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Sample records for african field epidemiology

  1. The African Field Epidemiology Network-Networking for effective field epidemiology capacity building and service delivery

    PubMed Central

    Gitta, Sheba Nakacubo; Mukanga, David; Babirye, Rebecca; Dahlke, Melissa; Tshimanga, Mufuta; Nsubuga, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Networks are a catalyst for promoting common goals and objectives of their membership. Public Health networks in Africa are crucial, because of the severe resource limitations that nations face in dealing with priority public health problems. For a long time, networks have existed on the continent and globally, but many of these are disease-specific with a narrow scope. The African Field Epidemiology Network (AFENET) is a public health network established in 2005 as a non-profit networking alliance of Field Epidemiology and Laboratory Training Programs (FELTPs) and Field Epidemiology Training Programs (FETPs) in Africa. AFENET is dedicated to helping ministries of health in Africa build strong, effective and sustainable programs and capacity to improve public health systems by partnering with global public health experts. The Network's goal is to strengthen field epidemiology and public health laboratory capacity to contribute effectively to addressing epidemics and other major public health problems in Africa. AFENET currently networks 12 FELTPs and FETPs in sub-Saharan Africa with operations in 20 countries. AFENET has a unique tripartite working relationship with government technocrats from human health and animal sectors, academicians from partner universities, and development partners, presenting the Network with a distinct vantage point. Through the Network, African nations are making strides in strengthening their health systems. Members are able to: leverage resources to support field epidemiology and public health laboratory training and service delivery notably in the area of outbreak investigation and response as well as disease surveillance; by-pass government bureaucracies that often hinder and frustrate development partners; and consolidate efforts of different partners channelled through the FELTPs by networking graduates through alumni associations and calling on them to offer technical support in various public health capacities as the need arises

  2. Proceedings of the African Field Epidemiology Network (AFENET) Scientific Conference 17-22 November 2013 Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: plenaries and oral presentations

    PubMed Central

    Gitta, Sheba Nakacubo; Mwesiga, Allan; Kamadjeu, Raoul

    2015-01-01

    Biennially, trainees and graduates of Field Epidemiology and Laboratory Training Programs (FELTPs) are presented with a platform to share investigations and projects undertaken during their two-year training in Applied Epidemiology. The African Field Epidemiology Network (AFENET) Scientific Conference, is a perfect opportunity for public health professionals from various sectors and organizations to come together to discuss issues that impact on public health in Africa. This year's conference was organized by the Ethiopian Health and Nutrition Research Institute in collaboration with the Ethiopia Ministry of Health, Ethiopian Public Health Association (EPHA), Ethiopia Field Epidemiology Training Program (EFETP), Addis Ababa University (AAU), Training Programs in Epidemiology and Public Health Interventions Network (TEPHINET) and AFENET. Participants at this year's conference numbered 400 from over 20 countries including; Angola, Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Ethiopia, Ghana, Indonesia, Kenya, Mozambique, Namibia, Nigeria, Rwanda, South Africa, Sudan, Tanzania, Uganda, Yemen and Zimbabwe. The topics covered in the 144 oral presentations included: global health security, emergency response, public health informatics, vaccine preventable diseases, immunization, outbreak investigation, Millennium Development Goals, Non-Communicable Diseases, and public health surveillance. The theme for the 5th AFENET Scientific Conference was; “Addressing Public Health Priorities in Africa through FELTPs.” Previous AFENET Scientific conferences have been held in: Accra, Ghana (2005), Kampala, Uganda (2007), Mombasa, Kenya (2009) and Dar es Salaam, Tanzania (2011). PMID:26491534

  3. Epidemiology of human African trypanosomiasis

    PubMed Central

    Franco, Jose R; Simarro, Pere P; Diarra, Abdoulaye; Jannin, Jean G

    2014-01-01

    Human African trypanosomiasis (HAT), or sleeping sickness, is caused by Trypanosoma brucei gambiense, which is a chronic form of the disease present in western and central Africa, and by Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense, which is an acute disease located in eastern and southern Africa. The rhodesiense form is a zoonosis, with the occasional infection of humans, but in the gambiense form, the human being is regarded as the main reservoir that plays a key role in the transmission cycle of the disease. The gambiense form currently assumes that 98% of the cases are declared; the Democratic Republic of the Congo is the most affected country, with more than 75% of the gambiense cases declared. The epidemiology of the disease is mediated by the interaction of the parasite (trypanosome) with the vectors (tsetse flies), as well as with the human and animal hosts within a particular environment. Related to these interactions, the disease is confined in spatially limited areas called “foci”, which are located in Sub-Saharan Africa, mainly in remote rural areas. The risk of contracting HAT is, therefore, determined by the possibility of contact of a human being with an infected tsetse fly. Epidemics of HAT were described at the beginning of the 20th century; intensive activities have been set up to confront the disease, and it was under control in the 1960s, with fewer than 5,000 cases reported in the whole continent. The disease resurged at the end of the 1990s, but renewed efforts from endemic countries, cooperation agencies, and nongovernmental organizations led by the World Health Organization succeeded to raise awareness and resources, while reinforcing national programs, reversing the trend of the cases reported, and bringing the disease under control again. In this context, sustainable elimination of the gambiense HAT, defined as the interruption of the transmission of the disease, was considered as a feasible target for 2030. Since rhodesiense HAT is a zoonosis

  4. Epidemiology of human African trypanosomiasis.

    PubMed

    Franco, Jose R; Simarro, Pere P; Diarra, Abdoulaye; Jannin, Jean G

    2014-01-01

    Human African trypanosomiasis (HAT), or sleeping sickness, is caused by Trypanosoma brucei gambiense, which is a chronic form of the disease present in western and central Africa, and by Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense, which is an acute disease located in eastern and southern Africa. The rhodesiense form is a zoonosis, with the occasional infection of humans, but in the gambiense form, the human being is regarded as the main reservoir that plays a key role in the transmission cycle of the disease. The gambiense form currently assumes that 98% of the cases are declared; the Democratic Republic of the Congo is the most affected country, with more than 75% of the gambiense cases declared. The epidemiology of the disease is mediated by the interaction of the parasite (trypanosome) with the vectors (tsetse flies), as well as with the human and animal hosts within a particular environment. Related to these interactions, the disease is confined in spatially limited areas called "foci", which are located in Sub-Saharan Africa, mainly in remote rural areas. The risk of contracting HAT is, therefore, determined by the possibility of contact of a human being with an infected tsetse fly. Epidemics of HAT were described at the beginning of the 20th century; intensive activities have been set up to confront the disease, and it was under control in the 1960s, with fewer than 5,000 cases reported in the whole continent. The disease resurged at the end of the 1990s, but renewed efforts from endemic countries, cooperation agencies, and nongovernmental organizations led by the World Health Organization succeeded to raise awareness and resources, while reinforcing national programs, reversing the trend of the cases reported, and bringing the disease under control again. In this context, sustainable elimination of the gambiense HAT, defined as the interruption of the transmission of the disease, was considered as a feasible target for 2030. Since rhodesiense HAT is a zoonosis, where

  5. Epidemiology and pathogenicity of African bat lyssaviruses.

    PubMed

    Markotter, W; Van Eeden, C; Kuzmin, I V; Rupprecht, C E; Paweska, J T; Swanepoel, R; Fooks, A R; Sabeta, C T; Cliquet, F; Nel, L H

    2008-01-01

    Lyssaviruses belonging to all four known African Lyssavirus genotypes (gts) have been reported and isolated from SouthAfrica over the past few decades. These are: (1) Duvenhage virus (gt4), isolated again in 2006 from a human fatality; (2) Mokola virus (gt3), isolated irregularly, mostly from cats; (3) Lagos bat virus (gt2) continually isolated over the past four years from Epomophorus fruit bats and from incidental terrestrial animals and (4) Rabies virus (gt1) - with two virus biotypes endemic in mongoose and in canid species (mostly domestic dogs, jackals and bat-eared foxes), respectively. Only two of these are associated with bats in Southern Africa, viz. Duvenhage virus and Lagos bat virus (gts 4 and 2). For both these genotypes the authors have embarked on a programme of comparative study of molecular epidemiology. Duvenhage virus nucleoprotein nucleotide sequence analysis indicated a very low nucleotide diversity even though isolates were isolated decades apart. In contrast, individual isolates of Lagos bat virus were found to differ significantly with respectto nucleoprotein gene nucleotide sequence diversity as well as in pathogenicity profiles. PMID:18634494

  6. Current practice of epidemiology in Africa: highlights of the 3rd conference of the African epidemiological association and 1st conference of the Cameroon society of epidemiology, Yaoundé, Cameroon, 2014

    PubMed Central

    Nkwescheu, Armand Seraphin; Fokam, Joseph; Tchendjou, Patrice; Nji, Akindeh; Ngouakam, Hermann; Andre, Bita Fouda; Joelle, Sobngwi; Uzochukwu, Benjamin; Akinroye, Kingsley; Mbacham, Wilfred; Colizzi, Vittorio; Leke, Rose; Victora, Cesar

    2015-01-01

    As the study of disease occurrence and health indicators in human populations, Epidemiology is a dynamic field that evolves with time and geographical context. In order to update African health workers on current epidemiological practices and to draw awareness of early career epidemiologists on concepts and opportunities in the field, the 3rd African Epidemiology Association and the 1st Cameroon Society of Epidemiology Conference was organized in June 2-6, 2014 at the Yaoundé Mont Febe Hotel, in Cameroon. Under the theme«Practice of Epidemiology in Africa: Stakes, Challenges and Perspectives», the conference attracted close to five hundred guest and participants from all continents. The two main programs were the pre-conference course for capacity building of African Early Career epidemiologists, and the conference itself, providing a forum for scientific exchanges on recent epidemiological concepts, encouraging the use of epidemiological methods in studying large disease burden and neglected tropical diseases; and highlighting existing opportunities. PMID:26523191

  7. Plasma adiponectin concentrations and correlates in African Americans in the Hypertension Genetic Epidemiology Network (HyperGEN) study.

    PubMed

    Shikany, James M; Lewis, Cora E; Freedman, Barry I; Arnett, Donna K; Leiendecker-Foster, Catherine; Jones, Tamekia L; Redden, David T; Oberman, Albert

    2007-08-01

    Adiponectin has demonstrated insulin-sensitizing, antiatherogenic, and anti-inflammatory properties, and may be an important risk factor for coronary heart disease and diabetes. Relatively few previous studies of plasma adiponectin have included sizable numbers of African Americans. The objective of the study was to investigate plasma concentrations of adiponectin and correlates of these concentrations in African Americans. This was a cross-sectional analysis that took place within the Hypertension Genetic Epidemiology Network. This study included 211 normotensive offspring (aged 22-37 years) of hypertensive siblings recruited by the Hypertension Genetic Epidemiology Network Birmingham, AL, field center. In addition to measuring plasma adiponectin, demographic and lifestyle data were collected, and anthropometric, clinical, and laboratory measurements were obtained. Mean plasma adiponectin concentration was 5.5+/-3.8 microg/mL. Adiponectin was 55% higher in women than in men: 6.5+/-4.4 vs 4.2+/-2.5 microg/mL, respectively (P<.0001). In a multivariable analysis, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentration was positively associated and male sex and insulin concentration were negatively associated with plasma adiponectin concentration. Plasma adiponectin concentrations in these African Americans were lower than those reported in other racial/ethnic groups, including Japanese, whites, and Pima Indians. The directions of the associations of plasma adiponectin with other factors were in agreement with results in other racial/ethnic groups. PMID:17618943

  8. Social network analysis provides insights into African swine fever epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Lichoti, Jacqueline Kasiiti; Davies, Jocelyn; Kitala, Philip M; Githigia, Samuel M; Okoth, Edward; Maru, Yiheyis; Bukachi, Salome A; Bishop, Richard P

    2016-04-01

    Pig movements play a significant role in the spread of economically important infectious diseases such as the African swine fever. Characterization of movement networks between pig farms and through other types of farm and household enterprises that are involved in pig value chains can provide useful information on the role that different participants in the networks play in pathogen transmission. Analysis of social networks that underpin these pig movements can reveal pathways that are important in the transmission of disease, trade in commodities, the dissemination of information and the influence of behavioural norms. We assessed pig movements among pig keeping households within West Kenya and East Uganda and across the shared Kenya-Uganda border in the study region, to gain insight into within-country and trans-boundary pig movements. Villages were sampled using a randomized cluster design. Data were collected through interviews in 2012 and 2013 from 683 smallholder pig-keeping households in 34 villages. NodeXL software was used to describe pig movement networks at village level. The pig movement and trade networks were localized and based on close social networks involving family ties, friendships and relationships with neighbours. Pig movement network modularity ranged from 0.2 to 0.5 and exhibited good community structure within the network implying an easy flow of knowledge and adoption of new attitudes and beliefs, but also promoting an enhanced rate of disease transmission. The average path length of 5 defined using NodeXL, indicated that disease could easily reach every node in a cluster. Cross-border boar service between Uganda and Kenya was also recorded. Unmonitored trade in both directions was prevalent. While most pig transactions in the absence of disease, were at a small scale (<5km) and characterized by regular agistment, most pig sales during ASF outbreaks were to traders or other farmers from outside the sellers' village at a range of >10km

  9. Occupational epidemiology in agriculture: a case study in the southern African context.

    PubMed

    London, L

    1998-01-01

    Some challenges facing occupational epidemiology in developing countries are outlined in this case study of agriculture drawing on Southern African research. These include the characterization of exposures in resource- and data-poor environments typical of developing countries, the assessment of outcomes where cross-cultural and socio-environmental confounders may be substantial obstacles, and the impact of environmental exposures on workplace health. Traditional assignment of low priority to the chronic effects of low-dose exposures relative to acute morbidity in developing countries must be critically examined, as must the gender bias of much occupational epidemiology in agriculture. Advocacy issues involving child labor and the ethics of research among vulnerable groups deserve rigorous attention. It is argued that, if occupational epidemiology is to have meaningful impact on the health of the most marginalized groups of workers in developing countries, it must redefine itself in terms of a public health approach. The boundaries of epidemiologic inquiry need to be broad, and amenable to interfacing with policy research, using qualitative methods and participatory approaches. More so than in order industrial settings, epidemiologists must move from research to practice, seeking to take action where interventions are needed, and to evaluate such actions. PMID:9876634

  10. Sero-epidemiology and risk factors for Toxoplasma gondii among pregnant women in Arab and African countries.

    PubMed

    Alsammani, Mohamed Alkhatim

    2016-09-01

    The epidemiology of toxoplasmosis in pregnancy is a major issue for public health. Primary infection in pregnant women can lead to serious sequelae. This review examined current sero-epidemiology and risks factor data for Toxoplasma gondii in pregnant women in Arab and African countries. A systematic electronic search of published literature was conducted. Data were extracted from relevant studies. Seropositivity is high in both regions. African countries have higher seropositivity than Arab countries due to differences in risk factors. Data on T. gondii infection in pregnancy are scant in many countries, especially where there is lack of political stability. Identified risk factors included eating raw meat, proximity with cats, undercooked food, and increasing maternal age. Toxoplasmosis in pregnancy in Arab and African countries is an underestimated health problem. Further research is needed. This report is a foundation for strategies and policies for intervention needed to combat the consequences of congenital toxoplasmosis. PMID:27605750

  11. DNA fingerprinting in the epidemiology of African serogroup A Neisseria meningitidis.

    PubMed

    Bjorvatn, B; Hassan-King, M; Greenwood, B; Haimanot, R T; Fekade, D; Sperber, G

    1992-01-01

    The restriction endonuclease (RE) technique was used to compare 172 meningococcal group A strains collected between 1969 and 1990, mainly from countries of the so-called African Meningitis Belt, the Gambia and Ethiopia. The 64 strains from various African countries (Niger, Chad, Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Morocco, Djibouti) were distributed within 3 main restriction enzyme patterns (REPs); the 77 Gambian strains fell into 5 REPs and the 24 Ethiopian strains into 2 such patterns. Several of the main REPs were formed by clusters of closely related clones. Clones, very similar to dominating REPs of the 1960s in Niger, Burkina Faso and Cameroon, were in the 1980s found to be strongly represented in the Gambia to the extreme west of the Meningitis Belt. One of the Gambian clones from 1983-86 was identical to an Indian clone recovered in New Delhi 1986-87. Another clone was detected in 1983 in the Gambia, in 1989 again in the Gambia as well as in Ethiopia, and in 1990 in Tanzania. Our results are largely in line with those of previous studies based on modern techniques of protein and isoenzyme electrophoresis. The RE method is useful mainly for the exact genotypic differentiation of closely related clones, and seems to be a valuable complement to phenotypic tools for epidemiological mapping of Group A meningococcal infection. PMID:1324522

  12. Involving lay community researchers in epidemiological research: experiences from a seroprevalence study among sub-Saharan African migrants

    PubMed Central

    Nöstlinger, Christiana; Loos, Jasna

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Community-based participatory research (CBPR) has received considerable attention during past decades as a method to increase community ownership in research and prevention. We discuss its application to epidemiological research using the case of second-generation surveillance conducted among sub-Saharan African (SSA) migrants in Antwerp city. To inform evidence-based prevention planning for this target group, this HIV-prevalence study used two-stage time-location sampling preceded by formative research. Extensive collaborative partnerships were built with community organizations, a Community Advisory Board provided input throughout the project, and community researchers were trained to participate in all phases of the seroprevalence study. Valid oral fluid samples for HIV testing were collected among 717 SSA migrants and linked to behavioural data assessed through an anonymous survey between December 2013 and August 2014. A qualitative content analysis of various data sources (extensive field notes, minutes of intervision, and training protocols) collected at 77 data collection visits in 51 settings was carried out to describe experiences with challenges and opportunities inherent to the CBPR approach at three crucial stages of the research process: building collaborative partnerships; implementing the study; dissemination of findings including prevention planning. The results show that CBPR is feasible in conducting scientifically sound epidemiological research, but certain requirements need to be in place. These include among others sufficient resources to train, coordinate, and supervise community researchers; continuity in the implementation; transparency about decision-taking and administrative procedures, and willingness to share power and control over the full research process. CBPR contributed to empowering community researchers on a personal level, and to create greater HIV prevention demand in the SSA communities. PMID:26885938

  13. Involving lay community researchers in epidemiological research: experiences from a seroprevalence study among sub-Saharan African migrants.

    PubMed

    Nöstlinger, Christiana; Loos, Jasna

    2016-01-01

    Community-based participatory research (CBPR) has received considerable attention during past decades as a method to increase community ownership in research and prevention. We discuss its application to epidemiological research using the case of second-generation surveillance conducted among sub-Saharan African (SSA) migrants in Antwerp city. To inform evidence-based prevention planning for this target group, this HIV-prevalence study used two-stage time-location sampling preceded by formative research. Extensive collaborative partnerships were built with community organizations, a Community Advisory Board provided input throughout the project, and community researchers were trained to participate in all phases of the seroprevalence study. Valid oral fluid samples for HIV testing were collected among 717 SSA migrants and linked to behavioural data assessed through an anonymous survey between December 2013 and August 2014. A qualitative content analysis of various data sources (extensive field notes, minutes of intervision, and training protocols) collected at 77 data collection visits in 51 settings was carried out to describe experiences with challenges and opportunities inherent to the CBPR approach at three crucial stages of the research process: building collaborative partnerships; implementing the study; dissemination of findings including prevention planning. The results show that CBPR is feasible in conducting scientifically sound epidemiological research, but certain requirements need to be in place. These include among others sufficient resources to train, coordinate, and supervise community researchers; continuity in the implementation; transparency about decision-taking and administrative procedures, and willingness to share power and control over the full research process. CBPR contributed to empowering community researchers on a personal level, and to create greater HIV prevention demand in the SSA communities. PMID:26885938

  14. Predicting the effect of climate change on African trypanosomiasis: integrating epidemiology with parasite and vector biology

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Sean; Shrestha, Sourya; Tomlinson, Kyle W.; Vuong, Holly

    2012-01-01

    Climate warming over the next century is expected to have a large impact on the interactions between pathogens and their animal and human hosts. Vector-borne diseases are particularly sensitive to warming because temperature changes can alter vector development rates, shift their geographical distribution and alter transmission dynamics. For this reason, African trypanosomiasis (sleeping sickness), a vector-borne disease of humans and animals, was recently identified as one of the 12 infectious diseases likely to spread owing to climate change. We combine a variety of direct effects of temperature on vector ecology, vector biology and vector–parasite interactions via a disease transmission model and extrapolate the potential compounding effects of projected warming on the epidemiology of African trypanosomiasis. The model predicts that epidemics can occur when mean temperatures are between 20.7°C and 26.1°C. Our model does not predict a large-range expansion, but rather a large shift of up to 60 per cent in the geographical extent of the range. The model also predicts that 46–77 million additional people may be at risk of exposure by 2090. Future research could expand our analysis to include other environmental factors that influence tsetse populations and disease transmission such as humidity, as well as changes to human, livestock and wildlife distributions. The modelling approach presented here provides a framework for using the climate-sensitive aspects of vector and pathogen biology to predict changes in disease prevalence and risk owing to climate change. PMID:22072451

  15. The Singapore Field Epidemiology Service: Insights Into Outbreak Management

    PubMed Central

    Seetoh, Theresa; Cutter, Jeffery

    2012-01-01

    Field epidemiology involves the implementation of quick and targeted public health interventions with the aid of epidemiological methods. In this article, we share our practical experiences in outbreak management and in safeguarding the population against novel diseases. Given that cities represent the financial nexuses of the global economy, global health security necessitates the safeguard of cities against epidemic diseases. Singapore's public health landscape has undergone a systemic and irreversible shift with global connectivity, rapid urbanization, ecological change, increased affluence, as well as shifting demographic patterns over the past two decades. Concomitantly, the threat of epidemics, ranging from severe acute respiratory syndrome and influenza A (H1N1) to the resurgence of vector-borne diseases as well as the rise of modern lifestyle-related outbreaks, have worsened difficulties in safeguarding public health amidst much elusiveness and unpredictability. One critical factor that has helped the country overcome these innate and man-made public health vulnerabilities is the development of a resilient field epidemiology service, which includes our enhancement of surveillance and response capacities for outbreak management, and investment in public health leadership. We offer herein the Singapore story as a case study in meeting the challenges of disease control in our modern built environment. PMID:23091652

  16. Epidemiological Overview of African Swine Fever in Uganda (2001-2012).

    PubMed

    Kalenzi Atuhaire, David; Ochwo, Sylvester; Afayoa, Mathias; Norbert Mwiine, Frank; Kokas, Ikwap; Arinaitwe, Eugene; Ademun-Okurut, Rose Anna; Boniface Okuni, Julius; Nanteza, Ann; Ayebazibwe, Christosom; Okedi, Loyce; Olaho-Mukani, William; Ojok, Lonzy

    2013-01-01

    African swine fever (ASF) is a contagious viral disease, which can cause up to 100% mortality among domestic pigs. In Uganda there is paucity of information on the epidemiology of the disease, hence a study was carried out to elucidate the patterns of ASF outbreaks. Spatial and temporal analyses were performed with data collected monthly by the district veterinary officers (DVOs) and sent to the central administration at MAAIF from 2001 to 2012. Additionally, risk factors and the associated characteristics related to the disease were assessed based on semistructured questionnaires sent to the DVOs. A total of 388 ASF outbreaks were reported in 59 districts. Of these outbreaks, 201 (51.8%) were reported in districts adjacent to the national parks while 80 (20.6%) were adjacent to international borders. The number of reported ASF outbreaks changed over time and by geographical regions; however, no outbreak was reported in the North-Eastern region. ASF was ranked as second most important disease of pigs, and it occurred mostly during the dry season (P = 0.01). Pig movements due to trade (OR 15.5, CI 4.9-49.1) and restocking (OR 6.6, CI 2.5-17.3) were the major risk factors. ASF control strategies should focus on limiting pig movements in Uganda. PMID:26464916

  17. Molecular epidemiology of Mycobacterium bovis isolates from free-ranging wildlife in South African game reserves.

    PubMed

    Michel, A L; Coetzee, M L; Keet, D F; Maré, L; Warren, R; Cooper, D; Bengis, R G; Kremer, K; van Helden, P

    2009-02-01

    Bovine tuberculosis is endemic in African buffalo and a number of other wildlife species in the Kruger National Park (KNP) and Hluhluwe-iMfolozi Park (HiP) in South Africa. It was thought that the infection had been introduced into the KNP ecosystem through direct contact between cattle and buffalo, a hypothesis which was confirmed in this study by IS6110 and PGRS restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) typing. The molecular characterisation of 189 Mycobacterium bovis isolates from nine wildlife species in the HiP, including three smaller associated parks, and the Kruger National Park with adjacent areas showed that the respective epidemics were each caused by an infiltration of a single M. bovis genotype. The two M. bovis strains had different genetic profiles, as demonstrated by hybridisation with the IS6110 and PGRS RFLP probes, as well as with regard to evidence of evolutionary changes to the IS profile. While the M. bovis type in HiP was transmitted between buffaloes and to at least baboon, bushpig and lion without obvious genetic changes in the RFLP patterns, in the KNP a dominant strain was represented in 73% of the M. bovis isolates, whilst the remaining 27% were variants of this strain. No species-specific variants were observed, except for one IS6110 type which was found only in a group of five epidemiologically related greater kudu. This finding was attributed to species-specific behaviour patterns rather than an advanced host-pathogen interaction. PMID:18786785

  18. The Rwanda Field Epidemiology and Laboratory Training Program: training skilled disease detectives

    PubMed Central

    Ntahobakurira, Isaac; Antara, Simon; Galgalo, Tura Boru; Kakoma, Jean Baptiste; Karema, Corine; Nyatanyi, Thierry; Theogene, Rutagwenda; Mukabayire, Odette; Lowrance, David; Raghunathan, Pratima; Ayebazibwe, Nicholas; Mukanga, David; Nsubuga, Peter; Binagwaho, Agnes

    2011-01-01

    Rwanda still suffers from communicable diseases which frequently lead to epidemics. In addition to other health workforce needs, Rwanda also lacks a public health workforce that can operate multi-disease surveillance and response systems at the national and sub-national levels.In 2009 and 2010 the Rwanda Ministry of Health and its partners from the Government of Rwanda (GOR) as well as the United States (US) Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the African Field Epidemiology Network, and other partners embarked on a series of activities to develop a public health workforce that would be trained to operate disease surveillance and response systems at the national and district levels. The Rwanda Field Epidemiology and Laboratory Training Program (RFELTP) is a 2-year public health leadership development training program that provides applied epidemiology and public health laboratory training while the trainees provide public health service to the Ministry of Health. RFELTP is hosted at the National University of Rwanda School of Public Health for the didactic training. RFELTP is funded by GOR, the US Presidents Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief and the World Bank; it is managed by a multi-sectoral steering committee headed by the Minister of Health. The first RFELTP cohort has 15 residents who were recruited from key health programs in GOR. Over the first year of implementation, these 15 residents have conducted a variety of field investigations and responded to several outbreaks. RFELTP has also trained 145 frontline health workers through its two-week applied short courses. In the future, RFELTP plans to develop a veterinary track to address public health issues at the animal-human interface. PMID:22359695

  19. Ebola virus disease outbreak; the role of field epidemiology training programme in the fight against the epidemic, Liberia, 2014

    PubMed Central

    Lubogo, Mutaawe; Donewell, Bangure; Godbless, Lucas; Shabani, Sasita; Maeda, Justin; Temba, Herilinda; Malibiche, Theophil C; Berhanu, Naod

    2015-01-01

    The African Field Epidemiology Network (AFENET) is a public health network established in 2005 as a non-profit networking alliance of Field Epidemiology and Laboratory Training Programs (FELTPs) and Field Epidemiology Training Programs (FETPs) in Africa. AFENET is dedicated to supporting Ministries of Health in Africa build strong, effective and sustainable programs and capacity to improve public health systems by partnering with global public health experts. The Network's goal is to strengthen field epidemiology and public health laboratory capacity to contribute effectively to addressing epidemics and other major public health problems in Africa. The goal for the establishment of FETP and FELTP was and still is to produce highly competent multi-disciplinary public health professionals who would assume influential posts in the public health structures and tackle emerging and re-emerging communicable and non-communicable diseases. AFENET currently networks 12 FELTPs and FETPs in sub-Saharan Africa with operations in 20 countries. During the Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) outbreak in West Africa, African Union Support for the Ebola Outbreak in West Africa (ASEOWA) supported FETP graduates from Uganda, Zimbabwe, Ethiopia and Tanzania for the investigation and control of the EVD outbreak in Liberia. The graduates were posted in different counties in Liberia where they lead teams of other experts conduct EVD outbreak investigations, Infection Control and Prevention trainings among health workers and communities, Strengthening integrated disease surveillance, developing Standard Operating Procedures for infection control and case notification in the Liberian setting as well as building capacity of local surveillance officers’ conduct outbreak investigation and contact tracing. The team was also responsible for EVD data management at the different Counties in Liberia. The FETP graduates have been instrumental in the earlier successes registered in various counties in

  20. Extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields and cancer: the epidemiologic evidence.

    PubMed Central

    Bates, M N

    1991-01-01

    This paper reviews the epidemiologic evidence that low frequency electromagnetic fields generated by alternating current may be a cause of cancer. Studies examining residential exposures of children and adults and studies of electrical and electronics workers are reviewed. Using conventional epidemiologic criteria for inferring causal associations, including strength and consistency of the relationship, biological plausibility, and the possibility of bias as an explanation, it is concluded that the evidence is strongly suggestive that such radiation is carcinogenic. The evidence is strongest for brain and central nervous system cancers in electrical workers and children. Weaker evidence supports an association with leukemia in electrical workers. Some evidence also exists for an association with melanoma in electrical workers. Failure to find consistent evidence of a link between residential exposures and adult cancers may be attributable to exposure misclassification. Studies so far have used imperfect surrogates for any true biologically effective magnetic field exposure. The resulting exposure misclassification has produced relative risk estimates that understate any true risk. PMID:1821368

  1. Surveillance of Canine Rabies in the Central African Republic: Impact on Human Health and Molecular Epidemiology

    PubMed Central

    Tricou, Vianney; Bouscaillou, Julie; Kamba Mebourou, Emmanuel; Koyanongo, Fidèle Dieudonné; Nakouné, Emmanuel; Kazanji, Mirdad

    2016-01-01

    Background Although rabies represents an important public health threat, it is still a neglected disease in Asia and Africa where it causes tens of thousands of deaths annually despite available human and animal vaccines. In the Central African Republic (CAR), an endemic country for rabies, this disease remains poorly investigated. Methods To evaluate the extent of the threat that rabies poses in the CAR, we analyzed data for 2012 from the National Reference Laboratory for Rabies, where laboratory confirmation was performed by immunofluorescence and PCR for both animal and human suspected cases, and data from the only anti-rabies dispensary of the country and only place where post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) is available. Both are located in Bangui, the capital of the CAR. For positive samples, a portion of the N gene was amplified and sequenced to determine the molecular epidemiology of circulating strains. Results In 2012, 966 exposed persons visited the anti-rabies dispensary and 632 received a post-exposure rabies vaccination. More than 90% of the exposed persons were from Bangui and its suburbs and almost 60% of them were under 15-years of age. No rabies-related human death was confirmed. Of the 82 samples from suspected rabid dogs tested, 69 were confirmed positive. Most of the rabid dogs were owned although unvaccinated. There was a strong spatiotemporal correlation within Bangui and within the country between reported human exposures and detection of rabid dogs (P<0.001). Phylogenetic analysis indicated that three variants belonging to Africa I and II lineages actively circulated in 2012. Conclusions These data indicate that canine rabies was endemic in the CAR in 2012 and had a detrimental impact on human health as shown by the hundreds of exposed persons who received PEP. Implementation of effective public health interventions including mass dog vaccination and improvement of the surveillance and the access to PEP are urgently needed in this country. PMID

  2. African-American and Caucasian disparities in colorectal cancer mortality and survival by data source: An epidemiologic review

    PubMed Central

    Alexander, Dominik D.; Waterbor, John; Hughes, Timothy; Funkhouser, Ellen; Grizzle, William; Manne, Upender

    2009-01-01

    Over the past four decades in the United States, there has been a divergent trend in mortality rates between African-Americans and Caucasians with colorectal cancer (CRC). Rates among Caucasians have been steadily declining, whereas rates among African-Americans have only started a gradual decline in recent years. We reviewed epidemiologic studies of CRC racial disparities between African-Americans and Caucasians, including studies from SEER and population-based cancer registries, Veterans Affairs (VA) databases, healthcare coverage databases, and university and other medical center data sources. Elevated overall and stage-specific risks of CRC mortality and shorter survival for African-Americans compared with Caucasians were reported across all data sources. The magnitude of racial disparities varied across study groups, with the strongest associations observed in university and non-VA hospital-based medical center studies, while an attenuated discrepancy was found in VA database studies. An advanced stage of disease at the time of diagnosis among African-Americans is a major contributing factor to the racial disparity in survival. Several studies, however, have shown that an increased risk of CRC death among African-Americans remains even after controlling for tumor stage at diagnosis, socioeconomic factors, and comorbidity. Despite advances in treatment, improvements in the standard of care, and increased screening options, racial differences persist in CRC mortality and survival. Therefore, continued research efforts are necessary to disentangle the clinical, social, biological, and environmental factors that constitute the racial disparity. In addition, results across data sources should be considered when evaluating racial differences in cancer outcomes. PMID:18048968

  3. Epidemiologic response to anthrax outbreaks: field investigations, 1950-2001.

    PubMed

    Bales, Michael E; Dannenberg, Andrew L; Brachman, Philip S; Kaufmann, Arnold F; Klatsky, Peter C; Ashford, David A

    2002-10-01

    We used unpublished reports, published manuscripts, and communication with investigators to identify and summarize 49 anthrax-related epidemiologic field investigations conducted by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention from 1950 to August 2001. Of 41 investigations in which Bacillus anthracis caused human or animal disease, 24 were in agricultural settings, 11 in textile mills, and 6 in other settings. Among the other investigations, two focused on building decontamination, one was a response to bioterrorism threats, and five involved other causes. Knowledge gained in these investigations helped guide the public health response to the October 2001 intentional release of B. anthracis, especially by addressing the management of anthrax threats, prevention of occupational anthrax, use of antibiotic prophylaxis in exposed persons, use of vaccination, spread of B. anthracis spores in aerosols, clinical diagnostic and laboratory confirmation methods, techniques for environmental sampling of exposed surfaces, and methods for decontaminating buildings. PMID:12396934

  4. Field Test of an Epidemiology Curriculum for Middle School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaelin, Mark A.; Huebner, Wendy W.; Nicolich, Mark J.; Kimbrough, Maudellyn L.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the effectiveness of a middle school epidemiology curriculum called Detectives in the Classroom. The curriculum presents epidemiology as the science of public health, using health-related issues that capture the interest of young students and help prepare them to make evidence-based health-related decisions.…

  5. Disparities in Uterine Cancer Epidemiology, Treatment, and Survival Among African Americans in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Long, B; Liu, FW; Bristow, RE

    2013-01-01

    Objective The objective of this article is to comprehensively review the scientific literature and summarize the available data regarding the outcome disparities of African American women with uterine cancer. Methods Literature on disparities in uterine cancer was systematically reviewed using the PubMed search engine. Articles from 1992-2012 written in English were reviewed. Search terms included endometrial cancer, uterine cancer, racial disparities, and African American. Results Twenty-four original research articles with a total of 366,299 cases of endometrial cancer (337,597 Caucasian and 28,702 African American) were included. Compared to Caucasian women, African American women comprise 7% of new endometrial cancer cases, while accounting for approximately 14% of endometrial cancer deaths. They are diagnosed with later stage, higher-grade disease, and poorer prognostic histologic types compared to their Caucasian counterparts. They also suffer worse outcomes at every stage, grade, and for every histologic type. The cause of increased mortality is multifactorial. African American and white women have varying incidence of comorbid conditions, genetic susceptibility to malignancy, access to care and health coverage, and socioeconomic status; however, the most consistent contributors to incidence and mortality disparities are histology and socioeconomics. More robust genetic and molecular profile studies are in development to further explain histologic differences. Conclusions Current studies suggest that histologic and socioeconomic factors explain much of the disparity in endometrial cancer incidence and mortality between white and African American patients. Treatment factors likely contributed historically to differences in mortality; however, studies suggest most women now receive equal care. Molecular differences may be an important factor to explain the racial inequities. Coupled with a sustained commitment to increasing access to appropriate care, on

  6. Options for Field Diagnosis of Human African Trypanosomiasis

    PubMed Central

    Chappuis, François; Loutan, Louis; Simarro, Pere; Lejon, Veerle; Büscher, Philippe

    2005-01-01

    Human African trypanosomiasis (HAT) due to Trypanosoma brucei gambiense or T. b. rhodesiense remains highly prevalent in several rural areas of sub-Saharan Africa and is lethal if left untreated. Therefore, accurate tools are absolutely required for field diagnosis. For T. b. gambiense HAT, highly sensitive tests are available for serological screening but the sensitivity of parasitological confirmatory tests remains insufficient and needs to be improved. Screening for T. b. rhodesiense infection still relies on clinical features in the absence of serological tests available for field use. Ongoing research is opening perspectives for a new generation of field diagnostics. Also essential for both forms of HAT is accurate determination of the disease stage because of the high toxicity of melarsoprol, the drug most widely used during the neurological stage of the illness. Recent studies have confirmed the high accuracy of raised immunoglobulin M levels in the cerebrospinal fluid for the staging of T. b. gambiense HAT, and a promising simple assay (LATEX/IgM) is being tested in the field. Apart from the urgent need for better tools for the field diagnosis of this neglected disease, improved access to diagnosis and treatment for the population at risk remains the greatest challenge for the coming years. PMID:15653823

  7. Elevated Hypertension Risk for African-Origin Populations in Biracial Societies: Modeling the Epidemiologic Transition Study

    PubMed Central

    COOPER, Richard S.; FORRESTER, Terrence E.; PLANGE-RHULE, Jacob; BOVET, Pascal; LAMBERT, Estelle V.; DUGAS, Lara R.; CARGILL, Kathryn E; DURAZO-ARVIZU, Ramon A.; SHOHAM, David A.; TONG, Liping; CAO, Guichan; LUKE, Amy

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Blood pressures in persons of African descent exceed those of other racial/ethnic groups in the US. Whether this trait is attributable to genetic factors in African-origin populations, or a result of inadequately measured environmental exposures, such as racial discrimination, is not known. To study this question we conducted a multi-site comparative study of communities in the African diaspora, drawn from metropolitan Chicago, Kingston, Jamaica, rural Ghana, Cape Town, South Africa, and the Seychelles. Methods At each site 500 participants between the ages of 25 and 49, with approximately equal sex balance, were enrolled for a longitudinal study of energy expenditure and weight gain. In this report we describe the patterns of blood pressure and hypertension observed at baseline among the sites. Results Mean systolic and diastolic blood pressures were very similar in the US and South Africa in both men and women, although among women the prevalence of hypertension was higher in the US (24 vs. 17%, respectively). After adjustment for multiple covariates, relative to participants in the U.S., systolic blood pressure was significantly higher among South Africans by 9.7 mmHg (p<0.05) and significantly lower for each of the other sites: viz, Jamaica, −7.9 mmHg (p=0.06), Ghana, −12.8 mmHg (p<0.01), Seychelles, −11.1 mmHg (p=0.01). Conclusion These data are consistent with prior findings of a blood pressure gradient in societies of the African diaspora and confirm that African-origin populations with lower social status in multi-racial societies, such as the US and South Africa, experience more hypertension than anticipated based on anthropometric and measurable socioeconomic risk factors. PMID:25426566

  8. A meta-analysis of observational epidemiological studies of Newcastle disease in African agro-systems, 1980-2009.

    PubMed

    Miguel, E; Grosbois, V; Berthouly-Salazar, C; Caron, A; Cappelle, J; Roger, F

    2013-06-01

    Newcastle disease (ND) is one of the most important and widespread avian pests. In Africa, backyard poultry production systems are an important source of protein and cash for poor rural livelihoods. ND mortality in these production systems is important and seriously disrupts benefits derived from it. This study undertook an African continental approach of ND epidemiology in backyard poultry. After a systematic literature review of studies published from 1980 to 2009, a meta-analysis of spatio-temporal patterns of serological prevalence and outbreak occurrence was performed. Average ND serological prevalence was estimated at 0·67 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0·58-0·75] in regions characterized by humid ecosystems, high human and poultry densities and low altitudes; 0·36 (95% CI 0·30-0·41) in dry ecosystems at intermediate altitude where human and poultry densities are low and 0·27 (95% CI 0·19-0·38) in mountain ecosystems where human and poultry densities are intermediate. In terms of seasonality, ND outbreaks occur mostly during the dry seasons in Africa, when environmental conditions are likely to be harshest for backyard poultry. In addition, a phylogeographical analysis revealed the regionalization of ND virus strains, their potential to evolve towards a higher pathogenicity from the local viral pool and suggests a risk for vaccine strains to provide new wild strains. These results present for the first time a continent-wide approach to ND epidemiology in Africa. More emphasis is needed for ND management and control in rural African poultry production systems. PMID:23228432

  9. Characteristics of a French African Caribbean Epidemiological Psychiatric Sample with a History of Suicide Attempt

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slama, Frederic; Dehurtevent, Benedicte; Even, Jean-Daniel; Charles-Nicolas, Aime; Ballon, Nicolas; Slama, Remy

    2008-01-01

    Research on vulnerability factors among ethnic groups, independent of primary psychiatric diagnosis, may help to identify groups at risk of suicidal behavior. French African Caribbean general psychiatric patients (N = 362) were recruited consecutively and independently of the primary psychiatric diagnosis. Demographic and clinical characteristics…

  10. Epidemiology of chicken anemia virus in Central African Republic and Cameroon

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Although chicken anemia virus (CAV) has been detected on all continents, little is known about this virus in sub-Saharan Africa. This study aimed to detect and characterize CAV for the first time in Central African Republic and in Cameroon. Results An overall flock seroprevalence of 36.7% was found in Central African Republic during the 2008–2010 period. Virus prevalences were 34.2% (2008), 14.3% (2009) and 10.4% (2010) in Central African Republic and 39% (2007) and 34.9% (2009) in Cameroon. CAV DNA was found in cloacal swabs of 76.9% of seropositive chickens, suggesting that these animals excreted the virus despite antibodies. On the basis of VP1 sequences, most of the strains in Central African Republic and Cameroon belonged to 9 distinct phylogenetic clusters at the nucleotide level and were not intermixed with strains from other continent. Several cases of mixed infections in flocks and individual chickens were identified. Conclusions Our results suggest multiple introductions of CAV in each country that later spread and diverged locally. Mixed genotype infections together with the observation of CAV DNA in cloacal samples despite antibodies suggest a suboptimal protection by antibodies or virus persistence. PMID:22958546

  11. Field epidemiologic studies of populations exposed to waste dumps.

    PubMed

    Heath, C W

    1983-02-01

    Epidemiologic studies are required for assessing health risks related to toxic waste exposure. Since the settings in which such studies must be performed are extremely diverse, epidemiologic approaches must be versatile. For any particular study, three fundamental requirements are to assess what toxic materials are present, understand how human exposure may occur, and objectively measure possible biologic effects. In assessing links between exposure and disease, epidemiologists must be particularly aware of: expected disease frequencies in relation to the size of populations studied, implications of long or varied disease latencies for study design and competing causes of disease and associated confounding variables. These concepts are illustrated by discussion of epidemiologic studies related to the Love Canal toxic waste dump site in Niagara Falls, NY. PMID:6825633

  12. Antihypertensive medication compliance in African-American stroke patients: behavioral epidemiology and interventions.

