collection and quality control), and administrative support. The JHSCC began with a commitment to support study functions in order to increase participant recruitment, retention and safety, meet regulatory requirements, prepare progress reports, and facilitate effective communication with the community and between all JHS centers. The JHSCC facilitates the efforts of the JHS scientists through the development and implementation of the study protocol. The efforts of the JHSCC have resulted in the successful preparation of scientific reports and manuscripts for publication and presentation of study findings and results. In summary, the JHSCC has emerged as an effective research mechanism that serves as the driving force behind the Jackson Heart Study activities. PMID:19543408

  8. Physical Development: Building Strength and Coordination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strickland, Eric

    2004-01-01

    Strength and coordination are two areas of physical development that seem almost to "take care of themselves"--which may be the reason why they are often overlooked when curriculum planning is under way in many early childhood settings. After all, children are going to get stronger as they grow older, thus, they will also become more coordinated…

  9. Development of Measures of Crew Coordination

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-07-01

    ARI Research Note 92-68 AD-A255 384 /111I111111111111111 0/ il i~ilI Development of Measures of Crew Coordination Robert Simon, Daniel T. Risser , and...Crew Coordination 62785A ,_ 790 G. AUTHORt- 1211 Simon, Robert; Risser , Daniel T.; and Pawlik, Eugene A., C03 Sr. . E•ORM II• t ., " >, -. •_ •.. -: L...position. If the white light Is used. night vision will be impaired for several minutes. Therefore, exercise extra caution if flight Is resumed

  10. Some Growth Points in African Child Development Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Serpell, Robert; Marfo, Kofi

    2014-01-01

    We reflect on ways in which research presented in earlier chapters responds to challenges of generating an African child development field and identify additional issues calling for the field's attention. The chapters collectively display a variety of African contexts and reflexive evidence of the authors' African cultural roots. Connecting…

  11. Some growth points in African child development research.

    PubMed

    Serpell, Robert; Marfo, Kofi

    2014-01-01

    We reflect on ways in which research presented in earlier chapters responds to challenges of generating an African child development field and identify additional issues calling for the field's attention. The chapters collectively display a variety of African contexts and reflexive evidence of the authors' African cultural roots. Connecting research with African audiences demands cooperative communication between educational practitioners and parents with low literacy, and cross-sector communication among professionals. Intracultural exploration of factors influencing the pattern of human development has begun to document the potential of indigenous African cultures as a fund of resources for enhancing child development. Priority topics for future African developmental research include multilingualism, musical performance, socially distributed caregiving, and the relation between adolescence and economic activity. Integration of multiple disciplines in the application of research-based principles to service delivery in the fields of community-based (re)habilitation and early childhood care and education calls for researcher collaboration with practitioners.

  12. 76 FR 43649 - Board of Directors Meeting; African Development Foundation, Board of Directors Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-21

    ...; ] AFRICAN DEVELOPMENT FOUNDATION Board of Directors Meeting; African Development Foundation, Board of Directors Meeting Time: Tuesday, August 2, 2011, 9 a.m. to 12 p.m. Place: African Development...

  13. African-American Women's Voices: Expanding Theories of Women's Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodman, Diane J.

    1990-01-01

    Focuses on the experiences of African-American women; and considers the interaction of sex and race in the development of sense of self, sense of self in relation to others, and ontology through interviews with 12 African-American women. Similarities among women across race are suggested. (SLD)

  14. Women and the social construction of gender in African development.

    PubMed

    Kalu, A C

    1996-01-01

    Because a footnote of Marxism teaches that capitalism must first destroy primitive cultures that lack a dynamic social change mechanism and then rejuvenate them as modern industrialized states, the economic and cultural bases of social relationships in developing countries have been deemed irrelevant. In a similar way, Western feminist paradigms fail to acknowledge epistemological differences from those of African women. This article explores these contradictions and analyzes social change mechanisms within the Igbo culture in Africa that were stunted by colonialism. The first topic considered is the relationship of African literature (using Toni Morrison's "Beloved" as a point of reference) with sustainable African development and African women. The remainder of the article is devoted to an examination of the role of women in light of precolonial and colonial literary traditions. It is noted that continued use of Western feudal and capitalist terms for self-identification alienates Africans from Africa's problems. Traditional African thought assigned women the power to feed the family and to serve as protectors of children and society, and ancestral wisdom directed how societies responded to threats, took charge of their world, and resolved conflict. Problems faced by contemporary African researchers are shown to center on the dilemma faced by those who wish to design a program that analyzes the content of African development and provides contemporary solutions without completely deriving the program completely from contemporary thought. It is, thus, concluded that redefinition of the African development agenda must involve recognition of the essential role of African women as a change agent and a rearticulation of the male role within traditional thought.

  15. Coordination and Integration of Welfare and Workforce Development Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pindus, Nancy; Koralek, Robin; Martinson, Karin; Trutko, John

    The extent of coordination and integration of welfare and work force development systems was examined in a study that involved site visits to 12 localities in 6 states. The following factors were found to promote coordination: a previous history of coordination; a strong local economy and low unemployment; access to technology; greater financial…

  16. Development of Interpersonal Coordination between Peers during a Drumming Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Endedijk, Hinke M.; Ramenzoni, Veronica C. O.; Cox, Ralf F. A.; Cillessen, Antonius H. N.; Bekkering, Harold; Hunnius, Sabine

    2015-01-01

    During social interaction, the behavior of interacting partners becomes coordinated. Although interpersonal coordination is well-studied in adults, relatively little is known about its development. In this project we explored how 2-, 3-, and 4-year-old children spontaneously coordinated their drumming with a peer. Results showed that all children…

  17. Regulatory pathways coordinating cell cycle progression in early Xenopus development.

    PubMed

    Gotoh, Tetsuya; Villa, Linda M; Capelluto, Daniel G S; Finkielstein, Carla V

    2011-01-01

    The African clawed frog, Xenopus laevis, is used extensively as a model organism for studying both cell development and cell cycle regulation. For over 20 years now, this model organism has contributed to answering fundamental questions concerning the mechanisms that underlie cell cycle transitions--the cellular components that synthesize, modify, repair, and degrade nucleic acids and proteins, the signaling pathways that allow cells to communicate, and the regulatory pathways that lead to selective expression of subsets of genes. In addition, the remarkable simplicity of the Xenopus early cell cycle allows for tractable manipulation and dissection of the basic components driving each transition. In this organism, early cell divisions are characterized by rapid cycles alternating phases of DNA synthesis and division. The post-blastula stages incorporate gap phases, lengthening progression, and allowing more time for DNA repair. Various cyclin/Cdk complexes are differentially expressed during the early cycles with orderly progression being driven by both the combined action of cyclin synthesis and degradation and the appropriate selection of specific substrates by their Cdk components. Like other multicellular organisms, chief developmental events in early Xenopus embryogenesis coincide with profound remodeling of the cell cycle, suggesting that cell proliferation and differentiation events are linked and coordinated through crosstalk mechanisms acting on signaling pathways involving the expression of cell cycle control genes.

  18. Competency Development of Southern African Housing Officers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunn, Munita; Dunkel, Norbert W.

    2013-01-01

    The Report on the Ministerial Committee for the Review of the Provision of Student Housing at South African Universities (Department of Higher Education and Training, 2011) has provided a comprehensive review of residences across several housing functional areas. In one of the residence management and administration recommendations it stated,…

  19. African American Biographies: A Collection Development Challenge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woody, Donna

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the lack of African American biographies for elementary school libraries and reports the results of a study that surveyed publishers from the Children's Book Council. Examines book reviews, discusses the number of sports figures included, and considers problems with a lack of appropriate materials to support the curriculum. (LRW)

  20. Development of the Coordination between Posture and Manual Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haddad, Jeffrey M.; Claxton, Laura J.; Keen, Rachel; Berthier, Neil E.; Riccio, Gary E.; Hamill, Joseph; Van Emmerik, Richard E. A.

    2012-01-01

    Studies have suggested that proper postural control is essential for the development of reaching. However, little research has examined the development of the coordination between posture and manual control throughout childhood. We investigated the coordination between posture and manual control in children (7- and 10-year-olds) and adults during…

  1. The Role of Climate and Socialization in Developing Interfunctional Coordination.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wooldridge, Barbara Ross; Minsky, Barbara D.

    2002-01-01

    Develops a model illustrating that two elements of organizational culture--climate and socialization processes--foster acceptance of organizational values and facilitate the development of interfunctional coordination, which in turn influences firm performance. (Contains 42 references.) (JOW)

  2. The Origin and Development of the African Evaluation Guidelines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rouge, Jean-Charles

    2004-01-01

    In May 1990, the first evaluation seminar in Africa took place in Cote d'Ivoire. It was the first in a series of regional seminars on evaluation planned by the Development Assistance Committee (DAC) of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). The seminar was jointly presented by the DAC and African Development Bank (ADB).…

  3. Pulmonary Function in Children with Development Coordination Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Sheng K.; Cairney, John; Lin, Hsiao-Hui; Li, Yao-Chuen; Song, Tai-Fen

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare pulmonary function in children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD) with children who are typically developing (TD), and also analyze possible gender differences in pulmonary function between these groups. The Movement ABC test was used to identify the movement coordination ability of children.…

  4. Strategies in Instructional Materials Development for African Health Professionals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lea, James W.; Murphy, Catherine

    1980-01-01

    An international program in health professions training has involved the development of a teaching materials library by teams of African faculty authors and U.S. instructional materials specialists. Communications difficulties and differences in culture and technology have made necessary the development of ten new production and management…

  5. Developing generalism in the South African context.

    PubMed

    Howe, Amanda C; Mash, Robert J; Hugo, Jannie F M

    2013-10-11

    The largest impact on the South African burden of disease will be made in community-based and primary healthcare (PHC) settings and not in referral hospitals. Medical generalism is an approach to the delivery of healthcare that routinely applies a broad and holistic perspective to the patient's problems and is a feature of PHC. A multi-professional team of generalists, who share similar values and principles, is needed to make this a reality. Ward-based outreach teams include community health workers and nurses with essential support from doctors. Expert generalists - family physicians - are required to support PHC as well as provide care at the district hospital. All require sufficient training, at scale, with greater collaboration and integration between training programmes. District clinical specialist teams are both an opportunity and a threat. The value of medical generalism needs to be explained, advocated and communicated more actively. 

  6. African American Identity Development: A Review of the Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burt, Janeula M.; Halpin, Glennelle

    Beginning from general concepts of identity formation, this review of models of African American identity development proceeds to Marcia's expansion of Erikson's identity model and to Chickering's vector theory. DuBois's concept of "double identity" and Erikson's writings concerning "adaptive coping" in minorities are…

  7. Leadership Development and the African American Male College Student Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oaks, D'Arcy John; Duckett, Kirstan; Suddeth, Todd; Kennedy-Phillips, Lance

    2013-01-01

    Qualitative interviews were employed to assess the effectiveness of a leadership program geared toward African American male personal and professional development, and to examine the relationship between program participation and connectedness. Elements of both social engagement (mentoring and being mentored, peer-to-peer relationships, and…

  8. Linguistic Struggles within and beyond the Southern African Development Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bagwasi, Mompoloki Mmangaka

    2012-01-01

    This paper argues that the linguistic struggles faced by the Southern African Development Community (the SADC) represent common linguistic struggles found in Africa and the world where some languages are accused of dominating, stifling and suppressing others. However, the language situation within the SADC is interesting because it offers us a…

  9. Developments in the Coordination Chemistry of Europium(II)

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, Joel

    2012-01-01

    Recent advances in the coordination chemistry of Eu2+ are reviewed. Common synthetic routes for generating discrete Eu2+-containing complexes reported since 2000 are summarized, followed by a description of the reactivity of these complexes and their applications in reduction chemistry, polymerization, luminescence, and as contrast agents for magnetic resonance imaging. Rapid development of the coordination chemistry of Eu2+ has led to an upsurge in the utilization of Eu2+-containing complexes in synthetic chemistry, materials science, and medicine. PMID:23049283

  10. Coordinated development of leading biomass pretreatment technologies.

    PubMed

    Wyman, Charles E; Dale, Bruce E; Elander, Richard T; Holtzapple, Mark; Ladisch, Michael R; Lee, Y Y

    2005-12-01

    For the first time, a single source of cellulosic biomass was pretreated by leading technologies using identical analytical methods to provide comparative performance data. In particular, ammonia explosion, aqueous ammonia recycle, controlled pH, dilute acid, flowthrough, and lime approaches were applied to prepare corn stover for subsequent biological conversion to sugars through a Biomass Refining Consortium for Applied Fundamentals and Innovation (CAFI) among Auburn University, Dartmouth College, Michigan State University, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Purdue University, and Texas A&M University. An Agricultural and Industrial Advisory Board provided guidance to the project. Pretreatment conditions were selected based on the extensive experience of the team with each of the technologies, and the resulting fluid and solid streams were characterized using standard methods. The data were used to close material balances, and energy balances were estimated for all processes. The digestibilities of the solids by a controlled supply of cellulase enzyme and the fermentability of the liquids were also assessed and used to guide selection of optimum pretreatment conditions. Economic assessments were applied based on the performance data to estimate each pretreatment cost on a consistent basis. Through this approach, comparative data were developed on sugar recovery from hemicellulose and cellulose by the combined pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis operations when applied to corn stover. This paper introduces the project and summarizes the shared methods for papers reporting results of this research in this special edition of Bioresource Technology.

  11. Development of an International School Nurse Asthma Care Coordination Model

    PubMed Central

    Garwick, Ann W.; Svavarsdóttir, Erla Kolbrun; Seppelt, Ann M.; Looman, Wendy S.; Anderson, Lori S.; Örlygsdóttir, Brynja

    2015-01-01

    Aim To identify and compare how school nurses in Reykjavik, Iceland and St. Paul, Minnesota coordinated care for youth with asthma (ages 10–18) and to develop an asthma school nurse care coordination model. Background Little is known about how school nurses coordinate care for youth with asthma in different countries. Design A qualitative descriptive study design using focus group data. Methods Six focus groups with 32 school nurses were conducted in Reykjavik (n=17) and St. Paul (n=15) using the same protocol between September 2008 – January 2009. Descriptive content analytic and constant comparison strategies were used to categorize and compare how school nurses coordinated care, which resulted in the development of an International School Nurse Asthma Care Coordination Model. Findings Participants in both countries spontaneously described a similar asthma care coordination process that involved information gathering, assessing risk for asthma episodes, prioritizing health care needs and anticipating and planning for student needs at the individual and school levels. This process informed how they individualized symptom management, case management and/or asthma education. School nurses played a pivotal part in collaborating with families, school and health care professionals to ensure quality care for youth with asthma. Conclusions Results indicate a high level of complexity in school nurses’ approaches to asthma care coordination that were responsive to the diverse and changing needs of students in school settings. The conceptual model derived provides a framework for investigators to use in examining the asthma care coordination process of school nurses in other geographic locations. PMID:25223389

  12. The Professional Development of High School Chemistry Coordinators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hofstein, Avi; Carmeli, Miriam; Shore, Relly

    2004-01-01

    The implementation of new content and pedagogical standards in science education necessitates intensive, long-term professional development of science teachers. In this paper, we describe the rationale and structure of a comprehensive and intensive professional development program of school-based leaders, namely school chemistry coordinators. The…

  13. The income-climate trap of health development: a comparative analysis of African and Non-African countries.

    PubMed

    Tang, Kam Ki; Petrie, Dennis; Rao, D S Prasada

    2009-10-01

    This article conducts a comparative analysis of the interrelationship between climate, life expectancy and income between African and non-African countries. To put the analysis in a broader context of development, the paper develops an income-climate trap model that explains the multi-directional interaction between income, climate and life expectancy. It is suggested that the interaction can give rise to either a virtuous cycle of prosperity or a vicious cycle of poverty. Applying the model to a data set of 158 countries, we find that climate is a more important determinant of life expectancy in African countries than in non-African countries. We provide further empirical evidence that while climate is important in determining both life expectancy and income, income can in turn moderate the adverse effects of climate on life expectancy. In the past two decades, the income level of non-African countries has grown significantly while that of African countries has largely been stagnant, implying that the future development of African countries remains highly vulnerable to adverse climatic conditions. These findings have important implications in the context of climate change, as global warming is likely to create worsening climatic conditions that could see many less developed countries sinking deeper into an income-climate trap of underdevelopment in health.

  14. Using ICTs (Educationally) for Development in an African Context: Possibilities and Limitations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carrim, Nazir; Taruvinga, Mandi

    2015-01-01

    This article examines the possibilities and limitations of using ICTs for development in an African context from an education perspective. Although we provide an account of the Pan-African Agenda on integrating ICTs, which covers many countries on the African continent, our focus is specifically on using ICTs for development in a South African…

  15. A Case Study of Coordination in Distributed Agile Software Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hole, Steinar; Moe, Nils Brede

    Global Software Development (GSD) has gained significant popularity as an emerging paradigm. Companies also show interest in applying agile approaches in distributed development to combine the advantages of both approaches. However, in their most radical forms, agile and GSD can be placed in each end of a plan-based/agile spectrum because of how work is coordinated. We describe how three GSD projects applying agile methods coordinate their work. We found that trust is needed to reduce the need of standardization and direct supervision when coordinating work in a GSD project, and that electronic chatting supports mutual adjustment. Further, co-location and modularization mitigates communication problems, enables agility in at least part of a GSD project, and renders the implementation of Scrum of Scrums possible.

  16. Biomass energy use in developing countries: An African perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Karekezi, S.; Ewagata, E.

    1994-09-01

    Biomass forms the bulk of the energy supply of the developing world with the largest share consumed in the household sector as either fuelwood or charcoal for cooking, lighting and space heating. However there are a number of constraints facing the use of biomass if it is to be sustainable. Stephen Karekezi and Esther Ewagata of the African Energy Policy Research Network (AFREPREN) outline these constraints and discuss the modernisation of the traditional technologies now underway.

  17. Impact of Career Development Program Upon Local Coordinators. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulford, Charles L.; And Others

    The general objective of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of the OCD Career Development Program. The specific objectives were to determine the program's impact on the local civil defense coordinator's knowledge of and ability to build and operate a viable local civil defense organization and to link the official (vertical) civil…

  18. California Community College Staff Development Coordinators and Program Survey, 1993.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anthony, Pat; Ratliffe, Sharon A.

    In August 1993, a survey was conducted of staff development coordinators (SDC's) at California community colleges to gather data on their positions and characteristics. An analysis was made of the usable surveys returned by 54 colleges and, where appropriate, results were compared with findings from 1990, 1991, and 1992 surveys of SDC's. Study…

  19. Bioenergy for sustainable development: An African context

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mangoyana, Robert Blessing

    This paper assesses the sustainability concerns of bioenergy systems against the prevailing and potential long term conditions in Sub-Saharan Africa with a special attention on agricultural and forestry waste, and cultivated bioenergy sources. Existing knowledge and processes about bioenergy systems are brought into a “sustainability framework” to support debate and decisions about the implementation of bioenergy systems in the region. Bioenergy systems have been recommended based on the potential to (i) meet domestic energy demand and reduce fuel importation (ii) diversify rural economies and create employment (iii) reduce poverty, and (iv) provide net energy gains and positive environmental impacts. However, biofuels will compete with food crops for land, labour, capital and entrepreneurial skills. Moreover the environmental benefits of some feedstocks are questionable. These challenges are, however, surmountable. It is concluded that biomass energy production could be an effective way to achieve sustainable development for bioenergy pathways that (i) are less land intensive, (ii) have positive net energy gains and environmental benefits, and (iii) provide local socio-economic benefits. Feasibility evaluations which put these issues into perspective are vital for sustainable application of agricultural and forest based bioenergy systems in Sub-Saharan Africa. Such evaluations should consider the long run potential of biofuels accounting for demographic, economic and technological changes and the related implications.

  20. Communication Development and Disorders in African American Children: Research, Assessment, and Intervention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamhi, Alan G., Ed.; And Others

    The collection of papers on language development and African-American children includes: "The Challenges of Conducting Language Research with African American Children" (Holly K. Craig); "Issues in Recruiting African American Participants for Research" (Joyce L. Harris); "Issues in Assessing the Language Abilities of…

  1. The Influence of Racism and Sexism in the Career Development of African American Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Kathy M.; Herr, Edwin L.

    1991-01-01

    Combined effects of racism and sexism in the workplace subject African-American woman to more discrimination than either Black men or White women. Examines racism and sexism in employment practices and in the career development and aspirations of African-American women. Identifies coping system of African-American women who avoid career fields in…

  2. Impact of College Environments on the Spiritual Development of African American Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weddle-West, Karen; Hagan, Waldon Joseph; Norwood, Kristie M.

    2013-01-01

    This study focused on the impact of college environments on the spiritual development of African American students. Using the Armstrong Measure of Spirituality (AMOS) survey administered to 125 African American college students, the study sought to ascertain whether or not there were differences in spirituality as reported by African American…

  3. The Professional Development of High School Chemistry Coordinators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofstein, Avi; Carmeli, Miriam; Shore, Relly

    2004-02-01

    The implementation of new content and pedagogical standards in science education necessitates intensive, long-term professional development of science teachers. In this paper, we describe the rationale and structure of a comprehensive and intensive professional development program of school-based leaders, namely school chemistry coordinators. The year-long program was designed so that the chemistry teachers who enrolled in the program were able to develop in three interrelated aspects: content knowledge, pedagogical content knowledge, and leadership ability. Several strategies for the development of these aspects were adopted from Loucks-Horsley, Hewson, Love, & Stiles (1998). The evaluation of the program focused on the changes that participating teachers underwent regarding their personal beliefs and their functioning as school chemistry coordinators in their schools.

  4. African women, industrialization and another development. A global perspective.

    PubMed

    Steady, F C

    1982-01-01

    Historically, the women of Africa have been differentially integrated into the world economic system, serving primarily as a labor reserve and a mainstay for the subsistence and reproductive sectors. If and when necessary, female proletarianization can come into effect. African women, by virtue of their strategic role in traditional food systems, have acquired certain skills compatible with labor intensive food processing industries. Consequently, in some countries they have been involved in the handling, processing, and packing of food. In many 3rd world nations regulations protecting minimum wage levels do not exist and collective bargaining activities are not strongly in force. Economic hardship and the desperate need to survive can lead some groups to accept even lower wages. Consequently, although the employment of women at lower wages violates the principle of equal pay for equal work, agroindustries with monopolies can deliberately and with impunity hire women at lower wages than men. In general, when women are hired in industries the nature of their employment is precarious, frequently being of a casual and seasonal nature and in greatest demand during peak periods. In an effort to understand the implications of industrialization for African women a global perspective is necessary, for at present the incorporation of the African women in direct industrialization is minimal. Racism has played an important role in the exploitation of the African continent, and no serious study of class and gender inequality in Africa can overlook that important fact. Numerous studies have shown how industry perpetuates the sexual division of labor. Even in the industrialized nations, women often have held the least paid and most precarious jobs in industry. Women's vulnerability is further worsened by several factors, the most obvious being their reproductive capabilities. In addition to being more vulnerable to industrial hazards, their employment can be truncated by

  5. Rhythms of dialogue in infancy: coordinated timing in development.

    PubMed

    Jaffe, J; Beebe, B; Feldstein, S; Crown, C L; Jasnow, M D

    2001-01-01

    Although theories of early social development emphasize the advantage of mother-infant rhythmic coupling and bidirectional coordination, empirical demonstrations remain sparse. We therefore test the hypothesis that vocal rhythm coordination at age 4 months predicts attachment and cognition at age 12 months. Partner and site novelty were studied by recording mother-infant, stranger-infant, and mother-stranger face-to-face interactions in both home and laboratory sites for 88 4-month-old infants, for a total of 410 recordings. An automated dialogic coding scheme, appropriate to the nonperiodic rhythms of our data, implemented a systems concept of every action as jointly produced by both partners. Adult-infant coordination at age 4 months indeed predicted both outcomes at age 12 months, but midrange degree of mother-infant and stranger-infant coordination was optimal for attachment (Strange Situation), whereas high ("tight") stranger-infant coordination in the lab was optimal for cognition (Bayley Scales). Thus, high coordination can index more or less optimal outcomes, as a function of outcome measure, partner, and site. Bidirectional coordination patterns were salient in both attachment and cognition predictions. Comparison of mother-infant and stranger-infant interactions was particularly informative, suggesting the dynamics of infants' early differentiation from mothers. Stranger and infant showed different patterns of vocal rhythm activity level, were more bidirectional, accounted for 8 times more variance in Bayley scores, predicted attachment just as well as mother and infant, and revealed more varied contingency structures and a wider range of attachment outcomes. To explain why vocal timing measures at age 4 months predict outcomes at age 12 months, our dialogue model was construed as containing procedures for regulating the pragmatics of proto-conversation. The timing patterns of the 4-month-olds were seen as procedural or performance knowledge, and as

  6. Migration dynamics, entrepreneurship, and African development: Lessons from Malawi

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Kevin J. A.; Inkpen, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    Using data from Malawi, this study situates the discourse on migration, entrepreneurship, and development within the context of Africa’s social realities. It examines self-employment differences among three groups of migrants and corresponding group differences in agricultural and non-agricultural self-employment. International migrants are found to be more engaged in self-employment than internal-migrants. However, our results suggest that previous findings on the development-related contributions of returning migrants from the West need to be appropriately contextualized. When returnees from the West invest in self-employment, they typically shy away from Africa’s largest economic sector - agriculture. In contrast, levels of self-employment, especially in agricultural self-employment, are highest among returning migrants and immigrants from other African countries, especially from those nearby. We also underscore the gendered dimensions of migrants’ contribution to African development by demonstrating that female migrants are more likely to be self-employed in agriculture than male migrants. Furthermore, as human-capital increases, migrants are more likely to concentrate their self-employment activities in non-agricultural activities and not in the agricultural sector. The study concludes by using these findings to discuss key implications for policy and future research. PMID:25598569

  7. Migration dynamics, entrepreneurship, and African development: Lessons from Malawi.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Kevin J A; Inkpen, Christopher

    2013-12-01

    Using data from Malawi, this study situates the discourse on migration, entrepreneurship, and development within the context of Africa's social realities. It examines self-employment differences among three groups of migrants and corresponding group differences in agricultural and non-agricultural self-employment. International migrants are found to be more engaged in self-employment than internal-migrants. However, our results suggest that previous findings on the development-related contributions of returning migrants from the West need to be appropriately contextualized. When returnees from the West invest in self-employment, they typically shy away from Africa's largest economic sector - agriculture. In contrast, levels of self-employment, especially in agricultural self-employment, are highest among returning migrants and immigrants from other African countries, especially from those nearby. We also underscore the gendered dimensions of migrants' contribution to African development by demonstrating that female migrants are more likely to be self-employed in agriculture than male migrants. Furthermore, as human-capital increases, migrants are more likely to concentrate their self-employment activities in non-agricultural activities and not in the agricultural sector. The study concludes by using these findings to discuss key implications for policy and future research.

  8. A Methodology to Develop Entrepreneurial Networks: The Tech Ecosystem of Six African Cities

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-11-01

    Technical Report 15-005 A Methodology to Develop Entrepreneurial Networks: The Tech Ecosystem of Six African Cities Daniel...NUMBER n/a A Methodology to Develop Entrepreneurial Networks: The Tech Ecosystem of Six African Cities 5b. GRANT NUMBER n/a 5c. PROGRAM...A Methodology to Develop Entrepreneurial Networks: The Tech Ecosystem of Six African Cities Daniel Evans Background Our project

  9. Rhythm generation, coordination, and initiation in the vocal pathways of male African clawed frogs.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Ayako; Cavin Barnes, Jessica; Appleby, Todd

    2017-01-01

    Central pattern generators (CPGs) in the brain stem are considered to underlie vocalizations in many vertebrate species, but the detailed mechanisms underlying how motor rhythms are generated, coordinated, and initiated remain unclear. We addressed these issues using isolated brain preparations of Xenopus laevis from which fictive vocalizations can be elicited. Advertisement calls of male X. laevis that consist of fast and slow trills are generated by vocal CPGs contained in the brain stem. Brain stem central vocal pathways consist of a premotor nucleus [dorsal tegmental area of medulla (DTAM)] and a laryngeal motor nucleus [a homologue of nucleus ambiguus (n.IX-X)] with extensive reciprocal connections between the nuclei. In addition, DTAM receives descending inputs from the extended amygdala. We found that unilateral transection of the projections between DTAM and n.IX-X eliminated premotor fictive fast trill patterns but did not affect fictive slow trills, suggesting that the fast and slow trill CPGs are distinct; the slow trill CPG is contained in n.IX-X, and the fast trill CPG spans DTAM and n.IX-X. Midline transections that eliminated the anterior, posterior, or both commissures caused no change in the temporal structure of fictive calls, but bilateral synchrony was lost, indicating that the vocal CPGs are contained in the lateral halves of the brain stem and that the commissures synchronize the two oscillators. Furthermore, the elimination of the inputs from extended amygdala to DTAM, in addition to the anterior commissure, resulted in autonomous initiation of fictive fast but not slow trills by each hemibrain stem, indicating that the extended amygdala provides a bilateral signal to initiate fast trills.

  10. Brothers in Excellence: An Empowerment Model for the Career Development of African American Boys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grimmett, Marc A.

    2010-01-01

    The author describes Brothers in Excellence (BE), a conceptual model for understanding African American boys and helping them to be successful. BE addresses 3 domains of development proposed to be essential to the success of all African American boys: identity development, social development, and career development. (Contains 1 figure.)

  11. Pre-colonial Ethnic Institutions and Contemporary African Development.

    PubMed

    Michalopoulos, Stelios; Papaioannou, Elias

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the role of deeply-rooted pre-colonial ethnic institutions in shaping comparative regional development within African countries. We combine information on the spatial distribution of ethnicities before colonization with regional variation in contemporary economic performance, as proxied by satellite images of light density at night. We document a strong association between pre-colonial ethnic political centralization and regional development. This pattern is not driven by differences in local geographic features or by other observable ethnic-specific cultural and economic variables. The strong positive association between pre-colonial political complexity and contemporary development obtains also within pairs of adjacent ethnic homelands with different legacies of pre-colonial political institutions.

  12. Axes, boundaries and coordinates: the ABCs of fly leg development.

    PubMed

    Held, L I

    1995-08-01

    Recent studies of gene expression in the developing fruitfly leg support a model--Meinhardt's Boundary Model--which seems to contradict the prevailing paradigm for pattern formation in the imaginal discs of Drosophila--the Polar Coordinate Model. Reasoning from geometric first principles, this article examines the strengths and weaknesses of these hypotheses, plus some baffling phenomena that neither model can comfortably explain. The deeper question at issue is: how does the fly's genome encode the three-dimensional anatomy of the adult? Does it demarcate territories and boundaries (as in a geopolitical map) and then use those boundaries and their points of intersection as a scaffolding on which to erect the anatomy (the Boundary Model)? Or does it assign cellular fates within a relatively seamless coordinate system (the Polar Coordinate Model)? The existence of hybrid Cartesian-polar models shows that the alternatives may not be so clear-cut: a single organ might utilize different systems that are spatially superimposed or temporally sequential.

  13. Understanding African American Adolescents' Identity Development: A Relational Developmental Systems Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brittian, Aerika S.

    2012-01-01

    This article examines the development of African American adolescents' identity using a relational developmental systems theory framework, which led to the expectation that identity development is linked to both the reduction of risk behaviors and the promotion of African American adolescents' healthy development. Different personological theories…

  14. Why Patient Centered Care Coordination Is Important in Developing Countries?

    PubMed Central

    Luna, D.; Marcelo, A.; Househ, M.; Mandirola, H.; Curioso, W.; Pazos, P.; Villalba, C.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Patient Centered Care Coordination (PCCC) focuses on the patient health care needs. PCCC involves the organization, the patients and their families, that must coordinate resources in order to accomplish the goals of PCCC. In developing countries, where disparities are frequent, PCCC could improve clinical outcomes, costs and patients satisfaction. Objective the IMIA working group Health Informatics for Development analyzes the benefits, identifies the barriers and proposes strategies to reach PCCC. Methods Discussions about PCCC emerged from a brief guide that posed questions about what is PCCC, why consider PCCC important, barriers to grow in this direction and ask about resources considered relevant in the topic. Results PCCC encompasses a broad definition, includes physical, mental, socio-environmental and self care. Even benefits are proved, in developing countries the lack of a comprehensive and integrated healthcare network is one of the main barriers to reach this objective. Working hard to reach strong health policies, focus on patients, and optimizing the use of resources could improve the performance in the devolvement of PCCC programs. International collaboration could bring benefits. We believe information IT, and education in this field will play an important role in PCCC. Conclusion PCCC in developing countries has the potential to improve quality of care. Education, IT, policies and cultural issues must be addressed in an international collaborative context in order to reach this goal. PMID:26123907

  15. Development of the coordination between posture and manual control.

    PubMed

    Haddad, Jeffrey M; Claxton, Laura J; Keen, Rachel; Berthier, Neil E; Riccio, Gary E; Hamill, Joseph; Van Emmerik, Richard E A

    2012-02-01

    Studies have suggested that proper postural control is essential for the development of reaching. However, little research has examined the development of the coordination between posture and manual control throughout childhood. We investigated the coordination between posture and manual control in children (7- and 10-year-olds) and adults during a precision fitting task as task constraints became more difficult. Participants fit a block through an opening as arm kinematics, trunk kinematics, and center of pressure data were collected. During the fitting task, the precision, postural, and visual constraints of the task were manipulated. Young children adopted a strategy where they first move their trunk toward the opening and then stabilize their trunk (freeze degrees of freedom) as the precision manual task is being performed. In contrast, adults and older children make compensatory trunk movements as the task is being performed. The 10-year-olds were similar to adults under the less constrained task conditions, but they resembled the 7-year-olds under the more challenging tasks. The ability to either suppress or allow postural fluctuations based on the constraints of a suprapostural task begins to develop at around 10 years of age. This ability, once developed, allows children to learn specific segmental movements required to complete a task within an environmental context.

  16. Development of temporal and spatial bimanual coordination during childhood.

    PubMed

    de Boer, Betteco J; Peper, C E; Beek, Peter J

    2012-10-01

    Developmental changes in bimanual coordination were examined in four age groups: 6/7, 10/11, 14/15 years, and young adults. Temporal coupling was assessed through the stabilizing contributions of interlimb interactions related to planning, error correction, and reflexes during rhythmic wrist movements, by comparing various unimanual and bimanual tasks involving passive and active movements. Spatial coupling was assessed via bimanual line-circle drawing. With increasing age, temporal stability improved. Relative contributions of planning and reflex interactions to the achieved stability did not change, whereas error correction improved. In-phase and antiphase coordination developed at similar rates; implications of this result were discussed in terms of mirror-activity inhibition. Overall spatial drawing performance (circularity, variability, smoothness) improved with age, and spatial interference was smaller in adults than children. Whereas temporal coupling increased from 6/7 years to adulthood, spatial coupling changed mainly after 14/15 years. This difference in the development of temporal and spatial coupling corresponds to the anterior-posterior direction of corpus callosum myelination as reported in the literature.

  17. Racial Identity Development and Academic Achievement of Academically Gifted African American Students: Implications for School Counselors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spencer, Natalie F.; Dowden, Angel Riddick

    2014-01-01

    Gifted African American students are underrepresented and underserved in gifted education. The current article provides an overview of proper identification, racial identity development implications, psycho-social concerns and the importance of family involvement in the development of gifted African American students. A case study is presented to…

  18. Changing Urbanization Trends and Human Needs in Developing African Nations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Underwood, Willard A.; Ferguson, Ralph E.

    The purpose of this paper is to analyze the increasing migration of African tribal members to urban centers and the resulting redefinition of cultural norms, social pressures, and human needs. First, several misconceptions about African societies are examined by briefly reviewing Africa's tribal history. Next, the phenomenon of tribalism is…

  19. Anxiety Psychopathology in African American Adults: Literature Review and Development of an Empirically Informed Sociocultural Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunter, Lora Rose; Schmidt, Norman B.

    2010-01-01

    In this review, the extant literature concerning anxiety psychopathology in African American adults is summarized to develop a testable, explanatory framework with implications for future research. The model was designed to account for purported lower rates of anxiety disorders in African Americans compared to European Americans, along with other…

  20. A Teacher Proposed Heuristic for ICT Professional Teacher Development and Implementation in the South African Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    du Plessis, Andre; Webb, Paul

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative interpretive exploratory case study investigated a sample of South African teachers' perceptions of the requirements for successful implementation of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Professional Teacher Development (PTD) within disadvantaged South African township schools in the Port Elizabeth district in South…

  1. African American Males and Literacy Development in Contexts That Are Characteristically Urban

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tatum, Alfred W.; Muhammad, Gholnecsar E.

    2012-01-01

    Advancing the literacy development of African American males in contexts that are characteristically urban has been a challenging task for educators across the P-12 spectrum. Frames that have been traditionally used to improve the reading achievement of African American males have not reversed trends in reading achievement that find many of these…

  2. Contextual Influences on Gendered Racial Identity Development of African American Young Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Anita Jones; Hoxha, Denada; Hacker, Jason Daniel

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to identify the contextual factors and socialization experiences most salient to the identity development of African American girls. Seventeen African American young women participated in dyadic focus groups. Themes that emerged included exposure to stereotypes, negative classroom environments, and parental and peer…

  3. Learning Other People's History: Pre-Service Teachers' Developing African American Historical Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, LaGarrett Jarriel

    2014-01-01

    Drawing from the historical lens of cultural memory, I examined the development of three social studies pre-service teachers' African American history knowledge. The participants were engaged in a rigorous summer reading program dedicated to learning African American history. This qualitative case study examined both pre and post interpretations…

  4. Language Policy and Practice in the Multilingual Southern African Development Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mooko, Theophilus

    2009-01-01

    This study explores the language policy and practice of the Southern African Development Community (SADC), an African regional economic organisation made up of 14 member states (Angola, Botswana, Democratic Republic of Congo, Lesotho, Madagascar, Malawi, Mauritius, Mozambique, Namibia, South Africa, Swaziland, United Republic of Tanzania, Zambia…

  5. Oil imports and the foreign debt of developing African countries

    SciTech Connect

    Trumble, D.A.; Bjornstad, D.J.

    1987-07-01

    This study examines the oil transactions between 1971 and 1983 of African nations supported by the Agency for International Development, with the objective of estimating the proportion of current indebtedness attributable to crude oil price increases. A data base was constructed, drawing on information from several data series of the International Monetary Fund, the World Bank, and the United Nations. These data were examined using a series of alternative formulas that controlled for particular characteristics of nations with and without oil refineries and controlled, to some degree, for data deficiencies. The results indicate that oil price increases have played a prominent role in debt creation, though perhaps a lesser role than some had suggested. Estimates of the share of debt incurred due to oil price increases range from less than one-third to more than two-thirds. The recent decreases in oil prices may relieve some pressures for continued debt accumulation, although a reduction in pressures is likely to occur less slowly than price decreases. The vulnerability of developing countries to oil price increases underlines the attractiveness of development projects that lessen reliance on imported oil and oil products.

  6. Understanding African American Adolescents’ Identity Development: A Relational Developmental Systems Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Brittian, Aerika S.

    2012-01-01

    This article examines the development of African American adolescents’ identity using a relational developmental systems theory framework, which led to the expectation that identity development is linked to both the reduction of risk behaviors and the promotion of African American adolescents’ healthy development. Different personological theories of identity development were discussed, including Erikson’s theory of psychosocial development and Marcia’s theory of identity statuses. Developmental systems theory was used to further the literature on African American adolescents’ identity development, by integrating various views of identity development as they pertain to these youth. Furthermore, the formation of many aspects of identity may be an important coping and resilience process for such youth. In addition, directions for future research are discussed, including a consideration of the complexity of diversity that exists within the African American adolescent population, and a call for more longitudinal assessments of identity development is presented. PMID:23243325

  7. Pulmonary function in children with development coordination disorder.

    PubMed

    Wu, Sheng K; Cairney, John; Lin, Hsiao-Hui; Li, Yao-Chuen; Song, Tai-Fen

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare pulmonary function in children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD) with children who are typically developing (TD), and also analyze possible gender differences in pulmonary function between these groups. The Movement ABC test was used to identify the movement coordination ability of children. Two hundred and fifty participants (90 children with DCD and 160 TD children) aged 9-10 years old completed this study. Using the KoKo spirometry, forced vital capacity (FVC) and forced expiratory volume in 1s (FEV(1.0)) were used to measure pulmonary function. The 800-m run was also conducted to assess cardiopulmonary fitness of children in the field. There was a significant difference in pulmonary function between TD children and those with DCD. The values of FVC and FEV(1.0) in TD children were significantly higher than in children with DCD. A significant, but low correlation (r = -0.220, p < .001) was found between total score on the MABC and FVC; similarly, a positive but low correlation (r = 0.252, p < .001) was found between total score on the MABC and the completion time of 800-m run. However, no significant correlation between FVC and the time of 800-m run was found (p > .05). Significant correlations between total score on the MABC and the completion time of the 800-m run (r = 0.352, p < .05) and between FVC and the time of 800-m run (r = -0.285, p < .05) were observed in girls with DCD but not boys with this condition. Based on the results of this study, pulmonary function in children with DCD was significantly lower than that of TD children. The field test, 800-m run, may not be a good indicator to distinguish aerobic ability between children with DCD and those who are TD. It is possible that poor pulmonary function in children with DCD is due to reduced physical activity in this population.

  8. Variation in enamel development of South African fossil hominids.

    PubMed

    Lacruz, Rodrigo S; Rozzi, Fernando Ramirez; Bromage, Timothy G

    2006-12-01

    Dental tissues provide important insights into aspects of hominid palaeobiology that are otherwise difficult to obtain from studies of the bony skeleton. Tooth enamel is formed by ameloblasts, which demonstrate daily secretory rhythms developing tissue-specific structures known as cross striations, and longer period markings called striae of Retzius. These enamel features were studied in the molars of two well known South African hominid species, Australopithecus africanus and Paranthropus robustus. Using newly developed portable confocal microscopy, we have obtained cross striation periodicities (number of cross striations between adjacent striae) for the largest sample of hominid teeth reported to date. These data indicate a mean periodicity of seven days in these small-bodied hominids. Important differences were observed in the inferred mechanisms of enamel development between these taxa. Ameloblasts maintain high rates of differentiation throughout cervical enamel development in P. robustus but not in A. africanus. In our sample, there were fewer lateral striae of Retzius in P. robustus than in A. africanus. In a molar of P. robustus, lateral enamel formed in a much shorter time than cuspal enamel, and the opposite was observed in two molars of A. africanus. In spite of the greater occlusal area and enamel thickness of the molars of both fossil species compared with modern humans, the total crown formation time of these three fossil molars was shorter than the corresponding tooth type in modern humans. Our results provide support for previous conclusions that molar crown formation time was short in Plio-Pleistocene hominids, and strongly suggest the presence of different mechanisms of amelogenesis, and thus tooth development, in these taxa.

  9. A new model for developing and executing culturally appropriate behavior modification clinical trials for African Americans.

    PubMed

    Ard, Jamy D; Carter-Edwards, Lori; Svetkey, Laura P

    2003-01-01

    Past clinical trials addressing behavior modification for cardiovascular disease (CVD) prevention have not been culturally appropriate for African Americans. This supposition is borne out by the continued challenges researchers face not only in recruiting and retaining African Americans in clinical trials, but also in achieving the desired outcomes among this population. Investigators have limited resources to develop culturally appropriate CVD prevention trials. The scientific literature reveals 2 models for implementing culturally appropriate interventions applicable to CVD prevention among African Americans; however, these models are not easily applied to the clinical trial setting. We propose a new model for developing a culturally appropriate clinical trial. The clinical trial is a function of the investigator's cultural framework, meaning that an investigator will have more difficulty designing clinical trials appropriate for use with cultures other than his or her own, a definite limitation when attempting to effectively reach diverse populations. Differences between the cultural frameworks of most clinical trials and African Americans' cultural frameworks lead to intrinsic biases, limiting the ability of African Americans to achieve the desired outcomes for any particular trial. An African-American participant's degree of immersion in traditional African-American culture, or acculturation, influences the magnitude of these biases. Investigators must be aware of, and attempt to mitigate, such biases so that the trial's potential for success is equitable across ethnic groups. In addition, investigators must understand how to effectively address relevant biases of African Americans without challenging their ethnic identity. Steps to decrease biases are described.

  10. African-American lesbian identity management and identity development in the context of family and community.

    PubMed

    Miller, Shannon J

    2011-01-01

    Don't Ask, Don't Tell is gaining attention in family studies literature as a cultural specific context to understand lesbian, gay, and bisexual visibility in African-American families and communities. This policy suggests that sexual minorities are accepted within African-American families and communities as long as they do not label themselves or acknowledge publicly that they engage in same-sex relationships. The narratives of two African-American lesbians (aged 26 and 27 years) are chronicled in the present study to reveal their lesbian identity development, lesbian identity management, and how they defined and navigated Don't Ask, Don't Tell. They encountered challenges and successes in a quest to find communities that would embrace and affirm their multiple marginalized identities. Their stories are offered as a point of entry to further inquiry concerning African-American lesbian visibility and identity proclamation within African-American families and communities.

  11. Final Report: African Power/Energy and Environmental Development Plan, July 1, 1994 - August 21, 1999

    SciTech Connect

    Butler, John M.

    1999-08-21

    In 1994 AEF signed a Cooperative Agreement with DOE to address a program called the African Power /Energy and Environmental Development Plan. The Program initially addressed five area: (1) Historical Black Colleges and Universities Energy/Environmental Program; (2) The Department of Energy and United States Private Industry Africa Program; (3) The Annual United States Energy Study Tour; (4) South African Training Program, and (5) South African Environmental Program. The programs were implemented in conjunction with DOE, institutions, agencies and the private sector support in the USA and within African nations. AEF has worked with government and technical representatives from 13 African nations and expanded the program to address sponsorship of South African students in Historical Black Colleges and Universities, supporting DOE trade missions through participation and planning, and giving presentations in the U.S., and Africa regarding business opportunities in the African energy sector. The programs implemented have also opened doors for the US private sector to seek business opportunities in Africa and for African nations to gain exposure to US products and services.

  12. A case of renal failure developing in association with African mango consumption

    PubMed Central

    Özkan, Gülsüm; Ulusoy, Şükrü

    2015-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease continues to represent a significant health problem in all societies. One of the main factors accelerating renal progression is nephrotoxins. The African mango is a plant added to many foods and commonly consumed in West Africa. No toxic effect has to date been shown. Our aim was to discuss the 42-year-old patient who became dialysis-dependent through developing rapid renal progression following 2.5-month African mango use. To the best of our knowledge, our patient is the first case of chronic renal insufficiency developing in association with African mango consumption. PMID:26131261

  13. A case of renal failure developing in association with African mango consumption.

    PubMed

    Özkan, Gülsüm; Ulusoy, Şükrü

    2015-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease continues to represent a significant health problem in all societies. One of the main factors accelerating renal progression is nephrotoxins. The African mango is a plant added to many foods and commonly consumed in West Africa. No toxic effect has to date been shown. Our aim was to discuss the 42-year-old patient who became dialysis-dependent through developing rapid renal progression following 2.5-month African mango use. To the best of our knowledge, our patient is the first case of chronic renal insufficiency developing in association with African mango consumption.

  14. Glaucoma Medication Adherence among African Americans: Program Development

    PubMed Central

    Dreer, Laura E.; Girkin, Christopher A.; Campbell, Lisa; Wood, Andy; Gao, Liyan; Owsley, Cynthia

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To elucidate barriers and facilitators related to glaucoma medication adherence among African Americans (AA) with glaucoma and to elicit input from a community-based participatory research team in order to guide the development of a culturally informed, health promotion program for improving glaucoma medication adherence among AA’s. Methods The nominal group technique (NGT), a highly structured focus group methodology, was implemented with 12 separate groups of AA’s patients with glaucoma (N = 89) to identify barriers and facilitators related to glaucoma medication usage. Participant rank-ordering votes were summed across groups and categorized into themes. Next, an individually and culturally targeted health promotion program promoting appropriate medication adherence was developed based on focus group results and input from a community-based participatory research team. Results The top five barriers included problems with 1) forgetfulness, 2) side effects, 3) cost/affordability, 4) eye drop administration, and 5) the eye drop schedule. The most salient top five facilitators were 1) fear or thoughts about the consequences of not taking eye drops, 2) use of memory aids, cues, or strategies, 3) maintaining a regular routine or schedule for eye drop administration, 4) ability to afford eye drops, and 5) keeping eye drops in the same area. The resulting health promotion program was based on a multi-component empowerment framework that included glaucoma education, motivational interviewing, and problem-solving training to improve glaucoma medication adherence. Conclusions Barriers and facilitators related to glaucoma medication adherence among AA’s are multifactorial. Based on the NGT themes and input from the community-based participatory research team, a culturally informed, health promotion program was designed and holds great promise for improving medication adherence among this vulnerable population. PMID:23873033

  15. Development of a New Chemotherapy for Human African Trypanosomias Using an Animal Model: Suramin with DL-Alpha-Difluoromethylornithine (DFMO)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-09-14

    WITH DL-ALPHA-DIFLUOROMETHYLORNiTHINE (DFMO) SUBTITLE: Chemotherapy for African Trypanosomiasis by Polyamine Synthesis Inhibition PRINCIPAL...PAGE COUNT Annual Report I FROM 8/15/87 TO 814/88 1988 September 14 22 16. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTATION Subtitle: Chemotherapy for African Trypanosomiasis ...block number) Towards developing a new chemotherapy for African trypanosomiasis , nine strains of Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense were acquired and used

  16. Measuring Financial Literacy: Developing and Testing a Measurement Instrument with a Selected Group of South African Military Officers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwella, E.; van Nieuwenhuyzen, Bernard J.

    2014-01-01

    Are South Africans financially literate, and how can this be measured? Until 2009 there was no South African financial literacy measure and, therefore, the aim was to develop a South African measurement instrument that is scientific, socially acceptable, valid and reliable. To achieve this aim a contextual and conceptual analysis of financial…

  17. Development of Auxiliaries in Young Children Learning African American English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newkirk-Turner, Brandi L.; Oetting, Janna B.; Stockman, Ida J.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: We examined language samples of young children learning African American English (AAE) to determine if and when their use of auxiliaries shows dialect-universal and dialect-specific effects. Method: The data were longitudinal language samples obtained from two children, ages 18 to 36 months, and three children, ages 33 to 51 months.…

  18. Exploring African Rice Genetic Diversity for Genetic Stock Development

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    West African cultivated rice (Oryza glaberrima) and its progenitor species, O. barthii, are a source of genes for crop improvement especially pest resistance (blast, sheath blight, brown spot, bacterial blight, bacterial leaf streak, green leafhopper) and tolerance to abiotic stress (drought, acid s...

  19. Development of a Coordinatively Unsaturated Chiral Indenylruthenium Catalyst.

    PubMed

    Trost, Barry M; Ryan, Michael C; Maurer, David

    2016-07-01

    An unprecedented coordinatively unsaturated chiral indenylruthenium complex 12 was designed and synthesized to provide additional coordination sites for Ru-catalyzed asymmetric transformations. In an attempt to catalyze an asymmetric enyne cycloisomerization reaction of 1,6-enyne, significant amounts of hydroxycyclization were observed. Up to 84:16 er of the hydroxycyclization product was obtained in 2-MeTHF. This chiral indenylruthenium catalyst could also perform an asymmetric redox isomerization/C-H insertion reaction in up to 90:10 er.

  20. [Coupling coordinated development of ecological-economic system in Loess Plateau].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qing-Feng; Wu, Fa-Qi; Wang, Li; Wang, Jian

    2011-06-01

    Based on system theory, a coupling coordinated development model of ecological-economic system in Loess Plateau was established, and the evaluation criteria and basic types of the coordinated development of the ecological-economic system were proposed. The county-level coupling coordinated development of the ecological-economic system was also discussed, based on the local characteristics. The interactions between the ecological and economic systems in Loess Plateau could be divided into four stages, i.e., seriously disordered development stage, mild-disordered development stage, low-level coordinated development stage, and high level well-coordinated development stage. At each stage, there existed a cyclic process of profit and loss-antagonist-running-dominant-synchronous development. The coupling development degree of the ecological-economic system in Loess Plateau was overall at a lower level, being about 62.7% of the counties at serious disorder, 30.1% of the counties at mild disorder, and 7.1% of the counties at low but coordinated level. The coupling development degree based on the model established in this study could better reflect the current social-economic and ecological environment situations, especially the status of coordination. To fully understand the coupling of ecological-economic system and to adopt appropriate development mode would be of significance to promote the county-level coordinated development in Loess Plateau.

  1. The Development of Categorical and Coordinate Spatial Relations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bullens, Jessue; Postma, Albert

    2008-01-01

    Two classes of spatial relations can be distinguished in between and within object representations. Kosslyn [Kosslyn, S. M. (1987). "Seeing and imagining in the cerebral hemispheres: A computational approach." "Psychological Review," 94, 148-175] suggested that the right hemisphere (RH) is specialized for processing coordinate (metric) spatial…

  2. Third African Population Conference. Dakar / Ngor Declaration on Population, Family and Sustainable Development.

    PubMed

    1994-01-01

    The Third African Population Conference was held in Dakar over the period December 7-12, 1992, on the theme of population, family, and sustainable development. The conference examined the implementation of the Kilimanjaro Program of Action for African Population and Self-Reliant Development, the African family in the context of socioeconomic development, strategies for sustainable development, emerging population problems and new orientations and strategies, and population policies and programs in Africa. The Dakar/Ngor Declaration on Population, Family, and Sustainable Development was adopted and is presented in the following sections: preamble; principles and objectives; recommendations for population, sustained economic growth, sustainable development, family, fertility and family planning, mortality, morbidity, AIDS, urbanization, migration, physical planning, refugees and displaced persons, women in development, children, youth, data collection and analysis, information dissemination, training and research, and information, education and communication; resource mobilization; and follow-up and implementation.

  3. Coordinate systems integration for development of malaysian craniofacial database.

    PubMed

    Rajion, Zainul; Suwardhi, Deni; Setan, Halim; Chong, Albert; Majid, Zulkepli; Ahmad, Anuar; Rani Samsudin, Ab; Aziz, Izhar; Wan Harun, W A R

    2005-01-01

    This study presents a data registration method for craniofacial spatial data of different modalities. The data consists of three dimensional (3D) vector and raster data models. The data is stored in object relational database. The data capture devices are Laser scanner, CT (Computed Tomography) scan and CR (Close Range) Photogrammetry. The objective of the registration is to transform the data from various coordinate systems into a single 3-D Cartesian coordinate system. The standard error of the registration obtained from multimodal imaging devices using 3D affine transformation is in the ranged of 1-2 mm. This study is a step forward for storing the spatial craniofacial data in one reference system in database.

  4. Coordinating Social-Emotional and Character Development (SECD) Initiatives Improves School Climate and Student Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elias, Maurice J.; DeFini, Jennifer; Bergmann, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    Many schools attempt to implement multiple programs to promote positive young adolescent development; however, these programs are often fragmented and lack coordination. The authors describe an initiative designed to help schools coordinate their social-emotional and character development (SECD) efforts to improve school climate and help students…

  5. How Can Agile Practices Minimize Global Software Development Co-ordination Risks?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hossain, Emam; Babar, Muhammad Ali; Verner, June

    The distribution of project stakeholders in Global Software Development (GSD) projects provides significant risks related to project communication, coordination and control processes. There is growing interest in applying agile practices in GSD projects in order to leverage the advantages of both approaches. In some cases, GSD project managers use agile practices to reduce project distribution challenges. We use an existing coordination framework to identify GSD coordination problems due to temporal, geographical and socio-cultural distances. An industry-based case study is used to describe, explore and explain the use of agile practices to reduce development coordination challenges.