    PubMed

    Friday, G H

    1999-01-01

    Hypertension is a major cause of stroke in the African-American community, and lack of control of hypertension appears to be common. Improving compliance to antihypertensive therapy in African-American stroke patients could have a significant impact on recurrent stroke rates. Little is known about factors affecting compliance in this community and which interventions would be effective in improving compliance. Health behavior models which assess the patient's perception of stroke and hypertension, barriers to the desired behavior, perception of ability to perform the behavior, perception of others' acceptance of the behavior and the patient's behavioral stage could be used to tailor interventions to improve compliance. A plan to improve compliance should take into account the target population's baseline rates of compliance, perception of need for intervention and risk factors for noncompliance. PMID:10461046

  13. Acquisition of HIV by African-Born Residents of Victoria, Australia: Insights from Molecular Epidemiology

    PubMed Central

    Lemoh, Chris; Ryan, Claire E.; Sekawi, Zamberi; Hearps, Anna C.; Aleksic, Eman; Chibo, Doris; Grierson, Jeffrey; Baho, Samia; Street, Alan; Hellard, Margaret; Biggs, Beverley-Ann; Crowe, Suzanne M.

    2013-01-01

    African-born Australians are a recognised “priority population” in Australia's Sixth National HIV/AIDS Strategy. We compared exposure location and route for African-born people living with HIV (PLHIV) in Victoria, Australia, with HIV-1 pol subtype from drug resistance assays and geographical origin suggested by phylogenetic analysis of env gene. Twenty adult HIV positive African-born Victorian residents were recruited via treating doctors. HIV exposure details were obtained from interviews and case notes. Viral RNA was extracted from participant stored plasma or whole blood. The env V3 region was sequenced and compared to globally representative reference HIV-1 sequences in the Los Alamos National Library HIV Database. Twelve participants reported exposure via heterosexual sex and two via iatrogenic blood exposures; four were men having sex with men (MSM); two were exposed via unknown routes. Eight participants reported exposure in their countries of birth, seven in Australia, three in other countries and two in unknown locations. Genotype results (pol) were available for ten participants. HIV env amplification was successful in eighteen cases. HIV-1 subtype was identified in all participants: eight both pol and env; ten env alone and two pol alone. Twelve were subtype C, four subtype B, three subtype A and one subtype CRF02_AG. Reported exposure location was consistent with the phylogenetic clustering of env sequences. African Australians are members of multiple transnational social and sexual networks influencing their exposure to HIV. Phylogenetic analysis may complement traditional surveillance to discern patterns of HIV exposure, providing focus for HIV prevention programs in mobile populations. PMID:24391866

  14. Acquisition of HIV by African-born residents of Victoria, Australia: insights from molecular epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Lemoh, Chris; Ryan, Claire E; Sekawi, Zamberi; Hearps, Anna C; Aleksic, Eman; Chibo, Doris; Grierson, Jeffrey; Baho, Samia; Street, Alan; Hellard, Margaret; Biggs, Beverley-Ann; Crowe, Suzanne M

    2013-01-01

    African-born Australians are a recognised "priority population" in Australia's Sixth National HIV/AIDS Strategy. We compared exposure location and route for African-born people living with HIV (PLHIV) in Victoria, Australia, with HIV-1 pol subtype from drug resistance assays and geographical origin suggested by phylogenetic analysis of env gene. Twenty adult HIV positive African-born Victorian residents were recruited via treating doctors. HIV exposure details were obtained from interviews and case notes. Viral RNA was extracted from participant stored plasma or whole blood. The env V3 region was sequenced and compared to globally representative reference HIV-1 sequences in the Los Alamos National Library HIV Database. Twelve participants reported exposure via heterosexual sex and two via iatrogenic blood exposures; four were men having sex with men (MSM); two were exposed via unknown routes. Eight participants reported exposure in their countries of birth, seven in Australia, three in other countries and two in unknown locations. Genotype results (pol) were available for ten participants. HIV env amplification was successful in eighteen cases. HIV-1 subtype was identified in all participants: eight both pol and env; ten env alone and two pol alone. Twelve were subtype C, four subtype B, three subtype A and one subtype CRF02_AG. Reported exposure location was consistent with the phylogenetic clustering of env sequences. African Australians are members of multiple transnational social and sexual networks influencing their exposure to HIV. Phylogenetic analysis may complement traditional surveillance to discern patterns of HIV exposure, providing focus for HIV prevention programs in mobile populations. PMID:24391866

  15. The Underrepresentation of African American Female Students in STEM Fields: Implications for Classroom Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farinde, Abiola A.; Lewis, Chance W.

    2012-01-01

    African American women are underrepresented in STEM (science, technology, engineering and math) fields (Catsambis, 1994). The socialization and "under-education" of African American female students engenders ideas of inferiority, while the presence of an inferior race, sex and class, in one body, may produce an ideology of mediocrity. Data…

  16. Epidemiology, pathology, and genetics of prostate cancer among African Americans compared with other ethnicities.

    PubMed

    Williams, Heinric; Powell, Isaac J

    2009-01-01

    Prostate cancer is the most common cancer affecting men in the Western world. In the United States, it is the second leading cause of cancer related deaths after lung and bronchus carcinoma. No definitive causes of prostate cancer (PCa) have been identified to date but, increasing age, a positive family history, and sub-Saharan African ancestry are strongly linked to its development. African American men (AAM) have the highest reported incidence rates in the United States and their mortality from the disease is markedly higher than that of European American men (EAM). Conversely, Asian American men and Pacific Islanders (API), American Indian and Alaskan Native (AI/AN) men, and Hispanic men all have lower incidence and mortality rates as compared with EAM. The reasons for these differences are unclear. However, it is clear that AAM have more advanced PCa when diagnosed. Several other reasons have been suggested and these include differences in treatments and health seeking behavior among the ethnic groups, cultural beliefs, environmental/lifestyle factors, dietary and genetic factors. In conclusion, there are multiple factors that impact prostate cancer outcome and that may be responsible for ethnic disparity. These factors are discussed in this chapter. PMID:19107447

  17. Vigorous physical activity and risk of breast cancer in the African American breast cancer epidemiology and risk consortium.

    PubMed

    Gong, Zhihong; Hong, Chi-Chen; Bandera, Elisa V; Adams-Campbell, Lucile L; Troester, Melissa A; Park, Song-Yi; McInerney, Kathryn A; Zirpoli, Gary; Olshan, Andrew F; Palmer, Julie R; Ambrosone, Christine B; Rosenberg, Lynn

    2016-09-01

    The relationship between physical activity and breast cancer risk has been extensively studied among women of European descent, with most studies reporting inverse associations. However, data on American women of African ancestry (AA) and by tumor subtypes are sparse. Thus, we examined associations of vigorous exercise and breast cancer risk overall, and by estrogen receptor (ER) status, in the African American Breast Cancer Epidemiology and Risk Consortium. We pooled data from four large studies on 2482 ER+ cases, 1374 ER- cases, and 16,959 controls. Multivariable logistic regression was used to compute odds ratios (OR) and 95 % confidence intervals (CI) for the risk of breast cancer overall, and polytomous logistic regression was used to model the risk of ER+ and ER- cancer. Recent vigorous exercise was associated with a statistically significant, modestly decreased risk for breast cancer overall (OR 0.88, 95 % CI 0.81-0.96) and for ER+ cancer (OR 0.88, 95 % CI 0.80-0.98), but not for ER- cancer (OR 0.93, 95 % CI 0.82-1.06). Overall, there was no strong evidence of effect modification by age, menopausal status, body mass index, and parity. However, our data were suggestive of modification by family history, such that an inverse association was present among women without a family history but not among those with a relative affected by breast cancer. Results from this large pooled analysis provide evidence that vigorous physical activity is associated with a modestly reduced risk of breast cancer in AA women, specifically ER+ cancer. PMID:27514396

  18. African trypanosomiasis and S. intercalatum infection in Equatorial Guinea: comparative epidemiology and feasibility of integrated control.

    PubMed

    Simarro, P P; Sima, F O; Mia, M

    1989-06-01

    The integration of schistosomiasis control with the activities of different endemic disease control or health programmes has been endorsed by a WHO Expert Committee on the Control of Schistosomiasis (WHO 1985). Endemic countries face increasing economic and manpower constraints which limit the coverage and effectiveness of control activities. Integration would be expected to optimize available resources for control. The feasibility of integration can be assessed by a comparative evaluation of: the epidemiology and distribution of the health problems; the techniques and methodology of control; and the requirements for maintenance and their relative health importance. This report presents a preliminary assessment of trypanosomiasis and schistosomiasis in Equatorial Guinea. The background and implementation of the operational national trypanosomiasis control programme are summarized. Population-based epidemiological investigations undertaken by the staff of the trypanosomiasis control programme are reported from a rural village and an urban suburb of Bata, Equatorial Guinea. The distribution and morbidity of S. intercalatum are compared, the public health importance of S. intercalatum is reviewed and the feasibility of integration of control of trypanosomiasis and schistosomiasis are assessed. PMID:2772519

  19. Genetic Variation and Reproductive Timing: African American Women from the Population Architecture Using Genomics and Epidemiology (PAGE) Study

    PubMed Central

    Carty, Cara L.; Franceschini, Nora; Fernández-Rhodes, Lindsay; Young, Alicia; Cheng, Iona; Ritchie, Marylyn D.; Haiman, Christopher A.; Wilkens, Lynne; ChunyuanWu; Matise, Tara C.; Carlson, Christopher S.; Brennan, Kathleen; Park, Amy; Rajkovic, Aleksandar; Hindorff, Lucia A.

    2013-01-01

    Age at menarche (AM) and age at natural menopause (ANM) define the boundaries of the reproductive lifespan in women. Their timing is associated with various diseases, including cancer and cardiovascular disease. Genome-wide association studies have identified several genetic variants associated with either AM or ANM in populations of largely European or Asian descent women. The extent to which these associations generalize to diverse populations remains unknown. Therefore, we sought to replicate previously reported AM and ANM findings and to identify novel AM and ANM variants using the Metabochip (n = 161,098 SNPs) in 4,159 and 1,860 African American women, respectively, in the Women’s Health Initiative (WHI) and Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) studies, as part of the Population Architecture using Genomics and Epidemiology (PAGE) Study. We replicated or generalized one previously identified variant for AM, rs1361108/CENPW, and two variants for ANM, rs897798/BRSK1 and rs769450/APOE, to our African American cohort. Overall, generalization of the majority of previously-identified variants for AM and ANM, including LIN28B and MCM8, was not observed in this African American sample. We identified three novel loci associated with ANM that reached significance after multiple testing correction (LDLR rs189596789, p = 5×10−08; KCNQ1 rs79972789, p = 1.9×10−07; COL4A3BP rs181686584, p = 2.9×10−07). Our most significant AM association was upstream of RSF1, a gene implicated in ovarian and breast cancers (rs11604207, p = 1.6×10−06). While most associations were identified in either AM or ANM, we did identify genes suggestively associated with both: PHACTR1 and ARHGAP42. The lack of generalization coupled with the potentially novel associations identified here emphasize the need for additional genetic discovery efforts for AM and ANM in diverse populations. PMID:23424626

  20. A geographical profile of the South African population as a basis for epidemiological cancer research.

    PubMed

    van der Merwe, I J

    1988-11-19

    Because people do not necessarily become ill proportionally, particular subgroups of the population are more susceptible to certain types of diseases than others. It is also essential to take spatial distribution and accessibility of the population into account when considering the optimal location of medical facilities. A geographical profile of the heterogeneous population of South Africa with regard to demographic and socioeconomic composition and urbanisation patterns is therefore presented. Analysis of the composition of the population by tabulating and mapping population census results reveals a complexity which arises from the diversity between the developed white profile and the developing black and coloured communities with their escalating numbers, relative youth and socio-economic backlog. Examination of the maps shows up an unbalanced spatial urbanisation profile with overconcentration in the five metropolitan core areas. Although such a population framework usually fits best to cancer epidemiology, most other diseases could benefit from such an approach. PMID:3187804

  1. African swine fever virus infection of the bushpig (Potamochoerus porcus) and its significance in the epidemiology of the disease.

    PubMed

    Anderson, E C; Hutchings, G H; Mukarati, N; Wilkinson, P J

    1998-04-30

    Warthog (Phacochoerus aethiopicus), giant forest hog (Hylochoerus meinertzhageni) and bushpig (Potamochoerus porcus) are known to be susceptible to infection with African swine fever (ASF) virus. Little however, is known about the ecology of the disease in the bushpig. This study has shown that the bushpig remains viraemic for between 35 and 91 days following infection during which time it is able to infect the tick vector O. moubata. These ticks were able to transmit the disease to pigs. The virus persists in the lymphatic tissues for less than 34 weeks. Bushpigs infected with LIL 20/l virus but not VIC T90/l virus transmitted infection to in-contact pigs. Infected domestic pigs did not transmit the infection to in-contact bushpigs. ASF virus was able to replicate in in vitro cultures of bushpig leucocytes and endothelial cells. Recovered bushpigs could be reinfected with some strains of virus but not others. While it has been demonstrated that bushpigs remain carriers of ASFV following infection a complete understanding of their significance in the epidemiology of the disease awaits further investigations of their association with O. moubata. PMID:9659687

  2. Multispecies Epidemiologic Surveillance Study after an Outbreak of Yersiniosis at an African Green Monkey Research Facility

    PubMed Central

    Soto, Esteban; Loftis, Amanda; Boruta, Daniel; Rostad, Sara; Beierschmitt, Amy; McCoy, Matthew; Francis, Stewart; Berezowski, John; Illanes, Oscar; Recinos, Diego; Arauz, Maziel; Spencer, Dustine; Fraites, Trellor; Palmour, Roberta

    2015-01-01

    After an outbreak of Yersinia enterocolitica at a NHP research facility, we performed a multispecies investigation of the prevalence of Yersinia spp. in various mammals that resided or foraged on the grounds of the facility, to better understand the epizootiology of yersiniosis. Blood samples and fecal and rectal swabs were obtained from 105 captive African green monkeys (AGM), 12 feral cats, 2 dogs, 20 mice, 12 rats, and 3 mongooses. Total DNA extracted from swab suspensions served as template for the detection of Y. enterocolitica DNA by real-time PCR. Neither Y. enterocolitica organisms nor their DNA were detected from any of these samples. However, Western blotting revealed the presence of Yersinia antibodies in plasma. The AGM samples revealed a seroprevalence of 91% for Yersinia spp. and of 61% for Y. enterocolitica specifically. The AGM that were housed in cages where at least one fatality occurred during the outbreak (clinical group) had similar seroprevalence to that of AGM housed in unaffected cages (nonclinical group). However, the nonclinical group was older than the clinical group. In addition, 25%, 100%, 33%, 10%, and 10% of the sampled local cats, dogs, mongooses, rats, and mice, respectively, were seropositive. The high seroprevalence after this outbreak suggests that Y. enterocolitica was transmitted effectively through the captive AGM population and that age was an important risk factor for disease. Knowledge regarding local environmental sources of Y. enterocolitica and the possible role of wildlife in the maintenance of yersiniosis is necessary to prevent and manage this disease. PMID:26678370

  3. Multispecies Epidemiologic Surveillance Study after an Outbreak of Yersiniosis at an African Green Monkey Research Facility.

    PubMed

    Soto, Esteban; Loftis, Amanda; Boruta, Daniel; Rostad, Sara; Beierschmitt, Amy; McCoy, Matthew; Francis, Stewart; Berezowski, John; Illanes, Oscar; Recinos, Diego; Arauz, Maziel; Spencer, Dustine; Fraites, Trellor; Palmour, Roberta

    2015-12-01

    After an outbreak of Yersinia enterocolitica at a NHP research facility, we performed a multispecies investigation of the prevalence of Yersinia spp. in various mammals that resided or foraged on the grounds of the facility, to better understand the epizootiology of yersiniosis. Blood samples and fecal and rectal swabs were obtained from 105 captive African green monkeys (AGM), 12 feral cats, 2 dogs, 20 mice, 12 rats, and 3 mongooses. Total DNA extracted from swab suspensions served as template for the detection of Y. enterocolitica DNA by real-time PCR. Neither Y. enterocolitica organisms nor their DNA were detected from any of these samples. However, Western blotting revealed the presence of Yersinia antibodies in plasma. The AGM samples revealed a seroprevalence of 91% for Yersinia spp. and of 61% for Y. enterocolitica specifically. The AGM that were housed in cages where at least one fatality occurred during the outbreak (clinical group) had similar seroprevalence to that of AGM housed in unaffected cages (nonclinical group). However, the nonclinical group was older than the clinical group. In addition, 25%, 100%, 33%, 10%, and 10% of the sampled local cats, dogs, mongooses, rats, and mice, respectively, were seropositive. The high seroprevalence after this outbreak suggests that Y. enterocolitica was transmitted effectively through the captive AGM population and that age was an important risk factor for disease. Knowledge regarding local environmental sources of Y. enterocolitica and the possible role of wildlife in the maintenance of yersiniosis is necessary to prevent and manage this disease. PMID:26678370

  4. African 2, a Clonal Complex of Mycobacterium bovis Epidemiologically Important in East Africa▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Berg, Stefan; Garcia-Pelayo, M. Carmen; Müller, Borna; Hailu, Elena; Asiimwe, Benon; Kremer, Kristin; Dale, James; Boniotti, M. Beatrice; Rodriguez, Sabrina; Hilty, Markus; Rigouts, Leen; Firdessa, Rebuma; Machado, Adelina; Mucavele, Custodia; Ngandolo, Bongo Nare Richard; Bruchfeld, Judith; Boschiroli, Laura; Müller, Annélle; Sahraoui, Naima; Pacciarini, Maria; Cadmus, Simeon; Joloba, Moses; van Soolingen, Dick; Michel, Anita L.; Djønne, Berit; Aranaz, Alicia; Zinsstag, Jakob; van Helden, Paul; Portaels, Françoise; Kazwala, Rudovick; Källenius, Gunilla; Hewinson, R. Glyn; Aseffa, Abraham; Gordon, Stephen V.; Smith, Noel H.

    2011-01-01

    We have identified a clonal complex of Mycobacterium bovis isolated at high frequency from cattle in Uganda, Burundi, Tanzania, and Ethiopia. We have named this related group of M. bovis strains the African 2 (Af2) clonal complex of M. bovis. Af2 strains are defined by a specific chromosomal deletion (RDAf2) and can be identified by the absence of spacers 3 to 7 in their spoligotype patterns. Deletion analysis of M. bovis isolates from Algeria, Mali, Chad, Nigeria, Cameroon, South Africa, and Mozambique did not identify any strains of the Af2 clonal complex, suggesting that this clonal complex of M. bovis is localized in East Africa. The specific spoligotype pattern of the Af2 clonal complex was rarely identified among isolates from outside Africa, and the few isolates that were found and tested were intact at the RDAf2 locus. We conclude that the Af2 clonal complex is localized to cattle in East Africa. We found that strains of the Af2 clonal complex of M. bovis have, in general, four or more copies of the insertion sequence IS6110, in contrast to the majority of M. bovis strains isolated from cattle, which are thought to carry only one or a few copies. PMID:21097608

  5. Epidemiology of fetal alcohol syndrome in a South African community in the Western Cape Province.

    PubMed Central

    May, P A; Brooke, L; Gossage, J P; Croxford, J; Adnams, C; Jones, K L; Robinson, L; Viljoen, D

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study determined the characteristics of fetal alcohol syndrome in a South African community, and methodology was designed for the multidisciplinary study of fetal alcohol syndrome in developing societies. METHODS: An active case ascertainment, 2-tier methodology was used among 992 first-grade pupils. A case-control design, using measures of growth, development, dysmorphology, and maternal risk, delineated characteristics of children with fetal alcohol syndrome. RESULTS: A high rate of fetal alcohol syndrome was found in the schools--40.5 to 46.4 per 1000 children aged 5 to 9 years--and age-specific community rates (ages 6-7) were 39.2 to 42.9. These rates are 18 to 141 times greater than in the United States. Rural residents had significantly more fetal alcohol syndrome. After control for ethnic variation, children with fetal alcohol syndrome had traits similar to those elsewhere: poor growth and development, congruent dysmorphology, and lower intellectual functioning. CONCLUSIONS: This study documented the highest fetal alcohol syndrome rate to date in an overall community population. Fetal alcohol syndrome initiatives that incorporate innovative sampling and active case ascertainment methods can be used to obtain timely and accurate data among developing populations. PMID:11111264

  6. Epidemiological, Clinical, and Paraclinic Aspect of Cutaneous Sarcoidosis in Black Africans

    PubMed Central

    Kaloga, Mamadou; Gbéry, Ildevert Patrice; Bamba, Vagamon; Kouassi, Yao Isidore; Ecra, Elidjé Joseph; Diabate, Almamy; Kourouma, Sarah; Ahogo, Kouadio Celestin; Kouamé, Kouassi Alexandre; Kassi, Komenan; Kouame, Kanga; Sangaré, Abdoulaye

    2015-01-01

    The specific objectives were to identify the epidemiology of cutaneous sarcoidosis and describe the clinical and laboratory aspects of the disease. Materials and Methods. We performed a descriptive cross-sectional study involving 24 referred cases of cutaneous sarcoidosis in 25 years (1990–2014) collected at Venereology Dermatology Department of the University Hospital of Treichville (Abidjan) both in consultation and in hospitalization. Results. The hospital frequency was one case per year. The average age was 42 years, ranging from 9 to 64. The sex ratio was 1. The shortest time interval between the appearance of the skin lesion and consultation of Dermatology Department at CHU Treichville was 3 months. The elementary lesions were represented primarily by a papule (18 cases), placard (3 cases), and nodule (2 cases) and mainly sat on the face and neck in 8 cases (38%). Extra cutaneous lesions were dominated by ganglion and respiratory involvement with 5 cases each followed by musculoskeletal damage in 3 cases. Chest radiography showed abnormality in 13 cases (54%). The pulmonary function test performed in 13 patients found 7 cases (54%) having restrictive ventilatory syndrome and 6 cases (46%) being normal. A tuberculin anergy was found in 11 cases (61%). PMID:26633968

  7. Epidemiological, Clinical, and Paraclinic Aspect of Cutaneous Sarcoidosis in Black Africans.

    PubMed

    Kaloga, Mamadou; Gbéry, Ildevert Patrice; Bamba, Vagamon; Kouassi, Yao Isidore; Ecra, Elidjé Joseph; Diabate, Almamy; Kourouma, Sarah; Ahogo, Kouadio Celestin; Kouamé, Kouassi Alexandre; Kassi, Komenan; Kouame, Kanga; Sangaré, Abdoulaye

    2015-01-01

    The specific objectives were to identify the epidemiology of cutaneous sarcoidosis and describe the clinical and laboratory aspects of the disease. Materials and Methods. We performed a descriptive cross-sectional study involving 24 referred cases of cutaneous sarcoidosis in 25 years (1990-2014) collected at Venereology Dermatology Department of the University Hospital of Treichville (Abidjan) both in consultation and in hospitalization. Results. The hospital frequency was one case per year. The average age was 42 years, ranging from 9 to 64. The sex ratio was 1. The shortest time interval between the appearance of the skin lesion and consultation of Dermatology Department at CHU Treichville was 3 months. The elementary lesions were represented primarily by a papule (18 cases), placard (3 cases), and nodule (2 cases) and mainly sat on the face and neck in 8 cases (38%). Extra cutaneous lesions were dominated by ganglion and respiratory involvement with 5 cases each followed by musculoskeletal damage in 3 cases. Chest radiography showed abnormality in 13 cases (54%). The pulmonary function test performed in 13 patients found 7 cases (54%) having restrictive ventilatory syndrome and 6 cases (46%) being normal. A tuberculin anergy was found in 11 cases (61%). PMID:26633968

  8. Simulating the epidemiological and economic effects of an African swine fever epidemic in industrialized swine populations.

    PubMed

    Halasa, Tariq; Bøtner, Anette; Mortensen, Sten; Christensen, Hanne; Toft, Nils; Boklund, Anette

    2016-09-25

    African swine fever (ASF) is a notifiable infectious disease with a considerable impact on animal health and is currently one of the most important emerging diseases of domestic pigs. ASF was introduced into Georgia in 2007 and subsequently spread to the Russian Federation and several Eastern European countries. Consequently, there is a non-negligible risk of ASF spread towards Western Europe. Therefore it is important to develop tools to improve our understanding of the spread and control of ASF for contingency planning. A stochastic and dynamic spatial spread model (DTU-DADS) was adjusted to simulate the spread of ASF virus between domestic swine herds exemplified by the Danish swine population. ASF was simulated to spread via animal movement, low- or medium-risk contacts and local spread. Each epidemic was initiated in a randomly selected herd - either in a nucleus herd, a sow herd, a randomly selected herd or in multiple herds simultaneously. A sensitivity analysis was conducted on input parameters. Given the inputs and assumptions of the model, epidemics of ASF in Denmark are predicted to be small, affecting about 14 herds in the worst-case scenario. The duration of an epidemic is predicted to vary from 1 to 76days. Substantial economic damages are predicted, with median direct costs and export losses of €12 and €349 million, respectively, when epidemics were initiated in multiple herds. Each infectious herd resulted in 0 to 2 new infected herds varying from 0 to 5 new infected herds, depending on the index herd type. PMID:27599924

  9. Mean-field theory of a recurrent epidemiological model.

    PubMed

    Nagy, Viktor

    2009-06-01

    Our purpose is to provide a mean-field theory for the discrete time-step susceptible-infected-recovered-susceptible (SIRS) model on uncorrelated networks with arbitrary degree distributions. The effect of network structure, time delays, and infection rate on the stability of oscillating and fixed point solutions is examined through analysis of discrete time mean-field equations. Consideration of two scenarios for disease contagion demonstrates that the manner in which contagion is transmitted from an infected individual to a contacted susceptible individual is of primary importance. In particular, the manner of contagion transmission determines how the degree distribution affects model behavior. We find excellent agreement between our theoretical results and numerical simulations on networks with large average connectivity. PMID:19658562

  10. Mean-field theory of a recurrent epidemiological model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagy, Viktor

    2009-06-01

    Our purpose is to provide a mean-field theory for the discrete time-step susceptible-infected-recovered-susceptible (SIRS) model on uncorrelated networks with arbitrary degree distributions. The effect of network structure, time delays, and infection rate on the stability of oscillating and fixed point solutions is examined through analysis of discrete time mean-field equations. Consideration of two scenarios for disease contagion demonstrates that the manner in which contagion is transmitted from an infected individual to a contacted susceptible individual is of primary importance. In particular, the manner of contagion transmission determines how the degree distribution affects model behavior. We find excellent agreement between our theoretical results and numerical simulations on networks with large average connectivity.

  11. Molecular epidemiology of Theileria parva in the field.

    PubMed

    Geysen, D; Bishop, R; Skilton, R; Dolan, T T; Morzaria, S

    1999-09-01

    Molecular tools based on seminested RFLP-PCR techniques to characterize field parasites in bloodspots dried on filter paper permitted investigation of the extent and the dynamics of diversity of Theileria parva populations in the field. Parallel molecular studies explored the long-term genome stability of various isolates by probing Southern blots of EcoRI digested total genomic DNA with four different reference nucleic acid probes. Three polymorphic single copy loci encoding for antigen genes were developed for seminested PCR detection in order to apply them for a multilocus approach in population genetic studies. Seven alleles were identified for the polymorphic immunodominant molecule (PIM) locus by using restriction enzymes, and 4 alleles each for the p150 and p104 loci. A simple DNA extraction method gave good results in amplifying these loci from carrier animals using samples of blood dried on filter papers. Results from probing Southern blots of cultures taken at sequential timepoints indicate relative genome stability in T. parva in comparison to other parasitic protozoa such as Plasmodium. Comparatively homogeneous profiles in sympatric isolates from Zambia were identified using all four probes and PCR amplified products which contrasted with the variety found amongst Kenyan stocks. Preliminary characterization of T. parva field samples from the Southern Province of Zambia strongly suggest clonal expansion of one of the components of a non-Zambian trivalent vaccine used on a limited scale in the Province from 1985 until 1992. PMID:10540308

  12. Evaluating alternative exposure indices in epidemiologic studies on extremely low-frequency magnetic fields

    SciTech Connect

    Juutilainen, J.; Hatfield, T.; Laeaerae, E.

    1996-05-01

    Choosing the right exposure index for epidemiological studies on 50--60 Hz magnetic fields is difficult due to the lack of knowledge about critical exposure parameters for the biological effects of magnetic fields. This paper uses data from a previously published epidemiological investigation on early pregnancy loss (EPL) to study the methods of evaluating the exposure-response relationship of 50 Hz magnetic fields. Two approaches were used. The first approach was to apply generalized additive modeling to suggest the functional form of the relationship between EPL data with eight alternative exposure indices: the 24 h average of magnetic field strength, three indices measuring the proportion of time above specified thresholds, and four indices measuring the proportion of time within specified intensity windows. Because the original exposure data included only spot measurements, estimates for the selected exposure indices were calculated indirectly form the spot measurements using empirical nonlinear equations derived from 24 h recording in 60 residences. The results did not support intensity windows, and a threshold-type dependence on field strength appeared to be more plausible than a linear relationship. In addition, the study produced data suggesting that spot measurements may be used as surrogates for other exposure indices besides the time average field strength. No final conclusions should be drawn from this study alone, but the authors hope that this exercise stimulates evaluation of alternative exposure indices in other planned and ongoing epidemiological studies.

  13. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis for epidemiologic studies of Campylobacter hyointestinalis isolates.

    PubMed Central

    Salama, S M; Tabor, H; Richter, M; Taylor, D E

    1992-01-01

    Campylobacter hyointestinalis was isolated from five members of the same family who had previously consumed raw milk. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis of genomic DNAs from the five strains, after digestion with restriction endonuclease SalI, revealed that three strains had identical genome patterns and therefore appeared to be related, whereas the other two had completely different genome patterns and appeared to be unrelated. We report here for the first time the isolation of C. hyointestinalis from family members who had consumed raw milk. Our study also demonstrates the usefulness of pulsed-field gel electrophoresis for epidemiologic studies of this unusual campylobacter. Images PMID:1500503

  14. Kitina: A West African intra-Albian field

    SciTech Connect

    Cornaggia, F.; Congo, S.A.; Agostino, M.

    1995-08-01

    Kitina field is located in Marine VII permit, offshore Congo. The field was discovered in 1991 by a joint venture composed of Agip Recherches Congo (operator), Hydrocongo and Chevron International Limited. The field is a structural four-way dip closure trap shaped as turtle-back. Halokinetic movements are responsible for the structuring. The seismic imaging of the reservoir is affected by strong lateral velocity variations caused by different sedimentation across the paleo-shelf edge in the post-Albian sequence. One pass 3D poststack depth migration, performed with a velocity field obtained by means of geostatistical integration of 2D seismic and wellbore velocities, achieved a good compromise between high dip reflector imaging and depths at well location. Three main reservoirs of lower Albian age exist between -2100 and -3100m. They are separated by tight mudstones which act as intraformational seal. Seismic trace inversion improved the resolution of petrophysical variations in some of the field reservoirs, which have the following characteristics (from top to bottom): reservoir 2A is composed of bioclastic and oolitic packstone-grainstone laid down during regional regressive phase in insulated offshore bars on the crest of structural high. Early diagenetic phenomena lead to the development of world class permeability framework. Reservoir 1A-1B are composed of sandstone bodies which were deposited as shoreface to offshore bars during short-term regressive pulse. The 1A-1B reservoir, are embedded in mudstones deposited during long lasting phases of relative high stand in relatively deep offshore setting characterised by high, halokinetic driven subsidence.

  15. Current status and future prospects of epidemiology and public health training and research in the WHO African region

    PubMed Central

    Nachega, Jean B; Uthman, Olalekan A; Ho, Yuh-Shan; Lo, Melanie; Anude, Chuka; Kayembe, Patrick; Wabwire-Mangen, Fred; Gomo, Exnevia; Sow, Papa Salif; Obike, Ude; Kusiaku, Theophile; Mills, Edward J; Mayosi, Bongani M; IJsselmuiden, Carel

    2012-01-01

    Background To date little has been published about epidemiology and public health capacity (training, research, funding, human resources) in WHO/AFRO to help guide future planning by various stakeholders. Methods A bibliometric analysis was performed to identify published epidemiological research. Information about epidemiology and public health training, current research and challenges was collected from key informants using a standardized questionnaire. Results From 1991 to 2010, epidemiology and public health research output in the WHO/AFRO region increased from 172 to 1086 peer-reviewed articles per annum [annual percentage change (APC) = 10.1%, P for trend < 0.001]. The most common topics were HIV/AIDS (11.3%), malaria (8.6%) and tuberculosis (7.1%). Similarly, numbers of first authors (APC = 7.3%, P for trend < 0.001), corresponding authors (APC = 8.4%, P for trend < 0.001) and last authors (APC = 8.5%, P for trend < 0.001) from Africa increased during the same period. However, an overwhelming majority of respondents (>90%) reported that this increase is only rarely linked to regional post-graduate training programmes in epidemiology. South Africa leads in publications (1978/8835, 22.4%), followed by Kenya (851/8835, 9.6%), Nigeria (758/8835, 8.6%), Tanzania (549/8835, 6.2%) and Uganda (428/8835, 4.8%) (P < 0.001, each vs South Africa). Independent predictors of relevant research productivity were ‘in-country numbers of epidemiology or public health programmes’ [incidence rate ratio (IRR) = 3.41; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.90–6.11; P = 0.03] and ‘number of HIV/AIDS patients’ (IRR = 1.30; 95% CI 1.02–1.66; P < 0.001). Conclusions Since 1991, there has been increasing epidemiological research productivity in WHO/AFRO that is associated with the number of epidemiology programmes and burden of HIV/AIDS cases. More capacity building and training initiatives in epidemiology are required to promote research and address the public health challenges

  16. Sarcoptes mite epidemiology and treatment in African buffalo (Syncerus caffer) calves captured for translocation from the Kafue game management area to game ranches

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background In Zambia, translocation of wildlife from National Parks to private owned game ranches demands that only animals free of infectious diseases that could adversely affect the expansion of the wildlife industry should be translocated to game ranches. Sarcoptes mange (Sarcoptes scarbiei) has been involved in the reduction of wildlife populations in some species. Results Sarcoptes mange (Sarcoptes scarbiei) was detected and eradicated from two herds of African buffalo (Syncerus caffer) calves captured in the Kafue GMA in July 2004 and August 2005. The overall prevalence was estimated at 89.5% (77/86). Sex had no influence on the occurrence and severity of the disease. Of the 86 calves used in the study, 72.1% had good body condition scores, 20.9% were fair and 7.0% were poor. Of the 77 infected calves, 53.2% were mildly infected, 28.6% were moderately and 18.2% were severely infected. Body condition score was correlated to the severity of the infection (r = 0.72, p < 0.000, n = 86) at capture. Eradication of Sarcoptes mites from the entire herd using ivermetcin was dependant on the severity of the infection. The overall ability of ivermectin to clear the infection after the first treatment was estimated at 81.8% (n = 77). It increased to 94.8% and 100% after the second and third treatments respectively. Conclusion This is the first report on the epidemiology and treatment of Sarcoptes mange in African buffaloes in Zambia. This study improves our understanding about Sarcoptes scabiei epidemiology and treatment which will have further applications for the safe animal translocation. PMID:20515454

  17. Training and Service in Public Health, Nigeria Field Epidemiology and Laboratory Training, 2008 – 2014

    PubMed Central

    Nguku, Patrick; Oyemakinde, Akin; Sabitu, Kabir; Olayinka, Adebola; Ajayi, Ikeoluwapo; Fawole, Olufunmilayo; Babirye, Rebecca; Gitta, Sheba; Mukanga, David; Waziri, Ndadilnasiya; Gidado, Saheed; Biya, Oladayo; Gana, Chinyere; Ajumobi, Olufemi; Abubakar, Aisha; Sani-Gwarzo, Nasir; Ngobua, Samuel; Oleribe, Obinna; Poggensee, Gabriele; Nsubuga, Peter; Nyager, Joseph; Nasidi, Abdulsalami

    2014-01-01

    The health workforce is one of the key building blocks for strengthening health systems. There is an alarming shortage of curative and preventive health care workers in developing countries many of which are in Africa. Africa resultantly records appalling health indices as a consequence of endemic and emerging health issues that are exacerbated by a lack of a public health workforce. In low-income countries, efforts to build public health surveillance and response systems have stalled, due in part, to the lack of epidemiologists and well-trained laboratorians. To strengthen public health systems in Africa, especially for disease surveillance and response, a number of countries have adopted a competency-based approach of training - Field Epidemiology and Laboratory Training Program (FELTP). The Nigeria FELTP was established in October 2008 as an inservice training program in field epidemiology, veterinary epidemiology and public health laboratory epidemiology and management. The first cohort of NFELTP residents began their training on 20th October 2008 and completed their training in December 2010. The program was scaled up in 2011 and it admitted 39 residents in its third cohort. The program has admitted residents in six annual cohorts since its inception admitting a total of 207 residents as of 2014 covering all the States. In addition the program has trained 595 health care workers in short courses. Since its inception, the program has responded to 133 suspected outbreaks ranging from environmental related outbreaks, vaccine preventable diseases, water and food borne, zoonoses, (including suspected viral hemorrhagic fevers) as well as neglected tropical diseases. With its emphasis on one health approach of solving public health issues the program has recruited physicians, veterinarians and laboratorians to work jointly on human, animal and environmental health issues. Residents have worked to identify risk factors of disease at the human animal interface for

  18. Training and service in public health, Nigeria Field Epidemiology and Laboratory Training, 2008 - 2014.

    PubMed

    Nguku, Patrick; Oyemakinde, Akin; Sabitu, Kabir; Olayinka, Adebola; Ajayi, Ikeoluwapo; Fawole, Olufunmilayo; Babirye, Rebecca; Gitta, Sheba; Mukanga, David; Waziri, Ndadilnasiya; Gidado, Saheed; Biya, Oladayo; Gana, Chinyere; Ajumobi, Olufemi; Abubakar, Aisha; Sani-Gwarzo, Nasir; Ngobua, Samuel; Oleribe, Obinna; Poggensee, Gabriele; Nsubuga, Peter; Nyager, Joseph; Nasidi, Abdulsalami

    2014-01-01

    The health workforce is one of the key building blocks for strengthening health systems. There is an alarming shortage of curative and preventive health care workers in developing countries many of which are in Africa. Africa resultantly records appalling health indices as a consequence of endemic and emerging health issues that are exacerbated by a lack of a public health workforce. In low-income countries, efforts to build public health surveillance and response systems have stalled, due in part, to the lack of epidemiologists and well-trained laboratorians. To strengthen public health systems in Africa, especially for disease surveillance and response, a number of countries have adopted a competency-based approach of training - Field Epidemiology and Laboratory Training Program (FELTP). The Nigeria FELTP was established in October 2008 as an inservice training program in field epidemiology, veterinary epidemiology and public health laboratory epidemiology and management. The first cohort of NFELTP residents began their training on 20th October 2008 and completed their training in December 2010. The program was scaled up in 2011 and it admitted 39 residents in its third cohort. The program has admitted residents in six annual cohorts since its inception admitting a total of 207 residents as of 2014 covering all the States. In addition the program has trained 595 health care workers in short courses. Since its inception, the program has responded to 133 suspected outbreaks ranging from environmental related outbreaks, vaccine preventable diseases, water and food borne, zoonoses, (including suspected viral hemorrhagic fevers) as well as neglected tropical diseases. With its emphasis on one health approach of solving public health issues the program has recruited physicians, veterinarians and laboratorians to work jointly on human, animal and environmental health issues. Residents have worked to identify risk factors of disease at the human animal interface for

  19. An exploratory GIS-based method to identify and characterise landscapes with an elevated epidemiological risk of Rhodesian human African trypanosomiasis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Specific land cover types and activities have been correlated with Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense distributions, indicating the importance of landscape for epidemiological risk. However, methods proposed to identify specific areas with elevated epidemiological risk (i.e. where transmission is more likely to occur) tend to be costly and time consuming. This paper proposes an exploratory spatial analysis using geo-referenced human African trypanosomiasis (HAT) cases and matched controls from Serere hospital, Uganda (December 1998 to November 2002) to identify areas with an elevated epidemiological risk of HAT. Methods Buffers 3 km from each case and control were used to represent areas in which village inhabitants would carry out their daily activities. It was hypothesised that the selection of areas where several case village buffers overlapped would enable the identification of locations with increased risk of HAT transmission, as these areas were more likely to be frequented by HAT cases in several surrounding villages. The landscape within these overlap areas should more closely relate to the environment in which transmission occurs as opposed to using the full buffer areas. The analysis was carried out for each of four annual periods, for both cases and controls, using a series of threshold values (number of overlapping buffers), including a threshold of one, which represented the benchmark (e.g. use of the full buffer area as opposed to the overlap areas). Results A greater proportion of the overlap areas for cases consisted of seasonally flooding grassland and lake fringe swamp, than the control overlap areas, correlating well with the preferred habitat of the predominant tsetse species within the study area (Glossina fuscipes fuscipes). The use of overlap areas also resulted in a greater difference between case and control landscapes, when compared with the benchmark (using the full buffer area). Conclusions These results indicate that the overlap

  20. The Tanzania Field Epidemiology and Laboratory Training Program: building and transforming the public health workforce

    PubMed Central

    Mmbuji, Peter; Mukanga, David; Mghamba, Janeth; Ahly, Mohamed; Mosha, Fausta; Azima, Simba; Senga, Sembuche; Moshiro, Candida; Semali, Innocent; Rolle, Italia; Wiktor, Stefan; McQueen, Suzzane; McElroy, Peter; Nsubuga, Peter

    2011-01-01

    The Tanzania Field Epidemiology and Laboratory Training Program (TFELTP) was established in 2008 as a partnership among the Ministry of Health and Social Welfare (MOHSW), Muhimbili University of Health and Allied Sciences, National Institute for Medical Research, and local and international partners. TFELTP was established to strengthen the capacity of MOHSW to conduct public health surveillance and response, manage national disease control and prevention programs, and to enhance public health laboratory support for surveillance, diagnosis, treatment and disease monitoring. TFELTP is a 2-year full-time training program with approximately 25% time spent in class, and 75% in the field. TFELTP offers two tracks leading to an MSc degree in either Applied Epidemiology or, Epidemiology and Laboratory Management. Since 2008, the program has enrolled a total of 33 trainees (23 males, 10 females). Of these, 11 were enrolled in 2008 and 100% graduated in 2010. All 11 graduates of cohort 1 are currently employed in public health positions within the country. Demand for the program as measured by the number of applicants has grown from 28 in 2008 to 56 in 2011. While training the public health leaders of the country, TFELTP has also provided essential service to the country in responding to high-profile disease outbreaks, and evaluating and improving its public health surveillance systems and diseases control programs. TFELTP was involved in the country assessment of the revised International Health Regulations (IHR) core capabilities, development of the Tanzania IHR plan, and incorporation of IHR into the revised Tanzania Integrated Disease Surveillance and Response (IDSR) guidelines. TFELTP is training a competent core group of public health leaders for Tanzania, as well as providing much needed service to the MOHSW in the areas of routine surveillance, outbreak detection and response, and disease program management. However, the immediate challenges that the program must

  1. THE AFRICAN DESCENT AND GLAUCOMA EVALUATION STUDY (ADAGES): PREDICTORS OF VISUAL FIELD DAMAGE IN GLAUCOMA SUSPECTS

    PubMed Central

    Khachatryan, Naira; Medeiros, Felipe A.; Sharpsten, Lucie; Bowd, Christopher; Sample, Pamela A.; Liebmann, Jeffrey M.; Girkin, Christopher A.; Weinreb, Robert N.; Miki, Atsuya; Hammel, Na’ama; Zangwill, Linda M.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate racial differences in the development of visual field (VF) damage in glaucoma suspects. Design Prospective, observational cohort study. Methods Six hundred thirty six eyes from 357 glaucoma suspects with normal VF at baseline were included from the multicenter African Descent and Glaucoma Evaluation Study (ADAGES). Racial differences in the development of VF damage were examined using multivariable Cox Proportional Hazard models. Results Thirty one (25.4%) of 122 African descent participants and 47 (20.0%) of 235 European descent participants developed VF damage (p=0.078). In multivariable analysis, worse baseline VF mean deviation, higher mean arterial pressure during follow up, and a race *mean intraocular pressure (IOP) interaction term were significantly associated with the development of VF damage suggesting that racial differences in the risk of VF damage varied by IOP. At higher mean IOP levels, race was predictive of the development of VF damage even after adjusting for potentially confounding factors. At mean IOPs during follow-up of 22, 24 and 26 mmHg, multivariable hazard ratios (95%CI) for the development of VF damage in African descent compared to European descent subjects were 2.03 (1.15–3.57), 2.71 (1.39–5.29), and 3.61 (1.61–8.08), respectively. However, at lower mean IOP levels (below 22 mmHg) during follow-up, African descent was not predictive of the development of VF damage. Conclusion In this cohort of glaucoma suspects with similar access to treatment, multivariate analysis revealed that at higher mean IOP during follow-up, individuals of African descent were more likely to develop VF damage than individuals of European descent. PMID:25597839

  2. Establishing a field epidemiology elective for medical students in Kenya: a strategy for increasing public health awareness and workforce capacity.

    PubMed

    Arvelo, Wences; Gura, Zeinab; Amwayi, Samuel; Wiersma, Petra; Omolo, Jared; Becknell, Steven; Jones, Donna; Ongore, Dismas; Dicker, Richard

    2015-03-01

    Medical students have limited exposure to field epidemiology, even though will assume public health roles after graduation. We established a 10-week elective in field epidemiology during medical school. Students attended one-week didactic sessions on epidemiology, and nine weeks in field placement sites. We administered pre- and post-tests to evaluate the training. We enrolled 34 students in 2011 and 2012. In 2011, we enrolled five of 24 applicants from a class of 280 medical students. In 2012, we enrolled 18 of 81 applicants from a class of 360 students; plus 11 who participated in the didactic sessions only. Among the 34 students who completed the didactic sessions, 74% were male, and their median age was 24 years (range: 22-26). The median pre-test score was 64% (range: 47-88%) and the median post-test score was 82% (range: 72-100%). Successful completion of the field projects was 100%. Six (30%) students were not aware of public health as a career option before this elective, 56% rated the field experience as outstanding, and 100% reported it increased their understanding of epidemiology. Implementing an elective in field epidemiology within the medical training is a highly acceptable strategy to increase awareness for public health among medical students. PMID:25700921

  3. Development and Evaluation for Active Learning Instructional Design of Epidemiology in Nursing Informatics Field.

    PubMed

    Majima, Yukie

    2016-01-01

    Nursing education classes are classifiable into three types: lectures, classroom practice, and clinical practice. In this study, we implemented a class that incorporated elements of active learning, including clickers, minutes papers, quizzes, and group work and presentation, in the subject of "epidemiology", which is often positioned in the field of nursing informatics and which is usually taught in conventional knowledge-transmission style lectures, to help students understand knowledge and achieve seven class goals. Results revealed that the average scores of the class achievement (five levels of evaluation) were 3.6-3.9, which was good overall. The highest average score of the evaluation of teaching materials by students (five levels of evaluation) was 4.6 for quizzes, followed by 4.2 for announcement of test statistics, 4.1 for clickers, and 4.0 for news presentation related to epidemiology. We regard these as useful tools for students to increase their motivation. One problem with the class was that it took time to organize the class: creation of tests, class preparation and marking, such as things to be returned and distribution of clickers, and writing comments on small papers. PMID:27332214

  4. The Southern African Regional Science Initiative (SAFARI 2000): Overview of the Dry Season Field Campaign

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swap, R. J.; Annegarn, H. J.; Suttles, J. T.; Haywood, J.; Helmlinger, M. C.; Hely, C.; Hobbs, P. V.; Holben, B. N.; Ji, J.; King, M. D.

    2002-01-01

    The Southern African Regional Science Initiative (SAFARI 2000) is an international project investigating the earth atmosphere -human system in southern Africa. The programme was conducted over a two year period from March 1999 to March 2001. The dry season field campaign (August-September 2000) was the most intensive activity involved over 200 scientist from eighteen countries. The main objectives were to characterize and quantify biogenic, pyrogenic and anthropogenic aerosol and trace gas emissions and their transport and transformations in the atmosphere and to validate NASA's Earth Observing System's Satellite Terra within a scientific context. Five aircraft-- two South African Weather Service Aeorcommanders, the University of Washington's CV-880, the U.K. Meteorological Office's C-130, and NASA's ER-2 --with different altitude capabilities, participated in the campaign. Additional airborne sampling of southern African air masses, that had moved downwind of the subcontinent, was conducted by the CSIRO over Australia. Multiple Observations were made in various geographical sections under different synoptic conditions. Airborne missions were designed to optimize the value of synchronous over-flights of the Terra Satellite platform, above regional ground validation and science targets. Numerous smaller scale ground validation activities took place throughout the subcontinent during the campaign period.

  5. Epidemiological typing of Flavimonas oryzihabitans by PCR and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Liu, P Y; Shi, Z Y; Lau, Y J; Hu, B S; Shyr, J M; Tsai, W S; Lin, Y H; Tseng, C Y

    1996-01-01

    Flavimonas oryzihabitans has emerged as a potential nosocomial pathogen in recent years. The typing method for characterization of this species has never been reported before. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus (ERIC)-based PCR were used to generate DNA fingerprints for 14F. oryzihabitans isolates obtained from eight episodes of nosocomial infections during a 2-year period. Both techniques successfully classified these clinical isolates into eight distinct genotypes, thus indicating that all of these episodes of infections were independent. In contrast, repeated isolates from the same patient were assigned to identical genotypes. The reproducibility of both techniques was good. Therefore, we conclude that both PFGE and ERIC-PCR have comparable reproducible and discriminatory powers for the typing of F. oryzihabitans and may be useful for clarifying the epidemiology of this species; however, ERIC-PCR has the advantages of both speed and simplicity. PMID:8748275

  6. Epidemiologic studies of electric and magnetic fields and cancer: Strategies for extending knowledge

    SciTech Connect

    Savitz, D.A.

    1993-12-01

    Epidemiologic research concerning electric and magnetic fields in relation to cancer has focused on the potential etiologic roles of residential exposure on childhood cancer and occupational exposure on adult leukemia and brain cancer. Future residential studies must concentrate on exposure assessment that is enhanced by developing models of historical exposure, assessment of the relation between magnetic fields and wire codes, and consideration of alternate exposure indices. Study design issues deserving attention include possible biases in random digit dialing control selection, consideration of the temporal course of exposure and disease, and acquisition of the necessary information to assess the potential value of ecologic studies. Highest priorities are comprehensive evaluation of exposure patterns and sources and examination of the sociology and geography of residential wire codes. Future occupational studies should also concentrate on improved exposure assessment with increased attention to nonutility worker populations and development of historical exposure indicators that are superior to job titles alone. Potential carcinogens in the workplace that could act as confounders need to be more carefully examined. The temporal relation between exposure and disease and possible effect modification by other workplace agents should be incorporated into future studies. The most pressing need is for measurement of exposure patterns in a variety of worker populations and performance of traditional epidemiologic evaluations of cancer occurrence. The principal source of bias toward the null is nondifferential misclassification of exposure with improvements expected to enhance any true etiologic association that is present. Biases away from the null might include biased control selection in residential studies and chemical carcinogens acting as confounders in occupational studies. 51 refs., 1 tab.

  7. Human African trypanosomiasis: a latex agglutination field test for quantifying IgM in cerebrospinal fluid.

    PubMed Central

    Lejon, V.; Büscher, P.; Sema, N. H.; Magnus, E.; Van Meirvenne, N.

    1998-01-01

    LATEX/IgM, a rapid agglutination test for the semi-quantitative detection of IgM in cerebrospinal fluid of patients with African trypanosomiasis, is described in this article. The lyophilized reagent has been designed for field use and remains stable at 45 degrees C for one year. The test has been evaluated on cerebrospinal fluid samples from trypanosome-infected and non-infected patients, by comparison with commercial latex agglutination, radial immunodiffusion, and nephelometry. All test systems yielded similar results. PMID:10191550

  8. Central America Field Epidemiology Training Program (CA FETP): a pathway to sustainable public health capacity development

    PubMed Central

    López, Augusto; Cáceres, Victor M

    2008-01-01

    The Central America Field Epidemiology Training Program (CA FETP) is a public health capacity-building training programme aimed at developing high-caliber field epidemiologists at various levels of the public health system. It began in 2000 as part of the effort to rebuild public health infrastructure in six Central American and Caribbean countries following the devastation of Hurricanes Mitch and Georges in late 1998. Since then, the CA FETP has evolved from one regional training programme managed by CDC to several national FETPs with each country assuming ownership of its domestic programme. The curriculum is competency-based, and is divided into a three-tiered training pyramid that corresponds to the needs at the local, district and central levels of the health system. Trainees at each tier spend about 20% of their time in the classroom and 80% in the field implementing what they have learned while being mentored by graduates of the programme. FETP trainees have responded to multiple natural disasters and conducted hundreds of investigations including surveillance evaluations, outbreak responses and planned studies. Also graduates of the CA FETP are assuming influential positions in their respective ministries. As countries meet the challenge of institutionalizing their programmes, the CA FETP concept will increasingly be recognized as a model for sustainable public health capacity development. PMID:19087253

  9. Design and descriptive epidemiology of the Infectious Diseases of East African Livestock (IDEAL) project, a longitudinal calf cohort study in western Kenya

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background There is a widely recognised lack of baseline epidemiological data on the dynamics and impacts of infectious cattle diseases in east Africa. The Infectious Diseases of East African Livestock (IDEAL) project is an epidemiological study of cattle health in western Kenya with the aim of providing baseline epidemiological data, investigating the impact of different infections on key responses such as growth, mortality and morbidity, the additive and/or multiplicative effects of co-infections, and the influence of management and genetic factors. A longitudinal cohort study of newborn calves was conducted in western Kenya between 2007-2009. Calves were randomly selected from all those reported in a 2 stage clustered sampling strategy. Calves were recruited between 3 and 7 days old. A team of veterinarians and animal health assistants carried out 5-weekly, clinical and postmortem visits. Blood and tissue samples were collected in association with all visits and screened using a range of laboratory based diagnostic methods for over 100 different pathogens or infectious exposures. Results The study followed the 548 calves over the first 51 weeks of life or until death and when they were reported clinically ill. The cohort experienced a high all cause mortality rate of 16% with at least 13% of these due to infectious diseases. Only 307 (6%) of routine visits were classified as clinical episodes, with a further 216 reported by farmers. 54% of calves reached one year without a reported clinical episode. Mortality was mainly to east coast fever, haemonchosis, and heartwater. Over 50 pathogens were detected in this population with exposure to a further 6 viruses and bacteria. Conclusion The IDEAL study has demonstrated that it is possible to mount population based longitudinal animal studies. The results quantify for the first time in an animal population the high diversity of pathogens a population may have to deal with and the levels of co-infections with key

  10. Establishment of a large semi-field system for experimental study of African malaria vector ecology and control in Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Ferguson, Heather M; Ng'habi, Kija R; Walder, Thomas; Kadungula, Demetrius; Moore, Sarah J; Lyimo, Issa; Russell, Tanya L; Urassa, Honorathy; Mshinda, Hassan; Killeen, Gerry F; Knols, Bart GJ

    2008-01-01

    Background Medical entomologists increasingly recognize that the ability to make inferences between laboratory experiments of vector biology and epidemiological trends observed in the field is hindered by a conceptual and methodological gap occurring between these approaches which prevents hypothesis-driven empirical research from being conducted on relatively large and environmentally realistic scales. The development of Semi-Field Systems (SFS) has been proposed as the best mechanism for bridging this gap. Semi-field systems are defined as enclosed environments, ideally situated within the natural ecosystem of a target disease vector and exposed to ambient environmental conditions, in which all features necessary for its life cycle completion are present. Although the value of SFS as a research tool for malaria vector biology is gaining recognition, only a few such facilities exist worldwide and are relatively small in size (< 100 m2). Methods The establishment of a 625 m2 state-of-the-art SFS for large-scale experimentation on anopheline mosquito ecology and control within a rural area of southern Tanzania, where malaria transmission intensities are amongst the highest ever recorded, is described. Results A greenhouse frame with walls of mosquito netting and a polyethylene roof was mounted on a raised concrete platform at the Ifakara Health Institute. The interior of the SFS was divided into four separate work areas that have been set up for a variety of research activities including mass-rearing for African malaria vectors under natural conditions, high throughput evaluation of novel mosquito control and trapping techniques, short-term assays of host-seeking behaviour and olfaction, and longer-term experimental investigation of anopheline population dynamics and gene flow within a contained environment that simulates a local village domestic setting. Conclusion The SFS at Ifakara was completed and ready for use in under two years. Preliminary observations

  11. Strengthening Indonesia’s Field Epidemiology Training Programme to address International Health Regulations requirements

    PubMed Central

    Samaan, Gina; Santoso, Hari; Kushadiwijaya, Haripurnomo; Juwita, Ratna; Mohadir, Andi; Aditama, Tjandra

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Problem According to the International Health Regulations (IHR), countries need to strengthen core capacity for disease surveillance and response systems. Many countries are establishing or enhancing their field epidemiology training programmes (FETPs) to meet human resource needs but face challenges in sustainability and training quality. Indonesia is facing these challenges, which include limited resources for field training and limited coordination in a newly decentralized health system. Approach A national FETP workplan was developed based on an evaluation of the existing programme and projected human resource needs. A Ministry of Health Secretariat linking universities, national and international partners was established to oversee revision and implementation of the FETP. Local setting The FETP is integrated into the curriculum of Indonesian universities and field training is conducted in district and provincial health offices under the coordination of the universities and the FETP Secretariat. Relevant changes The FETP was included in the Ministry of Health workforce development strategy through governmental decree. Curricula have been enhanced and field placements strengthened to provide trainees with better learning experiences. To improve sustainability of the FETP, links were established with the Indonesian Epidemiologists’ Association, local governments and donors to cultivate future FETP champions and maintain funding. Courses, competitions and discussion forums were established for field supervisors and alumni. These changes have increased the geographic distribution of students, intersectoral and international participation and the quality of student performance. Lessons learnt The main lesson learnt is that linkages with universities, ministries and international agencies such as the World Health Organization are critical for building a sustainable high-quality programme. The most critical factors were development of trusting relationships

  12. Modelling indoor electromagnetic fields (EMF) from mobile phone base stations for epidemiological studies.

    PubMed

    Beekhuizen, J; Vermeulen, R; van Eijsden, M; van Strien, R; Bürgi, A; Loomans, E; Guxens, M; Kromhout, H; Huss, A

    2014-06-01

    Radio frequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF) from mobile phone base stations can be reliably modelled for outdoor locations, using 3D radio wave propagation models that consider antenna characteristics and building geometry. For exposure assessment in epidemiological studies, however, it is especially important to determine indoor exposure levels as people spend most of their time indoors. We assessed the accuracy of indoor RF-EMF model predictions, and whether information on building characteristics could increase model accuracy. We performed 15-minute spot measurements in 263 rooms in 101 primary schools and 30 private homes in Amsterdam, the Netherlands. At each measurement location, we collected information on building characteristics that can affect indoor exposure to RF-EMF, namely glazing and wall and window frame materials. Next, we modelled RF-EMF at the measurement locations with the 3D radio wave propagation model NISMap. We compared model predictions with measured values to evaluate model performance, and explored if building characteristics modified the association between modelled and measured RF-EMF using a mixed effect model. We found a Spearman correlation of 0.73 between modelled and measured total downlink RF-EMF from base stations. The average modelled and measured RF-EMF were 0.053 and 0.041mW/m(2), respectively, and the precision (standard deviation of the differences between predicted and measured values) was 0.184mW/m(2). Incorporating information on building characteristics did not improve model predictions. Although there is exposure misclassification, we conclude that it is feasible to reliably rank indoor RF-EMF from mobile phone base stations for epidemiological studies. PMID:24632329

  13. A bibliometric analysis in the fields of preventive medicine, occupational and environmental medicine, epidemiology, and public health

    PubMed Central

    Soteriades, Elpidoforos S; Falagas, Matthew E

    2006-01-01

    Background Research in the fields of Preventive Medicine, Occupational/Environmental Medicine, Epidemiology and Public Health play an important role in the advancement of knowledge. In order to map the research production around the world we performed a bibliometric analysis in the above fields. Methods All articles published by different world regions in the above mentioned scientific fields and cited in the Journal Citation Reports (JCR) database of the Institute for Scientific Information (ISI) during the period 1995 and 2003, were evaluated. The research production of different world regions was adjusted for: a) the gross domestic product in 1995 US dollars, and b) the population size of each region. Results A total of 48,861 articles were retrieved and categorized. The USA led the research production in all three subcategories. The percentage of articles published by USA researchers was 43%, 44% and 61% in the Preventive Medicine, Epidemiology, and Public Health subcategories, respectively. Canada and Western Europe shared the second position in the first two subcategories, while Oceania researchers ranked second in the field of Public Health. Conclusion USA researchers maintain a leadership position in the production of scientific articles in the fields of Preventive Medicine, Occupational/Environmental Medicine and Epidemiology, at a level similar to other scientific disciplines, while USA contribution to science in the field of Public Health is by all means outstanding. Less developed regions would need to support their researchers in the above fields in order to improve scientific production and advancement of knowledge in their countries. PMID:17173665

  14. [Infantile leukemia and exposure to 50/60 Hz magnetic fields: review of epidemiologic evidence in 2000].

    PubMed

    Lagorio, S; Salvan, A

    2001-01-01

    We review the epidemiological evidence on childhood leukemia and residential exposure to 50/60 Hz magnetic fields. The possibility of carcinogenic effects of power frequency magnetic fields (ELF-EMF), at levels below units of micro tesla (microT), was first raised in 1979 by a case-control study on childhood cancer carried out in Denver, USA. In that study, excess risks of total cancer and leukemia were observed among children living in homes with "high or very high current configuration", as categorised on the basis of proximity to electric lines and transformers. Many other epidemiological studies have been published since then, characterised by improved--although still not optimal--methods of exposure assessment. At the end of 2000, the epidemiological evidence to support the association between exposure to extremely-low-frequency magnetic fields and the risk of childhood leukemia is less consistent than what was observed in the mid 90s. At the same time, a growing body of experimental evidence has accumulated against both a direct and a promoting carcinogenic effect of ELF-EMF. Such "negative" experimental evidence hampers a causal interpretation of the "positive" epidemiological studies. PMID:11758279

  15. Field Epidemiology and Laboratory Training Programs in West Africa as a model for sustainable partnerships in animal and human health.

    PubMed

    Becker, Karen M; Ohuabunwo, Chima; Ndjakani, Yassa; Nguku, Patrick; Nsubuga, Peter; Mukanga, David; Wurapa, Frederick

    2012-09-01

    The concept of animal and human health experts working together toward a healthier world has been endorsed, but challenges remain in identifying concrete actions to move this one health concept from vision to action. In 2008, as a result of avian influenza outbreaks in West Africa, international donor support led to a unique opportunity to invest in Field Epidemiology and Laboratory Training Programs (FELTPs) in the region that engaged the animal and human health sectors to strengthen the capacity for prevention and control of zoonotic diseases. The FELTPs mixed 25% to 35% classroom and 65% to 75% field-based training and service for cohorts of physicians, veterinarians, and laboratory scientists. They typically consisted of a 2-year course leading to a master's degree in field epidemiology and public health laboratory management for midlevel public health leaders and competency-based short courses for frontline public health surveillance workers. Trainees and graduates work in multidisciplinary teams to conduct surveillance, outbreak investigations, and epidemiological studies for disease control locally and across borders. Critical outcomes of these programs include development of a cadre of public health leaders with core skills in integrated disease surveillance, outbreak investigation, vaccination campaigns, laboratory diagnostic testing, and epidemiological studies that address priority public health problems. A key challenge exists in identifying ways to successfully scale up and transform this innovative donor-driven program into a sustainable multisectoral one health workforce capacity development model. PMID:22916854

  16. Nematode–coccidia parasite co-infections in African buffalo: Epidemiology and associations with host condition and pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Gorsich, Erin E.; Ezenwa, Vanessa O.; Jolles, Anna E.

    2014-01-01

    Co-infections are common in natural populations and interactions among co-infecting parasites can significantly alter the transmission and host fitness costs of infection. Because both exposure and susceptibility vary over time, predicting the consequences of parasite interactions on host fitness and disease dynamics may require detailed information on their effects across different environmental (season) and host demographic (age, sex) conditions. This study examines five years of seasonal health and co-infection patterns in African buffalo (Syncerus caffer). We use data on two groups of gastrointestinal parasites, coccidia and nematodes, to test the hypothesis that co-infection and season interact to influence (1) parasite prevalence and intensity and (2) three proxies for host fitness: host pregnancy, host body condition, and parasite aggregation. Our results suggest that season-dependent interactions between nematodes and coccidia affect the distribution of infections. Coccidia prevalence, coccidia intensity and nematode prevalence were sensitive to factors that influence host immunity and exposure (age, sex, and season) but nematode intensity was most strongly predicted by co-infection with coccidia and its interaction with season. The influence of co-infection on host body condition and parasite aggregation occurred in season-dependent manner. Co-infected buffalo in the early wet season were in worse condition, had a less aggregated distribution of nematode parasites, and lower nematode infection intensity than buffalo infected with nematodes alone. We did not detect an effect of infection or co-infection on host pregnancy. These results suggest that demographic and seasonal variation may mediate the effects of parasites, and their interactions, on the distribution and fitness costs of infection. PMID:25161911

  17. Overview of epidemiologic research on electric and magnetic fields and cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Savitz, D.A. )

    1993-04-01

    This overview of epidemiologic research addresses the potential role of 60 Hertz electric and magnetic fields (EMF) in the etiology of cancer. The key findings are summarized with notation of the methodological challenges with which investigators must content. Although exposure is ubiquitous, long-term average EMF is influenced primarily by the background levels in homes, use of selected electric appliances such as electric blankets, and workplace exposures to energized equipment. Studies of residential exposure have focused on childhood cancer, starting with the report of an excess of wire configurations associated with elevated magnetic fields near the homes of children who developed cancer compared to healthy children. Several subsequent studies have tended to confirm that association, although the evidence falls short of demonstrating a causal association between magnetic fields and cancer. Exposures from electric appliances have been less extensively pursued, with some suggestions of an association with childhood cancer. A more extensive literature has evaluated the association between workplace exposure to EMF, based on job titles of electrical workers and cancer. Across many different study designs and settings, certain groups of electrical workers show elevated occurrence of leukemia and brain cancer. The consistency of findings is notable, but the key question is whether the association with job title is due to EMF or some other agent in the workplace. Future research would benefit from specification of testable challenges to a causal association between EMF exposure in the home or workplace and cancer, along with continued efforts to improve our understanding and measurement of EMF exposure. 64 refs.

  18. The Frequency of "Brilliant" and "Genius" in Teaching Evaluations Predicts the Representation of Women and African Americans across Fields.

    PubMed

    Storage, Daniel; Horne, Zachary; Cimpian, Andrei; Leslie, Sarah-Jane

    2016-01-01

    Women and African Americans-groups targeted by negative stereotypes about their intellectual abilities-may be underrepresented in careers that prize brilliance and genius. A recent nationwide survey of academics provided initial support for this possibility. Fields whose practitioners believed that natural talent is crucial for success had fewer female and African American PhDs. The present study seeks to replicate this initial finding with a different, and arguably more naturalistic, measure of the extent to which brilliance and genius are prized within a field. Specifically, we measured field-by-field variability in the emphasis on these intellectual qualities by tallying-with the use of a recently released online tool-the frequency of the words "brilliant" and "genius" in over 14 million reviews on RateMyProfessors.com, a popular website where students can write anonymous evaluations of their instructors. This simple word count predicted both women's and African Americans' representation across the academic spectrum. That is, we found that fields in which the words "brilliant" and "genius" were used more frequently on RateMyProfessors.com also had fewer female and African American PhDs. Looking at an earlier stage in students' educational careers, we found that brilliance-focused fields also had fewer women and African Americans obtaining bachelor's degrees. These relationships held even when accounting for field-specific averages on standardized mathematics assessments, as well as several competing hypotheses concerning group differences in representation. The fact that this naturalistic measure of a field's focus on brilliance predicted the magnitude of its gender and race gaps speaks to the tight link between ability beliefs and diversity. PMID:26938242

  19. Molecular epidemiologic analysis of Vibrio cholerae O1 isolates by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis.

    PubMed Central

    Mahalingam, S; Cheong, Y M; Kan, S; Yassin, R M; Vadivelu, J; Pang, T

    1994-01-01

    Isolates of Vibrio cholerae O1 El Tor from two well-defined cholera outbreaks in Malaysia were analyzed by using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Isolates from sporadic cases occurring during the same time period were also studied. Digestion of chromosomal DNA from these isolates of V. cholerae O1 with restriction endonucleases NotI (5'-GCGGCCGC-3') and SfiI (5'-GGCCNNNN-3'), followed by PFGE, produced restriction endonuclease analysis (REA) patterns consisting of 13 to 24 bands (ranging in size from 46 to 398 kbp). Analysis of the REA patterns generated by PFGE after digestion with NotI and SfiI suggested the clonal nature and close genetic identity of the isolates obtained during each of the two outbreaks (Dice coefficient, 0.93 to 1.0). Although they had very similar REA patterns, the two outbreak clones were not identical. Isolates of V. cholerae O1 from sporadic cases, on the other hand, appeared to be much more heterogeneous (five different REA patterns detected in the five isolates tested; Dice coefficient, 0.31 to 0.81) than those obtained during the two outbreaks. We conclude that PFGE of V. cholerae O1 chromosomal DNA digested with infrequently cutting restriction endonucleases is a useful method for molecular typing of V. cholerae isolates for epidemiological purposes. Images PMID:7883885

  20. High-Resolution Hα Velocity Fields of Nearby Spiral Galaxies with the Southern African Large Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitchell, Carl; Williams, Ted; Spekkens, Kristine; Lee-Waddell, Karen; Kuzio de Naray, Rachel; Sellwood, Jerry

    2016-01-01

    In an effort to test ΛCDM predictions of galaxy mass distributions, we have obtained spectrophotometric observations of several nearby spiral galaxies with the Southern African Large Telescope (SALT) Fabry-Pérot (FP) interferometer as part of the RSS Imaging spectroscopy Nearby Galaxy Survey. Utilizing the SALT FP's 8 arcmin field of view and 2 arcsec angular resolution, we have derived 2D velocity fields of the Hα emission line to high spatial resolution at large radii. We have modeled these velocity fields with the DiskFit software package and found them to be in good agreement with lower-resolution velocity fields of the HI 21 cm line for the same galaxies. Here we present our Hα kinematic map of the barred spiral galaxy NGC 578. At the distance to this galaxy (22 Mpc), our kinematic data has a spatial resolution of 185 pc and extends to galactocentric radii of 13 kpc. The high spatial resolution of this data allows us to resolve the inner rising part of the rotation curves, which is compromised by beam smearing in lower-resolution observations. We are using these Hα kinematic data, combined with HI 21 cm kinematics and broadband photometric observations, to place constraints on NGC 578's mass distribution.

  1. Investigation into the Epidemiology of African Swine Fever Virus at the Wildlife - Domestic Interface of the Gorongosa National Park, Central Mozambique.

    PubMed

    Quembo, C J; Jori, F; Heath, L; Pérez-Sánchez, R; Vosloo, W

    2016-08-01

    An epidemiological study of African swine fever (ASF) was conducted between March 2006 and September 2007 in a rural area adjacent to the Gorongosa National park (GNP) located in the Central Mozambique. Domestic pigs and warthogs were sampled to determine the prevalence of antibodies against ASF virus and the salivary antigens of Ornithodoros spp. ticks, while ticks collected from pig pens were tested for the presence of ASFV. In addition, 310 framers were interviewed to gain a better understanding of the pig value chain and potential practices that could impact on the spread of the virus. The sero-prevalence to ASFV was 12.6% on farms and 9.1% in pigs, while it reached 75% in warthogs. Approximately 33% of pigs and 78% of warthogs showed antibodies against salivary antigens of ticks. The differences in sero-prevalence between farms close to the GNP, where there is greater chance for the sylvatic cycle to cause outbreaks, and farms located in the rest of the district, where pig to pig transmission is more likely to occur, were marginally significant. Ornithodoros spp. ticks were found in only 2 of 20 pig pens outside the GNP, and both pens had ticks testing positive for ASFV DNA. Interviews carried out among farmers indicated that biosecurity measures were mostly absent. Herd sizes were small with pigs kept in a free-ranging husbandry system (65%). Only 1.6% of farmers slaughtered on their premises, but 51% acknowledged allowing visitors into their farms to purchase pigs. ASF outbreaks seemed to have a severe economic impact with nearly 36% of farmers ceasing pig farming for at least 1 year after a suspected ASF outbreak. This study provides the first evidence of the existence of a sylvatic cycle in Mozambique and confirms the presence of a permanent source of virus for the domestic pig value chain. PMID:25483914

  2. Magnetic fields and childhood cancer: an epidemiological investigation of the effects of high-voltage underground cables.

    PubMed

    Bunch, K J; Swanson, J; Vincent, T J; Murphy, M F G

    2015-09-01

    Epidemiological evidence of increased risks for childhood leukaemia from magnetic fields has implicated, as one source of such fields, high-voltage overhead lines. Magnetic fields are not the only factor that varies in their vicinity, complicating interpretation of any associations. Underground cables (UGCs), however, produce magnetic fields but have no other discernible effects in their vicinity. We report here the largest ever epidemiological study of high voltage UGCs, based on 52,525 cases occurring from 1962-2008, with matched birth controls. We calculated the distance of the mother's address at child's birth to the closest 275 or 400 kV ac or high-voltage dc UGC in England and Wales and the resulting magnetic fields. Few people are exposed to magnetic fields from UGCs limiting the statistical power. We found no indications of an association of risk with distance or of trend in risk with increasing magnetic field for leukaemia, and no convincing pattern of risks for any other cancer. Trend estimates for leukaemia as shown by the odds ratio (and 95% confidence interval) per unit increase in exposure were: reciprocal of distance 0.99 (0.95-1.03), magnetic field 1.01 (0.76-1.33). The absence of risk detected in relation to UGCs tends to add to the argument that any risks from overhead lines may not be caused by magnetic fields. PMID:26344172

  3. Morphology of the southern African geomagnetic field derived from observatory and repeat station survey observations: 2005-2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotzé, P. B.; Korte, M.

    2016-02-01

    Geomagnetic field data from four observatories and annual field surveys between 2005 and 2015 provide a detailed description of Earth's magnetic field changes over South Africa, Namibia and Botswana on time scales of less than 1 year. The southern African area is characterized by rapid changes in the secular variation pattern and lies in close proximity to the South Atlantic Anomaly (SAA) where the geomagnetic field intensity is almost 30 % weaker than in other regions at similar latitudes around the globe. Several geomagnetic secular acceleration (SA) pulses (geomagnetic jerks) around 2007, 2010 and 2012 could be identified over the last decade in southern Africa. We present a new regional field model for declination and horizontal and vertical intensity over southern Africa (Southern African REGional (SAREG)) which is based on field survey and observatory data and covering the time interval from 2005 to 2014, i.e. including the period between 2010 and 2013 when no low Earth-orbiting vector field satellite data are available. A comparative evaluation between SAREG and global field models like CHAOS-5, the CHAMP, Orsted and SAC-C model of the Earth's magnetic field and International Geomagnetic Reference Field (IGRF-12) reveals that a simple regional field model based on a relatively dense ground network is able to provide a realistic representation of the geomagnetic field in this area. We particularly note that a global field model like CHAOS-5 does not always indicate similar short-period patterns in the field components as revealed by observatory data, while representing the general secular variation reasonably well during the time interval without near-Earth satellite vector field data. This investigation further shows the inhomogeneous occurrence and distribution of secular variation impulses in the different geomagnetic field components and at different locations in southern African.

  4. On the Responses of Geomagnetic Field at African and Asian Longitudes during the Storm of April 2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falayi, E.; Rabiu, A.; Yumoto, K.; Uozumi, T.; Magdas, M.

    2010-12-01

    The geomagnetic horizontal (H) field from the chain of 16 MAGDAS magnetic observatories along African and Asian longitudes are used to study the storm-time and disturbance daily variations. Geomagnetic field components vary when the interplanetary magnetic field is oriented in southward direction. Also effect of sudden magnetospheric compression is clearly seen at all latitudes. There is persistent decrease of H of disturbance daily variation during the storm at equatorial latitudes which could be the effect of a westward electric field due to the Disturbance Ionospheric dynamo coupled with abnormally large electrical conductivities in the E region over the equator. Therefore by analysing the data observed in the stations along African and Asian longitudes during the magnetic storm, the variations in electromagnetic environment in the near-earth space could be obtained.

  5. Comparison of survival and clinicopathologic features in colorectal cancer among African American, Caucasian, and Chinese patients treated in the United States: Results from the surveillance epidemiology and end results (SEER) database.