  6. The impact of HIV/AIDS on human development in African countries

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background In the present paper, we consider the impact of HIV/AIDS on human development in African countries, showing that, beyond health issues, this disease should and must be seen as a global development concern, affecting all components of human development. Consequently, we stress the necessity of multidisciplinary approaches that model, estimate and predict the real impact of HIV/AIDS on human development of African countries in order to optimise the strategies proposed by national countries, international institutions and their partners. Methods In our search strategy, we relied on secondary information, mainly through National Human Development Reports of some African countries and regular publications released by the United Nations (UN), United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), World Health Organization (WHO) and the World Bank. We restricted ourselves to reports dealing explicitly with the impact of HIV/AIDS on human development in African countries. Results and discussion HIV/AIDS is affecting the global human development of African countries through its devastating impact on health and demographic indicators such as life expectancy at birth, healthcare assistance, age and sex distribution, economic indicators like income, work force, and economic growth, education and knowledge acquisition and other indicators like governance, gender inequality and human rights. Conclusion On the basis of the national reports reviewed, it appears clearly that HIV/AIDS is no longer a crisis only for the healthcare sector, but presents a challenge to all sectors. Consequently, HIV/AIDS is a development question and should be viewed as such. The disease is impeding development by imposing a steady decline in the key indicators of human development and hence reversing the social and economic gains that African countries are striving to attain. Being at the same time a cause and consequence of poverty and underdevelopment, it constitutes a challenge to human security

  7. Development of a Faith-Based Stress Management Intervention in a Rural African American Community

    PubMed Central

    Bryant, Keneshia; Moore, Todd; Willis, Nathaniel; Hadden, Kristie

    2017-01-01

    Background Faith-based mental health interventions developed and implemented using a community-based participatory research (CBPR) approach hold promise for reaching rural African Americans and addressing health disparities. Objectives To describe the development, challenges, and lessons learned from the Trinity Life Management, a faith-based stress management intervention in a rural African American faith community. Methods The researchers used a CBPR approach by partnering with the African American faith community to develop a stress management intervention. Development strategies include working with key informants, focus groups, and a community advisory board (CAB). Results The community identified the key concepts that should be included in a stress management intervention. Conclusions The faith-based “Trinity Life Management” stress management intervention was developed collaboratively by a CAB and an academic research team. The intervention includes stress management techniques that incorporate Biblical principles and information about the stress–distress–depression continuum. PMID:26548794

  8. Development and Validation of a Lung Cancer Risk Prediction Model for African-Americans

    PubMed Central

    Etzel, Carol J.; Kachroo, Sumesh; Liu, Mei; D'Amelio, Anthony; Dong, Qiong; Cote, Michele L.; Wenzlaff, Angela S.; Hong, Waun Ki; Greisinger, Anthony J.; Schwartz, Ann G.; Spitz, Margaret R.

    2009-01-01

    Because existing risk prediction models for lung cancer were developed in white populations, they may not be appropriate for predicting risk among African-Americans. Therefore, a need exists to construct and validate a risk prediction model for lung cancer that is specific to African-Americans. We analyzed data from 491 African-Americans with lung cancer and 497 matched African-American controls to identify specific risks and incorporate them into a multivariable risk model for lung cancer and estimate the 5-year absolute risk of lung cancer. We performed internal and external validations of the risk model using data on additional cases and controls from the same ongoing multiracial/ethnic lung cancer case-control study from which the model-building data were obtained as well as data from two different lung cancer studies in metropolitan Detroit, respectively. We also compared our African-American model with our previously developed risk prediction model for whites. The final risk model included smoking-related variables [smoking status, pack-years smoked, age at smoking cessation (former smokers), and number of years since smoking cessation (former smokers)], self- reported physician diagnoses of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease or hay fever, and exposures to asbestos or wood dusts. Our risk prediction model for African-Americans exhibited good discrimination [75% (95% confidence interval, 0.67−0.82)] for our internal data and moderate discrimination [63% (95% confidence interval, 0.57−0.69)] for the external data group, which is an improvement over the Spitz model for white subjects. Existing lung cancer prediction models may not be appropriate for predicting risk for African-Americans because (a) they were developed using white populations, (b) level of risk is different for risk factors that African-American share with whites, and (c) unique group-specific risk factors exist for African-Americans. This study developed and validated a risk prediction

  9. Developing culturally competent marriage and family therapists: treatment guidelines for non-African-American therapists working with African-American families.

    PubMed

    Bean, Roy A; Perry, Benjamin J; Bedell, Tina M

    2002-04-01

    To serve African-American families effectively, marriage and family therapists need to develop a level of cultural competence. This content analysis of the relevant treatment literature was conducted to examine the most common expert recommendations for family therapy with African Americans. Fifteen specific guidelines were generated, including orient the family to therapy, do not assume familiarity, address issue of racism, intervene multi-systemically, do home visits, use problem-solving focus, involve religious leader, incorporate the father, and acknowledge strengths. Conceptual and empirical support for each guideline is discussed, and conclusions are made regarding culturally competent therapy with African-American families.

  10. Parental Factors that Influence the Career Development of College-Bound African American High School Seniors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bostic, Shenice S.

    2010-01-01

    Parents have been identified as being the most influential factor upon their children career development. There are various factors that influence the career development of individuals from different ethnic backgrounds. The purpose of the study was to identify parental factors that influence the career development of college-bound African American…

  11. Capacity development for health research in Africa: experiences managing the African Doctoral Dissertation Research Fellowship Program

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Africa's progress depends on her capacity to generate, adapt, and use scientific knowledge to meet regional health and development needs. Yet, Africa's higher education institutions that are mandated to foster this capacity lack adequate resources to generate and apply knowledge, raising the need for innovative approaches to enhance research capacity. In this paper, we describe a newly-developed program to support PhD research in health and population sciences at African universities, the African Doctoral Dissertation Research Fellowship (ADDRF) Program. We also share our experiences implementing the program. As health research capacity-strengthening in Africa continues to attract attention and as the need for such programs to be African-led is emphasized, our experiences in developing and implementing the ADDRF offer invaluable lessons to other institutions undertaking similar initiatives. PMID:20587016

  12. 23 CFR 771.111 - Early coordination, public involvement, and project development.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Early coordination, public involvement, and project..., public involvement, and project development. (a)(1) Early coordination with appropriate agencies and the public aids in determining the type of environmental review documents an action requires, the scope...

  13. 23 CFR 771.111 - Early coordination, public involvement, and project development.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Early coordination, public involvement, and project..., public involvement, and project development. (a)(1) Early coordination with appropriate agencies and the public aids in determining the type of environmental review documents an action requires, the scope...

  14. Who Do You Know? Developing and Analyzing Entrepreneur Networks: Data Collection in the Tech Entrepreneurial Environment of Six African Cities

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-01-01

    Environment of Six African Cities Daniel Evans U.S. Military Academy, West Point NY January 2015...Who do you know?” Developing and Analyzing Entrepreneur Networks: Data Collection in the Tech Entrepreneurial Environment of Six African Cities ...recommendations. Our previous paper, “’Who do you know?’ A Methodology to Develop Entrepreneurial Networks: The Tech Ecosystem of Six African Cities

  15. Development of a New Chemotherapy for Human African Trypanosomiasis by Using an Animal Model: Suramin with DL-Alpha-Difluoromethylornithine

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-09-14

    AD-A237 230_ DEVELOPMENT OF A NEW CHEMOTHERAPY FOR HUMAN AFRICAN TRYPANOSOMIASIS BY USING AN ANIMAL MODEL: SURAMIN WITH DL..DIFLUOROMETHYLORNITHINE... Chemotherapy for African trypanosomiasis by polyamine biosynthesis inhibition.) FINAL PROGRESS REPORT Allen B. Clarkson, Jr., Ph.D. September 14, 1989...AF 061 11. TITLE (include Security Classification) "Development of a New Chemotherapy for Human African Trypanosomiasis by Using an Animal Model

  16. A Developing Framework for the Development, Implementation and Maintenance of HIV Interventions in the African American Church

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Jennifer M.

    2016-01-01

    The African American church has promoted the health of African Americans through supporting interventions that target a wide variety of diseases, and it is a crucial community partner in the development of HIV prevention interventions. Although research has described the development of church-based HIV interventions, there is a significant lack of frameworks and approaches available to guide the implementation and maintenance of HIV interventions within church-based settings. A developing framework of a comprehensive church-based intervention, derived from an ethnographic study about the development, implementation, and maintenance of an HIV/AIDS Ministry within an African American church is presented. This approach can provide guidance to support the development, implementation, and maintenance of HIV interventions in faith settings. PMID:25702738

  17. The Emergence of Research in the South African Academic Development Movement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boughey, Chrissie; Niven, Penny

    2012-01-01

    This paper uses an analytical framework developed from the work of philosopher Roy Bhaskar and sociologist Margaret Archer to explore the emergence of a body of research on teaching and learning in South African higher education. This research, generated in a field known as "Academic Development" in South Africa and as "Educational…

  18. Multiple-Lens Paradigm Evaluating African American Girls and their Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanders, Jo-Ann Lipford; Bradley, Carla

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide a conceptual context useful for focusing on the missing information on development and resiliency of African American girls. It is a clarion call for additional research in the area of development investigating a relationship between gender, race, ethnicity, social class, and racial socialization practices…

  19. Perceived Roles of African Rural Parents in Child Education and Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torimiro, D. O.; Malik, M.; Kolawole, O. D.

    2004-01-01

    The study investigated the perceived roles of African rural parents in child education and development. It examined among other things, some selected personal and socio-economic characteristics of parents and their level of role performance in the education and development of their children, and recommendations were made for enhancing adequate…

  20. Who do you know? Developing and Analyzing Entrepreneur Networks: An Analysis of the Tech Entrepreneurial Environment of Six African Cities

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-01-01

    Environment of Six African Cities Daniel Evans U.S. Military Academy, West Point NY January 2015...Entrepreneurial Environment of Six African Cities 5b. GRANT NUMBER n/a 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER n/a 6. AUTHOR(S) Daniel Evans n/a...collected in six different African cities . Details of our data collection visits are captured in the team’s paper entitled, “Who do you know?’ Developing

  1. Development of a New Chemotherapy for Human African Trypanosomiasis by Using an Animal Model: Suramin with DL-Alpha-Difluoromethylornithine

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-09-14

    AD-A2 3 7 231 AD ______________ DEVELOPMENT OF A NEW CHEMOTHERAPY FOR HUMAN AFRICAN TRYPANOSOMIASIS BY USING AN ANIMAL MODEL: SURAMIN WITH DL...DIFLUOROMETHYLORNITHINE ( Chemotherapy for African trypanosomiasis by polyamine biosynthesis inhibition.) ANNUAL PROGRESS REPORT -- YEAR TWO Allen B... Chemotherapy for Human African Trypanosomiasis by Using an Animal Model: Suramin with DL- a- Difluoromethylornithine" 12. PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) Clarkson, Allen

  2. The Impact of Racial Identity and Consciousness Development of African American Male Academic Achievement: Implications for Counseling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whiteside, Dora

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of racial identity/consciousness development on the academic achievement of African American male college freshmen. In the late 1900s Black identity models were developed to help African Americans grasp hold of who they were, as they lived in the residues of the peculiar institution of slavery.…

  3. Functional data analysis of joint coordination in the development of vertical jump performance.

    PubMed

    Harrison, A J; Ryan, W; Hayes, K

    2007-05-01

    Mastery of complex motor skills requires effective development of inter-segment coordination patterns. These coordination patterns can be described and quantified using various methods, including descriptive angle-angle diagrams, conjugate cross-correlations, vector coding, normalized root mean squared error techniques and, as in this study, functional data analysis procedures. Lower limb kinematic data were obtained for 49 children performing the vertical jump. Participants were assigned to developmental stages using the criteria of Gallahue and Ozmun . Inter-segment joint coordination data consisting of pairs of joint angle-time data were smoothed using B-splines and the resulting bivariate functions were analysed using functional principal component analysis and stepwise discriminant analysis. The results of the analysis showed that the knee-hip joint coordination pattern was most effective at discriminating between developmental stages. The results provide support for the application of functional data analysis techniques in the analysis of joint coordination or time series type data.

  4. How can psychological theory help to promote condom use in sub-Saharan African developing countries?

    PubMed

    Campbell, T

    1997-06-01

    Condom use for HIV prevention has been very inconsistent in most sub-Saharan African countries. Studies from around the continent report that knowledge about HIV transmission is variable and seems to be related to gender, socioeconomic and educational status. There is a large body of psychological knowledge about HIV prevention which has been applied to condom promotion campaigns in developed countries. These approaches to condom promotion, based on formal theory, have not been used on a wide scale in African countries and this paper explores ways in which psychological theory might be appropriately applied in a situation of high HIV prevalence.

  5. Prospects for development of African swine fever virus vaccines.

    PubMed

    Dixon, L K; Abrams, C C; Chapman, D D G; Goatley, L C; Netherton, C L; Taylor, G; Takamatsu, H H

    2013-01-01

    African swine fever virus is a large DNA virus which can cause an acute haemorrhagic fever in pigs resulting in high mortality. No vaccine is available, limiting options for control. The virus encodes up to 165 genes and virus particles are multi-layered and contain more than 50 proteins. Pigs immunised with natural low virulence isolates or attenuated viruses produced by passage in tissue culture and by targeted gene deletions can be protected against challenge with virulent viruses. CD8+ cells are required for protection induced by attenuated strain OURT88/3. Passive transfer of antibodies from immune to naïve pigs can also induce protection. Knowledge of the genome sequences of attenuated and virulent strains and targeted gene deletions from virulent strains have identified a number of virus genes involved in virulence and immune evasion. This information can be used to produce rationally attenuated vaccine strains. Virus antigens that are targets for neutralising antibodies have been identified and immunisation with these recombinant proteins has been shown to induce partial protection. However knowledge of antigens which encode the dominant protective epitopes recognised by CD8+ T cells is lacking.

  6. Developing a Cancer Prevention Programme for African-American Daughters and Mothers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Annang, Lucy; Spencer, S. Melinda; Jackson, Dawnyéa; Rosemond, Tiara N.; Best, Alicia L.; Williams, Leah R.; Carlos, Bethany

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To describe how nominal group technique was used to inform the development of a breast and cervical cancer awareness programme for African-American adult daughters and mothers. Design: A qualitative approach using nominal group technique. Setting: A mid-sized city in the Southern USA. Method: Nominal group technique was used with 30…

  7. A Phenomenological Study on the Leadership Development of African American Women Executives in Academia and Business

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Deanna Rachelle

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative phenomenological study was to explore the intersectionality of race and gender for African American women through their lived experiences of how they developed into leaders. This research study was designed to determine how the intersection of race and gender identities contributed to the elements of leadership…

  8. Religion, Spirituality, and Career Development in African American College Students: A Qualitative Inquiry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Constantine, Madonna G.; Miville, Marie L.; Warren, Anika K.; Gainor, Kathy A.; Lewis-Coles, Ma'at E. L.

    2006-01-01

    The authors explored through semistructured interviews the interrelationships of religion, spirituality, and career development in a sample of 12 African American undergraduate students. Using consensual qualitative research methodology (C. E. Hill, B. J. Thompson, & E. N. Williams, 1997), they identified 6 primary domains or themes related to…

  9. African Americans in College: The Impact of Institutional Racial Composition on Student Development and Educational Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flowers, Lamont A.; Pascarella, Ernest T.

    2011-01-01

    This book presents the results and implications of a major new national study exploring the effects of institutional racial composition on African American students' development and their educational outcomes, taking into account individuals' background characteristics, their perceptions of the institutional environment, and their experiences in…

  10. Development and Validation of the Adolescent Racial and Ethnic Socialization Scale (ARESS) in African American Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Tiffany L.; Krishnakumar, Ambika

    2007-01-01

    Racial and ethnic socialization are an integral part of African American parenting strategies. Varied conceptualizations and operationalizations of racial and ethnic socialization exist within the literature with limited evidence of the validity of existing measures. The purpose of this study is to develop a comprehensive definition of racial and…

  11. Educational Development in Africa: II -- Costing and Financing. IIEP African Studies Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyons, Raymond, Ed.; Poignant, Raymond, Ed.

    This book contains three monographs based on research conducted in a number of African countries between 1965 and 1967 in an attempt to illuminate some of the problems confronting educational planners in developing countries. This book is one of three related volumes of case studies on educational planning in the English-speaking countries of…

  12. African American Family Life: Ecological and Cultural Diversity. Duke Series in Child Development and Public Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLoyd, Vonnie C., Ed.; Hill, Nancy E., Ed.; Dodge, Kenneth A., Ed.

    2005-01-01

    This volume brings together leading experts from different disciplines to offer new perspectives on contemporary African American families. A wealth of knowledge is presented on the heterogeneity of Black family life today; the challenges and opportunities facing parents, children, and communities; and the impact on health and development of key…

  13. Migration from Developing Countries: The Case of South African Teachers to the United Kingdom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Villiers, Rian

    2007-01-01

    The United Kingdom (particularly England) is the main developed country that recruits teachers from South Africa. This article provides an overview of teacher migration from South Africa to the United Kingdom over the past decade. The research focuses on the following aspects of migration: the recruitment of South African teachers; motivation for…

  14. The Features of Development in the Pacific Countries of the African, Caribbean and Pacific Group

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cuenca Garcia, Eduardo; Rodriguez Martin, Jose Antonio; Navarro Pabsdorf, Margarita

    2010-01-01

    In this article we present a new proposal for the measurement of development, applied to the Pacific Countries of the African, Caribbean and Pacific Group (ACP), conditional on their insularity, and with privileged relations with the European Union. Our index has been constructed attending to the criteria defined in the Goals of the Millennium…

  15. 3 CFR - Eligibility of the Southern African Development Community To Receive Defense Articles and Defense...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Amended, and the Arms Export Control Act, as Amended Memorandum for the Secretary of State Pursuant to the authority vested in me by the Constitution and the laws of the United States, including section 503(a) of... African Development Community will strengthen the security of the United States and promote world...

  16. Early Educational Foundations for the Development of Civic Responsibility: An African Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Serpell, Robert; Mumba, Paul; Chansa-Kabali, Tamara

    2011-01-01

    An innovative curriculum designed to foster the development of social responsibility among pre-adolescent children was introduced at a rural Zambian primary school. The curriculum invoked Child-to-Child principles focusing on health education, advancing a synthesis of Western psychological theories and African cultural traditions. The teacher…

  17. Pubertal Development and Parent-Child Conflict in Low-Income, Urban, African American Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sagrestano, Lynda M.; McCormick, Sheila H.; Paikoff, Roberta L.; Holmbeck, Grayson N.

    1999-01-01

    Examined associations between pubertal development and parent-adolescent conflict in urban, low-income African-American adolescents. Found that parents reported more verbal aggression with sons during midpuberty than early or late puberty, more violent tactics with younger than older daughters, and more "hot" discussions with early-…

  18. International Development and Research Capacities: Increasing Access to African Scholarly Publishing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Metcalfe, Amy Scott; Esseh, Samuel; Willinsky, John

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines the evolving relationship between Canada and the African academic research community through the promotion of a concept known as Information and Communication Technology for Development (ICT4D) and with an eye to its implications for increasing the circulation of research through such means as open access (OA) publishing…

  19. Problematising the Standardisation of Leadership and Management Development in South African Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Clarence

    2015-01-01

    In 2007 the Department of Education introduced the standards-based Advanced Certificate in Education: School Management and Leadership. The standardisation of leadership and management development in South African schools has been uncritically accepted by most academics and professionals. The purpose of this article is to problematise the…

  20. The Development of Coordinated Communication in Infants at Heightened Risk for Autism Spectrum Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Parladé, Meaghan V.; Iverson, Jana M.

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated the extent to which developmental change in coordination of social communication in early infancy differentiates children eventually diagnosed with ASD from those not likely to develop the disorder. A prospective longitudinal design was used to compare 9 infants at heightened risk for ASD (HR) later diagnosed with ASD, to 13 HR infants with language delay, 28 HR infants with no diagnosis, and 30 low risk infants. Hierarchical Linear Modeling (HLM) analyses revealed that ASD infants exhibited significantly slower growth in coordinations overall and in gestures coordinated with vocalizations, even relative to HR infants with language delay. Disruption in the development of gesture-vocalization coordinations may result in negative cascading effects that negatively impact later social and linguistic development. PMID:25689930

  1. Lessons learned in developing a culturally adapted intervention for African-American families coping with parental cancer.

    PubMed

    Davey, Maureen P; Kissil, Karni; Lynch, Laura; Harmon, La-Rhonda; Hodgson, Nancy

    2012-12-01

    Prior clinical research supports the effectiveness of cancer support groups for cancer patients and their families, yet African-American families continue to be underrepresented in cancer support groups and in cancer clinical research studies. In order to fill this gap, we developed and evaluated a culturally adapted family support group for African-American families coping with parental cancer. We encountered unexpected challenges in overcoming barriers to recruitment, partnering with oncology providers, and building trust with the African-American community and African-American families coping with parental cancer. We describe actions taken during the two phases of this study and lessons learned along the way about recruiting and engaging African-American families in cancer support group studies, partnering with oncology providers, networking with the African-American community, and the importance of demonstrating cultural sensitivity to overcome the understandable historical legacy of mistrust.

  2. [Partnership in population and development. First African Meeting on South-South Partnership in Reproductive Health and Population, Tunis, July 9-11, 1997].

    PubMed

    1997-09-01

    10 southern hemisphere countries (Bangladesh, Colombia, Egypt, Kenya, Indonesia, Morocco, Mexico, Thailand, Tunisia, and Zimbabwe) have created a new international initiative known as the "Partnership in Population and Development." The principal objective is to create a more effective mechanism for developing countries to share their experiences through technical assistance and south-south coordination. The 10 countries have developed population and family planning programs over the past 2 decades with the support of the Rockefeller Foundation, World Bank, and UN Population Fund. The Partnership in Population and Development is directed by an Administrative Council composed of representatives from each country, who are generally the highest officials in the area of reproductive health and family planning. The First African Meeting for South-South Cooperation in Reproductive Health/Family Planning and Population, held in Tunis in July 1997, was organized in collaboration with the Secretariat of the partnership and with the participation of representatives of 12 French-speaking African countries and of several international organizations. The meeting allowed the participants to express their opinions concerning the principles of the South-South Partnership and the practical mechanisms that would allow it to facilitate exchanges of information and experiences between African countries.

  3. DEVELOPMENT OF MULTI-COORDINATE VOCABULARY, PLASMA PHYSICS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LERNER, RITA G.

    DESCRIBED IS THE DEVELOPMENT OF A THESAURUS FOR THE FIELD OF PLASMA PHYSICS, SIMILAR TO THE ONE PREVIOUSLY DEVELOPED FOR CHEMICAL PHYSICS, FOR USE WITH COMPUTER-ORIENTED RETRIEVAL SYSTEMS. AN EXPERT IN THE FIELD OF PLASMA PHYSICS SELECTED TERMS IMPORTANT TO THE INFORMATION USER FROM THE PLASMA LITERATURE. THE HIERARCHY OF CLASSIFICATION UTILIZES…

  4. Coordinating Low Emission Development in Columbia (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Watson, A.; Butheau, M.; Sandor, D.

    2013-11-01

    Colombia's economy has grown more than 4 percent per year for a decade, but climate change is posing new risks to sustaining that development. With the nation's coastal areas, mountain ranges, rain forests, plains, and river basins vulnerable to changing weather patterns and growing seasons, Colombia is building resilience to climate change while working to curb emissions and pursue new options for low emission development.

  5. Design and production of an atlas for diplomacy in Zimbabwe and the Southern African Development Community

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Crawford, T.W.; Larson, C.R.; Granneman, B.J.; Evans, G.A.; Gacke, C.K.; Pearson, D.R.

    1999-01-01

    An atlas of Zimbabwe and the Southern African Development Community was designed and produced for use by American diplomats in Zimbabwe. Two copies of the bound atlas are used by the Embassy of the United States of America (U.S. Embassy) and the Mission of the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) in Harare, Zimbabwe, to orient visitors and discuss matters of diplomacy and development in Zimbabwe and the Southern African Development Community. The atlas contains maps derived from satellite images showing features of the physical geography of Southern Africa and Zimbabwe and plastic overlays showing rivers and lakes and manmade features, such as major roads, railroads, and cities. The atlas is an important tool that American diplomats can use to orient participants in discussions of the environment and to develop agreements for management of the environment in Zimbabwe and Southern Africa.

  6. Cell cycle RNA regulons coordinating early lymphocyte development.

    PubMed

    Galloway, Alison; Turner, Martin

    2017-02-23

    Lymphocytes undergo dynamic changes in gene expression as they develop from progenitor cells lacking antigen receptors, to mature cells that are prepared to mount immune responses. While transcription factors have established roles in lymphocyte development, they act in concert with post-transcriptional and post-translational regulators to determine the proteome. Furthermore, the post-transcriptional regulation of RNA regulons consisting of mRNAs whose protein products act cooperatively allows RNA binding proteins to exert their effects at multiple points in a pathway. Here, we review recent evidence demonstrating the importance of RNA binding proteins that control the cell cycle in lymphocyte development and discuss the implications for tumorigenesis. For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website.

  7. Sign Making, Coordination of Perspectives, and Conceptual Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magnusson, Maria; Pramling, Niklas

    2016-01-01

    In this empirical study we analyse how children (aged four- to six-years-old) through communicative engagement with their teachers around their own drawings are supported in developing representational insight, that is, going from indicative sign-making to symbolic understanding. Theoretically, the analysis is informed by a sociocultural…

  8. DEVELOPMENT OF A MULTI-COORDINATE VOCABULARY, CHEMICAL PHYSICS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LERNER, RITA G.

    THIS PAPER DESCRIBES A METHOD (SCHEME) FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF A VOCABULARY IN THE FIELD OF CHEMICAL PHYSICS FROM PRIMARY JOURNAL ARTICLES. ALL TERMS APPEARING IN A RECENT JOURNAL (VOL. 39, JOURNAL OF CHEMICAL PHYSICS) JUDGED TO BE IMPORTANT WERE DIVIDED INTO THREE CATEGORIES--(1) PROPERTIES, PROCESSES, PHENOMENA, (2) OBJECTS, INCLUDING SYSTEMS AND…

  9. A Coordinated Decentralized Approach to Online Project Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mykota, David

    2013-01-01

    With the growth rate of online learning outpacing traditional face-to-face instruction, universities are beginning to recognize the importance of strategic planning in its development. Making the case for online learning requires sound project management practices and an understanding of the business models on which it is predicated. The objective…

  10. African civil society initiatives to drive a biobanking, biosecurity and infrastructure development agenda in the wake of the West African Ebola outbreak.

    PubMed

    Abayomi, Akin; Gevao, Sahr; Conton, Brian; Deblasio, Pasquale; Katz, Rebecca

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the formation of a civil society consortium, spurred to action by frustration over the Ebola crises, to facilitate the development of infrastructure and frameworks including policy development to support a harmonized, African approach to health crises on the continent. The Global Emerging Pathogens Treatment Consortium, or GET, is an important example of how African academics, scientists, clinicians and civil society have come together to initiate policy research, multilevel advocacy and implementation of initiatives aimed at building African capacity for timely and effective mitigations strategies against emerging infectious and neglected pathogens, with a focus on biobanking and biosecurity. The consortium has been able to establish it self as a leading voice, drawing attention to scientific infrastructure gaps, the importance of cultural sensitivities, and the power of community engagement. The GET consortium demonstrates how civil society can work together, encourage government engagement and strengthen national and regional efforts to build capacity.

  11. African civil society initiatives to drive a biobanking, biosecurity and infrastructure development agenda in the wake of the West African Ebola outbreak

    PubMed Central

    Abayomi, Akin; Gevao, Sahr; Conton, Brian; Deblasio, Pasquale; Katz, Rebecca

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the formation of a civil society consortium, spurred to action by frustration over the Ebola crises, to facilitate the development of infrastructure and frameworks including policy development to support a harmonized, African approach to health crises on the continent. The Global Emerging Pathogens Treatment Consortium, or GET, is an important example of how African academics, scientists, clinicians and civil society have come together to initiate policy research, multilevel advocacy and implementation of initiatives aimed at building African capacity for timely and effective mitigations strategies against emerging infectious and neglected pathogens, with a focus on biobanking and biosecurity. The consortium has been able to establish it self as a leading voice, drawing attention to scientific infrastructure gaps, the importance of cultural sensitivities, and the power of community engagement. The GET consortium demonstrates how civil society can work together, encourage government engagement and strengthen national and regional efforts to build capacity. PMID:28154625

  12. Developing spiritually framed breast cancer screening messages in consultation with African American women.

    PubMed

    Best, Alicia L; Spencer, Mindi; Hall, Ingrid J; Friedman, Daniela B; Billings, Deborah

    2015-01-01

    Despite efforts to increase breast cancer screening (BCS) among African American women, disparities in breast cancer mortality persist. Culturally framed health communication may provide a useful strategy to address this issue. Spirituality not only represents an integral aspect of African American culture, but it has also been identified as a potential barrier to BCS among this population. Rather than continuing to focus on spirituality as a barrier, there is an opportunity to develop promotional messages that tap into the protective properties of spirituality among this population. The goals of this study were to engage a group of African American women to identify important spiritual elements to be included in health communication materials, and to subsequently develop a spiritually framed BCS message in response to their feedback. Three nominal group sessions were conducted with 15 African American women. Results revealed three important spiritual elements that can be incorporated into BCS health messages: (a) the body as a temple; (b) going to the doctor does not make you faithless; and (c) God did not give us the spirit of fear. These elements were used to draft a spiritually framed BCS message. Next, 20 face-to-face semistructured interviews were conducted to help finalize the spiritually framed BCS message for use in a future study on culturally framed health communication.

  13. African Regional Seminar for Advanced Training In Systematic Curriculum Development and Evaluation. (Achimota, Ghana, 14 July--15 August 1975). Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swedish International Development Authority (SIDA).

    This report summarizes the African Regional Seminar for Advanced Training in Systematic Curriculum Development and Evaluation that was held at Achimota, Ghana, July 14-August 15 1975. Attending the seminar were 67 participants from 12 African countries, including Cameroon, Gambia, Ghana, Kenya, Liberia, Malawi, Nigeria, Sierra Leone, Swaziland,…

  14. An examination of the identity development of African American undergraduate engineering students attending an HBCU

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, Kenneth J.

    This study examined the identity development for a sample of 90 African American undergraduate engineering male and female students attending an HBCU. Using the Student Development Task and Lifestyle Assessment (SDTLA), which is based on Chickering and Reisser's identity development theory, differences in identity development were examined with respect to gender, academic classification, and grade point average. Previous research has shown the need to look beyond academic factors to understand and influence the persistence of African American engineering students. Non-cognitive factors, including identity development have proven to be influential in predicting persistence, especially for African American engineering students. Results from the analysis revealed significant means for academic classification and five of the dependent variables to include career planning peer relations, emotional autonomy, educational involvement, and establishing and clarifying purpose. Post hoc analysis confirmed significant differences for four of those dependent variables. However, the analysis failed to confirm statistical significant differences in peer relations due to academic classification. The significant decline in the mean scores for development in these four areas, as students progressed from sophomore to senior year revealed strong implications for the need to provide programming and guidance for those students. Institutions of higher education should provide more attention to the non-cognitive areas of development as a means of understanding identity development and working toward creating support systems for students.

  15. Retinal waves coordinate patterned activity throughout the developing visual system

    PubMed Central

    Ackman, James B.; Burbridge, Timothy J.; Crair, Michael C.

    2014-01-01

    Summary The morphologic and functional development of the vertebrate nervous system is initially governed by genetic factors and subsequently refined by neuronal activity. However, fundamental features of the nervous system emerge before sensory experience is possible. Thus, activity-dependent development occurring before the onset of experience must be driven by spontaneous activity, but the origin and nature of activity in vivo remains largely untested. Here we use optical methods to demonstrate in live neonatal mice that waves of spontaneous retinal activity are present and propagate throughout the entire visual system before eye opening. This patterned activity encompassed the visual field, relied on cholinergic neurotransmission, preferentially initiated in the binocular retina, and exhibited spatiotemporal correlations between the two hemispheres. Retinal waves were the primary source of activity in the midbrain and primary visual cortex, but only modulated ongoing activity in secondary visual areas. Thus, spontaneous retinal activity is transmitted through the entire visual system and carries patterned information capable of guiding the activity-dependent development of complex intra- and inter- hemispheric circuits before the onset of vision. PMID:23060192

  16. Retinal waves coordinate patterned activity throughout the developing visual system.

    PubMed

    Ackman, James B; Burbridge, Timothy J; Crair, Michael C

    2012-10-11

    The morphological and functional development of the vertebrate nervous system is initially governed by genetic factors and subsequently refined by neuronal activity. However, fundamental features of the nervous system emerge before sensory experience is possible. Thus, activity-dependent development occurring before the onset of experience must be driven by spontaneous activity, but the origin and nature of activity in vivo remains largely untested. Here we use optical methods to show in live neonatal mice that waves of spontaneous retinal activity are present and propagate throughout the entire visual system before eye opening. This patterned activity encompassed the visual field, relied on cholinergic neurotransmission, preferentially initiated in the binocular retina and exhibited spatiotemporal correlations between the two hemispheres. Retinal waves were the primary source of activity in the midbrain and primary visual cortex, but only modulated ongoing activity in secondary visual areas. Thus, spontaneous retinal activity is transmitted through the entire visual system and carries patterned information capable of guiding the activity-dependent development of complex intra- and inter-hemispheric circuits before the onset of vision.

  17. Positive youth development among African American adolescents: examining single parents as a factor.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Shani R; Lewis, Rhonda K; Carmack, Chakema

    2011-01-01

    Over the past few decades researchers have begun to examine the importance of understanding positive youth development and the many contexts in which youth find themselves. The social contexts in which adolescent development occurs are varied and complex, particularly the development among African American youth. African American youth are faced with a number of challenges including living in single-parent homes, high teen pregnancy rates, and poor neighborhoods, yet many of these youth continue to thrive. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between family structure (single-parenting) and adolescent outcomes such as educational aspirations and sexual activity among African American adolescent youth aged 12-17. Approximately 462 African American youth were surveyed. A number of positive results emerged; for instance, there was a negative correlation between family structure and educational aspirations. The number of parents in the home did not interfere with youth wanting to complete high school and go on to college (r = - .218, r² = .04, p < .05). The results also showed that as educational aspirations increased, the number of sexual partners decreased (r = - .141, meaning that the more adolescents reported a desire to complete high school, they were less likely to report having sexual intercourse. These positive results should be promoted among African American youth so that those faced with these challenges will note that others have overcome and accomplished their goals. In this population educational aspirations were important. Limitations and future research are discussed.

  18. Fatherhood Intervention Development in Collaboration with African American Non-resident Fathers

    PubMed Central

    Julion, Wrenetha A.; Breitenstein, Susan M.; Waddell, Donald

    2012-01-01

    Because interventions developed in partnership with African American fathers not residing with their children are virtually non-existent, existing interventions fail to address the multiple factors that constrain these fathers’ positive involvement with their children. We developed a video tape fatherhood intervention: Building Bridges to Fatherhood. In collaboration with a Fathers Advisory Council composed of 12 African American fathers, we used Aranda’s framework for community-based nursing intervention development to design the intervention. Data from 13 focus group meetings show Advisory Council members’ insights on program structure and content, fathers’ commitment to their children and communities, and the benefits they garnered from Council participation. The implications for involving fathers in intervention development include using relevant language, vernacular, and interpersonal interactions. PMID:22685066

  19. Development and Validation of the Body Size Scale for Assessing Body Weight Perception in African Populations

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Emmanuel; Bernard, Jonathan Y.; Ponty, Amandine; Ndao, Amadou; Amougou, Norbert; Saïd-Mohamed, Rihlat; Pasquet, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Background The social valorisation of overweight in African populations could promote high-risk eating behaviours and therefore become a risk factor of obesity. However, existing scales to assess body image are usually not accurate enough to allow comparative studies of body weight perception in different African populations. This study aimed to develop and validate the Body Size Scale (BSS) to estimate African body weight perception. Methods Anthropometric measures of 80 Cameroonians and 81 Senegalese were used to evaluate three criteria of adiposity: body mass index (BMI), overall percentage of fat, and endomorphy (fat component of the somatotype). To develop the BSS, the participants were photographed in full face and profile positions. Models were selected for their representativeness of the wide variability in adiposity with a progressive increase along the scale. Then, for the validation protocol, participants self-administered the BSS to assess self-perceived current body size (CBS), desired body size (DBS) and provide a “body self-satisfaction index.” This protocol included construct validity, test-retest reliability and convergent validity and was carried out with three independent samples of respectively 201, 103 and 1115 Cameroonians. Results The BSS comprises two sex-specific scales of photos of 9 models each, and ordered by increasing adiposity. Most participants were able to correctly order the BSS by increasing adiposity, using three different words to define body size. Test-retest reliability was consistent in estimating CBS, DBS and the “body self-satisfaction index.” The CBS was highly correlated to the objective BMI, and two different indexes assessed with the BSS were consistent with declarations obtained in interviews. Conclusion The BSS is the first scale with photos of real African models taken in both full face and profile and representing a wide and representative variability in adiposity. The validation protocol proved its

  20. Topographic development in the late Neogene and the impact on African vegetation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Gerlinde; Prange, Matthias; Schulz, Michael

    2014-05-01

    Hominid evolution, specifically the split of the hominid-chimpansee lineages in the late Miocene has long been hypothesized to be linked to the retreat of the tropical rainforest in Africa in the late Miocene. A main cause for the climatic and vegetation change often considered was uplift of Africa but also uplift of the Himalaya and the Tibetan Plateau was suggested to have contributed to an intensification of the African-Asian monsoon system and hence impacted rainfall distribution over Eastern Africa. In contrast, more recent proxy data suggest that open grassland habitats were available to human ancestors and apes long before their divergence and that there is no evidence for a closed rainforest in the late Miocene. We use the coupled global circulation model CCSM3 with an online coupled dynamic vegetation module to investigate the impact of the uplift processes on the African-Asian monsoon circulation and consequent changes in tropical African vegetation. The model is run with a resolution of T85 (~1.4°) for the atmosphere and land surface and a variable resolution for the computation of ocean and sea ice down to a meridional grid spacing of 0.3° around the equator. We performed a set of sensitivity experiments, altering elevations of the Himalaya and the Tibet Plateau and of East and South Africa separately and in combination from half to full present day level. The simulations confirm the dominant impact of the East and South African uplift for climate and vegetation development of the African tropics. Only a weak, but significant, impact of the prescribed Asian Uplift on African monsoon and vegetation development could be detected. Himalaya/Tibet Plateau uplift lead to slightly dryer conditions in Central Africa and small increases in rainfall over East Africa. According to the model simulations topographic uplift of Africa significantly altered rainfall in Central Africa, which coincides with proxy records from the Congo basin showing a change towards

  1. Spatiotemporal asymmetric auxin distribution: a means to coordinate plant development.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, H; Dhonukshe, P; Brewer, P B; Friml, J

    2006-12-01

    The plant hormone auxin plays crucial roles in regulating plant growth development, including embryo and root patterning, organ formation, vascular tissue differentiation and growth responses to environmental stimuli. Asymmetric auxin distribution patterns have been observed within tissues, and these so-called auxin gradients change dynamically during different developmental processes. Most auxin is synthesized in the shoot and distributed directionally throughout the plant. This polar auxin transport is mediated by auxin influx and efflux facilitators, whose subcellular polar localizations guide the direction of auxin flow. The polar localization of PIN auxin efflux carriers changes in response to developmental and external cues in order to channel auxin flow in a regulated manner for organized growth. Auxin itself modulates the expression and subcellular localization of PIN proteins, contributing to a complex pattern of feedback regulation. Here we review the available information mainly from studies of a model plant, Arabidopsis thaliana, on the generation of auxin gradients, the regulation of polar auxin transport and further downstream cellular events.

  2. Coordination of Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) Signaling During Maize Seed Development

    SciTech Connect

    Boston, Rebecca S.

    2010-11-20

    Seed storage reserves represent one of the most important sources of renewable fixed carbon and nitrogen found in nature. Seeds are well-adapted for diverting metabolic resources to synthesize storage proteins as well as enzymes and structural proteins needed for their transport and packaging into membrane bound storage protein bodies. Our underlying hypothesis is that the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress response provides the critical cellular control of metabolic flux required for optimal accumulation of storage reserves in seeds. This highly conserved response is a cellular mechanism to monitor the protein folding environment of the ER and restore homeostasis in the presence of unfolded or misfolded proteins. In seeds, deposition of storage proteins in protein bodies is a highly specialized process that takes place even in the presence of mutant proteins that no longer fold and package properly. The capacity of the ER to deposit these aberrant proteins in protein bodies during a period that extends several weeks provides an excellent model for deconvoluting the ER stress response of plants. We have focused in this project on the means by which the ER senses and responds to functional perturbations and the underlying intracellular communication that occurs among biosynthetic, trafficking and degradative pathways for proteins during seed development.

  3. Understanding African National Development: Some Challenges to Communication Specialists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blake, Cecil

    1981-01-01

    Mass media in national development of a country is only one element of communication. Human communication in the form of interpersonal, intercultural, interethnic and group processes is a crucial aspect that must be emphasized in development studies. Our understanding of non-Western communication depends on our willingness to tackle differences.…

  4. Southern African Office of Astronomy for Development: A New Hub for Astronomy for Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mutondo, Moola S.; Simpemba, Prospery

    2016-10-01

    A new Astronomy for Development hub needs innovative tools and programs. SAROAD is developing exciting tools integrating Raspberry Pi technology to bring cost-effective astronomy content to learning centres. SAROAD would also like to report achievements in realizing the IAU's strategic plan. In order to manage, evaluate and coordinate regional IAU (International Astronomical Union) capacity building programmes, including the recruitment and mobilization of volunteers, SAROAD has built an intranet that is accessible to regional members upon request. Using this resource, regional members can see and participate in regional activities. SAROAD has commenced with projects in the three Task Force areas of Universities and Research, Children and Schools and Public Outreach. Under the three Task Force areas, a total of seven projects have commenced in Zambia (some supported by funds from IAU Annual Call for proposals).

  5. Differential changes in the development of motor coordination and executive functions in children with motor coordination impairments.

    PubMed

    Michel, Eva; Molitor, Sabine; Schneider, Wolfgang

    2016-09-13

    Cognitive and motor coordination skills of children with and without motor coordination impairments were examined with a one-year follow-up investigation. Initially, children were between 4 and 6 years old. Age-appropriate tests of executive functions (updating, switching, inhibition, interference control), motor coordination (the Movement Assessment Battery for Children-2) and fitness (the Körperkoordinations-Test für Kinder) were administered in two consecutive years. Several background variables (age, socioeconomic status, medical support, clinical interventions, leisure activities) and potential moderators (nonverbal intelligence, reaction time, visual perception) were controlled. The matched sample consisted of 48 control children and 48 children with motor coordination impairments. The children's executive functions dramatically improved during the one-year period. With regard to motor coordination performance, half of the impaired children caught up to the control children's level ("remission group"), while the remaining half showed no improvement ("persisting group"). Compared to the persisting group, the children in the remission group showed markedly better interference control at both measurement points. The correlation between executive functions and motor coordination is significant in the persisting group, but not in the remission group. The results of the study are discussed in the light of the role of executive functions, especially inhibition processes, for the automatization of motor coordination tasks.

  6. Positioning ECCD. Coordinators' Notebook: An International Resource for Early Childhood Development. Number 28

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanssen, Elizabeth, Ed.; Zimanyi, Louise, Ed.

    2004-01-01

    The "Coordinators' Notebook" is a twice-annual publication of the Consultative Group on Early Childhood Care and Development. This issue summarizes some important information about early childhood care and development (ECCD); shares case studies of effective examples of ECCD; helps ECCD advocates think through what they may need to do…

  7. Development and characterization of microsatellite markers in the African deciduous tree Terminalia superba (Combretaceae)1

    PubMed Central

    Demenou, Boris B.; Migliore, Jérémy; Tosso, Felicien; Kaymak, Esra; Hardy, Olivier J.

    2015-01-01

    Premise of the study: Microsatellites were designed and characterized in the African timber forest tree Terminalia superba (Combretaceae). Due to their high variability, these markers are suitable to investigate gene flow patterns and the structure of genetic diversity. Methods and Results: From a genomic library obtained by next-generation sequencing, seven monomorphic and 14 polymorphic microsatellite loci were developed. The polymorphic microsatellites displayed two to 27 alleles (mean 11.4; expected heterozygosity range 0.283–0.940, mean 0.736) in one population from southeastern Cameroon. Genotypes were typical of an outbreeding diploid species, although null alleles explain a significant heterozygote deficit in three loci. Cross-amplification in three congeneric species (T. ivorensis, T. avicennioides, and T. mantaly) failed, suggesting that T. superba is rather divergent. Conclusions: This set of newly developed microsatellite markers will be useful for assessing the genetic diversity, population structure, and demographic history of T. superba in tropical African forests. PMID:26697276

  8. Factors Contributing to the Development of an HIV Ministry within an African American Church

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Jennifer M.; Dancy, Barbara L.

    2012-01-01

    Having an HIV ministry within a church depends on the religious culture of that church. However, little is known about how a church’s religious culture influences an HIV ministry. This study’s purpose was to examine how an African American church’s religious culture supported the development, implementation, and maintenance of an HIV ministry within the church. An ethnographic case study research design was used. Data were collected through interviews, non-participant and participant observations, review of pertinent documents, and survey of congregants. Results revealed the following as important for an HIV ministry: (a) a belief in helping others and treating everyone with respect and dignity, (b) feelings of compassion toward individuals infected with HIV, and (c) HIV education. This information can assist in developing interventions to enhance the African American church movement toward HIV ministries. PMID:22212914

  9. Coordinating Permit Offices and the Development of Utility-Scale Geothermal Energy (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Levine, A.; Young, K.; Witherbee, K.

    2013-10-01

    Permitting is a major component of the geothermal development process. Better coordination across government agencies could reduce uncertainty of the process and the actual time of permitting. This presentation highlights various forms of coordinating permit offices at the state and federal level in the western United States, discusses inefficiencies and mitigation techniques for permitting natural resource projects, analyzes whether various approaches are easily adaptable to utility-scale geothermal development, and addresses advantages and challenges for coordinating permit offices. Key successful strategies identified include: 1. Flexibility in implementing the approach (i.e. less statutory requirements for the approach); 2. Less dependence on a final environmental review for information sharing and permit coordination; 3. State and federal partnerships developed through memorandum of understanding to define roles and share data and/or developer information. A few of the most helpful techniques include: 1. A central point of contact for the developer to ask questions surrounding the project; 2. Pre-application meetings to assist the developer in identifying all of the permits, regulatory approvals, and associated information or data required; 3. A permit schedule or timeline to set expectations for the developer and agencies; 4. Consolidating the public notice, comment, and hearing period into fewer hearings held concurrently.

  10. A Phenomenological Investigation on the Role of Mentoring in the Academic Development of African American Male Secondary Students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inge, Jillian

    The purpose of this phenomenological study was to examine how the construct of mentoring by African American males can support the academic development of African American male students. Since African American male students perform significantly lower in academic subjects than their counterparts of other ethnicities, there is an exigent need for change in this area. Built upon the conceptual framework of communal interactions and identity, the inquiry questioned the experiences of mentors for African American male secondary students, and their perceptions of the influence of a mentoring relationship when the mentor and mentee are of similar backgrounds. Participants in this study were 7 African American males who had mentored or were currently mentoring African American male students. Data, obtained through semi structured interviews and focus group interviews, were coded for themes that reflected the experiences of mentors in mentoring African American males. Mentors in this study reported that students with whom they share similar backgrounds and experiences were better able to relate to them than those who had dissimilar backgrounds and experiences. In addition, mentors reported their mentees were more likely to envision themselves in professional areas beyond their perceived cultural norm when they routinely interact with successful African American males from various fields; thus, it was important for mentors to provide opportunities for students to interact with professionals. Contributions to social change will emerge as African American male mentors understand and employ their roles as a fundamental component in the academic development of African American male secondary students and thus empower this population of students to achieve academic success and to serve in a capacity that nurtures their immediate surroundings.

  11. On the Ethnic Origins of African Development: Chiefs and Precolonial Political Centralization

    PubMed Central

    Michalopoulos, Stelios; Papaioannou, Elias

    2015-01-01

    We report on recent findings of a fruitful research agenda that explores the importance of ethnic-specific traits in shaping African development. First, using recent surveys from Sub-Saharan African countries, we document that individuals identify with their ethnic group as often as with the nation pointing to the salience of ethnicity. Second, we focus on the various historical and contemporary functions of tribal leaders (chiefs) and illustrate their influence on various aspects of the economy and the polity. Third, we elaborate on a prominent dimension of ethnicity, that of the degree of complexity of pre-colonial political organization. Building on insights from the African historiography, we review recent works showing a strong association between pre-colonial centralization and contemporary comparative development both across and within countries. We also document that the link between pre-colonial political centralization and regional development -as captured by satellite images of light density at night-is particularly strong in areas outside the vicinity of the capitals, where due to population mixing and the salience of national institutions ethnic traits play a lesser role. Overall, our evidence is supportive to theories and narratives on the presence of a “dual” economic and institutional environment in Africa. PMID:27011760

  12. Institutional development: from legal pluralism to institutional bricolage in West African pastoralism.

    PubMed

    Fokou, G; Bonfoh, B

    2016-11-01

    Pastoralists in Africa are increasingly vulnerable to the effects of globalisation, climate change and changes in land use. They are confronted with problems related to access to scarce natural resources and their regulation, the management of mobility, and too little investment in health systems, livestock production and social service delivery. However, this paper focuses on positive trends and vital innovations in pastoral societies. These rely on robust institutions and policy frameworks that contribute to economically secure, politically stable, and environmentally sustainable livelihoods for African pastoral societies. The authors analyse ways in which internal and external efforts can improve the economic viability and social aspects of pastoralism. The institutions that manage natural resources and their effects on livelihoods and access to social services must be critically reviewed. The authors suggest that a new model for the economic and social development of African pastoralism should be positioned between donor- or governmentdriven development (in other words, 'seeing like a state') and the autonomous development goals of pastoralists ('seeing like a pastoralist'). Pastoralists are resourceful, entrepreneurial and innovative people, fully able to support new institutional systems and services which recognise their way of life and production systems. It seems evident that African pastoralism will maintain its vitality and creativity through a process of 'bricolage', with institutional and policy innovations based on a constant renegotiation of norms, the reinvention or transformation of tradition, the importance of legitimate authority and the role of the people themselves in shaping such arrangements.

  13. African land ecology: opportunities and constraints for agricultural development.

    PubMed

    Voortman, Roelf L; Sonneveld, Ben G J S; Keyzer, Michiel A

    2003-08-01

    Compared to other continents, the economic growth performance of Sub-Saharan Africa has been poor over the last four decades. Likewise, progress in agricultural development has been limited and the Green Revolution left Africa almost untouched. The question raised in the literature is whether the poor performance is a question of poor policies or of an unfavorable biophysical environment (policy versus destiny). This paper, with a broad perspective, analyzes adaptation of current land use to environmental conditions in Africa and compares the physical resource base of Africa with Asia. In doing so, we search for unifying principles that can have operational consequences for agricultural development. We argue that some specificities of the natural resource base, namely local homogeneity and spatial diversity of the predominant Basement Complex soils, imply that simple fertilizer strategies may not produce the yield increases obtained elsewhere.

  14. When "Prof" Speaks, Who Listens? The African Elite and the Use of African Languages for Education and Development in African Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trudell, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    The role of African languages in formal and nonformal learning is the subject of increasing local, national and international interests. Cognitive and pedagogical reasons abound for using the language best understood by the learner. However, many nonpedagogical factors related to politics, economics, language attitudes and colonial history are…

  15. The Physiologic Development of Speech Motor Control: Lip and Jaw Coordination

    PubMed Central

    Green, Jordan R.; Moore, Christopher A.; Higashikawa, Masahiko; Steeve, Roger W.

    2010-01-01

    This investigation was designed to describe the development of lip and jaw coordination during speech and to evaluate the potential influence of speech motor development on phonologic development. Productions of syllables containing bilabial consonants were observed from speakers in four age groups (i.e., 1-year-olds, 2-year-olds, 6-year-olds, and young adults). A video-based movement tracking system was used to transduce movement of the upper lip, lower lip, and jaw. The coordinative organization of these articulatory gestures was shown to change dramatically during the first several years of life and to continue to undergo refinement past age 6. The present results are consistent with three primary phases in the development of lip and jaw coordination for speech: integration, differentiation, and refinement. Each of these developmental processes entails the existence of distinct coordinative constraints on early articulatory movement. It is suggested that these constraints will have predictable consequences for the sequence of phonologic development. PMID:10668666

  16. African Mask-Making Workshop: Professional Development Experiences of Diverse Participants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rule, Audrey C.; Montgomery, Sarah E.; Kirkland-Holmes, Gloria; Watson, Dwight C.; Ayesiga, Yvonne

    2015-01-01

    Diverse education professionals learned about African cultures in a workshop experience by making African masks using authentic symbolism. Analysis of reflections to evaluate the workshop for applicability to participants with and without African heritage showed that both groups expanded their cultural knowledge of traditional African ethnic…

  17. Development and formative evaluation of a foot self-care program for African Americans with diabetes.

    PubMed

    Ledda, M A; Walker, E A; Basch, C E

    1997-01-01

    African Americans with diabetes have a higher rate of lower-extremity amputation due to diabetic foot complications than the general public. Education about proper foot care can help prevent serious diabetic foot complications and assist in early detection of problems. The purpose of this project was to develop, formatively evaluate, and pilot test a self-care, take-home program for the prevention of foot problems in African Americans with diabetes. The program included a brief, one-on-one orientation session and a take-home foot self-care packet. Through telephone follow-up subjects reported the following: good to excellent overall rating of the program, favorable reactions to the patient instruction booklet, an overwhelming positive response to the large hand mirror, and a positive effect on their daily foot-care practices. The Afrocentricity of the patient education materials was preferred by younger subjects; older subjects found this approach too restrictive.

  18. Development of an Empirically Based Preventive Intervention for Depression in Preadolescent African American Girls.

    PubMed

    Duffy, Sophia; Brown, Tasha M; Katsonga-Phiri, Tiamo; Bouris, Alida; Grant, Kathryn E; Keenan, Kate

    2016-05-01

    We describe the development, feasibility, and acceptability of a novel preventive intervention for depression in African American girls living in urban poverty. Our approach targeted individual and interpersonal vulnerabilities that have been shown to confer risk for depression in samples of African American girls living in low-income, urban settings, including suppression of negative emotion and lack of assertiveness with peers, memory for positive emotion, active coping, and family connection. Focus groups and an open trial were conducted to refine the goals and mechanisms for skill building. A randomized controlled trial (RCT) of the new program (Cities Mother-Daughter Project) was conducted with 3rd-5th grade students from Chicago Public Schools (CPS). Three cycles of screening, randomization, and deployment were conducted to assess feasibility, satisfaction, and usability. Results indicate that feasibility was weak; whereas, satisfaction and usability were high. Future directions for testing efficacy are discussed.

  19. Getting ready: developing an educational intervention to prepare African American women for breast biopsy.

    PubMed

    Bradley, Patricia K; Berry, Audrey; Lang, Cheryl; Myers, Ronald E

    2006-01-01

    Focus groups with African American women who had experienced a breast biopsy were conducted during the process of "getting ready" for a breast biopsy educational study in which the intervention's educational materials and study instruments were developed and pre-tested. Recommendations were made for revising the breast biopsy educational booklet. As a result of the focus group discussions, changes were made in several of the graphics, the design and size of the booklet, and the tone of the piece. In addition, language describing the biopsy procedure was further simplified. The outcomes of this study were culturally tailored study materials to be used in an educational intervention to prepare African American women undergoing a breast biopsy procedure.

  20. Vascular endothelial growth factor co-ordinates proper development of lung epithelium and vasculature.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Liqing; Wang, Ke; Ferrara, Napoleone; Vu, Thiennu H

    2005-07-01

    The vasculature forms an intrinsic functional component of the lung and its development must be tightly regulated and coordinated with lung epithelial morphogenesis. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and its receptors are highly expressed in a complementary pattern in the lungs during embryonic development. VEGF is expressed by epithelium and the receptors in the surrounding mesenchyme. To determine the function of VEGF in lung formation, we inhibited its activity using a soluble receptor in lung renal capsule grafts. Inhibition of VEGF results in inhibition of vascular development and significant alteration in epithelial development. Epithelial proliferation is inhibited, sacculation is impaired, and the epithelium undergoes apoptosis. Interestingly, when VEGF is attenuated, epithelial differentiation still proceeds, as shown by acquisition of both proximal and distal markers. These data show that VEGF co-ordinates epithelial and vascular development. It is required for the development of the lung vasculature and the vasculature is necessary for epithelial proliferation and morphogenesis, but not for cell differentiation.

  1. Cerebellar development and plasticity: perspectives for motor coordination strategies, for motor skills, and for therapy.