    PubMed

    Lin, Junzhong; Qiu, Miaozhen; Xu, Ruihua; Dobs, Adrian Sandra

    2015-10-20

    African American patients of colorectal cancer (CRC) were found to have a worse prognosis than Caucasians, but it has not been fully understood about the survival difference among Chinese and these two races above. In this study, we used the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results database to analyze the survival difference among these three race/ethnicities in the United States. Adenocarcinoma patients of colorectal cancer with a race/ethnicity of Caucasian, Chinese and African American were enrolled for study. Patients were excluded if they had more than one primary cancer but the CRC was not the first one, had unknown cause of death or unknown survival months. The 5-year cause specific survival (CSS) was our primary endpoint. Totally, there were 585,670 eligible patients for analysis. Chinese patients had the best and African American patients had the worst 5-year CSS (66.7% vs 55.9%), P < 0.001. The 5-year CSS for Caucasian patients was 62.9%. Race/ethnicity was an independent prognostic factor in the multivariate analysis, P < 0.001. The comparison of clinicopathologic factors among these three race/ethnicities showed that the insurance coverage rate, income, percentage that completing high school and percentage of urban residence was lowest in the African American patients. Chinese patients had the highest percentage of married, while African American patients ranked lowest. More African American patients were diagnosed as stage IV and had high percentage of signet ring cell and mucinous adenocarcinoma. It is likely that biological differences as well as socioeconomic status both contribute to the survival disparity among the different race/ethnicities. PMID:26375551

  6. Genetic Variants Associated with Breast Cancer Risk: Comprehensive Field Synopsis, Meta-Analysis, and Epidemiologic Evidence

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ben; Beeghly-Fadiel, Alicia; Long, Jirong; Zheng, Wei

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY Background Over 1,000 reports have been published during the past two decades on associations between genetic variants in candidate genes and breast cancer risk. Results have been generally inconsistent. We conducted literature searches and meta-analyses to provide a field synopsis of the current understanding of the genetic architecture of breast cancer risk. Methods Systematic literature searches for candidate gene association studies of breast cancer risk were conducted in two stages using PubMed on or before February 28, 2010. A total of 24,500 publications were identified, of which, 1,059 were deemed eligible for inclusion. Meta-analyses were conducted for 279 genetic variants in 128 candidate genes or chromosomal loci that had a minimum of three data sources available. Variants with significant associations by meta-analysis were assessed using the Venice criteria and scored as having strong, moderate, or weak cumulative evidence for an association with breast cancer risk. Findings Fifty-one variants in 40 genes showed statistically significant associations with breast cancer risk. Cumulative epidemiologic evidence for an association with breast cancer risk was graded as strong for 10 variants in six genes (ATM, CASP8, CHEK2, CTLA4, NBN, and TP53), moderate for four variants in four genes (ATM, CYP19A1, TERT, and XRCC3), and weak for 37 additional variants. Additionally, in meta-analyses that included a minimum of 10,000 cases and 10,000 controls, convincing evidence of no association with breast cancer risk was identified for 45 variants in 37 genes. Interpretation While most genetic variants evaluated in previous candidate gene studies showed no association with breast cancer risk in meta-analyses, 14 variants in 9 genes were found to have moderate to strong evidence for an association with breast cancer risk. Further evaluation of these variants is warranted. PMID:21514219

  7. Molecular Epidemiology of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Isolates in 100 Patients With Tuberculosis Using Pulsed Field Gel Electrophoresis

    PubMed Central

    Pooideh, Mohammad; Jabbarzadeh, Ismail; Ranjbar, Reza; Saifi, Mahnaz

    2015-01-01

    Background: Tuberculosis (TB) is a widespread infectious disease. Today, TB has created a public health crisis in the world. Genotyping of Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates is useful for surveying the dynamics of TB infection, identifying new outbreaks, and preventing the disease. Different molecular methods for clustering of M. tuberculosis isolates have been used. Objectives: During a one year study of genotyping, 100 M. tuberculosis isolates from patients referred to Pasteur Institute of Iran were collected and their genotyping was accomplished using pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) method. Materials and Methods: Identification of all M. tuberculosis isolates was accomplished using standard biochemical and species-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) methods. Antibiotic susceptibility tests were performed using proportional method. After preparing PFGE plaques for each isolate of M. tuberculosis, XbaI restriction enzyme was applied for genome digestion. Finally, the digested DNA fragments were separated on 1% agarose gel and analyzed with GelCompar II software. Results: Genotyping of the studied isolates in comparison with the molecular weight marker revealed two common types; pulsotype A with 71 isolates and one multidrug resistant mycobacterium (MDR) case, and pulsotype B including 29 isolates and three MDR cases. No correlation between the antibiotypes and pulsotypes was observed. Conclusions: Molecular epidemiology studies of infectious diseases have been useful when bacterial isolates have been clustered in a period of time and in different geographical regions with variable antibiotic resistance patterns. In spite of high geographical differences and different antibiotic resistant patterns, low genetic diversity among the studied TB isolates may refer to the low rate of mutations in XbaI restriction sites in the mycobacterial genome. We also identified three MDR isolates in low-incidence pulsotype B, which could be disseminated and is highly

  8. High-voltage overhead power lines in epidemiology: patterns of time variations in current load and magnetic fields.

    PubMed

    Reitan, J B; Tynes, T; Kvamshagen, K A; Vistnes, A I

    1996-01-01

    In epidemiological studies of electromagnetic fields and health effects, exposure classification is crucial. There is no generally accepted biophysical interaction mechanism, but many studies are based on the hypothesis of a causal relationship with the strength of magnetic field. Some definition of the magnitude of exposure must be used, e.g., mean magnetic flux density, the integral of magnetic flux and time, or a peak value. Magnetic fields around a particular power line depend on the current load. The aim of the present study was to follow variations in line current load in the power supply system of the largest Norwegian city on a yearly, monthly, daily and diurnal basis. Fairly large variations in load were found, but increases in consumption were not necessarily reflected in current load on high voltage lines. The correlation between outdoor temperature and current load varied widely, depending on the type of power station feeding the line in question. The registered time variations are large enough to interfere with epidemiological classification of residences and testing of epidemiological hypotheses. PMID:8809360

  9. Etiology and Epidemiology of Diarrhea in Hospitalized Children from Low Income Country: A Matched Case-Control Study in Central African Republic

    PubMed Central

    Breurec, Sébastien; Vanel, Noémie; Bata, Petulla; Chartier, Loïc; Farra, Alain; Favennec, Loïc; Franck, Thierry; Giles-Vernick, Tamara; Gody, Jean-Chrysostome; Luong Nguyen, Liem Binh; Onambélé, Manuella; Rafaï, Clotaire; Razakandrainibe, Romy; Tondeur, Laura; Tricou, Vianney; Sansonetti, Philippe; Vray, Muriel

    2016-01-01

    Background In Sub-Saharan Africa, infectious diarrhea is a major cause of morbidity and mortality. A case-control study was conducted to identify the etiology of diarrhea and to describe its main epidemiologic risk factors among hospitalized children under five years old in Bangui, Central African Republic. Methods All consecutive children under five years old hospitalized for diarrhea in the Pediatric Complex of Bangui for whom a parent’s written consent was provided were included. Controls matched by age, sex and neighborhood of residence of each case were included. For both cases and controls, demographic, socio-economic and anthropometric data were recorded. Stool samples were collected to identify enteropathogens at enrollment. Clinical examination data and blood samples were collected only for cases. Results A total of 333 cases and 333 controls was recruited between December 2011 and November 2013. The mean age of cases was 12.9 months, and 56% were male. The mean delay between the onset of first symptoms and hospital admission was 3.7 days. Blood was detected in 5% of stool samples from cases. Cases were significantly more severely or moderately malnourished than controls. One of the sought-for pathogens was identified in 78% and 40% of cases and controls, respectively. Most attributable cases of hospitalized diarrhea were due to rotavirus, with an attributable fraction of 39%. Four other pathogens were associated with hospitalized diarrhea: Shigella/EIEC, Cryptosporidium parvum/hominis, astrovirus and norovirus with attributable fraction of 9%, 10%, 7% and 7% respectively. Giardia intestinalis was found in more controls than cases, with a protective fraction of 6%. Conclusions Rotavirus, norovirus, astrovirus, Shigella/EIEC, Cryptosporidium parvum/hominis were found to be positively associated with severe diarrhea: while Giardia intestinalis was found negatively associated. Most attributable episodes of severe diarrhea were associated with rotavirus

  10. HIV Infection and the Epidemiology of Invasive Pneumococcal Disease (IPD) in South African Adults and Older Children Prior to the Introduction of a Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine (PCV)

    PubMed Central

    Meiring, Susan; Cohen, Cheryl; Quan, Vanessa; de Gouveia, Linda; Feldman, Charles; Karstaedt, Alan; Klugman, Keith P.; Madhi, Shabir A.; Rabie, Helene; Sriruttan, Charlotte; von Gottberg, Anne

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Streptococcus pneumoniae is the commonest cause of bacteremic pneumonia among HIV-infected persons. As more countries with high HIV prevalence are implementing infant pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) programs, we aimed to describe the baseline clinical characteristics of adult invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) in the pre-PCV era in South Africa in order to interpret potential indirect effects following vaccine use. Methods National, active, laboratory-based surveillance for IPD was conducted in South Africa from 1 January 2003 through 31 December 2008. At 25 enhanced surveillance (ES) hospital sites, clinical data, including HIV serostatus, were collected from IPD patients ≥ 5 years of age. We compared the clinical characteristics of individuals with IPD in those HIV-infected and -uninfected using multivariable analysis. PCV was introduced into the routine South African Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI) in 2009. Results In South Africa, from 2003–2008, 17 604 cases of IPD occurred amongst persons ≥ 5 years of age, with an average incidence of 7 cases per 100 000 person-years. Against a national HIV-prevalence of 18%, 89% (4190/4734) of IPD patients from ES sites were HIV-infected. IPD incidence in HIV-infected individuals is 43 times higher than in HIV-uninfected persons (52 per 100 000 vs. 1.2 per 100 000), with a peak in the HIV-infected elderly population of 237 per 100 000 persons. Most HIV-infected individuals presented with bacteremia (74%, 3 091/4 190). HIV-uninfected individuals were older; and had more chronic conditions (excluding HIV) than HIV-infected persons (39% (210/544) vs. 19% (790/4190), p<0.001). During the pre-PCV immunization era in South Africa, 71% of serotypes amongst HIV-infected persons were covered by PCV13 vs. 73% amongst HIV-uninfected persons, p = 0.4, OR 0.9 (CI 0.7–1.1). Conclusion Seventy to eighty-five percent of adult IPD in the pre-PCV era were vaccine serotypes and 93% of cases had recognized risk

  11. Nutritional Epidemiology

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although observations on relationships between diet and health have always been recognized—the systematic science of nutritional epidemiology in populations is relatively recent. Important observations propelling the field of nutrition forward were numerous in the 18th and 19th centuries, as it was...

  12. Field resistance of transgenic plantain to nematodes has potential for future African food security.

    PubMed

    Tripathi, Leena; Babirye, Annet; Roderick, Hugh; Tripathi, Jaindra N; Changa, Charles; Urwin, Peter E; Tushemereirwe, Wilberforce K; Coyne, Danny; Atkinson, Howard J

    2015-01-01

    Plant parasitic nematodes impose losses of up to 70% on plantains and cooking bananas in Africa. Application of nematicides is inappropriate and resistant cultivars are unavailable. Where grown, demand for plantain is more than for other staple crops. Confined field testing demonstrated that transgenic expression of a biosafe, anti-feedant cysteine proteinase inhibitor and an anti-root invasion, non-lethal synthetic peptide confers resistance to plantain against the key nematode pests Radopholus similis and Helicotylenchus multicinctus. The best peptide transgenic line showed improved agronomic performance relative to non-transgenic controls and provided about 99% nematode resistance at harvest of the mother crop. Its yield was about 186% in comparison with the nematode challenged control non-transgenic plants based on larger bunches and diminished plant toppling in storms, due to less root damage. This is strong evidence for utilizing this resistance to support the future food security of 70 million, mainly poor Africans that depend upon plantain as a staple food. PMID:25634654

  13. Field resistance of transgenic plantain to nematodes has potential for future African food security

    PubMed Central

    Tripathi, Leena; Babirye, Annet; Roderick, Hugh; Tripathi, Jaindra N.; Changa, Charles; Urwin, Peter E.; Tushemereirwe, Wilberforce K.; Coyne, Danny; Atkinson, Howard J.

    2015-01-01

    Plant parasitic nematodes impose losses of up to 70% on plantains and cooking bananas in Africa. Application of nematicides is inappropriate and resistant cultivars are unavailable. Where grown, demand for plantain is more than for other staple crops. Confined field testing demonstrated that transgenic expression of a biosafe, anti-feedant cysteine proteinase inhibitor and an anti-root invasion, non-lethal synthetic peptide confers resistance to plantain against the key nematode pests Radopholus similis and Helicotylenchus multicinctus. The best peptide transgenic line showed improved agronomic performance relative to non-transgenic controls and provided about 99% nematode resistance at harvest of the mother crop. Its yield was about 186% in comparison with the nematode challenged control non-transgenic plants based on larger bunches and diminished plant toppling in storms, due to less root damage. This is strong evidence for utilizing this resistance to support the future food security of 70 million, mainly poor Africans that depend upon plantain as a staple food. PMID:25634654

  14. Cognitive epidemiology

    PubMed Central

    Deary, Ian J; Batty, G David

    2007-01-01

    This glossary provides a guide to some concepts, findings and issues of discussion in the new field of research in which intelligence test scores are associated with mortality and morbidity. Intelligence tests are devised and studied by differential psychologists. Some of the major concepts in differential psychology are explained, especially those regarding cognitive ability testing. Some aspects of IQ (intelligence) tests are described and some of the major tests are outlined. A short guide is given to the main statistical techniques used by differential psychologists in the study of human mental abilities. There is a discussion of common epidemiological concepts in the context of cognitive epidemiology. PMID:17435201

  15. Random amplified polymorphic DNA typing versus pulsed-field gel electrophoresis for epidemiological typing of vancomycin-resistant enterococci.

    PubMed Central

    Barbier, N; Saulnier, P; Chachaty, E; Dumontier, S; Andremont, A

    1996-01-01

    Sixty vancomycin-resistant vanA mutant Enterococcus faecium (VRE) isolates, collected during a 40-month period from 48 patients hospitalized in a French Cancer Referral Center, were typed by using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD), and the results were compared with those previously obtained by typing with SmaI pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), which is currently recognized as the "gold standard." The discriminating power of RAPD typing, with seven primers and 11 combinations of primers, was tested on 18 strains, and only the most discriminating combination was further tested on the whole collection. We compared the epidemiological usefulness of RAPD typing of 60 clinical VRE isolates with that of SmaI PFGE typing. With primers AP4 and ERIC1R, RAPD generated 30 patterns versus the 36 patterns generated by SmaI PFGE. However, this did not hamper the epidemiologically correct clustering of 15 related strains and the detection of multiple colonization in nine patients. We conclude that this simple RAPD technique is well suited to the epidemiological typing of VRE and the monitoring of its nosocomial spread. PMID:8727883

  16. The Role of Professional Journals and Societies in the Future of a Field: A Reflection on the Partnership Between the American Journal of Epidemiology and the Society for Epidemiologic Research.

    PubMed

    Hahn, Kristen A; Galea, Sandro

    2016-03-01

    On this, the 100th anniversary of Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, we take the opportunity to reflect on the ties between the School, the American Journal of Epidemiology, and the Society for Epidemiologic Research. We discuss briefly the intersection of the School, the Journal, and the Society throughout their histories, with the aim of providing some insight into how the Journal and the Society have contributed to the evolution of the field. In so doing, we articulate the challenges that the Journal and the Society jointly face today, with an eye to finding opportunities in these challenges that can be helpful in coming decades. PMID:26841948

  17. Intrauterine effects of electromagnetic fields--(low frequency, mid-frequency RF, and microwave): review of epidemiologic studies.

    PubMed

    Robert, E

    1999-04-01

    Electromagnetic radiations are named according to frequency or to wavelength (which is inversely proportional to frequency) and create electromagnetic fields (EMFs). Frequencies widely vary according to sources: high-voltage power lines, electrically heated beds, MRI, VDTs, microwave ovens, satellite, and radio/TV transmissions or cellular phone transmitters/receivers. Public concern has increased about the potential health effects of EMFs. There are arguments in favour of EMFs being biologically active, but no mechanism has been identified that explains the link between EMFs and bioeffects. Human data reviewed concern the potential reproductive effects (mainly spontaneous abortions, low birthweight and congenital malformations) of exposure to sources of EMFs: maternal residence, electrically heated beds, occupational exposure (mainly video display terminals), and medical exposures. The available epidemiologic studies all have limitations that prevent to draw clearcut conclusions on the effects of EMFs on human reproduction. EMFs are ubiquitous and unavoidable exposures. The matter of possible effects cannot be considered closed, but until our understanding of the biologic important parameters of EMFs exposures is stronger,design of new studies will be difficult and small epidemiologic studies are unlikely to provide definitive answers and should not be given high priority. No conclusion can be drawn for radiofrequencies and microwaves because of lack of data. There is no convincing evidence today that EMFs of the sort pregnant women or potential fathers meet in occupational or daily life exposures does any harm to the human reproductive process. PMID:10331531

  18. SCHEME FOR INCORPORATING DC MAGNETIC FIELDS INTO EPIDEMIOLOGICAL STUDIES OF EMF EXPOSURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Experimental data on calcium-ion release in chicken brain tissue suggest that biological effects of electric and magnetic fields (EMFs) are concentrated at certain combinations of DC magnetic field strength and "critical" AC magnetic field frequencies. e hypothesize that "active"...

  19. Clinical Characteristics of Breast Cancers in African-American Women with Benign Breast Disease: A Comparison to the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program

    PubMed Central

    Mitro, Susanna D.; Ali-Fehmi, Rouba; Bandyopadhyay, Sudeshna; Alosh, Baraa; Albashiti, Bassam; Radisky, Derek C.; Frost, Marlene H.; Degnim, Amy C.; Ruterbusch, Julie J.; Cote, Michele L.

    2014-01-01

    Benign breast disease (BBD) is a very common condition, diagnosed in approximately half of all American women throughout their lifecourse. White women with BBD are known to be at substantially increased risk of subsequent breast cancer; however, nothing is known about breast cancer characteristics that develop after a BBD diagnosis in African-American women. Here, we compared 109 breast cancers that developed in a population of African-American women with a history of BBD to 10,601 breast cancers that developed in a general population of African-American women whose cancers were recorded by the Metropolitan Detroit Cancer Surveillance System (MDCSS population). Demographic and clinical characteristics of the BBD population were compared to the MDCSS population, using chi-squared tests, Fisher's exact tests, t-tests, and Wilcoxon tests where appropriate. Kaplan–Meier curves and Cox regression models were used to examine survival. Women in the BBD population were diagnosed with lower grade (p = 0.02), earlier stage cancers (p = 0.003) that were more likely to be hormone receptor-positive (p = 0.03) compared to the general metropolitan Detroit African-American population. In situ cancers were more common among women in the BBD cohort (36.7%) compared to the MDCSS population (22.1%, p < 0.001). Overall, women in the BBD population were less likely to die from breast cancer after 10 years of follow-up (p = 0.05), but this association was not seen when analyses were limited to invasive breast cancers. These results suggest that breast cancers occurring after a BBD diagnosis may have more favorable clinical parameters, but the majority of cancers are still invasive, with survival rates similar to the general African-American population. PMID:25200244

  20. Mechanisms of Geomagnetic Field Influence on Gene Expression Using Influenza as a Model System: Basics of Physical Epidemiology

    PubMed Central

    Zaporozhan, Valeriy; Ponomarenko, Andriy

    2010-01-01

    Recent studies demonstrate distinct changes in gene expression in cells exposed to a weak magnetic field (MF). Mechanisms of this phenomenon are not understood yet. We propose that proteins of the Cryptochrome family (CRY) are “epigenetic sensors” of the MF fluctuations, i.e., magnetic field-sensitive part of the epigenetic controlling mechanism. It was shown that CRY represses activity of the major circadian transcriptional complex CLOCK/BMAL1. At the same time, function of CRY, is apparently highly responsive to weak MF because of radical pairs that periodically arise in the functionally active site of CRY and mediate the radical pair mechanism of magnetoreception. It is known that the circadian complex influences function of every organ and tissue, including modulation of both NF-κB- and glucocorticoids- dependent signaling pathways. Thus, MFs and solar cycles-dependent geomagnetic field fluctuations are capable of altering expression of genes related to function of NF-κB, hormones and other biological regulators. Notably, NF-κB, along with its significant role in immune response, also participates in differential regulation of influenza virus RNA synthesis. Presented data suggests that in the case of global application (example—geomagnetic field), MF-mediated regulation may have epidemiological and other consequences. PMID:20617011

  1. Mechanisms of geomagnetic field influence on gene expression using influenza as a model system: basics of physical epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Zaporozhan, Valeriy; Ponomarenko, Andriy

    2010-03-01

    Recent studies demonstrate distinct changes in gene expression in cells exposed to a weak magnetic field (MF). Mechanisms of this phenomenon are not understood yet. We propose that proteins of the Cryptochrome family (CRY) are "epigenetic sensors" of the MF fluctuations, i.e., magnetic field-sensitive part of the epigenetic controlling mechanism. It was shown that CRY represses activity of the major circadian transcriptional complex CLOCK/BMAL1. At the same time, function of CRY, is apparently highly responsive to weak MF because of radical pairs that periodically arise in the functionally active site of CRY and mediate the radical pair mechanism of magnetoreception. It is known that the circadian complex influences function of every organ and tissue, including modulation of both NF-kappaB- and glucocorticoids- dependent signaling pathways. Thus, MFs and solar cycles-dependent geomagnetic field fluctuations are capable of altering expression of genes related to function of NF-kappaB, hormones and other biological regulators. Notably, NF-kappaB, along with its significant role in immune response, also participates in differential regulation of influenza virus RNA synthesis. Presented data suggests that in the case of global application (example-geomagnetic field), MF-mediated regulation may have epidemiological and other consequences. PMID:20617011

  2. Men of African Descent and Carcinoma of the Prostate Consortium

    Cancer.gov

    The Men of African Descent and Carcinoma of the Prostate Consortium collaborates on epidemiologic studies to address the high burden of prostate cancer and to understand the causes of etiology and outcomes among men of African ancestry.

  3. The Genetic Structure and History of Africans and African Americans

    PubMed Central

    Tishkoff, Sarah A.; Reed, Floyd A.; Friedlaender, Françoise R.; Ehret, Christopher; Ranciaro, Alessia; Froment, Alain; Hirbo, Jibril B.; Awomoyi, Agnes A.; Bodo, Jean-Marie; Doumbo, Ogobara; Ibrahim, Muntaser; Juma, Abdalla T.; Kotze, Maritha J.; Lema, Godfrey; Moore, Jason H.; Mortensen, Holly; Nyambo, Thomas B.; Omar, Sabah A.; Powell, Kweli; Pretorius, Gideon S.; Smith, Michael W.; Thera, Mahamadou A.; Wambebe, Charles; Weber, James L.; Williams, Scott M.

    2010-01-01

    Africa is the source of all modern humans, but characterization of genetic variation and of relationships among populations across the continent has been enigmatic. We studied 121 African populations, four African American populations, and 60 non-African populations for patterns of variation at 1327 nuclear microsatellite and insertion/deletion markers. We identified 14 ancestral population clusters in Africa that correlate with self-described ethnicity and shared cultural and/or linguistic properties. We observed high levels of mixed ancestry in most populations, reflecting historical migration events across the continent. Our data also provide evidence for shared ancestry among geographically diverse hunter-gatherer populations (Khoesan speakers and Pygmies). The ancestry of African Americans is predominantly from Niger-Kordofanian (~71%), European (~13%), and other African (~8%) populations, although admixture levels varied considerably among individuals. This study helps tease apart the complex evolutionary history of Africans and African Americans, aiding both anthropological and genetic epidemiologic studies. PMID:19407144

  4. Negro, Black, Black African, African Caribbean, African American or what? Labelling African origin populations in the health arena in the 21st century.

    PubMed

    Agyemang, Charles; Bhopal, Raj; Bruijnzeels, Marc

    2005-12-01

    Broad terms such as Black, African, or Black African are entrenched in scientific writings although there is considerable diversity within African descent populations and such terms may be both offensive and inaccurate. This paper outlines the heterogeneity within African populations, and discusses the strengths and limitations of the term Black and related labels from epidemiological and public health perspectives in Europe and the USA. This paper calls for debate on appropriate terminologies for African descent populations and concludes with the proposals that (1) describing the population under consideration is of paramount importance (2) the word African origin or simply African is an appropriate and necessary prefix for an ethnic label, for example, African Caribbean or African Kenyan or African Surinamese (3) documents should define the ethnic labels (4) the label Black should be phased out except when used in political contexts. PMID:16286485

  5. A reassessment of the epidemiology of Rice yellow mottle virus following recent advances in field and molecular studies.

    PubMed

    Traoré, O; Pinel-Galzi, A; Sorho, F; Sarra, S; Rakotomalala, M; Sangu, E; Kanyeka, Z; Séré, Y; Konaté, G; Fargette, D

    2009-05-01

    The available knowledge on the epidemiology of Rice yellow mottle virus (RYMV) is reassessed in the light of major advances in field and molecular studies of the disease it causes in rice. Previously un-described means of transmission by mammals and through leaf contact have been discovered recently. Several agricultural practices, including the use of seedbed nurseries, have also contributed to a massive build-up of RYMV inoculum. Phytosanitation is now known to be critical to reduce disease incidence in rice. A new model of the ecology of RYMV in which man plays a central role has emerged. Furthermore, estimates of the evolutionary rate of change of RYMV provided a time-frame for its epidemiology, the first attempt for a plant virus. Earlier interpretations of the patterns of virus diversity which assumed a long-term evolution, and assigned a major role to adaptive events had to be discarded. In contrast, a wave-like model of dispersal of RYMV, which postulates its initial diversification in East Africa, followed by westward spread across the continent, was developed, refined and dated. The most salient -- and largely unexpected -- finding is that RYMV emerged recently and subsequently spread rapidly throughout Africa in the last two centuries. Diversification and spread of RYMV has been concomitant with an extension of rice cultivation in Africa since the 19th century. This major agro-ecological change increased the encounters between primary hosts of RYMV and cultivated rice. It also modified the landscape ecology in ways that facilitated virus spread. PMID:19195488

  6. Field Epidemiology and Laboratory Training Programs in sub-Saharan Africa from 2004 to 2010: need, the process, and prospects.

    PubMed

    Nsubuga, Peter; Johnson, Kenneth; Tetteh, Christopher; Oundo, Joseph; Weathers, Andrew; Vaughan, James; Elbon, Suzanne; Tshimanga, Mufuta; Ndugulile, Faustine; Ohuabunwo, Chima; Evering-Watley, Michele; Mosha, Fausta; Oleribe, Obinna; Nguku, Patrick; Davis, Lora; Preacely, Nykiconia; Luce, Richard; Antara, Simon; Imara, Hiari; Ndjakani, Yassa; Doyle, Timothy; Espinosa, Yescenia; Kazambu, Ditu; Delissaint, Dieula; Ngulefac, John; Njenga, Kariuki

    2011-01-01

    As of 2010 sub-Saharan Africa had approximately 865 million inhabitants living with numerous public health challenges. Several public health initiatives [e.g., the United States (US) President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief and the US President's Malaria Initiative] have been very successful at reducing mortality from priority diseases. A competently trained public health workforce that can operate multi-disease surveillance and response systems is necessary to build upon and sustain these successes and to address other public health problems. Sub-Saharan Africa appears to have weathered the recent global economic downturn remarkably well and its increasing middle class may soon demand stronger public health systems to protect communities. The Epidemic Intelligence Service (EIS) program of the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has been the backbone of public health surveillance and response in the US during its 60 years of existence. EIS has been adapted internationally to create the Field Epidemiology Training Program (FETP) in several countries. In the 1990s CDC and the Rockefeller Foundation collaborated with the Uganda and Zimbabwe ministries of health and local universities to create 2-year Public Health Schools Without Walls (PHSWOWs) which were based on the FETP model. In 2004 the FETP model was further adapted to create the Field Epidemiology and Laboratory Training Program (FELTP) in Kenya to conduct joint competency-based training for field epidemiologists and public health laboratory scientists providing a master's degree to participants upon completion. The FELTP model has been implemented in several additional countries in sub-Saharan Africa. By the end of 2010 these 10 FELTPs and two PHSWOWs covered 613 million of the 865 million people in sub-Saharan Africa and had enrolled 743 public health professionals. We describe the process that we used to develop 10 FELTPs covering 15 countries in sub-Saharan Africa from 2004 to 2010 as a

  7. Epidemiological studies on onchocerciasis by means of a new field technique*

    PubMed Central

    Scheiber, P.; Braun-Munzinger, R. A.; Southgate, B. A.; Agbo, K. N.

    1976-01-01

    A new membrane filter concentration technique for the detection and quantification of Onchocerca volvulus microfilariae in skin snips was compared for sensitivity and efficiency with a widely used “standard” technique. A field study was carried out in five villages in an onchocerciasis focus north-east of the town of Sokodé, Mô river valley, Togo. Use of the new technique resulted in a substantial rise in the observed prevalence and density of microfilariae. PMID:1086740

  8. Malnutrition in a Modernising Economy: The Changing Aetiology and Epidemiology of Malnutrition in an African Kingdom, Buganda c.1940–73

    PubMed Central

    Nott, John

    2016-01-01

    The ecological fecundity of the northern shore of Lake Victoria was vital to Buganda’s dominance of the interlacustrine region during the pre-colonial period. Despite this, protein-energy malnutrition was notoriously common throughout the twentieth century. This paper charts changes in nutritional illness in a relatively wealthy, food-secure area of Africa during a time of vast social, economic and medical change. In Buganda at least, it appears that both the causation and epidemiology of malnutrition moved away from the endemic societal causes described by early colonial doctors and became instead more defined by individual position within a rapidly modernising economy. PMID:26971598

  9. Malnutrition in a Modernising Economy: The Changing Aetiology and Epidemiology of Malnutrition in an African Kingdom, Buganda c.1940-73.

    PubMed

    Nott, John

    2016-04-01

    The ecological fecundity of the northern shore of Lake Victoria was vital to Buganda's dominance of the interlacustrine region during the pre-colonial period. Despite this, protein-energy malnutrition was notoriously common throughout the twentieth century. This paper charts changes in nutritional illness in a relatively wealthy, food-secure area of Africa during a time of vast social, economic and medical change. In Buganda at least, it appears that both the causation and epidemiology of malnutrition moved away from the endemic societal causes described by early colonial doctors and became instead more defined by individual position within a rapidly modernising economy. PMID:26971598

  10. The Frequency of “Brilliant” and “Genius” in Teaching Evaluations Predicts the Representation of Women and African Americans across Fields

    PubMed Central

    Storage, Daniel; Horne, Zachary; Cimpian, Andrei; Leslie, Sarah-Jane

    2016-01-01

    Women and African Americans—groups targeted by negative stereotypes about their intellectual abilities—may be underrepresented in careers that prize brilliance and genius. A recent nationwide survey of academics provided initial support for this possibility. Fields whose practitioners believed that natural talent is crucial for success had fewer female and African American PhDs. The present study seeks to replicate this initial finding with a different, and arguably more naturalistic, measure of the extent to which brilliance and genius are prized within a field. Specifically, we measured field-by-field variability in the emphasis on these intellectual qualities by tallying—with the use of a recently released online tool—the frequency of the words “brilliant” and “genius” in over 14 million reviews on RateMyProfessors.com, a popular website where students can write anonymous evaluations of their instructors. This simple word count predicted both women’s and African Americans’ representation across the academic spectrum. That is, we found that fields in which the words “brilliant” and “genius” were used more frequently on RateMyProfessors.com also had fewer female and African American PhDs. Looking at an earlier stage in students’ educational careers, we found that brilliance-focused fields also had fewer women and African Americans obtaining bachelor’s degrees. These relationships held even when accounting for field-specific averages on standardized mathematics assessments, as well as several competing hypotheses concerning group differences in representation. The fact that this naturalistic measure of a field’s focus on brilliance predicted the magnitude of its gender and race gaps speaks to the tight link between ability beliefs and diversity. PMID:26938242

  11. Epidemiological investigation of Salmonella tilene by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and polymerase chain reaction

    PubMed Central

    Anand, Chandar M; Fonseca, Kevin; Longmore, Ken; Rennie, Robert; Chui, Linda; Lingley, Mike; Woodward, David

    1997-01-01

    Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and DNA fingerprinting by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) were performed on 11 isolates of Salmonella tilene. Five strains were from a cluster of human patients, six from sugar gliders and pygmy hedgehogs kept as family pets or from local pet retailers, and one isolate from the first North American case of S tilene described in Washington State in 1994. The PFGE restriction patterns showed all isolates to be similar. However, PCR using primers to the 16S and 23S rRNA genes of Escherichia coli demonstrated that the Washington State isolate differed from the rest of the other isolates, which were all similar based upon their DNA fingerprint. This study indicates that reliance on one technique alone may be insufficient to show nuances between strains that are, in many respects, closely related. PMID:22346526

  12. Epidemiologic study of Taylorella equigenitalis strains by field inversion gel electrophoresis of genomic restriction endonuclease fragments.

    PubMed

    Bleumink-Pluym, N; ter Laak, E A; van der Zeijst, B A

    1990-09-01

    Contagious equine metritis (CEM), a sexually transmitted bacterial disease, was first described in thoroughbred horses. It also occurs in nonthoroughbred horses, in which it produces isolated, apparently unrelated outbreaks. Thirty-two strains of Taylorella equigenitalis, the causative agent of CEM, from all over the world were characterized by field inversion gel electrophoresis of fragments of genomic DNA obtained by digestion with low-cleavage-frequency restriction enzymes. This resulted in a division into five clearly distinct groups. Strains from thoroughbred horses from all continents belonged to one group. Strains from nonthoroughbred horses from various countries were different from strains from thoroughbred horses; four groups could be determined. Two groups contained both streptomycin-resistant and streptomycin-susceptible strains. The data indicate that CEM in nonthoroughbreds did not originate from the thoroughbred population; also, the reverse was not demonstrated. Thus, extensive international transportation directives regarding the testing of nonthoroughbred horses for CEM may need reconsideration. PMID:2172296

  13. Intercomparison of passive radon-detectors under field conditions in epidemiological studies

    SciTech Connect

    Kreienbrock, L. ); Poffijn, A. ); Tirmarche, M. ); Feider, M. ); Kies, A. ); Darby, S.C. )

    1999-05-01

    The Ardennes and Eifel region is a geologically distinct area covering parts of Germany, Belgium, France, and Luxembourg where enhanced concentrations of radon occur in some houses and other buildings. An international case-control study is being conducted to examine the role of radon in the etiology of lung cancer in this area. The radon detectors used are issued by different laboratories involving a variety of detector types and processes. A series of intercomparisons in houses was therefore conducted under similar conditions of exposure in the field. In most situations the different detectors gave similar results. Nevertheless, in some situations open and closed detectors yielded different results. Therefore, estimates of radon exposure have to be adjusted if results are to be pooled.

  14. Beyond epidemiology: field studies and the physiology laboratory as the whole world.

    PubMed

    Nose, Hiroshi; Morikawa, Mayuko; Yamazaki, Toshiaki; Nemoto, Ken-Ichi; Okazaki, Kazunobu; Masuki, Shizue; Kamijo, Yoshi-Ichiro; Gen-No, Hirokazu

    2009-12-01

    There is no exercise training regimen broadly available in the field to increase physical fitness and prevent lifestyle-related diseases in middle-aged and older people. We have developed interval walking training (IWT) repeating five or more sets of 3 min fast walking at 70% peak aerobic capacity for walking (w ) per day with intervening 3 min slow walking at 40% w , for 4 days week(1), for 5 months. Moreover, to determine w in individuals and also to measure their energy expenditure even while incline walking, we have developed a portable calorimeter. Further, to instruct subjects on IWT even if they live remotely from the trainers, we have developed e-Health Promotion System. This transfers individual energy expenditure during IWT stored on the meter to a central server through the internet; it sends back the achievement to individuals along with advice generated automatically by the sever according to a database on 4000 subjects. Where we found that 5 months of IWT increased physical fitness and improved the indices of lifestyle-related diseases by 10-20% on average. Since our system is run at low cost with fewer staff for more subjects, it enables us to develop exercise prescriptions appropriate for individuals. PMID:19752116

  15. An African-American Bibliography: Science, Medicine, and Allied Fields. Selected Resources from the Collections of the New York State Library.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strasser, Theresa C., Comp.

    The second in a series of African-American bibliographies, this bibliography was issued in honor of both Black History Month and Inventors Day in February 1991. It focuses on the contributions of black Americans in the areas of science, technology, medicine, and allied fields such as dentistry and nursing. The materials cited emphasize the…

  16. Mobilizing a low-income African-American community around tobacco control: a force field analysis.

    PubMed

    Ellis, G A; Reed, D F; Scheider, H

    1995-11-01

    A statewide tobacco control campaign in California has been highly successful in reducing public exposure to the health hazards of secondhand smoke. Over 250 cities and counties in California have enacted local ordinances to regulate smoking in public places and workplaces. Although low-income people of color are disproportionately affected by the use of tobacco, the issue of regulating secondhand smoke tends to be a lower priority in communities that are confronted by other, more immediately pressing social justice issues, such as high rates of violence and lack of economic opportunity. This article describes the process undertaken by a county health department to mobilize a low-income African American community in a San Francisco Bay Area city to support a local ordinance mandating 100% smoke-free workplaces and restaurants. These efforts are more likely to succeed if health advocates (1) reframe issues in a context that acknowledges the political, economic, and social justice realities and strengths of the community; (2) organize within existing local networks and foster the integration of tobacco issues into the group's existing work; and (3) can defer their own agendas during times of community grieving and healing. PMID:8550369

  17. The Days and Nights of Zoo Elephants: Using Epidemiology to Better Understand Stereotypic Behavior of African Elephants (Loxodonta africana) and Asian Elephants (Elephas maximus) in North American Zoos

    PubMed Central

    Greco, Brian J.; Meehan, Cheryl L.; Hogan, Jen N.; Leighty, Katherine A.; Mellen, Jill; Mason, Georgia J.; Mench, Joy A.

    2016-01-01

    Stereotypic behavior is an important indicator of compromised welfare. Zoo elephants are documented to perform stereotypic behavior, but the factors that contribute to performance have not been systematically assessed. We collected behavioral data on 89 elephants (47 African [Loxodonta africana], 42 Asian [Elephas maximus]) at 39 North American zoos during the summer and winter. Elephants were videoed for a median of 12 daytime hours per season. A subset of 32 elephants (19 African, 13 Asian) was also observed live for a median of 10.5 nighttime hours. Percentages of visible behavior scans were calculated from five minute instantaneous samples. Stereotypic behavior was the second most commonly performed behavior (after feeding), making up 15.5% of observations during the daytime and 24.8% at nighttime. Negative binomial regression models fitted with generalized estimating equations were used to determine which social, housing, management, life history, and demographic variables were associated with daytime and nighttime stereotypic behavior rates. Species was a significant risk factor in both models, with Asian elephants at greater risk (daytime: p<0.001, Risk Ratio = 4.087; nighttime: p<0.001, Risk Ratio = 8.015). For both species, spending time housed separately (p<0.001, Risk Ratio = 1.009), and having experienced inter-zoo transfers (p<0.001, Risk Ratio = 1.175), increased the risk of performing higher rates of stereotypy during the day, while spending more time with juvenile elephants (p<0.001, Risk Ratio = 0.985), and engaging with zoo staff reduced this risk (p = 0.018, Risk Ratio = 0.988). At night, spending more time in environments with both indoor and outdoor areas (p = 0.013, Risk Ratio = 0.987) and in larger social groups (p = 0.039, Risk Ratio = 0.752) corresponded with reduced risk of performing higher rates of stereotypy, while having experienced inter-zoo transfers (p = 0.033, Risk Ratio = 1.115) increased this risk. Overall, our results indicate

  18. The Days and Nights of Zoo Elephants: Using Epidemiology to Better Understand Stereotypic Behavior of African Elephants (Loxodonta africana) and Asian Elephants (Elephas maximus) in North American Zoos.