    PubMed

    Swinny, J D; van der Want, J J L; Gramsbergen, A

    2005-01-01

    The role of the mammalian cerebellum ranges from motor coordination, sensory-motor integration, motor learning, and timing to nonmotor functions such as cognition. In terms of motor function, the development of the cerebellum is of particular interest because animal studies show that the development of the cerebellar cortical circuitry closely parallels motor coordination. Ultrastructural analysis of the morphological development of the cerebellar circuitry, coupled with the temporal and spatial identification of the neurochemical substrates expressed during development, will help to elucidate their roles in the establishment of the cerebellar circuitry and hence motor activity. Furthermore, the convenience of a number of naturally occurring mouse mutations has allowed a functional dissection of the various cellular elements that make up the cerebellar circuitry. This understanding will also help in the approach to possible therapies of pathologies arising during development because the cerebellum is especially prone to such perturbation because of its late development.

  2. Development of a Culturally Targeted Smoking Cessation Intervention for African American Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Matthews, Alicia K.; Sánchez-Johnsen, Lisa; King, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we describe the development a culturally targeted (CT) smoking cessation intervention for low-to-middle income African–American smokers. Based on theoretically based guidelines, modifications were made to a standard treatment manual for group-based smoking cessation counseling that incorporates cognitive-behavioral, motivational, and twelve step skills. Approximately 41% of the standard treatment materials were modified, and four new modules were developed. A pilot study was conducted to compare acceptability, feasibility and early outcome indicates in African American smokers randomized to the CT intervention compared with existing data from African American smokers treated using a non-targeted standard approach (ST). Outcomes from the CT pilot study were promising: results showed high levels of feasibility, acceptability and better adherence to nicotine replacement therapy, higher quit rates, and better retention and follow-up compared with the ST. Findings suggest that a culturally targeted and intensive group based smoking cessation treatment is plausibly effective in improving smoking cessation outcomes in African American smokers, warranting a larger randomized trial. PMID:19728056

  3. The Complexity of Developing Properly Trained Education Professionals for African American Children: Exploring an African Indigenous Socialization Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shockley, Kmt G.

    2011-01-01

    African centered educationists view the problems that Black children are facing in schools as a part of the disenfranchisement and disorganization of the Black community at large. In that vein, they do not believe that the problems which Black children are experiencing in America's public (and many private) schools are solvable by taking them out…

  4. The Development of Coordinated Communication in Infants at Heightened Risk for Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parladé, Meaghan V.; Iverson, Jana M.

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated the extent to which developmental change in coordination of social communication in early infancy differentiates children eventually diagnosed with ASD from those not likely to develop the disorder. A prospective longitudinal design was used to compare nine infants at heightened risk for ASD (HR) later diagnosed with ASD, to…

  5. Transfer of Training in an Academic Leadership Development Program for Program Coordinators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ladyshewsky, Richard K.; Flavell, Helen

    2012-01-01

    The higher education sector has increasingly begun to pay more attention to academic leadership. This qualitative study explores how such an investment in a 20-week leadership development program influenced the behaviour of 10 academic staff in the role of program coordinator 6 to 12 months following participation in the program. Otherwise known…

  6. 15 CFR 930.153 - Coordination between States in developing coastal management policies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... high priority to: (a) Coordinating State coastal management planning, policies, and programs with... developing coastal management policies. 930.153 Section 930.153 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations..., DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE OCEAN AND COASTAL RESOURCE MANAGEMENT FEDERAL CONSISTENCY WITH APPROVED...

  7. Physiologic Development of Tongue-Jaw Coordination from Childhood to Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, Hei Yan; Murdoch, Bruce E.; Goozee, Justine V.; Scott, Dion

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: This investigation aimed to examine the development of tongue-jaw coordination during speech from childhood to adolescence. Method: Electromagnetic articulography was used to track tongue and jaw motion in 48 children and adults (aged 6-38 years) during productions of /t/ and /k/ embedded in sentences. Results: The coordinative…

  8. The Invisible Developers? Academic Coordinators in the UK Subject Centre Network

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canning, John

    2010-01-01

    Staff of subject centres have been largely invisible from discussions about the nature of Educational Development in the UK, which has largely focused on the institutional context. This article seeks to enhance the visibility and identity of subject centre academic coordinators who provide discipline-based teaching and learning support across the…

  9. Empirical development of brief smoking prevention videotapes which target African-American adolescents.

    PubMed

    Sussman, S; Parker, V C; Lopes, C; Crippens, D L; Elder, P; Scholl, D

    1995-07-01

    Two studies are described which provide evaluations for two brief videotapes developed as supplemental materials in the prevention of tobacco use among African-American adolescents. One videotape (the "soap opera") provides a more general audience-oriented presentation of prevention material and it was filmed primarily at a shopping mall, whereas the other videotape (the "rap") provides a "hip-hop generation" presentation, and it was filmed primarily at an outdoor hangout. The first study compared the two videotapes against each other. The second study compared the two videotapes combined in the same presentation, controlling for order of presentation, against a discussion group control. The results of the two studies indicated few differences in receptivity to the two videotapes among primarily African-American and Latino young adolescents. The rap videotape was rated as more accurate in its depiction of the African-American lifestyle, although both videotapes were equally liked. When shown together, the videotapes were not found to be superior in decreasing behavioral intention to smoke compared to a discussion group control. No change in trial of smoking was observed within or across conditions measured over a pre-post summer interval. These data suggest that "culturally sensitive" videotapes have no more of a short-term effect on youth than do other types of brief interventions which involve minority implementers.

  10. Promoting positive youth development by examining the career and educational aspirations of African American males: implications for designing educational programs.

    PubMed

    Lee, Felecia A; Lewis, Rhonda K; Sly, Jamilia R; Carmack, Chakema; Roberts, Shani R; Basore, Polly

    2011-01-01

    African American males experience poor academic performance, high absenteeism at school, and are at increased risk of being involved in violence than other racial groups. Given that the educational outlook for African American males appears bleak, it is important to assess the aspirations of these adolescent males in order to find the gap between aspirations and educational attainment. In order to promote positive development within this population, it is essential that factors that affect African American males be identified. A survey was administered to male students attending elementary, middle, and high schools in a local school district. A cross-sectional study was conducted to examine the career and educational aspirations of African American males. A total of 473 males were surveyed: 45% African American, 22% Caucasian, 13% biracial, and 19% Other (including Asian American, Hispanic, Native American). The results revealed that African American males aspired to attend college at the same rate as other ethnic groups. Also, African American males were more likely to aspire to be professional athletes than males from other ethnic groups. Important factors to consider when designing a program are discussed as well as future research and limitations.

  11. Contrasting a non-developing African mesoscale convective system with the precursor to Hurricane Helene (2006)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivera, G.; Fuentes, J. D.; Evans, J. L.; Hamilton, H. L.

    2015-12-01

    Mesoscale convective systems (MCSs) in West Africa traverse strong thermodynamic gradients during their westward propagation from land to ocean. Some of the systems continue to develop after crossing the coastline and may ultimately develop into tropical cyclones, while others do not. Understanding the lifecycle behavior of these convective systems and the factors that contribute to their continuous development as they transition from a continental environment to a marine environment poses a challenge. We examine the difference between two MCSs, one that continued to develop when it crossed the West African coast and one that did not, using European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) Re-Analysis (ERA Interim) and Tropical Rainfall Measurement Mission (TRMM) 3B42 data. The non-developing MCS that intensified briefly while over land, weakened as soon as it crossed the coast. Preliminary results show that the developing MCS interacted with two cyclonic vortices, one associated with an African Easterly Wave that was propagating towards the coast and the other vortex generated by the topography near the coast.

  12. Developing community based rehabilitation for cancer survivors: organizing for coordination and coherence in practice

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Increasing incidences of cancer combined with prolonged survival have raised the need for developing community based rehabilitation. The objectives of the analysis were to describe and interpret the key issues related to coordination and coherence of community-based cancer rehabilitation in Denmark and to provide insights relevant for other contexts. Methods Twenty-seven rehabilitation managers across 15 municipalities in Denmark comprised the sample. The study was designed with a combination of data collection methods including questionnaires, individual interviews, and focus groups. A Grounded Theory approach was used to analyze the data. Results A lack of shared cultures among health care providers and systems of delivery was a primary barrier to collaboration which was essential for establishing coordination of care. Formal multidisciplinary steering committees, team-based organization, and informal relationships were fundamental for developing coordination and coherence. Conclusions Coordination and coherence in community-based rehabilitation relies on increased collaboration, which may best be optimized by use of shared frameworks within and across systems. Results highlight the challenges faced in practical implementation of community rehabilitation and point to possible strategies for its enhancement. PMID:24004881

  13. Black African Traditional Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zaslavsky, Claudia

    1970-01-01

    Discusses the traditional number systems and the origin of the number names used by several African peoples living south of the Sahara. Also included are limitations in African mathematical development, and possible topics for research. (RP)

  14. The African Development Bank, structural adjustment, and child mortality: a cross-national analysis of Sub-Saharan Africa.

    PubMed

    Pandolfelli, Lauren E; Shandra, John M

    2013-01-01

    We conduct a cross-national analysis to test the hypothesis that African Development Bank (AfDB) structural adjustment adversely impacts child mortality in Sub-Saharan Africa. We use generalized least square random effects regression models and two-step Heckman models that correct for selection bias using data on 35 nations with up to four time points (1990, 1995, 2000, and 2005). We find substantial support for our hypothesis, which indicates that Sub-Saharan African nations that receive an AfDB structural adjustment loan tend to have higher levels of child mortality than Sub-Saharan African nations that do not receive such a loan. This finding remains stable even when controlling for selection bias on whether or not a Sub-Saharan African nation receives an AfDB structural adjustment loan. We conclude by discussing the methodological implications of the article, policy suggestions, and possible directions for future research.

  15. Gene-environment interactions on mental development in African American, Dominican, and Caucasian Mothers and Newborns

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shuang; Chanock, Stephen; Tang, Deliang; Li, Zhigang; Edwards, Susan; Jedrychowski, Wieslaw; Perera, Frederica P.

    2009-01-01

    The health impact of environmental toxins has gained increasing recognition over the years. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) are known to affect nervous system development in children, but no studies have investigated how polymorphisms in PAH metabolic or detoxification genes affect child cognitive development following PAH exposure during pregnancy. In two parallel prospective cohort studies of nonsmoking African American and Dominican mothers and children in New York City and of Caucasian mothers and children in Krakow, Poland, we explored the effect of gene-PAH interaction on child mental development index (MDI), as measured by the Bayley Scales of Infant Development-Revised (BSID-II). Genes known to play important roles in the metabolic activation or detoxification of PAHs were selected. Genetic variations in these genes could influence susceptibility to adverse effects of PAHs in polluted air. We explored the effects of interactions between prenatal PAH exposure and 21 polymorphisms or haplotypes in these genes on MDI at 12, 24, and 36 months among 547 newborns and 806 mothers from three different ethnic groups: African Americans, Dominicans, and Caucasians. PAHs were measured by personal air monitoring of mothers during pregnancy. Significant interaction effects between haplotypes and PAHs were observed in mothers and their newborns in all three ethnic groups after Bonferroni correction for multiple comparisons. The strongest and most consistent effect observed was between PAH and haplotype ACCGGC of the CYP1B1 gene. PMID:19860743

  16. Coordinated brain development: exploring the synchrony between changes in grey and white matter during childhood maturation.

    PubMed

    Moura, L M; Crossley, N A; Zugman, A; Pan, P M; Gadelha, A; Del Aquilla, M A G; Picon, F A; Anés, M; Amaro, E; de Jesus Mari, J; Miguel, E C; Rohde, L A; Bressan, R A; McGuire, P; Sato, J R; Jackowski, A P

    2016-05-12

    Brain development during childhood and early adolescence is characterized by global changes in brain architecture. Neuroimaging studies have revealed overall decreases in cortical thickness (CT) and increases in fractional anisotropy (FA). Furthermore, previous studies have shown that certain cortical regions display coordinated growth during development. However, there is significant heterogeneity in the timing and speed of these developmental transformations, and it is still unclear whether white and grey matter changes are co-localized. In this multimodal neuroimaging study, we investigated the relationship between grey and white matter developmental changes and asynchronous maturation within brain regions in 249 normally developing children between the ages 7-14. We used structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to analyze CT and FA, respectively, as well as their covariance across development. Consistent with previous studies, we observed overall cortical thinning with age, which was accompanied by increased FA. We then compared the coordinated development of grey and white matter as indexed by covariance measures. Covariance between grey matter regions and the microstructure of white matter tracts connecting those regions were highly similar, suggesting that coordinated changes in the cortex were mirrored by coordinated changes in their respective tracts. Examining within-brain divergent trajectories, we found significant structural decoupling (decreased covariance) between several brain regions and tracts in the 9- to 11-year-old group, particularly involving the forceps minor and the regions that it connects to. We argue that this decoupling could reflect a developmental pattern within the prefrontal region in 9- and 11-year-old children, possibly related to the significant changes in cognitive control observed at this age.

  17. [Integration of demographic variables in development planning: the case of Central African Republic].

    PubMed

    Bm'niyat Bangamboulou-te-niya, D

    1989-06-01

    Development is a complex phenomenon that concerns all the structures and subsystems of a society, affecting its quantitative aspects through economic growth and its qualitative aspects through social and cultural change. Planning is needed, but it is effective only to the extent that it is applied to a known and controllable reality. The integration of population and development is still a poorly defined concept despite the fat the it has been a topic of interest for the past several decades. at least since the 1946 creation of the UN Population Commission. Development planning should begin with evaluation of the past and present economic, social, and demographic situation of the country and should include formulation of clear objectives. The Central African Republic is a hugh country with some significant resources but a fragile and underdeveloped economy. The population, estimated at nearly 3 million, is very unevenly distributed, with 1/2 million living in the capital of Bangui. Fertility and mortality are high. The Central African Republic has had multi year development plans since 1948, but they have largely consisted of collections of projects funded by external investment. In the absence of institutional mechanisms capable of defining priorities and strategies leading to concrete decisions, the plans remained excessively general and ambitious. Economic planning has improved somewhat over the years, but there is still a lack of basic economic and social data, a shortage of financial resources, and inadequate mechanisms for setting priorities and strategies for decision making. No mechanism has been developed for integrating population and development although some research and family planning activities have been undertaken. A 1980 national seminar on problems of development was attended by representatives of all sectors, and in 1981 a national team formulated guidelines for a new strategy of social development. Family planning services were added to the

  18. Development of Obesity and Related Diseases in African Refugees After Resettlement to United States.

    PubMed

    Rhodes, Corinne M; Chang, Yuchiao; Percac-Lima, Sanja

    2016-12-01

    Despite increases in obesity and related diseases in developing nations, initial refugee clinical visits do not address these issues. We explored the development of obesity and related diseases in a longitudinal prospective cohort of African refugees resettling in northeastern US. Using state Department of Health data, refugees were linked to a health system. Body mass index, diabetes, hypertension, and hyperlipidemia status were extracted from charts. US regional controls from NAMCS/NHAMCS data were matched by age, sex, race, and visit year. African refugee BMI increased after resettlement at 1 (1.7 ± 2.9, p < 0.0001) and 5 years (3.1 ± 3.7, p < 0.0001), a different trend than matched regional controls (p = 0.01). Refugees had increased rates of diabetes (1.0 vs. 10.8 %, p < 0.0001), hypertension (16.7 vs. 21.6 %, p < 0.0001) and hyperlipidemia (3.9 vs. 10.8 %, p < 0.0001) at 5 years not observed in regional controls. Our findings emphasize the need for interventions during resettlement to prevent development of obesity and related disease in this vulnerable population.

  19. Towards a Sustainable Counterbalanced Development: Educational Cooperation between China and African Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daddi, Ketema Meskela; Zhu, Hong

    2009-01-01

    In the last half a century an extensive cooperation between China and African countries have been launched, of which exchange and cooperation in education is one of the most important forms. In this aspect, China has played an important role in student exchange and education programs for African educational officials. However, African countries…

  20. A Case Study of the Development of African American Women Executives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks Greaux, Lisa

    2010-01-01

    Even in an era when the country elected an African American man as President of the United States, there is still a paucity of African American women executives within Fortune 500 companies. Although more African American women have joined the ranks of corporate management over the last two decades, the numbers, when compared to those of White…

  1. Multimodality in infancy: vocal-motor and speech-gesture coordinations in typical and atypical development

    PubMed Central

    Iverson, Jana M.

    2011-01-01

    From very early in life, expressive behavior is multimodal, with early behavioral coordinations being refined and strengthened over time as they become used for the communication of meaning. Of these communicative coordinations, those that involve gesture and speech have received perhaps the greatest empirical attention, but little is known about the developmental origins of the gesture-speech link. One possibility is that the origins of speech-gesture coordinations lie in hand-mouth linkages that are observed in the everyday sensorimotor activity of very young infants who do not yet use the hand or mouth to communicate meaning. In this article, I review evidence suggesting that the study of gesture-speech links and developmentally prior couplings between the vocal and motor systems in infancy can provide valuable insight into a number of later developments that reflect the cognitive interdependence of gesture and speech. These include aspects of language development and delay, the infant origins of the adult speech-gesture system, and early signs of autism spectrum disorder. Implications of these findings for studying the development of multimodal communication are considered. PMID:21494413

  2. Development of a serial order in speech constrained by articulatory coordination.

    PubMed

    Oohashi, Hiroki; Watanabe, Hama; Taga, Gentaro

    2013-01-01

    Universal linguistic constraints seem to govern the organization of sound sequences in words. However, our understanding of the origin and development of these constraints is incomplete. One possibility is that the development of neuromuscular control of articulators acts as a constraint for the emergence of sequences in words. Repetitions of the same consonant observed in early infancy and an increase in variation of consonantal sequences over months of age have been interpreted as a consequence of the development of neuromuscular control. Yet, it is not clear how sequential coordination of articulators such as lips, tongue apex and tongue dorsum constrains sequences of labial, coronal and dorsal consonants in words over the course of development. We examined longitudinal development of consonant-vowel-consonant(-vowel) sequences produced by Japanese children between 7 and 60 months of age. The sequences were classified according to places of articulation for corresponding consonants. The analyses of individual and group data show that infants prefer repetitive and fronting articulations, as shown in previous studies. Furthermore, we reveal that serial order of different places of articulations within the same organ appears earlier and then gradually develops, whereas serial order of different articulatory organs appears later and then rapidly develops. In the same way, we also analyzed the sequences produced by English children and obtained similar developmental trends. These results suggest that the development of intra- and inter-articulator coordination constrains the acquisition of serial orders in speech with the complexity that characterizes adult language.

  3. Text Messaging to Improve Hypertension Medication Adherence in African Americans: BPMED Intervention Development and Study Protocol

    PubMed Central

    Artinian, Nancy T; Schwiebert, Loren; Yarandi, Hossein; Levy, Phillip D

    2015-01-01

    Background Hypertension (HTN) is a major public health concern in the United States, with almost 78 million Americans age 20 years and over suffering from the condition. Moreover, HTN is a key risk factor for health disease and stroke. African Americans disproportionately shoulder the burdens of HTN, with greater prevalence, disease severity, earlier onset, and more HTN-related complications than age-matched whites. Medication adherence for the treatment of HTN is poor, with estimates indicating that only about half of hypertensive patients are adherent to prescribed medication regimens. Although no single intervention for improving medication adherence has emerged as superior to others, text message medication reminders have the potential to help improve medication adherence in African Americans with uncontrolled HTN as mobile phone adoption is very high in this population. Objective The purpose of this two-phased study was to develop (Phase I) and test in a randomized controlled trial (RCT) (Phase II) a text message system, BPMED, to improve the quality of medication management through increasing medication adherence in African Americans with uncontrolled HTN. Methods In Phase I, we recruited 16 target end-users from a primary care clinic, to assist in the development of BPMED through participating in one of three focus groups. Focus groups sought to gain patient perspectives on HTN, medication adherence, mobile phone use, and the use of text messaging to support medication adherence. Potential intervention designs were presented to participants, and feedback on the designs was solicited. In Phase II, we conducted two pilot RCTs to determine the feasibility, acceptability, and preliminary efficacy of BPMED in primary care and emergency department settings. Both pilot studies recruited approximately 60 participants, who were randomized equally between usual care and the BPMED intervention. Results Although data collection is now complete, data analysis from the

  4. Using computer technology for HIV prevention among African-Americans: development of a tailored information program for safer sex (TIPSS)

    PubMed Central

    Noar, Seth M.; Webb, Elizabeth M.; Van Stee, Stephanie K.; Redding, Colleen A.; Feist-Price, Sonja; Crosby, Richard; Troutman, Adewale

    2011-01-01

    New prevention options are urgently needed for African-Americans in the United States given the disproportionate impact of HIV/AIDS on this group. This combined with recent evidence supporting the efficacy of computer technology-based interventions in HIV prevention led our research group to pursue the development of a computer-delivered individually tailored intervention for heterosexually active African-Americans—the tailored information program for safer sex (TIPSS). In the current article, we discuss the development of the TIPSS program, including (i) the targeted population and behavior, (ii) theoretical basis for the intervention, (iii) design of the intervention, (iv) formative research, (v) technical development and testing and (vi) intervention delivery and ongoing randomized controlled trial. Given the many advantages of computer-based interventions, including low-cost delivery once developed, they offer much promise for the future of HIV prevention among African-Americans and other at-risk groups. PMID:21257676

  5. Protein levels and colony development of Africanized and European honey bees fed natural and artificial diets.

    PubMed

    Morais, M M; Turcatto, A P; Pereira, R A; Francoy, T M; Guidugli-Lazzarini, K R; Gonçalves, L S; de Almeida, J M V; Ellis, J D; De Jong, D

    2013-12-19

    Pollen substitute diets are a valuable resource for maintaining strong and health honey bee colonies. Specific diets may be useful in one region or country and inadequate or economically unviable in others. We compared two artificial protein diets that had been formulated from locally-available ingredients in Brazil with bee bread and a non-protein sucrose diet. Groups of 100 newly-emerged, adult workers of Africanized honey bees in Brazil and European honey bees in the USA were confined in small cages and fed on one of four diets for seven days. The artificial diets included a high protein diet made of soy milk powder and albumin, and a lower protein level diet consisting of soy milk powder, brewer's yeast and rice bran. The initial protein levels in newly emerged bees were approximately 18-21 µg/µL hemolymph. After feeding on the diets for seven days, the protein levels in the hemolymph were similar among the protein diet groups (~37-49 µg/µL after seven days), although Africanized bees acquired higher protein levels, increasing 145 and 100% on diets D1 and D2, respectively, versus 83 and 60% in the European bees. All the protein diets resulted in significantly higher levels of protein than sucrose solution alone. In the field, the two pollen substitute diets were tested during periods of low pollen availability in the field in two regions of Brazil. Food consumption, population development, colony weight, and honey production were evaluated to determine the impact of the diets on colony strength parameters. The colonies fed artificial diets had a significant improvement in all parameters, while control colonies dwindled during the dearth period. We conclude that these two artificial protein diets have good potential as pollen substitutes during dearth periods and that Africanized bees more efficiently utilize artificial protein diets than do European honey bees.

  6. Correlates of Perceived Risk of Developing Cancer among African-Americans in South Los Angeles

    PubMed Central

    Lucas-Wright, Anna; Bazargan, Mohsen; Jones, Loretta; Vadgama, Jaydutt V.; Vargas, Roberto; Sarkissyan, Marianna; Smith, James; Yazdanshenas, Hamed; Maxwell, Annette E.

    2013-01-01

    Background There are differences in cancer-risk perception among racial/ethnic groups that may affect health risk behaviors. Methods Using a community partnered-participatory research approach, we conducted a survey on cancer screening, risk behaviors, and related knowledge/attitudes within 11 churches in South Los Angeles with predominantly African-American parishioners. This analysis examines correlates of perceived risk of developing cancer among 755African American adults. Results Almost 15% of participants indicated higher perceived risk for cancer compared to the average man/woman of the same age, 38% indicated same risk, whereas 48% perceived lower risk. Sixty-nine individuals (9%) reported a cancer history and 63% reported at least one blood relative with cancer. Controlling for demographic characteristics and healthcare access, participants who reported higher risk of cancer had higher level of cancer-related knowledge; were current and ex-smokers; had poorer health status; had a blood relative with cancer; had a cancer history; and had discussed their risk of cancer with their doctor. The bivariate association between high perceived cancer risk and lack of exercise and obesity disappeared after adjusting for demographic characteristics and perceived health status. Conclusions Our data suggest that a substantial proportion of African Americans in South Los Angeles may underestimate their cancer risk. Additionally, lack of exercise and obesity are not recognized as independent cancer risk factors as much as smoking and personal and family history of cancer. Next steps will be to inform participating churches about our findings and explore their interest in taking steps to reduce health risk behaviors among their parishioners. PMID:24026303

  7. Correlates of perceived risk of developing cancer among African-Americans in South Los Angeles.

    PubMed

    Lucas-Wright, Anna; Bazargan, Mohsen; Jones, Loretta; Vadgama, Jaydutt V; Vargas, Roberto; Sarkissyan, Marianna; Smith, James; Yazdanshenas, Hamed; Maxwell, Annette E

    2014-02-01

    There are differences in cancer-risk perception among racial/ethnic groups that may affect health risk behaviors. Using a community partnered-participatory research approach, we conducted a survey on cancer screening, risk behaviors, and related knowledge/attitudes within 11 churches in South Los Angeles with predominantly African-American parishioners. This analysis examines correlates of perceived risk of developing cancer among 755 African American adults. Almost 15 % of participants indicated higher perceived risk for cancer compared to the average man/woman of the same age, 38 % indicated same risk, whereas 48 % perceived lower risk. Sixty-nine individuals (9 %) reported a cancer history and 63 % reported at least one blood relative with cancer. Controlling for demographic characteristics and healthcare access, participants who reported higher risk of cancer had higher level of cancer-related knowledge; were current and ex-smokers; had poorer health status; had a blood relative with cancer; had a cancer history; and had discussed their risk of cancer with their doctor. The bivariate association between high perceived cancer risk and lack of exercise and obesity disappeared after adjusting for demographic characteristics and perceived health status. Our data suggest that a substantial proportion of African Americans in South Los Angeles may underestimate their cancer risk. Additionally, lack of exercise and obesity are not recognized as independent cancer risk factors as much as smoking and personal and family history of cancer. Next steps will be to inform participating churches about our findings and explore their interest in taking steps to reduce health risk behaviors among their parishioners.

  8. Psychological distress and the development of hypertension over 5 years in black South Africans.

    PubMed

    Schutte, Aletta E; Ware, Lisa J; Huisman, Hugo W; Fourie, Carla M T; Greeff, Minrie; Khumalo, Tumi; Wissing, Marie P

    2015-02-01

    Alarming increases in the incidence of hypertension in many low- and middle-income countries are related to alcohol overuse. It is unclear whether alcohol overuse is a symptom of psychological distress. The authors assessed psychological distress in Africans and its relationship with a 5-year change in blood pressure (BP), independent of alcohol intake. The authors followed 107 Africans with optimal BP (≤120/80 mm Hg) (aged 35-75 years) over 5 years. Alcohol intake (self-report and serum γ-glutamyl transferase) and nonspecific psychological distress (Kessler Screening Scale for Psychological Distress [K6]) were assessed. The K6 predicted hypertension development (P=.019), and its individual component "nervous" increased a participant's risk two-fold to become hypertensive (hazard ratio, 2.00 [1.23-3.26]). By entering K6 and γ-glutamyl transferase into multivariable-adjusted regression models for change in systolic BP, both were independently associated with change in systolic BP. Psychological distress and scoring high on being nervous predicted the development of hypertension over 5 years, independent of alcohol intake.

  9. Integration of Error Compensation of Coordinate Measuring Machines into Feature Measurement: Part I-Model Development.

    PubMed

    Calvo, Roque; D'Amato, Roberto; Gómez, Emilio; Domingo, Rosario

    2016-09-29

    The development of an error compensation model for coordinate measuring machines (CMMs) and its integration into feature measurement is presented. CMMs are widespread and dependable instruments in industry and laboratories for dimensional measurement. From the tip probe sensor to the machine display, there is a complex transformation of probed point coordinates through the geometrical feature model that makes the assessment of accuracy and uncertainty measurement results difficult. Therefore, error compensation is not standardized, conversely to other simpler instruments. Detailed coordinate error compensation models are generally based on CMM as a rigid-body and it requires a detailed mapping of the CMM's behavior. In this paper a new model type of error compensation is proposed. It evaluates the error from the vectorial composition of length error by axis and its integration into the geometrical measurement model. The non-explained variability by the model is incorporated into the uncertainty budget. Model parameters are analyzed and linked to the geometrical errors and uncertainty of CMM response. Next, the outstanding measurement models of flatness, angle, and roundness are developed. The proposed models are useful for measurement improvement with easy integration into CMM signal processing, in particular in industrial environments where built-in solutions are sought. A battery of implementation tests are presented in Part II, where the experimental endorsement of the model is included.

  10. Integration of Error Compensation of Coordinate Measuring Machines into Feature Measurement: Part I—Model Development

    PubMed Central

    Calvo, Roque; D’Amato, Roberto; Gómez, Emilio; Domingo, Rosario

    2016-01-01

    The development of an error compensation model for coordinate measuring machines (CMMs) and its integration into feature measurement is presented. CMMs are widespread and dependable instruments in industry and laboratories for dimensional measurement. From the tip probe sensor to the machine display, there is a complex transformation of probed point coordinates through the geometrical feature model that makes the assessment of accuracy and uncertainty measurement results difficult. Therefore, error compensation is not standardized, conversely to other simpler instruments. Detailed coordinate error compensation models are generally based on CMM as a rigid-body and it requires a detailed mapping of the CMM’s behavior. In this paper a new model type of error compensation is proposed. It evaluates the error from the vectorial composition of length error by axis and its integration into the geometrical measurement model. The non-explained variability by the model is incorporated into the uncertainty budget. Model parameters are analyzed and linked to the geometrical errors and uncertainty of CMM response. Next, the outstanding measurement models of flatness, angle, and roundness are developed. The proposed models are useful for measurement improvement with easy integration into CMM signal processing, in particular in industrial environments where built-in solutions are sought. A battery of implementation tests are presented in Part II, where the experimental endorsement of the model is included. PMID:27690052

  11. Effects of Individual and School-Level Characteristics on a Child's Gross Motor Coordination Development.

    PubMed

    Chaves, Raquel; Baxter-Jones, Adam; Gomes, Thayse; Souza, Michele; Pereira, Sara; Maia, José

    2015-07-30

    The aim of this study was to identify child and school-level characteristics that explained inter-individual differences in gross motor coordination (GMC). Participants (n = 390), recruited from 18 Portuguese primary schools, were aged 6 to 10 years of age. Birth weight, body fat (BF), physical activity (PA), physical fitness (PF) and GMC were assessed. School size, setting, infrastructure and physical education classes were considered as school context markers. A multilevel modeling approach was used to identify hierarchical effects (child and school levels). It was found that children-level variables (sex, PF, and BF) significantly explained 63% of the 90% variance fraction at the individual level; boys outperformed girls (p < 0.05), individuals with higher BF were less coordinated (p < 0.05), and those with higher PF were more coordinated (p < 0.05). School-variables (e.g. school size and playing surface) explained 84% of the 10% variation fraction. These findings confirm the roles of sex, PFS and BF. Interestingly they also suggest that the school environment plays a minor but significant role in GMC development. However, it is important to stress that the school context and conditions can also play an important role in a child's motor development, providing adequate and enriching motor opportunities.

  12. The role of coordination chemistry in the development of copper and rhenium radiopharmaceuticals.

    PubMed

    Donnelly, Paul S

    2011-02-07

    There are several isotopes of copper and rhenium that are of interest in the development of new molecular imaging or radiotherapeutic agents. This perspective article highlights the role of coordination chemistry in the design of copper and rhenium radiopharmaceuticals engineered to selectively target tissue of interest such as cancer cells or pathological features associated with Alzheimer's disease. The coordination chemistry of copper bis(thiosemicarbazone) derivatives and copper macrocyclic complexes is discussed in terms of their potential application as targeted positron emission tomography tracers for non-invasive diagnostic imaging. A range of rhenium complexes with different ligands with rhenium in different oxidation states are introduced and their potential to be translated to new radiotherapeutic agents discussed.

  13. Need for a roadmap for development of a coordinated national registry programme.

    PubMed

    Wilkins, S; Best, R L; Evans, S M

    2015-11-01

    Clinical quality registries are an overlooked and under-funded arm of clinical research in Australia. Registries are databases for patients with a particular disease, or who undergo a procedure, or use a health resource. Registries, where properly funded and universally adopted, have provided substantial benefits to the quality of healthcare and, in some cases, have had demonstrable effect in reducing costs. There is a lack of a coordinated programme for both funding and development of registries in Australia. A coordinated effort is required to address key gaps in registry coverage and ensure registries comply with appropriate technical and operating principles, and target areas where registries can add value to the health system. This will ensure that Australia is competitive with its international peers in this dynamic environment.

  14. FIDDLE: A Computer Code for Finite Difference Development of Linear Elasticity in Generalized Curvilinear Coordinates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaul, Upender K.

    2005-01-01

    A three-dimensional numerical solver based on finite-difference solution of three-dimensional elastodynamic equations in generalized curvilinear coordinates has been developed and used to generate data such as radial and tangential stresses over various gear component geometries under rotation. The geometries considered are an annulus, a thin annular disk, and a thin solid disk. The solution is based on first principles and does not involve lumped parameter or distributed parameter systems approach. The elastodynamic equations in the velocity-stress formulation that are considered here have been used in the solution of problems of geophysics where non-rotating Cartesian grids are considered. For arbitrary geometries, these equations along with the appropriate boundary conditions have been cast in generalized curvilinear coordinates in the present study.

  15. Engaging African Americans in developing an intervention to reduce breast cancer recurrence: A brief report

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Selina A.; Whitehead, Mary S.; Sheats, Joyce Q.; Fontenot, Brittney; Alema-Mensah, Ernest; Ansa, Benjamin

    2016-01-01

    Background To develop a culturally appropriate lifestyle intervention, involvement of its intended users is needed. Methods Members of an African American (AA) breast cancer support group participated in two 4-hour guided discussions, which were audiotaped, transcribed, and analyzed to guide the content. Results The support group collaborated with researchers to develop 24 experiential nutrition education sessions using a social cognitive framework and incorporating self-regulation skills (goal-setting, self-monitoring, problem-solving, stimulus control) and social support to enhance self-efficacy for changes in dietary intake. Conclusions Community engagement fostered autonomy, built collaboration, and enhanced the capacity of AA breast cancer survivors to participate in developing a lifestyle intervention. PMID:27563692

  16. The Ebola threat: China's response to the West African epidemic and national development of prevention and control policies and infrastructure.

    PubMed

    Fan, Hao-Jun; Gao, Hong-Wei; Ding, Hui; Zhang, Bi-Ke; Hou, Shi-Ke

    2015-02-01

    There is growing concern in West Africa about the spread of the Ebola hemorrhagic fever virus. With the increasing global public health risk, a coordinated international response is necessary. The Chinese government is prepared to work in collaboration with West African countries to assist in the containment and control of the epidemic through the contribution of medical expertise and mobile laboratory testing teams. Nationally, China is implementing prevention programs in major cities and provinces, the distribution of Ebola test kits, and the deployment of a new national Ebola research laboratory.

  17. African primary care research: choosing a topic and developing a proposal.

    PubMed

    Mash, Bob

    2014-02-06

    This is the first in a series of articles on primary care research in the African context. The aim of the series is to help build capacity for primary care research amongst the emerging departments of family medicine and primary care on the continent. Many of the departments are developing Masters of Medicine programmes in Family Medicine and their students will all be required to complete research studies as part of their degree. This series is being written with this audience in particular in mind--both the students who must conceptualise and implement a research project as well as their supervisors who must assist them.This article gives an overview of the African primary care context, followed by a typology of primary care research. The article then goes on to assist the reader with choosing a topic and defining their research question. Finally the article addresses the structure and contents of a research proposal and the ethical issues that should be considered.

  18. Regulatory challenges for GM crops in developing economies: the African experience.

    PubMed

    Nang'ayo, Francis; Simiyu-Wafukho, Stella; Oikeh, Sylvester O

    2014-12-01

    Globally, transgenic or genetically modified (GM) crops are considered regulated products that are subject to regulatory oversight during trans-boundary movement, testing and environmental release. In Africa, regulations for transgenic crops are based on the outcomes of the historic Earth Summit Conference held in Rio, Brazil two decades ago, namely, the adoption of the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) and the subsequent adoption of the Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety. To exploit the potential benefits of transgenic crops while safeguarding the potential risks on human health and environment, most African countries have signed and ratified the CBD and the Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety. Consequently, these countries are required to take appropriate legal, administrative and other measures to ensure that the handling and utilization of living modified organisms are undertaken in a manner that reduces the risks to humans and the environment. These countries are also expected to provide regulatory oversight on transgenic crops through functional national biosafety frameworks (NBFs). While in principle this approach is ideal, NBFs in most African countries are steeped in a host of policy, legal and operational challenges that appear to be at cross-purposes with the noble efforts of seeking to access, test and deliver promising GM crops for use by resource-limited farmers in Africa. In this paper we discuss the regulatory challenges faced during the development and commercialization of GM crops based on experiences from countries in Sub-Saharan Africa.

  19. African Primary Care Research: Choosing a topic and developing a proposal

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Abstract This is the first in a series of articles on primary care research in the African context. The aim of the series is to help build capacity for primary care research amongst the emerging departments of family medicine and primary care on the continent. Many of the departments are developing Masters of Medicine programmes in Family Medicine and their students will all be required to complete research studies as part of their degree. This series is being written with this audience in particular in mind – both the students who must conceptualise and implement a research project as well as their supervisors who must assist them. This article gives an overview of the African primary care context, followed by a typology of primary care research. The article then goes on to assist the reader with choosing a topic and defining their research question. Finally the article addresses the structure and contents of a research proposal and the ethical issues that should be considered. PMID:26245432

  20. Coordinated Expression of Phosphoinositide Metabolic Genes during Development and Aging of Human Dorsolateral Prefrontal Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Rapoport, Stanley I.; Primiani, Christopher T.; Chen, Chuck T.; Ahn, Kwangmi; Ryan, Veronica H.

    2015-01-01

    Background Phosphoinositides, lipid-signaling molecules, participate in diverse brain processes within a wide metabolic cascade. Hypothesis Gene transcriptional networks coordinately regulate the phosphoinositide cascade during human brain Development and Aging. Methods We used the public BrainCloud database for human dorsolateral prefrontal cortex to examine age-related expression levels of 49 phosphoinositide metabolic genes during Development (0 to 20+ years) and Aging (21+ years). Results We identified three groups of partially overlapping genes in each of the two intervals, with similar intergroup correlations despite marked phenotypic differences between Aging and Development. In each interval, ITPKB, PLCD1, PIK3R3, ISYNA1, IMPA2, INPPL1, PI4KB, and AKT1 are in Group 1, PIK3CB, PTEN, PIK3CA, and IMPA1 in Group 2, and SACM1L, PI3KR4, INPP5A, SYNJ1, and PLCB1 in Group 3. Ten of the genes change expression nonlinearly during Development, suggesting involvement in rapidly changing neuronal, glial and myelination events. Correlated transcription for some gene pairs likely is facilitated by colocalization on the same chromosome band. Conclusions Stable coordinated gene transcriptional networks regulate brain phosphoinositide metabolic pathways during human Development and Aging. PMID:26168237

  1. A Study of First-Generation African American and Latino Undergraduates Developing Sociopolitical Consciousness in Introductory Sociology Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castillo-Montoya, Milagros

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the development of first-generation African American and Latino college students' sociopolitical consciousness in the context of their learning of sociology as a component of their liberal education studies. Given the paucity of research on how college students develop sociopolitical consciousness, this study addresses: (1) the…

  2. The Influence of Cognitive Development and Perceived Racial Discrimination on the Psychological Well-Being of African American Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seaton, Eleanor K.

    2010-01-01

    The present study examined the influence of cognitive development in the relationship between multiple types of racial discrimination and psychological well-being. A sample of 322 African American adolescents (53% female), aged 13-18, completed measures of cognitive development, racial discrimination, self-esteem and depressive symptoms. Based on…

  3. Managing Information for Development in the 21st Century: Prospects for African Libraries, Challenges to the World.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nwalo, Kenneth Ivo Ngozi

    This paper discusses the role information can play in the development of African countries in the 21st century. It stresses that development information can only be guaranteed when libraries in Africa computerize their systems, form networks for resource sharing, and take advantage of the benefits of information technology (IT), especially CD-ROM…

  4. Promoting Cognitive and Ego Development of African-American Rural Youth: A Program of Deliberate Psychological Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faubert, Marie; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Investigates the effects of a role-taking, action-learning program on the cognitive and ego development of African American rural high school students. Main effects were assessed in two related domains: concrete to abstract thinking, and self-concept development. Results indicate significant gains in both abstract thinking and ego stage. (RJM)

  5. Development of a One Health National Capacity in Africa : the Southern African Centre for Infectious Disease Surveillance (SACIDS) One Health Virtual Centre Model.

    PubMed

    Rweyemamu, Mark; Kambarage, Dominic; Karimuribo, Esron; Wambura, Philemon; Matee, Mecky; Kayembe, Jean-Marie; Mweene, Aaron; Neves, Luis; Masumu, Justin; Kasanga, Christopher; Hang'ombe, Bernard; Kayunze, Kim; Misinzo, Gerald; Simuunza, Martin; Paweska, Janusz T

    2013-01-01

    Among the many challenges to health, infectious diseases stand out for their ability to have a profound impact on humans and animals. The recent years have witnessed an increasing number of novel infectious diseases. The numerous examples of infections which originated from animals suggest that the zoonotic pool is an important and potentially rich source of emerging diseases. Since emergence and re-emergence of pathogens, and particularly zoonotic agents, occur at unpredictable rates in animal and human populations, infectious diseases will constitute a significant challenge for the public health and animal health communities in the twenty-first century. The African continent suffers from one of the highest burdens of infectious diseases of humans and animals in the world but has the least capacity for their detection, identification and monitoring. Lessons learnt from recent zoonotic epidemics in Africa and elsewhere clearly indicate the need for coordinated research, interdisciplinary centres, response systems and infrastructures, integrated surveillance systems and workforce development strategies. More and stronger partnerships across national and international sectors (human health, animal health, environment) and disciplines (natural and social sciences) involving public, academic and private organisations and institutions will be required to meet the present and future challenges of infectious diseases. In order to strengthen the efficiency of early warning systems, monitoring trends and disease prediction and timely outbreak interventions for the benefit of the national and international community, it is essential that each nation improves its own capacity in disease recognition and laboratory competence. The SACIDS, a One Health African initiative linking southern African academic and research institutions in smart partnership with centres of science excellence in industrialised countries as well as international research centres, strives to strengthen

  6. Interlimb coordination in human crawling reveals similarities in development and neural control with quadrupeds.

    PubMed

    Patrick, Susan K; Noah, J Adam; Yang, Jaynie F

    2009-02-01

    The study of quadrupeds has furnished most of our understanding of mammalian locomotion. To allow a more direct comparison of coordination between the four limbs in humans and quadrupeds, we studied crawling in the human, a behavior that is part of normal human development and mechanically more similar to quadrupedal locomotion than is bipedal walking. Interlimb coordination during hands-and-knees crawling is compared between humans and quadrupeds and between human infants and adults. Mechanical factors were manipulated during crawling to understand the relative contributions of mechanics and neural control. Twenty-six infants and seven adults were studied. Video, force plate, and electrogoniometer data were collected. Belt speed of the treadmill, width of base, and limb length were manipulated in adults. Influences of unweighting and limb length were explored in infants. Infants tended to move diagonal limbs together (trot-like). Adults additionally moved ipsilateral limbs together (pace-like). At lower speeds, movements of the four limbs were more equally spaced in time, with no clear pairing of limbs. At higher speeds, running symmetrical gaits were never observed, although one adult galloped. Widening stance prevented adults from using the pace-like gait, whereas lengthening the hind limbs (hands-and-feet crawling) largely prevented the trot-like gait. Limb length and unweighting had no effect on coordination in infants. We conclude that human crawling shares features both with other primates and with nonprimate quadrupeds, suggesting similar underlying mechanisms. The greater restriction in coordination patterns used by infants suggests their nervous system has less flexibility.

  7. Interlimb Coordination in Human Crawling Reveals Similarities in Development and Neural Control With Quadrupeds

    PubMed Central

    Patrick, Susan K.; Noah, J. Adam; Yang, Jaynie F.

    2009-01-01

    The study of quadrupeds has furnished most of our understanding of mammalian locomotion. To allow a more direct comparison of coordination between the four limbs in humans and quadrupeds, we studied crawling in the human, a behavior that is part of normal human development and mechanically more similar to quadrupedal locomotion than is bipedal walking. Interlimb coordination during hands-and-knees crawling is compared between humans and quadrupeds and between human infants and adults. Mechanical factors were manipulated during crawling to understand the relative contributions of mechanics and neural control. Twenty-six infants and seven adults were studied. Video, force plate, and electrogoniometer data were collected. Belt speed of the treadmill, width of base, and limb length were manipulated in adults. Influences of unweighting and limb length were explored in infants. Infants tended to move diagonal limbs together (trot-like). Adults additionally moved ipsilateral limbs together (pace-like). At lower speeds, movements of the four limbs were more equally spaced in time, with no clear pairing of limbs. At higher speeds, running symmetrical gaits were never observed, although one adult galloped. Widening stance prevented adults from using the pace-like gait, whereas lengthening the hind limbs (hands-and-feet crawling) largely prevented the trot-like gait. Limb length and unweighting had no effect on coordination in infants. We conclude that human crawling shares features both with other primates and with nonprimate quadrupeds, suggesting similar underlying mechanisms. The greater restriction in coordination patterns used by infants suggests their nervous system has less flexibility. PMID:19036860

  8. [On the development of health insurance in low-income countries: the case of African countries].

    PubMed

    Letourmy, Alain

    2008-12-01

    Health financing reforms in most low-income countries promote social and micro health insurance, in order to reduce direct spending by patients. Three phases of development can be distinguished in African countries: at first, schemes were developed only for the formal sector, then micro health insurance targeted the informal sector, and finally, health insurance was included in larger plans to reach universal coverage. The impact of health insurance is, as yet, difficult to assess. If beneficiaries have a better access to health services, the financing of health sector is not significantly improved, and there is no change in professional behaviour, in particular, in public facilities. In spite of their limits, social health insurance schemes continue to be implemented, but as a part of hybrid financing system, fitting with the abilities of low-income countries.

  9. Co-ordination of Flower Development Through Epigenetic Regulation in Two Model Species: Rice and Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Guo, Siyi; Sun, Bo; Looi, Liang-Sheng; Xu, Yifeng; Gan, Eng-Seng; Huang, Jiangbo; Ito, Toshiro

    2015-05-01

    Angiosperms produce flowers for reproduction. Flower development is a multistep developmental process, beginning with the initiation of the floral meristems, followed by floral meristem identity specification and maintenance, organ primordia initiation, floral organ identity specification, floral stem cell termination and finally floral organ maturation. During flower development, each of a large number of genes is expressed in a spatiotemporally regulated manner. Underlying these molecular and phenotypic events are various genetic and epigenetic pathways, consisting of diverse transcription factors, chromatin-remodeling factors and signaling molecules. Over the past 30 years, genetic, biochemical and genomic assays have revealed the underlying genetic frameworks that control flower development. Here, we will review the transcriptional regulation of flower development in two model species: Arabidopsis thaliana and rice (Oryza sativa). We focus on epigenetic regulation that functions to co-ordinate transcription pathways in flower development.

  10. Promoting cognitive and ego development of African-American rural youth: a program of deliberate psychological education

    PubMed

    Faubert; Locke; Sprinthall; Howland

    1996-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of a role-taking, action learning program on the cognitive and ego development of African-American rural high school students. The program employed instruction in scientific problem-solving in relation to past and current contributions of African-American scientists. There were two experimental and two comparison groups during the one semester program. The main effects were assessed in two related domains: (1) concrete to abstract thinking (a Piagetian measure); and (2) self-concept development (Loevinger's Ego Stages). The results indicated statistically significant gains in both abstract thinking and ego stage. Implications for school curriculum modification are also detailed.

  11. Once-married African-American lesbians and bisexual women: identity development and the coming-out process.

    PubMed

    Bates, D Dionne

    2010-01-01

    This study explored identity development and the coming-out process of once-married African-American lesbians and bisexual women. Participants (n = 12) were all African-American and identified as lesbian or bisexual and had been legally married at least once. Data was collected via interviews using open-ended questions that addressed issues concerning sexual development and awareness and coming out as lesbian or bisexual. Data was then transcribed verbatim and analyzed using the grounded theory method. Hence, reemerging significant themes were observed and categorized. A total of seven significant themes were discerned from the data presented. The implications for treatment with this population were also discussed.

  12. Development of an evaluation function for eye-hand coordination robotic therapy.

    PubMed

    Pernalete, N; Tang, F; Chang, S M; Cheng, F Y; Vetter, P; Stegemann, M; Grantner, J

    2011-01-01

    This paper is the continuation of a work presented at ICORR 07, in which we discussed the possibility of improving eye-hand coordination in children diagnosed with this problem, using a robotic mapping from a haptic user interface to a virtual environment. Our goal is to develop, implement and refine a system that will assess and improve the eye-hand coordination and grip strength in children diagnosed with poor graphomotor skills. A detailed analysis of patters (e.g., labyrinths, letters and angles) was conducted in order to select three very distinguishable levels of difficulty that could be included in the system, and which would yield the greatest benefit in terms of assessment of coordination and strength issues as well as in training. Support algorithms (position, force, velocity, inertia and viscosity) were also developed and incorporated into the tasks in order to introduce general computer assistance to the mapping of the user's movements to the computer screen without overriding the user's commands to the robotic device. In order to evaluate performance (given by %accuracy and time) of the executed tasks, a sophisticated evaluation function was designed based on image analysis and edge detection algorithms. This paper presents the development of the haptic tasks, the various assistance algorithms, the description of the evaluation function and the results of a study implemented at the Motor Development Clinic at Cal Poly Pomona. The results (Accuracy and Time) of this function are currently being used as inputs to an Intelligent Decision Support System (described in), which in turn, suggests the next task to be executed by the subject based on his/her performance.

  13. Racism, Racial Resilience, and African American Youth Development: Person-Centered Analysis as a Tool to Promote Equity and Justice.

    PubMed

    Neblett, Enrique W; Sosoo, Effua E; Willis, Henry A; Bernard, Donte L; Bae, Jiwoon; Billingsley, Janelle T

    2016-01-01

    Racism constitutes a significant risk to the healthy development of African American youth. Fortunately, however, not all youth who experience racism evidence negative developmental outcomes. In this chapter, we examine person-centered analysis (PCA)-a quantitative technique that investigates how variables combine across individuals-as a useful tool for elucidating racial and ethnic protective processes that mitigate the negative impact of racism. We review recent studies employing PCA in examinations of racial identity, racial socialization, and other race-related experiences, as well as how these constructs correlate with and impact African American youth development. We also consider challenges and limitations of PCA and conclude with a discussion of future research and how PCA might be used to promote equity and justice for African American and other racial and ethnic minority youth who experience racism.

  14. Cranial Nerve Development Requires Co-Ordinated Shh and Canonical Wnt Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Kurosaka, Hiroshi; Trainor, Paul A.; Leroux-Berger, Margot; Iulianella, Angelo

    2015-01-01

    Cranial nerves govern sensory and motor information exchange between the brain and tissues of the head and neck. The cranial nerves are derived from two specialized populations of cells, cranial neural crest cells and ectodermal placode cells. Defects in either cell type can result in cranial nerve developmental defects. Although several signaling pathways are known to regulate cranial nerve formation our understanding of how intercellular signaling between neural crest cells and placode cells is coordinated during cranial ganglia morphogenesis is poorly understood. Sonic Hedgehog (Shh) signaling is one key pathway that regulates multiple aspects of craniofacial development, but whether it co-ordinates cranial neural crest cell and placodal cell interactions during cranial ganglia formation remains unclear. In this study we examined a new Patched1 (Ptch1) loss-of-function mouse mutant and characterized the role of Ptch1 in regulating Shh signaling during cranial ganglia development. Ptch1Wig/ Wig mutants exhibit elevated Shh signaling in concert with disorganization of the trigeminal and facial nerves. Importantly, we discovered that enhanced Shh signaling suppressed canonical Wnt signaling in the cranial nerve region. This critically affected the survival and migration of cranial neural crest cells and the development of placodal cells as well as the integration between neural crest and placodes. Collectively, our findings highlight a novel and critical role for Shh signaling in cranial nerve development via the cross regulation of canonical Wnt signaling. PMID:25799573

  15. Integrated Water Resources Development and Management within the Southern African Development Community (SADC)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-07-01

    grouping constituted during the Cold War to coordinate the “struggle” against colonialism, racism and in some cases capitalism ( Turton , 2004:259). Of... process was not intended at this stage. Report Structure The report is split into two parts. The first provides a brief overview of the projects...Shared Water Course Systems is at the heart of the RSAP (SADC, 2000). An amendment to this Protocol has been introduced and it is in the process of

  16. Complex regulatory pathways coordinate cell cycle progression and development in Caulobacter crescentus

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Pamela J.B.; Hardy, Gail G.; Trimble, Michael J.; Brun, Yves V.

    2008-01-01

    Caulobacter crescentus has become the predominant bacterial model system to study the regulation of cell cycle progression. Stage specific processes such as chromosome replication and segregation, and cell division are coordinated with the development of four polar structures: the flagellum, pili, stalk, and holdfast. The production, activation, localization, and proteolysis of specific regulatory proteins at precise times during the cell cycle culminate in the ability of the cell to produce two physiologically distinct daughter cells. We examine the recent advances that have enhanced our understanding of the mechanisms of temporal and spatial regulation that occur during cell cycle progression. PMID:18929067

  17. Listening to their voices: Exploring mathematics-science identity development of African American males in an urban school community

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Kimi Leemar

    National data continues to show an underrepresentation of African American males pursuing science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) majors, careers and professions in the United States. Whites and Asian Americans are continuously positioned as the face of STEM education and participation. And while research has provided ways to support mathematics and science learning for African American males, there still remains a gap in understanding how their formed mathematics-science identities in K-12 public schooling influences STEM participation. The research undertaken in this study explores this gap, and uses an integrative identity framework to understand mathematics-science identity development which goes beyond personal identity, and explores the relational, collective and material components of identity. Specifically, this research seeks to answer the following research questions: What are the shared lived experiences that exist between a group of African American male students developing a mathematics-science identity, and how these shared lived experiences shape their mathematics-science identity development? Therefore, by analyzing African American males lived experiences employing an integrative identity framework fosters a greater understanding of how mathematics-science identity is formed in K-12 public schools, which impacts STEM education and participation. The high school aged youth featured in this study consist of four African American males, who live in a moderate size city in California. Data for this study consists of observations, phenomenological interviews, and policy document analysis that took place over six months. Data has been analyzed to describe and interpret the young men's mathematics and science experiences, as revealed in their K-12 public school education. This inquiry sought to make meaning of how African American males experience mathematics and science teaching and learning within K-12 public schooling and how these

  18. African Aesthetics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abiodun, Rowland

    2001-01-01

    No single traditional discipline can adequately supply answers to the many unresolved questions in African art history. Because of the aesthetic, cultural, historical, and, not infrequently, political biases, already built into the conception and development of Western art history, the discipline of art history as defined and practiced in the West…

  19. Motor skills in Brazilian children with developmental coordination disorder versus children with motor typical development.