    PubMed

    Greco, Brian J; Meehan, Cheryl L; Hogan, Jen N; Leighty, Katherine A; Mellen, Jill; Mason, Georgia J; Mench, Joy A

    2016-01-01

    Stereotypic behavior is an important indicator of compromised welfare. Zoo elephants are documented to perform stereotypic behavior, but the factors that contribute to performance have not been systematically assessed. We collected behavioral data on 89 elephants (47 African [Loxodonta africana], 42 Asian [Elephas maximus]) at 39 North American zoos during the summer and winter. Elephants were videoed for a median of 12 daytime hours per season. A subset of 32 elephants (19 African, 13 Asian) was also observed live for a median of 10.5 nighttime hours. Percentages of visible behavior scans were calculated from five minute instantaneous samples. Stereotypic behavior was the second most commonly performed behavior (after feeding), making up 15.5% of observations during the daytime and 24.8% at nighttime. Negative binomial regression models fitted with generalized estimating equations were used to determine which social, housing, management, life history, and demographic variables were associated with daytime and nighttime stereotypic behavior rates. Species was a significant risk factor in both models, with Asian elephants at greater risk (daytime: p<0.001, Risk Ratio = 4.087; nighttime: p<0.001, Risk Ratio = 8.015). For both species, spending time housed separately (p<0.001, Risk Ratio = 1.009), and having experienced inter-zoo transfers (p<0.001, Risk Ratio = 1.175), increased the risk of performing higher rates of stereotypy during the day, while spending more time with juvenile elephants (p<0.001, Risk Ratio = 0.985), and engaging with zoo staff reduced this risk (p = 0.018, Risk Ratio = 0.988). At night, spending more time in environments with both indoor and outdoor areas (p = 0.013, Risk Ratio = 0.987) and in larger social groups (p = 0.039, Risk Ratio = 0.752) corresponded with reduced risk of performing higher rates of stereotypy, while having experienced inter-zoo transfers (p = 0.033, Risk Ratio = 1.115) increased this risk. Overall, our results indicate

  19. Near-field monitoring of seismic source behavior at South African deep gold mines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogasawara, H.; Nakatani, M.; Iio, Y.; Ishii, H.; Yamada, T.; Naoi, M.; Yasutake, G.; Kawakata, H.; Yamamoto, A.; Yamauchi, T.; Nakao, S.; Yabe, Y.; Otsuki, K.; Satoh, T.; Kato, A.; Shinya, Y.; Nagata, K.; Kuwano, O.; Igarashi, T.; Miyake, H.; Ide, S.; van Aswegen, G.; Mendecki, A.; Ward, T.; SeeSA Research Group

    2007-12-01

    We introduce our SeeSA projects, as important as dense array monitoring According to a mining plan and a geological map detailing locations of faults or weakness, we can anticipate potential M > 2 seismic sources at depths of 2.0 - 3.6 km at South African gold mines. At such potential sources, we have installed instruments prior to an onset of irreversible process to monitor earthquake generation process. From the previous projects for periods of from a year to a few years, the possible widest dynamic range and resolution have revealed the finest detail of the process since 1995 in cooperation with ISS International Ltd and South African gold mines (Mponeng, Bambanani, Tau Tona, Buffelsfontein GM, and ERPM), Wits Univ., Geohydroseis CC., Seismogen CC., OHMS CC., GFZ, GMuG, CSIR. The talk summarizes examples of our successful monitoring and introduces some on-going projects. Highlighted are the following. Yamada et al. [05, 07] demonstrated that mine tremors have rupture process as complex as natural larger earthquakes and the scale dependency of rupture parameters is similar to that for natural larger earthquakes. We successfully recorded strain accumulations larger than 100 micro strain, followed by several hundreds of seismic events (-1 < M < 3; distance < ~ 250 m). The seismicity within about 100m from strainmeters caused frequent, seismic strain-steps; the largest recorded was greater than 100 micro strain by an M2.5 earthquake at a distance within ~100 m. One of the most important results were that no detectable accelerating precursors preceded strain-steps associated with several hundreds of the earthquakes (- 1 < M < 3) catalogued by mine's seismic networks (hereinafter Catalogued E/Q; Takeuchi 05), while significant post-seismic drifts followed some strain-steps by Catalogued E/Qs. Frequently observed were episodic strain changes with durations of much slower than strain-steps associated with the Catalogued E/Qs [Naoi et al. 06]. Striking were some examples

  20. Meta-analysis of extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields and cancer risk: a pooled analysis of epidemiologic studies.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yemao; Lai, Jinsheng; Ruan, Guoran; Chen, Chen; Wang, Dao Wen

    2016-03-01

    Studies have suggested that extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF-EMF) may affect physiological functions in animal models. However, epidemiologic studies investigating the association of ELF-EMF with the susceptibility to cancer yield contradictory results. In this comprehensive analysis, we conducted a search for case-control surveys regarding the associations of ELF-EMF and cancer susceptibility in electronic databases. A total of 42 studies involving 13,259 cases and 100,882 controls were retrieved. Overall, increased susceptibility to cancer was identified in the ELF-EMF exposed population (OR=1.08, 95% CI: 1.01, 1.15, P=0.02). In the stratified analyses, increased risk was found in North America (OR=1.10; 95% CI: 1.02, 1.20, P=0.02), especially the United States (OR=1.10; 95% CI: 1.01, 1.20, P=0.03). However, studies from Europe contradict these results. Moreover, a higher risk was found to be statistically significantly associated with the residential exposed population (OR=1.18; 95% CI: 1.02, 1.37, P=0.03). Furthermore, an increased cancer risk was found in interview-based surveys (OR=1.16; 95% CI: 1.00, 1.35, P=0.04). In device measurement-based studies, a slight increased risk was found only in premenopausal breast cancer (OR=1.23; 95% CI: 1.01, 1.49, P=0.04). Our meta-analysis suggests that ELF-EMFs are associated with cancer risk, mainly in the United States and in residential exposed populations. Methodological challenges might explain the differences among studies. PMID:26703095

  1. Epidemiologic analysis of sporadic Salmonella typhi isolates and those from outbreaks by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis.

    PubMed Central

    Thong, K L; Cheong, Y M; Puthucheary, S; Koh, C L; Pang, T

    1994-01-01

    Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) was used to compare and analyze 158 isolates of Salmonella typhi from five well-defined outbreaks of typhoid fever in Malaysia and also isolates involved in sporadic cases of typhoid fever occurring during the same period. Digestion of chromosomal DNAs from these S. typhi isolates with the restriction endonucleases XbaI (5'-TCTAGA-3'), SpeI (5'-ACTAGT-3'), and AvrII (5'-CCTAGG-3') and then PFGE produced restriction endonuclease analysis (REA) patterns consisting of 11 to 24 DNA fragments ranging in size from 20 to 630 kbp. Analysis of the REA patterns generated by PFGE after digestion with XbaI and SpeI indicated that the S. typhi isolates obtained from sporadic cases of infection were much more heterogeneous (at least 13 different REA patterns were detected; Dice coefficient, between 0.73 and 1.0) than those obtained during outbreaks of typhoid fever. The clonal nature and the close genetic identities of isolates from outbreaks in Alor Setar, Penang, Kota Kinabalu, Johor Bahru, and Kota Bahru were suggested by the fact that only a limited number of REA patterns, which mostly differed by only a single band, were detected (one to four patterns; Dice coefficient, between 0.82 and 1.0), although a different pattern was associated with each of these outbreaks. Comparison of REA patterns with ribotyping for 18 S. typhi isolates involved in sporadic cases of infection showed a good correlation, in that 72% of the isolates were in the same group. There was no clear correlation of phage types with a specific REA pattern. We conclude that PFGE of s. typhi chromosomal DNA digested with infrequently cutting restriction endonucleases is a useful method for comparing and differentiating S. typhi isolates for epidemiological purposes. Images PMID:7914202

  2. Evidence for the emergence of new rice types of interspecific hybrid origin in West African farmers' fields.

    PubMed

    Nuijten, Edwin; van Treuren, Robbert; Struik, Paul C; Mokuwa, Alfred; Okry, Florent; Teeken, Béla; Richards, Paul

    2009-01-01

    In West Africa two rice species (Oryza glaberrima Steud. and Oryza sativa L.) co-exist. Although originally it was thought that interspecific hybridization is impossible without biotechnological methods, progenies of hybridization appear to occur in farmer fields. AFLP analysis was used to assess genetic diversity in West Africa (including the countries The Gambia, Senegal, Guinea Bissau, Guinea Conakry, Sierra Leone, Ghana and Togo) using 315 rice samples morphologically classified prior to analysis. We show evidence for farmer interspecific hybrids of African and Asian rice, resulting in a group of novel genotypes, and identify possible mechanisms for in-field hybridization. Spontaneous back-crossing events play a crucial role, resulting in different groups of genetic diversity in different regions developed by natural and cultural selection, often under adverse conditions. These new groups of genotypes may have potential relevance for exploitation by plant breeders. Future advances in crop development could be achieved through co-operation between scientists and marginalized farmer groups in order to address challenges of rapid adaptation in a world of increasing socio-political and climatic uncertainty. PMID:19806197

  3. Field Studies Show That In Situ Greenhouse Gas Emission Factors for East African Agriculture Are Less Than IPCC Values

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pelster, D.; Butterbach-Bahl, K.; Rufino, M.; Rosenstock, T. S.; Wanyama, G.

    2015-12-01

    Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from African agricultural systems are thought to comprise a large portion of total emissions from the continent, however these estimates have been calculated using emission factors (EF) from other regions due to the lack of field studies in Africa, which results in large uncertainties for these estimates. Field measurements from western Kenya calculating emissions over a year in 59 different sites found that GHG emissions from typical smallholder farms ranged from 2.8 to 15.0 Mg CO2-C ha-1, -6.0 to 2.4 kg CH4-C ha-1 and -0.1 to 1.8 kg N2O-N ha-1, and were not affected by management intensity. The lack of a response in N2O emissions to N fertilization suggests that the EF currently used in national inventories overestimates N2O emissions from typical smallholder agriculture. Another study measuring N2O and CH4 emissions from manure deposited by grazing cattle found that the N2O EF ranged from 0.1 to 0.2%, while the CH4 EF ranged from 0.04 to 0.14 Kg CH4-C per 173 kg animal. These suggest that the current IPCC EF overestimate agricultural soil and manure GHG emissions for Kenya, and likely for much of East Africa.

  4. Recreational and occupational field exposure to freshwater cyanobacteria – a review of anecdotal and case reports, epidemiological studies and the challenges for epidemiologic assessment

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Ian; Webb, Penelope M; Schluter, Philip J; Shaw, Glen R

    2006-01-01

    Cyanobacteria are common inhabitants of freshwater lakes and reservoirs throughout the world. Under favourable conditions, certain cyanobacteria can dominate the phytoplankton within a waterbody and form nuisance blooms. Case reports and anecdotal references dating from 1949 describe a range of illnesses associated with recreational exposure to cyanobacteria: hay fever-like symptoms, pruritic skin rashes and gastro-intestinal symptoms are most frequently reported. Some papers give convincing descriptions of allergic reactions while others describe more serious acute illnesses, with symptoms such as severe headache, pneumonia, fever, myalgia, vertigo and blistering in the mouth. A coroner in the United States found that a teenage boy died as a result of accidentally ingesting a neurotoxic cyanotoxin from a golf course pond. This death is the first recorded human fatality attributed to recreational exposure to cyanobacteria, although uncertainties surround the forensic identification of the suspected cyanotoxin in this case. We systematically reviewed the literature on recreational exposure to freshwater cyanobacteria. Epidemiological data are limited, with six studies conducted since 1990. Statistically significant increases in symptoms were reported in individuals exposed to cyanobacteria compared to unexposed counterparts in two Australian cohort studies, though minor morbidity appeared to be the main finding. The four other small studies (three from the UK, one Australian) did not report any significant association. However, the potential for serious injury or death remains, as freshwater cyanobacteria under bloom conditions are capable of producing potent toxins that cause specific and severe dysfunction to hepatic or central nervous systems. The exposure route for these toxins is oral, from ingestion of recreational water, and possibly by inhalation. A range of freshwater microbial agents may cause acute conditions that present with features that resemble

  5. [Epidemiological research in Brazil].

    PubMed

    Guimarães, R; Lourenço-De-Oliveira, R; Cosac, S

    2001-08-01

    The current epidemiological research in Brazil is described. Secondary data sources were consulted, such as the year 2000 database of the Brazilian Directory of Research Groups and the National Board of Scientific and Technological Development (CNPq). The criterion to identify a group as a research one relies on the existence of at least one research line in the field of epidemiology, as defined by the group leader. After identifying the defined universe of epidemiological research, which included 176 groups and 320 different research lines, the following issues were presented and discussed: the relationships between research financing and health research, focusing on CAPES (Coordination Center for the Advance of University Professionals) graduation programs, public health research and epidemiological research, geographic and institutional distribution and outreach of the current epidemiological research, the researchers and students directly participating in epidemiological research, research topics and patterns of disseminating research findings; the journals where papers in its fullness were published; the financial support of the epidemiological research focusing on the 23 officially recognized graduate programs in public health field. PMID:11600921

  6. Measuring the economic impact of climate change on major South African field crops: a Ricardian approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gbetibouo, G. A.; Hassan, R. M.

    2005-07-01

    This study employed a Ricardian model to measure the impact of climate change on South Africa's field crops and analysed potential future impacts of further changes in the climate. A regression of farm net revenue on climate, soil and other socio-economic variables was conducted to capture farmer-adapted responses to climate variations. The analysis was based on agricultural data for seven field crops (maize, wheat, sorghum, sugarcane, groundnut, sunflower and soybean), climate and edaphic data across 300 districts in South Africa. Results indicate that production of field crops was sensitive to marginal changes in temperature as compared to changes in precipitation. Temperature rise positively affects net revenue whereas the effect of reduction in rainfall is negative. The study also highlights the importance of season and location in dealing with climate change showing that the spatial distribution of climate change impact and consequently needed adaptations will not be uniform across the different agro-ecological regions of South Africa. Results of simulations of climate change scenarios indicate many impacts that would induce (or require) very distinct shifts in farming practices and patterns in different regions. Those include major shifts in crop calendars and growing seasons, switching between crops to the possibility of complete disappearance of some field crops from some region.

  7. Comparative Analysis of Infrequent-Restriction-Site PCR and Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis for Epidemiological Typing of Legionella pneumophila Serogroup 1 Strains

    PubMed Central

    Riffard, Serge; Presti, François Lo; Vandenesch, François; Forey, Françoise; Reyrolle, Monique; Etienne, Jerome

    1998-01-01

    Two methods were compared for the analysis of 48 unrelated and epidemiologically related Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 isolates. These are the infrequent-restriction-site PCR (IRS-PCR) assay with adapters designed for XbaI and PstI restriction sites and the pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) analysis determined after DNA restriction with SfiI. Both methods demonstrated a high level of discrimination with a similar capacity for differentiating 23 of the 24 unrelated isolates. PFGE analysis and IRS-PCR assay were both able to identify epidemiologically related isolates of L. pneumophila from three outbreaks. Hence, IRS-PCR assay appears to be a reproducible (intergel reproducibility, 100%) and discriminative (discriminatory index, ≥0.996) tool for typing of Legionella. Compared to PFGE, however, IRS-PCR presented an advantage through ease of performance and with attributes of rapidity and sensitivity of target DNA. PMID:9431941

  8. Molecular epidemiology of Salmonella spp. isolates from gulls, fish-meal factories, feed factories, animals and humans in Norway based on pulsed-field gel electrophoresis.

    PubMed Central

    Nesse, L. L.; Refsum, T.; Heir, E.; Nordby, K.; Vardund, T.; Holstad, G.

    2005-01-01

    The molecular epidemiology of 98 isolates of Salmonella serovar Agona (n = 27), S. Montevideo (n = 42) and S. Senftenberg (n = 29) from wild-living gulls, fish-meal factories, feed factories, humans and domestic animals was investigated using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and computerized numerical analysis. Two of the S. Agona profiles were identified both in gulls and in two of the factories. In addition, one of these profiles was detected in two infected poultry farms. Two of the S. Montevideo profiles were also identified both in gulls and in two of the factories, and one of these profiles was observed in a human isolate. Four factories shared an identical S. Senftenberg profile. The S. Senftenberg profile found in gulls was not identified in any other source investigated. The presence of isolates with identical PFGE profiles indicates potential epidemiological links between different factories, as well as between gulls and factories. PMID:15724711

  9. [Epidemiology and heterogeny].

    PubMed

    Breilh, J; Granda, E

    1989-01-01

    The innovation of epidemiology plays a crucial role in the development of the health sciences. The authors emphasize the importance of epistemological analysis related to scientific and technical production. They focus on the theoretical and methodological contributions of the principal Latin American groups in the field of epidemiology, stating their main accomplishments, issues and potentials. When reviewing those conceptual and practical innovations, the authors analyse the effects of broader historical conditions on scientific work. To them, Latin American contemporary innovative epidemiological research and production have developed clearly differentiated principles, methods and technical projections which have led to a movement of critical or 'social' epidemiology. The functionalist approach of conventional epidemiology, characterized by an empiricist viewpoint, is being overcome by a more rigorous and analytical approach. This new epidemiological approach, in which the authors as members of CEAS (Health Research and Advisory Center) are working, has selectively incorporated some of the technical instruments of conventional epidemiology, subordinating them to a different theoretical and logical paradigm. The new framework of this group explains the need to consider the people's objective situation and necessities, when constructing scientific interpretations and planning technical action. In order to accomplish this goal, epidemiological reasoning has to reflect the unity of external epidemiological facts and associations, the so-called phenomenological aspect of health, with the underlying determinants and conditioning processes or internal relations, which are the essence of the health-disease production and distribution process. Epidemiological analysis is considered not only as a problem of empirical observation but as a process of theoretical construction, in which there is a dynamic fusion of deductive and inductive reasoning.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250

  10. [African silhouettes and field photography. M. Griaule's contribution to the Maussian "discovery" of body techniques].

    PubMed

    Despoix, Philippe

    2010-01-01

    This essay focuses on the interaction between the new reproduction media and corresponding reconfiguration of research fields in anthropology using the case of the "techniques of the body" - a concept developed by Marcel Mauss (1872-1950). For Mauss, the initiator of this discipline in France, body skills constituted the most important anthropological entity resulting from the confrontation of technical images and his interest in walking techniques. Three scenarios are especially significant for Mauss's formulation of "body techniques" as a genuine concept: the front during the World War I, a New Yorke hospital in 1926, and an ethnographical field study conducted in Africa during the ate 1920s. Both, the photographic media as well as the Abyssinian expedition of his student Marcel Griaule, whose research publication Mauss co-authored (Silhouettes et graffiti abyssins) n 1933, take centre stage here. PMID:21249525

  11. Geology of oil fields and future exploration potential in west African Aptian Salt basin

    SciTech Connect

    Bignell, R.D.; Edwards, A.D.

    1987-05-01

    The Aptian Salt basin of west Africa, extends from Equatorial Guinea southward to Angola, contains recoverable reserves estimated at nearly 4 billion BOE, and is current producing 600,000 BOPD. The basin developed as a result of tensional forces between west Africa and South America initiated at the end of the Jurassic. The prospective sedimentary sequences ranged in age from Early Cretaceous (uppermost Jurassic in places) to Holocene and is divided by the Aptian transgressive sand and salt into a pre-salt, nonmarine, syn-rift sequence and a post-salt, marine, post-rift sequence. Both the pre- and post-salt sequences contain several successful exploration plays, the most prolific of which are the Early Cretaceous nonmarine sandstone fields in tilted fault blocks of Gabon and Cabinda; Early Cretaceous carbonate buildups on the margins of basement highs in Cabinda; Early Cretaceous transgressive marine sandstone fields in anticlines draped over basement highs in Gabon; Late Cretaceous shallow marine sandstone and carbonate fields in salt-related structures in the Congo, Zaire, Cabinda, and Angola; Late Cretaceous dolomites in structural/stratigraphic traps in Angola; Late Cretaceous/early Tertiary deltaic/estuarine sandstone traps formed by salt movement in Gabon, Cabinda, and angola; and Tertiary marine turbidite fields in Cabinda and Angola. Despite the exploration success in these trends, much of the basin is under or poorly explored. The major problems for exploration are the poor quality of seismic definition beneath the salt, which makes it difficult to predict pre-salt structure and stratigraphy, and the importance of a stratigraphic element in many of the post-salt traps, also difficult to detect on seismic.

  12. Lethal effects of experimental warming approximating a future climate scenario on southern African quartz-field succulents: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Musil, Charles F; Schmiedel, Ute; Midgley, Guy F

    2005-02-01

    Here we examine the response of succulents in a global biodiversity hot spot to experimental warming consistent with a future African climate scenario. Passive daytime warming (averaging 5.5 degrees C above ambient) of the natural vegetation was achieved with 18 transparent hexagonal open-top chamber arrays randomized in three different quartz-field communities. After 4-months summer treatment, the specialized-dwarf and shrubby succulents displayed between 2.1 and 4.9 times greater plant and canopy mortalities in the open-top chambers than in the control plots. Those surviving in cooler ventilated areas and shaded refuges in the chambers had lower starch concentrations and water contents; the shrubby succulents also exhibited diminished chlorophyll concentrations. It is concluded that current thermal regimes are likely to be closely proximate to tolerable extremes for many endemic succulents in the region, and that anthropogenic warming could significantly exceed their thermal thresholds. Further investigation is required to elucidate the importance of associated moisture deficits in these warming experiments, a potential consequence of supplementary (fog and dew) precipitation interception by open-top chambers and higher evaporation therein, on plant mortalities. PMID:15720664

  13. Building a gateway to promote cardiovascular health research in African-American communities: lessons and findings from the field.

    PubMed

    Becker, D M; Tuggle, M B; Prentice, M F

    2001-11-01

    African American communities traditionally mistrust academic research. This forms a significant barrier to understanding cardiovascular risk factors in this population, which bears an excess risk of cardiovascular disease and stroke. A clergy/academic partnership was established to build a gateway for salient research and for improving resources for reducing cardiovascular disease risk in the community. From this partnership emanated the African American Family Heart Study. People with a family history of premature coronary heart disease (CHD) have an increased risk for the disease--as high as 12 times that of the general population, if among siblings. Considerably less is known about the actual remediable risk factors in African American families with premature CHD. We initiated the Family Heart Study with a full characterization of 161 apparently healthy, unaffected 30- to 59-year-old African Americans whose siblings were 85 African American index cases with documented premature CHD prior to 60 years of age. We compared their risk factor values to population reference norms obtained in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III) and the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) for cigarette smoking. Only 13% of African American male siblings and 14% of female siblings from these families were without any major remediable risk factors. The fact that so many siblings were at extremely high risk calls into question the current applications by provider systems of national guidelines in high-risk African American families. This is an easily identifiable population that would be likely to benefit greatly from targeted screening and culturally sensitive and appropriate treatment. PMID:11721804

  14. Building a gateway to promote cardiovascular health research in African American communities: lessons and findings from the field.

    PubMed

    Becker, D M; Tuggle, M B; Prentice, M F

    2001-11-01

    African American communities traditionally mistrust academic research. This forms a significant barrier to understanding cardiovascular risk factors in this population, which bears an excess risk of cardiovascular disease and stroke. A clergy/academic partnership was established to build a gateway for salient research and for improving resources for reducing cardiovascular disease risk in the community. From this partnership emanated the African American Family Heart Study. People with a family history of premature coronary heart disease (CHD) have an increased risk for the disease--as high as 12 times that of the general population, if among siblings. Considerably less is known about the actual remediable risk factors in African American families with premature CHD. We initiated the Family Heart Study with a full characterization of 161 apparently healthy, unaffected 30- to 59-year-old African Americans whose siblings were 85 African American index cases with documented premature CHD prior to 60 years of age. We compared their risk factor values to population reference norms obtained in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III) and the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) for cigarette smoking. Only 13% of African American male siblings and 14% of female siblings from these families were without any major remediable risk factors. The fact that so many siblings were at extremely high risk calls into question the current applications by provider systems of national guidelines in high-risk African American families. This is an easily identifiable population that would be likely to benefit greatly from targeted screening and culturally sensitive and appropriate treatment. PMID:11876188

  15. Mitochondrial DNA and Cancer Epidemiology Workshop

    Cancer.gov

    A workshop to review the state-of-the science in the mitochondrial DNA field and its use in cancer epidemiology, and to develop a concept for a research initiative on mitochondrial DNA and cancer epidemiology.

  16. Quantifying the morphometric variability of monogenetic cones in volcanic fields: the Virunga Volcanic Province, East African Rift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poppe, Sam; Grosse, Pablo; Barette, Florian; Smets, Benoît; Albino, Fabien; Kervyn, François; Kervyn, Matthieu

    2016-04-01

    Volcanic cone fields are generally made up of tens to hundreds of monogenetic cones, sometimes related to larger polygenetic edifices, which can exhibit a wide range of morphologies and degrees of preservation. The Virunga Volcanic Province (VVP) developed itself in a transfer zone which separates two rift segments (i.e. Edward and Kivu rift) within the western branch of the East-African Rift. As the result of volcanic activity related to this tectonic regime of continental extension, the VVP hosts eight large polygenetic volcanoes, surrounded by over 500 monogenetic cones and eruptive fissures, scattered over the vast VVP lava flow fields. Some cones lack any obvious geo-structural link to a specific Virunga volcano. Using recent high-resolution satellite images (SPOT, Pléiades) and a newly created 5-m-resolution digital elevation model (TanDEM-X), we have mapped and classified all monogenetic cones and eruptive fissures of the VVP. We analysed the orientation of all mapped eruptive fissures and, using the MORVOLC program, we calculated a set of morphometric parameters to highlight systematic spatial variations in size or morphometric ratios of the cones. Based upon morphological indicators, we classified the satellite cones into 4 categories: 1. Simple cones with one closed-rim crater; 2. Breached cones with one open-rim crater; 3. Complex cones with two or more interconnected craters and overlapping cones; 4. Other edifices without a distinguishable crater or cone shape (e.g. spatter mounds and levees along eruptive fissures). The results show that cones are distributed in clusters and along alignments, in some cases parallel with the regional tectonic orientations. Contrasts in the volumes of cones positioned on the rift shoulders compared to those located on the rift valley floor can possibly be attributed to contrasts in continental crust thickness. Furthermore, higher average cone slopes in the East-VVP (Bufumbira zone) and central-VVP cone clusters suggest

  17. Differential Single Nucleotide Polymorphism-Based Analysis of an Outbreak Caused by Salmonella enterica Serovar Manhattan Reveals Epidemiological Details Missed by Standard Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis

    PubMed Central

    Scaltriti, Erika; Sassera, Davide; Comandatore, Francesco; Morganti, Marina; Mandalari, Carmen; Gaiarsa, Stefano; Bandi, Claudio; Zehender, Gianguglielmo; Bolzoni, Luca; Casadei, Gabriele

    2015-01-01

    We retrospectively analyzed a rare Salmonella enterica serovar Manhattan outbreak that occurred in Italy in 2009 to evaluate the potential of new genomic tools based on differential single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) analysis in comparison with the gold standard genotyping method, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. A total of 39 isolates were analyzed from patients (n = 15) and food, feed, animal, and environmental sources (n = 24), resulting in five different pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) profiles. Isolates epidemiologically related to the outbreak clustered within the same pulsotype, SXB_BS.0003, without any further differentiation. Thirty-three isolates were considered for genomic analysis based on different sets of SNPs, core, synonymous, nonsynonymous, as well as SNPs in different codon positions, by Bayesian and maximum likelihood algorithms. Trees generated from core and nonsynonymous SNPs, as well as SNPs at the second and first plus second codon positions detailed four distinct groups of isolates within the outbreak pulsotype, discriminating outbreak-related isolates of human and food origins. Conversely, the trees derived from synonymous and third-codon-position SNPs clustered food and human isolates together, indicating that all outbreak-related isolates constituted a single clone, which was in line with the epidemiological evidence. Further experiments are in place to extend this approach within our regional enteropathogen surveillance system. PMID:25653407

  18. The new epidemiology of nephrolithiasis.

    PubMed

    Shoag, Jonathan; Tasian, Greg E; Goldfarb, David S; Eisner, Brian H

    2015-07-01

    Historically nephrolithiasis was considered a disease of dehydration and abnormal urine composition. However, over the past several decades, much has been learned about the epidemiology of this disease and its relation to patient demographic characteristics and common systemic diseases. Here we review the latest epidemiologic studies in the field. PMID:26088071

  19. Endodontic Epidemiology

    PubMed Central

    Shahravan, Arash; Haghdoost, Ali Akbar

    2014-01-01

    Epidemiology is the study of disease distribution and factors determining or affecting it. Likewise, endodontic epidemiology can be defined as the science of studying the distribution pattern and determinants of pulp and periapical diseases; specially apical periodontitis. Although different study designs have been used in endodontics, researchers must pay more attention to study designs with higher level of evidence such as randomized clinical trials. PMID:24688577

  20. A new velocity field for Africa from combined GPS and DORIS space geodetic Solutions: Contribution to the definition of the African reference frame (AFREF)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saria, E.; Calais, E.; Altamimi, Z.; Willis, P.; Farah, H.

    2013-04-01

    We analyzed 16 years of GPS and 17 years of Doppler orbitography and radiopositioning integrated by satellite (DORIS) data at continuously operating geodetic sites in Africa and surroundings to describe the present-day kinematics of the Nubian and Somalian plates and constrain relative motions across the East African Rift. The resulting velocity field describes horizontal and vertical motion at 133 GPS sites and 9 DORIS sites. Horizontal velocities at sites located on stable Nubia fit a single plate model with a weighted root mean square residual of 0.6 mm/yr (maximum residual 1 mm/yr), an upper bound for plate-wide motions and for regional-scale deformation in the seismically active southern Africa and Cameroon volcanic line. We confirm significant southward motion ( ˜ 1.5 mm/yr) in Morocco with respect to Nubia, consistent with earlier findings. We propose an updated angular velocity for the divergence between Nubia and Somalia, which provides the kinematic boundary conditions to rifting in East Africa. We update a plate motion model for the East African Rift and revise the counterclockwise rotation of the Victoria plate and clockwise rotation of the Rovuma plate with respect to Nubia. Vertical velocities range from - 2 to +2 mm/yr, close to their uncertainties, with no clear geographic pattern. This study provides the first continent-wide position/velocity solution for Africa, expressed in International Terrestrial Reference Frame (ITRF2008), a contribution to the upcoming African Reference Frame (AFREF). Except for a few regions, the African continent remains largely under-sampled by continuous space geodetic data. Efforts are needed to augment the geodetic infrastructure and openly share existing data sets so that the objectives of AFREF can be fully reached.

  1. Epidemiological fingerprinting of Enterobacter cloacae by small-fragment restriction endonuclease analysis and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis of genomic restriction fragments.

    PubMed Central

    Haertl, R; Bandlow, G

    1993-01-01

    A cluster of infections caused by Enterobacter cloacae was observed among preterm neonates in a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) of a pediatric hospital in Osnabrück, Germany. The presence of similar antimicrobial susceptibility patterns among the bacterial isolates prompted an investigation to determine whether a limited spread of a single strain existed. All 12 E. cloacae isolates from the NICU and 50 nonrelated strains were fingerprinted by small-fragment restriction endonuclease analysis (SF-REA) of EcoRI DNA digests. Selected isolates were further characterized by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) of NotI- or XbaI-generated genomic restriction fragments. Epidemiologically unrelated strains were clearly discriminated by both methods. Results achieved by SF-REA and PFGE revealed that of the 12 isolates from the NICU, 11 belonged to the same genotypic cluster. Since all reagents and equipment for both techniques are commercially available, DNA fingerprinting by SF-REA or PFGE is proposed as a useful tool in the microbiology laboratory for investigating the epidemiological relatedness of E. cloacae strains of clinical and environmental origin. Images PMID:8093251

  2. Astronomy for African development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Govender, Kevindran

    2011-06-01

    In recent years there have been a number of efforts across Africa to develop the field of astronomy as well as to reap benefit from astronomy for African people. This presentation will discuss the case of the SALT (Southern African Large Telescope) Collateral Benefits Programme (SCBP) which was set up to ensure societal benefit from astronomy. With African society as the target, the SCBP has embarked on various projects from school level education to public understanding of science to socio-economic development, the latter mainly being felt in the rural communities surrounding the South African Astronomical Observatory (home to SALT). A development plan for ``Astronomy in Africa'' will also be discussed. This plan has been drawn up with input from all over Africa and themed ``Astronomy for Education''. The Africa case stands as a good example for the IYA cornerstone project ``Developing Astronomy Globally'' which focuses on developing regions.

  3. Metabolomics and Epidemiology Working Group

    Cancer.gov

    The Metabolomics and Epidemiology (MetEpi) Working Group promotes metabolomics analyses in population-based studies, as well as advancement in the field of metabolomics for broader biomedical and public health research.

  4. [Occupational epidemiology].

    PubMed

    Ahrens, W; Behrens, T; Mester, B; Schmeisser, N

    2008-03-01

    The aim of occupational epidemiology is to describe workplace-related diseases and to identify their underlying causes. Its primary goal is to protect workers from hazardous effects of the working process by applying work-related primary and secondary prevention measures. To assess health risks different study designs and a wide array of complex study instruments and methods are frequently employed that cannot be replaced by toxicological investigations. This paper primarily addresses health risks by agent exposures. In this context a central task of occupational epidemiology is careful assessment of exposure. Different data sources, such as work site measurements, register data, archive material, experts' opinion, and the workers' personal estimates of exposure may be used during this process. In addition, biological markers can complement exposure assessment. Since thorough occupational epidemiologic studies allow assessment of disease risks under realistic exposure conditions, their results should be more frequently used to derive workplace-related threshold limit values. PMID:18311483

  5. Polygenic Epidemiology

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Much of the genetic basis of complex traits is present on current genotyping products, but the individual variants that affect the traits have largely not been identified. Several traditional problems in genetic epidemiology have recently been addressed by assuming a polygenic basis for disease and treating it as a single entity. Here I briefly review some of these applications, which collectively may be termed polygenic epidemiology. Methodologies in this area include polygenic scoring, linear mixed models, and linkage disequilibrium scoring. They have been used to establish a polygenic effect, estimate genetic correlation between traits, estimate how many variants affect a trait, stratify cases into subphenotypes, predict individual disease risks, and infer causal effects using Mendelian randomization. Polygenic epidemiology will continue to yield useful applications even while much of the specific variation underlying complex traits remains undiscovered. PMID:27061411

  6. Co-transmission of the non-transmissible South African Babesia bovis S24 vaccine strain during mixed infection with a field isolate.

    PubMed

    Combrink, M P; Troskie, P C; de Klerk, D G; Pienaar, R; Latif, A A; Mans, B J

    2015-03-01

    The South African Babesia bovis live blood vaccine, originating from a field isolate attenuated by 23 serial syringe passages in splenectomized calves, has lost the ability to infect the natural vector Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus. In this study, infection with mixed parasites from the vaccine strain and a field isolate, resulted in transmission of both genotype populations. Comparing the field isolate and transmitted combination indicated no significant difference in their virulence, while challenge of vaccinated cattle with these isolates showed the ability of the vaccine to protect against both. Limiting dilution of the transmitted combination, followed by infection of splenectomized cattle (n=34) yielded no single infections for the vaccine strain genotype, seven clonal lines of the field isolate and one mixture of vaccine strain and field isolate. Only one of two field isolate clonal lines selected for vector transmission study was transmitted. Showing that B. bovis isolates can contain both tick transmissible and non-transmissible subpopulations. The findings of this study also indicate the probability of vaccine co-infection transmission occurring in the field, which may result in new genotype populations of B. bovis. However, the impact of this recombination with field isolates is considered negligible since a genotypically diverse population of B. bovis is already present in South Africa. PMID:25544307

  7. Epidemiological causality.

    PubMed

    Morabia, Alfredo

    2005-01-01

    Epidemiological methods, which combine population thinking and group comparisons, can primarily identify causes of disease in populations. There is therefore a tension between our intuitive notion of a cause, which we want to be deterministic and invariant at the individual level, and the epidemiological notion of causes, which are invariant only at the population level. Epidemiologists have given heretofore a pragmatic solution to this tension. Causal inference in epidemiology consists in checking the logical coherence of a causality statement and determining whether what has been found grossly contradicts what we think we already know: how strong is the association? Is there a dose-response relationship? Does the cause precede the effect? Is the effect biologically plausible? Etc. This approach to causal inference can be traced back to the English philosophers David Hume and John Stuart Mill. On the other hand, the mode of establishing causality, devised by Jakob Henle and Robert Koch, which has been fruitful in bacteriology, requires that in every instance the effect invariably follows the cause (e.g., inoculation of Koch bacillus and tuberculosis). This is incompatible with epidemiological causality which has to deal with probabilistic effects (e.g., smoking and lung cancer), and is therefore invariant only for the population. PMID:16898206

  8. Corporate influences on epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Pearce, Neil

    2008-02-01

    Corporate influences on epidemiology have become stronger and more pervasive in the last few decades, particularly in the contentious fields of pharmacoepidemiology and occupational epidemiology. For every independent epidemiologist studying the side effects of medicines and the hazardous effects of industrial chemicals, there are several other epidemiologists hired by industry to attack the research and to debunk it as 'junk science'. In some instances these activities have gone as far as efforts to block publication. In many instances, academics have accepted industry funding which has not been acknowledged, and only the academic affiliations of the company-funded consultants have been listed. These activities are major threats to the integrity of the field, and its survival as a scientific discipline. There is no simple solution to these problems. However, for the last two decades there has been substantial discussion on ethics in epidemiology, partly in response to the unethical conduct of many industry-funded consultants. Professional organizations, such as the International Epidemiological Association, can play a major role in encouraging and supporting epidemiologists to assert positive principles of how science should work, and how it should be applied to public policy decisions, rather than simply having a list of what not to do. PMID:18245050

  9. Field synopsis and meta-analyses of genetic epidemiological evidence for Kashin-Beck disease, an endemic osteoarthropathy in China.

    PubMed

    Yang, Lei; Zhao, Guang-Hui; Liu, Huan; Wang, Xi; Guo, Xiong; Lammi, Mikko J

    2016-10-01

    Kashin-Beck disease (KBD) is a chronic degenerative osteoarthropathy with unclear etiology. To provide current evidence supporting a genetic predisposition for KBD, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of published literature on the genetic epidemiology of KBD. The PubMed, China National Knowledge Infrastructure and Wan Fang Data were searched up to August 2015 for articles published in English and Chinese. Genome-wide and exome sequencing, linkage, and case-control association studies for any genetic variants associated with KBD were included. Meta-analysis was performed for all single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that were evaluated in two or more studies. The effect size was summarized as odds ratios (ORs) with 95 % confidence intervals (CIs) by fixed and random effects models. A total of 24 articles were systematically reviewed. Eleven short tandem repeats on chromosomes 2, 11 and 12, 34 SNPs in 12 genes, as well as copy number variant 452 were identified as KBD susceptibility factors in individual studies. The meta-analysis of the GPX1 rs1050450, DIO2 rs225014, TrxR2 rs5748469 and HLA-DRB1 rs7745040 failed to reveal any associations with KBD. However, the meta-analysis of HLA-DRB1 rs9275295 allele A was associated with KBD (OR = 1.737, 95 % CI: 1.002-3.012). In addition, seven haplotypes in GPX1, GPX4, HLA-DRB1 and GDF5 genes also showed significant associations with KBD. In conclusions, our study could identify a number of genetic markers associated with KBD. However, the evidence does not currently support a strong association between the specific variants and KBD because of the limited number of studies, and in the future, more rigorous studies are needed to confirm KBD's links with these variants. PMID:27256326

  10. Neotectonic faults and stress field in the East African Rift System around the Tanzanian Craton - A contribution to the seismotectonic map of Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delvaux, Damien; Macheyeki, Athanas Simon; Fernandes, Rui-Manuel; Ayele, Atalay; Meghraoui, Mustapha

    2015-04-01

    As a contribution to the UNESCO-IUGS IGCP 601 project "Seismotectonics and seismic hazards in Africa" and in preparation of the Seismotectonic Map of Africa, we compiled the neotectonic faults related to the East African Rift System around the Tanzanian craton. The initial aim was to identify and map the potentially active faults. Faults are usually defined as active when they show seismogenic displacement during the last 10,000 to 100,000 years, generally on the basis of paleoseismic investigation. In East Africa, however, very few faults have been studied by paleoseismic techniques and even fewer have known historical seismic activation. To address this issue, we mapped faults that show morphological indications of displacement. We used the SRTM DTM (90 and 30 m when available to us), with artificial shading as basis for identify neotectonic faults, in combination with existing data from geological maps, publications and reports, complemented by our own field observations. Thermal springs often occur along tectonically active faults. We use them to distinguish present-day faulting from other mapped faults as they are in most cases structurally controlled. In parallel, we used also the available focal mechanisms and geological fault-slip data to constrain the stress second-order stress field (at the scale of rift segments) and locally also the third-order stress field (at the local scale). All these elements are combined and compared with existing kinematic models for the East African Rift based on earthquake slip vectors, GPS measurements and geologic indicators. The comparison evidences some local discrepancies between the stress field and the direction of opening, probably due to the interactions between different rift segments, as in the Rukwa rift, Mbeya southern junction between the eastern and western rift branches, and in the Manyara-Natron area.