    PubMed

    Cardoso, Ana Amélia; Magalhães, Livia Castro; Rezende, Marcia Bastos

    2014-12-01

    The aims of the study were to compare the performance of children with probable developmental coordination disorder (DCD) and motor typically developing peers on items from the Assessment of Motor Coordination and Dexterity (AMCD), to determine whether age, gender and type of school had significant impact on the scores of the AMCD items, to estimate the frequency of DCD among Brazilian children ages 7 and 8 years and to investigate whether children with DCD exhibit more symptoms of attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder than children with motor typical development. A total of 793 children were screened by the Developmental Coordination Disorder Questionnaire - Brazilian version (DCDQ-Brazil); 90 were identified as at risk for DCD; 91 matched controls were selected from the remaining participants. Children in both groups were evaluated with the AMCD, the Movement Assessment Battery for Children (MABC-II) and Raven's coloured progressive matrices. Thirty-four children were classified as probable DCD, as defined by a combination of the DCDQ-Brazil and MABC-II scores (fifth percentile). The final frequency of DCD among children ages 7 and 8 years was 4.3%. There were significant differences between children with and without DCD on the majority of AMCD items, indicating its potential for identifying DCD in Brazilian children. The use of a motor test (MABC-II) that is not validated for the Brazilian children is a limitation of the present study. Further studies should investigate whether the AMCD is useful for identifying DCD in other age groups and in children from different regions of Brazil. The application of the AMCD may potentially contribute in improving occupational therapy practice in Brazil and in identifying children that could benefit from occupational therapy services.

  20. Developmental and ethnic issues experienced by emerging adult African American women related to developing a mature love relationship.

    PubMed

    Tyson, Sheryl Y

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative study explored perspectives of emerging adult African American women on the development of mature love relationships. Inductive analysis of focus group interviews, conducted with a purposive sample of 31 African American women, yielded themes related to relationship goals and characteristics, and interpersonal and societal challenges to finding the right partner and developing a mature love relationship. Core categories that emerged from analysis of the discussions were (1) age and relationship goal differences within the emerging adult group, (2) mature love relationship goals and characteristics, (3) interpersonal obstacles to finding the right partner, and (4) societal obstacles to finding the right partner. Two approaches-black womanist/feminist thought (Collins, 2000 ; Walker, 1983 ) and relationship maturity theory (Paul & White, 1990 )-were then combined to explain the influence of historic and contemporary interpersonal and societal factors on developmental and ethnic issues that challenge positive gender identity formation, hasten intimacy maturity, and hinder the development of mature love relationships among emerging adult African American women. For these women, premature responsibility, especially early caregiver burden, was related to the early development of intimacy capacity and the desire for a mature love relationship, to be protected, and to have someone to help carry the load. Interracial dating, negative stereotypic images of African American women, and even positive images of enduring black love relationships posed difficult challenges to positive identity formation and intimacy maturity. A primary challenge was to counteract negative stereotypic images, so that they could develop their own self-identities as women and as relationship partners.

  1. Study on the Development of Museums for Improved Integration of the Cultural Heritage into the Education System in French-Speaking African Countries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Essomba, Joseph-Marie

    Objectives for establishing museums in African countries for the purpose of teaching African history, languages, literature, and art are presented. Section 1 of the report focuses on the museum as a basis for creating an awareness of history, developing cultural individuality, laying groundwork for an endogenous form of development, and serving as…

  2. Development and validation of brief scales to measure collectivism, religiosity, racial pride, and time orientation in urban African American women.

    PubMed

    Lukwago, S N; Kreuter, M W; Bucholtz, D C; Holt, C L; Clark, E M

    2001-10-01

    This article describes the development and pilot-testing of brief scales to measure four cultural constructs prevalent in urban African American women. Internal consistency and temporal stability were assessed in two convenience samples (n=47 and n=25) of primarily lower-income African American women. All scales performed well: collectivism alpha=.93, r=.85, p<.001); religiosity (alpha=.88, r=.89, p<.001); racial pride (alpha=.84, r=.52, p<.001); present time orientation (alpha=.73, r=.52, p<.01) and future time orientation (alpha=.72, r=.54, p=.07).

  3. Activitivities of Japanese EMTP Committee (JEC) and EMTP Development Coordination Group Project (EMTP-DCG Project)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagaoka, Naoto; Motoyama, Hideki; Funabashi, Toshihisa

    The Electromagnetic Transients Program (EMTP) is a common software for analyzing the electromagnetic transient phenomena, the electromechanical dynamics, and the control system transients in electric power systems and electronic circuits. Since the late 1960's, the EMTP has been developed by many contributors, and various capabilities, functions and auxiliary programs have been added to the EMTP. In the first half of the paper, history of Japanese EMTP Committee (JEC) and its activity is described. The basic policy of the JEC is “neutral” and “public domain”. The objectives, members, recent workshops and publications are introduced in this report. The activity of the JEC covers any EMTP version, such as ATP- and DCG-EMTP, derived from the BPA-EMTP. The second part of this paper presents the history and products of the EMTP Development Coordination Group Project (EMTP-DCG Project), which is organized to rationalize the development of the EMTP.

  4. Improving Ground Penetrating Radar Imaging in High Loss Environments by Coordinated System Development, Data Processing, Numerical Modeling, & Visualization

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, David L.

    2004-12-01

    Improving Ground Penetrating Radar Imaging in High Loss Environments by Coordinated System Development, Data Processing, Numerical Modeling, and Visualization Methods with Applications to Site Characterization EMSP Project 86992 Progress Report as of 9/2004.

  5. Health workforce development: a needs assessment study in French speaking African countries.

    PubMed

    Chastonay, Philippe; Moretti, Roberto; Zesiger, Véronique; Cremaschini, Marco; Bailey, Rebecca; Pariyo, George; Kabengele, Emmanuel Mpinga

    2013-05-01

    In 2006, WHO alerted the world to a global health workforce crisis, demonstrated through critical shortages of health workers, primarily in Sub-Saharan Africa (WHO in World Health Report, 2006). The objective of our study was to assess, in a participative way, the educational needs for public health and health workforce development among potential trainees and training institutions in nine French-speaking African countries. A needs assessment was conducted in the target countries according to four approaches: (1) Review at national level of health challenges. (2) Semi-directed interviews with heads of relevant training institutions. (3) Focus group discussions with key-informants. (4) A questionnaire-based study targeting health professionals identified as potential trainees. A needs assessment showed important public health challenges in the field of health workforce development among the target countries (e.g. unequal HRH distribution in the country, ageing of HRH, lack of adequate training). It also showed a demand for education and training institutions that are able to offer a training programme in health workforce development, and identified training objectives and core competencies useful to potential employers and future trainees (e.g. leadership, planning/evaluation, management, research skill). In combining various approaches our study was able to show a general demand for health managers who are able to plan, develop and manage a nation's health workforce. It also identified specific competencies that should be developed through an education and training program in public health with a focus on health workforce development.

  6. Coordinated changes in dendritic arborization and synaptic strength during neural circuit development

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Yi-Rong; He, Shan; Marie, Helene; Zeng, Si-Yu; Ma, Jun; Tan, Zhu-Jun; Lee, Soo Yeun; Malenka, Robert C.; Yu, Xiang

    2009-01-01

    Neural circuit development requires concurrent morphological and functional changes. Here we identify coordinated and inversely correlated changes in dendritic morphology and mEPSC amplitude following increased neural activity. We show that over-expression of β-catenin, a molecule that increases total dendritic length, mimics the effects of increased neuronal activity by scaling down mEPSC amplitudes, while postsynaptic expression of a protein that sequesters β-catenin reverses the effects of activity on reducing mEPSC amplitudes. These results were confirmed immunocytochemically as changes in the size and density of surface synaptic AMPA receptor clusters. In individual neurons there was an inverse linear relationship between total dendritic length and average mEPSC amplitude. Importantly, β-catenin over-expression in vivo promoted dendritic growth and reduced mEPSC amplitudes. Together, these results demonstrate that coordinated changes in dendritic morphology and unitary excitatory synaptic strength may serve as an important intrinsic mechanism that helps prevent neurons from over-excitation during neural circuit development. PMID:19146814

  7. Circles of Care: Development and Initial Evaluation of a Peer Support Model for African Americans with Advanced Cancer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanson, Laura C.; Armstrong, Tonya D.; Green, Melissa A.; Hayes, Michelle; Peacock, Stacie; Elliot-Bynum, Sharon; Goldmon, Moses V.; Corbie-Smith, Giselle; Earp, Jo Anne

    2013-01-01

    Peer support interventions extend care and health information to underserved populations yet rarely address serious illness. Investigators from a well-defined academic-community partnership developed and evaluated a peer support intervention for African Americans facing advanced cancer. Evaluation methods used the Reach, Efficacy, Adoption,…

  8. Service Quality and Students' Satisfaction with the Professional Teacher Development Programmes by Distance Mode in a South African University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oduaran, A. B.

    2011-01-01

    This article reports on the relationship between seven factors that described dimensions of education service quality and overall service quality on one hand, and students' satisfaction with the professional teacher development programmes by distance mode in a South African University on the other. We sought to find out whether students enrolled…

  9. Inverse Effects on Growth and Development Rates by Means of Endocrine Disruptors in African Clawed Frog Tadpoles ("Xenopus Laevis")

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hackney, Zachary Carl

    2007-01-01

    Previous work on fish, frogs, and salamanders, showed the ability for estrogen (EE2) and anthropogenic endocrine disruptors to skew sex ratios and cause hermaphrodism. This study addressed the effects of estrogens on growth and development rates of African clawed frog tadpoles ("Xenopus laevis") during their gender determination stages. The…

  10. The Impact of Racial Identity and Consciousness Development on African American Female Academic Achievement: Implications for Counseling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glass, Charles R.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study will be to examine the effect of racial identity/consciousness (RIC) on the academic achievement of African American female college freshmen. This causal-comparative study is intended to provide research based info ration concerning the impact of racial identity/consciousness development on the academic achievement of…

  11. The Development of a Freshman Orientation Course for African-American Students with a Focus on Afrocentricity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daughtry, Leslie M.

    To address the needs of African American students at Beaver College in Glenside (Pennsylvania), a one-credit freshman orientation course on Afrocentricity was developed. The course was intended to increase the comfort level between the institution and its culturally diverse students and add additional support for increased retention of African…

  12. African American Students in Private, Independent Schools: Parents and School Influences on Racial Identity Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeCuir-Gunby, Jessica T.; Martin, Pamela P.; Cooper, Shauna M.

    2012-01-01

    Although much research has focused on the public school experiences of African American students, few studies exist that explore their race-related experiences within an independent, private school context. Studies have suggested that, while private, independent schools may elevate the quality of African American students' education, many of these…

  13. African American Male Initiatives and Positive Change: Understanding the Process of Successful Program Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patterson, Randall B.

    2012-01-01

    The previous decade has seen the creation of African American Male Initiative programs at colleges and universities across the United States. These programs were created in response to the low retention and graduation rates of African American males on these campuses. There has been little research, however, to discover best practices for these…

  14. Developing Long-Term Physical Activity Participation: A Grounded Theory Study with African American Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harley, Amy E.; Buckworth, Janet; Katz, Mira L.; Willis, Sharla K.; Odoms-Young, Angela; Heaney, Catherine A.

    2009-01-01

    Regular physical activity is linked to a reduced risk of obesity and chronic disease. African American women bear a disproportionate burden from these conditions and many do not get the recommended amount of physical activity. Long-term success of interventions to initiate and maintain a physically active lifestyle among African American women has…

  15. Sustainable Development and African Local Government: Can Electronic Training Help Build Capacities?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Hazel; Thomas, Alan

    2007-01-01

    A recent study carried out by European and African organizations into the potential for electronic distance training (EDT) on sustainability in African local governments concluded that EDT was both "useful and feasible". This article reflects on some of the theoretical and practical implications of that study. It focuses on the…

  16. Reexaming the Development of African American English: Evidence from Isolated Communities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolfram, Walt

    2003-01-01

    Examines several longstanding, isolated biracial sociolinguistic situations in the coastal and Appalachian regions of North Carolina: a core community of African Americans and two case studies of isolated speakers. Compares diagnostic phonological and morphosyntactic variables for speakers representing different generations of African American and…

  17. Formative research to develop a lifestyle application (app) for African American breast cancer survivors

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Selina A.; Whitehead, Mary S.; Sheats, Joyce Q.; Fontenot, Brittney; Alema-Mensah, Ernest; Ansa, Benjamin

    2016-01-01

    Background There is a proliferation of lifestyle-oriented mobile technologies; however, few have targeted users. Through intervention mapping, investigators and community partners completed Steps 1–3 (needs assessment, formulation of change objectives, and selection of theory-based methods) of a process to develop a mobile cancer prevention application (app) for cancer prevention. The aim of this qualitative study was to complete Step 4 (intervention development) by eliciting input from African American (AA) breast cancer survivors (BCSs) to guide app development. Methods Four focus group discussions (n=60) and three individual semi-structured interviews (n=36) were conducted with AA BCSs (40–72 years of age) to assess barriers and strategies for lifestyle change. All focus groups and interviews were recorded and transcribed verbatim. Data were analyzed with NVivo qualitative data analysis software version 10, allowing categories, themes, and patterns to emerge. Results Three categories and related themes emerged from the analysis: 1) perceptions about modifiable risk factors; 2) strategies related to adherence to cancer prevention guidelines; and 3) app components to address barriers to adherence. Participant perceptions, strategies, and recommended components guided development of the app. Conclusions For development of a mobile cancer prevention app, these findings will assist investigators in targeting features that are usable, acceptable, and accessible for AA BCSs. PMID:27583307

  18. Genetic factors influencing inhibitor development in a cohort of South African haemophilia A patients.

    PubMed

    Lochan, A; Macaulay, S; Chen, W C; Mahlangu, J N; Krause, A

    2014-09-01

    A critical complication of factor VIII (FVIII) replacement therapy in Haemophilia A (HA) treatment is inhibitor development. Known genetic factors predisposing to inhibitor development include FVIII (F8) gene mutations, ethnicity, a family history of inhibitors and FVIII haplotype mismatch. The aim of this study was to characterize and correlate these genetic factors in a cohort of South African HA patients. This was a retrospective study that included 229 patients and involved the analysis of patient files, HA molecular and clinical databases and molecular analysis of the F8 gene haplotype. Of the 229 patients, 51% were of black ethnicity, 49% were white, 5% had mild HA, 4% were moderate and 91% were severe, 36% were int22 positive and 13% were inhibitor positive. Of the inhibitor positive patients, 72% were black patients. Inhibitors were reported in 27% of black int22 positive patients, 13% of black int22 negative patients, 9% of white int22 positive patients and 7% of white int22 negative. The H1 haplotype was more common in whites (75%) and H2 was more common in blacks (74%). H3 and H5 were only found in black patients and had a higher frequency of inhibitor development than H1 and H2. In this small HA cohort, black patients had a significantly higher frequency of inhibitor development and the results were indicative of an association between inhibitor development, ethnicity and haplotype.

  19. Development of a geovisual analytics environment using parallel coordinates with applications to tropical cyclone trend analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steed, Chad Allen

    A global transformation is being fueled by unprecedented growth in the quality, quantity, and number of different parameters in environmental data through the convergence of several technological advances in data collection and modeling. Although these data hold great potential for helping us understand many complex and, in some cases, life-threatening environmental processes, our ability to generate such data is far outpacing our ability to analyze it. In particular, conventional environmental data analysis tools are inadequate for coping with the size and complexity of these data. As a result, users are forced to reduce the problem in order to adapt to the capabilities of the tools. To overcome these limitations, we must complement the power of computational methods with human knowledge, flexible thinking, imagination, and our capacity for insight by developing visual analysis tools that distill information into the actionable criteria needed for enhanced decision support. In light of said challenges, we have integrated automated statistical analysis capabilities with a highly interactive, multivariate visualization interface to produce a promising approach for visual environmental data analysis. By combining advanced interaction techniques such as dynamic axis scaling, conjunctive parallel coordinates, statistical indicators, and aerial perspective shading, we provide an enhanced variant of the classical parallel coordinates plot. Furthermore, the system facilitates statistical processes such as stepwise linear regression and correlation analysis to assist in the identification and quantification of the most significant predictors for a particular dependent variable. These capabilities are combined into a unique geovisual analytics system that is demonstrated via a pedagogical case study and three North Atlantic tropical cyclone climate studies using a systematic workflow. In addition to revealing several significant associations between environmental

  20. 76 FR 41987 - Interagency Working Group on Coordination of Domestic Energy Development and Permitting in Alaska

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-15

    ... July 15, 2011 Part V The President Executive Order 13580--Interagency Working Group on Coordination of...-- #0;The President ] Executive Order 13580 of July 12, 2011 Interagency Working Group on Coordination... interagency working group to coordinate the efforts of Federal agencies responsible for overseeing the...

  1. Development of an updated PCR assay for detection of African swine fever virus.

    PubMed

    Luo, Yuzi; Atim, Stella A; Shao, Lina; Ayebazibwe, Chrisostom; Sun, Yuan; Liu, Yan; Ji, Shengwei; Meng, Xing-Yu; Li, Su; Li, Yongfeng; Masembe, Charles; Ståhl, Karl; Widén, Frederik; Liu, Lihong; Qiu, Hua-Ji

    2017-01-01

    Due to the current unavailability of vaccines or treatments for African swine fever (ASF), which is caused by African swine fever virus (ASFV), rapid and reliable detection of the virus is essential for timely implementation of emergency control measures and differentiation of ASF from other swine diseases with similar clinical presentations. Here, an improved PCR assay was developed and evaluated for sensitive and universal detection of ASFV. Primers specific for ASFV were designed based on the highly conserved region of the vp72 gene sequences of all ASFV strains available in GenBank, and the PCR assay was established and compared with two OIE-validated PCR tests. The analytic detection limit of the PCR assay was 60 DNA copies per reaction. No amplification signal was observed for several other porcine viruses. The novel PCR assay was more sensitive than two OIE-validated PCR assays when testing 14 strains of ASFV representing four genotypes (I, V, VIII and IX) from diverse geographical areas. A total of 62 clinical swine blood samples collected from Uganda were examined by the novel PCR, giving a high agreement (59/62) with a superior sensitive universal probe library-based real-time PCR. Eight out of 62 samples tested positive, and three samples with higher Ct values (39.15, 38.39 and 37.41) in the real-time PCR were negative for ASFV in the novel PCR. In contrast, one (with a Ct value of 29.75 by the real-time PCR) and two (with Ct values of 29.75 and 33.12) ASFV-positive samples were not identified by the two OIE-validated PCR assays, respectively. Taken together, these data show that the novel PCR assay is specific, sensitive, and applicable for molecular diagnosis and surveillance of ASF.

  2. Balancing Water Uptake and Loss through the Coordinated Regulation of Stomatal and Root Development

    PubMed Central

    Hepworth, Christopher; Turner, Carla; Landim, Marcela Guimaraes; Cameron, Duncan; Gray, Julie E.

    2016-01-01

    Root development is influenced by nutrient and water availabilities. Plants are able to adjust many attributes of their root in response to environmental signals including the size and shape of the primary root, lateral roots and root hairs. Here we investigated the response of roots to changes in the levels of leaf transpiration associated with altered stomatal frequency. We found that plants with high stomatal density and conductance produce a larger rooting area and as a result have enhanced phosphate uptake capacity whereas plants with low stomatal conductance produce a smaller root. Manipulating the growth environment of plants indicated that enhanced root growth is most likely a result of an increased demand for water rather than phosphate. Plants manipulated to have an increase or reduction in root hair growth show a reduction or increase respectively, in stomatal conductance and density. Our results demonstrate that plants can balance their water uptake and loss through coordinated regulation of both stomatal and root development. PMID:27275842

  3. Developing a comprehensive electronic health record to enhance nursing care coordination, use of technology, and research.

    PubMed

    Rantz, Marilyn J; Skubic, Marjorie; Alexander, Greg; Popescu, Mihail; Aud, Myra A; Wakefield, Bonnie J; Koopman, Richelle J; Miller, Steven J

    2010-01-01

    As in acute care, use of health information technology in long-term care holds promise for increased efficiency, better accuracy, reduced costs, and improved outcomes. A comprehensive electronic health record (EHR), which encompasses all health care measures that clinicians want to use-both standard health care assessments and those acquired through emerging technology-is the key to improved, efficient clinical decision making. New technologies using sensors to passively monitor older adults at home are being developed and are commercially available. However, integrating the clinical information systems with passive monitoring data so that clinical decision making is enhanced and patient records are complete is challenging. Researchers at the University of Missouri (MU) are developing a comprehensive EHR to: (a) enhance nursing care coordination at TigerPlace, independent senior housing that helps residents age in place; (b) integrate clinical data and data from new technology; and (c) advance technology and clinical research.

  4. Promoting Coordinated Development of Community-Based Information Standards for Modeling in Biology: The COMBINE Initiative

    PubMed Central

    Hucka, Michael; Nickerson, David P.; Bader, Gary D.; Bergmann, Frank T.; Cooper, Jonathan; Demir, Emek; Garny, Alan; Golebiewski, Martin; Myers, Chris J.; Schreiber, Falk; Waltemath, Dagmar; Le Novère, Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    The Computational Modeling in Biology Network (COMBINE) is a consortium of groups involved in the development of open community standards and formats used in computational modeling in biology. COMBINE’s aim is to act as a coordinator, facilitator, and resource for different standardization efforts whose domains of use cover related areas of the computational biology space. In this perspective article, we summarize COMBINE, its general organization, and the community standards and other efforts involved in it. Our goals are to help guide readers toward standards that may be suitable for their research activities, as well as to direct interested readers to relevant communities where they can best expect to receive assistance in how to develop interoperable computational models. PMID:25759811

  5. The Third African Population Conference adopts the draft Dakar / Ngor Declaration on Population, Family and Sustainable Development.

    PubMed

    1993-01-01

    The 3rd African Population Conference, held in Dakar, Senegal, December 7-12, 1992, adopted the draft Dakar/Ngor Declaration on Population, Family and Sustainable Development in preparation for the 1994 Cairo International Conference on Population and Development. The meeting was attended by 50 member states and many observers from various United Nations Organizations and nongovernmental organizations (NGOs). The Conference reviewed the lessons learned from the implementation of the Kilimanjaro Program of Action on Population (KAP), which had been adopted in 1984. The draft Declaration focused on the following areas: a) population, sustained economic growth, and sustainable development; family; fertility and family planning; mortality, morbidity and AIDS; urbanization and migration; refugees and displaced persons; women in development; children; data collection and analysis, information dissemination, training and research; information, education and communication; b) the role of: private and nongovernmental organizations; the subregional and regional groupings; the World Bank and relevant organizations of the United Nations System; and the international community; c) resource mobilization; and d) implementation of the Declaration. African countries should integrate population policies so as to reduce population growth from the present rate of 3.0% per annum to 2.5% by the year 2000 and to 2% by the year 2010. Environmental issues and food security were given special attention. The targets set on the contraceptive prevalence rate for Africa were to reach 20% by the year 2000 and 40% by the year 2010. The following targets were to be attained by the year 2000: life expectancy in Africa at least 55 years; an infant mortality rate of less than 50 per 1000 live births; childhood mortality rate of 70 or less. Programs to prevent AIDS were also stressed. The Declaration called on UN organizations, the World Bank, the Organization of African Unity, and the African

  6. Developing Efficient Coordination Schemes to Control Over-Pumping in the Heihe River Basin, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pedrazzini, G.

    2015-12-01

    Many wicked water resources problems are approached in a social planner perspective. This not always matches the real institutional and policy-making context, where, rather, multiple decision-makers (DMs) can act independently, or weakly cooperate, ultimately producing system-wide inefficient trade-offs. The idea in this work is to adopt a more realistic approach, where the multi-DMs nature of the problem is preserved and the uncoordinated DMs are driven, thorough coordination mechanisms, towards a more system-wide efficient solution. An agent-based modelling framework linked to a surface and groundwater model is used to design these coordination mechanisms as constraints to the independent agents (i.e., DMs) behaviour. In the Heihe Basin the ongoing introduction of smart meter IC-card systems on farmers' pumping wells will soon allow monitoring and control of abstractions with the goal of preventing further depletion of the resource. The major interest of policy makers in the region concerns the development of new and the improvement of existing legislation on pricing schemes and/or groundwater quotas. The model outcome where agents act rationally but selfishly is compared to the optimal solution at system-level assuming perfect coordination and cooperation. The optimal solutions with respect to the given utility functions are computed using nonlinear optimization with a rolling out time horizon. The Pareto-Frontier is synthesized through an exhaustive sampling of the weight coefficient space and related to the current and to the historical management of the last 4 decades. The best parameter values for the proposed coordination mechanisms are determined and the alternatives are compared with respect to their efficiency and acceptability. Preliminary results suggest that a regulatory tax on groundwater of about a factor 10 of the current resource fee is required to increase the elasticity of the groundwater demand curve such that reducing consumption becomes

  7. [Status of research and development for control of tropical diseases: hypocrisy, indifference or lack of coordination].

    PubMed

    Millet, P

    2006-12-01

    Tropical diseases neglected by the pharmaceutical industry usually involve developing countries. Neglected diseases can now be divided into two groups. The first includes the big three infections i.e., malaria, HIV/AIDS, and tuberculosis, that present strategic and political overtones. The second group includes a host of other fatal infections including worms, trypanosomiasis, and leishmaniasis. Fundamental research on neglected diseases has been highly productive, but there has been little success in transferring research findings to a pharmaceutical industry unwilling to take the risks associated with developing new drugs on its own. However several public-private initiatives have revived hopes of developing new products with growing involvement of industries in developing countries (India and Brazil) despite the high risks associated with fluctuating demand for medicines or funding shortages. To meet the need for testing new drugs, more clinical facilities and better patient recruitment will be needed in endemic countries. Although these new efforts to control neglected diseases are encouraging, there is now a need for coordination. Clinical research in developing countries must be organized in compliance with international principles of ethics. Testing must be aimed at validating fundamental data from industrialized countries. Appropriate incentives must be given to ensure that pharmaceutical companies use research findings for new product development. In this context, the time seems ripe for the establishment of an independent laboratory for technological innovation in neglected diseases. Such a facility could not only validate scientific data but also supervise the development of clinical applications from research data.

  8. Development of a Body Condition Scoring Index for Female African Elephants Validated by Ultrasound Measurements of Subcutaneous Fat

    PubMed Central

    Morfeld, Kari A.; Lehnhardt, John; Alligood, Christina; Bolling, Jeff; Brown, Janine L.

    2014-01-01

    Obesity-related health and reproductive problems may be contributing to non-sustainability of zoo African elephant (Loxodonta africana) populations. However, a major constraint in screening for obesity in elephants is lack of a practical method to accurately assess body fat. Body condition scoring (BCS) is the assessment of subcutaneous fat stores based on visual evaluation and provides an immediate appraisal of the degree of obesity of an individual. The objective of this study was to develop a visual BCS index for female African elephants and validate it using ultrasound measures of subcutaneous fat. To develop the index, standardized photographs were collected from zoo (n = 50) and free-ranging (n = 57) female African elephants for identifying key body regions and skeletal features, which were then used to visually determine body fat deposition patterns. This information was used to develop a visual BCS method consisting of a list of body regions and the physical criteria for assigning an overall score on a 5-point scale, with 1 representing the lowest and 5 representing the highest levels of body fat. Results showed that as BCS increased, ultrasound measures of subcutaneous fat thickness also increased (P<0.01), indicating the scores closely coincide with physical measures of fat reserves. The BCS index proved to be reliable and repeatable based on high intra- and inter-assessor agreement across three assessors. In comparing photographs of wild vs. captive African elephants, the median BCS in the free-ranging individuals (BCS = 3, range 1–5) was lower (P<0.001) than that of the zoo population (BCS = 4, range 2–5). In sum, we have developed the first validated BCS index for African elephants. This tool can be used to examine which factors impact body condition in zoo and free-ranging elephants, providing valuable information on how it affects health and reproductive potential of individual elephants. PMID:24718304

  9. Monitoring and Evaluation of African Women in Agricultural Research and Development (AWARD): An Exemplar of Managing for Impact in Development Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brandon, Paul R.; Smith, Nick L.; Ofir, Zenda; Noordeloos, Marco

    2014-01-01

    In this Exemplars case, the fifth and final under the direction of the current coeditors, the authors present a reflective account of an ongoing, complex, multiyear, multinational monitoring and evaluation (M&E) system conducted for African Women in Agricultural Research and Development (AWARD), an international development program. The…

  10. Microsatellite development and flow cytometry in the African tree genus Afzelia (Fabaceae, Caesalpinioideae) reveal a polyploid complex1

    PubMed Central

    Donkpegan, Armel S. L.; Doucet, Jean-Louis; Dainou, Kasso; Hardy, Olivier J.

    2015-01-01

    • Premise of the study: Microsatellites were developed in the vulnerable African rainforest tree Afzelia bipindensis to investigate gene flow patterns. • Methods and Results: Using 454 GS-FLX technique, 16 primer sets were identified and optimized, leading to 11 polymorphic and readable markers displaying each six to 25 alleles in a population. Up to four alleles per individual were found in each of the loci, without evidence of fixed heterozygosity, suggesting an autotetraploid genome. Cross-amplification succeeded for all loci in the African rainforest species A. pachyloba and A. bella, which appeared tetraploid, and for most loci in the African woodland species A. africana and A. quanzensis, which appeared diploid, but failed in the Asian species A. xylocarpa. Flow cytometry confirmed the suspected differences in ploidy. • Conclusions: African Afzelia species are diploid or tetraploid, a situation rarely documented in tropical trees. These newly developed microsatellites will help in the study of their mating system and gene flow patterns. PMID:25606356

  11. Using the health belief model to develop culturally appropriate weight-management materials for African-American women.

    PubMed

    James, Delores C S; Pobee, Joseph W; Oxidine, D'lauren; Brown, Latonya; Joshi, Gungeet

    2012-05-01

    African-American women have the highest prevalence of adult obesity in the United States. They are less likely to participate in weight-loss programs and tend to have a low success rate when they do so. The goal of this project was to explore the use of the Health Belief Model in developing culturally appropriate weight-management programs for African-American women. Seven focus groups were conducted with 50 African-American women. The Health Belief Model was used as the study's theoretical framework. Participants made a clear delineation between the terms healthy weight, overweight, and obese. Sexy, flirtatious words, such as thick, stacked, and curvy were often used to describe their extra weight. Participants accurately described the health risks of obesity. Most believed that culture and genetics made them more susceptible to obesity. The perceived benefits of losing weight included reduced risk for health problems, improved physical appearance, and living life to the fullest. Perceived barriers included a lack of motivation, reliable dieting information, and social support. Motivators to lose weight included being diagnosed with a health problem, physical appearance, and saving money on clothes. Self-efficacy was primarily affected by a frustrated history of dieting. The data themes suggest areas that should be addressed when developing culturally appropriate weight-loss messages, programs, and materials for African-American women.

  12. Development of a nanoparticulate formulation of diminazene to treat African trypanosomiasis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kroubi, Maya; Daulouede, Sylvie; Karembe, Hamadi; Jallouli, Youssef; Howsam, Mike; Mossalayi, Djavad; Vincendeau, Philippe; Betbeder, Didier

    2010-12-01

    There is a real need to develop new therapeutic strategies for African trypanosomiasis infections. In our study, we developed a new drug delivery system of diminazene (DMZ), a trypanocidal drug registered for veterinary use. This drug candidate presents a limited efficacy, a poor affinity for brain tissue and instability. The development of colloidal formulations based on a porous cationic nanoparticle with an oily core (70DGNP + ), has potentially two advantages: stabilization of the drug and potential targeting of the parasite. We analyzed two processes of drug loading: in process (DMZ was added during the preparation of 70DGNP + at 80 °C) and post-loading (DMZ was mixed with a 70DGNP + solution at room temperature). Poor stability of the drug was observed using the in process technique. When using the post-loading technique over 80% drug entrapment efficiency was obtained at a ratio of DMZ:phospholipids (wt:wt) < 5%. Moreover, DMZ loaded into 70DGNP + was found to be protected against oxidation and was stable for at least six months at 4 °C. Finally, in vitro tests on T.b. brucei showed an increased efficacy of DMZ loaded in 70DGNP + .

  13. Temperature-independent energy expenditure in early development of the African clawed frog Xenopus laevis.

    PubMed

    Nagano, Yatsuhisa; Ode, Koji L

    2014-08-01

    The thermal dissipation of activated eggs and embryos undergoing development from cleavage to the tailbud stage of the African clawed frog Xenopus laevis was measured as a function of incubation time at temperatures ranging from T = 288.2 K to 295.2 K, using a high-precision isothermal calorimeter. A23187-mediated activation of mature eggs induced stable periodic thermal oscillations lasting for 8-34 h. The frequency agreed well with the cell cycle frequency of initial cleavages at the identical temperature. In the developing embryo, energy metabolism switches from embryonic to adult features during gastrulation. The thermal dissipation after gastrulation fit well with a single modified Avrami equation, which has been used for modeling crystal-growth. Both the oscillation frequency of the activated egg and the growth rate of the embryo strongly depend on temperature with the same apparent activation energy of approximately 87 kJ mole(-1). This result suggests that early development proceeds as a single biological time, attributable to a single metabolic rate. A temperature-independent growth curve was derived by scaling the thermogram to the biological time, indicating that the amount of energy expenditure during each developmental stage is constant over the optimal temperature range.

  14. Development of a nanoparticulate formulation of diminazene to treat African trypanosomiasis.

    PubMed

    Kroubi, Maya; Daulouede, Sylvie; Karembe, Hamadi; Jallouli, Youssef; Howsam, Mike; Mossalayi, Djavad; Vincendeau, Philippe; Betbeder, Didier

    2010-12-17

    There is a real need to develop new therapeutic strategies for African trypanosomiasis infections. In our study, we developed a new drug delivery system of diminazene (DMZ), a trypanocidal drug registered for veterinary use. This drug candidate presents a limited efficacy, a poor affinity for brain tissue and instability. The development of colloidal formulations based on a porous cationic nanoparticle with an oily core ((70)DGNP(+)), has potentially two advantages: stabilization of the drug and potential targeting of the parasite. We analyzed two processes of drug loading: in process (DMZ was added during the preparation of (70)DGNP(+) at 80 °C) and post-loading (DMZ was mixed with a (70)DGNP(+) solution at room temperature). Poor stability of the drug was observed using the in process technique. When using the post-loading technique over 80% drug entrapment efficiency was obtained at a ratio of DMZ:phospholipids (wt:wt) < 5%. Moreover, DMZ loaded into (70)DGNP(+) was found to be protected against oxidation and was stable for at least six months at 4 °C. Finally, in vitro tests on T.b. brucei showed an increased efficacy of DMZ loaded in (70)DGNP(+).

  15. Temperature-independent energy expenditure in early development of the African clawed frog Xenopus laevis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagano, Yatsuhisa; Ode, Koji L.

    2014-08-01

    The thermal dissipation of activated eggs and embryos undergoing development from cleavage to the tailbud stage of the African clawed frog Xenopus laevis was measured as a function of incubation time at temperatures ranging from T = 288.2 K to 295.2 K, using a high-precision isothermal calorimeter. A23187-mediated activation of mature eggs induced stable periodic thermal oscillations lasting for 8-34 h. The frequency agreed well with the cell cycle frequency of initial cleavages at the identical temperature. In the developing embryo, energy metabolism switches from embryonic to adult features during gastrulation. The thermal dissipation after gastrulation fit well with a single modified Avrami equation, which has been used for modeling crystal-growth. Both the oscillation frequency of the activated egg and the growth rate of the embryo strongly depend on temperature with the same apparent activation energy of approximately 87 kJ mole-1. This result suggests that early development proceeds as a single biological time, attributable to a single metabolic rate. A temperature-independent growth curve was derived by scaling the thermogram to the biological time, indicating that the amount of energy expenditure during each developmental stage is constant over the optimal temperature range.

  16. Development of the Middle Eastern and North African Land Data Assimilation System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolten, John; Rodell, Matthew; Zaitchik, Benjamin; Toll, David; Engman, Edwin; Habib, Shahid; Ozdogan, Mutlu

    2010-05-01

    The Arab region of the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) suffers from arid conditions, dense population, and inefficient use of fresh water resources. In addition, the lack of data sharing between nations has made accurate monitoring of the water cycle in the MENA difficult. These factors have nearly exhausted the existing fresh water resources in the region and have led to a re-evaluation of water management plans and budgeting schemes between nations. In order to utilize the existing resources more efficiently, it is necessary that all nations within the MENA have access to optimal estimates of hydrological states and fluxes relevant to water resources. This presentation will introduce a methodology and implementation strategy designed to provide frequent regional estimates of the water budget through the development of a Land Data Assimilation System designed specifically for the Middle Eastern and North African (MENA LDAS) region. The MENA LDAS optimally merges available in situ data with satellite-based estimates of meteorological variables including data from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE), the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), and the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) within a land surface modeling framework. As a result of this effort, a platform for data sharing among MENA nations is being developed to provide timely regional estimates of hydrological states and fluxes at 1/8th degree resolution. To be discussed will be the development and status of the system, and preliminary results from land surface model simulations over the region.

  17. Development of multiplex serological assay for the detection of human African trypanosomiasis.

    PubMed

    Nzou, Samson Muuo; Fujii, Yoshito; Miura, Masashi; Mwau, Matilu; Mwangi, Anne Wanjiru; Itoh, Makoto; Salam, Md Abdus; Hamano, Shinjiro; Hirayama, Kenji; Kaneko, Satoshi

    2016-04-01

    Human African trypanosomiasis (HAT) is a disease caused by Kinetoplastid infection. Serological tests are useful for epidemiological surveillance. The aim of this study was to develop a multiplex serological assay for HAT to assess the diagnostic value of selected HAT antigens for sero-epidemiological surveillance. We cloned loci encoding eight antigens from Trypanosoma brucei gambiense, expressed the genes in bacterial systems, and purified the resulting proteins. Antigens were subjected to Luminex multiplex assays using sera from HAT and VL patients to assess the antigens' immunodiagnostic potential. Among T. b. gambiense antigens, the 64-kDa and 65-kDa invariant surface glycoproteins (ISGs) and flagellar calcium binding protein (FCaBP) had high sensitivity for sera from T. b. gambiense patients, yielding AUC values of 0.871, 0.737 and 0.858 respectively in receiver operating characteristics (ROC) analysis. The ISG64, ISG65, and FCaBP antigens were partially cross-reactive to sera from Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense patients. The GM6 antigen was cross-reactive to sera from T. b. rhodesiense patients as well as to sera from VL patients. Furthermore, heterogeneous antibody responses to each individual HAT antigen were observed. Testing for multiple HAT antigens in the same panel allowed specific and sensitive detection. Our results demonstrate the utility of applying multiplex assays for development and evaluation of HAT antigens for use in sero-epidemiological surveillance.

  18. Health inequalities: promoting policy changes in utilizing transformation development by empowering African American communities in reducing health disparities.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, Bernice Roberts

    2013-01-01

    Social inequalities in the United States resulted in negative health outcomes for the African Americans. Their stressful living conditions of poverty, discrimination, racism, abuse and rejection from American society contribute to their negative health outcomes. The lifestyles of African Americans have been influenced by poverty and prior injustices, which have molded their worldview of health and illness. Dr. Martin Luther King, national civil rights leader, brought about social change with much prayer; however, he went a step further with collective gatherings to include the power of non-violence massive public demonstrations. This paper is an analytical review of the literature addressing social inequalities impacting on health inequalities of African Americans resulting in health disparities. Policy changes are propose by implementing transformation development and community empowerment models as frameworks for community/public health nurses in guiding African American communities with addressing health disparities. These models empower members of the community to participate in a collaborative effort in making political and social changes to improve their overall health outcomes.

  19. Implementing the millennium development food security goals Challenges of the southern African context

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Love, David; Twomlow, Steve; Mupangwa, Walter; van der Zaag, Pieter; Gumbo, Bekithemba

    The Millennium Development Goals’ target to halve the proportion of people who suffer from hunger is extremely important in southern Africa, where food security has become increasingly problematic over the last 20 years. One “quick-win” proposal is replenishment of soil nutrients for smallholder farmers, through free or subsidised chemical fertilisers. Other proposals include appropriate irrigation technology, improved inputs and interventions targeted at women. Analysis of over 10 years of agro-hydrological and agro-economic studies from southern African show that a different approach is required to interventions proposed. There are sustainability problems with free chemical fertiliser due to transport costs and ancillary costs. Furthermore, recent studies in Zimbabwe and Mozambique show that significant increases in yield can only be obtained when soil fertility management is combined with good crop husbandry, e.g. timely planting and weeding. Ongoing replenishment of fertility would be dependent on a continued free or subsidised fertiliser supply, and transport system. Increasing access to irrigation will help, but is not the only solution and cannot reach even a majority of farmers. It has been determined that short dryspells are often the major cause of low yields in sub-Saharan Africa. Soil-water conservation approaches, e.g. winter weeding and conservation tillage, can reduce risk and increase yield. The following specific recommendations are made for urgent interventions to contribute sustainably to food security in southern Africa: (i) To increases access to fertiliser, consider development of strong input markets at end-user level. (ii) Intensification of technology transfer, focusing on capacity building for transfer of existing technologies and much closer collaboration between state and NGO sectors, agronomists and water engineers. (iii) Increasing the uptake of soil-water conservation methods, including conservation tillage and weeding, and

  20. Problem posing and cultural tailoring: developing an HIV/AIDS health literacy toolkit with the African American community.

    PubMed

    Rikard, R V; Thompson, Maxine S; Head, Rachel; McNeil, Carlotta; White, Caressa

    2012-09-01

    The rate of HIV infection among African Americans is disproportionately higher than for other racial groups in the United States. Previous research suggests that low level of health literacy (HL) is an underlying factor to explain racial disparities in the prevalence and incidence of HIV/AIDS. The present research describes a community and university project to develop a culturally tailored HIV/AIDS HL toolkit in the African American community. Paulo Freire's pedagogical philosophy and problem-posing methodology served as the guiding framework throughout the development process. Developing the HIV/AIDS HL toolkit occurred in a two-stage process. In Stage 1, a nonprofit organization and research team established a collaborative partnership to develop a culturally tailored HIV/AIDS HL toolkit. In Stage 2, African American community members participated in focus groups conducted as Freirian cultural circles to further refine the HIV/AIDS HL toolkit. In both stages, problem posing engaged participants' knowledge, experiences, and concerns to evaluate a working draft toolkit. The discussion and implications highlight how Freire's pedagogical philosophy and methodology enhances the development of culturally tailored health information.

  1. Dental caries development among African-American children: results from a 4-year longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Sungwoo; Tellez, Marisol; Ismail, Amid I.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine dental caries development and caries risk factors among preschool African-American children from low-income families in Detroit, Michigan over a four- year window. Methods Data came from a representative sample of 1,021 children (zero to five years) and their caregivers in Detroit. The baseline participants in 2002–03 (W1) were reexamined in 2004–05 (W2) and 2007 (W3). Caries was measured using the International Caries Detection and Assessment System. Bivariate and multivariate analyses for repeated data were conducted to explore associations between caries increment outcomes and demographics, access to dental care, oral health-related behaviors, and social and physical environments. Results The mean number of new NCCL (non-cavitated caries lesions) was 2.8 between W1 and W2 and 2.6 between W2 and W3, while the mean number of new CCL (cavitated caries lesions) was 2.0 and 2.0, respectively, during the same time periods. In younger children (< three years old in W1) higher number of new NCCL than new CCL were observed in both W1–W2 and W2–W3. The risk of new NCCL was associated with child’s soda intake and caregiver’s age. For the risk of new CCL, significant risk factors included baseline NCCL, baseline CCL, as well as child’s age. Baseline caries and child’s soda intake were also associated with the risk of developing new decayed, missing, and filled tooth surfaces. Conclusions Higher number of new NCCL relative to CCL was developed among low-income Africa-American children during early childhood. New caries development was associated with baseline caries and child’s soda intake. PMID:25441657

  2. Professional development and poststructural analysis: Stories of African-American science teachers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, Felicia Michelle

    2003-10-01

    This interpretivist study focused on the professional development of three African American science teachers from a small rural school district, Carver School District (pseudonym), in the southeastern United States. Stories teachers shared of their experiences in teaching and learning science and in their professional development were analyzed using a feminist poststructural analysis of power, knowledge/meaning, language, and difference. For science teaching, power was viewed as a form of ownership or possession and also as effect and processes that impact teaching, learning, and professional development. Teachers through instructional practices exerted a certain amount of power in their classrooms. Teaching practices heavily influenced student learning in science classrooms. For teacher professional development, power was viewed as effecting relationships between administration, peers, and students as a shifting force within different social contexts. Science teachers were perceived as objects of the system and as active social agents who in particular relations of power acted in their best interests as they developed as science teachers. Teachers negotiated for themselves certain power relations to do as they wished for teaching science and for participating in teacher professional development activities. Power was an inherent and critically important aspect in understanding what science teachers do in their classrooms, in teaching and learning science, and in developing as science teachers. Knowledge was closely tied to relations of power in that teachers acquired knowledge about themselves, their teaching of science, and their students from their past experiences and professional development activities. Through language, interactions between teachers and students enabled or disabled access to the culture of power via instructional practices. Language was implicated in teacher professional development as a powerful force for advancing or hindering teachers

  3. Recent Updates on Development of Drug Molecules for Human African Trypanosomiasis.

    PubMed

    Singh Grewal, Ajmer; Pandita, Deepti; Bhardwaj, Shashikant; Lather, Viney

    2016-01-01

    Human African trypanosomiasis (HAT, better called as sleeping sickness), caused by two morphologically identicalprotozoan parasite Trypanosoma bruceiis transmitted by the bite of tsetse flies of Glossinagenus, mainly in the rural areas of the sub-Saharan Africa. HAT is one of the neglected tropical diseases and is characterized by sleep disturbance as the main symptom, hence is called as sleeping sickness. As it is epidemic in the poorest population of Africa, there is limited availability of safe and cost-effective tools for controlling the disease. Trypanosoma bruceigambiense causes sleeping sickness in Western and Central Africa, whereas Trypanosoma bruceirhodesiense is the reason for prevalence of sleeping sickness in Eastern and Southern Africa. For the treatment of sleeping sickness, only five drugs have been approved suramin, pentamidine, melarsoprol, eflornithine and nifurtimox. Various small molecules of diverse chemical nature have been synthesized for targeting HAT and many of them are in the clinical trialsincluding fexinidazole (phase I completed) and SCYX-7158 (advanced in phase I). The present work has been planned to review various types of small molecules developed in the last 10 years having potent antitrypanosoma activity likely to be beneficial in sleeping sickness along with different natural anti-HAT agents.

  4. Identifying transboundary aquifers in need of international resource management in the Southern African Development Community region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davies, Jeff; Robins, Nick S.; Farr, John; Sorensen, James; Beetlestone, Philip; Cobbing, Jude E.

    2013-03-01

    Transboundary aquifer (TBA) management, in part, seeks to mitigate degradation of groundwater resources caused either by an imbalance of abstraction between countries or by cross-border pollution. Fourteen potential TBAs were identified within a hydrogeological mapping programme based on simple hydrogeological selection criteria for the Southern African Development Community (SADC) region. These have been reassessed against a set of data associated with five categories: (1) groundwater flow and vulnerability (which is perceived as the over-arching influence on the activity level of each TBA), (2) knowledge and understanding, (3) governance capability, (4) socio-economic/water-demand factors, and (5) environmental issues. These assessments enable the TBAs to be classified according to their need for cross-border co-operation and management. The study shows that only two of the 14 TBAs have potential to be the cause of tension between neighbouring states, while nine are potentially troublesome and three are unlikely to become problematic even in the future. The classification highlights the need to focus on data gathering to enable improved understanding of the TBAs that could potentially become troublesome in the future due to, for example, change in demographics and climate.

  5. Re-Examining the Curriculum Development Centre: Coordinative Federalism and Kingdon's Agenda-Setting (1975-87)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodwell, Grant

    2016-01-01

    During period 1975 through to 1987 the Commonwealth ventured into curriculum development, hitherto an activity for states and territories. Unlike the ACARA Curriculum of the Rudd-Gillard-Rudd governments, there was nothing mandatory about the CDC's curriculum development activities. Here, the dominant influence was coordinative federalism. This…

  6. Development of a spiritually based educational program to increase colorectal cancer screening among African American men and women.

    PubMed

    Holt, Cheryl L; Roberts, Chastity; Scarinci, Isabel; Wiley, Shereta R; Eloubeidi, Mohamad; Crowther, Martha; Bolland, John; Litaker, Mark S; Southward, Vivian; Coughlin, Steven S

    2009-07-01

    This study describes the development of a spiritually based intervention to increase colorectal cancer screening through African American churches by framing the health message with spiritual themes and scripture. The intervention development phase consisted of ideas from an advisory panel and core content identified in focus groups. In the pilot-testing phase, prototypes of the intervention materials were tested for graphic appeal in additional focus groups, and content was tested for acceptability and comprehension in cognitive interviews. Participants preferred materials showing a variety of African Americans in real settings, bright color schemes, and an uplifting message emphasizing prevention and early detection. Spiritual themes such as stewardship over the body, being well to serve God, and using faith to overcome fear, were well received. The materials were then finalized for implementation and will be used by community health advisors to encourage screening.

  7. The TEA transcription factor Tec1 links TOR and MAPK pathways to coordinate yeast development.

    PubMed

    Brückner, Stefan; Kern, Sandra; Birke, Raphael; Saugar, Irene; Ulrich, Helle D; Mösch, Hans-Ulrich

    2011-10-01

    In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the TEA transcription factor Tec1 controls several developmental programs in response to nutrients and pheromones. Tec1 is targeted by the pheromone-responsive Fus3/Kss1 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascade, which destabilizes the transcription factor to ensure efficient mating of sexual partner cells. The regulation of Tec1 by signaling pathways that control cell division and development in response to nutrients, however, is not known. Here, we show that Tec1 protein stability is under control of the nutrient-sensitive target of rapamycin complex 1 (TORC1) signaling pathway via the Tip41-Tap42-Sit4 branch. We further show that degradation of Tec1 upon inhibition of TORC1 by rapamycin does not involve polyubiquitylation and appears to be proteasome independent. However, rapamycin-induced Tec1 degradation depends on the HECT ubiquitin ligase Rsp5, which physically interacts with Tec1 via conserved PxY motives. We further demonstrate that rapamycin and mating pheromone control Tec1 protein stability through distinct mechanisms by targeting different domains of the transcription factor. Finally, we show that Tec1 is a positive regulator of yeast chronological lifespan (CLS), a known TORC1-regulated process. Our findings indicate that in yeast, Tec1 links TORC1 and MAPK signaling pathways to coordinate control of cellular development in response to different stimuli.

  8. Meis1 coordinates a network of genes implicated in eye development and microphthalmia.

    PubMed

    Marcos, Séverine; González-Lázaro, Monica; Beccari, Leonardo; Carramolino, Laura; Martin-Bermejo, Maria Jesus; Amarie, Oana; Mateos-San Martín, Daniel; Torroja, Carlos; Bogdanović, Ozren; Doohan, Roisin; Puk, Oliver; Hrabě de Angelis, Martin; Graw, Jochen; Gomez-Skarmeta, Jose Luis; Casares, Fernando; Torres, Miguel; Bovolenta, Paola

    2015-09-01

    Microphthalmos is a rare congenital anomaly characterized by reduced eye size and visual deficits of variable degree. Sporadic and hereditary microphthalmos have been associated with heterozygous mutations in genes fundamental for eye development. Yet, many cases are idiopathic or await the identification of molecular causes. Here we show that haploinsufficiency of Meis1, which encodes a transcription factor with evolutionarily conserved expression in the embryonic trunk, brain and sensory organs, including the eye, causes microphthalmic traits and visual impairment in adult mice. By combining analysis of Meis1 loss-of-function and conditional Meis1 functional rescue with ChIP-seq and RNA-seq approaches we show that, in contrast to its preferential association with Hox-Pbx BSs in the trunk, Meis1 binds to Hox/Pbx-independent sites during optic cup development. In the eye primordium, Meis1 coordinates, in a dose-dependent manner, retinal proliferation and differentiation by regulating genes responsible for human microphthalmia and components of the Notch signaling pathway. In addition, Meis1 is required for eye patterning by controlling a set of eye territory-specific transcription factors, so that in Meis1(-/-) embryos boundaries among the different eye territories are shifted or blurred. We propose that Meis1 is at the core of a genetic network implicated in eye patterning/microphthalmia, and represents an additional candidate for syndromic cases of these ocular malformations.

  9. Increased waist circumference is the main driver for the development of the metabolic syndrome in South African Asian Indians.

    PubMed

    Prakaschandra, Rosaley; Naidoo, Datshana P

    2016-12-15

    There is no current evidence available on the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) in South African Asian Indians, who are at high risk for cardiovascular disease. The aim of our study was to determine the prevalence of the MetS in this group, between males and females, as well as in the different age-groups, using the harmonised criteria and determined the main components driving the development of MetS.

  10. Development of an atmospheric model based on a generalized vertical coordinate. Final report, September 12, 1991--August 31, 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Arakawa, Akio; Konor, C.S.

    1997-12-31

    There are great conceptual advantages in the use of an isentropic vertical coordinate in atmospheric models. Design of such a model, however, requires to overcome computational problems due to intersection of coordinate surfaces with the earth`s surface. Under this project, the authors have completed the development of a model based on a generalized vertical coordinate, {zeta} = F({Theta}, p, p{sub s}), in which an isentropic coordinate can be combined with a terrain-following {sigma}-coordinate a smooth transition between the two. One of the key issues in developing such a model is to satisfy the consistency between the predictions of pressure and potential temperature. In the model, the consistency is satisfied by the use of an equation that determines the vertical mass flux. A procedure to properly choose {zeta} = F({Theta}, p, p{sub s}) is also developed, which guarantees that {zeta} is a monotonic function of height even when unstable stratification occurs. There are two versions of the model constructed in parallel: one is the middle-latitude {beta}-plane version and the other is the global version. Both of these versions include moisture prediction, relaxed large-scale condensation and relaxed moist-convective adjustment schemes. A well-mixed planetary boundary layer (PBL) is also added.

  11. Psychopathology, adversity, and creativity: diversifying experiences in the development of eminent African Americans.

    PubMed

    Damian, Rodica Ioana; Simonton, Dean Keith

    2015-04-01

    Symptoms associated with mental illness have been hypothesized to relate to creative achievement because they act as diversifying experiences. However, this theory has only been tested on predominantly majority-culture samples. Do tendencies toward mental illness still predict eminent creativity when they coexist with other diversifying experiences, such as early parental death, minority-status, or poverty? These alternative diversifying experiences can be collectively referred to as examples of developmental adversity. This conjecture was tested on a significant sample of 291 eminent African Americans who, by the nature of their status as long-term minorities, would experience more developmental adversity. Replicating majority-culture patterns, African American artists showed higher mental illness rates than African American scientists. Yet the absolute percentages were significantly lower for the African Americans, regardless of profession. Furthermore, mental illness predicted higher eminence levels only for the African American artists, an effect that diminished when controlling for developmental adversity. Because the latter predicted eminence for both artists and scientists, the "madness-to-genius" link probably represents just 1 of several routes by which diversifying experiences can influence eminence. The same developmental ends can be attained by different means. This inference warrants further research using other eminent creators emerging from minority culture populations.

  12. A Social-Ecological Perspective on Vulnerable Youth: Toward an Understanding of Sexual Development Among Urban African American Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Catania, Joseph A; Dolcini, M Margaret

    2012-01-01

    The authors employ a social-ecological framework to aid our understanding of the complex array of factors in the immediate and broader environment that influence adolescent sexual development. Further, sexual development is viewed as normative and critical to positive growth. The authors provide an overview of the Two-Cities Study, a multi-stage qualitative investigation that aims to contribute to an understanding of sexual development and to illuminate gender differences in sexuality. The current studies focus on urban African American youth living in low-income neighborhoods, offering new data on sexual development among these youth.

  13. Studies on the development of omasum in West African dwarf goats (Capra hircus).

    PubMed

    Nwaogu, Chima Innocent; Ezeasor, Nwagbo Daniel

    2008-10-01

    This work studied the sequential morphological changes of omasum in foetuses, neonates and adult West African Dwarf (WAD) goats by gross and light microscopic methods. The mean omasal volume was 1.37 +/- 0.36, 4.2 +/- 0.4, 8.7 +/- 6.9 and 60.1 +/- 8.6 ml for gestation day 87 and 146 foetuses, neonates and adults respectively. Grossly the mucosa exhibited longitudinally oriented primary, secondary, tertiary and quartnery laminae with smooth surface in foetuses and numerous papillae in the adults. Microscopically it was lined by stratified squamous epithelium which was divided into larger lighter luminal and smaller darker basal zones in gestation day 60 foetuses. The core of the laminae contained extension of the inner muscular tunic. The basal zone developed lateral evaginations (corial papillae) into the lighter zone of the laminae in gestation day 106 foetuses. By term these corial papillae approached the luminal surface. The papillae emerged above the luminal surface in 4 week old neonates. The papillae were fully developed in adult goats. The mean papillary height and width were -205.1 +/- 34.0, 67.0 +/- 9.6; 235.0 +/- 86.5, 185.0 +/- 42.3 and 570.3 +/- 60.0, 290.1 +/- 66.3 microm for foetuses, neonates and adult goats. The inner circular layer was thicker than the outer longitudinal layer of the muscular tunic. The central muscular layer of the laminae originated from the inner circular layer with attachment to the outer muscular layer in adults. This attachment could be adaptation for better anchorage and muscular contraction of the laminae in WAD goats.

  14. Developing Culturally Responsive Surveys: Lessons in Development, Implementation, and Analysis from Brazil's African Descent Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowen, Merle L.; Tillman, Ayesha S.

    2015-01-01

    Considerable empirical research, along with a growing body of conceptual and theoretical literature, exists on the role of culture and context in evaluation. Less scholarship has examined culturally responsive surveys in the context of international evaluation. In this article, the authors present lessons learned from the development,…

  15. Mouse limb skeletal growth and synovial joint development are coordinately enhanced by Kartogenin.

    PubMed

    Decker, Rebekah S; Koyama, Eiki; Enomoto-Iwamoto, Motomi; Maye, Peter; Rowe, David; Zhu, Shoutian; Schultz, Peter G; Pacifici, Maurizio

    2014-11-15

    Limb development requires the coordinated growth of several tissues and structures including long bones, joints and tendons, but the underlying mechanisms are not wholly clear. Recently, we identified a small drug-like molecule - we named Kartogenin (KGN) - that greatly stimulates chondrogenesis in marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and enhances cartilage repair in mouse osteoarthritis (OA) models. To determine whether limb developmental processes are regulated by KGN, we tested its activity on committed preskeletal mesenchymal cells from mouse embryo limb buds and whole limb explants. KGN did stimulate cartilage nodule formation and more strikingly, boosted digit cartilaginous anlaga elongation, synovial joint formation and interzone compaction, tendon maturation as monitored by ScxGFP, and interdigit invagination. To identify mechanisms, we carried out gene expression analyses and found that several genes, including those encoding key signaling proteins, were up-regulated by KGN. Amongst highly up-regulated genes were those encoding hedgehog and TGFβ superfamily members, particularly TFGβ1. The former response was verified by increases in Gli1-LacZ activity and Gli1 mRNA expression. Exogenous TGFβ1 stimulated cartilage nodule formation to levels similar to KGN, and KGN and TGFβ1 both greatly enhanced expression of lubricin/Prg4 in articular superficial zone cells. KGN also strongly increased the cellular levels of phospho-Smads that mediate canonical TGFβ and BMP signaling. Thus, limb development is potently and harmoniously stimulated by KGN. The growth effects of KGN appear to result from its ability to boost several key signaling pathways and in particular TGFβ signaling, working in addition to and/or in concert with the filamin A/CBFβ/RUNX1 pathway we identified previously to orchestrate overall limb development. KGN may thus represent a very powerful tool not only for OA therapy, but also limb regeneration and tissue repair strategies.

  16. Exploring the Validity of Developing an Interdisciplinarity Score of a Patient's Needs: Care Coordination, Patient Complexity, and Patient Safety Indicators.

    PubMed

    Hodgson, Ashley; Etzkorn, Lacey; Everhart, Alexander; Nooney, Nicholas; Bestrashniy, Jessica

    Despite the Affordable Care Act's push to improve the coordination of care for patients with multiple chronic conditions, most measures of coordination quality focus on a specific moment in the care process (e.g., medication errors or transfer between facilities), rather than patient outcomes. One possible supplementary way of measuring the care coordination quality of a facility would be to identify the patients needing the most coordination, and to look at outcomes for that group. This paper lays the groundwork for a new measure of care coordination quality by outlining a conceptual framework that considers the interaction between a patient's interdisciplinarity, biological susceptibility, and procedural intensity. Interdisciplinarity captures the degree of specialized medical expertise needed for a patient's care and will be an important measure to estimate the number of specialists a patient might see. We then develop a preliminary measure of interdisciplinarity and run tests linking interdisciplinarity to medical mistakes, as defined by Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality's Patient Safety Indicators. Finally, we use our preliminary measure to verify that interdisciplinarity is likely to be statistically different from existing measures of comorbidity, like the Charlson score. Future research will need to build upon our findings by developing a more statistically validated measure of interdisciplinarity.

  17. Path optimization by a variational reaction coordinate method. I. Development of formalism and algorithms

    SciTech Connect

    Birkholz, Adam B.; Schlegel, H. Bernhard

    2015-12-28

    The development of algorithms to optimize reaction pathways between reactants and products is an active area of study. Existing algorithms typically describe the path as a discrete series of images (chain of states) which are moved downhill toward the path, using various reparameterization schemes, constraints, or fictitious forces to maintain a uniform description of the reaction path. The Variational Reaction Coordinate (VRC) method is a novel approach that finds the reaction path by minimizing the variational reaction energy (VRE) of Quapp and Bofill. The VRE is the line integral of the gradient norm along a path between reactants and products and minimization of VRE has been shown to yield the steepest descent reaction path. In the VRC method, we represent the reaction path by a linear expansion in a set of continuous basis functions and find the optimized path by minimizing the VRE with respect to the linear expansion coefficients. Improved convergence is obtained by applying constraints to the spacing of the basis functions and coupling the minimization of the VRE to the minimization of one or more points along the path that correspond to intermediates and transition states. The VRC method is demonstrated by optimizing the reaction path for the Müller-Brown surface and by finding a reaction path passing through 5 transition states and 4 intermediates for a 10 atom Lennard-Jones cluster.

  18. Benefits of early development of eye-hand coordination: evidence from the LOOK longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Telford, R D; Cunningham, R B; Telford, R M; Olive, L S; Byrne, D G; Abhayaratna, W P

    2013-10-01

    We investigated longitudinal and cross-sectional relationships between eye-hand coordination (EHC) and cardiorespiratory fitness (multistage run), physical activity (pedometers), percent body fat (%BF, dual energy x-ray absorptiometry), body image, and organized sport participation (questionnaires) in 406 boys and 384 girls at 8 and 10 years of age. EHC was measured by a throw and wall-rebound catch test involving 40 attempts of increasing difficulty. Median EHC improved during two years from 18 to 32 (boys) and 9 to 24 (girls), and gender differences and improvements were both significant (P < 0.001). Cross-sectional analyses showed that boys and girls with better EHC were fitter (P < 0.001), and a longitudinal relationship showed that girls who improved their EHC over the two years became fitter (P < 0.001). There was also evidence that children with better EHC possessed a more positive body image (P = 0.05 for combined sex data), but there was no evidence of any relationships between EHC and %BF or PA (both P > 0.3). Finally, even at age 8 years, boys and girls participating in organized sport possessed better EHC than non-participants. These data provide evidence for the premise that early acquisition of this single motor skill promotes the development of a child's fitness, body image, and participation in sport.

  19. "The Spiral Model for the Development of Coordination": A Learning Model Based on Eshkol-Wachman Movement Notation (EWMN)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Dor, Nira

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this study is to present "The Spiral Model for the Development of Coordination" (SMDC), a learning model that reflects the complexity and possibilities embodied in the learning of movement notation Eshkol-Wachman (EWMN), an Israeli invention. This model constituted the infrastructure for a comprehensive study that examined the…

  20. Psychometric Properties of the Caregiver Assessment of Movement Participation Scale for Screening Children with Development Coordination Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsang, Kwan Lan; Bond, Trevor; Lo, Sing Kai

    2010-01-01

    Using Rasch analysis, the psychometric properties of a newly developed 35-item parent-proxy instrument, the Caregiver Assessment of Movement Participation (CAMP), designed to measure movement participation problems in children with Developmental Coordination Disorder, were examined. The CAMP was administered to 465 school children aged 5-10 years.…

  1. Activity Participation Intensity Is Associated with Skeletal Development in Pre-Pubertal Children with Developmental Coordination Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsang, William W. N.; Guo, X.; Fong, Shirley S. M.; Mak, Kwok-Kei; Pang, Marco Y. C.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This study aimed (1) to compare the skeletal maturity and activity participation pattern between children with and without developmental coordination disorder (DCD); and (2) to determine whether activity participation pattern was associated with the skeletal development among children with DCD. Materials and methods: Thirty-three children…

  2. The Impact of Teacher Observations with Coordinated Professional Development on Student Performance: A 27-State Program Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaha, Steven H.; Glassett, Kelly F.; Copas, Aimee

    2015-01-01

    The impact of teacher observations in alignment with professional development (PD) on teacher efficacy was quantified for 292 schools in 110 districts within 27 U.S. States. Teacher observations conducted by school leaders or designated internal coaches were coordinated with PD offerings aligned with intended teacher improvements. The PD involved…

  3. EXEL; Experience for Children in Learning. Parent-Directed Activities to Develop: Oral Expression, Visual Discrimination, Auditory Discrimination, Motor Coordination.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Behrmann, Polly; Millman, Joan

    The activities collected in this handbook are planned for parents to use with their children in a learning experience. They can also be used in the classroom. Sections contain games designed to develop visual discrimination, auditory discrimination, motor coordination and oral expression. An objective is given for each game, and directions for…

  4. The primary cilium coordinates signaling pathways in cell cycle control and migration during development and tissue repair.

    PubMed

    Christensen, Søren T; Pedersen, Stine F; Satir, Peter; Veland, Iben R; Schneider, Linda

    2008-01-01

    Cell cycle control and migration are critical processes during development and maintenance of tissue functions. Recently, primary cilia were shown to take part in coordination of the signaling pathways that control these cellular processes in human health and disease. In this review, we present an overview of the function of primary cilia and the centrosome in the signaling pathways that regulate cell cycle control and migration with focus on ciliary signaling via platelet-derived growth factor receptor alpha (PDGFRalpha). We also consider how the primary cilium and the centrosome interact with the extracellular matrix, coordinate Wnt signaling, and modulate cytoskeletal changes that impinge on both cell cycle control and cell migration.

  5. South African Teacher Voices: Recurring Resistances and Reconstructions for Teacher Education and Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samuel, Michael

    2014-01-01

    This paper will focus on the shifts in discourses about teacher education and teacher voice within the South African research and policy environment over the last four decades. The alignment of the political and educational agenda in providing resistance to the apartheid system culminated in 1994, the start of the new democracy. The preceding…

  6. Developing a Measure of Stigma by Association with African American Adolescents Whose Mothers Have HIV

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, Sally; Berger, Barbara; Ferrans, Carol Estwing; Sultzman, Vickey; Fendrich, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: African American urban adolescents are one of the fastest growing groups of children affected by their mother's HIV status. These children experience HIV stigma by association with their HIV-positive mothers. Stigma may contribute to adverse outcomes for these teens. Methods: The authors describe a multistage process of scale…

  7. African Scientific Network: A model to enhance scientific research in developing countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kebede, Abebe

    2002-03-01

    Africa has over 350 higher education institutions with a variety of experiences and priorities. The primary objectives of these institutions are to produce white-collar workers, teachers, and the work force for mining, textiles, and agricultural industries. The state of higher education and scientific research in Africa have been discussed in several conferences. The proposals that are generated by these conferences advocate structural changes in higher education, North-South institutional linkages, mobilization of the African Diaspora and funding. We propose a model African Scientific Network that would facilitate and enhance international scientific partnerships between African scientists and their counterparts elsewhere. A recent article by James Lamout (Financial Times, August 2, 2001) indicates that emigration from South Africa alone costs $8.9 billion in lost human resources. The article also stated that every year 23,000 graduates leave Africa for opportunities overseas, mainly in Europe, leaving only 20,000 scientists and engineers serving over 600 million people. The International Organization for Migration states that the brain drain of highly skilled professionals from Africa is making economic growth and poverty alleviation impossible across the continent. In our model we will focus on a possible networking mechanism where the African Diaspora will play a major role in addressing the financial and human resources needs of higher education in Africa

  8. Male and Female: Career Development of African American College Athletes and Non-Athletes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, Jamie Dowdy

    2015-01-01

    Tendency to foreclose on careers, vocational exploration, and career commitment were examined in relationship to racial-ethnic socialization, parental responsiveness, and career-related verbal encouragement and emotional support among 228 African American male and female college athletes and non-athletes. A number of tests were conducted to test…

  9. The Development of an African-Centered Urban High School by Trial and Error

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Theresa Y.; Jeremiah, Maxine

    2011-01-01

    As part of the Small Schools movement in Chicago Public Schools, a high school dedicated to African-centered education was chartered. The virtues of Ma'at and the Nguzo Saba, otherwise known as the seven principles of Kwanza, were the foundational principles of the school and were to be integrated into all of the practices and policies of the…

  10. Racial Identity Development of African American Students during Their First Semester at a Research University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whyte, Patricia Jones

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the effects of background characteristics, initial interaction with the environment, and first-year experiences at a public, research extensive University on the racial identity and racial attitudes of African American/Black first-time, first-year University students. This study is concerned with the changes…

  11. The Formation and Development of Co-Operations among South African Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roebken, Heinke

    2008-01-01

    Organizational collaboration is "en vogue", especially in higher education. So far, little is known about the mechanisms that explain co-operation formation and their impact on the social structure of the research systems. By examining co-authored research papers written at South African universities between 1966 and 2006, co-operation…

  12. On Doctoral Student Development: Exploring Faculty Mentoring in the Shaping of African American Doctoral Student Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Felder, Pamela

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the influence of faculty mentorship in the shaping of African American doctoral student success. A case analysis framework is used to investigate the belief systems that doctoral students held about their doctoral experience. Data collection involved a one-phase semi-structured interview protocol used to gather information…

  13. Development of a Cancer Prevention and Early Detection Program for Nurses Working with African Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Underwood, Sandra Millon

    1999-01-01

    Evaluation of a program for 250 nurses working with African Americans showed it enhanced their ability to provide cancer education, screening, and follow-up. It also heightened sensitivity to, and understanding of, issues and trends influencing prevention and early detection for this population. (SK)

  14. White Racism and Africanity in the Development of AFro-American Communities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Ferdinand

    The construction of hypotheses concerning blacks in America requires an understanding of two enduring influences on collective black experience: (1) whites' treatment of blacks as slaves and (2) West African culture that helped to shape black adaptation to the conditions engendered by slavery. White racist attitudes and the psychological distance…

  15. Developing Self-Expression and Community among South African Women with Persona Doll Making

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia, Dorothy Yumi

    2014-01-01

    Township-dwelling Black South African women must cope with an array of traumatizing stressors that stunt individual voice and diminish the creation of supportive female communities. At issue was the capacity of women under these conditions to thrive as individuals and contributing members of society, thus the rationale for this project study. The…

  16. African American and Youth Culture as a Bridge To Writing Development. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahiri, Jabari

    A study examined whether the familiarity and competence that many African American students have with elements of rap music and culture could be used as a bridge to the production of other literate texts. Two high-school English teachers, one teaching at Fremont High School, East Oakland and the other teaching at Berkeley High School in Berkeley,…

  17. African American Culture and Physical Skill Development Programs: The Effect on Golf after Tiger Woods.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberson, Venita

    2003-01-01

    Examines the root causes of the slow rate of change in how professional trainers in traditionally white mainstream athletics have approached the pedagogical aspect of their work. Many African Americans and Latinos are entering fields that were once traditionally white. Explores the nature of this asymmetrical relationship, discussing a culturally…

  18. The African University and the Challenge of Endogenous Development in Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherman, Mary Antoninette Brown

    This paper addresses the need of institutions located within Africa, particularly institutions of higher education, to fulfill the task of generating and applying knowledge relevant to solving the economic, food, and health problems that plague the continent. The paper examines the nature of African universities and the historical context in which…

  19. Weak coordination as a powerful means for developing broadly useful C-H functionalization reactions.

    PubMed

    Engle, Keary M; Mei, Tian-Sheng; Wasa, Masayuki; Yu, Jin-Quan

    2012-06-19

    the metal catalyst and position it for selective C-H cleavage. Precoordination can overcome the paraffin nature of C-H bonds by increasing the effective concentration of the substrate so that it need not be used as solvent. From a synthetic perspective, it is desirable to use a functional group that is an intrinsic part of the substrate so that extra steps for installation and removal of an external directing group can be avoided. In this way, dramatic increases in molecular complexity can be accomplished in a single stroke through stereo- and site-selective introduction of a new functional group. Although reactivity is a major challenge (as with first functionalization), the philosophy in further functionalization differs; the major challenge is developing reactions that work with predictable selectivity in intricately functionalized contexts on commonly occurring structural motifs. In this Account, we focus on an emergent theme within the further functionalization literature: the use of commonly occurring functional groups to direct C-H cleavage through weak coordination. We discuss our motivation for studying Pd-catalyzed C-H functionalization assisted by weakly coordinating functional groups and chronicle our endeavors to bring reactions of this type to fruition. Through this approach, we have developed reactions with a diverse range of substrates and coupling partners, with the broad scope likely stemming from the high reactivity of the cyclopalladated intermediates, which are held together through weak interactions.

  20. Evaluation of Antigens for Development of a Serological Test for Human African Trypanosomiasis

    PubMed Central

    Biéler, Sylvain; Waltenberger, Harald; Barrett, Michael P.; McCulloch, Richard; Mottram, Jeremy C.; Carrington, Mark; Schwaeble, Wilhelm; McKerrow, James; Phillips, Margaret A.; Michels, Paul A.; Büscher, Philippe; Sanchez, Jean-Charles; Bishop, Richard; Robinson, Derrick R.; Bangs, James; Ferguson, Michael; Nerima, Barbara; Albertini, Audrey; Michel, Gerd; Radwandska, Magdalena; Ndung’u, Joseph Mathu

    2016-01-01

    Background Control and elimination of human African trypanosomiasis (HAT) can be accelerated through the use of diagnostic tests that are more accurate and easier to deploy. The goal of this work was to evaluate the immuno-reactivity of antigens and identify candidates to be considered for development of a simple serological test for the detection of Trypanosoma brucei gambiense or T. b. rhodesiense infections, ideally both. Methodology/Principal Findings The reactivity of 35 antigens was independently evaluated by slot blot and ELISA against sera from both T. b. gambiense and T. b. rhodesiense infected patients and controls. The antigens that were most reactive by both tests to T. b. gambiense sera were the membrane proteins VSG LiTat 1.3, VSG LiTat 1.5 and ISG64. Reactivity to T. b. rhodesiense sera was highest with VSG LiTat 1.3, VSG LiTat 1.5 and SRA, although much lower than with T. b. gambiense samples. The reactivity of all possible combinations of antigens was also calculated. When the slot blot results of 2 antigens were paired, a VSG LiTat 1.3- ISG75 combination performed best on T. b. gambiense sera, while a VSG LiTat 1.3-VSG LiTat 1.5 combination was the most reactive using ELISA. A combination of SRA and either VSG LiTat 1.3 or VSG LiTat 1.5 had the highest reactivity on T. b. rhodesiense sera according to slot blot, while in ELISA, pairing SRA with either GM6 or VSG LiTat 1.3 yielded the best results. Conclusions This study identified antigens that were highly reactive to T. b. gambiense sera, which could be considered for developing a serological test for gambiense HAT, either individually or in combination. Antigens with potential for inclusion in a test for T. b. rhodesiense HAT were also identified, but because their reactivity was comparatively lower, a search for additional antigens would be required before developing a test for this form of the disease. PMID:27936225

  1. The importance of foetal movement for co-ordinated cartilage and bone development in utero

    PubMed Central

    Shea, C. A.; Rolfe, R. A.; Murphy, P.

    2015-01-01

    Construction of a functional skeleton is accomplished through co-ordination of the developmental processes of chondrogenesis, osteogenesis, and synovial joint formation. Infants whose movement in utero is reduced or restricted and who subsequently suffer from joint dysplasia (including joint contractures) and thin hypo-mineralised bones, demonstrate that embryonic movement is crucial for appropriate skeletogenesis. This has been confirmed in mouse, chick, and zebrafish animal models, where reduced or eliminated movement consistently yields similar malformations and which provide the possibility of experimentation to uncover the precise disturbances and the mechanisms by which movement impacts molecular regulation. Molecular genetic studies have shown the important roles played by cell communication signalling pathways, namely Wnt, Hedgehog, and transforming growth factor-beta/bone morphogenetic protein. These pathways regulate cell behaviours such as proliferation and differentiation to control maturation of the skeletal elements, and are affected when movement is altered. Cell contacts to the extra-cellular matrix as well as the cytoskeleton offer a means of mechanotransduction which could integrate mechanical cues with genetic regulation. Indeed, expression of cytoskeletal genes has been shown to be affected by immobilisation. In addition to furthering our understanding of a fundamental aspect of cell control and differentiation during development, research in this area is applicable to the engineering of stable skeletal tissues from stem cells, which relies on an understanding of developmental mechanisms including genetic and physical criteria. A deeper understanding of how movement affects skeletogenesis therefore has broader implications for regenerative therapeutics for injury or disease, as well as for optimisation of physical therapy regimes for individuals affected by skeletal abnormalities. Cite this article: Bone Joint Res 2015;4:105–116 PMID:26142413

  2. The HERC2 ubiquitin ligase is essential for embryonic development and regulates motor coordination.

    PubMed

    Cubillos-Rojas, Monica; Schneider, Taiane; Hadjebi, Ouadah; Pedrazza, Leonardo; de Oliveira, Jarbas Rodrigues; Langa, Francina; Guénet, Jean-Louis; Duran, Joan; de Anta, Josep Maria; Alcántara, Soledad; Ruiz, Rocio; Pérez-Villegas, Eva María; Aguilar-Montilla, Francisco J; Carrión, Ángel M; Armengol, Jose Angel; Baple, Emma; Crosby, Andrew H; Bartrons, Ramon; Ventura, Francesc; Rosa, Jose Luis

    2016-08-30

    A mutation in the HERC2 gene has been linked to a severe neurodevelopmental disorder with similarities to the Angelman syndrome. This gene codifies a protein with ubiquitin ligase activity that regulates the activity of tumor protein p53 and is involved in important cellular processes such as DNA repair, cell cycle, cancer, and iron metabolism. Despite the critical role of HERC2 in these physiological and pathological processes, little is known about its relevance in vivo. Here, we described a mouse with targeted inactivation of the Herc2 gene. Homozygous mice were not viable. Distinct from other ubiquitin ligases that interact with p53, such as MDM2 or MDM4, p53 depletion did not rescue the lethality of homozygous mice. The HERC2 protein levels were reduced by approximately one-half in heterozygous mice. Consequently, HERC2 activities, including ubiquitin ligase and stimulation of p53 activity, were lower in heterozygous mice. A decrease in HERC2 activities was also observed in human skin fibroblasts from individuals with an Angelman-like syndrome that express an unstable mutant protein of HERC2. Behavioural analysis of heterozygous mice identified an impaired motor synchronization with normal neuromuscular function. This effect was not observed in p53 knockout mice, indicating that a mechanism independent of p53 activity is involved. Morphological analysis showed the presence of HERC2 in Purkinje cells and a specific loss of these neurons in the cerebella of heterozygous mice. In these animals, an increase of autophagosomes and lysosomes was observed. Our findings establish a crucial role of HERC2 in embryonic development and motor coordination.

  3. Bone morphogenetic protein-2 gene controls tooth root development in coordination with formation of the periodontium

    PubMed Central

    Rakian, Audrey; Yang, Wu-Chen; Gluhak-Heinrich, Jelica; Cui, Yong; Harris, Marie A; Villarreal, Demitri; Feng, Jerry Q; MacDougall, Mary; Harris, Stephen E

    2013-01-01

    Formation of the periodontium begins following onset of tooth-root formation in a coordinated manner after birth. Dental follicle progenitor cells are thought to form the cementum, alveolar bone and Sharpey's fibers of the periodontal ligament (PDL). However, little is known about the regulatory morphogens that control differentiation and function of these progenitor cells, as well as the progenitor cells involved in crown and root formation. We investigated the role of bone morphogenetic protein-2 (Bmp2) in these processes by the conditional removal of the Bmp2 gene using the Sp7-Cre-EGFP mouse model. Sp7-Cre-EGFP first becomes active at E18 in the first molar, with robust Cre activity at postnatal day 0 (P0), followed by Cre activity in the second molar, which occurs after P0. There is robust Cre activity in the periodontium and third molars by 2 weeks of age. When the Bmp2 gene is removed from Sp7+ (Osterix+) cells, major defects are noted in root, cellular cementum and periodontium formation. First, there are major cell autonomous defects in root-odontoblast terminal differentiation. Second, there are major alterations in formation of the PDLs and cellular cementum, correlated with decreased nuclear factor IC (Nfic), periostin and α-SMA+ cells. Third, there is a failure to produce vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A) in the periodontium and the pulp leading to decreased formation of the microvascular and associated candidate stem cells in the Bmp2-cKOSp7-Cre-EGFP. Fourth, ameloblast function and enamel formation are indirectly altered in the Bmp2-cKOSp7-Cre-EGFP. These data demonstrate that the Bmp2 gene has complex roles in postnatal tooth development and periodontium formation. PMID:23807640

  4. The HERC2 ubiquitin ligase is essential for embryonic development and regulates motor coordination

    PubMed Central

    Cubillos-Rojas, Monica; Schneider, Taiane; Hadjebi, Ouadah; Pedrazza, Leonardo; de Oliveira, Jarbas Rodrigues; Langa, Francina; Guénet, Jean-Louis; Duran, Joan; de Anta, Josep Maria; Alcántara, Soledad; Ruiz, Rocio; Pérez-Villegas, Eva María; Aguilar, Francisco J.; Carrión, Ángel M.; Armengol, Jose Angel; Baple, Emma; Crosby, Andrew H.; Bartrons, Ramon; Ventura, Francesc; Rosa, Jose Luis

    2016-01-01

    A mutation in the HERC2 gene has been linked to a severe neurodevelopmental disorder with similarities to the Angelman syndrome. This gene codifies a protein with ubiquitin ligase activity that regulates the activity of tumor protein p53 and is involved in important cellular processes such as DNA repair, cell cycle, cancer, and iron metabolism. Despite the critical role of HERC2 in these physiological and pathological processes, little is known about its relevance in vivo. Here, we described a mouse with targeted inactivation of the Herc2 gene. Homozygous mice were not viable. Distinct from other ubiquitin ligases that interact with p53, such as MDM2 or MDM4, p53 depletion did not rescue the lethality of homozygous mice. The HERC2 protein levels were reduced by approximately one-half in heterozygous mice. Consequently, HERC2 activities, including ubiquitin ligase and stimulation of p53 activity, were lower in heterozygous mice. A decrease in HERC2 activities was also observed in human skin fibroblasts from individuals with an Angelman-like syndrome that express an unstable mutant protein of HERC2. Behavioural analysis of heterozygous mice identified an impaired motor synchronization with normal neuromuscular function. This effect was not observed in p53 knockout mice, indicating that a mechanism independent of p53 activity is involved. Morphological analysis showed the presence of HERC2 in Purkinje cells and a specific loss of these neurons in the cerebella of heterozygous mice. In these animals, an increase of autophagosomes and lysosomes was observed. Our findings establish a crucial role of HERC2 in embryonic development and motor coordination. PMID:27528230

  5. Development of motor coordination and cerebellar structure in male and female rat neonates exposed to hypergravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguon, K.; Ladd, B.; Baxter, M. G.; Sajdel-Sulkowska, E. M.

    2006-01-01

    We previously reported that the developing rat cerebellum is affected by exposure to hypergravity. In the present study, we explored the hypothesis that the changes in cerebellar structure in hypergravity-exposed rat neonates may affect their motor coordination. Furthermore, we hypothesized that the changes observed at 1.5G will be magnified at higher gravitational loading. To test this hypothesis, we compared motor behavior, cerebellar structure, and protein expression in rat neonates exposed to 1.5 1.75G on a 24-ft centrifuge daily for 22.5 h starting on gestational day (G) 10, through birth on G22/G23 and through postnatal day (P) 21. Exposure to hypergravity impacted the neurodevelopmental process as indicated by: (1) impaired righting response on P3, more than doubling the righting time at 1.75G, and (2) delayed onset of the startle response by one day, from P9 in controls to P10 in hypergravity-exposed pups. Hypergravity exposure resulted in impaired motor functions as evidenced by performance on a rotarod on P21; the duration of the stay on the rotarod recorded for 1.75G pups of both sexes was one tenth that of the stationary control (SC) pups. These changes in motor behavior were associated with cerebellar changes: (1) cerebellar mass on P6 was decreased by 7.5% in 1.5G-exposed male pups, 27.5% in 1.75G-exposed male pups, 17.5% in 1.5G-exposed female pups, and 22.5% in 1.75G female pups and (2) changes in the expression of glial and neuronal proteins. The results of this study suggest that perinatal exposure to hypergravity affects cerebellar development as evidenced by decreased cerebellar mass and altered cerebellar protein expression; cerebellar changes observed in hypergravity-exposed rat neonates are associated with impaired motor behavior. Furthermore, the response to hypergravity appears to be different in male and female neonates. If one accepts that the hypergravity paradigm is a useful animal model with which to predict those biological processes

  6. Collaborative development of clinical trials education programs for African-American community-based organizations.

    PubMed

    Blakeney, Natasha; Michaels, Margo; Green, Melissa; Richmond, Alan; Long, Debra; Robinson, William S; Spicer, Carmelita; Elliott-Bynum, Sharon; Corbie-Smith, Giselle

    2015-06-01

    This paper describes the use of a unique "Learning and Feedbackˮ approach to customize cancer clinical trials education programs for Community Bridges, a peer training intervention designed for African-American communities in North Carolina. Generic community education modules were demonstrated with key community leaders who were designated as trainers. Quantitative and qualitative assessments were provided on understanding of content, comfort with material, and cultural relevance. The generic materials were adapted into three revised modules, all featuring key messages about cancer clinical trials, discussion regarding distrust of medical research, common misconceptions about trials, patient protections, and a call to action to prompt increased inquiry about locally available trials. The revised modules were then used as part of a train-the-trainer program with 12 African-American community leaders. ENACCT's use of the Learning and Feedback process is an innovative method for culturally adapting clinical trials education.

  7. 23 CFR 771.111 - Early coordination, public involvement, and project development.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... areawide air quality and land use implications of the major alternatives. The second tier would address... community or its public transportation service, an adequate opportunity for public review and comment must... 23 Highways 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Early coordination, public involvement, and...

  8. Timing Abilities among Children with Developmental Coordination Disorders (DCD) in Comparison to Children with Typical Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenblum, Sara; Regev, Noga

    2013-01-01

    Timing ability is essential for common everyday performance. The aim of the study was to compare timing abilities and temporal aspects of handwriting performance and relationships between these two components among children with Developmental Coordination Disorders (DCD) and a control group. Forty two children, 21 diagnosed as DCD and 21 with…

  9. Development of an Adaptive Vertical Coordinate Capability for Community Ocean Models

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-09-30

    the thermohaline depth h_c. The s-coordinate has the simple, infinitely 1 continuous, functional form: z = zeta(1+s) + h_c s + (h-h_c)C(s), where...circulation patern of cold and warm eddies detached from the western boundary current. The separation latitude of the boundary curent shifted south of the

  10. 23 CFR 771.111 - Early coordination, public involvement, and project development.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... RIGHT-OF-WAY AND ENVIRONMENT ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT AND RELATED PROCEDURES § 771.111 Early coordination... public aids in determining the type of environmental review documents an action requires, the scope of the document, the level of analysis, and related environmental requirements. This involves...

  11. Specification of parameters for development of a spatial database for drought monitoring and famine early warning in the African Sahel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rochon, Gilbert L.

    1989-01-01

    Parameters were described for spatial database to facilitate drought monitoring and famine early warning in the African Sahel. The proposed system, referred to as the African Drought and Famine Information System (ADFIS) is ultimately recommended for implementation with the NASA/FEMA Spatial Analysis and Modeling System (SAMS), a GIS/Dymanic Modeling software package, currently under development. SAMS is derived from FEMA'S Integration Emergency Management Information System (IEMIS) and the Pacific Northwest Laborotory's/Engineering Topographic Laboratory's Airland Battlefield Environment (ALBE) GIS. SAMS is primarily intended for disaster planning and resource management applications with the developing countries. Sources of data for the system would include the Developing Economics Branch of the U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, the World Bank, Tulane University School of Public Health and Tropical Medicine's Famine Early Warning Systems (FEWS) Project, the USAID's Foreign Disaster Assistance Section, the World Resources Institute, the World Meterological Institute, the USGS, the UNFAO, UNICEF, and the United Nations Disaster Relief Organization (UNDRO). Satellite imagery would include decadal AVHRR imagery and Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) values from 1981 to the present for the African continent and selected Landsat scenes for the Sudan pilot study. The system is initially conceived for the MicroVAX 2/GPX, running VMS. To facilitate comparative analysis, a global time-series database (1950 to 1987) is included for a basic set of 125 socio-economic variables per country per year. A more detailed database for the Sahelian countries includes soil type, water resources, agricultural production, agricultural import and export, food aid, and consumption. A pilot dataset for the Sudan with over 2,500 variables from the World Bank's ANDREX system, also includes epidemiological data on incidence of kwashiorkor, marasmus, other nutritional deficiencies, and

  12. Development, implementation and evaluation of a unique African-American faith-based approach to increase automobile restraint use.

    PubMed Central

    Falcone, Richard A.; Brentley, Anita L.; Ricketts, Crystal D.; Allen, Sheryl E.; Garcia, Victor F.

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Despite generalized intervention programs, restraint use among African Americans remains below national levels, especially among children. This study describes the development and implementation of a community participatory faith-based youth injury prevention program. METHODS: Through a partnership with the African-American faith-based community and our injury prevention group, a unique multigenerational intervention program was developed targeting motor vehicle restraint use. Once developed, the program was initially evaluated by comparing outcomes between control and intervention churches. The main objective was to observe adult and pediatric restraint use before and after program implementation. RESULTS: Overall, there was excellent recognition and participation in the program. Following program implementation, significant improvements were observed in restraint use compared to control churches. In particular, there was a 72% reduction in unrestrained children, a 25% increase in children being secured in the rear-seat position and a nearly 20% increase in driver restraint use. CONCLUSIONS: The development and implementation of a culturally sensitive intervention program can significantly improve restraint use in a minority population. Partnering with the community in all phases of the program is essential to its success. PMID:16916133

  13. Development of a Coordinated National Soil Moisture Network: A Pilot Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucido, J. M.; Quiring, S. M.; Verdin, J. P.; Pulwarty, R. S.; Baker, B.; Cosgrove, B.; Escobar, V. M.; Strobel, M.

    2014-12-01

    Soil moisture data is critical for accurate drought prediction, flood forecasting, climate modeling, prediction of crop yields and water budgeting. However, soil moisture data are collected by many agencies and organizations in the United States using a variety of instruments and methods for varying applications. These data are often distributed and represented in disparate formats, posing significant challenges for use. In recognition of these challenges, the President's Climate Action Plan articulated the need for a coordinated national soil moisture network. In response to this action plan, a team led by the National Integrated Drought Information System has begun to develop a framework for this network and has instituted a proof-of-concept pilot study. This pilot is located in the south-central plains of the US, and will serve as a reference architecture for the requisite data systems and inform the design of the national network. The pilot comprises both in-situ and modeled soil moisture datasets (historical and real-time) and will serve the following use cases: operational drought monitoring, experimental land surface modeling, and operational hydrological modeling. The pilot will be implemented using a distributed network design in order to serve dispersed data in real-time directly from data providers. Standard service protocols will be used to enable future integration with external clients. The pilot network will additionally contain a catalog of data sets and web service endpoints, which will be used to broker web service calls. A mediation and aggregation service will then intelligently request, compile, and transform the distributed datasets from their native formats into a standardized output. This mediation framework allows data to be hosted and maintained locally by the data owners while simplifying access through a single service interface. These data services will then be used to create visualizations, for example, views of the current soil

  14. Imported malaria among African immigrants: is there still a relationship between developed countries and their ex-colonies?

    PubMed Central

    Millet, Juan Pablo; de Olalla, Patricia Garcia; Gascón, Joaquim; Prat, Jordi Gómez i; Treviño, Begoña; Pinazo, M Jesús; Cabezos, Juan; Muñoz, José; Zarzuela, Francesc; Caylà, Joan A

    2009-01-01

    Background The objective of this study was to compare cases of imported malaria originating from the Spanish ex-colony of Equatorial Guinea (EG) with those originating from the rest of Africa (RA). Methods All the African cases detected in Barcelona between 1989 and 2007 were investigated in a retrospective analysis. Clinical-epidemiological variables such as sex, age, visiting friends and relatives (VFR), species, hospital admission and chemo-prophylaxis were compared. Data were analysed by logistic regression, calculating the Odds Ratio (OR) and 95% Confidence Intervals (95% CI). Results Of the 489 African patients, 279 (57,1%) had been born in EG and 210 (42,9%) in the rest of Africa. The cumulative incidence of imported malaria among those from EG was 179.6 per thousand inhabitants, while in those from the RA it was 33.7 per thousand (p < 0.001). Compliance with chemoprophylaxis (CP) was very low, but there were no differences between the two groups. Comparing those from EG to those from RA, the former were characterized by having more patients in the visiting friends and relatives (VFR) category, and more individuals younger than 15 years or older than 37 years, and more women. They also visited a traveller's health centre more often, had fewer hospital admissions and were less likely to reside in the inner city. Conclusion Cases of imported malaria originating in Africa, are more likely to come from the Spanish ex-colony of EG, and VFR are more likely to be affected. It is recommended that developed countries promote prevention programmes, such as CP advice directed at African immigrants, and develop programmes of cooperation against malaria in their ex-colonies. PMID:19463171

  15. The Impact of Ethnic Identity Stage Development on the Intercultural Sensitivity of African-American Students during Study Abroad

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dinani, Thandiwe T.

    2016-01-01

    African-American students represent 12% of the 14 million students enrolled in higher education institutions (National Center for Education Statistics, 2013). However, African-American students participate in study-abroad programs at a much lower percentage; African-American students represent 5% of the total number of students who study abroad…

  16. Development of an Adaptive Boundary-Fitted Coordinate Code for Use in Coastal and Estuarine Areas.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-09-01

    34 Miscellaneous Paper HL-80-3, US Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station, Vicksburg, Miss. Johnson, B. H., Thompson , J . F ., and Baker, A. J. 1984. "A...34 prepared for CERC, US Army Engineer Water- ways Experiment Station, Vicksburg, Miss. Thompson , J . F . 1983. "A Boundary-Fitted Coordinate Code for...Vol 1. Thompson , J . F ., Thames, F. C., and Mastin, C. W. 1977. "TOMCAT - A Code for Numerical Generation Systems on Fields Containing Any Number of

  17. Towards modelling the flexible timing of shoot development: simulation of maize organogenesis based on coordination within and between phytomers

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Junqi; Andrieu, Bruno; Vos, Jan; van der Werf, Wopke; Fournier, Christian; Evers, Jochem B.

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims Experimental evidence challenges the approximation, central in crop models, that developmental events follow a fixed thermal time schedule, and indicates that leaf emergence events play a role in the timing of development. The objective of this study was to build a structural development model of maize (Zea mays) based on a set of coordination rules at organ level that regulate duration of elongation, and to show how the distribution of leaf sizes emerges from this. Methods A model of maize development was constructed based on three coordination rules between leaf emergence events and the dynamics of organ extension. The model was parameterized with data from maize grown at a low plant population density and tested using data from maize grown at high population density. Key Results The model gave a good account of the timing and duration of organ extension. By using initial conditions associated with high population density, the model reproduced well the increase in blade elongation duration and the delay in sheath extension in high-density populations compared with low-density populations. Predictions of the sizes of sheaths at high density were accurate, whereas predictions of the dynamics of blade length were accurate up to rank 9; moderate overestimation of blade length occurred at higher ranks. Conclusions A set of simple rules for coordinated growth of organs is sufficient to simulate the development of maize plant structure without taking into account any regulation by assimilates. In this model, whole-plant architecture is shaped through initial conditions that feed a cascade of coordination events. PMID:24748619

  18. Development of a database for prompt gamma-ray neutron activation analysis: Summary report of the third research coordination meeting

    SciTech Connect

    Lindstrom, Richard M.; Firestone, Richard B.; Pavi, ???

    2003-04-01

    The main discussions and conclusions from the Third Co-ordination Meeting on the Development of a Database for Prompt Gamma-ray Neutron Activation Analysis are summarized in this report. All results were reviewed in detail, and the final version of the TECDOC and the corresponding software were agreed upon and approved for preparation. Actions were formulated with the aim of completing the final version of the TECDOC and associated software by May 2003.

  19. Circles of care: development and initial evaluation of a peer support model for African Americans with advanced cancer.

    PubMed

    Hanson, Laura C; Armstrong, Tonya D; Green, Melissa A; Hayes, Michelle; Peacock, Stacie; Elliot-Bynum, Sharon; Goldmon, Moses V; Corbie-Smith, Giselle; Earp, Jo Anne

    2013-10-01

    Peer support interventions extend care and health information to underserved populations yet rarely address serious illness. Investigators from a well-defined academic-community partnership developed and evaluated a peer support intervention for African Americans facing advanced cancer. Evaluation methods used the Reach, Efficacy, Adoption, Implementation, Maintenance (RE-AIM) framework. Investigators initially recruited and trained 24 lay health advisors who shared information or support with 210 individuals. However, lay advisors reported barriers of medical privacy and lack of confidence working alone with people with cancer. Training was modified to match the support team model for peer support; training reached 193 volunteers, 104 of whom formed support teams for 47 persons with serious illness. Support teams were adopted by 23 community organizations, including 11 African American churches. Volunteers in teams felt prepared to implement many aspects of supportive care such as practical support (32%) or help with cancer or palliative care resources (43%). People with serious illness requested help with practical, emotional, spiritual, and quality of life needs; however, they rarely wanted advocacy (3%) or cancer or palliative care resources (5%) from support teams. Volunteers had difficulty limiting outreach to people with advanced cancer due to medical privacy concerns and awareness that others could benefit. Support teams are a promising model of peer support for African Americans facing advanced cancer and serious illness, with reach, adoption, and implementation superior to the lay advisor model. This formative initial evaluation provides evidence for feasibility and acceptance. Further research should examine the efficacy and potential for maintenance of this intervention.

  20. Development, characterization, and cross-amplification of microsatellite markers in the understudied African genus Anthonotha (Fabaceae)1

    PubMed Central

    Demenou, Boris B.; Hardy, Olivier J.

    2017-01-01

    Premise of the study: Anthonotha macrophylla (Fabaceae) is a common tree species throughout the Guineo-Congolian forest that is sometimes confounded with other congeneric species; it is expected to be an interesting phylogeographical model to infer the history of the African dense forests. We developed 18 microsatellite markers from this species and tested their transferability in 15 congeneric species. Methods and Results: A genomic library was obtained using the Illumina platform, and 18 polymorphic microsatellite loci were developed. The polymorphic microsatellites displayed two to 24 alleles (average: 11.9 alleles per locus, expected heterozygosity range: 0.18–0.91, mean: 0.64) in three populations of A. macrophylla from Benin, Liberia, and Cameroon. Cross-amplification in one to nine individuals of 15 congeneric Anthonotha species (A. acuminata, A. brieyi, A. cladantha, A. crassifolia, A. ferruginea, A. fragrans, A. gilletii, A. lamprophylla, A. mouandzae, A. noldeae, A. pellegrinii, A. pynaertii, A. stipulacea, A. wijmacampensis, and A. xanderi) showed successful amplification in six to 17 loci, making most of these markers useful at the generic level. Conclusions: This set of markers will be useful to study species delimitation and the genetic structure of Anthonotha species, and thus to better understand the history of tropical African rainforests. PMID:28090412

  1. Development of a National Campaign Addressing South African Men's Fears About HIV Counseling and Testing and Antiretroviral Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Orr, Neil; Myers, Laura; Makhubele, Mzamani Benjamin; Matekane, Tselisehang; Delate, Richard; Mahlasela, Lusanda; Goldblatt, Brenda

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: South African men are less likely to get tested for HIV than women and are more likely to commence antiretroviral treatment (ART) at later stages of disease, default on treatment, and to die from AIDS compared with women. The purpose of this study was to conduct formative research into the ideational and behavioral factors that enable or create obstacles to mens' uptake of HIV counseling and testing (HCT) and ART. The study consulted men with a goal of developing a communication campaign aimed at improving the uptake of HIV testing and ART initiation among men. Methods: Eleven focus groups and 9 in-depth interviews were conducted with 97 male participants in 6 priority districts in 4 South African provinces in rural, peri-urban, and urban localities. Results: Fears of compromised masculine pride and reputation, potential community rejection, and fear of loss of emotional control (“the stress of knowing”) dominated men's rationales for avoiding HIV testing and treatment initiation. Conclusions: A communication campaign was developed based on the findings. Creative treatments aimed at redefining a ‘strong’ man as someone who faces his fears and knows his HIV status. The resultant campaign concept was: “positive or negative—you are still the same person.” PMID:27930614

  2. Development of an improved vaccine for contagious bovine pleuropneumonia: an African perspective on challenges and proposed actions.

    PubMed

    Jores, Joerg; Mariner, Jeffrey C; Naessens, Jan

    2013-12-20

    Contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP) caused by Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides (Mmm) is an economically very important cattle disease in sub-Saharan Africa. CBPP impacts animal health and poverty of livestock-dependent people through decreased animal productivity, reduced food supply, and the cost of control measures. CBPP is a barrier to trade in many African countries and this reduces the value of livestock and the income of many value chain stakeholders. The presence of CBPP also poses a constant threat to CBPP-free countries and creates costs in terms of the measures necessary to ensure the exclusion of disease. This opinion focuses on the biomedical research needed to foster the development of better control measures for CBPP. We suggest that different vaccine development approaches are followed in parallel. Basic immunology studies and systematic OMICs studies will be necessary in order to identify the protective arms of immunity and to shed more light on the pathogenicity mechanisms in CBPP. Moreover a robust challenge model and a close collaboration with African research units will be crucial to foster and implement a new vaccine for the progressive control of this cattle plague.

  3. SADCC: challenging the "South African connection.".

    PubMed

    Liebenow, J G

    1982-01-01

    The Southern African Development Coordination Conference (SADCC) which unites 9 states with a combined population of 60 million, has as its objective the task of promoting economic development and realizing economic independence. In many respects the strain of neocolonialism that Southern Africa faces at this time is even more virulent than that facing West, Central, and East Africa. In the latter regions the surrender of political authority by colonial administrators frequently left the commercial, agricultural, and industrial interests of the European powers in continued control of the economies of the former colonies. The fate of economic development plans was determined by situations and decisions made in places distant from the African continent. In the case of Southern Africa, the withdrawal or expulsion of European colonialists has found whites in neighboring South Africa most eager to step into the economic breech. For most of the Southern African states this variant strain of the neocolonial virus creates a dual problem: the independent states acting separately have been no match for South Africa; and the acquiescence of independent African states in forging economic links with South Africa has impeded the liberation efforts of Africans in Namibia and the Republic of South Africa. Discussion focus turns to the challenges that confront SADCC; transport as the most significant factor accounting for the dependency of SADCC states upon South Africa; the role of minerals in dependency; other aspects of dependency; South Africa's proposed Constellation of States; the origins and objectives of SADCC; and dollars and donors. SADCC planning for economic liberation has been conducted against the background of a counterproposal advanced by South Africa's government, which put the Republic at the center of an expanded network of economic linkages within the entire southern African region. While being formally rejected, the Constellation of States scheme does have

  4. The UCAR Africa Initiative: Enabling African Solutions to African Needs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandya, R.; Bruintjes, R.; Foote, B.; Heck, S.; Hermann, S.; Hoswell, L.; Konate, M.; Kucera, P.; Laing, A.; Lamptey, B.; Moncrieff, M.; Ramamurthy, M.; Roberts, R.; Spangler, T.; Traoré, A.; Yoksas, T.; Warner, T.

    2007-12-01

    The University Corporation for Atmospheric Research (UCAR) Africa Initiative (AI) is a coordinated effort aimed at building sustainable partnerships between UCAR and African institutions in order to pursue research and applications for the benefit of the African people. The initiative is based on four fundamental operating principles, concisely summarized by the overall philosophy of enabling African solutions to African needs. The four principles are: • Collaborate with African institutions • Focus on institutional capacity building and research support • Explore science research themes critical to Africa and important for the world • Leverage the research infrastructure in UCAR to add value These principles are realized in a set of pilot activities, chosen for their high probability of short-term results and ability to set the stage for longer-term collaboration. The three pilot activities are listed below. 1. A modest radar network and data-distribution system in Mali and Burkina Faso, including a data-sharing MOU between the Mail and Burkina Faso Weather Services. 2. A partnership among UCAR, the Ghana Meteorological Agency, and the Ghana university community to develop an operational Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model for West Africa. The output is used by researchers and operational forecasters in Africa. Model output is also part of a demonstration project that aims to allow humanitarian agencies to share geo-referenced information in Africa via a web portal. 3. A workshop in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso from April 2-6, 2007, with the theme Improving Lives by Understanding Weather. The workshop, co-organized with Programme SAAGA and the Commité Permanent Inter-Etats de Lutte Contre la Sécheresse dans le Sahel (CILSS), included over 80 participants from 18 countries, and produced a set of recommendations for continued collaboration. Our presentation will provide an update of these pilot activities and point to future directions. Recognizing

  5. Skeletal development in the African elephant and ossification timing in placental mammals.

    PubMed

    Hautier, Lionel; Stansfield, Fiona J; Allen, W R Twink; Asher, Robert J

    2012-06-07

    We provide here unique data on elephant skeletal ontogeny. We focus on the sequence of cranial and post-cranial ossification events during growth in the African elephant (Loxodonta africana). Previous analyses on ossification sequences in mammals have focused on monotremes, marsupials, boreoeutherian and xenarthran placentals. Here, we add data on ossification sequences in an afrotherian. We use two different methods to quantify sequence heterochrony: the sequence method and event-paring/Parsimov. Compared with other placentals, elephants show late ossifications of the basicranium, manual and pedal phalanges, and early ossifications of the ischium and metacarpals. Moreover, ossification in elephants starts very early and progresses rapidly. Specifically, the elephant exhibits the same percentage of bones showing an ossification centre at the end of the first third of its gestation period as the mouse and hamster have close to birth. Elephants show a number of features of their ossification patterns that differ from those of other placental mammals. The pattern of the initiation of the ossification evident in the African elephant underscores a possible correlation between the timing of ossification onset and gestation time throughout mammals.

  6. Effects of Individual and School-Level Characteristics on a Child’s Gross Motor Coordination Development

    PubMed Central

    Chaves, Raquel; Baxter-Jones, Adam; Gomes, Thayse; Souza, Michele; Pereira, Sara; Maia, José

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify child and school-level characteristics that explained inter-individual differences in gross motor coordination (GMC). Participants (n = 390), recruited from 18 Portuguese primary schools, were aged 6 to 10 years of age. Birth weight, body fat (BF), physical activity (PA), physical fitness (PF) and GMC were assessed. School size, setting, infrastructure and physical education classes were considered as school context markers. A multilevel modeling approach was used to identify hierarchical effects (child and school levels). It was found that children-level variables (sex, PF, and BF) significantly explained 63% of the 90% variance fraction at the individual level; boys outperformed girls (p < 0.05), individuals with higher BF were less coordinated (p < 0.05), and those with higher PF were more coordinated (p < 0.05). School-variables (e.g. school size and playing surface) explained 84% of the 10% variation fraction. These findings confirm the roles of sex, PFS and BF. Interestingly they also suggest that the school environment plays a minor but significant role in GMC development. However, it is important to stress that the school context and conditions can also play an important role in a child’s motor development, providing adequate and enriching motor opportunities. PMID:26264007

  7. Development of a hospital-based care coordination program for children with special health care needs.

    PubMed

    Petitgout, Janine M; Pelzer, Daniel E; McConkey, Stacy A; Hanrahan, Kirsten

    2013-01-01

    A hospital-based Continuity of Care program for children with special health care needs is described. A family-centered team approach provides care coordination and a medical home. The program has grown during the past 10 years to include inpatients and outpatients from multiple services and outreach clinics. Improved outcomes, including decreased length of stay, decreased cost, and high family satisfaction, are demonstrated by participants in the program. Pediatric nurse practitioners play an important role in the medical home, collaborating with primary care providers, hospital-based specialists, community services, and social workers to provide services to children with special health care needs.

  8. Satellite Coordination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen, R. J.

    2004-06-01

    The Radio Regulations set out complex procedures to ensure that when new systems start to use the frequency bands allocated to them there is minimal disruption to existing systems using the same bands. The process of satellite coordination is described, and the issues for radio astronomy are discussed. In order to be protected by the ITU-R machinery radio telescopes need to be officially registered. The issue of paper satellites highlights the need for early registration to gain priority over incoming systems. Modern developments including the use of complex Monte-Carlo simulations to predict interference levels, and the issue of adjacent band interference, are discussed.

  9. The politics of African energy development: Ethiopia's hydro-agricultural state-building strategy and clashing paradigms of water security.

    PubMed

    Verhoeven, Harry

    2013-11-13

    As key economic, ecological and demographic trends converge to reshape Africa and its relationship with the outside world, a new politics is emerging in the twenty-first century around the water-food-energy nexus, which is central to the continent's relevance in the global economy. On the one hand, Malthusian anxieties are proliferating; pessimists link population growth and growing water scarcity to state failure and 'water wars'. On the other hand, entrepreneurs, sovereign wealth funds and speculators consider Africa's potential in water resources, energy production and food output as one of the last great untapped opportunities for the global economy: Africa is on the brink of an agro-industrial transformation. This article examines how African actors are not merely responding to economic and environmental changes but also thinking politically about water, food and energy security. Many of them are seizing the new opportunities to redefine their national politics, their relationship with local communities and their ties with external players, regionally and globally. Ethiopia's project of hydro-agricultural state-building helps to identify the most important fault lines of this new politics at the national, local and international level. The politics of water security and energy development simultaneously puts African states and their populations on the defensive, as they grapple with huge challenges, but also provides them with unique opportunities to take advantage of a more favourable global configuration of forces.

  10. Optimistic Bias, Risk Factors, and Development of High Blood Pressure and Obesity among African American Adolescents in Mississippi (USA).

    PubMed

    White, Monique S; Addison, Clifton C; Jenkins, Brenda W Campbell; Bland, Vanessa; Clark, Adrianne; LaVigne, Donna Antoine

    2017-02-20

    Childhood obesity has reached epidemic proportions and is linked to hypertension among African American youth. Optimistic bias influences behavior of youth causing them to underestimate their susceptibility to negative health outcomes. This study explored adolescent behaviors and prevalence of high blood pressure and obesity in a school district. We examined the relationship between individual health risk practices and optimistic bias on health outcomes; 433 African American high school students were administered a survey and had their obesity and blood pressure measured by the school nurse. Canonical correlational analyses were used to examine relationships between health risk practices and descriptive statistics for optimistic bias and health outcomes. Engaging in moderate exercise for at least 30 min in the last 7 days and lower blood pressure was the only statistically significant relationship. Two-thirds of the students did not perceive themselves to be at risk of developing cardiovascular disease with males at greater risk than females, despite the presence of clinical risk factors for hypertension and obesity. Reducing health optimistic bias is an effective way of motivating young people to adopt more positive behaviors using educational institutions to implement intervention programs that promote positive health behavior as a way to reduce health disparities.

  11. Optimistic Bias, Risk Factors, and Development of High Blood Pressure and Obesity among African American Adolescents in Mississippi (USA)

    PubMed Central

    White, Monique S.; Addison, Clifton C.; Campbell Jenkins, Brenda W.; Bland, Vanessa; Clark, Adrianne; Antoine LaVigne, Donna

    2017-01-01

    Childhood obesity has reached epidemic proportions and is linked to hypertension among African American youth. Optimistic bias influences behavior of youth causing them to underestimate their susceptibility to negative health outcomes. This study explored adolescent behaviors and prevalence of high blood pressure and obesity in a school district. We examined the relationship between individual health risk practices and optimistic bias on health outcomes; 433 African American high school students were administered a survey and had their obesity and blood pressure measured by the school nurse. Canonical correlational analyses were used to examine relationships between health risk practices and descriptive statistics for optimistic bias and health outcomes. Engaging in moderate exercise for at least 30 min in the last 7 days and lower blood pressure was the only statistically significant relationship. Two-thirds of the students did not perceive themselves to be at risk of developing cardiovascular disease with males at greater risk than females, despite the presence of clinical risk factors for hypertension and obesity. Reducing health optimistic bias is an effective way of motivating young people to adopt more positive behaviors using educational institutions to implement intervention programs that promote positive health behavior as a way to reduce health disparities. PMID:28230728

  12. Successes and challenges of north-south partnerships - key lessons from the African/Asian Regional Capacity Development projects.