  11. Human African Trypanosomiasis Transmission, Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo

    PubMed Central

    Diabakana, Philemon Mansinsa; Mesu, Victor Kande Betu Ku; Manzambi, Emile Zola; Ollivier, Gaelle; Asonganyi, Tazoacha; Cuny, Gerard; Grébaut, Pascal

    2006-01-01

    To investigate the epidemiology of human African trypanosomiasis (sleeping sickness) in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo, 2 entomologic surveys were conducted in 2005. Trypanosoma brucei gambiense and human-blood meals were found in tsetse fly midguts, which suggested active disease transmission. Vector control should be used to improve human African trypanosomiasis control efforts. PMID:17326955

  12. African horse sickness.

    PubMed

    Zientara, S; Weyer, C T; Lecollinet, S

    2015-08-01

    African horse sickness (AHS) is a devastating disease of equids caused by an arthropod-borne virus belonging to the Reoviridae family, genus Orbivirus. It is considered a major health threat for horses in endemic areas in sub-Saharan Africa. African horse sickness virus (AHSV) repeatedly caused large epizootics in the Mediterranean region (North Africa and southern Europe in particular) as a result of trade in infected equids. The unexpected emergence of a closely related virus, the bluetongue virus, in northern Europe in 2006 has raised fears about AHSV introduction into Europe, and more specifically into AHSV-free regions that have reported the presence of AHSV vectors, e.g. Culicoides midges. North African and European countries should be prepared to face AHSV incursions in the future, especially since two AHSV serotypes (serotypes 2 and 7) have recently spread northwards to western (e.g. Senegal, Nigeria, Gambia) and eastern Africa (Ethiopia), where historically only serotype 9 had been isolated. The authors review key elements of AHS epidemiology, surveillance and prophylaxis. PMID:26601437

  13. Digital Epidemiology

    PubMed Central

    Salathé, Marcel; Bengtsson, Linus; Bodnar, Todd J.; Brewer, Devon D.; Brownstein, John S.; Buckee, Caroline; Campbell, Ellsworth M.; Cattuto, Ciro; Khandelwal, Shashank; Mabry, Patricia L.; Vespignani, Alessandro

    2012-01-01

    Mobile, social, real-time: the ongoing revolution in the way people communicate has given rise to a new kind of epidemiology. Digital data sources, when harnessed appropriately, can provide local and timely information about disease and health dynamics in populations around the world. The rapid, unprecedented increase in the availability of relevant data from various digital sources creates considerable technical and computational challenges. PMID:22844241

  14. Classification of personal exposure to radio frequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF) for epidemiological research: Evaluation of different exposure assessment methods.

    PubMed

    Frei, Patrizia; Mohler, Evelyn; Bürgi, Alfred; Fröhlich, Jürg; Neubauer, Georg; Braun-Fahrländer, Charlotte; Röösli, Martin

    2010-10-01

    The use of personal exposure meters (exposimeters) has been recommended for measuring personal exposure to radio frequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF) from environmental far-field sources in everyday life. However, it is unclear to what extent exposimeter readings are affected by measurements taken when personal mobile and cordless phones are used. In addition, the use of exposimeters in large epidemiological studies is limited due to high costs and large effort for study participants. In the current analysis we aimed to investigate the impact of personal phone use on exposimeter readings and to evaluate different exposure assessment methods potentially useful in epidemiological studies. We collected personal exposimeter measurements during one week and diary data from 166 study participants. Moreover, we collected spot measurements in the participants' bedrooms and data on self-estimated exposure, assessed residential exposure to fixed site transmitters by calculating the geo-coded distance and mean RF-EMF from a geospatial propagation model, and developed an exposure prediction model based on the propagation model and exposure relevant behavior. The mean personal exposure was 0.13 mW/m(2), when measurements during personal phone calls were excluded and 0.15 mW/m(2), when such measurements were included. The Spearman correlation with personal exposure (without personal phone calls) was 0.42 (95%-CI: 0.29 to 0.55) for the spot measurements, -0.03 (95%-CI: -0.18 to 0.12) for the geo-coded distance, 0.28 (95%-CI: 0.14 to 0.42) for the geospatial propagation model, 0.50 (95%-CI: 0.37 to 0.61) for the full exposure prediction model and 0.06 (95%-CI: -0.10 to 0.21) for self-estimated exposure. In conclusion, personal exposure measured with exposimeters correlated best with the full exposure prediction model and spot measurements. Self-estimated exposure and geo-coded distance turned out to be poor surrogates for personal exposure. PMID:20538340

  15. Mapping the state of the field of social psychology in Africa and patterns of collaboration between African and international social psychologists.

    PubMed

    Quayle, Michael; Greer, Megan

    2014-12-01

    Patterns of collaboration in social psychology from 2000 to 2010 were mapped to analyse the position of African authors in the international co-authorship network using bibliographic records from the Thomson Reuters Web of Knowledge. There are very few social psychologists working in Africa, with the majority of these located in South Africa. Indeed, some small European countries boast more social psychologists than the entire continent of Africa. African authors published less than their non-African collaborators, but had comparable status on joint publications. Co-authorship relationships between African researchers from different African countries were generally mediated by partners from other continents, and direct collaboration between non-compatriot African authors was very rare. The small size, and extremely sparse connection of the African co-authorship network, is likely to be an obstacle both in the development of social psychology as a universally relevant discipline and in the penetration of social psychological knowledge in Africa. PMID:25355672

  16. Environmental Factors Determining the Epidemiology and Population Genetic Structure of the Bacillus cereus Group in the Field

    PubMed Central

    Raymond, Ben; Wyres, Kelly L.; Sheppard, Samuel K.; Ellis, Richard J.; Bonsall, Michael B.

    2010-01-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) and its insecticidal toxins are widely exploited in microbial biopesticides and genetically modified crops. Its population biology is, however, poorly understood. Important issues for the safe, sustainable exploitation of Bt include understanding how selection maintains expression of insecticidal toxins in nature, whether entomopathogenic Bt is ecologically distinct from related human pathogens in the Bacillus cereus group, and how the use of microbial pesticides alters natural bacterial populations. We addressed these questions with a MLST scheme applied to a field experiment in which we excluded/added insect hosts and microbial pesticides in a factorial design. The presence of insects increased the density of Bt/B. cereus in the soil and the proportion of strains expressing insecticidal toxins. We found a near-epidemic population structure dominated by a single entomopathogenic genotype (ST8) in sprayed and unsprayed enclosures. Biopesticidal ST8 proliferated in hosts after spraying but was also found naturally associated with leaves more than any other genotype. In an independent experiment several ST8 isolates proved better than a range of non-pathogenic STs at endophytic and epiphytic colonization of seedlings from soil. This is the first experimental demonstration of Bt behaving as a specialized insect pathogen in the field. These data provide a basis for understanding both Bt ecology and the influence of anthropogenic factors on Bt populations. This natural population of Bt showed habitat associations and a population structure that differed markedly from previous MLST studies of less ecologically coherent B. cereus sample collections. The host-specific adaptations of ST8, its close association with its toxin plasmid and its high prevalence within its clade are analogous to the biology of Bacillus anthracis. This prevalence also suggests that selection for resistance to the insecticidal toxins of ST8 will have been stronger than

  17. Environmental factors determining the epidemiology and population genetic structure of the Bacillus cereus group in the field.

    PubMed

    Raymond, Ben; Wyres, Kelly L; Sheppard, Samuel K; Ellis, Richard J; Bonsall, Michael B

    2010-05-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) and its insecticidal toxins are widely exploited in microbial biopesticides and genetically modified crops. Its population biology is, however, poorly understood. Important issues for the safe, sustainable exploitation of Bt include understanding how selection maintains expression of insecticidal toxins in nature, whether entomopathogenic Bt is ecologically distinct from related human pathogens in the Bacillus cereus group, and how the use of microbial pesticides alters natural bacterial populations. We addressed these questions with a MLST scheme applied to a field experiment in which we excluded/added insect hosts and microbial pesticides in a factorial design. The presence of insects increased the density of Bt/B. cereus in the soil and the proportion of strains expressing insecticidal toxins. We found a near-epidemic population structure dominated by a single entomopathogenic genotype (ST8) in sprayed and unsprayed enclosures. Biopesticidal ST8 proliferated in hosts after spraying but was also found naturally associated with leaves more than any other genotype. In an independent experiment several ST8 isolates proved better than a range of non-pathogenic STs at endophytic and epiphytic colonization of seedlings from soil. This is the first experimental demonstration of Bt behaving as a specialized insect pathogen in the field. These data provide a basis for understanding both Bt ecology and the influence of anthropogenic factors on Bt populations. This natural population of Bt showed habitat associations and a population structure that differed markedly from previous MLST studies of less ecologically coherent B. cereus sample collections. The host-specific adaptations of ST8, its close association with its toxin plasmid and its high prevalence within its clade are analogous to the biology of Bacillus anthracis. This prevalence also suggests that selection for resistance to the insecticidal toxins of ST8 will have been stronger than

  18. Molecular epidemiology of Legionella pneumophila environmental isolates representing nine different serogroups determined by automated ribotyping and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis.

    PubMed Central

    Boccia, S.; Stenico, A.; Amore, R.; Moroder, L.; Orsini, M.; Romano-Spica, V.; Ricciardi, G.

    2005-01-01

    The purposes of the study were (i) to describe the abundance and epidemiology of Legionellaceae in the man-made environment in a northern Italian area, (ii) to assess the concordance between pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and automated ribotyping (AR) techniques for genotyping L. pneumophila and (iii) to investigate the correlation between serogrouping and genotyping data. Water was sampled from reservoirs in 12 buildings across an area of 80-km radius. Despite the water temperature always being maintained above 55 degrees C, all of the buildings sampled were contaminated with Legionellaceae on at least one occasion and 63 L. pneumophila isolates representing nine different serogroups were collected. The two DNA methods revealed a high degree of genetic heterogeneity, even though identical L. pneumophila clones were recovered at different sites. The AR technique provided a fairly reliable approximation of PFGE results (73% concordance), however there was poor correlation between serogrouping and genotyping data as identical DNA fingerprints were shared by isolates of different serogroups. PMID:16274507

  19. Use of pulsed-field gel electrophoresis for epidemiological study of Bordetella pertussis in a whooping cough outbreak.

    PubMed Central

    de Moissac, Y R; Ronald, S L; Peppler, M S

    1994-01-01

    We used pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) of chromosomal DNA digested with XbaI to determine the distribution of different Bordetella pertussis strains from clinical isolates obtained during a large whooping cough outbreak that occurred in Alberta, Canada, from December 1989 to May 1991. Our initial study analyzed 28 clinical isolates, 14 from the city of Edmonton and 1 from each of 14 northern Alberta towns. These clinical isolates were randomly chosen over the course of the 18-month outbreak. The DNA profiles were more heterogeneous than anticipated and caused concern that PFGE was too sensitive a technique to characterize strains. Further analysis showed that this was not the case, as clusters of similar PFGE patterns were observed in strains isolated from the same outlying town. Identical PFGE patterns were also seen in clinical strains obtained from different members of the same family. Two PFGE pattern types, a and b, predominated in the outbreak, accounting overall for 44 of 70 B. pertussis strains tested. Results from isolates from outlying towns, however, indicated involvement of local strains rather than a single, highly infectious strain in the whooping cough outbreak in Alberta. Images PMID:8150949

  20. [Remote effects of occupational and non-occupational exposure to electromagnetic fields of power-line frequency. Epidemiological studies].

    PubMed

    Tikhonova, G I; Rubtsova, N B; Novokhatskaia, E A; Tikhonov, A V

    2003-01-01

    A retrospective cohort study of mortality in the personnel of power-supply plants in the European regions of Russia was carried out. The exposure of the personnel to electromagnetic fields of power-line frequency (PF) was taken into account. Statistically non-significant raise of mortality from leukemia was found, compared to low mortality rates due to all other causes including cancer of any type. Standardized mortality ratio (SMR) was equal to 2.03 (95% CI = 0.23-7.31). In the retrospective case-control study the haemoblastosis development risk under occupational PF EMF exposure was evaluated. The data of 571 "cases" and 1208 "controls" interview showed that odd ratio (OR) was 1.64 (95% CI = 0.8-3.1). In another retrospective case-control study the risk of the haemoblastosis development in children due to parents PF EMF occupational exposure was evaluated. The data of 208 "cases" and 319 "controls" interview showed that the odd ratio (OR) was 1.69 (95% CI = 0.7-3.3). A retrospective cohort study of mortality in a settlement situated near a high-voltage (500 kV) substation, which took into account PF EMF levels in residential areas, revealed low mortality rates, except leukemia mortality (SMR 1.3; 95% CI = 0.2-7.0). The obtained data do not allow excluding a possibility of PF EMF leukogenic effect. PMID:14658290

  1. Analysis of Molecular Epidemiology of Chilean Salmonella enterica Serotype Enteritidis Isolates by Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis and Bacteriophage Typing

    PubMed Central

    Fernandez, Jorge; Fica, Alberto; Ebensperger, German; Calfullan, Hector; Prat, Soledad; Fernandez, Alda; Alexandre, Marcela; Heitmann, Ingrid

    2003-01-01

    Human Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis infections emerged in Chile in 1994. S. enterica serotype Enteritidis phage type 1 isolates predominated in the north, and phage type 4 isolates predominated in the central and southern regions. A study was planned to characterize this epidemic using the best discriminatory typing technique. Research involved 441 S. enterica serotype Enteritidis isolates, including clinical preepidemic samples (n = 74; 1975 to 1993) and epidemic (n = 199), food (n = 72), poultry (n = 57), and some Latin American (n = 39) isolates. The best method was selected based on a sample of preepidemic isolates, analyzing the discriminatory power (DP) obtained by phage typing and randomly amplified polymorphic DNA and pulsed-field gel electophoresis (PFGE) analysis. The highest DP was associated with BlnI PFGE-bacteriophage typing analysis (0.993). A total of 38 BlnI patterns (B patterns) were identified before the epidemic period, 19 since 1994, and only 4 in both periods. Two major clusters were identified by phylogenetic analysis, and the predominant B patterns clustered in the same branch. Combined analysis revealed that specific B pattern-phage type combinations (subtypes) disappeared before 1994, that different genotypes associated with S. enterica serotype Enteritidis phage type 4 had been observed since 1988, and that strain diversity increased before the expansion of S. enterica serotype Enteritidis in 1994. Predominant subtype B3-phage type 4 was associated with the central and southern regions, and subtype B38-phage type 1 was associated with the north (P < 0.0001). Food and poultry isolates matched the predominant S. enterica serotype Enteritidis subtypes, but isolates identified in neighboring countries (Peru and Bolivia) did not match S. enterica serotype Enteritidis subtypes identified in the north of Chile. The results of this work demonstrate that genetic diversity, replacement, and expansion of specific S. enterica serotype

  2. Analysis of molecular epidemiology of Chilean Salmonella enterica serotype enteritidis isolates by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and bacteriophage typing.

    PubMed

    Fernandez, Jorge; Fica, Alberto; Ebensperger, German; Calfullan, Hector; Prat, Soledad; Fernandez, Alda; Alexandre, Marcela; Heitmann, Ingrid

    2003-04-01

    Human Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis infections emerged in Chile in 1994. S. enterica serotype Enteritidis phage type 1 isolates predominated in the north, and phage type 4 isolates predominated in the central and southern regions. A study was planned to characterize this epidemic using the best discriminatory typing technique. Research involved 441 S. enterica serotype Enteritidis isolates, including clinical preepidemic samples (n = 74; 1975 to 1993) and epidemic (n = 199), food (n = 72), poultry (n = 57), and some Latin American (n = 39) isolates. The best method was selected based on a sample of preepidemic isolates, analyzing the discriminatory power (DP) obtained by phage typing and randomly amplified polymorphic DNA and pulsed-field gel electophoresis (PFGE) analysis. The highest DP was associated with BlnI PFGE-bacteriophage typing analysis (0.993). A total of 38 BlnI patterns (B patterns) were identified before the epidemic period, 19 since 1994, and only 4 in both periods. Two major clusters were identified by phylogenetic analysis, and the predominant B patterns clustered in the same branch. Combined analysis revealed that specific B pattern-phage type combinations (subtypes) disappeared before 1994, that different genotypes associated with S. enterica serotype Enteritidis phage type 4 had been observed since 1988, and that strain diversity increased before the expansion of S. enterica serotype Enteritidis in 1994. Predominant subtype B3-phage type 4 was associated with the central and southern regions, and subtype B38-phage type 1 was associated with the north (P < 0.0001). Food and poultry isolates matched the predominant S. enterica serotype Enteritidis subtypes, but isolates identified in neighboring countries (Peru and Bolivia) did not match S. enterica serotype Enteritidis subtypes identified in the north of Chile. The results of this work demonstrate that genetic diversity, replacement, and expansion of specific S. enterica serotype

  3. Strengthening field-based training in low and middle-income countries to build public health capacity: Lessons from Australia's Master of Applied Epidemiology program

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Mahomed S; Phillips, Christine B

    2009-01-01

    Background The International Health Regulations (2005) and the emergence and global spread of infectious diseases have triggered a re-assessment of how rich countries should support capacity development for communicable disease control in low and medium income countries (LMIC). In LMIC, three types of public health training have been tried: the university-based model; streamed training for specialised workers; and field-based programs. The first has low rates of production and teaching may not always be based on the needs and priorities of the host country. The second model is efficient, but does not accord the workers sufficient status to enable them to impact on policy. The third has the most potential as a capacity development measure for LMIC, but in practice faces challenges which may limit its ability to promote capacity development. Discussion We describe Australia's first Master of Applied Epidemiology (MAE) model (established in 1991), which uses field-based training to strengthen the control of communicable diseases. A central attribute of this model is the way it partners and complements health department initiatives to enhance workforce skills, health system performance and the evidence-base for policies, programs and practice. Summary The MAE experience throws light on ways Australia could collaborate in regional capacity development initiatives. Key needs are a shared vision for a regional approach to integrate training with initiatives that strengthen service and research, and the pooling of human, financial and technical resources. We focus on communicable diseases, but our findings and recommendations are generalisable to other areas of public health. PMID:19358710

  4. Multiplex PCR for the detection of African cassava mosaic virus and East African cassava mosaic Cameroon virus in cassava.

    PubMed

    Alabi, Olufemi J; Kumar, P Lava; Naidu, Rayapati A

    2008-12-01

    A multiplex PCR was developed for simultaneous detection of African cassava mosaic virus (ACMV) and East African cassava mosaic Cameroon virus (EACMCV) in cassava affected with cassava mosaic disease (CMD). One set of three primers consisting of an upstream primer common for both viruses and two down stream virus-specific primers were designed for simultaneous amplification of 368 base pair (bp) and 650 bp DNA fragments specific to the replicase gene of ACMV and EACMCV, respectively. Similarly, a second set of three primers were designed for simultaneous amplification of 540 bp and 655 bp fragments specific to the coat protein gene of EACMCV and ACMV, respectively. Primers that can amplify a 171 bp fragment of the large subunit of ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase oxygenase L were included as an internal control in these assays to determine the reliability of multiplex PCR. A simplified, cost-effective and rapid sample preparation method was adapted in place of the conventional plant DNA extraction procedure for multiplex PCR detection of ACMV and EACMCV. The method was validated using CMD-infected cassava samples obtained from farmers' fields in Nigeria. The multiplex PCR is useful for reliable assessment of the prevalence of CMBs in epidemiological studies and for crop improvement and phytosanitary programs in African countries. PMID:18789974

  5. NASA Remote Sensing Data for Epidemiological Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maynard, Nancy G.; Vicente, G. A.

    2002-01-01

    In response to the need for improved observations of environmental factors to better understand the links between human health and the environment, NASA has established a new program to significantly improve the utilization of NASA's diverse array of data, information, and observations of the Earth for health applications. This initiative, lead by Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) has the following goals: (1) To encourage interdisciplinary research on the relationships between environmental parameters (e.g., rainfall, vegetation) and health, (2) Develop practical early warning systems, (3) Create a unique system for the exchange of Earth science and health data, (4) Provide an investigator field support system for customers and partners, (5) Facilitate a system for observation, identification, and surveillance of parameters relevant to environment and health issues. The NASA Environment and Health Program is conducting several interdisciplinary projects to examine applications of remote sensing data and information to a variety of health issues, including studies on malaria, Rift Valley Fever, St. Louis Encephalitis, Dengue Fever, Ebola, African Dust and health, meningitis, asthma, and filariasis. In addition, the NASA program is creating a user-friendly data system to help provide the public health community with easy and timely access to space-based environmental data for epidemiological studies. This NASA data system is being designed to bring land, atmosphere, water and ocean satellite data/products to users not familiar with satellite data/products, but who are knowledgeable in the Geographic Information Systems (GIS) environment. This paper discusses the most recent results of the interdisciplinary environment-health research projects and provides an analysis of the usefulness of the satellite data to epidemiological studies. In addition, there will be a summary of presently-available NASA Earth science data and a description of how it may be obtained.

  6. Epidemiology of HCV infection.

    PubMed

    Baldo, V; Baldovin, T; Trivello, R; Floreani, A

    2008-01-01

    It is estimated that approximately 130-170 million people worldwide are infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV). According to data from WHO community and blood donor surveys, the African and Eastern Mediterranean countries report the highest prevalence rates (>10%). The rates of infection in the general population and the incidence of newly-acquired cases indicate an appreciable change in the epidemiology of the infection in recent years. Prior to the widespread screening of blood donations, infected blood and blood products represented a common source of infection. On the other hand, the high peak in HCV antibodies among the elderly in Italian epidemiological studies on the population at large reflects a cohort effect due to an epidemic of HCV infection occurring after the Second World War. According to data reported by the CDC Surveillance System, the incidence of acute hepatitis C has declined since the late 1980s. In 2005, as in previous years, the majority of such cases in North America and Northern Europe occurred among young adults and injected drug use was the most common risk factor. Other, less commonly reported modes of HCV acquisition are occupational exposure to blood, high-risk sexual activity, tattooing, body piercing and other forms of skin penetration. Finally, the overall rate of mother-to-child transmission from HCV-infected, HIV-negative mothers has been estimated at around 5% (coinfection with HIV raises this figure to 19.4%). HCV prevention relies on identifying and counseling uninfected persons at risk of contracting hepatitis C. PMID:18673187

  7. African swine fever.

    PubMed

    Penrith, Mary-Louise

    2009-03-01

    African swine fever (ASF) is a devastating haemorrhagic fever of pigs that causes up to 100% mortality, for which there is no vaccine. It is caused by a unique DNA virus that is maintained in an ancient cycle between warthogs and argasid ticks, making it the only known DNA arbovirus. ASF has a high potential for transboundary spread, and has twice been transported from Africa to other continents--Europe and subsequently the Caribbean and Brazil (1957, 1959) and the Caucasus (2007). It is also a devastating constraint for pig production in Africa. Research at Onderstepoort Veterinary Institute has made and is making important contributions to knowledge of this disease, focusing on the cycle in warthogs and tampans and transmission from that cycle to domestic pigs, resistance to its effects in domestic pigs, and the molecular genetic characterisation and epidemiology of the virus. PMID:19967933

  8. Molecular epidemiology of 58 new African human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) strains: identification of a new and distinct HTLV-1 molecular subtype in Central Africa and in Pygmies.

    PubMed Central

    Mahieux, R; Ibrahim, F; Mauclere, P; Herve, V; Michel, P; Tekaia, F; Chappey, C; Garin, B; Van Der Ryst, E; Guillemain, B; Ledru, E; Delaporte, E; de The, G; Gessain, A

    1997-01-01

    To gain new insights on the origin, evolution, and modes of dissemination of human T-cell leukemia virus type I (HTLV-1), we performed a molecular analysis of 58 new African HTLV-1 strains (18 from West Africa, 36 from Central Africa, and 4 from South Africa) originating from 13 countries. Of particular interest were eight strains from Pygmies of remote areas of Cameroon and the Central African Republic (CAR), considered to be the oldest inhabitants of these regions. Eight long-term activated T-cell lines producing HTLV-1 gag and env antigens were established from peripheral blood mononuclear cell cultures of HTLV-1 seropositive individuals, including three from Pygmies. A fragment of the env gene encompassing most of the gp21 transmembrane region was sequenced for the 58 new strains, while the complete long terminal repeat (LTR) region was sequenced for 9 strains, including 4 from Pygmies. Comparative sequence analyses and phylogenetic studies performed on both the env and LTR regions by the neighbor-joining and DNA parsimony methods demonstrated that all 22 strains from West and South Africa belong to the widespread cosmopolitan subtype (also called HTLV-1 subtype A). Within or alongside the previously described Zairian cluster (HTLV-1 subtype B), we discovered a number of new HTLV-1 variants forming different subgroups corresponding mainly to the geographical origins of the infected persons, Cameroon, Gabon, and Zaire. Six of the eight Pygmy strains clustered together within this Central African subtype, suggesting a common origin. Furthermore, three new strains (two originating from Pygmies from Cameroon and the CAR, respectively, and one from a Gabonese individual) were particularly divergent and formed a distinct new phylogenetic cluster, characterized by specific mutations and occupying in most analyses a unique phylogenetic position between the large Central African genotype (HTLV-1 subtype B) and the Melanesian subtype (HTLV-1 subtype C). We have

  9. The under-representation of African American women in the STEM fields within the academy: A historical profile and current perceptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howard, Tenisha Senora

    This research project seeks to discover the reasons behind the underrepresentation of African American women (AAW) in higher education, particularly in the Science Technology Engineering and Mathematics fields. Why is there underrepresentation of AAW in the STEM fields? Research evidence has demonstrated that AAW face social disparities such as race, gender, and class in the academy. A lack of adequate mentoring and financial resources to support their research efforts are related to these disparities and present fundamental challenges for them. To conduct the inquiry about the barriers AAW have to overcome to achieve success in STEM disciplines, a qualitative research method was used to "attend to social, historical, and temporal context. The findings of these studies are tentatively applied; that is, they may be applicable in diverse situations based on comparability of other contexts" (Mariano, 1995, p. 464). The researcher collected data by conducting in-depth interviews with five participants, using an open-ended conversational format to facilitate the development of trust, rapport, and maximum elicitation of stories from the participants. The results suggest that AAW overcome barriers to successful STEM careers through their family and social ties, mentoring relationships as well as their religious practices.

  10. Developing anatomical terms in an African language.

    PubMed

    Madzimbamuto, Farai Daniel

    2012-03-01

    Clinical and technical information imparted in most African languages involves inexact terminology and code switching, so it lacks the explanatory power characterised by the English language. African languages are absent in the tertiary science education environment and forums where African scientists could present scientific material in the medium of African languages. This limits the development of African languages in the scientific domain. There has recently been a trend in several African languages to develop and intellectualise them, especially in the field of medical sciences. The ChiShona language is used to explore the ability of an African language to develop new terminology, to name the vertebral skeleton and describe it scientifically. It uses word compounding to demonstrate terminology development. ChiShona has similarities with several hundred other Bantu languages in East, Central and Southern Africa. Advancing this language can promote similar developments in others, making them more explanatory for the lay public and health professionals. PMID:22380900

  11. Some Growth Points in African Child Development Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Serpell, Robert; Marfo, Kofi

    2014-01-01

    We reflect on ways in which research presented in earlier chapters responds to challenges of generating an African child development field and identify additional issues calling for the field's attention. The chapters collectively display a variety of African contexts and reflexive evidence of the authors' African cultural roots.…

  12. Epidemiology of Itch.

    PubMed

    Weisshaar, Elke

    2016-01-01

    Epidemiology is the study of disease frequency and the associations between risk factors and outcome in a population. Clinical populations are highly selective and depend for instance on perceived severity of symptoms and access to health services. Assessment of a disease in the community and in specific populations is an important measure for the purpose of health planning as well as for the understanding of associations between disease and factors in the environment. Itch is definitely the most frequent symptom of the skin and can occur in acute and chronic skin diseases and other diseases like end-stage renal disease, cholestasis, and hematological, neurological, and psychiatric diseases. This diversity may explain why research on the epidemiology of itch was disregarded for a long time. A recent European study demonstrated that the prevalence of itch among dermatological patients is 54.4%. The prevalence of acute itch in the general population is 8.4% and for chronic itch it is 13.5%; however, with a recurrent symptom it is important to consider different prevalence estimates (point, 12-month, and lifetime prevalence). The lifetime prevalence of chronic itch in the general populations is 22%, demonstrating that more than 1 in 5 people experience chronic itch once in their life. This shows that research in this field should not only focus on patients. This chapter briefly summarizes major facts on the epidemiology of itch in the general population and in some patient populations. PMID:27578064

  13. [Occupational epidemiology in Italy].

    PubMed

    Assennato, G; Bisceglia, L

    2003-01-01

    The development of Occupational Epidemiology in Italy is closely correlated with the political and social awareness of the needs of preventive strategies in the workplace. In the late '60s the Trade Unions supported a model of intervention based on the involvement of the so-called "Homogeneous group of workers" in the validation of the preventive measures taken on the workplace. In spite of the shortcomings of the model, it was extremely effective resulting in enhanced perception of the priority of preventive strategies and in the formation within the National Health Service of the Occupational Health Services. In Italy over the period 1973-2002 there has been an impressive trend of research in field of occupational epidemiology (a search on Medline shows an increasing trend over the years and, in terms of international comparison, higher figures than in Germany, France and Spain). Occupational Epidemiology is now present in the activities of the local Occupational Health Services and in the teaching activities of the Medical Schools throughout the country. PMID:14582235

  14. Setting research priorities to reduce malaria burden in a post graduate training programme: lessons learnt from the Nigeria field epidemiology and laboratory training programme scientific workshop

    PubMed Central

    Fawole, Olufunmilayo I; Ajumobi, Olufemi; Poggensee, Gabriele; Nguku, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    Although several research groups within institutions in Nigeria have been involved in extensive malaria research, the link between the research community and policy formulation has not been optimal. The workshop aimed to assist post graduate students to identify knowledge gaps and to develop relevant Malaria-related research proposals in line with identified research priorities. A training needs assessment questionnaire was completed by 22 students two week prior to the workshop. Also, a one page concept letter was received from 40 residents. Thirty students were selected based the following six criteria: - answerability and ethics; efficacy and impact; deliverability, affordability; scalability, sustainability; health systems, partnership and community involvement; and equity in achieved disease burden reduction. The workshop was over a three day period. The participants at the workshop were 30 Nigeria Field Epidemiology and Laboratory Training Programme (NFELTP) residents from cohorts 4 and 5. Ten technical papers were presented by the experts from the academia, National Malaria Elimination (NMEP) Programme, NFELTP Faculty and Implementing partners including CDC/PMI. Draft proposals were developed and presented by the residents. The “strongest need” for training was on malaria prevention, followed by malaria diagnosis. Forty seven new research questions were generated, while the 19 developed by the NMEP were shared. Evaluation revealed that all (100%) students either “agreed” that the workshop objectives were met. Full proposals were developed by some of the residents. A debriefing meeting was held with the NMEP coordinator to discuss funding of the projects. Future collaborative partnership has developed as the residents have supported NMEP to develop a research protocol for a national evaluation. Research prioritization workshops are required in most training programmes to ensure that students embark on studies that address the research needs of their

  15. Evolving Complex Networks Analysis of Space-Time Multi-Scale Wavelike Fields: Application to African Rainfall Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oluoch, Kevin; Marwan, Norbert; Trauth, Martin; Kurths, Juergen

    2013-04-01

    underlying dynamics. The similarities are then weighted by their recurrence rate to ensure that the similarities are not a one time noise but regular temporal occurrence. Finally, the evolving complex networks are constructed. These networks are envisioned to shade more light into the patterns of African rainfall dynamics and their possible underlying sources. Last but not least, the global measures from the network will give new time series to compare with external possible forcing in the global network and the the rainfall dynamics.

  16. Field application of immunoassays for the detection of Mycobacterium bovis infection in the African buffalo (Syncerus caffer).

    PubMed

    van der Heijden, E M D L; Jenkins, A O; Cooper, D V; Rutten, V P M G; Michel, A L

    2016-01-01

    The African buffalo (Syncerus caffer) is considered the most important maintenance host of bovine tuberculosis (BTB) in wildlife in Southern Africa. The diagnosis of Mycobacterium bovis infection in this species mostly relies on the single intradermal comparative tuberculin test (SICTT). As an alternative, the BOVIGAM® 1G, an interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) release assay, is frequently used. The test performance of cell-mediated immunity (CMI-) and humoral immunity (HI-) based assays for the detection of M. bovis infections in buffaloes was compared to identify the test or test combination that provided the highest sensitivity in the study. Buffaloes were sampled during the annual BTB SICTT testing in the Hluhluwe-iMfolozi-Park (KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa) during June 2013. A total of 35 animals were subjected to the SICTT, 13 of these tested positive and one showed an inconclusive reaction. CMI-based assays (BOVIGAM® 1G (B1G) and BOVIGAM® 2G (B2G)) as well as a serological assay (IDEXX TB ELISA) were used to further investigate and compare immune responsiveness. Thirteen SICTT positive buffaloes and one inconclusive reactor were slaughtered and a post-mortem (PM) examination was conducted to confirm BTB. Lesions characteristic of BTB were found in 8/14 animals (57.1%). Test results of individual assays were compared with serial and parallel test interpretation and the sensitivity was calculated as a percentage of test positives out of the number of SICTT positive animals with granulomatous lesions (relative sensitivity). The B1G assay showed the highest individual sensitivity (100%; 8/8) followed by the B2G assay (75%; 6/8) and the IDEXX TB ELISA (37.5%; 3/8). Therefore, using in parallel interpretation, any combination with the B1G showed a sensitivity of 100% (8/8), whereas combinations with the B2G showed a 75% sensitivity (6/8). Out of the 21 SICTT negative animals, 7 animals showed responsiveness in the B2G or IDEXX TB ELISA. In conclusion, this study has shown

  17. African Aesthetics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abiodun, Rowland

    2001-01-01

    No single traditional discipline can adequately supply answers to the many unresolved questions in African art history. Because of the aesthetic, cultural, historical, and, not infrequently, political biases, already built into the conception and development of Western art history, the discipline of art history as defined and practiced in the West…

  18. [Eco-epidemiology: towards epidemiology of complexity].

    PubMed

    Bizouarn, Philippe

    2016-05-01

    In order to solve public health problems posed by the epidemiology of risk factors centered on the individual and neglecting the causal processes linking the risk factors with the health outcomes, Mervyn Susser proposed a multilevel epidemiology called eco-epidemiology, addressing the interdependence of individuals and their connection with molecular, individual, societal, environmental levels of organization participating in the causal disease processes. The aim of this epidemiology is to integrate more than a level of organization in design, analysis and interpretation of health problems. After presenting the main criticisms of risk-factor epidemiology focused on the individual, we will try to show how eco-epidemiology and its development could help to understand the need for a broader and integrative epidemiology, in which studies designed to identify risk factors would be balanced by studies designed to answer other questions equally vital to public health. PMID:27225924

  19. Doctoral training of African scientists.

    PubMed

    Doumbo, O K; Krogstad, D J

    1998-02-01

    There are two principal rationales for doctoral training of African scientists in health: 1) these scientists are essential for the nations of sub-Saharan Africa to define and implement their own health priorities, and 2) the research they perform is essential for development. However, this training is difficult because of its expense (> $20,000 per year), because many developed country mentors are unaware of the realities of research in sub-Saharan Africa, and because major differences in salary provide a financial disincentive to return. We describe a training strategy that reduces attrition because it is linked to the investigators' responsibilities before and after training, and to home country priorities. This strategy requires a close relationship between the developing country (on-site) and developed country (off-site) mentors, with joint participation in the selection and funding process, followed by course work and short-term, independent projects off-site that lead to a thesis project in the developing country, and subsequently to a defined professional position in the developing country after completion of the doctoral degree. For this strategy to succeed, the developed country mentor must have both field experience and investigative expertise; the developing country mentor must have an understanding of modern biology, as well as clinical and epidemiologic experience. In addition, we would like to emphasize that the long-term retention of these talented, highly-trained individuals requires a similar long-term commitment by their developed country mentors, well beyond the short term of most research funding. PMID:9502592

  20. African, southern Indian and South American cratons were not part of the Rodinia supercontinent: evidence from field relationships and geochronology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kröner, Alfred; Cordani, Umberto

    2003-11-01

    We discuss the question whether the late Mesoproterozoic and early Neoproterozoic rocks of eastern, central and southern Africa, Madagascar, southern India, Sri Lanka and South America have played any role in the formation and dispersal of the supercontinent Rodinia, believed to have existed between about 1000 and 750 Ma ago. First, there is little evidence for the production of significant volumes of ~1.4-1.0 Ga (Kibaran or Grenvillian age) continental crust in the Mozambique belt (MB) of East Africa, except, perhaps, in parts of northern Mozambique. This is also valid for most terranes related to West Gondwana, which are made up of basement rocks older than Mesoproterozoic, reworked in the Brasiliano/Pan-African orogenic cycle. This crust cannot be conclusively related to either magmatic accretion processes on the active margin of Rodinia or continental collision leading to amalgamation of the supercontinent. So far, no 1.4-1.0 Ga rocks have been identified in Madagascar. Secondly, there is no conclusive evidence for a ~1.0 Ga high-grade metamorphic event in the MB, although such metamorphism has been recorded in the presumed continuation of the MB in East Antarctica. In South America, even the Sunsas mobile belt, which is correlated with the Grenville belt of North America, does not include high-grade metamorphic rocks. All terranes with Mesoproterozoic ages seem to have evolved within extensional, aulacogen-type structures, and their compressional deformation, where observed, is normally much younger and is related to amalgamation of Gondwana. This is also valid for the Trans-Saharan and West Congo belts of West Africa. Third, there is also no evidence for post-1000 Ma sedimentary sequences that were deposited on the passive margin(s) of Rodinia. In contrast, the MB of East Africa and Madagascar is characterized by extensive structural reworking and metamorphic overprinting of Archaean rocks, particularly in Tanzania and Madagascar, and these rocks either

  1. Methylation of MGMT and ADAMTS14 in normal colon mucosa: biomarkers of a field defect for cancerization preferentially targeting elder African-Americans

    PubMed Central

    Alonso, Sergio; Dai, Yuichi; Yamashita, Kentaro; Horiuchi, Shina; Dai, Tomoko; Matsunaga, Akihiro; Sánchez-Muñoz, Rosa; Bilbao-Sieyro, Cristina; Díaz-Chico, Juan Carlos; Chernov, Andrei V.; Strongin, Alex Y.; Perucho, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Somatic hypermethylation of the O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase gene (MGMT) was previously associated with G > A transition mutations in KRAS and TP53 in colorectal cancer (CRC). We tested the association of MGMT methylation with G > A mutations in KRAS and TP53 in 261 CRCs. Sixteen cases, with and without MGMT hypermethylation, were further analyzed by exome sequencing. No significant association of MGMT methylation with G > A mutations in KRAS, TP53 or in the whole exome was found (p > 0.5 in all comparisons). The result was validated by in silico comparison with 302 CRCs from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) consortium dataset. Transcriptional silencing associated with hypermethylation and stratified into monoallelic and biallelic. We also found a significant clustering (p = 0.001) of aberrant hypermethylation of MGMT and the matrix metalloproteinase gene ADAMTS14 in normal colonic mucosa of CRC patients. This suggested the existence of an epigenetic field defect for cancerization disrupting the methylation patterns of several loci, including MGMT or ADAMTS14, that may lead to predictive biomarkers for CRC. Methylation of these loci in normal mucosa was more frequent in elder (p = 0.001) patients, and particularly in African Americans (p = 1 × 10−5), thus providing a possible mechanistic link between somatic epigenetic alterations and CRC racial disparities in North America. PMID:25638164

  2. Methylation of MGMT and ADAMTS14 in normal colon mucosa: biomarkers of a field defect for cancerization preferentially targeting elder African-Americans.

    PubMed

    Alonso, Sergio; Dai, Yuichi; Yamashita, Kentaro; Horiuchi, Shina; Dai, Tomoko; Matsunaga, Akihiro; Sánchez-Muñoz, Rosa; Bilbao-Sieyro, Cristina; Díaz-Chico, Juan Carlos; Chernov, Andrei V; Strongin, Alex Y; Perucho, Manuel

    2015-02-20

    Somatic hypermethylation of the O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase gene (MGMT) was previously associated with G > A transition mutations in KRAS and TP53 in colorectal cancer (CRC). We tested the association of MGMT methylation with G > A mutations in KRAS and TP53 in 261 CRCs. Sixteen cases, with and without MGMT hypermethylation, were further analyzed by exome sequencing. No significant association of MGMT methylation with G > A mutations in KRAS, TP53 or in the whole exome was found (p > 0.5 in all comparisons). The result was validated by in silico comparison with 302 CRCs from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) consortium dataset. Transcriptional silencing associated with hypermethylation and stratified into monoallelic and biallelic. We also found a significant clustering (p = 0.001) of aberrant hypermethylation of MGMT and the matrix metalloproteinase gene ADAMTS14 in normal colonic mucosa of CRC patients. This suggested the existence of an epigenetic field defect for cancerization disrupting the methylation patterns of several loci, including MGMT or ADAMTS14, that may lead to predictive biomarkers for CRC. Methylation of these loci in normal mucosa was more frequent in elder (p = 0.001) patients, and particularly in African Americans (p = 1 × 10-5), thus providing a possible mechanistic link between somatic epigenetic alterations and CRC racial disparities in North America. PMID:25638164

  3. Cardiometabolic Health in African Immigrants to the United States: A Call to Re-examine Research on African-descent populations.