    PubMed

    Färnman, Rosanna; Diwan, Vishal; Zwarenstein, Merrick; Atkins, Salla

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Increasing efforts are being made globally on capacity building. North-south research partnerships have contributed significantly to enhancing the research capacity in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) over the past few decades; however, a lack of skilled researchers to inform health policy development persists, particularly in LMICs. The EU FP7 funded African/Asian Regional Capacity Development (ARCADE) projects were multi-partner consortia aimed to develop a new generation of highly trained researchers from universities across the globe, focusing on global health-related subjects: health systems and services research and research on social determinants of health. This article aims to outline the successes, challenges and lessons learned from the life course of the projects, focusing on the key outputs and experiences of developing and implementing these two projects together with sub-Saharan African, Asian and European institution partners. Design Sixteen participants from 12 partner institutions were interviewed. The data were analysed using thematic content analysis, which resulted in four themes and three sub-categories. These data were complemented by a review of project reports. Results The results indicated that the ARCADE projects have been successful in developing and delivering courses, and have reached over 920 postgraduate students. Some partners thought the north-south and south-south partnerships that evolved during the project were the main achievement. However, others found there to be a 'north-south divide' in certain aspects. Challenges included technical constraints and quality assurance. Additionally, adapting new teaching and learning methods into current university systems was challenging, combined with not being able to award students with credits for their degrees. Conclusion The ARCADE projects were introduced as an innovative and ambitious project idea, although not designed appropriately for all partner institutions

  13. Successes and challenges of north–south partnerships – key lessons from the African/Asian Regional Capacity Development projects

    PubMed Central

    Färnman, Rosanna; Diwan, Vishal; Zwarenstein, Merrick; Atkins, Salla

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Increasing efforts are being made globally on capacity building. North–south research partnerships have contributed significantly to enhancing the research capacity in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) over the past few decades; however, a lack of skilled researchers to inform health policy development persists, particularly in LMICs. The EU FP7 funded African/Asian Regional Capacity Development (ARCADE) projects were multi-partner consortia aimed to develop a new generation of highly trained researchers from universities across the globe, focusing on global health-related subjects: health systems and services research and research on social determinants of health. This article aims to outline the successes, challenges and lessons learned from the life course of the projects, focusing on the key outputs and experiences of developing and implementing these two projects together with sub-Saharan African, Asian and European institution partners. Design Sixteen participants from 12 partner institutions were interviewed. The data were analysed using thematic content analysis, which resulted in four themes and three sub-categories. These data were complemented by a review of project reports. Results The results indicated that the ARCADE projects have been successful in developing and delivering courses, and have reached over 920 postgraduate students. Some partners thought the north–south and south–south partnerships that evolved during the project were the main achievement. However, others found there to be a ‘north–south divide’ in certain aspects. Challenges included technical constraints and quality assurance. Additionally, adapting new teaching and learning methods into current university systems was challenging, combined with not being able to award students with credits for their degrees. Conclusion The ARCADE projects were introduced as an innovative and ambitious project idea, although not designed appropriately for all partner

  14. Human Capital Development (HCD) through Open, Distance and E-Learning: Evidence from Corporate Annual Reports (CARs) of Top South African Listed Companies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adelowotan, Mo

    2014-01-01

    This paper discusses the role of open, distance and e-learning in the development of human resources by examining human capital development related disclosures in the corporate annual reports (CARs) of top South African listed companies. The study employed content analysis method to analyse the CARs of these companies with the aid of qualitative…

  15. Addressing the Issue of Gender Equity in the Presidency of the University System in the Southern African Development Community (SADC) Region

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guramatunhu-Mudiwa, Precious

    2010-01-01

    The Southern African Development Community (SADC) is a regional economic grouping of 15 countries whose common vision is to promote economic, social and political development and growth. Arguably, sustainable growth can be realized if there is equal access to all positions of power and influence in the area, but an investigation of 117…

  16. Inequities and Lack of Professionalisation of Early Childhood Development Practice Hinder Opportunities for Mathematics Stimulation and Realisation of South African Policy on Quality Education for All

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feza, Nosisi

    2014-01-01

    White Paper 5's aim is to provide South Africa's children with a solid foundation for lifelong learning and development. Children need to be nurtured and developed holistically for them to participate efficiently in their democratic society. However, South African students continue to perform poorly in Trends in International Mathematics and…

  17. An Exploratory Study of Fathers’ Parenting Stress and Toddlers’ Social Development in Low-Income African American Families

    PubMed Central

    Cabrera, Natasha; Mitchell, Stephanie

    2010-01-01

    The present study tested Abidin’s (1992) parenting stress model in a sample of low-income African American fathers and their toddlers, specifically examining the mediation effect of fathers’ engagement (self-report and observed) on the association between parenting stress and children’s social competence and problem behavior. We found that fathers reported moderate levels of parenting stress, but we found no evidence of a direct effect of stress on children’s social development. However, parenting stress predicted more engagement in management, which predicted children’s increased problem behaviour. These findings highlight the effect of fathering stress on specific forms of father engagement that affect toddlers’ social development. PMID:20190875

  18. Development of an HIV risk reduction counselling intervention for use in South African sexually transmitted infection clinics.

    PubMed

    Mathiti, V; Simbayi, L C; Jooste, S; Kekana, Q; Nibe, X P; Shasha, L; Bidla, P; Magubane, P; Cain, D; Cherry, C; Kalichman, S C

    2005-07-01

    South Africa urgently needs HIV prevention interventions that can be disseminated for use in clinical and community settings. A brief theory-based HIV risk reduction counselling intervention originally developed in the USA has recently been adapted for use in a South African sexually transmitted infection clinic. The 60-minute risk reduction counselling intervention was grounded in the Information-Motivation-Behavioural Skills (IMB) model of HIV preventive behaviour change, adapted through a series of interdisciplinary collaborative workshops. This paper reports the process of developing and culturally adapting the brief risk reduction counselling intervention. The processes used for adapting the HIV risk reduction counselling for South Africa provides a potential model for conducting technology transfer activities with other HIV prevention interventions. Several lessons learned from this process may help guide future efforts to transfer HIV prevention technologies.

  19. A PROGRAM OF RESEARCH WITH HISPANIC AND AFRICAN AMERICAN FAMILIES: THREE DECADES OF INTERVENTION DEVELOPMENT AND TESTING INFLUENCED BY THE CHANGING CULUTURAL CONTEXT OF MIAMI

    PubMed Central

    Muir, Joan A.; Schwartz, Seth J.; Szapocznik, José

    2005-01-01

    In this article we summarize work with poor, inner-city Hispanic and African American families conducted at the University of Miami Center for Family Studies. We elucidate ways in which this research program has paralleled the treatment development paradigm and has been responsive to changes in local demographics. Specific cultural issues pertaining to Hispanics and African Americans are discussed in light of treatment development and implementation. Future directions and challenges for working with poor, inner-city minority families are addressed. PMID:15293648

  20. CRMP4 and CRMP2 Interact to Coordinate Cytoskeleton Dynamics, Regulating Growth Cone Development and Axon Elongation

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Minghui; Cha, Caihui; Ye, Yongheng; Zhang, Jifeng; Li, Sumei; Wu, Fengming; Gong, Sitang; Guo, Guoqing

    2015-01-01

    Cytoskeleton dynamics are critical phenomena that underpin many fundamental cellular processes. Collapsin response mediator proteins (CRMPs) are highly expressed in the developing nervous system, mediating growth cone guidance, neuronal polarity, and axonal elongation. However, whether and how CRMPs associate with microtubules and actin coordinated cytoskeletal dynamics remain unknown. In this study, we demonstrated that CRMP2 and CRMP4 interacted with tubulin and actin in vitro and colocalized with the cytoskeleton in the transition-zone in developing growth cones. CRMP2 and CRMP4 also interacted with one another coordinately to promote growth cone development and axonal elongation. Genetic silencing of CRMP2 enhanced, whereas overexpression of CRMP2 suppressed, the inhibitory effects of CRMP4 knockdown on axonal development. In addition, knockdown of CRMP2 or overexpression of truncated CRMP2 reversed the promoting effect of CRMP4. With the overexpression of truncated CRMP2 or CRMP4 lacking the cytoskeleton interaction domain, the promoting effect of CRMP was suppressed. These data suggest a model in which CRMP2 and CRMP4 form complexes to bridge microtubules and actin and thus work cooperatively to regulate growth cone development and axonal elongation. PMID:26064693

  1. Patient-Centered mHealth Living Donor Transplant Education Program for African Americans: Development and Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Sieverdes, John Christopher; Nemeth, Lynne S; Magwood, Gayenell S; Baliga, Prabhakar K; Chavin, Kenneth D; Brunner-Jackson, Brenda; Patel, Sachin K; Ruggiero, Kenneth J

    2015-01-01

    Background There is a critical need to expand the pool of available kidneys for African Americans who are on the transplant wait-list due to the disproportionally lower availability of deceased donor kidneys compared with other races/ethnic groups. Encouraging living donation is one method to fill this need. Incorporating mHealth strategies may be a way to deliver educational and supportive services to African American transplant-eligible patients and improve reach to those living in remote areas or unable to attend traditional group-session-based programs. Before program development, it is essential to perform formative research with target populations to determine acceptability and cultivate a patient-centered and culturally relevant approach to be used for program development. Objective The objectives of this study were to investigate African American kidney transplant recipients’ and kidney donors’/potential donors’ attitudes and perceptions toward mobile technology and its viability in an mHealth program aimed at educating patients about the process of living kidney donation. Methods Using frameworks from the technology acceptance model and self-determination theory, 9 focus groups (n=57) were administered to African Americans at a southeastern medical center, which included deceased/living donor kidney recipients and living donors/potential donors. After a demonstration of a tablet-based video education session and explanation of a group-based videoconferencing session, focus groups examined members’ perceptions about how educational messages should be presented on topics pertaining to the process of living kidney donation and the transplantation. Questionnaires were administered on technology use and perceptions of the potential program communication platform. Transcripts were coded and themes were examined using NVivo 10 software. Results Qualitative findings found 5 major themes common among all participants. These included the following: (1

  2. [Influence of the temperature on the development of the African cat flea Ctenocephalides felis strongylus (Jordan, 1925) (Siphonaptera : Pulicidae)].

    PubMed

    Yao, K P; N'Goran, K E; Franc, M

    2010-06-01

    Ctenocephalides felis (Bouché, 1835) commonly called "cat's flea" presents two recognized subspecies: Ctenocephalides felis strongylus (Jordan, 1925), observed in the African continent, and Ctenocephalides felis felis (Bouché, 1835) in the other regions (North Africa, Europe and America) (Ménier and Beaucournu, 19991. In sub-Saharan Africa, the principal flea found in the pets and certain livestock (ovine, caprine and bovine), belongs to the subspecies C. f. strongylus. Some bio-ecologic parameters of C. f. strongylus were studied in various conditions of breeding and the results compared with those currently available for C. f. felis. At 75% +/- 5 of relative humidity, the development cycle of C. f. strongylus lasts 20-21 days at 27 degrees C and 16 to 17 days at 29 degrees C. In comparison with C. f. felis, it is shown that for identical breeding temperatures, the African subspecies of the cat flea develops itself slowly. This difference could be explained by the influence of the climate of their respective areas of distribution on their development cycle. With 75% +/- 5 of relative humidity, C. f. strongylus cannot survive more than 14 days in temperatures ranging between 27 and 29 degrees C, and this without any blood meal. Under the same conditions, this duration of survival does not exceed 16 days at 19 degrees C. But when C. f. strongylus has taken a first blood meal, its lifespan is much shorter when it is out of its host. Indeed, no individual is found living three days passed out of the fur of its host at 29 degrees C, five days at 27 degrees C and eight days at 19 degrees C. It is the same for C. f. felis. These data on bio-ecology of C. f. strongylus enable to understand the influence of temperature on its development cycle and consider more efficient strategies of control.

  3. Mentor relationships and the career development of pregnant and parenting African-American teenagers.

    PubMed

    Klaw, E L; Rhodes, J E

    1995-12-01

    This study examined data from an alternative school among African-American pregnant and parenting teenagers in order to gauge the extent to which mentors were associated with positive educational and career outcomes. Interviews were conducted during 1992-93 among most who were attending the school at that time. The study included 204 African-American adolescents aged 11-19 years. 61% were expecting their first birth, 34% had a child already, and 5% had 2 or more prior children. No one was ever married. 66.2% lived on welfare benefits. A mentor is one who was an older adult, who was someone the child could count on, who believed or cared deeply about the child, who inspired the child to do the best, and the relationship affected the choices made. Mentors are looked up to as role models for the kind of person one would like to be or for the kind of career one would like to have. Study participants rated mentors on a scale of 1-5 on each characteristic. Other measures include the occupational aspiration-expectation gap, career related activities, opportunity structure beliefs, and life optimism. Findings show that 57.8% had adult mentors, and 46.3% knew their mentors for at least 15 years or more. 80% expected to maintain their relationship with the mentor indefinitely. 32% nominated aunts, and 25.7% nominated grandmothers. 47.7% reported seeing mentors daily. 48% saw their mentors at least once a week. 66% reported expectations that were equal to aspirations. The path analysis indicates that all paths between career activities, beliefs about opportunities, and life optimism were significantly associated with mentor support. The model suggests that increased life optimism from mentor support may directly and indirectly lead to beliefs in education as an opportunity structure and career related activities. The authors suggest encouraging adolescents to reach out to supportive adults.

  4. Development of a Spiritually Based Educational Intervention to Increase Informed Decision Making for Prostate Cancer Screening Among Church-Attending African American Men

    PubMed Central

    Holt, Cheryl L.; Wynn, Theresa A.; Southward, Penny; Litaker, Mark s.; Jeames, Sanford; Schulz, Emily

    2010-01-01

    One way of developing culturally relevant health communication in the African American church setting is to develop spiritually based interventions, in which the health message is framed by relevant spiritual themes and scripture. In this article we describe the development of a community health advisor (CHA)-led intervention aimed at increasing informed decision making (IDM) for prostate cancer screening among church-attending African American men. Full-color print educational booklets were developed and pilot tested with extensive community participation of church-attending African American men age-eligible for screening. The intervention development phase consisted of ideas solicited from an advisory panel of African American men (N = 10), who identified core content and developed the spiritual themes. In the intervention pilot testing phase, prototypes of the intervention materials were pilot tested for graphic appeal in two focus groups (N = 16), and content was tested for acceptability and comprehension using individual cognitive response interviews (N = 10). Recommendations were made for project branding and logo and for use of graphics of real people in the educational materials. Significant feedback was obtained from the focus groups, on the graphics, colors, fonts, continuity, titles, and booklet size/shape. The importance of working closely with the community when developing interventions is discussed, as well as the importance of pilot testing of educational materials. PMID:19731129

  5. Development of a spiritually based educational intervention to increase informed decision making for prostate cancer screening among church-attending African American men.

    PubMed

    Holt, Cheryl L; Wynn, Theresa A; Southward, Penny; Litaker, Mark S; Jeames, Sanford; Schulz, Emily

    2009-09-01

    One way of developing culturally relevant health communication in the African American church setting is to develop spiritually based interventions, in which the health message is framed by relevant spiritual themes and scripture. In this article we describe the development of a community health advisor(CHA)-led intervention aimed at increasing informed decision making (IDM) for prostate cancer screening among church-attending African American men. Full-color print educational booklets were developed and pilot tested with extensive community participation of church-attending African American men age-eligible for screening. The intervention development phase consisted of ideas solicited from an advisory panel of African American men (N = 10), who identified core content and developed the spiritual themes. In the intervention pilot testing phase, prototypes of the intervention materials were pilot tested for graphic appeal in two focus groups (N = 16), and content was tested for acceptability and comprehension using individual cognitive response interviews (N = 10). Recommendations were made for project branding and logo and for use of graphics of real people in the educational materials. Significant feedback was obtained from the focus groups, on the graphics, colors, fonts, continuity, titles, and booklet size/shape. The importance of working closely with the community when developing interventions is discussed, as well as the importance of pilot testing of educational materials.

  6. Reducing childhood obesity through coordinated care: Development of a park prescription program

    PubMed Central

    Messiah, Sarah E; Jiang, Sandy; Kardys, Jack; Hansen, Eric; Nardi, Maria; Forster, Lourdes

    2016-01-01

    Major hindrances to controlling the current childhood obesity epidemic include access to prevention and/or treatment programs that are affordable, provide minimal barriers for participation, and are available to the general public. Moreover, successful childhood obesity prevention efforts will require coordinated partnerships in multiple sectors such as government, health care, school/afterschool, and the community but very few documented sustainable programs currently exist. Effective, community-based health and wellness programs with a focus on maintaining healthy weight via physical activity and healthy eating have the potential to be a powerful referral resource for pediatricians and other healthcare professionals who have young patients who are overweight/obese. The Miami Dade County Department of Parks, Recreation and Open Spaces in partnership with the University of Miami UHealth Systems have created a “Park Prescription Program (Parks Rx 4HealthTM)” that formally coordinates pediatricians, families, parents, caregivers, and child/adolescents to provide daily obesity-prevention activities. This Parks Rx 4HealthTM program that we describe here allows UHealth pediatricians to seamlessly refer their overweight and obese patients to Fit2PlayTM, an evidence-based, park-based afterschool health and wellness program. Measurable outcomes that include body mass index, blood pressure, fitness, and nutrition knowledge are being collected at baseline and at 3-and 6-mo after referral to document patient progress. Results are then shared with the referring physician so they can follow up with the patient if necessary. Identifying successful models that integrate primary care, public health, and community-based efforts is important to accelerating progress in preventing childhood obesity. Effective, community-based health and wellness programs with a focus on physical activity and nutrition education could be a powerful referral resource for pediatricians who have

  7. An isentropic and sigma coordinate hybrid numerical model - Model development and some initial tests. [for atmospheric simulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Uccellini, L. W.; Johnson, D. R.; Schlesinger, R. E.

    1979-01-01

    A solution is presented for matching boundary conditions across the interface of an isentropic and sigma coordinate hybrid model. A hybrid model based on the flux form of the primitive equations is developed which allows direct vertical exchange between the model domains, satisfies conservation principles with respect to transport processes, and maintains a smooth transition across the interface without need for artificial adjustment or parameterization schemes. The initial hybrid model simulations of a jet streak propagating in a zonal channel are used to test the feasibility of the hybrid model approach. High efficiency of the hybrid model is demonstrated.

  8. Racial discrimination and racial socialization as predictors of African American adolescents' racial identity development using latent transition analysis.

    PubMed

    Seaton, Eleanor K; Yip, Tiffany; Morgan-Lopez, Antonio; Sellers, Robert M

    2012-03-01

    The present study examined perceptions of racial discrimination and racial socialization on racial identity development among 566 African American adolescents over 3 years. Latent class analyses were used to estimate identity statuses (Diffuse, Foreclosed, Moratorium, and Achieved). The probabilities of transitioning from one stage to another were examined with latent transition analyses to determine the likelihood of youth progressing, regressing, or remaining constant. Racial socialization and perceptions of racial discrimination were examined as covariates to assess the association with changes in racial identity status. The results indicated that perceptions of racial discrimination were not linked to any changes in racial identity. Youth who reported higher levels of racial socialization were less likely to be in Diffuse or Foreclosed compared with the Achieved group.

  9. Fertilization and development of eggs of the South African clawed toad, Xenopus laevis, on sounding rockets in space.

    PubMed

    Ubbels, G A; Berendsen, W; Kerkvliet, S; Narraway, J

    1992-01-01

    Egg rotation and centrifugation experiments strongly suggest a role for gravity in the determination of the spatial structure of amphibian embryos. Decisive experiments can only be made in Space. Eggs of Xenopus laevis, the South African clawed toad, were the first vertebrate eggs which were successfully fertilized on Sounding Rockets in Space. Unfixed, newly fertilized eggs survived reentry, and a reasonable number showed a seemingly normal gastrulation but died between gastrulation and neurulation. Only a few reached the larval stage, but these developed abnormally. In the future, we intend to test whether this abnormal morphogenesis is due to reentry perturbations, or due to a real microgravity effect, through perturbation of the reinitiation of meiosis and other processes, or started by later sperm penetration.

  10. Fertilization and development of eggs of the South African clawed toad, Xenopus laevis, on sounding rockets in space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ubbels, Geertje A.; Berendsen, Willem; Kerkvliet, Sonja; Narraway, Jenny

    Egg rotation and centrifugation experiments strongly suggest a role for gravity in the determination of the spatial structure of amphibian embryos. Decisive experiments can only be made in Space. Eggs of Xenopus laevis, the South African clawed toad, were the first vertebrate eggs which were successfully fertilized on Sounding Rockets in Space. Unfixed, newly fertilized eggs survived reentry, and a reasonable number showed a seemingly normal gastrulation but died between gastrulation and neurulation. Only a few reached the larval stage, but these developed abnormally. In the future, we inted to test whether this abnormal morphogenesis is due to reentry perturbations, or due to a real microgravity effect, through perturbation of the reinitiation of meiosis and other processes, or started by later sperm penetration.

  11. Development of ten microsatellite loci in the invasive giant African land snail, Achatina (=Lissachatina) fulica Bowdich, 1822

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morrison, Cheryl L.; Springmann, Marcus J.; Iwanowicz, Deborah D.; Wade, Christopher M.

    2015-01-01

    A suite of tetra-nucleotide microsatellite loci were developed for the invasive giant African land snail, Achatina (=Lissachatina) fulica Bowdich, 1822, from Ion Torrent next-generation sequencing data. Ten of the 96 primer sets tested amplified consistently in 30 snails from Miami, Florida, plus 12 individuals representative of their native East Africa, Indian and Pacific Ocean regions. The loci displayed moderate levels of allelic diversity (average 5.6 alleles/locus) and heterozygosity (average 42 %). Levels of genetic diversity were sufficient to produce unique multi-locus genotypes and detect phylogeographic structuring among regional samples. The invasive A. fulica can cause extensive damage to important food crops and natural resources, including native flora and fauna. The loci characterized here will be useful for determining the origins and tracking the spread of invasions, detecting fine-scale spatial structuring and estimating demographic parameters.

  12. Development of a global motor rating scale for young children (0-4 years) including eye-hand grip coordination.

    PubMed

    Vaivre-Douret, L; Burnod, Y

    2001-11-01

    A comparative study of the eight motor rating scales available in Western countries demonstrated methodological differences in the choice of items and standardization. We have developed a global motor rating scale that includes items which measure postural-motor, locomotor (PML) and eye-hand grip coordination (EHGC), and which allows the assessment of an average of motor function level (MFL), PML and EHGC development. Scores obtained were used to define the acquisition of motor age based on the skills completed. The items were selected on the basis of the average age at which the function developed in two populations of healthy full-term French infants, followed from birth to 4 months (n = 60) and from 4 months to 4 years (n = 63). Recent French developmental standards (mean age and standard deviation) of acquisition allow the identification of neuro-psychomotor deviations from normal motor behaviour. This includes both static and dynamic motor coordination sequences. Inter-examiner correlations (n = 3) for 15 randomly selected children indicated a coefficient of 0.90. The scale revealed a sequence in the organization of learned postural-motor, locomotor and eye-hand gripping skills which can contribute to the understanding of brain areas implicated in this maturation process.

  13. MIXTA-like transcription factors and WAX INDUCER1/SHINE1 coordinately regulate cuticle development in Arabidopsis and Torenia fournieri.

    PubMed

    Oshima, Yoshimi; Shikata, Masahito; Koyama, Tomotsugu; Ohtsubo, Norihiro; Mitsuda, Nobutaka; Ohme-Takagi, Masaru

    2013-05-01

    The waxy plant cuticle protects cells from dehydration, repels pathogen attack, and prevents organ fusion during development. The transcription factor WAX INDUCER1/SHINE1 (WIN1/SHN1) regulates the biosynthesis of waxy substances in Arabidopsis thaliana. Here, we show that the MIXTA-like MYB transcription factors MYB106 and MYB16, which regulate epidermal cell morphology, also regulate cuticle development coordinately with WIN1/SHN1 in Arabidopsis and Torenia fournieri. Expression of a MYB106 chimeric repressor fusion (35S:MYB106-SRDX) and knockout/down of MYB106 and MYB16 induced cuticle deficiencies characterized by organ adhesion and reduction of epicuticular wax crystals and cutin nanoridges. A similar organ fusion phenotype was produced by expression of a WIN1/SHN1 chimeric repressor. Conversely, the dominant active form of MYB106 (35S:MYB106-VP16) induced ectopic production of cutin nanoridges and increased expression of WIN1/SHN1 and wax biosynthetic genes. Microarray experiments revealed that MYB106 and WIN1/SHN1 regulate similar sets of genes, predominantly those involved in wax and cutin biosynthesis. Furthermore, WIN1/SHN1 expression was induced by MYB106-VP16 and repressed by MYB106-SRDX. These results indicate that the regulatory cascade of MIXTA-like proteins and WIN1/SHN1 coordinately regulate cutin biosynthesis and wax accumulation. This study reveals an additional key aspect of MIXTA-like protein function and suggests a unique relationship between cuticle development and epidermal cell differentiation.

  14. African Regional Symposium on Telematics for Development. Report and Recommendations = Colloque regional africain la telematique au service du developpement. Rapport et recommandations (Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, April 3-7, 1995).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Telecommunication Union, Geneva (Switzerland).

    The African Regional Symposium on Telematics for Development was organized in view of the special educational and communication needs of Africa in a time of accelerating change and development of information technologies. The symposium brought together more than 150 African specialists, and over 40 participants from other regions and development…

  15. Development and Evaluation of a Complementary and Alternative Medicine Use Survey in African-Americans with Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Sterk, Claire; McCarty, Frances; Hankerson-Dyson, Dana; DiClemente, Ralph

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Objectives The purpose of the current study was to develop and evaluate the psychometric properties of a culturally- and stage-of-disease-appropriate measure of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) use among a population of African-American individuals with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) using a mixed-method design. Design Data were collected in two phases. In phase 1, qualitative data were used to refine an existing CAM measure for the specific study population in the present study. In phase 2, this refined instrument was implemented in a larger sample. The resulting numeric data were analyzed to evaluate the psychometric properties of the revised CAM instrument. Setting Data were collected from patients who were receiving care from the infectious disease clinic of a large, public, urban hospital in the Southeastern United States. Subjects Patients were eligible to participate if they (1) were receiving their care from the clinic, (2) had an AIDS diagnosis, (3) were identified as African-American, (4) were ≥21 years of age, (5) spoke English, and (6) were not cognitively impaired. Measures Focus groups in phase 1 were conducted with a semistructured focus group guide. Participants also completed a basic sociodemographic survey. Phase 2 participants used programmed laptops to answer questions about their CAM use and several sociodemographic questions. Results Information from the focus groups prompted some substantive revisions in the already-existing CAM survey. The revised instrument had satisfactory face validity and adequate test–retest reliability (r = 0.79). Furthermore, the instrument factored in a manner that was interpretable and consistent with prior findings. Conclusions In order for human immunodeficiency virus health care providers to provide the best care to their patients, they need to be informed about the types and frequency of CAM use among their patients. This can be accomplished by methodologically developing

  16. Using rolling to develop neuromuscular control and coordination of the core and extremities of athletes.

    PubMed

    Hoogenboom, Barbara J; Voight, Michael L; Cook, Gray; Gill, Lance

    2009-05-01

    Rolling is a movement pattern seldom used by physical therapists for assessment and intervention with adult clientele with normal neurologic function. Rolling, as an adult motor skill, combines the use of the upper extremities, core, and lower extremities in a coordinated manner to move from one posture to another. Rolling is accomplished from prone to supine and supine to prone, although the method by which it is performed varies among adults. Assessment of rolling for both the ability to complete the task and bilateral symmetry may be beneficial for use with athletes who perform rotationally-biased sports such as golf, throwing, tennis, and twisting sports such as dance, gymnastics, and figure skating. Additionally, when used as intervention techniques, the rolling patterns have the ability to affect dysfunction of the upper quarter, core, and lower quarter. By applying proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) principles, the therapist may assist patients and clients who are unable to complete a rolling pattern. Examples given in the article include distraction/elongation, compression, and manual contacts to facilitate proper rolling. The combined experience of the four authors is used to describe techniques for testing, assessment, and treatment of dysfunction, using case examples that incorporate rolling. The authors assert that therapeutic use of the developmental pattern of rolling with techniques derived from PNF is a hallmark in rehabilitation of patients with neurologic dysfunction, but can be creatively and effectively utilized in musculoskeletal rehabilitation.

  17. Development of a Coordinated National Soil Moisture Network: A Pilot Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quiring, S. M.; Lucido, J. M.; Winslow, L.; Ford, T.; Bijoy Baruah, P.; Verdin, J. P.; Pulwarty, R. S.; Strobel, M.

    2015-12-01

    Soil moisture is critical for accurate drought assessment and forecasting, identifying flood potential, climate modeling, estimation of crop yields and water budgeting. However, soil moisture data are collected by many agencies and organizations in the United States using a variety of instruments and methods for varying applications. These data are often distributed and represented in disparate formats, posing significant challenges for reuse. Recognizing this need, the President's Climate Action Plan called for the creation of a coordinated national soil moisture network. In response, a team led by the National Integrated Drought Information System has completed a proof-of-concept pilot project. The pilot comprises both in-situ and assimilated soil moisture datasets. It focuses on providing real-time soil moisture data via standard web services to feed map-based visualization tools in order to meet the following use cases: operational drought monitoring, experimental land surface modeling, and operational hydrological modeling. The result of this pilot is a reference architecture that will inform the implementation of the national network.

  18. Using Rolling to Develop Neuromuscular Control and Coordination of the Core and Extremities of Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Voight, Michael L.; Cook, Gray; Gill, Lance

    2009-01-01

    Rolling is a movement pattern seldom used by physical therapists for assessment and intervention with adult clientele with normal neurologic function. Rolling, as an adult motor skill, combines the use of the upper extremities, core, and lower extremities in a coordinated manner to move from one posture to another. Rolling is accomplished from prone to supine and supine to prone, although the method by which it is performed varies among adults. Assessment of rolling for both the ability to complete the task and bilateral symmetry may be beneficial for use with athletes who perform rotationally-biased sports such as golf, throwing, tennis, and twisting sports such as dance, gymnastics, and figure skating. Additionally, when used as intervention techniques, the rolling patterns have the ability to affect dysfunction of the upper quarter, core, and lower quarter. By applying proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) principles, the therapist may assist patients and clients who are unable to complete a rolling pattern. Examples given in the article include distraction/elongation, compression, and manual contacts to facilitate proper rolling. The combined experience of the four authors is used to describe techniques for testing, assessment, and treatment of dysfunction, using case examples that incorporate rolling. The authors assert that therapeutic use of the developmental pattern of rolling with techniques derived from PNF is a hallmark in rehabilitation of patients with neurologic dysfunction, but can be creatively and effectively utilized in musculoskeletal rehabilitation. PMID:21509112

  19. APC/C-Cdh1 coordinates neurogenesis and cortical size during development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delgado-Esteban, Maria; García-Higuera, Irene; Maestre, Carolina; Moreno, Sergio; Almeida, Angeles

    2013-12-01

    The morphology of the adult brain is the result of a delicate balance between neural progenitor proliferation and the initiation of neurogenesis in the embryonic period. Here we assessed whether the anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C) cofactor, Cdh1—which regulates mitosis exit and G1-phase length in dividing cells—regulates neurogenesis in vivo. We use an embryo-restricted Cdh1 knockout mouse model and show that functional APC/C-Cdh1 ubiquitin ligase activity is required for both terminal differentiation of cortical neurons in vitro and neurogenesis in vivo. Further, genetic ablation of Cdh1 impairs the ability of APC/C to promote neurogenesis by delaying the exit of the progenitor cells from the cell cycle. This causes replicative stress and p53-mediated apoptotic death resulting in decreased number of cortical neurons and cortex size. These results demonstrate that APC/C-Cdh1 coordinates cortical neurogenesis and size, thus posing Cdh1 in the molecular pathogenesis of congenital neurodevelopmental disorders, such as microcephaly.

  20. APC/C-Cdh1 coordinates neurogenesis and cortical size during development.

    PubMed

    Delgado-Esteban, Maria; García-Higuera, Irene; Maestre, Carolina; Moreno, Sergio; Almeida, Angeles

    2013-01-01

    The morphology of the adult brain is the result of a delicate balance between neural progenitor proliferation and the initiation of neurogenesis in the embryonic period. Here we assessed whether the anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C) cofactor, Cdh1--which regulates mitosis exit and G1-phase length in dividing cells--regulates neurogenesis in vivo. We use an embryo-restricted Cdh1 knockout mouse model and show that functional APC/C-Cdh1 ubiquitin ligase activity is required for both terminal differentiation of cortical neurons in vitro and neurogenesis in vivo. Further, genetic ablation of Cdh1 impairs the ability of APC/C to promote neurogenesis by delaying the exit of the progenitor cells from the cell cycle. This causes replicative stress and p53-mediated apoptotic death resulting in decreased number of cortical neurons and cortex size. These results demonstrate that APC/C-Cdh1 coordinates cortical neurogenesis and size, thus posing Cdh1 in the molecular pathogenesis of congenital neurodevelopmental disorders, such as microcephaly.

  1. Transcriptional regulation of thylakoid galactolipid biosynthesis coordinated with chlorophyll biosynthesis during the development of chloroplasts in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Koichi; Fujii, Sho; Sasaki, Daichi; Baba, Shinsuke; Ohta, Hiroyuki; Masuda, Tatsuru; Wada, Hajime

    2014-01-01

    Biogenesis of thylakoid membranes in chloroplasts requires the coordinated synthesis of chlorophyll and photosynthetic proteins with the galactolipids monogalactosyldiacylglycerol (MGDG) and digalactosyldiacylglycerol (DGDG), which constitute the bulk of the thylakoid lipid matrix. MGD1 and DGD1 are the key enzymes of MGDG and DGDG synthesis, respectively. We investigated the expression profiles of MGD1 and DGD1 in Arabidopsis to identify the transcriptional regulation that coordinates galactolipid synthesis with the synthesis of chlorophyll and photosynthetic proteins during chloroplast biogenesis. The expression of both MGD1 and DGD1 was repressed in response to defects in chlorophyll synthesis. Moreover, these genes were downregulated by norflurazon-induced chloroplast malfunction via the GENOMES-UNCOUPLED1-mediated plastid signaling pathway. Similar to other photosynthesis-associated nuclear genes, the expression of MGD1 and DGD1 was induced by light, in which both cytokinin signaling and LONG HYPOCOTYL5-mediated light signaling played crucial roles. The expression of these galactolipid-synthesis genes, and particularly that of DGD1 under continuous light, was strongly affected by the activities of the GOLDEN2-LIKE transcription factors, which are potent regulators of chlorophyll synthesis and chloroplast biogenesis. These results suggest tight transcriptional coordination of galactolipid synthesis with the formation of the photosynthetic chlorophyll-protein complexes during leaf development. Meanwhile, unlike the photosynthetic genes, the galactolipid synthesis genes were not upregulated during chloroplast biogenesis in the roots, even though the galactolipids accumulated with chlorophylls, indicating the importance of post-transcriptional regulation of galactolipid synthesis during root greening. Our data suggest that plants utilize complex regulatory mechanisms to modify galactolipid synthesis with chloroplast development during plant growth.

  2. Childhood violence exposure and the development of sexual risk in low-income African American girls.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Helen W; Donenberg, Geri R; Emerson, Erin

    2014-12-01

    Low-income, urban African American (AA) girls are at heightened risk for sexually transmitted infections (STIs), and violence exposure may be an important risk factor. AA girls (N = 177) from low-income communities in Chicago completed a 2-year longitudinal study of HIV-risk behavior involving five waves of data collection (ages 12-16 at baseline) and a sixth wave (ages 14-22) assessing lifetime trauma and victimization history. Childhood exposure to violence (CEV) represented reports of physical, sexual, or witnessed violence before age 12. Latent growth curve analysis examined CEV as a covariate of sexual experience, number of sexual partners, and inconsistent condom use trajectories. CEV was associated with greater sexual risk, although the pattern differed across the three outcomes. Overall, findings emphasize the need for early interventions to reduce sexual risk among low-income urban girls who have experienced violence. Efforts to address or prevent violence exposure may also reduce rates of STIs in this population.

  3. The Audio-Visual Services in Fifteen African Countries. Comparative Study on the Administration of Audio-Visual Services in Advanced and Developing Countries. Part Four. First Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jongbloed, Harry J. L.

    As the fourth part of a comparative study on the administration of audiovisual services in advanced and developing countries, this UNESCO-funded study reports on the African countries of Cameroun, Republic of Central Africa, Dahomey, Gabon, Ghana, Kenya, Libya, Mali, Nigeria, Rwanda, Senegal, Swaziland, Tunisia, Upper Volta and Zambia. Information…

  4. Women Reading for Education, Affinity & Development (WREAD): An Evaluation of a Semistructured Reading Discussion Group for African American Female Adult-Literacy Students with Histories of Trauma

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Jayatta D.

    2012-01-01

    Women Reading for Education, Affinity & Development (WREAD), a reading discussion group geared toward African American female adult-literacy students with self-defined histories of trauma, was an outgrowth of research identifying links between trauma, women's struggles with literacy, and the need to be conscious of emotional health…

  5. From Boys to KINGS: Examining the Perceptions and Perspectives of African American Male Participants of the 100 KINGS Youth Development Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Rodney D.

    2011-01-01

    This study explored the perceptions and perspectives of African American male students with regard to their experiences in a youth development initiative sponsored by a community-based organization. This examination aimed to ascertain the aspects of the program that, first, prompted the students to be a part of the initiative, but also those…

  6. Technical Education and Vocational Training in Central Africa. Feasibility Survey of the Regional Development of Rapid Vocational Training: Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, and Gabon.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Organization for Rehabilitation through Training, Geneva (Switzerland).

    This final report is the result of a survey requested by the United States Agency for International Development (USAID) and undertaken by the Organization for Rehabilitation through Training (ORT) of four countries (Cameroon, Chad, Central African Republic, and Gabon) and a conference on vocational training sponsored by the Economic and Customs…

  7. Incorporating the Notion of Recontextualisation in Academic Literacies Research: The Case of a South African Vocational Web Design and Development Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coleman, Lynn

    2012-01-01

    This article describes a small scale ethnographically oriented research study seeking to contribute to understanding student academic literacy practices in a South African vocational, web design and development course. In this course digital multimodal assessments are the main means whereby students demonstrate their learning. The findings of the…

  8. Content Standards for the Professional Development of Workplace Learning Teacher Coordinators and Teacher Leaders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wichowski, Chester P.; Erwin, Nancy Budnovitch; Walker, Thomas J.

    Pennsylvania has three regional Professional Personnel Development Centers responsible for the delivery of services around a block of common objectives designed to meet the professional development needs of vocational educators. The Developing a Curriculum (DACUM) process has been used to address two areas of need identified by the Temple…

  9. Infusing Culture into Practice: Developing and Implementing Evidence-Based Mental Health Services for African American Foster Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Briggs, Harold Eugene; McBeath, Bowen

    2010-01-01

    The lack of culturally appropriate health and mental health care has contributed to the large number of African American youth and families involved in the child welfare system. This article reviews the consequences of the insufficient access to culturally sensitive, evidence-supported interventions for African American foster youth. The authors…

  10. Report on BAAL "Language in Africa" SIG Meetings Reading in African Languages: Developing Literacies and Reading Methodologies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wildsmith-Cromarty, Rosemary

    2015-01-01

    This report describes ongoing research on reading in African languages. It draws mainly on contributions from two British Association for Applied Linguistics (BAAL) "Language in Africa" (LiA) Special Interest Group (SIG) meetings: the LiA SIG strand at BAAL 2013 and the seminar on "Reading Methodologies in African Languages"…

  11. The Impact of Oakland Freedom School's Summer Youth Program on the Psychosocial Development of African American Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bethea, Sharon L.

    2012-01-01

    The present investigation considers the program outcomes of one community youth project, Leadership Excellence Inc., Oakland Freedom Schools. Oakland Freedom Schools are culturally relevant 6-week summer Language Arts enrichment programs for primarily inner-city African American youth aged 5 to 14 years. In this study, 79 African American youth…

  12. The Relationship between Media Influence and Ethnic Identity Development among Low-Income African American and White Adolescent Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrd, Kenycia

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between media influence and ethnic identity among low-income African American and White adolescent girls. According to the U.S. Census (2008), 98% of Americans have a television in their home. Prior research suggests that low-income African American adolescents are exposed to more media…

  13. Reading Representations of Themselves: Urban Youth Use Culture and African American Textual Features to Develop Literary Understandings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Wanda

    2006-01-01

    This article describes a qualitative research study that explored how a middle school case-study class read and responded to "culturally conscious" African American children's books (Sims, 1982, p. 49). First, I relied on literary analyses conducted mainly by Sims (1982) and Harris (1995) to identify African American textual features contained in…

  14. Perceptions of family history and genetic testing and feasibility of pedigree development among African Americans with hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Pettey, Christina M; McSweeney, Jean C; Stewart, Katharine E; Price, Elvin T; Cleves, Mario A; Heo, Seongkum; Souder, Elaine

    2016-01-01

    Background Pedigree development, family history, and genetic testing are thought to be useful in improving outcomes of chronic illnesses such as hypertension (HTN). However, the clinical utility of pedigree development is still unknown. Further, little is known about African Americans’ (AAs’) perceptions of family history and genetic testing. Aims This study examined the feasibility of developing pedigrees for AAs with HTN and explored perceptions of family history and genetic research among AAs with HTN. Methods The US Surgeon General’s My Family Health Portrait was administered, and 30–60 minute in-person individual interviews were conducted. Descriptive statistics were used to analyze pedigree data. Interview transcripts were analyzed with content analysis and constant comparison. Results Twenty-nine AAs with HTN were recruited from one free clinic (15 women, 14 men; mean age 49 years, SD 9.6). Twenty-six (90%) reported their family history in sufficient detail to develop a pedigree. Perceptions of family history included knowledge of HTN in the family, culturally influenced family teaching about HTN, and response to family history of HTN. Most participants agreed to future genetic testing and DNA collection because they wanted to help others; some said they needed more information and others expressed a concern for privacy. Conclusion The majority of AAs in this sample possessed extensive knowledge of HTN within their family and were able to develop a three generation pedigree with assistance. The majority were willing to participate in future genetic research. PMID:25322748

  15. Technical Consulting: The African-American Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitfield, Tracy N.

    2010-01-01

    The qualitative research study explored the organizational characteristics necessary in addressing the low concentration of African American technical consultants employed in the information technology industry. Using research participants' professional experience, participants responded to a developed questionnaire. African American technical…

  16. Are nurses well placed as care co-ordinators in primary care and what is needed to develop their role: a rapid review?

    PubMed

    Parker, Sharon; Fuller, Jeffrey

    2016-03-01

    Care co-ordination is reported to be an effective component of chronic disease (CD) management within primary care. While nurses often perform this role, it has not been reported if they or other disciplines are best placed to take on this role, and whether the discipline of the co-ordinator has any impact on clinical and health service outcomes. We conducted a rapid review of previous systematic reviews from 2006 to 2013 to answer these questions with a view to informing improvements in care co-ordination programmes. Eighteen systematic reviews from countries with developed health systems comparable to Australia were included. All but one included complex interventions and 12 of the 18 involved a range of multidisciplinary co-ordination strategies. This multi-strategy and multidisciplinarity made it difficult to isolate which were the most effective strategies and disciplines. Nurses required specific training for these roles, but performed co-ordination more often than any other discipline. There was, however, no evidence that discipline had a direct impact on clinical or service outcomes, although specific expertise gained through training and workforce organisational support for the co-ordinator was required. Hence, skill mix is an important consideration when employing care co-ordination, and a sustained consistent approach to workforce change is required if nurses are to be enabled to perform effective care co-ordination in CD management in primary care.

  17. The African Folktale. An Instructional Unit for Seventh Grade English.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dobbs, Sherry

    The document presents a 3-week seventh grade English unit on the African folktale. The guide is one of a number of products developed by a summer workshop for teachers on African curriculum development. The objectives are to help students develop respect for African cultures and lifestyles, compare values of African and American ethnic…

  18. Astrocyte morphology, heterogeneity, and density in the developing African giant rat (Cricetomys gambianus)

    PubMed Central

    Olude, Matthew A.; Mustapha, Oluwaseun A.; Aderounmu, Oluwatunde A.; Olopade, James O.; Ihunwo, Amadi O.

    2015-01-01

    Astrocyte morphologies and heterogeneity were described in male African giant rats (AGR; Cricetomys gambianus, Waterhouse) across three age groups (five neonates, five juveniles, and five adults) using Silver impregnation method and immunohistochemistry against glial fibrillary acidic protein. Immunopositive cell signaling, cell size and population were least in neonates, followed by adults and juveniles, respectively. In neonates, astrocyte processes were mostly detected within the glia limitans of the mid and hind brain; their cell bodies measuring 32 ± 4.8 μm in diameter against 91 ± 5.4 μm and 75 ± 1.9 μm in juveniles and adults, respectively. Astrocyte heterogeneity in juvenile and adult groups revealed eight subtypes to include fibrous astrocytes chiefly in the corpus callosum and brain stem, protoplasmic astrocytes in the cortex and dentate gyrus (DG); radial glia were found along the olfactory bulb (OB) and subventricular zone (SVZ); velate astrocytes were mainly found in the cerebellum and hippocampus; marginal astrocytes close to the pia mater; Bergmann glia in the molecular layer of the cerebellum; perivascular and periventricular astrocytes in the cortex and third ventricle, respectively. Cell counts from twelve anatomical regions of the brain were significantly higher in juveniles than in adults (p ≤ 0.01) using unpaired student t-test in the cerebral cortex, pia, corpus callosum, rostral migratory stream, DG, and cerebellum. Highest astrocyte count was found in the DG, while the least count was in the brain stem and sub cortex. Astrocytes along the periventricular layer of the OB are believed to be part of the radial glia system that transport newly formed cells towards the hippocampus and play roles in neurogenesis migration and homeostasis in the AGR. Therefore, astrocyte heterogeneity was examined across age groups in the AGR to determine whether age influences astrocytes population in different regions of the AGR brain and discuss possible

  19. Shared Platform for South African Earth and Environmental Observation Systems: Recent Developments and Improvements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hugo, Wim

    2013-04-01

    Over the past 3 years, SAEON has worked with a number of stakeholders and funders to establish a shared platform for the management of dissemination of E&EO research outputs, data sets, and services. This platform is strongly aligned with GEO principles and architecture, allowing direct integration with the GEOSS Broker. The platform has two important characteristics: 1. It reduces the cost and lead time of provision of similar infrastructure for future initiatives. 2. The platform is domain-agnostic to some degree, and can be used for non E&EO applications. Projects to achive this is under way at present. The paper describes the application of the platform for a variety of user communities and initiatives (SAEON Data Portal, South African Earth Observation System, Risk and Vulnerability Atlas, BioEnergy Atlas, National Spatial Information Framework, ICSU World Data System Components, and many more), and demonstrates use cases utilising a distributed, service oriented architecture. Significant improvements have been made to the interoperability functions available to end users and content providers, and these are demonstrated and discussed in detail. Functions include • Creation and persistence of composite maps, as well as time series or scatter charts, supporting a variety of standardized data sources. • Search facilities have been extended to allow analysis and filtering of primary search results, and to deal with large meta-data collections. • In addition, data sources, data listings, news items, images, search results, and other platform content can, with increasing flexibility, be accessed as standardized services that are processed in standardized clients, allowing creation of a rich user interface, and permitting the inclusion of platform functionality into external websites and resources. This shift to explicit service-oriented, peer-to-peer architecture is a preparation for increased distributed processing and content composition, and will support

  20. Development and implementation of mass media campaigns to delay sexual initiation among African American and White youth.

    PubMed

    Noar, Seth M; Zimmerman, Rick S; Palmgreen, Philip; Cupp, Pamela K; Floyd, Brenikki R; Mehrotra, Purnima

    2014-01-01

    Reducing new HIV/STD infections among at-risk adolescents requires developing and evaluating evidence-based health communication approaches. Research overwhelmingly supports the conclusion that early sexual initiation is associated with STDs and other negative outcomes in later years (e.g., unintended pregnancy). The authors' research group secured funding from the National Institute of Mental Health to develop, implement, and rigorously evaluate televised mass media campaigns to delay initiation of sexual intercourse among African American and White adolescents in two cities in the Southeastern United States. The focus of the present study is on the development and implementation of the campaigns, including (a) rationale and theoretical underpinnings; (b) collection, screening, and assessment of existing public service announcements; (c) development of new public service announcements; (d) study design and campaign airing plan; and (e) message exposure achieved in the campaigns. Health communication campaigns hold much promise in reaching at-risk adolescent populations with targeted, timely, and relevant risk-reduction messages.

  1. Uncovering Black/African American and Latina/o students' motivation to learn science: Affordances to science identity development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahfood, Denise Marcia

    The following dissertation reports on a qualitative exploration that serves two main goals: (1) to qualitatively define and highlight science motivation development of Black/African American and Latina/o students as they learn science in middle school, high school, and in college and (2) to reveal through personal narratives how successful entry and persistence in science by this particular group is linked to the development of their science identities. The targeted population for this study is undergraduate students of color in science fields at a college or university. The theoretical frameworks for this study are constructivist theory, motivation theory, critical theory, and identity theories. The methodological approach is narrative which includes students' science learning experiences throughout the course of their academic lives. I use The Science Motivation Questionnaire II to obtain baseline data to quantitatively assess for motivation to learn science. Data from semi-structured interviews from selected participants were collected, coded, and configured into a story, and emergent themes reveal the important role of science learning in both informal and formal settings, but especially in informal settings that contribute to better understandings of science and the development of science identities for these undergraduate students of color. The findings have implications for science teaching in schools and teacher professional development in science learning.

  2. Sociopolitical development, work salience, and vocational expectations among low socioeconomic status African American, Latin American, and Asian American youth.

    PubMed

    Diemer, Matthew A; Wang, Qiu; Moore, Traymanesha; Gregory, Shannon R; Hatcher, Keisha M; Voight, Adam M

    2010-05-01

    Structural barriers constrain marginalized youths' development of work salience and vocational expectations. Sociopolitical development (SPD), the consciousness of, and motivation to reduce, sociopolitical inequality, may facilitate the negotiation of structural constraints. A structural model of SPD's impact on work salience and vocational expectations was proposed and its generalizability tested among samples of low-socioeconomic-status African American, Latin American, and Asian American youth, with Educational Longitudinal Study data. Measurement and temporal invariance of these constructs was first established before testing the proposed model across the samples. Across the three samples, 10th-grade SPD had significant effects on 10th-grade work salience and vocational expectations; 12th-grade SPD had a significant effect on 12th-grade work salience. Tenth-grade SPD had significant indirect effects on 12th-grade work salience and on 12th-grade vocational expectations for all three samples. These results suggest that SPD facilitates the agentic negotiation of constraints on the development of work salience and vocational expectations. Given the impact of adolescent career development on adult occupational attainment, SPD may also foster social mobility among youth constrained by an inequitable opportunity structure.

  3. Timing and tempo: Exploring the complex association between pubertal development and depression in African American and European American girls.

    PubMed

    Keenan, Kate; Culbert, Kristen M; Grimm, Kevin J; Hipwell, Alison E; Stepp, Stephanie D

    2014-11-01

    The relative contribution of pubertal timing and tempo to the development of depression has not been tested in a large, representative sample, nor has the interface among pubertal maturation, depression, and race been tested. Participants were a community-based sample of 2,450 girls from the Pittsburgh Girls Study who were interviewed annually from ages 9 to 17 years. Pubertal timing and tempo were characterized as a unitary construct and also separately for pubic hair and breast development using child and maternal report. Depression symptoms were assessed annually. African American girls had higher depression symptoms and progressed through puberty earlier, but at a slower tempo than European American girls. Girls with earlier timing had higher levels of depression symptoms at age 10 years. Slower tempo was associated with higher depression symptoms at age 10, and faster tempo was associated with increases in depression from ages 10 to 13. As well, race moderated the associations among timing, tempo, and depression symptoms, and the association between race and depression was partially mediated by pubertal timing and tempo. Pubertal timing and tempo and race contribute to the developmental course of depression from early to late adolescence. The pattern of association varies as a function of the developmental window within which depression is assessed. Thus, repeated measures of depression symptoms and puberty across the span of pubertal development are necessary for exploring the relative importance of dimensions of pubertal development to depression etiology.

  4. Assessment of the National Wind Coordinating Collaborative: Addressing Environmental and Siting Issues Associated with Wind Energy Development

    SciTech Connect

    Van Cleve, Frances B.; States, Jennifer C.

    2010-11-09

    The National Wind Coordinating Collaborative (NWCC) is a consensus-based stakeholder group comprised of representatives from the utility, wind industry, environmental, consumer, regulatory, power marketer, agricultural, tribal, economic development, and state and federal government sectors. The purpose of the NWCC is to support the development of an environmentally, economically, and politically sustainable commercial market for wind power (NWCC 2010). The NWCC has been funded by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) since its inception in 1994. In order to evaluate the impact of the work of the NWCC and how this work aligns with DOE’s strategic priorities, DOE tasked Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to conduct a series of informal interviews with a small sample of those involved with NWCC.

  5. Development of a model of machine hand eye coordination and program specifications for a topological machine vision system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    A unified approach to computer vision and manipulation is developed which is called choreographic vision. In the model, objects to be viewed by a projected robot in the Viking missions to Mars are seen as objects to be manipulated within choreographic contexts controlled by a multimoded remote, supervisory control system on Earth. A new theory of context relations is introduced as a basis for choreographic programming languages. A topological vision model is developed for recognizing objects by shape and contour. This model is integrated with a projected vision system consisting of a multiaperture image dissector TV camera and a ranging laser system. System program specifications integrate eye-hand coordination and topological vision functions and an aerospace multiprocessor implementation is described.

  6. Research on the Coordinative Development of Regional Higher Education and Economy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hong, Yingjun

    2012-01-01

    In the current society, economic development in any region has to rely on higher education. Conversely, higher education cannot do without regional economic development in order to achieve greater progress in scale and level. Starting with the function of higher education in Wenzhou, this paper analyzes the reality and problems in Wenzhou's higher…

  7. MicroRNA-8 promotes robust motor axon targeting by coordinate regulation of cell adhesion molecules during synapse development

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Cecilia S.; Zhai, Bo; Mauss, Alex; Landgraf, Matthias; Gygi, Stephen; Van Vactor, David

    2014-01-01

    Neuronal connectivity and specificity rely upon precise coordinated deployment of multiple cell-surface and secreted molecules. MicroRNAs have tremendous potential for shaping neural circuitry by fine-tuning the spatio-temporal expression of key synaptic effector molecules. The highly conserved microRNA miR-8 is required during late stages of neuromuscular synapse development in Drosophila. However, its role in initial synapse formation was previously unknown. Detailed analysis of synaptogenesis in this system now reveals that miR-8 is required at the earliest stages of muscle target contact by RP3 motor axons. We find that the localization of multiple synaptic cell adhesion molecules (CAMs) is dependent on the expression of miR-8, suggesting that miR-8 regulates the initial assembly of synaptic sites. Using stable isotope labelling in vivo and comparative mass spectrometry, we find that miR-8 is required for normal expression of multiple proteins, including the CAMs Fasciclin III (FasIII) and Neuroglian (Nrg). Genetic analysis suggests that Nrg and FasIII collaborate downstream of miR-8 to promote accurate target recognition. Unlike the function of miR-8 at mature larval neuromuscular junctions, at the embryonic stage we find that miR-8 controls key effectors on both sides of the synapse. MiR-8 controls multiple stages of synapse formation through the coordinate regulation of both pre- and postsynaptic cell adhesion proteins. PMID:25135978

  8. Atoh1 as a Coordinator of Sensory Hair Cell Development and Regeneration in the Cochlea

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sungsu; Jeong, Han-Seong

    2017-01-01

    Cochlear sensory hair cells (HCs) are crucial for hearing as mechanoreceptors of the auditory systems. Clarification of transcriptional regulation for the cochlear sensory HC development is crucial for the improvement of cell replacement therapies for hearing loss. Transcription factor Atoh1 is the key player during HC development and regeneration. In this review, we will focus on Atoh1 and its related signaling pathways (Notch, fibroblast growth factor, and Wnt/β-catenin signaling) involved in the development of cochlear sensory HCs. We will also discuss the potential applicability of these signals for the induction of HC regeneration. PMID:28184337

  9. Trials and tribulations of an African-led research and capacity development programme: the case for EDCTP investments.

    PubMed

    Zumla, A; Huggett, J; Dheda, K; Green, C; Kapata, N; Mwaba, P

    2010-04-01

    We describe the initiation and establishment of The University of Zambia - University College London Medical School (UNZA-UCLMS) Research and Training Project, an entirely African scientist-led, south-north partnership. In its 16 year existence, the project, by successfully obtaining competitive grant funding, has transformed itself into one of Africa's most productive African-led R&D programmes with training and visible research outputs. The project serves as a role model and now networks R&D and training activities with six southern African (10 institutions) and six European countries. This project case study illustrates that deep commitment is essential for success and that the factors which facilitate success in R&D in Africa need to be evaluated. The long-term prospects for sustaining the UNZA-UCLMS Project appear bright and are dependent on several factors: the ability to retain trained African scientists; obtaining continued competitive or donor grant funding support; and serious investment by the African governments involved. The recent 255 million Euros EDCTP investment in sub-Saharan Africa through south-north partnerships is expected to enhance existing African-led R&D programmes. African governments and scientists must rise to the challenge.

  10. Lessons Learned from the Development and Implementation of Two Internet-enhanced Culturally Relevant Physical Activity Interventions for Young Overweight African-American Women

    PubMed Central

    Joseph, Rodney P.; Pekmezi, Dori W.; Allison, Jeroan J.; Durant, Nefertiti H.

    2014-01-01

    This research team has designed and implemented 2 culturally relevant, Internet-enhanced physical activity (PA) interventions for overweight/obese African-American female college students. Presumably, these are the only prospectively designed, culturally relevant interventions using the Internet to promote PA among African-American women. Due to the limited research on this topic, the experiences associated the design and implementation of these studies were syntesized and 5 key lessons learned from this research were formulated. Findings provide insight for researchers to consider when developing Internet-based PA promotion interventions for African-American women. Lessons learned included: 1) Elicit and incorporate feedback from the target population throughout development of an Internet-based PA promotion tool; 2) Incorporate new and emerging technologies into Internet-enhanced PA programs; 3) Maintain frequent participant contact and provide frequent incentives to promote participant engagement; 4) Supplement Internet-based efforts with face-to-face interactions; 5) Include diverse images of African-American women and culturally relevant PA-related information in Internet-based PA promotion materials. PMID:25653465

  11. Oligodendrocyte ablation affects the coordinated interaction between granule and Purkinje neurons during cerebellum development

    SciTech Connect

    Collin, Ludovic; Doretto, Sandrine; Malerba, Monica; Ruat, Martial; Borrelli, Emiliana . E-mail: borrelli@uci.edu

    2007-08-01

    Oligodendrocytes (OLs) are the glial cells of the central nervous system (CNS) classically known to be devoted to the formation of myelin sheaths around most axons of the vertebrate brain. We have addressed the role of these cells during cerebellar development, by ablating OLs in vivo. Previous analyses had indicated that OL ablation during the first six postnatal days results into a striking cerebellar phenotype, whose major features are a strong reduction of granule neurons and aberrant Purkinje cells development. These two cell types are highly interconnected during cerebellar development through the production of molecules that help their proliferation, differentiation and maintenance. In this article, we present data showing that OL ablation has major effects on the physiology of Purkinje (PC) and granule cells (GC). In particular, OL ablation results into a reduction of sonic hedgehog (Shh), Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF), and Reelin (Rln) expression. These results indicate that absence of OLs profoundly alters the normal cerebellar developmental program.

  12. The collective coordinates Jacobian

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwartz, Moshe; Vinograd, Guy

    2002-05-01

    We develop an expansion for the Jacobian of the transformation from particle coordinates to collective coordinates. As a demonstration, we use the lowest order of the expansion in conjunction with a variational principle to obtain the Percus Yevick equation for a monodisperse hard sphere system and the Lebowitz equations for a polydisperse hard sphere system.

  13. IVS Technology Coordinator Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitney, Alan

    2013-01-01

    This report of the Technology Coordinator includes the following: 1) continued work to implement the new VLBI2010 system, 2) the 1st International VLBI Technology Workshop, 3) a VLBI Digital- Backend Intercomparison Workshop, 4) DiFX software correlator development for geodetic VLBI, 5) a review of progress towards global VLBI standards, and 6) a welcome to new IVS Technology Coordinator Bill Petrachenko.

  14. Transition Coordinators: Define Yourselves.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asselin, Susan B.; Todd-Allen, Mary; deFur, Sharon

    1998-01-01

    Describes a technique that was used successfully to identify the changing roles and responsibilities of special educators as transition coordinators. The Developing a Curriculum (DACUM) model uses people who are currently working in the occupation to define job responsibilities. The duties of a transition coordinator are identified. (CR)

  15. Enhancing School-Based Prevention and Youth Development through Coordinated Social, Emotional, and Academic Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenberg, Mark T.; Weissberg, Roger P.; O'Brien, Mary Utne; Zins, Joseph E.; Fredericks, Linda; Resnik, Hank; Elias, Maurice J.

    2003-01-01

    Reviews a broad range of evidence indicating that school-based prevention and youth development interventions are most beneficial when they simultaneously enhance students' personal and social assets and improve the quality of the environments in which students are educated. Asserts that school-based prevention programming--based on coordinated…

  16. USE OF ECOLOGICAL RISK ASSESSMENT FOR DEVELOPING AND COORDINATING RESEARCH AT REGIONAL AND WATERSHED SCALES

    EPA Science Inventory

    A series of studies were undertaken to develop quantitative methods that could be used for ecological risk assessments at a watershed scale. This work contributed to the newly published ecological risk assessment guidelines (USEPA, 1998) and focused attention on the need for a pr...

  17. Coordinating Systems of Care Using Health Information Technology: Development of the ADHD Care Assistant

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Power, Thomas J.; Michel, Jeremy; Mayne, Stephanie; Miller, Jeffrey; Blum, Nathan J.; Grundmeier, Robert W.; Guevara, James P.; Fiks, Alexander G.

    2016-01-01

    Perhaps the two principal venues for the delivery of mental health services are schools and primary care practices. Unfortunately, these systems of care are poorly connected, which may result in care that is fragmented and suboptimal. This article describes the development and implementation of an electronic health record portal, known as the ADHD…

  18. Coordination of Organic Curriculum Development in the Public Schools of Quincy, Massachusetts. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sargent, Stewart S.

    This report describes organic curriculum development, the redefinition of goals, and the overhaul of the educational process in the public schools of Quincy, Massachusetts. Superintendent of 15 school districts met in Florida in May 1967 to establish the initial network of the program entitled Educational System for the Seventies (ES '70). The…

  19. Deficits in Motor Coordination with Aberrant Cerebellar Development in Mice Lacking Testicular Orphan Nuclear Receptor 4†

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yei-Tsung; Collins, Loretta L.; Uno, Hideo; Chang, Chawnshang

    2005-01-01

    Since testicular orphan nuclear receptor 4 (TR4) was cloned, its physiological function has remained largely unknown. Throughout postnatal development, TR4-knockout (TR4−/−) mice exhibited behavioral deficits in motor coordination, suggesting impaired cerebellar function. Histological examination of the postnatal TR4−/− cerebellum revealed gross abnormalities in foliation; specifically, lobule VII in the anterior vermis was missing. Further analyses demonstrated that the laminations of the TR4−/− cerebellar cortex were changed, including reductions in the thickness of the molecular layer and the internal granule layer, as well as delayed disappearance of the external granule cell layer (EGL). These lamination irregularities may result from interference with granule cell proliferation within the EGL, delayed inward migration of postmitotic granule cells, and a higher incidence of apoptotis. In addition, abnormal development of Purkinje cells was observed in the postnatal TR4−/− cerebellum, as evidenced by aberrant dendritic arborization and reduced calbindin staining intensity. Expression of Pax-6, Sonic Hedgehog (Shh), astrotactin (Astn), reelin, and Cdk-5, genes correlated with the morphological development of the cerebellum, is reduced in the developing TR4−/− cerebellum. Together, our findings suggest that TR4 is required for normal cerebellar development. PMID:15767677

  20. Development of a sensor coordinated kinematic model for neural network controller training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jorgensen, Charles C.

    1990-01-01

    A robotic benchmark problem useful for evaluating alternative neural network controllers is presented. Specifically, it derives two camera models and the kinematic equations of a multiple degree of freedom manipulator whose end effector is under observation. The mapping developed include forward and inverse translations from binocular images to 3-D target position and the inverse kinematics of mapping point positions into manipulator commands in joint space. Implementation is detailed for a three degree of freedom manipulator with one revolute joint at the base and two prismatic joints on the arms. The example is restricted to operate within a unit cube with arm links of 0.6 and 0.4 units respectively. The development is presented in the context of more complex simulations and a logical path for extension of the benchmark to higher degree of freedom manipulators is presented.

  1. Improving the coordination of patients' medication management: a regional Finnish development project.

    PubMed

    Kivekäs, Eija; Luukkonen, Irmeli; Mykkänen, Juha; Saranto, Kaija

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we present an overview of activities and results from a regional development project in Finland. The aim in this project was to analyze how healthcare providers produce and receive information on a patient's medication, and to identify opportunities to improve the quality, effectiveness, availability and collaboration of social and healthcare services in relation to medication information. The project focused on the most important points in patients' medication management such as home care and care transitions. In a regional development project, data was gathered by interviews and a multi professional workshop. The study revealed that medication information reached only some professionals and lay caregivers despite electronic patient record (EPR) systems and tools. Differences in work processes related to medication reconciliation and information management were discussed in the group meeting and were regarded as a considerable risk for patient safety.

  2. Transforming Growth Factors β Coordinate Cartilage and Tendon Differentiation in the Developing Limb Mesenchyme*

    PubMed Central

    Lorda-Diez, Carlos I.; Montero, Juan A.; Martinez-Cue, Carmen; Garcia-Porrero, Juan A.; Hurle, Juan M.

    2009-01-01

    Transforming growth factor β (TGFβ) signaling has an increasing interest in regenerative medicine as a potential tool to repair cartilages, however the chondrogenic effect of this pathway in developing systems is controversial. Here we have analyzed the function of TGFβ signaling in the differentiation of the developing limb mesoderm in vivo and in high density micromass cultures. In these systems highest signaling activity corresponded with cells at stages preceding overt chondrocyte differentiation. Interestingly treatments with TGFβs shifted the differentiation outcome of the cultures from chondrogenesis to fibrogenesis. This phenotypic reprogramming involved down-regulation of Sox9 and Aggrecan and up-regulation of Scleraxis, and Tenomodulin through the Smad pathway. We further show that TGFβ signaling up-regulates Sox9 in the in vivo experimental model system in which TGFβ treatments induce ectopic chondrogenesis. Looking for clues explaining the dual role of TGFβ signaling, we found that TGFβs appear to be direct inducers of the chondrogenic gene Sox9, but the existence of transcriptional repressors of TGFβ signaling modulates this role. We identified TGF-interacting factor Tgif1 and SKI-like oncogene SnoN as potential candidates for this inhibitory function. Tgif1 gene regulation by TGFβ signaling correlated with the differential chondrogenic and fibrogenic effects of this pathway, and its expression pattern in the limb marks the developing tendons. In functional experiments we found that Tgif1 reproduces the profibrogenic effect of TGFβ treatments. PMID:19717568

  3. Helios expression coordinates the development of a subset of striatopallidal medium spiny neurons.

    PubMed

    Martín-Ibáñez, Raquel; Pardo, Mónica; Giralt, Albert; Miguez, Andrés; Guardia, Inés; Marion-Poll, Lucile; Herranz, Cristina; Esgleas, Miriam; Barriga, Gerardo Garcia-Díaz; Edel, Michael J; Vicario-Abejón, Carlos; Alberch, Jordi; Girault, Jean-Antoine; Chan, Susan; Kastner, Philippe; Canals, Josep M

    2017-03-13

    Here we unravel the mechanism of action of Helios (He) during the development of striatal medium spiny neurons (MSNs). He regulates the second wave of striatal neurogenesis involved in the generation of striatopallidal neurons that express dopamine 2 receptor (D2R) and enkephalin (ENK). To exert this effect He is expressed in neural progenitor cells (NPCs) retaining them into the G1/G0 phase of the cell cycle. Thus, the lack of He produces an increase of S-phase entry and S-phase length of NPCs which in turn impairs striatal neurogenesis and produces an accumulation of the number of cycling NPCs in the germinal zone (GZ) that end up dying at postnatal stages. Therefore, He(-/-) mice show a reduction in the number of Dorso-Medial Striatal MSNs in the adulthood that produces deficits in motor skills acquisition. In addition, overexpression of He in NPCs induce DARPP32 phenotype when transplanted in mouse striatum.Present findings demonstrate that He is involved in the correct development of a subset of striatopallidal MSNs and reveal new cellular mechanisms for neuronal development.

  4. Addressing the Disconnect between the Estimated, Reported, and True Rabies Data: The Development of a Regional African Rabies Bulletin

    PubMed Central

    Scott, Terence P.; Coetzer, Andre; Fahrion, Anna S.; Nel, Louis H.

    2017-01-01

    It is evident that rabies continues to be a neglected tropical disease; however, a recent global drive aims to eliminate canine-mediated human rabies by 2030. Global efforts have been vested into creating and developing resources for countries to take ownership of and overcome the challenges that rabies poses. The disconnect between the numbers of rabies cases reported and the numbers estimated by prediction models is clear: the key to understanding the epidemiology and true burden of rabies lies within accurate and timely data; poor and discrepant data undermine its true burden and negate the advocacy efforts needed to curb this lethal disease. In an effort to address these challenges, the Pan-African Rabies Control Network is developing a regional rabies-specific disease surveillance bulletin based on the District Health Information System 2 platform—a web-based, open access health information platform. This bulletin provides a data repository from which specific key indicators, essential to any rabies intervention program, form the basis of data collection. The data are automatically analyzed, providing useful outputs for targeted intervention. Furthermore, in an effort to reduce reporting fatigue, the data submitted, under authority from the respective governments, can automatically be shared with approved international authorities. The implementation of a rabies-specific bulletin will facilitate targeted control efforts and provide measurements of success, while also acting as a basis for advocacy to raise the priority of this neglected disease. PMID:28265562

  5. Development of a Luminex-Based DIVA Assay for Serological Detection of African Horse Sickness Virus in Horses.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Matamoros, A; Nieto-Pelegrín, E; Beck, C; Rivera-Arroyo, B; Lecollinet, S; Sailleau, C; Zientara, S; Sánchez-Vizcaíno, J M

    2016-08-01

    African horse sickness (AHS) is considered a fatal re-emergent vector-borne disease of horses. In the absence of any effective treatment for AHS, vaccination remains the most effective form of disease control. The new generation of vaccines, such as one based on purified, inactivated AHS virus (AHSV, serotype 4), which does not induce antibodies against non-structural protein 3 (NS3), enables the development of diagnostic methods that differentiate infected from vaccinated animals (DIVA assays). As detecting AHS in AHSV-free countries may lead to restrictions on international animal movements and thereby cause significant economic damage, these DIVA assays are crucial for reducing movement restrictions. In this article, we describe a Luminex-based multiplex assay for DIVA diagnosis of AHS, and we validate it in a duplex format to detect antibodies against structural protein 7 (VP7) and NS3 in serum samples from horses vaccinated with inactivated AHSV4 vaccine or infected with a live virus of the same serotype. Results of the Luminex-based assay for detecting anti-NS3 antibodies showed good positive correlation with results from an in-house enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Thus, the Luminex-based technique described here may allow multiplex DIVA antibody detection in a single sample in less than 2 h, and it may prove adaptable for the development of robust, multiplex serological assays.

  6. Direct Radiative Effect of Mineral Dust on the Development of African Easterly Wave in Late Summer, 2003-2007

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ma, Po-Lun; Zhang, Kai; Shi, Jainn Jong; Matsui, Toshihisa; Arking, Albert

    2012-01-01

    Episodic events of both Saharan dust outbreaks and African Easterly Waves (AEWs) are observed to move westward over the eastern tropical Atlantic Ocean. The relationship between the warm, dry, and dusty Saharan Air Layer (SAL) on the nearby storms has been the subject of considerable debate. In this study, the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model is used to investigate the radiative effect of dust on the development of AEWs during August and September, the months of maximum tropical cyclone activity, in years 2003-2007. The simulations show that dust radiative forcing enhances the convective instability of the environment. As a result, most AEWs intensify in the presence of a dust layer. The Lorenz energy cycle analysis reveals that the dust radiative forcing enhances the condensational heating, which elevates the zonal and eddy available potential energy. In turn, available potential energy is effectively converted to eddy kinetic energy, in which local convective overturning plays the primary role. The magnitude of the intensification effect depends on the initial environmental conditions, including moisture, baroclinity, and the depth of the boundary layer. We conclude that dust radiative forcing, albeit small, serves as a catalyst to promote local convection that facilitates AEW development.

  7. Direct Radiative Effect of Mineral Dust on the Development of African Easterly Waves in Late Summer, 2003-07

    SciTech Connect

    Ma, Po-Lun; Zhang, Kai; Shi, Jainn Jong; Matsui, Toshihisa; Arking, Albert

    2012-12-19

    Episodic events of both Saharan dust outbreaks and African easterly waves (AEWs) are observed to move westward over the eastern tropical Atlantic Ocean. The relationship between the warm, dry, and dusty Saharan air layer on the nearby storms has been the subject of considerable debate. In this study, the Weather Research and Forecasting model is used to investigate the radiative effect of dust on the development of AEWs during August and September, the months of maximumtropical cyclone activity, in years 2003–07. The simulations show that dust radiative forcing enhances the convective instability of the environment. As a result, mostAEWsintensify in the presence of a dust layer. The Lorenz energy cycle analysis reveals that the dust radiative forcing enhances the condensational heating, which elevates the zonal and eddy available potential energy. In turn, available potential energy is effectively converted to eddy kinetic energy, in which local convective overturning plays the primary role. The magnitude of the intensification effect depends on the initial environmental conditions, including moisture, baroclinity, and the depth of the boundary layer. The authors conclude that dust radiative forcing, albeit small, serves as a catalyst to promote local convection that facilitates AEW development.

  8. Increasing Reading Engagement in African American Boys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Husband, Terry

    2014-01-01

    Much has been written concerning the challenges many teachers face in engaging African American males in reading practices. While much of this extant scholarship focuses on African American males at the pre-adolescent stage of development and beyond, little has been written regarding increasing reading engagement in African American boys in P-5…

  9. Laminar patterning in the developing neocortex by temporally coordinated fibroblast growth factor signaling.

    PubMed

    Hasegawa, Hiroshi; Ashigaki, Shizuko; Takamatsu, Masako; Suzuki-Migishima, Rika; Ohbayashi, Norihiko; Itoh, Nobuyuki; Takada, Shinji; Tanabe, Yasuto

    2004-10-06

    Laminar organization, a fundamental neural architecture in the CNS, is a prominent feature of the neocortex, where the cortical neurons in spatially distinct layers are generated from the common progenitors in a temporally distinct manner during development. Despite many advances in the characterization of the molecular mechanisms of the radial migration of cortical neurons, the way in which the early-late temporal sequence of cortical neuron generation is linked with the deep-superficial spatial sequence of cell body positioning remains obscure. Using in vivo electroporation-mediated gene transfer, we show here that the activities mediated by fibroblast growth factor receptors (FGFRs) in cortical progenitors are critical for conferring proper migratory properties on nascent neuronal progeny. Furthermore, we provide supportive evidence that Pea3 subfamily members of Ets (Pea3-Ets) transcription factors mediate the activities of FGFR at the mid to late phase of neocortical development. In addition, using FGF18 knock-out mice, we demonstrate that FGF18 expressed by early-generated cortical neurons in the cortical plate is critical for the expression of Pea3-Ets transcription factors and that FGF18 is sufficient to induce their expressions. Our results thus imply that a feedback mechanism mediated by FGF signaling is involved in setting up the proper laminar positioning of cortical neurons; FGF18 derived from early-generated cortical neurons acts on the cortical progenitors expressing FGFRs and induces the expression of Pea3-Ets transcription factors that, in turn, confer proper migratory behaviors on nascent cortical progeny during the mid to late stages of neocortical development.

  10. Fear of Neighborhood Violence During Adolescence Predicts Development of Obesity a Decade Later: Gender Differences Among African Americans

    PubMed Central

    Assari, Shervin; Moghani Lankarani, Maryam; Caldwell, Cleopatra Howard; Zimmerman, Marc A

    2016-01-01

    Background African American youth are more likely than other racial and ethnic groups to be obese. African American youth are also more likely to live in disadvantaged neighborhoods which increase their victimization, observation, and fear of violence. Objectives This study tested if victimization, observation, and fear of violence in the neighborhood during adolescence predict trajectory of body mass index (BMI) in the 3rd decade of life in African Americans. Patients and Methods Data came from an 18-year community-based cohort. We used multi-group latent growth curve modeling for data analysis, considering neighborhood violence at age 15 (i.e. victimization, observation, and fear) as predictors, and the linear slope for the average change in BMI from age 21 to 32 as the outcome, with age and socioeconomic status (i.e. intact family and parental employment) as covariates. Results Fear of neighborhood violence at age 15 was predictive of an increase in BMI from age 21 to 32 among female but not male African Americans. Victimization and observation of violence at age 15 did not predict BMI change from age 21 to 32 among female or male African Americans. Conclusions Fear of neighborhood violence is a contributing factor to increased risk of obesity for female African American youth who live in disadvantaged areas. This finding has implications for prevention of obesity among African American women who are at highest risk for obesity in the United States. Initiatives that enhance neighborhood safety are critical strategies for obesity prevention among African American women. PMID:27679791

  11. Development of an Integrative Program of Nanosafety: Promote the Coordination Between Industries and Risk Assessor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emond, Claude; Kouassi, Serge; Schuster, Frédéric

    2013-04-01

    Nanomaterials are widely present in many industrial sectors (e.g., chemical, biomedical, environment), and their application is expected to significantly expand in the coming years. However, nanomaterial use raises many questions about the potential risks to human health and the environment and, more specifically, to occupational health. The available literature supports the ability of the lung, gastrointestinal tract, and skin to act as significant barriers against systemic exposure to many nanomaterials. However, because a potential risk issue exists about the toxicity of nanomaterials to the biological material, tools need to be developed for improving the risk management of the regulators. The goal is to develop a tool that examines the current knowledge base regarding the health risks posed by engineered nanoparticles to improve nanotechnology safety prior to the marketing phase. The approach proposed during this work was to establish a safety assessment constructed on a decision-control pathway regarding nanomaterial production and consumer's product to integrate different aspects. These aspects include: (1) primarily research and identification of the nanomaterial base of physicochemical properties, toxicity, and application; (2) the occupational exposure risk during the manufacturing process; (3) and the engineered nanomaterial upon the consumer product. This approach provides important parameters to reduce the uncertainty related to the production of nanomaterials prior their commercialization, reduce the reluctance from the industry, and provide a certification tool of sanitary control for the regulators. This work provides a better understanding of a critical issue of nanomaterials and consumer safety.

  12. COORDINATED DEVELOPMENT OF THE SARCOPLASMIC RETICULUM AND T SYSTEM DURING POSTNATAL DIFFERENTIATION OF RAT SKELETAL MUSCLE

    PubMed Central

    Schiaffino, S.; Margreth, A.

    1969-01-01

    An electron microscope study has been carried out on rat psoas muscle, during the early postnatal stages of development. Among the several subcellular components, the sarcotubular system undergoes the most striking modifications during this period. In muscle fibers of the newborn rat, junctional contacts between the T system and the SR are sparse and are, mostly, longitudinally or obliquely oriented. The T tubules do not penetrate deeply into the muscle cell, as indicated by the predominantly peripheral location of the triads and the persistence, at these stages of development, of a highly branched subsarcolemmal system of tubules. Diadic associations of junctional SR elements with the plasma membrane are also occasionally observed. The early SR elaborations incompletely delineate the myofibrils, at both the A- and I-band level. Longitudinal sections show irregularly oriented SR tubules, running continuously over successive sarcomeres. Flattened junctional cisterns filled with granular material are sparse and laterally interconnected, at circumscribed sites, with the SR tubules. Between 1 and 2 wk postpartum, transversal triadic contacts are extensively established, at the A-I band level, and the SR network differentiates into two portions in register with the A and I band, respectively. At 10–15 days after birth, the SR provides a transversely continuous double sheet around the myofibrils at the I-band level, whereas it forms a single discontinuous layer at the A-band level. The relationship that these morphological modifications of the sarcotubular system may bear to previously described biochemical and physiological changes of rat muscle fibers after birth is discussed. PMID:5814005

  13. Coordinate post-transcriptional repression of Dpp-dependent transcription factors attenuates signal range during development.

    PubMed

    Newton, Fay G; Harris, Robin E; Sutcliffe, Catherine; Ashe, Hilary L

    2015-10-01

    Precise control of the range of signalling molecule action is crucial for correct cell fate patterning during development. For example, Drosophila ovarian germline stem cells (GSCs) are maintained by exquisitely short-range BMP signalling from the niche. In the absence of BMP signalling, one GSC daughter differentiates into a cystoblast (CB) and this fate is stabilised by Brain tumour (Brat) and Pumilio (Pum)-mediated post-transcriptional repression of mRNAs, including that encoding the Dpp transducer, Mad. However, the identity of other repressed mRNAs and the mechanism of post-transcriptional repression are currently unknown. Here, we identify the Medea and schnurri mRNAs, which encode transcriptional regulators required for activation and/or repression of Dpp target genes, as additional Pum-Brat targets, suggesting that tripartite repression of the transducers is deployed to desensitise the CB to Dpp. In addition, we show that repression by Pum-Brat requires recruitment of the CCR4 and Pop2 deadenylases, with knockdown of deadenylases in vivo giving rise to ectopic GSCs. Consistent with this, Pum-Brat repression leads to poly(A) tail shortening and mRNA degradation in tissue culture cells, and we detect a reduced number of Mad and shn transcripts in the CB relative to the GSC based on single molecule mRNA quantitation. Finally, we show generality of the mechanism by demonstrating that Brat also attenuates pMad and Dpp signalling range in the early embryo. Together our data serve as a platform for understanding how post-transcriptional repression restricts interpretation of BMPs and other cell signals in order to allow robust cell fate patterning during development.

  14. Poisson Coordinates.

    PubMed

    Li, Xian-Ying; Hu, Shi-Min

    2013-02-01

    Harmonic functions are the critical points of a Dirichlet energy functional, the linear projections of conformal maps. They play an important role in computer graphics, particularly for gradient-domain image processing and shape-preserving geometric computation. We propose Poisson coordinates, a novel transfinite interpolation scheme based on the Poisson integral formula, as a rapid way to estimate a harmonic function on a certain domain with desired boundary values. Poisson coordinates are an extension of the Mean Value coordinates (MVCs) which inherit their linear precision, smoothness, and kernel positivity. We give explicit formulas for Poisson coordinates in both continuous and 2D discrete forms. Superior to MVCs, Poisson coordinates are proved to be pseudoharmonic (i.e., they reproduce harmonic functions on n-dimensional balls). Our experimental results show that Poisson coordinates have lower Dirichlet energies than MVCs on a number of typical 2D domains (particularly convex domains). As well as presenting a formula, our approach provides useful insights for further studies on coordinates-based interpolation and fast estimation of harmonic functions.

  15. Challenges to African Development: The Medium of Instruction in Uganda's Education System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulumba, Mathias Bwanika; Masaazi, Fred Masagazi

    2012-01-01

    Education, whether formal or informal, is perceived as development and language is the major medium of instruction and communication through which knowledge is transmitted. Documented substantial evidence indicates that Africa was on a positive trend to steady development before colonialism set in. Colonialism ushered in a foreign medium of…

  16. Reflecting on a Leadership Development Programme: A Case Study in South African Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Louw, Ina; Zuber-Skeritt, Ortrun

    2009-01-01

    Leadership development in higher education is of vital importance to South Africa's future. We present a case study that focuses on a leadership development programme (LDP) through action learning and action research (ALAR) for women academics in South Africa during 2000 and 2001. It identifies the effects of the LDP on participants five years…

  17. Private Schooling in Less Economically Developed Countries: Asian and African Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Srivastava, Prachi, Ed.; Walford, Geoffrey, Ed.

    2007-01-01

    The increased marketisation and privatisation of schooling in economically developing countries struggling to achieve Education for All and Millennium Development Goals warrants a focused examination of the phenomenon. However, there is little work on the nature and extent of private provision in countries that, on the one hand, are striving to…

  18. University as Regional Development Agent: A Counterfactual Analysis of an African University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fongwa, Samuel N.; Wangenge-Ouma, Gerald

    2015-01-01

    The contribution of universities to regional development has in the last few decades gained significant currency. Inter alia, this contribution has been through steered national, regional, and institutional policies aimed at enhancing national development, good governance, human capital creation and innovation in an increasing knowledge-dependent…

  19. Effects of global financial crisis on funding for health development in nineteen countries of the WHO African Region

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background There is ample evidence in Asia and Latin America showing that past economic crises resulted in cuts in expenditures on health, lower utilization of health services, and deterioration of child and maternal nutrition and health outcomes. Evidence on the impact of past economic crises on health sector in Africa is lacking. The objectives of this article are to present the findings of a quick survey conducted among countries of the WHO African Region to monitor the effects of global financial crisis on funding for health development; and to discuss the way forward. Methods This is a descriptive study. A questionnaire was prepared and sent by email to all the 46 Member States in the WHO African Region through the WHO Country Office for facilitation and follow up. The questionnaires were completed by directors of policy and planning in ministries of health. The data were entered and analyzed in Excel spreadsheet. The main limitations of this study were that authors did not ask whether other relevant sectors were consulted in the process of completing the survey questionnaire; and that the overall response rate was low. Results The main findings were as follows: the response rate was 41.3% (19/46 countries); 36.8% (7/19) indicated they had been notified by the Ministry of Finance that the budget for health would be cut; 15.8% (3/19) had been notified by partners of their intention to cut health funding; 61.1% (11/18) indicated that the prices of medicines had increased recently; 83.3% (15/18) indicated that the prices of basic food stuffs had increased recently; 38.8% (7/18) indicated that their local currency had been devalued against the US dollar; 47.1% (8/17) affirmed that the levels of unemployment had increased since the onset of global financial crisis; and 64.7% (11/17) indicated that the ministry of health had taken some measures already, either in reaction to the global financing crisis, or in anticipation. Conclusion A rapid assessment, like the one

  20. Hit-to-Lead Development of the Chamigrane Endoperoxide Merulin A for the Treatment of African Sleeping Sickness

    PubMed Central

    Navarro, Gabriel; Chokpaiboon, Supchar; De Muylder, Geraldine; Bray, Walter M.; Nisam, Sean C.; McKerrow, James H.; Pudhom, Khanitha; Linington, Roger G.

    2012-01-01

    Background Human African trypanosomiasis (HAT) is an infectious disease with a large global health burden occurring primarily in Central and Eastern Africa. Most current treatments have poor blood brain barrier (BBB) penetration, which prevent them from targeting the most lethal stage of the infection. In addition, current therapeutics suffer from a variety of limitations ranging from serious side effects to difficulties with treatment administration. Therefore it is of crucial importance to find new treatments that are safe, affordable, and effective against both sub-species of Trypanosoma brucei. Methods Semi-synthetic derivatization of the fungally-derived natural product merulin A (1) has led to the discovery of new development candidates for the protozoan parasite T. brucei, the causative agent of HAT. Creation of an initial SAR library based around the merulin scaffold revealed several key features required for activity, including the endoperoxide bridge, as well as one position suitable for further derivatization. Subsequent synthesis of a 20-membered analogue library, guided by the addition of acyl groups that improve the drug-like properties of the merulin A core, resulted in the development of compound 12 with an IC50 of 60 nM against T. brucei, and a selectivity index greater than 300-fold against HeLa and immortalized glial cells. Significance We report the semi-synthetic optimization of the merulin class of endoperoxide natural products as development candidates against T. brucei. We have identified compounds with low nM antiparasitic activities and high selectivity indices against HeLa cells. These compounds can be produced economically in large quantities via a one step derivatization from the microbial fermentation broth isolate, making them encouraging lead candidates for further development. PMID:23029428

  1. A population genetic database of cat breeds developed in coordination with a domestic cat STR multiplex.

    PubMed

    Menotti-Raymond, Marilyn; David, Victor A; Weir, Bruce S; O'Brien, Stephen J

    2012-05-01

    A simple tandem repeat (STR) PCR-based typing system developed for the genetic individualization of domestic cat samples has been used to generate a population genetic database of domestic cat breeds. A panel of 10 tetranucleotide STR loci and a gender-identifying sequence tagged site (STS) were co-amplified in genomic DNA of 1043 individuals representing 38 cat breeds. The STR panel exhibits relatively high heterozygosity in cat breeds, with an average 10-locus heterozygosity of 0.71, which represents an average of 38 breed-specific heterozygosities for the 10-member panel. When the entire set of breed individuals was analyzed as a single population, a heterozygosity of 0.87 was observed. Heterozygosities obtained for the 10 loci range from 0.72 to 0.96. The power for genetic individualization of domestic cat samples of the multiplex is high, with a probability of match (p(m)) of 6.2E-14, using a conservative θ = 0.05.

  2. A Population Genetic Database of Cat Breeds Developed in Coordination with a Domestic Cat STR Multiplex*

    PubMed Central

    Menotti-Raymond, Marilyn; David, Victor A.; Weir, Bruce S.; O’Brien, Stephen J.

    2015-01-01

    A simple tandem repeat (STR) PCR-based typing system developed for the genetic individualization of domestic cat samples has been used to generate a population genetic database of domestic cat breeds. A panel of 10 tetranucleotide STR loci and a gender-identifying sequence tagged site (STS) were co-amplified in genomic DNA of 1043 individuals representing 38 cat breeds. The STR panel exhibits relatively high heterozygosity in cat breeds, with an average 10-locus heterozygosity of 0.71, which represents an average of 38 breed-specific heterozygosities for the 10-member panel. When the entire set of breed individuals was analyzed as a single population, a heterozygosity of 0.87 was observed. Heterozygosities obtained for the 10 loci range from 0.72 to 0.96. The power for genetic individualization of domestic cat samples of the multiplex is high, with a probability of match (pm) of 6.2E-14, using a conservative θ = 0.05. PMID:22268511

  3. Efficient coordination of swarms of sensor-laden balloons for persistent, in situ, real-time measurement of hurricane development*

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bewley, Thomas; Meneghello, Gianluca

    2016-10-01

    Accurate long-term forecasts of the path and intensity of severe hurricanes are imperative to protect property and save lives. Extensive real-time measurements within hurricanes, especially near their core, are essential for supplementing the limited relevant information accessible by satellites in order to improve such forecasts. Current operational methods for obtaining in situ information, such as dropsondes and repeated manned and unmanned aircraft flights over and within hurricanes, are both expensive and limited in duration. In the present work it is demonstrated by numerical experiments how a swarm of robust, inexpensive, buoyancy-controlled, sensor-laden balloons might be deployed and controlled in an energetically efficient, coordinated fashion, for days at a time, to continuously monitor relevant properties (pressure, humidity, temperature, and wind speed) of a hurricane as it develops. Rather than fighting its gale-force winds, the strong and predictable stratification of these winds is leveraged to efficiently disperse the balloons into a favorable time-evolving distribution. An iterative bootstrap approach is envisioned in which (a) sensor balloons are used to help improve the available computational estimate of the uncertain and underresolved flow field of the hurricane and (b) this (imprecise) estimate of the hurricane flow field is leveraged to improve the distribution of the sensor balloons, which then better facilitates (a), etc. The control approach envisioned in this ambitious effort is a combination of (centrally computed) model predictive control for coordination at the largest scales, which is the focus of the present paper, coupled with a feedback control strategy (decentrally computed, on the balloons themselves), for smaller-scale corrections. Our work indicates that, following such an approach, certain target orbits of interest within the hurricane can be continuously sampled by some balloons, while others make repeated sweeps between the

  4. Team coordination dynamics.

    PubMed

    Gorman, Jamie C; Amazeen, Polemnia G; Cooke, Nancy J

    2010-07-01

    Team coordination consists of both the dynamics of team member interaction and the environmental dynamics to which a team is subjected. Focusing on dynamics, an approach is developed that contrasts with traditional aggregate-static concepts of team coordination as characterized by the shared mental model approach. A team coordination order parameter was developed to capture momentary fluctuations in coordination. Team coordination was observed in three-person uninhabited air vehicle teams across two experimental sessions. The dynamics of the order parameter were observed under changes of a team familiarity control parameter. Team members returned for the second session to either the same (Intact) or different (Mixed) team. 'Roadblock' perturbations, or novel changes in the task environment, were introduced in order to probe the stability of team coordination. Nonlinear dynamic methods revealed differences that a traditional approach did not: Intact and Mixed team coordination dynamics looked very different; Mixed teams were more stable than Intact teams and explored the space of solutions without the need for correction. Stability was positively correlated with the number of roadblock perturbations that were overcome successfully. The novel and non-intuitive contribution of a dynamical analysis was that Mixed teams, who did not have a long history working together, were more adaptive. Team coordination dynamics carries new implications for traditional problems such as training adaptive teams.

  5. Coordination of precision grip in 2–6 years-old children with autism spectrum disorders compared to children developing typically and children with developmental disabilities

    PubMed Central

    David, Fabian J.; Baranek, Grace T.; Wiesen, Chris; Miao, Adrienne F.; Thorpe, Deborah E.

    2012-01-01

    Impaired motor coordination is prevalent in children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) and affects adaptive skills. Little is known about the development of motor patterns in young children with ASD between 2 and 6 years of age. The purpose of the current study was threefold: (1) to describe developmental correlates of motor coordination in children with ASD, (2) to identify the extent to which motor coordination deficits are unique to ASD by using a control group of children with other developmental disabilities (DD), and (3) to determine the association between motor coordination variables and functional fine motor skills. Twenty-four children with ASD were compared to 30 children with typical development (TD) and 11 children with DD. A precision grip task was used to quantify and analyze motor coordination. The motor coordination variables were two temporal variables (grip to load force onset latency and time to peak grip force) and two force variables (grip force at onset of load force and peak grip force). Functional motor skills were assessed using the Fine Motor Age Equivalents of the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scale and the Mullen Scales of Early Learning. Mixed regression models were used for all analyses. Children with ASD presented with significant motor coordination deficits only on the two temporal variables, and these variables differentiated children with ASD from the children with TD, but not from children with DD. Fine motor functional skills had no statistically significant associations with any of the motor coordination variables. These findings suggest that subtle problems in the timing of motor actions, possibly related to maturational delays in anticipatory feed-forward mechanisms, may underlie some motor deficits reported in children with ASD, but that these issues are not unique to this population. Further research is needed to investigate how children with ASD or DD compensate for motor control deficits to establish functional skills

  6. Development of a diagnostic gene expression assay for tuberculosis and its use under field conditions in African buffaloes (Syncerus caffer).

    PubMed

    Parsons, Sven D C; Menezes, Angela M; Cooper, David; Walzl, Gerhard; Warren, Robin M; van Helden, Paul D

    2012-08-15

    The development of diagnostic tests for tuberculosis (TB) in exotic species is constrained by host biology and the limited availability of suitable assay reagents. As such, we evaluated a gene expression assay (GEA) which is easily modified for novel species and allows for initial sample processing under field conditions. African buffaloes (Syncerus caffer) were categorized using the single comparative intradermal tuberculin test, and blood from test-positive and test-negative animals was incubated for 20 h in "Nil" tubes (containing saline) and "TB Antigen" tubes (containing Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTC)-specific antigens) of a commercial human TB test, the QuantiFERON(®)-TB Gold (In-Tube) (QFT) assay. Blood samples were then stabilized in RNAlater(®) and transported to the laboratory for RNA extraction. A Custom TaqMan GEA was used to calculate the relative abundance of interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) mRNA in the TB Antigen tube compared to that in the Nil tube as a marker of immune activation in response to MTC antigen recognition. The GEA results from the two buffalo groups were compared and a cutoff value of 2.85 was calculated to differentiate between animals from these groups with a sensitivity of 80% (95% C.I.: 56-94%) and a specificity of 95% (95% C.I.: 75-100%). Further optimization of this assay could provide a highly useful tool for the diagnosis of MTC infection in exotic species.

  7. Developing an evidence-based decision support system for rational insecticide choice in the control of African malaria vectors.

    PubMed

    Coleman, Michael; Sharp, Brian; Seocharan, Ishen; Hemingway, Janet

    2006-07-01

    The emergence of Anopheles species resistant to insecticides widely used in vector control has the potential to impact directly on the control of malaria. This may have a particularly dramatic effect in Africa, where pyrethroids impregnated onto bed-nets are the dominant insecticides used for vector control. Because the same insecticides are used for crop pests, the extensive use and misuse of insecticides for agriculture has contributed to the resistance problem in some vectors. The potential for resistance to develop in African vectors has been apparent since the 1950s, but the scale of the problem has been poorly documented. A geographical information system-based decision support system for malaria control has recently been established in Africa and used operationally in Mozambique. The system incorporates climate data and disease transmission rates, but to date it has not incorporated spatial or temporal data on vector abundance or insecticide resistance. As a first step in incorporating this information, available published data on insecticide resistance in Africa has now been collated and incorporated into this decision support system. Data also are incorporated onto the openly available Mapping Malaria Risk in Africa (MARA) Web site (http://www.mara.org.za). New data, from a range of vector population-monitoring initiatives, can now be incorporated into this open access database to allow a spatial understanding of resistance distribution and its potential impact on disease transmission to benefit vector control programs.

  8. Development of a Nationally Coordinated Evaluation Plan for the Ghana National Strategy for Key Populations

    PubMed Central

    Reynolds, Heidi W; Atuahene, Kyeremeh; Sutherland, Elizabeth; Amenyah, Richard; Kwao, Isaiah Doe; Larbi, Emmanuel Tettey

    2015-01-01

    Objective Just as HIV prevention programs need to be tailored to the local epidemic, so should evaluations be country-owned and country-led to ensure use of those results in decision making and policy. The objective of this paper is to describe the process undertaken in Ghana to develop a national evaluation plan for the Ghana national strategy for key populations. Methods This was a participatory process that involved meetings between the Ghana AIDS Commission (GAC), other partners in Ghana working to prevent HIV among key populations, and MEASURE Evaluation. The process included three two-day, highly structured yet participatory meetings over the course of 12 months during which participants shared information about on-going and planned data and identified research questions and methods. Results An evaluation plan was prepared to inform stakeholders about which data collection activities need to be prioritized for funding, who would implement the study, the timing of data collection, the research question the data will help answer, and the analysis methods. The plan discusses various methods that can be used including the recommendation for the study design using multiple data sources. It has an evaluation conceptual model, proposed analyses, proposed definition of independent variables, estimated costs for filling data gaps, roles and responsibilities of stakeholders to carry out the plan, and considerations for ethics, data sharing and authorship. Conclusion The experience demonstrates that it is possible to design an evaluation responsive to national strategies and priorities with country leadership, regardless of stakeholders' experiences with evaluations. This process may be replicable elsewhere, where stakeholders want to plan and implement an evaluation of a large-scale program at the national or subnational level that is responsive to national priorities and part of a comprehensive monitoring and evaluation system. PMID:26120495

  9. Rhythmic motor activity and interlimb co-ordination in the developing pouch young of a wallaby (Macropus eugenii).

    PubMed Central

    Ho, S M

    1997-01-01

    1. The forelimb motor behaviour of developing wallaby was studied. A clock-like alternating movement was reactivated whenever the animal was removed from the pouch. 2. Forelimb stepping frequency increased during the first 3 weeks of development, while the phase relationship remained constant. Forelimb activity could be affected by altering the afferent feedback from the contralateral limb, or an increase in ambient temperature. 3. In vitro experiments were performed using an isolated brainstem-spinal cord preparation from animals up to 6 weeks postnatal. Fictive locomotor activity could be evoked by electrical stimulation or bath-applied NMDA (< 10 microM). 4. Bath-applied strychnine (10-25 microM) and bicuculline (10-50 microM) disrupted the phase relationship between motor pools, while rhythmic motor discharge remained in the absence of these inhibitory pathways. 5. The present findings indicate that the pattern generator that underlies the robust forelimb movement during the first journey to the pouch is retained for different motor functions during in-pouch development. The neural network that underlies such behaviour can be divided into two major components, a rhythm generator within each hemicord, and a pattern co-ordinating pathway which involve both glycinergic and GABAergic interneurones. PMID:9218221

  10. 77 FR 21995 - Trade Facilitation in the East African Community: Recent Developments and Potential Benefits...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-12

    ..., Institution of Investigation and Request for Written Statements AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION: Institution of investigation and request for written statements. SUMMARY: Following... Developments and Potential Benefits. DATES: May 10, 2012: Deadline for filing written submissions. July 2,...

  11. The transcriptome of fracture healing defines mechanisms of coordination of skeletal and vascular development during endochondral bone formation.

    PubMed

    Grimes, Rachel; Jepsen, Karl J; Fitch, Jennifer L; Einhorn, Thomas A; Gerstenfeld, Louis C

    2011-11-01

    Fractures initiate one round of endochondral bone formation in which callus cells differentiate in a synchronous manner that temporally phenocopies the spatial variation of endochondral development of a growth plate. During fracture healing C57BL/6J (B6) mice initiate chondrogenesis earlier and develop more cartilage than bone, whereas C3H/HeJ (C3H) mice initiate osteogenesis earlier and develop more bone than cartilage. Comparison of the transcriptomes of fracture healing in these strains of mice identified the genes that showed differences in timing and quantitative expression and encode for the variations in endochondral bone development of the two mouse strains. The complement of strain-dependent differences in gene expression was specifically associated with ontologies related to both skeletal and vascular formation. Moreover, the differences in gene expression associated with vascular tissue formation during fracture healing were correlated with the underlying differences in development and function of the cardiovascular systems of these two strains of mice. Significant differences in gene expression associated with bone morphogenetic protein/transforming growth factor β (BMP/TGF-β) signal-transduction pathways were identified between the two strains, and a network of differentially expressed genes specific to the MAP kinase cascade was further defined as a subset of the genes of the BMP/TGF-β pathways. Other signal-transduction pathways that showed significant strain-specific differences in gene expression included the RXR/PPAR and G protein-related pathways. These data identify how bone and vascular regeneration are coordinated through expression of common sets of transcription and morphogenetic factors and suggest that there is heritable linkage between vascular and skeletal tissue development during postnatal regeneration.

  12. Tradeoffs between somatic and gonadal investments during development in the African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis).

    PubMed

    McCoy, Krista A; McCoy, Michael W; Amick, Alison; Guillette, Louis J; St Mary, Colette M

    2007-11-01

    Tradeoffs between time to and size at metamorphosis occur in many organisms with complex life histories. The ability to accelerate metamorphosis can increase survival to the next life stage, but the resulting smaller size at metamorphosis is often associated with lower post-metamorphic survival or reduced fecundity of adults. Reduced fecundity is thought to be because of reduced energy reserves, longer time to maturity, or reduced capacity to carry eggs or compete for mates. This pattern could also be explained by a shift in allocation to somatic growth that further retards the growth or development of reproductive tissues. The main goal of this study was to determine if the relationship between growth and development of somatic and gonadal tissues depends on environmental conditions. We address this question through two experiments in which we quantify the development and growth of the body and gonads of Xenopus laevis reared in different resource environments. First, tadpoles were reared communally and development and growth were evaluated over time. Restricted food reduced somatic and gonadal growth rate, but did not affect the developmental rate of either tissue type. Second, tadpoles were reared individually and evaluated at metamorphosis. Restricted food reduced somatic development and growth, but only influenced size, and not developmental stage of testes at metamorphosis. This work demonstrates that environmental conditions influence tradeoffs between growth and development of somatic and gonadal tissues, apparently in a sex-specific manner. These tradeoffs may contribute to phenotypic correlations between small size and reduced fitness.

  13. Exploratory Case Studies of the Role of the Community School Coordinator: Developing the School Social Network in Urban Elementary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruffin, Verna Dean

    2013-01-01

    This exploratory case study examines the role of the community school coordinator (CSC) in the community school model in two urban elementary schools. It seeks to understand how the role and responsibilities of a community school coordinator supports fostering relationships with parents, teachers, students and the community (i.e. building the…

  14. Expression and Sequence Evolution of Aromatase cyp19a1 and Other Sexual Development Genes in East African Cichlid Fishes

    PubMed Central

    Böhne, Astrid; Heule, Corina; Boileau, Nicolas; Salzburger, Walter

    2013-01-01

    Sex determination mechanisms are highly variable across teleost fishes and sexual development is often plastic. Nevertheless, downstream factors establishing the two sexes are presumably conserved. Here, we study sequence evolution and gene expression of core genes of sexual development in a prime model system in evolutionary biology, the East African cichlid fishes. Using the available five cichlid genomes, we test for signs of positive selection in 28 genes including duplicates from the teleost whole-genome duplication, and examine the expression of these candidate genes in three cichlid species. We then focus on a particularly striking case, the A- and B-copies of the aromatase cyp19a1, and detect different evolutionary trajectories: cyp19a1A evolved under strong positive selection, whereas cyp19a1B remained conserved at the protein level, yet is subject to regulatory changes at its transcription start sites. Importantly, we find shifts in gene expression in both copies. Cyp19a1 is considered the most conserved ovary-factor in vertebrates, and in all teleosts investigated so far, cyp19a1A and cyp19a1B are expressed in ovaries and the brain, respectively. This is not the case in cichlids, where we find new expression patterns in two derived lineages: the A-copy gained a novel testis-function in the Ectodine lineage, whereas the B-copy is overexpressed in the testis of the speciest-richest cichlid group, the Haplochromini. This suggests that even key factors of sexual development, including the sex steroid pathway, are not conserved in fish, supporting the idea that flexibility in sexual determination and differentiation may be a driving force of speciation. PMID:23883521

  15. New developments in probing and targeting protein acylation in malaria, leishmaniasis and African sleeping sickness.

    PubMed

    Ritzefeld, Markus; Wright, Megan H; Tate, Edward W

    2017-03-08

    Infections by protozoan parasites, such as Plasmodium falciparum or Leishmania donovani, have a significant health, social and economic impact and threaten billions of people living in tropical and sub-tropical regions of developing countries worldwide. The increasing range of parasite strains resistant to frontline therapeutics makes the identification of novel drug targets and the development of corresponding inhibitors vital. Post-translational modifications (PTMs) are important modulators of biology and inhibition of protein lipidation has emerged as a promising therapeutic strategy for treatment of parasitic diseases. In this review we summarize the latest insights into protein lipidation in protozoan parasites. We discuss how recent chemical proteomic approaches have delivered the first global overviews of protein lipidation in these organisms, contributing to our understanding of the role of this PTM in critical metabolic and cellular functions. Additionally, we highlight the development of new small molecule inhibitors to target parasite acyl transferases.

  16. Participation of South African youth in the design and development of AIDS photocomics. 1997-98.

    PubMed

    Toroyan, Tamitza; Reddy, Priscilla S

    In response to an increasing incidence in HIV prevalence among South Africa's youth, a group of interdisciplinary professionals have developed a series of photocomics to address issues around HIV/AIDS communication and sexually transmitted diseases. This article examines the theory behind the use of photocomics in health, and the way the stories work to influence behavior. Results from evaluation of the comics support their use as tools with which to increase information and knowledge while role modeling desirable behavior. Lastly, the article describes the participatory process by which youth were involved in the process of developing and producing the comics. This method of developing culturally relevant and appealing health media is recommended for use in future health promotion strategies that seek to transcend a narrower approach of provision of health information and work to address the social factors that influence youth's decision making.

  17. Ontogenetic Development of Weberian Ossicles and Hearing Abilities in the African Bullhead Catfish

    PubMed Central

    Lechner, Walter; Heiss, Egon; Schwaha, Thomas; Glösmann, Martin; Ladich, Friedrich

    2011-01-01

    Background The Weberian apparatus of otophysine fishes facilitates sound transmission from the swimbladder to the inner ear to increase hearing sensitivity. It has been of great interest to biologists since the 19th century. No studies, however, are available on the development of the Weberian ossicles and its effect on the development of hearing in catfishes. Methodology/Principal Findings We investigated the development of the Weberian apparatus and auditory sensitivity in the catfish Lophiobagrus cyclurus. Specimens from 11.3 mm to 85.5 mm in standard length were studied. Morphology was assessed using sectioning, histology, and X-ray computed tomography, along with 3D reconstruction. Hearing thresholds were measured utilizing the auditory evoked potentials recording technique. Weberian ossicles and interossicular ligaments were fully developed in all stages investigated except in the smallest size group. In the smallest catfish, the intercalarium and the interossicular ligaments were still missing and the tripus was not yet fully developed. Smallest juveniles revealed lowest auditory sensitivity and were unable to detect frequencies higher than 2 or 3 kHz; sensitivity increased in larger specimens by up to 40 dB, and frequency detection up to 6 kHz. In the size groups capable of perceiving frequencies up to 6 kHz, larger individuals had better hearing abilities at low frequencies (0.05–2 kHz), whereas smaller individuals showed better hearing at the highest frequencies (4–6 kHz). Conclusions/Significance Our data indicate that the ability of otophysine fish to detect sounds at low levels and high frequencies largely depends on the development of the Weberian apparatus. A significant increase in auditory sensitivity was observed as soon as all Weberian ossicles and interossicular ligaments are present and the chain for transmitting sounds from the swimbladder to the inner ear is complete. This contrasts with findings in another otophysine, the zebrafish

  18. Health Workforce Development: A Needs Assessment Study in French Speaking African Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chastonay, Philippe; Moretti, Roberto; Zesiger, Veronique; Cremaschini, Marco; Bailey, Rebecca; Pariyo, George; Kabengele, Emmanuel Mpinga

    2013-01-01

    In 2006, WHO alerted the world to a global health workforce crisis, demonstrated through critical shortages of health workers, primarily in Sub-Saharan Africa (WHO in World Health Report, 2006). The objective of our study was to assess, in a participative way, the educational needs for public health and health workforce development among potential…

  19. A Comprehensive Competence-Based Approach in Curriculum Development: Experiences from African and European Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parent, F.; Baulana, R.; Kahombo, G.; Coppieters, Y.; Garant, M.; De Ketele, J.-M.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To describe the methodological steps of developing an integrated reference guide for competences according to the profile of the healthcare professionals concerned. Design: Human resources in healthcare represent a complex issue, which needs conceptual and methodological frameworks and tools to help one understand reality and the limits…

  20. Life-Wide Learning and Early Reading Development in Twelve African and Asian Sites

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dowd, Amy Jo; Friedlander, Elliott; Jonason, Christine; Leer, Jane; Sorensen, Lisa Zook; D'Sa, Nikhit; Guajardo, Jarret; Pava, Clara; Pisani, Lauren

    2016-01-01

    For decades, the international education community has focused on schools as the primary vehicle of learning. However, learning assessments in dozens of developing nations show that repeated attempts to affect student learning in schools have largely failed. Because students with perfect attendance in low-resource settings spend less than 25…

  1. Challenges and Opportunities for Teacher Professional Development in Interactive Use of Technology in African Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hennessy, Sara; Haßler, Bjoern; Hofmann, Riikka

    2015-01-01

    This article examines the supporting and constraining factors influencing professional learning about interactive teaching and mobile digital technology use in low-resourced basic schools in sub-Saharan Africa. It draws on a case study of iterative development and refinement of a school-based, peer-facilitated professional learning programme…

  2. Succession Planning and Leadership Development for School Principals: Comparing English and South African Approaches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bush, Tony

    2011-01-01

    Succession planning has become increasingly important because of the shortage of headship applicants in England, and in many other countries. Leadership development is a central part of any succession planning strategy. This article compares the findings from two longitudinal studies, in England and South Africa, where the governments are seeking…

  3. The Influence of Science Education Professional Development on African American Science Teacher's Conceptual Change and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blackmon, Angelicque Tucker

    2005-01-01

    Conceptual change as a professional development model has moved elementary science teaching beyond lecture and the memorization of facts to science instruction congruent with the National Science Education Standards (National Research Council, 1996). However, research on the effectiveness of conceptual change teaching reveals some of its…

  4. Possibilities and pitfalls for modern biotechnology in the development of African genetic toxicology

    SciTech Connect

    Anwar, Wagida A. . E-mail: wagidaanwar@yahoo.com

    2005-09-01

    Developing countries are currently going through a transitional phase facing the new challenges of globalization and its potential negative impact. Research policy should highlight the need to mobilize resources for human resource development, networking, improved research culture, information sharing, and pragmatic use of research findings. Advancement in molecular genetics whether at the educational or research level should greatly progress in developing countries so as to improve diagnosis, treatment, understanding of disease risk factors, and prevention. Currently, there is a growing interest to genetic toxicology research, the use of different biomarkers, and genetic susceptibility testing, which can contribute effectively in risk assessment. Africa has unique environmental exposures and public health circumstances, which make it ideal for environmental mutagenicity and carcinogenicity research. There are exposures to chemical genotoxicants (e.g., automobile exhaust, pesticides, metals, and cytotoxic drugs) and to lifestyle factors (e.g., consumption of tobacco products) that have been linked to the expression of biological effects and to increased risk for cancer. Infections can be associated with cancer development when the environmental factors interact with the infection and lead to the enhancement of the carcinogenic process. The high prevalence of viral pathogens and the improper use of pesticides may endanger biological functions beyond those for which they originally manufactured. Biomarkers are used to detect the effects of pesticides before adverse clinical health occurs. The scientific community plays a crucial role in understanding the environmental causes of human health problems and through its collaboration with communities, industries, and government agencies can help in resolving health problems.