    PubMed

    Commodore-Mensah, Yvonne; Himmelfarb, Cheryl Dennison; Agyemang, Charles; Sumner, Anne E

    2015-01-01

    In the 20th century, Africans in Sub-Saharan Africa had lower rates of cardiometabolic disease than Africans who migrated. However, in the 21st century, beyond infectious diseases, the triple epidemics of obesity, diabetes and hypertension have taken hold in Africa. Therefore, Africans are acquiring these chronic diseases at different rates and different intensity prior to migration. To ensure optimal care and health outcomes, the United States practice of grouping all African-descent populations into the "Black/African American" category without regard to country of origin masks socioeconomic and cultural differences and needs re-evaluation. Overall, research on African-descent populations would benefit from a shift from a racial to an ethnic perspective. To demonstrate the value of disaggregating data on African-descent populations, the epidemiologic transition, social, economic, and health characteristics of African immigrants are presented. PMID:26675140

  4. Cryptosporidium and cryptosporidiosis: the African perspective.

    PubMed

    Aldeyarbi, Hebatalla M; Abu El-Ezz, Nadia M T; Karanis, Panagiotis

    2016-07-01

    The present overview discusses the findings of cryptosporidiosis research conducted in Africa and highlights the currently available information on Cryptosporidium epidemiology, genetic diversity, and distribution on the African continent, particularly among vulnerable populations, including children. It also emphasizes the burden of cryptosporidiosis, which is underestimated due to the presence of many silent asymptomatic carriers.Cryptosporidiosis is recognized as one of the leading causes of childhood diarrhea in African countries. It has dramatic adverse effects on child growth and development and causes increased mortality on a continent where HIV, poverty, and lack of sanitation and infrastructure increase the risk of cryptosporidial waterborne infection. PMID:27126869

  5. Overview of the Diagnostic Methods Used in the Field for Human African Trypanosomiasis: What Could Change in the Next Years?

    PubMed

    Bonnet, Julien; Boudot, Clotilde; Courtioux, Bertrand

    2015-01-01

    Sleeping sickness is a parasitic infection caused by two species of trypanosomes (Trypanosoma brucei gambiense and rhodesiense), transmitted by the tsetse fly. The disease eventually affects the central nervous system, resulting in severe neurological symptoms. Without treatment, death is inevitable. During the first stage of the disease, infected patients are mildly symptomatic and early detection of infection allows safer treatment (administered on an outpatient basis) which can avoid death; routine screening of the exposed population is necessary, especially in areas of high endemicity. The current therapeutic treatment of this disease, especially in stage 2, can cause complications and requires a clinical surveillance for several days. A good stage diagnosis of the disease is the cornerstone for delivering the adequate treatment. The task faced by the medical personnel is further complicated by the lack of support from local health infrastructure, which is at best weak, but often nonexistent. Therefore it is crucial to look for new more efficient technics for the diagnosis of stage which are also best suited to use in the field, in areas not possessing high-level health facilities. This review, after an overview of the disease, summarizes the current diagnosis procedures and presents the advances in the field. PMID:26504815

  6. Obesity and African Americans

    MedlinePlus

    ... Data > Minority Population Profiles > Black/African American > Obesity Obesity and African Americans African American women have the ... ss6304.pdf [PDF | 3.38MB] HEALTH IMPACT OF OBESITY More than 80 percent of people with type ...

  7. African American Educational Leadership in the School Superintendency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Eva C.

    2013-01-01

    African American educational leadership has long been part of American education and African American activism to resist oppression. However, the field of educational leadership has rarely included the contributions of African American leaders, particularly women leaders, into mainstream leadership theory and practices. This omission is difficult…

  8. International Lymphoma Epidemiology Consortium

    Cancer.gov

    The InterLymph Consortium, or formally the International Consortium of Investigators Working on Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma Epidemiologic Studies, is an open scientific forum for epidemiologic research in non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.

  9. The Escalating Incidence of Suicide among African Americans: Implications for Counselors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Day-Vines, Norma L.

    2007-01-01

    Suicide rates have soared among African Americans within the past 2 decades. Curiously, this fact remains poorly understood within and outside the African American community. This article includes a review of M. Compton, N. Thompson, and N. Kaslow's (2005) study, recently published in "Social Psychiatry" and "Psychiatric Epidemiology", and…

  10. Cancer Epidemiology Matters Blog

    Cancer.gov

    The Cancer Epidemiology Matters blog helps foster a dialogue between the National Cancer Institute's (NCI) Epidemiology and Genomics Research Program (EGRP), extramural researchers, and other individuals, such as clinicians, community partners, and advocates, who are interested in cancer epidemiology and genomics.

  11. Observations of Upwelling Filaments in the Southern North-West African Upwelling System : a Joint Effect of the Bottom Topography and the Offshore Eddy Field?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meunier, T.; Barton, E. D.; Torres, R.; Barreiro, B.

    2010-12-01

    The nature and dynamics of the long filaments forming in the southern edge of the West-African upwelling system are investigated using data from the SOLAS-ICON cruise, that took place in April-May 2009 offshore of Cap Blanc, between 19.5 and 22.5 °N and 17 and 19 °W. Two synoptic hydrographic surveys using a Moving Vessel Profiler were performed at a 15 days interval on two distinct upwelling filaments at different stages of development. The first survey showed the presence of a large anticyconic eddy North of the filament, also evident in the satellite imagery. Two transects were performed across the tip of the filament, showing a steep rising of the isohalines and the isotherms, with horizontal gradients of 3.10-2 psu km-1 and 10 -1 °C km-1. The density compensation of temperature and salinity in this part of the North West African upwelling system resulted in a weaker doming of the isopycnals across the filament. The second filament developed during a strong wind episode directly following a 2 days wind relaxation period. 8 cross sections were performed, all showing a steeper doming of the isohalines and isotherms than during the first survey, resulting in horizontal gradients of 8.10-2 psu km-1 and 5.10-1 °C km-1 near the surface. The hydrographic signature of the filament was evident as deep as 300 m. Satellite imagery showed the persistence between the two surveys of a shorter and colder filament West of Cap Blanc , rolling around a small anticyclonic eddy, in spite of the relaxation of the wind. The surveyed filaments both appeared to emerge from this struc ture. A process study using a simple two layer shallow water isopycnic numerical model (MICOM) and an idealized topography was carried out to elucidate the development and stationarity of the anticyclone and cold filament at the root of the longer structures. Potential vorticity anomalies generated by topographic effects were shown to play a major role in the filament formation, when interacting with

  12. Africans in America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hart, Ayanna; Spangler, Earl

    This book introduces African-American history and culture to children. The first Africans in America came from many different regions and cultures, but became united in this country by being black, African, and slaves. Once in America, Africans began a long struggle for freedom which still continues. Slavery, the Civil War, emancipation, and the…

  13. African Outreach Workshop 1974.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Nancy J.

    This report discusses the 1974 African Outreach Workshop planned and coordinated by the African Studies Program at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. Its major aim was to assist teachers in developing curriculum units on African using materials available in their local community. A second aim was for the African Studies Program to…

  14. Optimizing care for African-American HIV-positive patients.

    PubMed

    Smith, Kimberly Y; Brutus, Andre; Cathcart, Ronald; Gathe, Joseph; Johnson, William; Jordan, Wilbert; Kwakwa, Helena A; Nkwanyou, Joseph; Page, Carlos; Scott, Robert; Vaughn, Anita C; Virgil, Luther A; Williamson, Diana

    2003-10-01

    The African-American community has been disproportionately affected HIV/AIDS, as noted by higher reported rates of HIV infection, higher proportion of AIDS cases, and more deaths caused by complications of AIDS than whites and other ethnic groups. In addition, epidemiologic trends suggest that African Americans with HIV infection are more often diagnosed later in the course of HIV disease than whites. Numerous reasons account for this disparity, including the lack of perception of risk and knowledge about HIV transmission as well as a delays in HIV testing and diagnosis in the African-American community. Understanding the important considerations in the management of HIV infection in the African-American patient may create awareness among health care professionals and broaden the knowledge of HIV-infected patients within the African-American community. PMID:14588093

  15. African American Men in College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cuyjet, Michael J., Ed.

    2006-01-01

    This book is a much-needed resource that includes examples of real-world programs and activities to enhance academic success in the college environment for African American men. The examples are collected from a variety of institutions across the country. With contributions from leading practitioners and scholars in the field, this book explores…

  16. Management of School Infrastructure in the Context of a No-Fee Schools Policy in Rural South African Schools: Lessons from the Field

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marishane, Ramodikoe Nylon

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the management of school infrastructure in the context of the "no-fee schools" policy introduced in the South African education delivery system. Focusing on four rural schools, the study applied a qualitative method, which involved observation of infrastructure conditions prevailing at four selected schools and…

  17. The renaissance of Hippocratic epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Hofman, A

    1996-11-01

    Epidemiology is a small but not unimportant field in medicine. It has a clear identity and special spirit. It is a science that has to avoid methodologic dogmatism. It is a science that is strongly dependent upon collaboration with medical practice and basic medical science. And it is a science that in the true spirit of Hippocrates tries to contribute to the conquering of diseases in patients and in populations. PMID:8987121

  18. Contextual Stress and Health Risk Behaviors among African American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Copeland-Linder, Nikeea; Lambert, Sharon F.; Chen, Yi-Fu; Ialongo, Nicholas S.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the longitudinal association between contextual stress and health risk behaviors and the role of protective factors in a community epidemiologically-defined sample of urban African American adolescents (N = 500; 46.4% female). Structural equation modeling was used to create a latent variable measuring contextual stress…

  19. West African crude production diversifies

    SciTech Connect

    Aalund, L.

    1983-06-01

    Nigeria, with its seven crude-oil export streams, dominated West African production and accounted for over 70% of the depressed 1.8 million b/d output from the region last year. However, during the 1970s a flurry of new producing fields, primarily off the African coast, diversified production among a number of countries and touched off a wave of oil activity. The Journal takes a close look at the quality of West African oil in this installment of assays on world export crudes. This issue covers, in alphabetical order, Bonny Light (Nigeria) to Espoir (Ivory Coast). A following issue will wrap up West Africa by presenting assays on crudes from Forcados Blend (Nigeria) to Zaire Crude (Zaire).

  20. Ethnicity/race, ethics, and epidemiology.

    PubMed Central

    Whaley, Arthur L.

    2003-01-01

    Ethnicity/race is a much-studied variable in epidemiology. There has been little consensus about what self-reported ethnicity/race represents, but it is a measure of some combination of genetic, socioeconomic, and cultural factors. The present article will attempt to: 1.) Elucidate the limitations of contemporary discourse on ethnicity/race that emphasizes the genetic and socioeconomic dimensions as competing explanatory frameworks; 2.) Demonstrate how considerable attention to the cultural dimension facilitates understanding of race differences in health-related outcomes; and 3.) Discuss interpretations of disparities in health status of African Americans versus European Americans from an ethical perspective. A major challenge to the discourse on ethnicity/race and health being limited to socioeconomic and genetic considerations is the lack of attention to the third alternative of a cultural perspective. The combined cultural ideologies of individualism and racism undermine the utility of epidemiologic research in health promotion and disease prevention campaigns aimed at reducing the racial gaps in health status. An ethical analysis supplements the cultural perspective. Ethics converge with culture on the notion of values influencing the study of ethnicity/race in epidemiology. A cultural approach to the use of ethnicity/race in epidemiologic research addresses methodological limitations, public health traditions, and ethical imperatives. PMID:12934873

  1. An evaluation of the global network of field epidemiology and laboratory training programmes: a resource for improving public health capacity and increasing the number of public health professionals worldwide

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Given that many infectious diseases spread rapidly, across borders and species, there is a growing worldwide need to increase the number of public health professionals skilled in controlling infectious epidemics. Needed also are more public health professionals skilled in non-communicable disease surveillance and interventions. As a result, we surveyed all 57 field epidemiology training programmes (FETPs) that are members of the Training Program in Epidemiology and Public Health Interventions Network (TEPHINET), to evaluate the progress of the FETPs, the only global applied epidemiology network, toward increasing public health capacity globally. Methods Data on the FETP programmes and the training they provide were abstracted from TEPHINET membership surveys and verified with FETP directors for all FETPs that were members of TEPHINET in 2012. Data on abstracts submitted to the recent TEPHINET Global Scientific Conference, on recent accomplishments by each FETP, and on quality improvement were also compiled to provide a worldwide view of the public health human resource capacity produced by these programmes. Results A total of 6980 public health professionals worldwide have graduated from an FETP or from the Center for Disease Control and Prevention’s Epidemiology Intelligence Service (EIS). FETP residents and graduates participate in key public health prevention, control, and response activities. Each FETP has adapted its curriculum and objectives over time to align with its country’s public health priorities. FETPs are well integrated into their national public health infrastructures, and they have many partners at the national, regional and global levels. Conclusion FETPs are a competent and diverse source of highly skilled public health professionals who contribute significantly to public health’s global human resource needs. This finding is evidenced by 1) the training curricula that were adapted over time to meet public health’s human

  2. African ancestry protects against Alzheimer's disease-related neuropathology

    PubMed Central

    Schlesinger, D; Grinberg, L T; Alba, J G; Naslavsky, M S; Licinio, L; Farfel, J M; Suemoto, C K; de Lucena Ferretti, R E; Leite, R E P; de Andrade, M P; dos Santos, A C F; Brentani, H; Pasqualucci, C A; Nitrini, R; Jacob-Filho, W; Zatz, M

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies in dementia epidemiology have reported higher Alzheimer's disease rates in African-Americans when compared with White Americans. To determine whether genetically determined African ancestry is associated with neuropathological changes commonly associated with dementia, we analyzed a population-based brain bank in the highly admixed city of São Paulo, Brazil. African ancestry was estimated through the use of previously described ancestry-informative markers. Risk of presence of neuritic plaques, neurofibrillary tangles, small vessel disease, brain infarcts and Lewy bodies in subjects with significant African ancestry versus those without was determined. Results were adjusted for multiple environmental risk factors, demographic variables and apolipoprotein E genotype. African ancestry was inversely correlated with neuritic plaques (P=0.03). Subjects with significant African ancestry (n=112, 55.4%) showed lower prevalence of neuritic plaques in the univariate analysis (odds ratio (OR) 0.72, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.55–0.95, P=0.01) and when adjusted for age, sex, APOE genotype and environmental risk factors (OR 0.43, 95% CI 0.21–0.89, P=0.02). There were no significant differences for the presence of other neuropathological alterations. We show for the first time, using genetically determined ancestry, that African ancestry may be highly protective of Alzheimer's disease neuropathology, functioning through either genetic variants or unknown environmental factors. Epidemiological studies correlating African-American race/ethnicity with increased Alzheimer's disease rates should not be interpreted as surrogates of genetic ancestry or considered to represent African-derived populations from the developing nations such as Brazil. PMID:22064377

  3. Black African Traditional Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zaslavsky, Claudia

    1970-01-01

    Discusses the traditional number systems and the origin of the number names used by several African peoples living south of the Sahara. Also included are limitations in African mathematical development, and possible topics for research. (RP)

  4. Some growth points in African child development research.

    PubMed

    Serpell, Robert; Marfo, Kofi

    2014-01-01

    We reflect on ways in which research presented in earlier chapters responds to challenges of generating an African child development field and identify additional issues calling for the field's attention. The chapters collectively display a variety of African contexts and reflexive evidence of the authors' African cultural roots. Connecting research with African audiences demands cooperative communication between educational practitioners and parents with low literacy, and cross-sector communication among professionals. Intracultural exploration of factors influencing the pattern of human development has begun to document the potential of indigenous African cultures as a fund of resources for enhancing child development. Priority topics for future African developmental research include multilingualism, musical performance, socially distributed caregiving, and the relation between adolescence and economic activity. Integration of multiple disciplines in the application of research-based principles to service delivery in the fields of community-based (re)habilitation and early childhood care and education calls for researcher collaboration with practitioners. PMID:25512048

  5. Global Foot-and-Mouth Disease Research Update and Gap Analysis: 2 - Epidemiology, Wildlife and Economics.

    PubMed

    Knight-Jones, T J D; Robinson, L; Charleston, B; Rodriguez, L L; Gay, C G; Sumption, K J; Vosloo, W

    2016-06-01

    We assessed knowledge gaps in foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) research, and in this study, we consider (i) epidemiology, (ii) wildlife and (iii) economics. The study took the form of a literature review (2011-2015) combined with research updates collected in 2014 from 33 institutes from across the world. Findings were used to identify priority areas for future FMD research. During 2011-2015, modelling studies were dominant in the broad field of epidemiology; however, continued efforts are required to develop robust models for use during outbreaks in FMD-free countries, linking epidemiologic and economics models. More guidance is needed for both the evaluation and the setting of targets for vaccine coverage, population immunity and vaccine field efficacy. Similarly, methods for seroprevalence studies need to be improved to obtain more meaningful outputs that allow comparison across studies. To inform control programmes in endemic countries, field trials assessing the effectiveness of vaccination in extensive smallholder systems should be performed to determine whether FMD can be controlled with quality vaccines in settings where implementing effective biosecurity is challenging. Studies need to go beyond measuring only vaccine effects and should extend our knowledge of the impact of FMD and increase our understanding of how to maximize farmer participation in disease control. Where wildlife reservoirs of virus exist, particularly African Buffalo, we need to better understand when and under what circumstances transmission to domestic animals occurs in order to manage this risk appropriately, considering the impact of control measures on livelihoods and wildlife. For settings where FMD eradication is unfeasible, further ground testing of commodity-based trade is recommended. A thorough review of global FMD control programmes, covering successes and failures, would be extremely valuable and could be used to guide other control programmes. PMID:27320163

  6. The Relationship among Alexithymia, Attachment Styles, and Racial Identity of African American Women in a Residential Substance Abuse Treatment Facility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutherland, Vickie Mecshell

    2011-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have shown that substance abuse among African American women is occurring at an alarming rate that exceeds rates for White women. The heightened use of alcohol and drugs among African American women is a problem that resulted from their racial, historical, and structural position in American society. The literature reveals…

  7. Vaccine epidemiology: A review

    PubMed Central

    Lahariya, Chandrakant

    2016-01-01

    This review article outlines the key concepts in vaccine epidemiology, such as basic reproductive numbers, force of infection, vaccine efficacy and effectiveness, vaccine failure, herd immunity, herd effect, epidemiological shift, disease modeling, and describes the application of this knowledge both at program levels and in the practice by family physicians, epidemiologists, and pediatricians. A case has been made for increased knowledge and understanding of vaccine epidemiology among key stakeholders including policy makers, immunization program managers, public health experts, pediatricians, family physicians, and other experts/individuals involved in immunization service delivery. It has been argued that knowledge of vaccine epidemiology which is likely to benefit the society through contributions to the informed decision-making and improving vaccination coverage in the low and middle income countries (LMICs). The article ends with suggestions for the provision of systematic training and learning platforms in vaccine epidemiology to save millions of preventable deaths and improve health outcomes through life-course. PMID:27453836

  8. Visions for the 20th International Epidemiological Association's World Congress of Epidemiology (WCE 2014).

    PubMed

    Monsour, B B; Johnston, J M; Hennessy, T W; Schmidt, M I; Krieger, N

    2012-03-01

    During August 17th-21st, 2014, the University of Alaska Anchorage, along with other local, state, and federal agencies throughout Alaska, will host the 20(th) International Epidemiological Association's (IEA) World Congress of Epidemiology (WCE 2014). The theme for this Congress is "Global Epidemiology in a Changing Environment: The Circumpolar Perspective." The changing environment includes the full range of environments that shape population health and health inequities from the physical to the social and economic. Our circumpolar perspective on these environments includes views on how political systems, work, immigration, Indigenous status, and gender relations and sexuality affect the global world and the health of its people. Suggestions and insights from the 3(rd) North American Congress of Epidemiology (2011) and the first-ever joint regional workshop co-organized by the IEA North American Region and the IEA Latin American and Caribbean Region held at the 19(th) IEA World Congress of Epidemiology (2011) have helped direct the focus for WCE 2014. Since the Arctic regions are feeling the effects of climate change first, we believe focusing on the emerging data on the health impacts of climate change throughout the world will be an important topic for this Congress. This will include a broad range of more traditional epidemiology areas such as infectious disease epidemiology, environmental epidemiology, health disparities, and surveillance and emergency preparedness. Addressing health inequities and promoting health equity is likewise a key concern of the Congress. This Congress will also host presentations on injury epidemiology, occupational health, infectious diseases, chronic diseases, maternal and child health, surveillance and field epidemiology, mental health, violence (from self-directed, e.g., suicide, to interpersonal to structural), psychoactive substance use (including tobacco), and measures of subjective health. Attention will be given to

  9. The African Connection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oguntoyinbo, Lekan

    2012-01-01

    From student and faculty exchanges to joint research projects, U.S. universities maintain a broad spectrum of collaborative relationships with African universities. It's unclear how many U.S. colleges and universities have partnerships with African universities. The African Studies Association, an organization of scholars, doesn't keep that kind…

  10. Traditional epidemiology, modern epidemiology, and public health.

    PubMed Central

    Pearce, N

    1996-01-01

    There have been significant developments in epidemiologic methodology during the past century, including changes in basic concepts, methods of data analysis, and methods of exposure measurement. However, the rise of modern epidemiology has been a mixed blessing, and the new paradigm has major shortcomings, both in public health and in scientific terms. The changes in the paradigm have not been neutral but have rather helped change--and have reflected changes in--the way in which epidemiologists think about health and disease. The key issue has been the shift in the level of analysis from the population to the individual. Epidemiology has largely ceased to function as part of a multidisciplinary approach to understanding the causation of disease in populations and has become a set of generic methods for measuring associations of exposure and disease in individuals. This reductionist approach focuses on the individual, blames the victim, and produces interventions that can be harmful. We seem to be using more and more advanced technology to study more and more trivial issues, while the major causes of disease are ignored. Epidemiology must reintegrate itself into public health and must rediscover the population perspective. PMID:8629719

  11. Epidemiology of actinic keratoses.

    PubMed

    Green, Adèle C

    2015-01-01

    The epidemiology of actinic keratoses (AKs) reflects their causation by cumulative sun exposure, with the highest prevalence seen in pale-skinned people living at low latitudes and on the most sun-exposed body sites, namely the hands, forearms and face. AKs are markers of increased risk of basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma and melanoma, especially when they are numerous and have coalesced into an area of 'field cancerisation'. The major risk factors are male sex, advanced age, sun-sensitive complexion, high lifetime sun exposure and prolonged immunosuppression. Clinical counts of AKs enable the assessment and monitoring of AK burden, but accurate counting is notoriously difficult, especially when skin is severely sun damaged. AK counting has been repeatedly shown to be unreliable, even among expert dermatologists. Notwithstanding these challenges, qualitative assessment of the natural history of AKs shows a high turnover, with new lesions developing and with other lesions regressing. A very small proportion of AKs undergo malignant transformation, but the precise rate of transformation is unknown due to the inaccuracies in monitoring AK lesions over time. Primary prevention of AKs is achieved by limiting intense sun exposure through sun-protective behaviour, including seeking deep shade, wearing sun-protective clothing and applying sunscreen regularly to exposed skin, from an early age. PMID:25561199

  12. Risk Factors for Low Back Disorders in Saskatchewan Farmers: Field-based Exposure Assessment to Build a Foundation for Epidemiological Studies

    PubMed Central

    Bath, Brenna; Johnson, Peter W; Teschke, Kay

    2016-01-01

    Background Studies of many geographical settings and agricultural commodities show that low back disorders are an important public health issue among farmers, who represent a special rural population. However, few studies have examined the impact of low back disorders on farmers’ work or the strategies that they adopt to avoid associated pain and disability. Objective This study protocol will investigate 3 issues related to low back disorders in Saskatchewan farmers: (1) the vibration, heavy lifting, and awkward postures farmers encounter during their work that might contribute to low back disorders; (2) the impact low back disorders have on farmers in terms of their ability to work; and (3) the types of preventative measures and solutions that farmers implement to reduce the occurrence of low back pain. Methods To answer these questions, researchers will travel to 30 farms to make measurements of vibration, lifting, and posture during the farmers’ regular work tasks. Farmers will be interviewed about any pain and/or disability using standardized interview questions. Farmers will also be asked about safety measures they have implemented at their farm, such as modified tools or equipment, to reduce the occurrence of low back disorders or pain. Results Data collection is currently underway for this study, with the intention to complete all data collection and analysis by the end of 2018. Conclusions Occupational determinants of health such as vibration, heavy lifting, and awkward postures are important in the development and progression of low back disorders, and the results of this study will allow for cost-effective epidemiological studies of these determinants in the future. In identifying prevention strategies, this study will also facilitate future research evaluating the effectiveness of safety measures. PMID:27286748

  13. Epidemiology: Then and Now.

    PubMed

    Kuller, Lewis H

    2016-03-01

    Twenty-five years ago, on the 75th anniversary of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, I noted that epidemiologic research was moving away from the traditional approaches used to investigate "epidemics" and their close relationship with preventive medicine. Twenty-five years later, the role of epidemiology as an important contribution to human population research, preventive medicine, and public health is under substantial pressure because of the emphasis on "big data," phenomenology, and personalized medical therapies. Epidemiology is the study of epidemics. The primary role of epidemiology is to identify the epidemics and parameters of interest of host, agent, and environment and to generate and test hypotheses in search of causal pathways. Almost all diseases have a specific distribution in relation to time, place, and person and specific "causes" with high effect sizes. Epidemiology then uses such information to develop interventions and test (through clinical trials and natural experiments) their efficacy and effectiveness. Epidemiology is dependent on new technologies to evaluate improved measurements of host (genomics), epigenetics, identification of agents (metabolomics, proteomics), new technology to evaluate both physical and social environment, and modern methods of data collection. Epidemiology does poorly in studying anything other than epidemics and collections of numerators and denominators without specific hypotheses even with improved statistical methodologies. PMID:26493266

  14. Epidemiological studies in psychosomatic medicine.

    PubMed

    Eastwood, M R

    1975-01-01

    The epidemiological triad of host, agent and environment used conceptually in infectious disease may serve as a model for psychosomatic disorders, despite the involvement of many more variables. There are major problems with diagnosis and measurement, however, and the term "psychosomatic" has several meanings. The two main senses are "specific" psychosomatic disorders and an ecological view of illness. The association between psychiatric and physical disorder has been examined in a variety of settings and the findings have suggested that there is a positive relationship. Despite considerable methodological and sampling difficulties in epidemiological research into psychosomatic illness, recent efforts have been made to overcome these. The results of ecological studies appear to be more consistent that those dealing with "specific" psychosomatic disorders and suggest that man has a general psychophysical propensity to disease. Although physical and mental illness do seem to be intimately linked, the reasons for "vulnerability" to illness and "clustering" of illness are obscure. The clarification of these areas appears to be the main task ahead for epidemiology in the field of psychosomatic medicine. PMID:773850

  15. Evolution and social epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Nishi, Akihiro

    2015-11-01

    Evolutionary biology, which aims to explain the dynamic process of shaping the diversity of life, has not yet significantly affected thinking in social epidemiology. Current challenges in social epidemiology include understanding how social exposures can affect our biology, explaining the dynamics of society and health, and designing better interventions that are mindful of the impact of exposures during critical periods. I review how evolutionary concepts and tools, such as fitness gradient in cultural evolution, evolutionary game theory, and contemporary evolution in cancer, can provide helpful insights regarding social epidemiology. PMID:26319950

  16. Networks and the Epidemiology of Infectious Disease

    PubMed Central

    Danon, Leon; Ford, Ashley P.; House, Thomas; Jewell, Chris P.; Keeling, Matt J.; Roberts, Gareth O.; Ross, Joshua V.; Vernon, Matthew C.

    2011-01-01

    The science of networks has revolutionised research into the dynamics of interacting elements. It could be argued that epidemiology in particular has embraced the potential of network theory more than any other discipline. Here we review the growing body of research concerning the spread of infectious diseases on networks, focusing on the interplay between network theory and epidemiology. The review is split into four main sections, which examine: the types of network relevant to epidemiology; the multitude of ways these networks can be characterised; the statistical methods that can be applied to infer the epidemiological parameters on a realised network; and finally simulation and analytical methods to determine epidemic dynamics on a given network. Given the breadth of areas covered and the ever-expanding number of publications, a comprehensive review of all work is impossible. Instead, we provide a personalised overview into the areas of network epidemiology that have seen the greatest progress in recent years or have the greatest potential to provide novel insights. As such, considerable importance is placed on analytical approaches and statistical methods which are both rapidly expanding fields. Throughout this review we restrict our attention to epidemiological issues. PMID:21437001

  17. Epidemiology of Lice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Juranek, Dennis D.

    1977-01-01

    Research into the epidemiology of lice indicates that infestation is uncommon in blacks, more common in females than males, significantly higher in low income groups, and transmission is by way of articles of clothing. (JD)

  18. Cancer Epidemiology Cohorts

    Cancer.gov

    Cohort studies are fundamental for epidemiological research by helping researchers better understand the etiology of cancer and provide insights into the key determinants of this disease and its outcomes.

  19. Epidemiology of varicocele

    PubMed Central

    Alsaikhan, Bader; Alrabeeah, Khalid; Delouya, Guila; Zini, Armand

    2016-01-01

    Varicocele is a common problem in reproductive medicine practice. A varicocele is identified in 15% of healthy men and up to 35% of men with primary infertility. The exact pathophysiology of varicoceles is not very well understood, especially regarding its effect on male infertility. We have conducted a systematic review of studies evaluating the epidemiology of varicocele in the general population and in men presenting with infertility. In this article, we have identified some of the factors that can influence the epidemiological aspects of varicoceles. We also recognize that varicocele epidemiology remains incompletely understood, and there is a need for well-designed, large-scale studies to fully define the epidemiological aspects of this condition. PMID:26763551

  20. Epidemiology of Toxoplasmosis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Infection with Toxoplasma gondii is highly prevalent throughout the world. This chapter discusses modes of transmission, the epidemiology of T. gondii infection worldwide and in Brazil, and methods of prevention and control....

  1. EPIDEMIOLOGY AND EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Research collaborations between the National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory (NHEERL) and the National Exposure Research Laboratory (NERL) centered on the development and application of exposure analysis tools in environmental epidemiology include the El Paso...

  2. Epidemiology & Genomics Research Program

    Cancer.gov

    The Epidemiology and Genomics Research Program, in the National Cancer Institute's Division of Cancer Control and Population Sciences, funds research in human populations to understand the determinants of cancer occurrence and outcomes.

  3. African and non-African admixture components in African Americans and an African Caribbean population.

    PubMed

    Murray, Tanda; Beaty, Terri H; Mathias, Rasika A; Rafaels, Nicholas; Grant, Audrey Virginia; Faruque, Mezbah U; Watson, Harold R; Ruczinski, Ingo; Dunston, Georgia M; Barnes, Kathleen C

    2010-09-01

    Admixture is a potential source of confounding in genetic association studies, so it becomes important to detect and estimate admixture in a sample of unrelated individuals. Populations of African descent in the US and the Caribbean share similar historical backgrounds but the distributions of African admixture may differ. We selected 416 ancestry informative markers (AIMs) to estimate and compare admixture proportions using STRUCTURE in 906 unrelated African Americans (AAs) and 294 Barbadians (ACs) from a study of asthma. This analysis showed AAs on average were 72.5% African, 19.6% European and 8% Asian, while ACs were 77.4% African, 15.9% European, and 6.7% Asian which were significantly different. A principal components analysis based on these AIMs yielded one primary eigenvector that explained 54.04% of the variation and captured a gradient from West African to European admixture. This principal component was highly correlated with African vs. European ancestry as estimated by STRUCTURE (r(2)=0.992, r(2)=0.912, respectively). To investigate other African contributions to African American and Barbadian admixture, we performed PCA on approximately 14,000 (14k) genome-wide SNPs in AAs, ACs, Yorubans, Luhya and Maasai African groups, and estimated genetic distances (F(ST)). We found AAs and ACs were closest genetically (F(ST)=0.008), and both were closer to the Yorubans than the other East African populations. In our sample of individuals of African descent, approximately 400 well-defined AIMs were just as good for detecting substructure as approximately 14,000 random SNPs drawn from a genome-wide panel of markers. PMID:20717976

  4. The birth of Emerging Themes in Epidemiology: a tale of Valerie, causality and epidemiology

    PubMed Central

    Tam, Clarence C

    2004-01-01

    Emerging Themes in Epidemiology (ETE) is a new, online, Open Access peer-reviewed journal. The Journal is unique in that it was conceived and is managed by research degree students in epidemiology and related public health fields. The Journal's management is overseen by its Editor-in-Chief and Associate Faculty Editors, all of whom are senior members of faculty. ETE aims to encourage debate and discussion on the theoretical, methodological and practical aspects of epidemiologic research and practice. In addition, ETE is dedicated to the promotion of Open Access publication and the training of research students in the scientific publishing process. This editorial, to coincide with the launch of ETE, sets out the Journal's philosophy and aims. Epidemiology is a rich and innovative science that has much to gain from broader discussion of the causal frameworks that underpin it. ETE aims to be a major forum for such discussion. PMID:15679908

  5. Recognizing Excellence in Maternal and Child Health (MCH) Epidemiology: The 2014 National MCH Epidemiology Awards

    PubMed Central

    Vladutiu, Catherine J.; Jones, Jessica R.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The impact of programs, policies, and practices developed by professionals in the field of maternal and child health (MCH) epidemiology is highlighted biennially by 16 national MCH agencies and organizations, or the Coalition for Excellence in MCH Epidemiology. Description In September 2014, multiple leading agencies in the field of MCH partnered to host the national CityMatCH Leadership and MCH Epidemiology Conference in Phoenix, Arizona. The conference offered opportunities for peer exchange; presentation of new scientific methodologies, programs, and policies; dialogue on changes in the MCH field; and discussion of emerging MCH issues relevant to the work of local, state, and national MCH professionals. During the conference, the National MCH Epidemiology Awards were presented to individuals, teams, institutions, and leaders for significantly contributing to the improved health of women, children, and families. Assessment During the conference, the Coalition presented seven deserving health researchers and research groups with national awards in the areas of advancing knowledge, effective practice, outstanding leadership, young professional achievement, and lifetime achievement. The article highlights the accomplishments of these national-level awardees. Conclusion Recognition of deserving professionals strengthens the field of MCH epidemiology, and sets the standard for exceptional research, mentoring, and practice. PMID:26723200

  6. Recognizing Excellence in Maternal and Child Health (MCH) Epidemiology: The 2014 National MCH Epidemiology Awards.

    PubMed

    Kroelinger, Charlan D; Vladutiu, Catherine J; Jones, Jessica R

    2016-04-01

    Purpose The impact of programs, policies, and practices developed by professionals in the field of maternal and child health (MCH) epidemiology is highlighted biennially by 16 national MCH agencies and organizations, or the Coalition for Excellence in MCH Epidemiology. Description In September 2014, multiple leading agencies in the field of MCH partnered to host the national CityMatCH Leadership and MCH Epidemiology Conference in Phoenix, Arizona. The conference offered opportunities for peer exchange; presentation of new scientific methodologies, programs, and policies; dialogue on changes in the MCH field; and discussion of emerging MCH issues relevant to the work of local, state, and national MCH professionals. During the conference, the National MCH Epidemiology Awards were presented to individuals, teams, institutions, and leaders for significantly contributing to the improved health of women, children, and families. Assessment During the conference, the Coalition presented seven deserving health researchers and research groups with national awards in the areas of advancing knowledge, effective practice, outstanding leadership, young professional achievement, and lifetime achievement. The article highlights the accomplishments of these national-level awardees. Conclusion Recognition of deserving professionals strengthens the field of MCH epidemiology, and sets the standard for exceptional research, mentoring, and practice. PMID:26723200

  7. The African superswell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nyblade, Andrew A.; Robinson, Scott W.

    1994-01-01

    Maps of residual bathymetry in the ocean basins around the African continent reveal a broad bathymetric swell in the southeastern Atlantic Ocean with an amplitude of about 500 m. We propose that this region of anomalously shallow bathymetry, together with the contiguous eastern and southern African plateaus, form a superswell which we refer to as the African superswell. The origin of the African superswell is uncertain. However, rifting and volcanism in eastern Africa, as well as heat flow measurements in southern Africa and the southeastern Atlantic Ocean, suggest that the superswell may be attributed, at least in part, to heating of the lithosphere.

  8. Epidemiology of the leishmaniases: general considerations

    PubMed Central

    Moškovskij, Š. D.; Duhanina, N. N.

    1971-01-01

    Recent information from various countries shows that the distribution of the leishmaniases is rapidly changing, as are our concepts of the diverse noso-geographical forms of infection. Concerted efforts should be made to improve our knowledge in these fields to enable the preparation of charts forecasting the spread of the disease. The basic considerations, objectives, and methods of epidemiological investigations carried out in the USSR in natural foci, as well as the classifications used for typing foci, are discussed. The need to use clear-cut epidemiological concepts is particularly stressed. PMID:5316254

  9. The Role of Epidemiology in the Era of Molecular Epidemiology and Genomics: Summary of the 2013 AJE-sponsored Society of Epidemiologic Research Symposium

    PubMed Central

    Kuller, Lewis H.; Bracken, Michael B.; Ogino, Shuji; Prentice, Ross L.; Tracy, Russell P.

    2013-01-01

    On June 20, 2013, the American Journal of Epidemiology sponsored a symposium at the Society for Epidemiologic Research's 46th Annual Meeting in Boston, Massachusetts, entitled, “What Is the Role of Epidemiology in the Era of Molecular Biology and Genomics?” The future of epidemiology depends on innovation in generating interesting and important testable hypotheses that are relevant to population health. These new strategies will depend on new technology, both in measurement of agents and environment and in the fields of pathophysiology and outcomes, such as cellular epidemiology and molecular pathology. The populations to be studied, sample sizes, and study designs should be selected based on the hypotheses to be tested and include case-control, cohort, and clinical trials. Developing large mega cohorts without attention to specific hypotheses is inefficient, will fail to address many associations with high-quality data, and may well produce spurious results. PMID:24105654

  10. Early Identification and Prevention of the Spread of Ebola in High-Risk African Countries.

    PubMed

    Breakwell, Lucy; Gerber, A Russell; Greiner, Ashley L; Hastings, Deborah L; Mirkovic, Kelsey; Paczkowski, Magdalena M; Sidibe, Sekou; Banaski, James; Walker, Chastity L; Brooks, Jennifer C; Caceres, Victor M; Arthur, Ray R; Angulo, Frederick J

    2016-01-01

    In the late summer of 2014, it became apparent that improved preparedness was needed for Ebola virus disease (Ebola) in at-risk countries surrounding the three highly affected West African countries (Guinea, Sierra Leone, and Liberia). The World Health Organization (WHO) identified 14 nearby African countries as high priority to receive technical assistance for Ebola preparedness; two additional African countries were identified at high risk for Ebola introduction because of travel and trade connections. To enhance the capacity of these countries to rapidly detect and contain Ebola, CDC established the High-Risk Countries Team (HRCT) to work with ministries of health, CDC country offices, WHO, and other international organizations. From August 2014 until the team was deactivated in May 2015, a total of 128 team members supported 15 countries in Ebola response and preparedness. In four instances during 2014, Ebola was introduced from a heavily affected country to a previously unaffected country, and CDC rapidly deployed personnel to help contain Ebola. The first introduction, in Nigeria, resulted in 20 cases and was contained within three generations of transmission; the second and third introductions, in Senegal and Mali, respectively, resulted in no further transmission; the fourth, also in Mali, resulted in seven cases and was contained within two generations of transmission. Preparedness activities included training, developing guidelines, assessing Ebola preparedness, facilitating Emergency Operations Center establishment in seven countries, and developing a standardized protocol for contact tracing. CDC's Field Epidemiology Training Program Branch also partnered with the HRCT to provide surveillance training to 188 field epidemiologists in Côte d'Ivoire, Guinea-Bissau, Mali, and Senegal to support Ebola preparedness. Imported cases of Ebola were successfully contained, and all 15 priority countries now have a stronger capacity to rapidly detect and contain

  11. Religion, health and medicine in African Americans: implications for physicians.

    PubMed Central

    Levin, Jeff; Chatters, Linda M.; Taylor, Robert Joseph

    2005-01-01

    Recent years have seen a burgeoning of research and writing on the connections between religion and health. The very best of this work comes from epidemiologic studies of African Americans. This paper summarizes results of these investigations, including findings identifying effects of religious participation on both physical and mental health outcomes. Evidence mostly supports a protective religious effect on morbidity and mortality and on depressive symptoms and overall psychological distress among African Americans. This paper also carefully discusses what the results of these studies mean and do not mean, an important consideration due to frequent misinterpretations of findings on this topic. Because important distinctions between epidemiologic and clinical studies tend to get glossed over, reports of religion-health associations oftentimes draw erroneous conclusions that foster unrealistic expectations about the role of faith and spirituality in health and healing. Finally, implications are discussed for clinical practice, medical education and public health. PMID:15712787

  12. Fighting through Resistance: Challenges Faced by African American Women Principals in Predominately White School Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Alicia D.