  5. Culture, Indigenous Knowledge Systems and Sustainable Development: A Critical View of Education in an African Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breidlid, Anders

    2009-01-01

    The article's focus is the relationship between culture, indigenous knowledge systems (IKS), sustainable development and education in Africa. It analyzes the concept of sustainability with particular reference to education and indigenous knowledge systems. In particular the article analyzes the documents from the World Summit in Johannesburg in…

  6. The Story of a Library: Research and Development in an African Village

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parry, Kate

    2009-01-01

    Background: Although education in Africa is expanding, little is being done to support learners' literacy outside the school. Rural people have little access to books and so cannot develop their reading skills. Purpose of Study: The project described here has both an educational and a research purpose: to complement formal schooling by making…

  7. Handwriting Manual for Primary Teachers in Somalia. African Studies in Curriculum Development & Evaluation No. 61.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dirie, Mohamed Farah

    Concern over the poor and illegible handwriting of the students in Somalia led to the development of this handwriting manual for primary school teachers to: (1) give teachers guidance in teaching handwriting; (2) help teachers in the methodology of teaching handwriting; (3) let teachers know the easier ways of making cheap and obtainable materials…

  8. Institutional Context Matters: The Professional Development of Academics as Teachers in South African Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leibowitz, Brenda; Bozalek, Vivienne; van Schalkwyk, Susan; Winberg, Christine

    2015-01-01

    This study features the concept of "context" and how various macro, meso and micro features of the social system play themselves out in any setting. Using South Africa as an example, it explores the features that may constrain or enable professional development, quality teaching and the work of teaching and learning centres at eight…

  9. The Development of Course Content: Teaching Child Development from a Multicultural Perspective. Focus on African American Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dixon, Gwendolyn

    This paper addresses the dominant view from which child development is currently taught, examining the impact of culture on the developing child and offering a rationale for shifting paradigms toward a more inclusive framework of instruction. The dominant framework presents child development from a middle class white, generally western, paradigm.…

  10. Development of an Experimental African Drought Monitoring and Seasonal Forecasting System: A First Step towards a Global Drought Information System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wood, E. F.; Chaney, N.; Sheffield, J.; Yuan, X.

    2012-12-01

    Extreme hydrologic events in the form of droughts are a significant source of social and economic damage. Internationally, organizations such as UNESCO, the Group on Earth Observations (GEO), and the World Climate Research Programme (WCRP) have recognized the need for drought monitoring, especially for the developing world where drought has had devastating impacts on local populations through food insecurity and famine. Having the capacity to monitor droughts in real-time, and to provide drought forecasts with sufficient warning will help developing countries and international programs move from the management of drought crises to the management of drought risk. While observation-based assessments, such as those produced by the US Drought Monitor, are effective for monitoring in countries with extensive observation networks (of precipitation in particular), their utility is lessened in areas (e.g., Africa) where observing networks are sparse. For countries with sparse networks and weak reporting systems, remote sensing observations can provide the real-time data for the monitoring of drought. More importantly, these datasets are now available for at least a decade, which allows for the construction of a climatology against which current conditions can be compared. In this presentation we discuss the development of our multi-lingual experimental African Drought Monitor (ADM) (see http://hydrology.princeton.edu/~nchaney/ADM_ML). At the request of UNESCO, the ADM system has been installed at AGRHYMET, a regional climate and agricultural center in Niamey, Niger and at the ICPAC climate center in Nairobi, Kenya. The ADM system leverages off our U.S. drought monitoring and forecasting system (http://hydrology.princeton.edu/forecasting) that uses the NLDAS data to force the VIC land surface model (LSM) at 1/8th degree spatial resolution for the estimation of our soil moisture drought index (Sheffield et al., 2004). For the seasonal forecast of drought, CFSv2 climate

  11. Development and psychometric testing of the childhood obesity perceptions (COP) survey among African American caregivers: A tool for obesity prevention program planning.

    PubMed

    Alexander, Dayna S; Alfonso, Moya L; Cao, Chunhua

    2016-12-01

    Currently, public health practitioners are analyzing the role that caregivers play in childhood obesity efforts. Assessing African American caregiver's perceptions of childhood obesity in rural communities is an important prevention effort. This article's objective is to describe the development and psychometric testing of a survey tool to assess childhood obesity perceptions among African American caregivers in a rural setting, which can be used for obesity prevention program development or evaluation. The Childhood Obesity Perceptions (COP) survey was developed to reflect the multidimensional nature of childhood obesity including risk factors, health complications, weight status, built environment, and obesity prevention strategies. A 97-item survey was pretested and piloted with the priority population. After pretesting and piloting, the survey was reduced to 59-items and administered to 135 African American caregivers. An exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was conducted to test how well the survey items represented the number of Social Cognitive Theory constructs. Twenty items were removed from the original 59-item survey and acceptable internal consistency of the six factors (α=0.70-0.85) was documented for all scales in the final COP instrument. CFA resulted in a less than adequate fit; however, a multivariate Lagrange multiplier test identified modifications to improve the model fit. The COP survey represents a promising approach as a potentially comprehensive assessment for implementation or evaluation of childhood obesity programs.

  12. African Americans and Agriculture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Joan

    2000-01-01

    Reviews the opportunities available in the field of agriculture for African American students and notes efforts of the 136 colleges of agriculture to publicize their offerings and recruit students. Profiles six black leaders in agriculture, highlighting their achievements in research and aid to developing countries. A table provides data on annual…

  13. GHG emission factors developed for the recycling and composting of municipal waste in South African municipalities.

    PubMed

    Friedrich, Elena; Trois, Cristina

    2013-11-01

    GHG (greenhouse gas) emission factors for waste management are increasingly used, but such factors are very scarce for developing countries. This paper shows how such factors have been developed for the recycling of glass, metals (Al and Fe), plastics and paper from municipal solid waste, as well as for the composting of garden refuse in South Africa. The emission factors developed for the different recyclables in the country show savings varying from -290kg CO2 e (glass) to -19111kg CO2 e (metals - Al) per tonne of recyclable. They also show that there is variability, with energy intensive materials like metals having higher GHG savings in South Africa as compared to other countries. This underlines the interrelation of the waste management system of a country/region with other systems, in particular with energy generation, which in South Africa, is heavily reliant on coal. This study also shows that composting of garden waste is a net GHG emitter, releasing 172 and 186kg CO2 e per tonne of wet garden waste for aerated dome composting and turned windrow composting, respectively. The paper concludes that these emission factors are facilitating GHG emissions modelling for waste management in South Africa and enabling local municipalities to identify best practice in this regard.

  14. GHG emission factors developed for the recycling and composting of municipal waste in South African municipalities

    SciTech Connect

    Friedrich, Elena Trois, Cristina

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: • GHG emission factors for local recycling of municipal waste are presented. • GHG emission factors for two composting technologies for garden waste are included. • Local GHG emission factors were compared to international ones and discussed. • Uncertainties and limitations are presented and areas for new research highlighted. - Abstract: GHG (greenhouse gas) emission factors for waste management are increasingly used, but such factors are very scarce for developing countries. This paper shows how such factors have been developed for the recycling of glass, metals (Al and Fe), plastics and paper from municipal solid waste, as well as for the composting of garden refuse in South Africa. The emission factors developed for the different recyclables in the country show savings varying from −290 kg CO{sub 2} e (glass) to −19 111 kg CO{sub 2} e (metals – Al) per tonne of recyclable. They also show that there is variability, with energy intensive materials like metals having higher GHG savings in South Africa as compared to other countries. This underlines the interrelation of the waste management system of a country/region with other systems, in particular with energy generation, which in South Africa, is heavily reliant on coal. This study also shows that composting of garden waste is a net GHG emitter, releasing 172 and 186 kg CO{sub 2} e per tonne of wet garden waste for aerated dome composting and turned windrow composting, respectively. The paper concludes that these emission factors are facilitating GHG emissions modelling for waste management in South Africa and enabling local municipalities to identify best practice in this regard.

  15. African Pentecostalism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrard, David J.

    2009-01-01

    The diversity of African Pentecostalism, its early colonial and missionary history and its current characteristics are described and analysed. Reference is made to methods of training and forms of leadership, and suggestions are made about the reasons for its growth and persistence. (Contains 19 notes.)

  16. Developing and Evaluating Supplementary Science Readers for Primary 3 Pupils in Uganda. African Studies in Curriculum Development & Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiyimba, David S.

    Five science reading booklets were developed to foster the development of communication, observation, and experimentation skills in Uganda elementary school students. Topics selected, resulting from interviews with teachers and students, included: 1) rain; 2) round worms; 3) caterpillars; 4) butterflies; and 5) insects in the school ground.…

  17. Laboratory Diagnosis of Tick-Borne African Relapsing Fevers: Latest Developments

    PubMed Central

    Fotso Fotso, Aurélien; Drancourt, Michel

    2015-01-01

    In Africa, relapsing fevers caused by ectoparasite-borne Borrelia species are transmitted by ticks, with the exception of Borrelia recurrentis, which is a louse-borne spirochete. These tropical diseases are responsible for mild to deadly spirochetemia. Cultured Borrelia crocidurae, Borrelia duttonii, and Borrelia hispanica circulate alongside at least six species that have not yet been cultured in vectors. Direct diagnosis is hindered by the use of non-specific laboratory tools. Indeed, microscopic observation of Borrelia spirochaeta in smears of peripheral blood taken from febrile patients lacks sensitivity and specificity. Although best visualized using dark-field microscopy, the organisms can also be detected using Wright–Giemsa or acridine orange stains. PCR-based detection of specific sequences in total DNA extracted from a specimen can be used to discriminate different relapsing fever Borreliae. In our laboratory, we developed a multiplex real-time PCR assay for the specific detection of B. duttonii/recurrentis and B. crocidurae: multispacer sequence typing accurately identified cultured relapsing fever borreliae and revealed diversity among them. Other molecular typing techniques, such as multilocus sequence analysis of tick-borne relapsing fever borreliae, showed the potential risk of human infection in Africa. Recent efforts to culture and sequence relapsing fever borreliae have provided new information for reassessment of the diversity of these bacteria. Recently, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry has been reported as a means of identifying cultured borreliae and of identifying both vectors and vectorized pathogens such as detecting relapsing fever borreliae directly in ticks. The lack of a rapid diagnosis test restricts the management of such diseases. We produced monoclonal antibodies against B. crocidurae in order to develop cheap assays for the rapid detection of relapsing fever borreliae. In this paper, we

  18. Pubertal development in HIV-infected African children on first-line antiretroviral therapy

    PubMed Central

    Szubert, Alexander J.; Musiime, Victor; Bwakura-Dangarembizi, Mutsawashe; Nahirya-Ntege, Patricia; Kekitiinwa, Adeodata; Gibb, Diana M.; Nathoo, Kusum; Prendergast, Andrew J.; Walker, A. Sarah

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To estimate age at attaining Tanner stages in Ugandan/Zimbabwean HIV-infected children initiating antiretroviral therapy (ART) in older childhood and investigate predictors of delayed puberty, particularly age at ART initiation. Design: Observational analysis within a randomized trial. Methods: Tanner staging was assessed every 24 weeks from 10 years of age, menarche every 12 weeks and height every 4–6 weeks. Age at attaining different Tanner stages was estimated using normal interval regression, considering predictors using multivariable regression. Growth was estimated using multilevel models with child-specific intercepts and trajectories. Results: Median age at ART initiation was 9.4 years (inter-quartile range 7.8, 11.3) (n = 582). At the first assessment, the majority (80.2%) were in Tanner stage 1; median follow-up with staging was 2.8 years. There was a strong delaying effect of older age at ART initiation on age at attaining all Tanner stages (P < 0.05) and menarche (P = 0.02); in boys the delaying effect generally weakened with older age. There were additional significant delays associated with greater impairments in pre-ART height-for-age Z-score (P < 0.05) in both sexes and pre-ART BMI-for-age in girls (P < 0.05). There was no evidence that pre-ART immuno-suppression independently delayed puberty or menarche. However, older children/adolescents had significant growth spurts in intermediate Tanner stages, and were still significantly increasing their height when in Tanner stage 5 (P < 0.01). Conclusion: Delaying ART initiation until older childhood substantially delays pubertal development and menarche, independently of immuno-suppression. This highlights that factors other than CD4+, such as pubertal development, need consideration when making decisions about timing of ART initiation in older children. PMID:25710288

  19. Development and validation of risk profiles of West African rural communities facing multiple natural hazards.

    PubMed

    Asare-Kyei, Daniel; Renaud, Fabrice G; Kloos, Julia; Walz, Yvonne; Rhyner, Jakob

    2017-01-01

    West Africa has been described as a hotspot of climate change. The reliance on rain-fed agriculture by over 65% of the population means that vulnerability to climatic hazards such as droughts, rainstorms and floods will continue. Yet, the vulnerability and risk levels faced by different rural social-ecological systems (SES) affected by multiple hazards are poorly understood. To fill this gap, this study quantifies risk and vulnerability of rural communities to drought and floods. Risk is assessed using an indicator-based approach. A stepwise methodology is followed that combines participatory approaches with statistical, remote sensing and Geographic Information System techniques to develop community level vulnerability indices in three watersheds (Dano, Burkina Faso; Dassari, Benin; Vea, Ghana). The results show varying levels of risk profiles across the three watersheds. Statistically significant high levels of mean risk in the Dano area of Burkina Faso are found whilst communities in the Dassari area of Benin show low mean risk. The high risk in the Dano area results from, among other factors, underlying high exposure to droughts and rainstorms, longer dry season duration, low caloric intake per capita, and poor local institutions. The study introduces the concept of community impact score (CIS) to validate the indicator-based risk and vulnerability modelling. The CIS measures the cumulative impact of the occurrence of multiple hazards over five years. 65.3% of the variance in observed impact of hazards/CIS was explained by the risk models and communities with high simulated disaster risk generally follow areas with high observed disaster impacts. Results from this study will help disaster managers to better understand disaster risk and develop appropriate, inclusive and well integrated mitigation and adaptation plans at the local level. It fulfills the increasing need to balance global/regional assessments with community level assessments where major decisions

  20. Emergence of Rich-Club Topology and Coordinated Dynamics in Development of Hippocampal Functional Networks In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Charlesworth, Paul; Kitzbichler, Manfred G.; Paulsen, Ole

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies demonstrated that the anatomical network of the human brain shows a “rich-club” organization. This complex topological feature implies that highly connected regions, hubs of the large-scale brain network, are more densely interconnected with each other than expected by chance. Rich-club nodes were traversed by a majority of short paths between peripheral regions, underlining their potential importance for efficient global exchange of information between functionally specialized areas of the brain. Network hubs have also been described at the microscale of brain connectivity (so-called “hub neurons”). Their role in shaping synchronous dynamics and forming microcircuit wiring during development, however, is not yet fully understood. The present study aimed to investigate the role of hubs during network development, using multi-electrode arrays and functional connectivity analysis during spontaneous multi-unit activity (MUA) of dissociated primary mouse hippocampal neurons. Over the first 4 weeks in vitro, functional connectivity significantly increased in strength, density, and size, with mature networks demonstrating a robust modular and small-world topology. As expected by a “rich-get-richer” growth rule of network evolution, MUA graphs were found to form rich-clubs at an early stage in development (14 DIV). Later on, rich-club nodes were a consistent topological feature of MUA graphs, demonstrating high nodal strength, efficiency, and centrality. Rich-club nodes were also found to be crucial for MUA dynamics. They often served as broker of spontaneous activity flow, confirming that hub nodes and rich-clubs may play an important role in coordinating functional dynamics at the microcircuit level. PMID:25855164

  1. Altered cerebellum development and impaired motor coordination in mice lacking the Btg1 gene: Involvement of cyclin D1.

    PubMed

    Ceccarelli, Manuela; Micheli, Laura; D'Andrea, Giorgio; De Bardi, Marco; Scheijen, Blanca; Ciotti, MariaTeresa; Leonardi, Luca; Luvisetto, Siro; Tirone, Felice

    2015-12-01

    Cerebellar granule neurons develop postnatally from cerebellar granule precursors (GCPs), which are located in the external granule layer (EGL) where they massively proliferate. Thereafter, GCPs become postmitotic, migrate inward to form the internal granule layer (IGL), further differentiate and form synapses with Purkinje cell dendrites. We previously showed that the Btg family gene, Tis21/Btg2, is required for normal GCP migration. Here we investigated the role in cerebellar development of the related gene, Btg1, which regulates stem cell quiescence in adult neurogenic niches, and is expressed in the cerebellum. Knockout of Btg1 in mice caused a major increase of the proliferation of the GCPs in the EGL, whose thickness increased, remaining hyperplastic even after postnatal day 14, when the EGL is normally reduced to a few GCP layers. This was accompanied by a slight decrease of differentiation and migration of the GCPs and increase of apoptosis. The GCPs of double Btg1/Tis21-null mice presented combined major defects of proliferation and migration outside the EGL, indicating that each gene plays unique and crucial roles in cerebellar development. Remarkably, these developmental defects lead to a permanent increase of the adult cerebellar volume in Btg1-null and double mutant mice, and to impairment in all mutants, including Tis21-null, of the cerebellum-dependent motor coordination. Gain- and loss-of-function strategies in a GCP cell line revealed that Btg1 regulates the proliferation of GCPs selectively through cyclin D1. Thus, Btg1 plays a critical role for cerebellar maturation and function.

  2. FGF/FGFR signaling coordinates skull development by modulating magnitude of morphological integration: evidence from Apert syndrome mouse models.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Abadías, Neus; Heuzé, Yann; Wang, Yingli; Jabs, Ethylin Wang; Aldridge, Kristina; Richtsmeier, Joan T

    2011-01-01

    The fibroblast growth factor and receptor system (FGF/FGFR) mediates cell communication and pattern formation in many tissue types (e.g., osseous, nervous, vascular). In those craniosynostosis syndromes caused by FGFR1-3 mutations, alteration of signaling in the FGF/FGFR system leads to dysmorphology of the skull, brain and limbs, among other organs. Since this molecular pathway is widely expressed throughout head development, we explore whether and how two specific mutations on Fgfr2 causing Apert syndrome in humans affect the pattern and level of integration between the facial skeleton and the neurocranium using inbred Apert syndrome mouse models Fgfr2(+/S252W) and Fgfr2(+/P253R) and their non-mutant littermates at P0. Skull morphological integration (MI), which can reflect developmental interactions among traits by measuring the intensity of statistical associations among them, was assessed using data from microCT images of the skull of Apert syndrome mouse models and 3D geometric morphometric methods. Our results show that mutant Apert syndrome mice share the general pattern of MI with their non-mutant littermates, but the magnitude of integration between and within the facial skeleton and the neurocranium is increased, especially in Fgfr2(+/S252W) mice. This indicates that although Fgfr2 mutations do not disrupt skull MI, FGF/FGFR signaling is a covariance-generating process in skull development that acts as a global factor modulating the intensity of MI. As this pathway evolved early in vertebrate evolution, it may have played a significant role in establishing the patterns of skull MI and coordinating proper skull development.

  3. Development of a fractional-step method for the unsteady incompressible Navier-Stokes equations in generalized coordinate systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosenfeld, Moshe; Kwak, Dochan; Vinokur, Marcel

    1992-01-01

    A fractional step method is developed for solving the time-dependent three-dimensional incompressible Navier-Stokes equations in generalized coordinate systems. The primitive variable formulation uses the pressure, defined at the center of the computational cell, and the volume fluxes across the faces of the cells as the dependent variables, instead of the Cartesian components of the velocity. This choice is equivalent to using the contravariant velocity components in a staggered grid multiplied by the volume of the computational cell. The governing equations are discretized by finite volumes using a staggered mesh system. The solution of the continuity equation is decoupled from the momentum equations by a fractional step method which enforces mass conservation by solving a Poisson equation. This procedure, combined with the consistent approximations of the geometric quantities, is done to satisfy the discretized mass conservation equation to machine accuracy, as well as to gain the favorable convergence properties of the Poisson solver. The momentum equations are solved by an approximate factorization method, and a novel ZEBRA scheme with four-color ordering is devised for the efficient solution of the Poisson equation. Several two- and three-dimensional laminar test cases are computed and compared with other numerical and experimental results to validate the solution method. Good agreement is obtained in all cases.

  4. Genome Wide Association Study to Identify Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) Associated with the Development of Erectile Dysfunction in African-American Men Following Radiotherapy for Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kerns, Sarah L.; Ostrer, Harry; Stock, Richard; Li, William; Moore, Julian; Pearlman, Alexander; Campbell, Christopher; Shao, Yongzhao; Stone, Nelson; Kusnetz, Lynda; Rosenstein, Barry S.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose To identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with erectile dysfunction (ED) among African American prostate cancer patients treated with external beam radiation therapy (EBRT). Methods and Materials A cohort of African American prostate cancer patients treated with EBRT was followed for development of ED using the five-item Sexual Health Inventory for Men (SHIM) questionnaire. Final analysis included 27 cases (post-treatment SHIM score ≤ 7) and 52 controls (post-treatment SHIM score ≥ 16). A genome-wide association study was performed using ∼909,000 SNPs genotyped on Affymetrix 6.0 arrays. Results We identified SNP rs2268363, located in the follicle stimulating hormone receptor (FSHR) gene, as significantly associated with ED after correcting for multiple comparisons (unadjusted p-value = 5.46×10−8; Bonferroni p-value = 0.028). We identified four additional SNPs that tended toward significant association with unadjusted p-value < 10−06. Inference of population substructure revealed that cases had a higher proportion of African ancestry compared to controls (77% compared to 60%, p=0.005). A multivariate logistic regression model that incorporated estimated ancestry and four of the top-ranked SNPs was a more accurate classifier of ED than a model that included only clinical variables. Conclusions To the best of our knowledge, this is the first genome wide association study to identify SNPs associated with adverse effects resulting from radiotherapy. It is important to note that the SNP that proved significantly associated with ED is located within a gene whose encoded product plays a role in male gonad development and function. Another key finding of this project is that the four SNPs most strongly associated with ED were specific to people of African ancestry and would therefore not have been identified had a cohort of European ancestry been screened. This study demonstrates the feasibility of a genome-wide approach to investigate

  5. Philosophy, Program Development and Implementation. Proceedings and Evaluation of the Annual National Conference for State Personnel Development Coordinators (5th, Arlington, Texas, January 26-28, 1976). Career and Vocational Education Professional Development Report No. 19.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porter, G. William, Ed.; And Others

    The basic text (or, in some cases, an outline of the text) of the presentations taped at the conference for vocational education personnel coordinators constitute the major portion of this report. Titles are (1) A Philosophy for Personnel Development in Vocational Education, (2) Performance-Based Teacher Education for Vocational Teachers, (3) A…

  6. Development of odour-baited flytraps for sampling the African latrine fly, Chrysomya putoria, a putative vector of enteric diseases.

    PubMed

    Lindsay, Thomas C; Jawara, Musa; D'Alessandro, Umberto; Pinder, Margaret; Lindsay, Steven W

    2012-01-01

    African pit latrines produce prodigious numbers of the latrine fly, Chrysomya putoria, a putative vector of diarrhoeal pathogens. We set out to develop a simple, low-cost odour-baited trap for collecting C. putoria in the field. A series of field experiments was carried out in The Gambia to assess the catching-efficiency of different trap designs. The basic trap was a transparent 3L polypropylene box baited with 50 g of fish, with a white opaque lid with circular entrance holes. We tested variations of the number, diameter, position and shape of the entrance holes, the height of the trap above ground, degree of transparency of the box, its shape, volume, colour, and the attractiveness of gridded surfaces on or under the trap. Traps were rotated between positions on different sampling occasions using a Latin Square design. The optimal trapping features were incorporated into a final trap that was tested against commercially available traps. Features of the trap that increased the number of flies caught included: larger entrance holes (compared with smaller ones, p<0.001), using conical collars inside the holes (compared with without collars, p = 0.01), entrance holes on the top of the trap (compared with the side or bottom, p<0.001), traps placed on the ground (compared with above ground, p<0.001), the box having transparent sides (compared with being opaque, p<0.001), and with no wire grids nearby (compared with those with grids, p = 0.03). This trap collected similar numbers of C. putoria to other common traps for blow flies. The optimum trap design was a transparent box, with a white plastic lid on top, perforated with 10 conical entrance holes, placed on the ground. Our simple trap provides a cheap, low-maintenance and effective method of sampling C. putoria in the field.

  7. Regional trade and the nutrition transition: opportunities to strengthen NCD prevention policy in the Southern African Development Community.

    PubMed

    Thow, Anne Marie; Sanders, David; Drury, Eliza; Puoane, Thandi; Chowdhury, Syeda N; Tsolekile, Lungiswa; Negin, Joel

    2015-01-01

    Background Addressing diet-related non-communicable diseases (NCDs) will require a multisectoral policy approach that includes the food supply and trade, but implementing effective policies has proved challenging. The Southern African Development Community (SADC) has experienced significant trade and economic liberalization over the past decade; at the same time, the nutrition transition has progressed rapidly in the region. This analysis considers the relationship between regional trade liberalization and changes in the food environment associated with poor diets and NCDs, with the aim of identifying feasible and proactive policy responses to support healthy diets. Design Changes in trade and investment policy for the SADC were documented and compared with time-series graphs of import data for soft drinks and snack foods to assess changes in imports and source country in relation to trade and investment liberalization. Our analysis focuses on regional trade flows. Results Diets and the burden of disease in the SADC have changed since the 1990s in parallel with trade and investment liberalization. Imports of soft drinks increased by 76% into SADC countries between 1995 and 2010, and processed snack foods by 83%. South Africa acts as a regional trade and investment hub; it is the major source of imports and investment related to these products into other SADC countries. At the same time, imports of processed foods and soft drinks from outside the region - largely from Asia and the Middle East - are increasing at a dramatic rate with soft drink imports growing by almost 1,200% and processed snack foods by 750%. Conclusions There is significant intra-regional trade in products associated with the nutrition transition; however, growing extra-regional trade means that countries face new pressures in implementing strong policies to prevent the increasing burden of diet-related NCDs. Implementation of a regional nutrition policy framework could complement the SADC

  8. Preliminary studies developing methods for the control of Chrysomya putoria, the African latrine fly, in pit latrines in The Gambia

    PubMed Central

    Lindsay, T C; Jawara, M; D'Alessandro, U; Pinder, M; Lindsay, S W

    2013-01-01

    Objective To explore ways of controlling Chrysomya putoria, the African latrine fly, in pit latrines. As pit latrines are a major source of these flies, eliminating these important breeding sites is likely to reduce village fly populations, and may reduce the spread of diarrhoeal pathogens. Methods We treated 24 latrines in a Gambian village: six each with (i) pyriproxyfen, an insect juvenile hormone mimic formulated as Sumilarv® 0.5G, a 0.5% pyriproxyfen granule, (ii) expanded polystyrene beads (EPB), (iii) local soap or (iv) no treatment as controls. Flies were collected using exit traps placed over the drop holes, weekly for five weeks. In a separate study, we tested whether latrines also function as efficient flytraps using the faecal odours as attractants. We constructed six pit latrines each with a built-in flytrap and tested their catching efficiency compared to six fish-baited box traps positioned 10 m from the latrine. Focus group discussions conducted afterwards assessed the acceptability of the flytrap latrines. Results Numbers of emerging C. putoria were reduced by 96.0% (95% CIs: 94.5–97.2%) 4–5 weeks after treatment with pyriproxyfen; by 64.2% (95% CIs: 51.8–73.5%) after treatment with local soap; by 41.3% (95% CIs = 24.0–54.7%) after treatment with EPB 3–5 weeks after treatment. Flytraps placed on latrines collected C. putoria and were deemed acceptable to local communities. Conclusions Sumilarv 0.5G shows promise as a chemical control agent, whilst odour-baited latrine traps may prove a useful method of non-chemical fly control. Both methods warrant further development to reduce fly production from pit latrines. A combination of interventions may prove effective for the control of latrine flies and the diseases they transmit. PMID:23198767

  9. Development of Odour-Baited Flytraps for Sampling the African Latrine Fly, Chrysomya putoria, a Putative Vector of Enteric Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Lindsay, Thomas C.; Jawara, Musa; D’Alessandro, Umberto; Pinder, Margaret; Lindsay, Steven W.

    2012-01-01

    African pit latrines produce prodigious numbers of the latrine fly, Chrysomya putoria, a putative vector of diarrhoeal pathogens. We set out to develop a simple, low-cost odour-baited trap for collecting C. putoria in the field. A series of field experiments was carried out in The Gambia to assess the catching-efficiency of different trap designs. The basic trap was a transparent 3L polypropylene box baited with 50 g of fish, with a white opaque lid with circular entrance holes. We tested variations of the number, diameter, position and shape of the entrance holes, the height of the trap above ground, degree of transparency of the box, its shape, volume, colour, and the attractiveness of gridded surfaces on or under the trap. Traps were rotated between positions on different sampling occasions using a Latin Square design. The optimal trapping features were incorporated into a final trap that was tested against commercially available traps. Features of the trap that increased the number of flies caught included: larger entrance holes (compared with smaller ones, p<0.001), using conical collars inside the holes (compared with without collars, p = 0.01), entrance holes on the top of the trap (compared with the side or bottom, p<0.001), traps placed on the ground (compared with above ground, p<0.001), the box having transparent sides (compared with being opaque, p<0.001), and with no wire grids nearby (compared with those with grids, p = 0.03). This trap collected similar numbers of C. putoria to other common traps for blow flies. The optimum trap design was a transparent box, with a white plastic lid on top, perforated with 10 conical entrance holes, placed on the ground. Our simple trap provides a cheap, low-maintenance and effective method of sampling C. putoria in the field. PMID:23226296

  10. Regional trade and the nutrition transition: opportunities to strengthen NCD prevention policy in the Southern African Development Community

    PubMed Central

    Thow, Anne Marie; Sanders, David; Drury, Eliza; Puoane, Thandi; Chowdhury, Syeda N.; Tsolekile, Lungiswa; Negin, Joel

    2015-01-01

    Background Addressing diet-related non-communicable diseases (NCDs) will require a multisectoral policy approach that includes the food supply and trade, but implementing effective policies has proved challenging. The Southern African Development Community (SADC) has experienced significant trade and economic liberalization over the past decade; at the same time, the nutrition transition has progressed rapidly in the region. This analysis considers the relationship between regional trade liberalization and changes in the food environment associated with poor diets and NCDs, with the aim of identifying feasible and proactive policy responses to support healthy diets. Design Changes in trade and investment policy for the SADC were documented and compared with time-series graphs of import data for soft drinks and snack foods to assess changes in imports and source country in relation to trade and investment liberalization. Our analysis focuses on regional trade flows. Results Diets and the burden of disease in the SADC have changed since the 1990s in parallel with trade and investment liberalization. Imports of soft drinks increased by 76% into SADC countries between 1995 and 2010, and processed snack foods by 83%. South Africa acts as a regional trade and investment hub; it is the major source of imports and investment related to these products into other SADC countries. At the same time, imports of processed foods and soft drinks from outside the region – largely from Asia and the Middle East – are increasing at a dramatic rate with soft drink imports growing by almost 1,200% and processed snack foods by 750%. Conclusions There is significant intra-regional trade in products associated with the nutrition transition; however, growing extra-regional trade means that countries face new pressures in implementing strong policies to prevent the increasing burden of diet-related NCDs. Implementation of a regional nutrition policy framework could complement the SADC

  11. African-Americans and Alzheimer's

    MedlinePlus

    ... African-Americans are at a higher risk for Alzheimer's disease. Many Americans dismiss the warning signs of Alzheimer's, ... two times more likely to develop late-onset Alzheimer's disease than whites and less likely to have a ...

  12. African early childhood development curriculum and pedagogy for Turkana nomadic pastoralist communities of Kenya.

    PubMed

    Ng'asike, John T

    2014-01-01

    Western conceptions of child development and the models of early education they engender predominantly shape services for young children in the first eight years of life all over Africa. This chapter brings a reconceptualist perspective to the critique of Kenya's continuing failure to ground early childhood programs and services in local cultural conceptions, developmental values, childrearing practices, and the practical day-to-day realities of children's learning through participation and apprenticeship in the contexts of family routines, community experiences, and economic survival activities. The chapter draws on work I have conducted in nomadic pastoralist communities in Kenya. That research reveals the disconcerting reality that (a) early childhood education programs privilege Western pedagogical practices over equally effective and locally more relevant ones, and (b) local communities are increasingly resentful of an educational system that alienates their children from their cultural roots in the name of modernization. Asserting the educational value of indigenous knowledge, I present a framework for integrating that knowledge and the naturalistic learning processes in local contexts into instructional programs in formal ECE settings.

  13. Dental manpower needs in a developing community: a critical analysis of the West African scene.

    PubMed

    Ana, J R

    1976-12-01

    Research findings from various countries in West Africa clearly indicate that over 94 per cent of the adult population above 40 years of age suffer from periodontal disease in various degrees of severity. Those living in rural areas in West Africa, where dental health care services are not yet available, suffer more from this common disease. With progressive urbanization and changes in diet and eating habits, consumption of refined sugars is rising steeply (Table II) and dental caries has become a serious problem particularly in children from high socioeconomic homes. In Nigeria, DMF of 4-3 in the female and 3-9 in the male has been reported. There is general paucity of all cadres of dental manpower in all areas in West Africa. Dentist: population ratios range from 1 : 111,000 in Senegal to 1 : 1,935,000 in Tchad Republic (Table I). In Senegal, Ghana and Nigeria, Dental schools have been established and attempts are being made to meet the pressing need for dental manpower by the expansion of existing treatment centres and training institutions and the establishment of new ones (Table IV & V). Emphasis is laid on preventive dental health care programmes and the formal training of dental auxiliary personnel: Dental Therapists, Dental Hygienists, Dental Technicians and Dental Surgery Assistants, is taking place in Nigeria and Senegal. Dental Nurses/Therapists and Dental Hygienists if adequately trained in sufficient numbers can play an all-important role in the delivery of dental care and the execution of preventive programmes in the vast rural areas in the developing countries of West Africa with a population of over 122 million people.

  14. African-American English and Reading Achievement: The Relationships among Dialect Awareness, Dialect Shifting and Reading Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sajous-Brady, Daphne Lucienne

    2012-01-01

    When children begin to connect spoken speech to print, regardless of their language, they all encounter disparities between oral and written representations. Children who speak the African-American English (AAE) dialect at home and in their communities may encounter an even greater number of disparities between oral and written representations…

  15. Contextual Influences on the Career Development of Low-Income African American Youth: Considering an Ecological Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Nicelma J.; Madsen, Ella

    2007-01-01

    There is a growing disconnect between the dominant view of the United States as a country of prosperous, middle-class citizens and the more difficult reality for African American youth from low-income backgrounds, who often see few options for attaining their share of prosperity. This article examines the potential of using an ecological model,…

  16. Nutrition and Physical Activity Knowledge Assessment: Development of Questionnaires and Evaluation of Reliability in African American and Latino Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Lindsay S.; Sharma, Sushma; Hudes, Mark L.; Fleming, Sharon E.

    2012-01-01

    Background: African-American and Latino children living in neighborhoods with a low-socioeconomic index are more at risk of obesity-associated metabolic disease than their higher socioeconomic index and/or white peers. Currently, consistent and reliable questionnaires to evaluate nutrition and physical activity knowledge in these children are…

  17. The Birth of a South African Child Development Center for 2- to 6-Year-Olds: An International Partnership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeMarie, Darlene; Cherian, Lily

    2012-01-01

    Providing high-quality education and care for young children at a historically Black university in rural South Africa was a challenging task. But despite many obstacles, two teacher educators (an American and a South African) worked together, partnered with a surprising collection of others, seized every possible opportunity, and persisted, seeing…

  18. New Branches from Old Roots: Experts Respond to Questions about African American English Development and Language Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burns, Frances A.; Velleman, Shelley L.; Green, Lisa J.; Roeper, Tom

    2010-01-01

    This article uses a question-and-answer format to respond to questions about working with children who speak African American English (AAE) in clinical and educational contexts. The respondents urge speech-language pathologists to appreciate AAE as students' first language, to view all language for its communicative potential, and to remain aware…

  19. The Role of Literary Mentors in Writing Development: How African American Women's Literature Supported the Writings of Adolescent Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muhammad, Gholnecsar E.

    2015-01-01

    Coupling Royster's (2000) conceptual framework of "zamani" with Rosenblatt's (1978) reader response theory, the researcher explores the ways African American women's writings supported, nurtured, and "mentored" the writings of adolescent girls. Findings show that the mentor texts helped in generating ideas for writing, thinking…

  20. Addressing the Career Development Needs of High-Achieving African American High School Students: Implications for Counselors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parris, George P.; Owens, Delila; Johnson, Tyrone; Grbevski, Sonja; Holbert-Quince, Joanne

    2010-01-01

    African Americans face numerous obstacles in achieving their fullest developmental and career potentials in the current political, social, and economic environment. These barriers have produced, for the most part, workers who have been wage earners as opposed to being self-employed, and blue-collar workers rather than managers or proprietors…

  1. A coordinated research programme to develop methodologies for an integrated approach to improve small scale market oriented dairy systems in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Perera, B M A O

    2007-12-01

    A five-year Coordinated Research Project (CRP) entitled 'Integrated approach for improving small scale market oriented dairy systems' is currently being implemented by the Food and Agriculture Organization and the International Atomic Energy Agency, through their Joint Programme on 'Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture'. The objectives are to (a) identify and prioritize the constraints and opportunities in the selected dairy farms; (b) determine the most important limiting factors; (c) develop intervention strategies; (c) assess the economic impact of the interventions; (d) develop methodologies for recording and demonstrating the economic impact; and (e) promote the adoption and dissemination of proven strategies and methodologies. Fifteen institutes in developing as well as developed countries are participating in the project, through ten research contracts (Bangladesh, Cameroon, Pakistan, Paraguay, Peru, South Africa, Sri Lanka, Tanzania, Tunisia and Venezuela), one technical contract (Peru) and four research agreements (Malaysia, U.K., U.S.A. and Uruguay). The initial phase of the project, which focused on the conduct of Participatory Rural Appraisals and Economic Opportunity Surveys in the countries of the research contract holders, has now been completed. This paper describes the background to the CRP approach and the procedures used for developing, initiating and implementing this project.

  2. Iodine status and associations with feeding practices and psychomotor milestone development in six-month-old South African infants.

    PubMed

    Osei, Jennifer; Baumgartner, Jeannine; Rothman, Marinel; Matsungo, Tonderayi M; Covic, Namukolo; Faber, Mieke; Smuts, Cornelius M

    2016-12-28

    Iodine is important for normal growth and psychomotor development. While infants below 6 months of age receive iodine from breast milk or fortified infant formula, the introduction of complementary foods poses a serious risk for deteriorating iodine status. This cross-sectional analysis assessed the iodine status of six-month-old South African infants and explored its associations with feeding practices and psychomotor milestone development. Iodine concentrations were measured in infant (n = 386) and maternal (n = 371) urine (urinary iodine concentration [UIC]), and in breast milk (n = 257 [breast milk iodine concentrations]). Feeding practices and psychomotor milestone development were assessed in all infants. The median (25th-75th percentile) UIC in infants was 345 (213-596) μg/L and was significantly lower in stunted (302 [195-504] μg/L) than non-stunted (366 [225-641] μg/L) infants. Only 6.7% of infants were deficient. Maternal UIC (128 [81-216] μg/L; rs  = 0.218, p < 0.001) and breast milk iodine concentrations (170 [110-270] μg/kg; rs  = 0.447, p < 0.0001) were associated with infant UIC. Most infants (72%) were breastfed and tended to have higher UIC than non-breastfed infants (p = 0.074). Almost all infants (95%) consumed semi-solid or solid foods, with commercial infant cereals (60%) and jarred infant foods (20%) being the most common solid foods first introduced. Infants who reported to consume commercial infant cereals ≥4 days weekly had significantly higher UIC (372 [225-637] μg/L) than those reported to consume commercial infant cereals seldom or never (308 [200-517] μg/L; p = 0.023). No associations between infant UIC and psychomotor developmental scores were observed. Our results suggest that iodine intake in the studied six-month-old infants was adequate. Iodine in breast milk and commercial infant cereals potentially contributed to this adequate intake.

  3. Assessment of the Communicative and Coordination Skills of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders and Typically Developing Children Using Social Signal Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delaherche, Emilie; Chetouani, Mohamed; Bigouret, Fabienne; Xavier, Jean; Plaza, Monique; Cohen, David

    2013-01-01

    To cooperate with a partner, it is essential to communicate by sharing information through all available avenues, including hand gestures, gazes, head gestures and naturally, speech. In this paper, we compare the communicative and coordination skills of children with typical development to those of children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs) in…

  4. Croissance et developpment de l'enfant: 25 ans d'activities internationales coordonnees. Growth and Development of the Child: 25 Years of Internationally Coordinated Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Courrier, 1980

    1980-01-01

    This special issue of the "Courrier," a journal for professionals concerned with issues related to the physical and psychological development of children, provides (1) an overview of 25 years of internationally coordinated research, (2) a selection of papers published by the research teams, and (3) a description of the teams and their…

  5. Applying Metaphors for Learning to Continuing Professional Development (CPD), in the Context of a Course for Special Educational Needs Coordinators (SENCOs)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearson, Sue; Scott, Phil; Sugden, David

    2011-01-01

    The literature suggests that understandings of teaching and learning can be classified around two metaphors: acquisition and participation. It is further argued that neither metaphor is sufficient and that both are necessary. Drawing on material from a larger study related to the professional development of Special Educational Needs Coordinators,…

  6. COORDINATED AV.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CLEAVES, PAUL C.; AND OTHERS

    THE INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS CENTER IS LOCATED IN THE LOCAL HIGH SCHOOL AND SUPPLIES ALL SCHOOLS IN THE AREA. AUDIOVISUAL EQUIPMENT ORDERS, AFTER SELECTIONS ARE MADE BY THE CLASSROOM TEACHER, ARE PROCESSED BY THE CENTER, CONFIRMED AND DELIVERED BY TRUCK THREE TIMES EACH WEEK. EACH SCHOOL HAS A BUILDING COORDINATOR WHO CHECKS THE ORDERS INTO THE…

  7. SiHLEWeb.com: Development and Usability Testing of an Evidence-Based HIV/STI Prevention Website for Female African-American Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Danielson, Carla Kmett; McCauley, Jenna L.; Gros, Kirstin Stauffacher; Jones, Andrea M.; Barr, Simone C.; Borkman, April L.; Bryant, Brittany G.; Ruggiero, Kenneth J.

    2014-01-01

    African-American adolescent girls are at disproportionate risk for HIV infection. Although numerous evidence-based risk-reduction interventions exist, dissemination and implementation resources remain limited, and prevention services remain notably inaccessible to the very populations at highest risk for HIV infection. Internet delivery of HIV risk-reduction programming has promise as a mechanism for extending the reach of existing prevention efforts and overcoming barriers associated with traditional service delivery. This article: (1) details the development process for the creation of SiHLEWeb, a web-adapted version of an evidence-based, culturally-informed HIV prevention program traditionally delivered to female African-American adolescents via an in-person group format; and (2) presents findings from quantitative and qualitative usability testing conducted among 18 African-American girls (13–18). Results suggest that users found the website improved knowledge and learning, was helpful, efficient to use, and generally attractive. Users reported some concerns about website navigation. Implications for internet delivery of health prevention programming are discussed. PMID:25167865

  8. Enhancing Parental Motivation to Monitor African American Adolescents’ Diabetes Care: Development and Beta Test of a Brief Computer-Delivered Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Ellis, Deborah A; Naar, Sylvie; Ondersma, Steven J; Moltz, Kathleen; Dekelbab, Baseem; Joseph, Christine LM

    2014-01-01

    Background African American youth are at increased risk for poor diabetes management. Parenting behaviors such as parental monitoring are significant predictors of youth diabetes management and metabolic control, but no intervention has targeted parental monitoring of daily diabetes care. Objective The purpose of the present study was to develop and pilot test a three-session computer-delivered intervention to enhance parental motivation to monitor African American pre-adolescents’ diabetes management. Methods The 3 Ms (Medication, Meter, and Meals) intervention was based on the Information-Motivation-Behavioral Skills (IMB) model of health behavior change and Motivational Interviewing approaches. Five caregivers of African American youth aged 10-13 years diagnosed with type 1 diabetes for a minimum of one year (ie, the target population) reviewed the intervention and provided feedback via semi-structured interviews. Interviews were transcribed and analyzed using thematic analysis. Results Caregivers’ responses to interview questions suggest that The 3 Ms was helpful (minimum rating was 8 out of 10) and they would recommend the program to another parent of a child with diabetes (minimum rating was 9 out of 10). Three of five reported that The 3 Ms program increased the likelihood that they would talk to their child about diabetes. Thematic analysis suggested two primary themes: caregivers found the intervention to be a useful reminder of the importance of supervising their child’s diabetes care and that it evoked a feeling of shared experience with other parents. Conclusions The 3 Ms computer-delivered intervention for increasing parental monitoring of African-American youth with type 1 diabetes was well-received and highly rated by a small sample of representative caregivers. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01515930; http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01515930 (Archived by WebCite at http://www.webcitation.org/6Rm0vq9pn). PMID:25236503

  9. African-American Biography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Ron

    1995-01-01

    Suggests sources of information for African American History Month for library media specialists who work with students in grades four through eight. Gale Research's "African-American Reference Library," which includes "African-America Biography,""African-American Chronology," and "African-American Almanac,"…

  10. Development of a high-precision selenodetic coordinate system for the physical surface of the Moon based on LED beacons on its surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shirenin, A. M.; Mazurova, E. M.; Bagrov, A. V.

    2016-11-01

    The paper presents a mathematical algorithm for processing an array of angular measurements of light beacons on images of the lunar surface onboard a polar artificial lunar satellite (PALS) during the Luna-Glob mission and coordinate-time referencing of the PALS for the development of reference selenocentric coordinate systems. The algorithm makes it possible to obtain angular positions of point light beacons located on the surface of the Moon in selenocentric celestial coordinates. The operation of measurement systems that determine the position and orientation of the PALS during its active existence have been numerically simulated. Recommendations have been made for the optimal use of different types of measurements, including ground radio trajectory measurements, navigational star sensors based on the onboard star catalog, gyroscopic orientation systems, and space videos of the lunar surface.

  11. Glacial interglacial cycles and development of the Afroalpine ecosystem on East African Mountains II. Origins and development of the biotic component

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harmsen, R.; Spence, J. R.; Mahaney, W. C.

    The development of the Afroalpine ecosystem as found on a number of isolated mountains in East Africa has a physical component and a biological component which is to a large degree dependent on the physical environment. The origins of the Afroalpine biota are predominantly African-tropical or Palearctic with smaller contributions from South Africa and other more distant sources. Once the ecosystem was established, dispersal from one mountain to others became a main source of increasing complexity. Ecological succession and evolutionary development from simple random assemblages of early invading species on unmodified substrates to complex interactive communities forming a closely integrated biosphere would have been the next stage in the development of the Afroalpine ecosystem. However, glacial interglacial cycles throughout the Pleistocene may have seriously curtailed this process. Detailed on early succession on Neoglacial tills on Mount Kenya supply a reasonable model for the larger scale recolonization of the upper reaches of the mountain following each glacial, and palynological evidence supplies a fairly accurate picture of the lower altitude glacial Afroalpine communities. Yet, our knowledge of the structure of the Afroalpine ecosystem during past glacials and interglacials is far too sketchy to be able to say how severe the effects of the climatic oscillations were on the development and maintenance of the Afroalpine ecosystem. Current conditions indicate a long history (c 2-3 mil yrs) of adaptation to above tree-line conditions for some organisms, but the entire ecosystem is still very young and will probably never be able to reach a successional or evolutionary equilibrium in the unstable climatic conditions of the Afroalpine environment.

  12. Evaluation of potential variables contributing to the development and duration of plantar lesions in a population of aquarium-maintained African penguins (Spheniscus demersus).

    PubMed

    Erlacher-Reid, Claire; Dunn, J Lawrence; Camp, Tracy; Macha, Laurie; Mazzaro, Lisa; Tuttle, Allison D

    2012-01-01

    Bumblefoot (pododermatitis), often described as the most significant environmental disease of captive penguins, is commonly due to excessive pressure or trauma on the plantar surface of the avian foot, resulting in inflammation or necrosis and causing severe swelling, abrasions, or cracks in the skin. Although not formally evaluated in penguins, contributing factors for bumblefoot are thought to be similar to those initiating the condition in raptors and poultry. These factors include substrate, body weight, and lack of exercise. The primary purpose of this retrospective study was to evaluate variables potentially contributing to the development and duration of plantar lesions in aquarium-maintained African penguins (Spheniscus demersus), including sex, weight, age, season, exhibit activity, and territory substrate. Results indicate that males develop significantly more plantar lesions than females. Penguins weighing between 3.51 and 4.0 kg develop plantar lesions significantly more often than penguins weighing between 2.5 and 3.5 kg, and because male African penguins ordinarily weigh significantly more than females, weight is likely a contributing factor in the development of lesions in males compared with females. Significantly more plantar lesions were observed in penguins standing for greater than 50% of their time on exhibit than swimming. Penguins occupying smooth concrete territories developed more plantar lesions compared with penguins occupying grate territories. Recommendations for minimizing bumblefoot in African penguins include training penguins for monthly foot examinations for early detection of plantar lesions predisposing for the disease, encouraging swimming activity, and replacing smooth surfaces on exhibit with surfaces providing variable degrees of pressure and texture on the feet.

  13. African Trypanosomiasis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-06-01

    infection by protozoan hemo- flagellates of the Trypanosoma brucei complex, 2 subspe- cies of which cause disease in humans: Trypanosoma bru- cei gambiense...public release; distribution unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES See also ADA545141. Chapter 3 from e-book, Topics on the Pathology of Protozoan and...the brief ferry crossing. 2 3 • Topics on The paThology of proTozoan and invasive arThropod diseases Three severe epidemics of African trypanosomiasis

  14. The Design and Evaluation of African Language Learning Materials. Proceedings of the Spring 1984 Conference on Developing Guidelines for the Evaluation of African Language Learning Materials (East Lansing, Michigan, April 13-14, 1984).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dwyer, David J., Ed.

    Representatives from major institutions teaching African languages convened to discuss the design of African language textbooks and to propose guidelines for the writing of new textbooks and evaluation of existing ones. Conference papers include: "Language Acquisition Theory and Materials Construction" (Stephen Krashen); "The Structures of Verbal…

  15. Physical Education for Poorly Co-ordinated Children. The Promotion of Body Awareness and the Development of Basic Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Bevilie R.

    This book deals with the promotion of body awareness through use of educational gymnastics, with handicapped or non-handicapped but poorly coordinated children of all age levels. The method provides an analytical approach to movement, encourages children to listen to language, and assists them in creating their own activities. The activities and…

  16. Computer Conferencing with Access to a Guest Expert in the Professional Development of Special Educational Needs Coordinators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wearmouth, Janice; Smith, Alice Paige; Soler, Janet

    2004-01-01

    This article describes and outlines the implications of a one-year case study of students' use of the computer conferencing facility of a postgraduate module for special educational needs coordinators (SENCOs) at a distance-learning institution. This facility incorporates a virtual space for a guest expert. The aim of the study was to inform…

  17. Prostate Cancer Genetics in African Americans

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-01

    receiving appropriate education, genetic counseling , and/or referral. During each interview the research coordinator identifies at risk family members...AD_________________ Award Number: W81XWH-11-1-0566 TITLE: Prostate Cancer Genetics in African...ADDRESS. 1. REPORT DATE 2. REPORT TYPE Annual 3. DATES COVERED 15 Aug 2013 – 14 Aug 2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Prostate Cancer Genetics in

  18. African American Advanced Placement chemistry students and their developing study habits: A phenomenologically-based interpretive study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rasmussen, Natalie D.

    The academic achievement gap between African American and White students has gained much attention in recent years. Much has been written about the causes of and reasons for this problem ranging from the vestigial effects of slavery to poor parenting. Much less has been written or understood about its solution. While it is impossible for educators to change the pasts of their African American students, it is possible to effect change for the few minutes in which they are in direct contact with them each day. If African American science students are taught effective study skills and habits, then perhaps they might have the tools to close the achievement gap themselves. The participants in this phenomenologically based interpretive study were five African American Advanced Placement Chemistry students from an inner-city high school. Three in-depth interviews were conducted with each of the participants during the beginning, middle and end of a semester. The purpose of the interviews was to locate the students in terms of their thought processes, experiences and perceived barriers concerning the nature and practice of effective study and retention of chemistry content. The interviews were recorded and transcribed. The texts were then analyzed for common themes. Five common themes emerged from the interviews. These were: (1) Homework vs. Study: a distinction between homework---which students knew how to approach; and study---which they did not. (2) Student Effort: their changing perception of adequate and effective study practices while in a rigorous course. (3) Teacher Rigor: they perceived high expectations and challenging work as a sign of respect from their teachers. (4) Parental Involvement: students' admission that they desired more input from parents regarding their academic performance. (5) Racial Considerations: their need to disprove negative stereotypes and their personal observations regarding racial differences in studying. A discussion of the themes and

  19. Development of a nested PCR and its internal control for the detection of African swine fever virus (ASFV) in Ornithodoros erraticus.

    PubMed

    Basto, A P; Portugal, R S; Nix, R J; Cartaxeiro, C; Boinas, F; Dixon, L K; Leitão, A; Martins, C

    2006-04-01

    A nested PCR assay, with an internal control, was developed to detect African swine fever virus (ASFV) DNA in Ornithodoros erraticus. The assay revealed a better analytical sensitivity than virus isolation and the OIE PCR protocol. All ticks collected from the field, which were positive by virus isolation, were also positive by PCR. Viral DNA was detected in a further 19 out of 60 ticks from which no virus was isolated. Our results show that this assay is reliable and can easily be used to screen large tick populations collected in the field for the presence of ASFV.

  20. International Assistance for Low-Emission Development Planning: Coordinated Low Emissions Assistance Network (CLEAN) Inventory of Activities and Tools--Preliminary Trends

    SciTech Connect

    Cox, S.; Benioff, R.

    2011-05-01

    The Coordinated Low Emissions Assistance Network (CLEAN) is a voluntary network of international practitioners supporting low-emission planning in developing countries. The network seeks to improve quality of support through sharing project information, tools, best practices and lessons, and by fostering harmonized assistance. CLEAN has developed an inventory to track and analyze international technical support and tools for low-carbon planning activities in developing countries. This paper presents a preliminary analysis of the inventory to help identify trends in assistance activities and tools available to support developing countries with low-emission planning.