    2013-01-01

    African American women represented a growing proportion within the field of education in attaining leadership roles as school principals. As the numbers continued to rise slowly, African American women principals found themselves leading in diverse or even predominately White school settings. Leading in such settings encouraged African American…

  13. Six paths for the future of social epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Galea, Sandro; Link, Bruce G

    2013-09-15

    Social epidemiology is now an accepted part of the academic intellectual landscape. However, in many ways, social epidemiology also runs the risk of losing the identity that distinguished it as a field during its emergence. In the present article, we scan the strengths of social epidemiology to imagine paths forward that will make the field distinct and useful to the understanding of population health in future. We suggest 6 paths to such a future, each emerging from promising research trends in the field in which social epidemiologists can, and should, lead in coming years. Each of these paths contributes to the formation of distinct capacities that social epidemiologists can claim and use to elaborate or fill in gaps in the already strong history of social epidemiology. They present an opportunity for the field to build on its strengths and move forward while leading in new and critical areas in population health. PMID:24008899

  14. Six Paths for the Future of Social Epidemiology

    PubMed Central

    Galea, Sandro; Link, Bruce G.

    2013-01-01

    Social epidemiology is now an accepted part of the academic intellectual landscape. However, in many ways, social epidemiology also runs the risk of losing the identity that distinguished it as a field during its emergence. In the present article, we scan the strengths of social epidemiology to imagine paths forward that will make the field distinct and useful to the understanding of population health in future. We suggest 6 paths to such a future, each emerging from promising research trends in the field in which social epidemiologists can, and should, lead in coming years. Each of these paths contributes to the formation of distinct capacities that social epidemiologists can claim and use to elaborate or fill in gaps in the already strong history of social epidemiology. They present an opportunity for the field to build on its strengths and move forward while leading in new and critical areas in population health. PMID:24008899

  15. What physicians should know about Africanized honeybees.

    PubMed

    Sherman, R A

    1995-12-01

    The Africanized honeybee, popularly known as the "killer bee," is already well established in Texas and has recently entered California and Arizona. As the Africanized honeybee spreads in North America, the medical community must become aware of the problems associated with this insect and ensure that sting emergencies can be handled quickly and appropriately. The major differences between Africanized and European honeybees are that the former are more irritable, they swarm more readily and frequently, they defend their hives more vehemently, and they sting more collectively. It is not the composition nor the volume of an individual bee's venom, but rather the cumulative dose of multiple stings that accounts for the morbidity and mortality associated with Africanized honeybee-sting incidents. Even nonallergic persons are susceptible to the toxic effects of these large combined venom loads. Africanized honeybee-sting victims are treated the same as victims of European honeybee stings. Authorities will prepare for the bees' arrival by expanding public awareness, teaching risk-avoidance behavior, providing for the removal of troublesome hives, and developing sting treatment protocols that can be initiated rapidly in the field or emergency departments. Health care professionals should participate in the educational efforts and in the development of needed emergency response protocols so that the effects of the Africanized honeybee will be merely a nuisance rather than a plague. PMID:8553637

  16. What physicians should know about Africanized honeybees.

    PubMed Central

    Sherman, R A

    1995-01-01

    The Africanized honeybee, popularly known as the "killer bee," is already well established in Texas and has recently entered California and Arizona. As the Africanized honeybee spreads in North America, the medical community must become aware of the problems associated with this insect and ensure that sting emergencies can be handled quickly and appropriately. The major differences between Africanized and European honeybees are that the former are more irritable, they swarm more readily and frequently, they defend their hives more vehemently, and they sting more collectively. It is not the composition nor the volume of an individual bee's venom, but rather the cumulative dose of multiple stings that accounts for the morbidity and mortality associated with Africanized honeybee-sting incidents. Even nonallergic persons are susceptible to the toxic effects of these large combined venom loads. Africanized honeybee-sting victims are treated the same as victims of European honeybee stings. Authorities will prepare for the bees' arrival by expanding public awareness, teaching risk-avoidance behavior, providing for the removal of troublesome hives, and developing sting treatment protocols that can be initiated rapidly in the field or emergency departments. Health care professionals should participate in the educational efforts and in the development of needed emergency response protocols so that the effects of the Africanized honeybee will be merely a nuisance rather than a plague. PMID:8553637

  17. Shifting epidemiology of Flaviviridae.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Lyle R; Marfin, Anthony A

    2005-04-01

    The dengue, West Nile, Japanese encephalitis and yellow fever viruses are important mosquito-borne viruses whose epidemiology is shifting in response to changing societal factors, such as increasing commerce, urbanization of rural areas, and population growth. All four viruses are expanding geographically, as exemplified by the emergence of West Nile virus in the Americas and Japanese encephalitis virus in Australasia. The large, recent global outbreaks of severe neurological disease caused by West Nile virus, the increasing frequency of dengue hemorrhagic fever outbreaks in the Americas, and the emergence of yellow fever virus vaccination-associated viscerotropic disease, are new clinical epidemiologic trends. These worrisome epidemiologic trends will probably continue in coming decades, as a reversal of their societal and biological drivers is not in sight. Nevertheless, the substantial reductions in Japanese encephalitis virus incidence resulting from vaccination programs and economic development in some Asian countries provide some encouragement within this overall guarded outlook. PMID:16225801

  18. An argument for a consequentialist epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Galea, Sandro

    2013-10-15

    Epidemiology is the study of the causes and distributions of diseases in human populations so that we may identify ways to prevent and control disease. Although this definition broadly serves us well, I suggest that in recent decades, our discipline's robust interest in identifying causes has come at the expense of a more rigorous engagement with the second part of our vision for ourselves-the intent for us to intervene-and that this approach threatens to diminish our field's relevance. I argue here for a consequentialist epidemiology, a formalization and recalibration of the philosophical foundations of our discipline. I discuss how epidemiology is, at its core, more comfortably a consequentialist, as opposed to a deontological, discipline. A more consequentialist approach to epidemiology has several implications. It clarifies our research priorities, offers a perspective on the place of novel epidemiologic approaches and a metric to evaluate the utility of new methods, elevates the importance of global health and considerations about equity to the discipline, brings into sharp focus our engagement in implementation and translational science, and has implications for how we teach our students. I intend this article to be a provocation that can help clarify our disciplinary intentions. PMID:24022890

  19. Epidemiology of Lung Cancer.

    PubMed

    Mao, Yousheng; Yang, Ding; He, Jie; Krasna, Mark J

    2016-07-01

    Lung cancer has been transformed from a rare disease into a global problem and public health issue. The etiologic factors of lung cancer become more complex along with industrialization, urbanization, and environmental pollution around the world. Currently, the control of lung cancer has attracted worldwide attention. Studies on the epidemiologic characteristics of lung cancer and its relative risk factors have played an important role in the tertiary prevention of lung cancer and in exploring new ways of diagnosis and treatment. This article reviews the current evolution of the epidemiology of lung cancer. PMID:27261907

  20. Epidemiology of epilepsy in developing countries.

    PubMed Central

    Senanayake, N.; Román, G. C.

    1993-01-01

    Epilepsy is an important health problem in developing countries, where its prevalence can be up to 57 per 1000 population. This article reviews the epidemiology of epilepsy in developing countries in terms of its incidence, prevalence, seizure type, mortality data, and etiological factors. The prevalence of epilepsy is particularly high in Latin America and in several African countries, notably Liberia, Nigeria, and the United Republic of Tanzania. Parasitic infections, particularly neurocysticercosis, are important etiological factors for epilepsy in many of these countries. Other reasons for the high prevalence include intracranial infections of bacterial or viral origin, perinatal brain damage, head injuries, toxic agents, and hereditary factors. Many of these factors are, however, preventable or modifiable, and the introduction of appropriate measures to achieve this could lead to a substantial decrease in the incidence of epilepsy in developing countries. PMID:8490989

  1. The Epidemiology and Genetics of Uterine Leiomyoma.

    PubMed

    Styer, Aaron K; Rueda, Bo R

    2016-07-01

    Uterine leiomyomas (fibroids) are the most common benign neoplasms in premenopausal women, which confer significant morbidity during the reproductive years and represent a significant public health issue. The incidence of fibroids has been associated with African-American race, early onset of menarche, early parity, and environmental/dietary exposures. These sex steroid-responsive uterine tumors are characterized by de novo transformation of the myometrium into fibroids via excessive formation of the extracellular matrix (ECM). Cytogenic anomalies, mutations in mediator complex subunit 12 (MED 12), and aberrant DNA methylation/demethylation have been observed, but have not been reported as direct mediators of fibroid development. Recent advances in epigenetics have implied a functional role of G protein-coupled receptor 10 (GPR10) overexpression and irregular microRNA expression in the pathobiology of fibroids that require future investigation. Herein, the impact of epidemiologic and genetic factors on the incidence and development of fibroids is reviewed. PMID:26725703

  2. Mapping African Animal Trypanosomosis risk from the sky.

    PubMed

    Bouyer, Jérémy; Guerrini, Laure; Desquesnes, Marc; de la Rocque, Stéphane; Cuisance, Dominique

    2006-01-01

    In Burkina Faso, African Animal Trypanosomosis (AAT) is still a major hindrance to cattle breeding, especially in the Mouhoun river basin, which was identified as a priority area for tsetse control. The attempt of the present work was to assess the abundance of tsetse flies and AAT risk using remote sensing coupled to field environmental data, along a Mouhoun river section of 234 km long, harbouring an open riverine forest where G. tachinoides Westwood is the predominant tsetse species. The water course was classified into three epidemiological landscapes, corresponding to a "disturbed", "natural" and finally "border" vegetal formation at the interface of the two formers. Using the mean number of infected flies by trap and by day as a risk indicator, the border landscape was found to be 5.4 (1.3-12.0) and 15.8 (4.7-41.6) times more risky than the natural and disturbed ones respectively. These results led to propose that a campaign against tsetse, undertaken by a development project called PAEOB (Projet d'Appui à l'Elevage dans l'Ouest du Burkina Faso), should be focussed on only 34% of the hydrographic network. PMID:16777035

  3. 16 Extraordinary African Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lobb, Nancy

    This collection for children tells the stories of 16 African Americans who helped make America what it is today. African Americans can take pride in the heritage of these contributors to society. Biographies are given for the following: (1) Sojourner Truth, preacher and abolitionist; (2) Frederick Douglass, abolitionist; (3) Harriet Tubman, leader…

  4. African Studies Computer Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuntz, Patricia S.

    African studies computer resources that are readily available in the United States with linkages to Africa are described, highlighting those most directly corresponding to African content. Africanists can use the following four fundamental computer systems: (1) Internet/Bitnet; (2) Fidonet; (3) Usenet; and (4) dial-up bulletin board services. The…

  5. African Literature as Celebration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Achebe, Chinua

    1989-01-01

    Describes the Igbo tradition of "Mbari," a communal creative enterprise that celebrates the world and the life lived in it through art. Contrasts the cooperative, social dimension of pre-colonial African culture with the exclusion and denial of European colonialism, and sees new African literature again celebrating human presence and dignity. (AF)

  6. Educating African American Males

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Edward E.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Schools across America spend money, invest in programs, and sponsor workshops, offer teacher incentives, raise accountability standards, and even evoke the name of Obama in efforts to raise the academic achievement of African American males. Incarceration and college retention rates point to a dismal plight for many African American…

  7. Africans Away from Home.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarke, John Henrik

    Africans who were brought across the Atlantic as slaves never fully adjusted to slavery or accepted its inevitability. Resistance began on board the slave ships, where many jumped overboard or committed suicide. African slaves in South America led the first revolts against tyranny in the New World. The first slave revolt in the Caribbean occurred…

  8. Keeping African Masks Real

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waddington, Susan

    2012-01-01

    Art is a good place to learn about our multicultural planet, and African masks are prized throughout the world as powerfully expressive artistic images. Unfortunately, multicultural education, especially for young children, can perpetuate stereotypes. Masks taken out of context lose their meaning and the term "African masks" suggests that there is…

  9. Epidemiological Analysis of Salmonella enteritidis Isolates from Humans and Broiler Chickens in Thailand by Phage Typing and Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis

    PubMed Central

    Boonmar, Sumalee; Bangtrakulnonth, Aroon; Pornrunangwong, Srirat; Terajima, Jun; Watanabe, Haruo; Kaneko, Ken-Ichi; Ogawa, Masuo

    1998-01-01

    To determine the phage types (PT) of Salmonella enteritidis found in Thailand and to clarify the potential for human infection by S. enteritidis in broiler chicken meat, human and poultry isolates taken from Thailand between 1990 and 1997 were phage typed and analyzed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Ten different PT were found among the 302 isolates phage typed, with PT 4 being the most frequent in human (73.9%) and poultry (76.2%) isolates, followed by PT 1 (8.0%), 8 (3.6%), and 7a (2.2%) in human isolates and by PT 7a (4.9%), 1 (3.7%), and 12 (2.4%) in poultry isolates. Of the 53 isolates analyzed by PFGE, 45 showed an indistinguishable pattern (pattern A) by BlnI-digested PFGE and the other 8 isolates showed a very similar pattern that differed by only a few bands. These results indicate the spread of a genetically identical clone of S. enteritidis in humans and poultry in Thailand. PMID:9542918

  10. How mathematical epidemiology became a field of biology: a commentary on Anderson and May (1981) ‘The population dynamics of microparasites and their invertebrate hosts’

    PubMed Central

    Heesterbeek, J. A. P.; Roberts, M. G.

    2015-01-01

    We discuss the context, content and importance of the paper ‘The population dynamics of microparasites and their invertebrate hosts’, by R. M. Anderson and R. M. May, published in the Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society as a stand-alone issue in 1981. We do this from the broader perspective of the study of infectious disease dynamics, rather than the specific perspective of the dynamics of insect pathogens. We argue that their 1981 paper fits seamlessly in the systematic study of infectious disease dynamics that was initiated by the authors in 1978, combining effective use of simple mathematical models, firmly rooted in biology, with observable or empirically measurable ingredients and quantities, and promoting extensive capacity building. This systematic approach, taking ecology and biology rather than applied mathematics as the motivation for advance, proved essential for the maturation of the field, and culminated in their landmark textbook of 1991. This commentary was written to celebrate the 350th anniversary of the journal Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society. PMID:25750231

  11. Diabetes in African Americans

    PubMed Central

    Marshall, M

    2005-01-01

    African Americans have a high risk for type 2 diabetes. Genetic traits, the prevalence of obesity, and insulin resistance all contribute to the risk of diabetes in the African American community. African Americans have a high rate of diabetic complications, because of poor glycaemic control and racial disparities in health care in the USA. African Americans with diabetes may have an atypical presentation that simulates type 1 diabetes, but then their subsequent clinical course is typical of type 2 diabetes. Culturally sensitive strategies, structured disease management protocols, and the assistance of nurses, diabetic educators, and other health care professionals are effective in improving the outcome of diabetes in the African American community. PMID:16344294

  12. The Epidemiology and Demographics of Hip Dysplasia

    PubMed Central

    Loder, Randall T.; Skopelja, Elaine N.

    2011-01-01

    The etiology of developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH) is unknown. There are many insights, however, from epidemiologic/demographic information. A systematic medical literature review regarding DDH was performed. There is a predominance of left-sided (64.0%) and unilateral disease (63.4%). The incidence per 1000 live births ranges from 0.06 in Africans in Africa to 76.1 in Native Americans. There is significant variability in incidence within each racial group by geographic location. The incidence of clinical neonatal hip instability at birth ranges from 0.4 in Africans to 61.7 in Polish Caucasians. Predictors of DDH are breech presentation, positive family history, and gender (female). Children born premature, with low birth weights, or to multifetal pregnancies are somewhat protected from DDH. Certain HLA A, B, and D types demonstrate an increase in DDH. Chromosome 17q21 is strongly associated with DDH. Ligamentous laxity and abnormalities in collagen metabolism, estrogen metabolism, and pregnancy-associated pelvic instability are well-described associations with DDH. Many studies demonstrate an increase of DDH in the winter, both in the northern and southern hemispheres. Swaddling is strongly associated with DDH. Amniocentesis, premature labor, and massive radiation exposure may increase the risk of DDH. Associated conditions are congenital muscular torticollis and congenital foot deformities. The opposite hip is frequently abnormal when using rigorous radiographic assessments. The role of acetabular dysplasia and adult hip osteoarthritis is complex. Archeological studies demonstrate that the epidemiology of DDH may be changing. PMID:24977057

  13. African bees to control African elephants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vollrath, Fritz; Douglas-Hamilton, Iain

    2002-11-01

    Numbers of elephants have declined in Africa and Asia over the past 30 years while numbers of humans have increased, both substantially. Friction between these two keystone species is reaching levels which are worryingly high from an ecological as well as a political viewpoint. Ways and means must be found to keep the two apart, at least in areas sensitive to each species' survival. The aggressive African bee might be one such method. Here we demonstrate that African bees deter elephants from damaging the vegetation and trees which house their hives. We argue that bees can be employed profitably to protect not only selected trees, but also selected areas, from elephant damage.

  14. Epidemiology of Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherman, Stephanie L.; Allen, Emily G.; Bean, Lora H.; Freeman, Sallie B.

    2007-01-01

    Down syndrome (DS) is the most commonly identified genetic form of mental retardation and the leading cause of specific birth defects and medical conditions. Traditional epidemiological studies to determine the prevalence, cause, and clinical significance of the syndrome have been conducted over the last 100 years. DS has been estimated to occur…

  15. Phylogenetically resolving epidemiologic linkage

    PubMed Central

    Romero-Severson, Ethan O.; Bulla, Ingo; Leitner, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Although the use of phylogenetic trees in epidemiological investigations has become commonplace, their epidemiological interpretation has not been systematically evaluated. Here, we use an HIV-1 within-host coalescent model to probabilistically evaluate transmission histories of two epidemiologically linked hosts. Previous critique of phylogenetic reconstruction has claimed that direction of transmission is difficult to infer, and that the existence of unsampled intermediary links or common sources can never be excluded. The phylogenetic relationship between the HIV populations of epidemiologically linked hosts can be classified into six types of trees, based on cladistic relationships and whether the reconstruction is consistent with the true transmission history or not. We show that the direction of transmission and whether unsampled intermediary links or common sources existed make very different predictions about expected phylogenetic relationships: (i) Direction of transmission can often be established when paraphyly exists, (ii) intermediary links can be excluded when multiple lineages were transmitted, and (iii) when the sampled individuals’ HIV populations both are monophyletic a common source was likely the origin. Inconsistent results, suggesting the wrong transmission direction, were generally rare. In addition, the expected tree topology also depends on the number of transmitted lineages, the sample size, the time of the sample relative to transmission, and how fast the diversity increases after infection. Typically, 20 or more sequences per subject give robust results. We confirm our theoretical evaluations with analyses of real transmission histories and discuss how our findings should aid in interpreting phylogenetic results. PMID:26903617

  16. Phylogenetically resolving epidemiologic linkage

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Romero-Severson, Ethan O.; Bulla, Ingo; Leitner, Thomas

    2016-02-22

    The use of phylogenetic trees in epidemiological investigations has become commonplace, but their epidemiological interpretation has not been systematically evaluated. Here, we use an HIV-1 within-host coalescent model to probabilistically evaluate transmission histories of two epidemiologically linked hosts. Previous critique of phylogenetic reconstruction has claimed that direction of transmission is difficult to infer, and that the existence of unsampled intermediary links or common sources can never be excluded. The phylogenetic relationship between the HIV populations of epidemiologically linked hosts can be classified into six types of trees, based on cladistic relationships and whether the reconstruction is consistent with the truemore » transmission history or not. We show that the direction of transmission and whether unsampled intermediary links or common sources existed make very different predictions about expected phylogenetic relationships: (i) Direction of transmission can often be established when paraphyly exists, (ii) intermediary links can be excluded when multiple lineages were transmitted, and (iii) when the sampled individuals’ HIV populations both are monophyletic a common source was likely the origin. Inconsistent results, suggesting the wrong transmission direction, were generally rare. In addition, the expected tree topology also depends on the number of transmitted lineages, the sample size, the time of the sample relative to transmission, and how fast the diversity increases after infection. Typically, 20 or more sequences per subject give robust results. Moreover, we confirm our theoretical evaluations with analyses of real transmission histories and discuss how our findings should aid in interpreting phylogenetic results.« less

  17. Epidemiology of Cardiovascular Diseases.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenkins, C. David

    1988-01-01

    Reviews epidemiological studies of cardiovascular diseases especially coronary heart disease (CHD), to document their major public health importance, changes in mortality during this century, and international comparisons of trends. Finds major risk factors for CHD are determined in large part by psychosocial and behavioral mechanisms. Asserts…

  18. Phylogenetically resolving epidemiologic linkage.

    PubMed

    Romero-Severson, Ethan O; Bulla, Ingo; Leitner, Thomas

    2016-03-01

    Although the use of phylogenetic trees in epidemiological investigations has become commonplace, their epidemiological interpretation has not been systematically evaluated. Here, we use an HIV-1 within-host coalescent model to probabilistically evaluate transmission histories of two epidemiologically linked hosts. Previous critique of phylogenetic reconstruction has claimed that direction of transmission is difficult to infer, and that the existence of unsampled intermediary links or common sources can never be excluded. The phylogenetic relationship between the HIV populations of epidemiologically linked hosts can be classified into six types of trees, based on cladistic relationships and whether the reconstruction is consistent with the true transmission history or not. We show that the direction of transmission and whether unsampled intermediary links or common sources existed make very different predictions about expected phylogenetic relationships: (i) Direction of transmission can often be established when paraphyly exists, (ii) intermediary links can be excluded when multiple lineages were transmitted, and (iii) when the sampled individuals' HIV populations both are monophyletic a common source was likely the origin. Inconsistent results, suggesting the wrong transmission direction, were generally rare. In addition, the expected tree topology also depends on the number of transmitted lineages, the sample size, the time of the sample relative to transmission, and how fast the diversity increases after infection. Typically, 20 or more sequences per subject give robust results. We confirm our theoretical evaluations with analyses of real transmission histories and discuss how our findings should aid in interpreting phylogenetic results. PMID:26903617

  19. Concepts in Huanglongbing Epidemiology

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Huanglongbing (HLB) was discovered in Brazil and Florida in 2004 and 2005 respectively. Previously, very few quantitative epidemiological studies had been conducted, and thus the increase and spread of the disease remains incompletely characterized. The perennial nature of the disease necessitates...

  20. Translational Epidemiology in Psychiatry

    PubMed Central

    Weissman, Myrna M.; Brown, Alan S.; Talati, Ardesheer

    2012-01-01

    Translational research generally refers to the application of knowledge generated by advances in basic sciences research translated into new approaches for diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of disease. This direction is called bench-to-bedside. Psychiatry has similarly emphasized the basic sciences as the starting point of translational research. This article introduces the term translational epidemiology for psychiatry research as a bidirectional concept in which the knowledge generated from the bedside or the population can also be translated to the benches of laboratory science. Epidemiologic studies are primarily observational but can generate representative samples, novel designs, and hypotheses that can be translated into more tractable experimental approaches in the clinical and basic sciences. This bedside-to-bench concept has not been explicated in psychiatry, although there are an increasing number of examples in the research literature. This article describes selected epidemiologic designs, providing examples and opportunities for translational research from community surveys and prospective, birth cohort, and family-based designs. Rapid developments in informatics, emphases on large sample collection for genetic and biomarker studies, and interest in personalized medicine—which requires information on relative and absolute risk factors—make this topic timely. The approach described has implications for providing fresh metaphors to communicate complex issues in interdisciplinary collaborations and for training in epidemiology and other sciences in psychiatry. PMID:21646577

  1. Cystic fibrosis on the African continent.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Cheryl; Pepper, Michael S

    2016-07-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF; OMIM 219700) is a life-shortening and costly autosomal recessive disease that has been most extensively studied in individuals of Caucasian descent. There is ample evidence, however, that it also affects other ethnicities. In Africa there have been several reports of CF, but there has been no concerted effort toward establishing the molecular epidemiology of this disease on the continent, which is the first step toward outlining a public health strategy to effectively address the needs of these patients. A literature search revealed reports from only 12 of the 54 African states on the molecular analysis of the mutations present in suspected CF patients, resulting in the identification of 79 mutations. Based on previous functional investigations, 39 of these cause CF, 10 are of varying clinical consequence, 4 have no associated evidence regarding whether they cause CF, 4 are synonymous, 5 are novel, and 21 are unique to Africa. We propose that CF be more thoroughly investigated on the continent to ensure that the public health needs of African CF patients-both those in Africa and those of African descent living elsewhere-are met.Genet Med 18 7, 653-662. PMID:26656651

  2. [Diabetes in Ivory Coast: special epidemiological features].

    PubMed

    Oga, A S S; Tebi, A; Aka, J; Adouéni, K V; Malan, K A; Kouadio, L P; Lokrou, A

    2006-06-01

    Within less than a quarter century diabetes has become a health problem in developing countries. In Africa this metabolic disorder is found in a wide variety of sometimes atypical forms. The purpose of this study was to highlight the special epidemiological features of medically diagnosed diabetes in Ivory Coast. Data from the files of 10320 African patients who presented at a major national outpatient care centre between January 1, 1991 and December 31, 2000 were compiled and analyzed. Findings showed that morbidity gradually increased from 30 to 49 years then stabilized from 50 to 69 years with a higher rate in males between 30 and 49 years. One of the five national ethnic groups appeared to be most affected and two appeared to be relatively unaffected. On the basis of several criteria, 5968 patients were classified as type 1 in 11.8% of cases, type 2 without excess body weight in 48.7% and type 2 with excess body weight in 39.5%. The second of these identified groups was characterized by intermediate-discovered glycaemia and older age at diagnosis. Epidemiological features included age of occurrence and higher morbidity in young male patients, probable higher premature mortality, likely links with socio-cultural environmental factors and existence of two type 2 subgroups. This profile underlines the challenges of screening, management and prevention of diabetes in Ivory Coast. PMID:16924814

  3. [Future prospects of molecular epidemiology in tuberculosis].

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Tomoshige; Iwamoto, Tomotada

    2009-12-01

    easily compare the genotypic data of independent studies between different laboratories. With the advantages, VNTR surpassed IS6110 RFLP and became the first line genotyping method in molecular epidemiology. One of the most attractive potentials on this method is its applicability for establishment of the database of M. tuberculosis genotype which covers not only local area but also world wide scale. This would open the door to "in silico epidemiology" which brings a breakthrough on the current TB control program. The optimization and standardization of the combination of VNTR loci for strain genotyping is the only but hard issue for the development of global database system. Road to the global Mtb genotype database is hard, but we believe, "Yes, We Can!". Another attractive potential of VNTR is its use for phylogenetic analysis, although more intensive research on this with using comprehensive marker sets, such as large sequence polymorphisms and single-nucleotide polymorphisms are required. Again, with the advantages of VNTR analysis, i.e., easy, rapid, specific, and digit-based data, VNTR became the first line method in molecular epidemiology. Molecular epidemiology of tuberculosis is expanding its research field from the investigation of TB transmission to more basic science such as evolution and phylogeographic distribution. In this symposium, we have invited four opinion leaders in molecular epidemiology of TB in Japan who are talking about each title as followed. 1. Establishment of the standard VNTR analysis systems for Tuberculosis (TB) and preparation of databases for TB genotyping: Shinji MAEDA and Yoshiro MURASE (Department of Mycobacterium Reference and Research, Research Institute of Tuberculosis, JATA). We have already reported the JATA (12)-VNTR system for TB genotyping in Japan. However, by comparison of cluster formation rate, the discrimination power of JATA (12)-VNTR was lower than that of IS6110 RFLP analysis. Therefore, we improved the JATA (12

  4. Careers of African Americans in Academic Astronomy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fikes, Robert Jr.

    2000-01-01

    Though traditionally the field of academic astronomy has belonged almost exclusively to whites, today several black scholars are beginning to make their mark in this scientific discipline. Profiles a group of contemporary African American scholars who are astronomers and astrophysicists, noting that there are at least four black graduate students…

  5. Dictionaries of African Sign Languages: An Overview

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmaling, Constanze H.

    2012-01-01

    This article gives an overview of dictionaries of African sign languages that have been published to date most of which have not been widely distributed. After an introduction into the field of sign language lexicography and a discussion of some of the obstacles that authors of sign language dictionaries face in general, I will show problems…

  6. Day-to-Day Variability of H Component of Geomagnetic Field in Central African Sector Provided by YACM (Yaoundé-Cameroon) Amber Magnetometer Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Etoundi Messanga, Honoré

    2015-04-01

    The geomagnetic data obtained from Amber Network station in Cameroon has been used for this study. The variability of H component of geomagnetic field has been examined by using geomagnetic field data of X and Y components recorded at AMBER magnetometer station hosted by the Department of Physics of University of Yaoundé (3.87°N, 11.52°E). The day-to-day variability of the horizontal intensity of the geomagnetic field has been examined and shows that the scattering of H component of magnetic field variation is more on disturbed than on quiet days. The signatures H of geomagnetic Sq and Sd variations in intensities in the geomagnetic element, has been studied. This paper shows that the daytime variations in intensities of geomagnetic elements H, Sq(H) and Sd(H) respectively are generally greater at diurnal-times than at night-times. This study mainly interests to answer to two questions: 1) how can geomagnetic variations be used to study the equatorial ionosphere electrodynamics and electrojet equatorial over Africa in general and Cameroon in particular? 2) How can geomagnetic variations be used to monitor and predict Space weather events in Cameroon? This study presents and interprets the results of H component of geomagnetic field variations during magnetic storms and on quiet days.

  7. Meningococcal carriage in the African meningitis belt

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    A meningococcal serogroup A polysaccharide/tetanus toxoid conjugate vaccine (PsA-TT) (MenAfriVac#x2122;) is being deployed in countries of the African meningitis belt. Experience with other polysaccharide/protein conjugate vaccines has shown that an important part of their success has been their ability to prevent the acquisition of pharyngeal carriage and hence to stop transmission and induce herd immunity. If PsA-TT is to achieve the goal of preventing epidemics, it must be able to prevent the acquisition of pharyngeal carriage as well as invasive meningococcal disease and whether PsA-TT can prevent pharyngeal carriage needs to be determined. To address this issue, a consortium (the African Meningococcal Carriage (MenAfriCar) consortium) was established in 2009 to investigate the pattern of meningococcal carriage in countries of the African meningitis belt prior to and after the introduction of PsA-TT. This article describes how the consortium was established, its objectives and the standardised field and laboratory methods that were used to achieve these objectives. The experience of the MenAfriCar consortium will help in planning future studies on the epidemiology of meningococcal carriage in countries of the African meningitis belt and elsewhere. Un vaccin conjugué contenant un polysaccharide du sérogroupe A méningococcique et une anatoxine du tétanos (PsA-TT) (MenAfriVac™) est en cours de déploiement dans les pays de la ceinture africaine de la méningite. L’ expérience avec d’ autres vaccins conjugués polysaccharide/protéine a montré qu’ une partie importante de leur succès a été leur capacité à empêcher l’ acquisition du portage pharyngé et donc à arrêter la transmission et à induire une immunité de group. Si PsA-TT doit d’ atteindre l’ objectif de prévenir les épidémies, il devrait être en mesure d’ empêcher l’ acquisition du portage pharyngé ainsi que la méningococcie invasive et le fait que PsA-TT puisse emp

  8. Black versus Black: The Relationship among African, African American, and African Caribbean Persons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Jennifer V.; Cothran, Mary E.

    2003-01-01

    Surveyed people of African descent regarding relationships among African, African-American, and African-Caribbean persons, focusing on contact and friendship, travel to countries of the diaspora, cross-cultural communication, thoughts and stereotypes, and education. Most respondents had contacts with the other groups, but groups had preconceived…

  9. Feminism meets the "new" epidemiologies: toward an appraisal of antifeminist biases in epidemiological research on women's health.

    PubMed

    Inhorn, M C; Whittle, K L

    2001-09-01

    This essay explores an alternative paradigm for epidemiology, one which is explicitly informed by a feminist perspective. We intend to expand upon recent critiques and debates within the emergent fields of "critical", "popular", and "alternative" epidemiology to examine how epidemiology's conceptual models--which are meant to contribute to the prevention of social inequalities in health, but may instead reinforce social hierarchies based on gender, race, and class--constrain our understanding of health and disease. Specifically, we examine persistent antifeminist biases in contemporary epidemiological research on women's health. Issues highlighted include: problem definition and knowledge production in women's health: biological essentialization of women as reproducers; and decontextualization and depoliticization of women's health risks. As part of this critique, we include suggestions for an emancipatory epidemiology that incorporates an alternative feminist framework. PMID:11478536

  10. African N Assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bekunda, M.; Galford, G. L.; Hickman, J. E.; Palm, C.

    2011-12-01

    Africa's smallholder agricultural systems face unique challenges in planning for reducing poverty, concurrent with adaptation and mitigation to climate change. At continental level, policy seeks to promote a uniquely African Green Revolution to increase crop yields and food production, and improve local livelihoods. However, the consequences on the environment and climate are not clear; these pro-economic development measures should be linked to climate change adaptation and mitigation measures, and research is required to help achieve these policy proposals by identifying options, and testing impacts. In particular, increased nitrogen (N) inputs are essential for increasing food production in Africa, but are accompanied by inevitable increases in losses to the environment. These losses appear to be low at input levels promoted in agricultural development programs, while the increased N inputs both increase current food production and appear to reduce the vulnerability of food production to changes in climate. We present field and remote sensing evidence from Malawi that subsidizing improved seed and fertilizers increases resilience to drought without adding excess N to the environment. In Kenya, field research identified thresholds in N2O losses, where emissions are very low at fertilization rates of less than 200 kg ha-1. Village-scale models have identified potential inefficiencies in the food production process where the largest losses of reactive N occur, and which could be targeted to reduce the amount of N released to the environment. We further review some on-going research activities and progress in Africa that compare different methods of managing resources that target resilience in food production and adaptation to climate change, using nutrient N as an indicator, while evaluating the effects of these resource management practices on ecosystems and the environment.

  11. African American Suicide

    MedlinePlus

    ... accounted for 83.8% of Caucasian elderly suicides. • Firearms were the predominant method of suicide among African ... per 100,000 annually. Source: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. National Vital Statistics System. Mortality Data. ...

  12. [Epidemiology of osteoporosis].

    PubMed

    Scheidt-Nave, C; Ziegler, R; Raspe, H

    1998-03-15

    Epidemiological studies have identified osteoporosis as a disease of significant public health impact and have delineated numerous potential risk factors. Nevertheless, it has proven difficult to establish preventive strategies for several reasons. First, there has been no final agreement on the definition of osteoporosis, which has hampered efforts to characterize the magnitude of the problem as a whole. Secondly, as osteoporosis is a multifactorial chronic disorder, effective programs for risk assessment and intervention depend on the development of complex disease models. In summarizing the contributions of epidemiological studies to the current understanding of osteoporosis this review intends to outline the scientific background for the European Vertebral Osteoporosis Study (EVOS) and its successors. PMID:9564151

  13. [Rickettsioses: the epidemiological assessment].

    PubMed

    Lukin, E P; Makhlaĭ, A A; Perepelkin, V S

    1997-08-01

    Microbe of taxonomical families Rickettsiaceae aceal and Bartonellaceae of Rickettsiales order have caused not less than 14 nosological forms of disease among people in different parts of the world. About 8 of them--in Russia and in the former Soviet Republics. These diseases are not unequivocal from epidemiological point of view. Trench, Marseilles and other forms of fever, murine typhus, vesicules rickettsia, etc. have been liquidated and never recurred for 30-40 years. Prowazek's [correction of Provachek's] rickettsia in its two forms has lost its epidemiological meaning in Russia and is next to full disappearance. However, some types of fever still represent a definite threat to public health. Some diseases, like ehrlichiosis, Bartonella, tsutsugamushi fever have not yet been studied to the end in Russia. PMID:9424811

  14. Prospects for Epigenetic Epidemiology

    PubMed Central

    Foley, Debra L.; Craig, Jeffrey M.; Morley, Ruth; Olsson, Craig J.; Dwyer, Terence; Smith, Katherine

    2009-01-01

    Epigenetic modification can mediate environmental influences on gene expression and can modulate the disease risk associated with genetic variation. Epigenetic analysis therefore holds substantial promise for identifying mechanisms through which genetic and environmental factors jointly contribute to disease risk. The spatial and temporal variance in epigenetic profile is of particular relevance for developmental epidemiology and the study of aging, including the variable age at onset for many common diseases. This review serves as a general introduction to the topic by describing epigenetic mechanisms, with a focus on DNA methylation; genetic and environmental factors that influence DNA methylation; epigenetic influences on development, aging, and disease; and current methodology for measuring epigenetic profile. Methodological considerations for epidemiologic studies that seek to include epigenetic analysis are also discussed. PMID:19139055

  15. [Epidemiology of myopia].

    PubMed

    Pechmann, A; Czepita, D

    2000-01-01

    The present state of knowledge on the epidemiology of myopia is discussed. The history of myopia investigations is described. The prevalence of myopia in different ages, races and populations is presented. The factors influencing myopia occurrence are characterized. Special attention is focused on the results of studies indicating environmental and genetic reasons of myopia. Most recent investigations concerning the influence of light on myopia occurrence as well as concerning a genetic locus for high myopia are described. PMID:11291303

  16. Epidemiology of venous thromboembolism.

    PubMed Central

    Coon, W W

    1977-01-01

    This review of the epidemiology of venous thromboembolism includes estimates of incidence and prevalence of venous thrombosis and its sequelae, a discussion geographical, annual and seasonal variations and data concerning possible risk factors. Selection of patients at increased risk for development of deep venous thrombosis or pulmonary embolism for specific diagnostic screening or for prophylactic therapy with low-dose heparin may be a more effective approach to lowering morbidity and mortality from this disease. PMID:329779

  17. The leukemias: Epidemiologic aspects

    SciTech Connect

    Linet, M.S.

    1984-01-01

    Particularly geared to physicians and cancer researchers, this study of the epidemiology and etiology of leukemia analyzes the four major leukemia subtypes in terms of genetic and familial determinant factors and examines the incidence, distribution and frequency of reported leukemia clusters. Linet discusses the connection between other types of malignancies, their treatments, and the subsequent development of leukemia and evaluates the impact on leukemia onset of such environmental factors as radiation therapy, drugs, and occupational hazards.

  18. Epidemiology of Cystic Fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Spoonhower, Kimberly A; Davis, Pamela B

    2016-03-01

    Improved quality of care and rapidly emerging therapeutic strategies to restore chloride transport profoundly impact the epidemiology and pathobiology of cystic fibrosis (CF) in the twenty-first century. CF now serves as a model for chronic illness management, continuous quality improvement via registry data, and a seamless link between basic science research, translational studies, clinical trials, and outcomes research to enable rapid expansion of treatment options. PMID:26857763

  19. [Acute coronary syndromes: epidemiology].

    PubMed

    Ozkan, Alev Arat

    2013-04-01

    Coronary heart disease is the main cause of death in the world as well as in Turkey. It's not only a health issue but also a social problem with a high economic burden and negative impact on quality of life. The majority of deaths are attributable to acute coronary syndromes (ACS) and their complications.This review summarizes some important facts regarding ACS epidemiology in the world and in Turkey. PMID:27323430

  20. Determining Connections between the Daily Lives of Zoo Elephants and Their Welfare: An Epidemiological Approach

    PubMed Central

    Meehan, Cheryl L.; Mench, Joy A.; Carlstead, Kathy; Hogan, Jennifer N.

    2016-01-01

    Concerns about animal welfare increasingly shape people’s views about the acceptability of keeping animals for food production, biomedical research, and in zoos. The field of animal welfare science has developed over the past 50 years as a method of investigating these concerns via research that assesses how living in human-controlled environments influences the behavior, health and affective states of animals. Initially, animal welfare research focused on animals in agricultural settings, but the field has expanded to zoos because good animal welfare is essential to zoos’ mission of promoting connections between animals and visitors and raising awareness of conservation issues. A particular challenge for zoos is ensuring good animal welfare for long-lived, highly social species like elephants. Our main goal in conducting an epidemiological study of African (Loxodonta africana) and Asian (Elephas maximus) elephant welfare in 68 accredited North American zoos was to understand the prevalence of welfare indicators in the population and determine the aspects of an elephant’s zoo environment, social life and management that are most important to prevent and reduce a variety of welfare problems. In this overview, we provide a summary of the findings of the nine papers in the collection titled: Epidemiological Investigations of North American Zoo Elephant Welfare with a focus on the life history, social, housing, and management factors found to be associated with particular aspects of elephant welfare, including the performance of abnormal behavior, foot and joint problems, recumbence, walking rates, and reproductive health issues. Social and management factors were found to be important for multiple indicators of welfare, while exhibit space was found to be less influential than expected. This body of work results from the largest prospective zoo-based animal welfare study conducted to date and sets in motion the process of using science-based welfare benchmarks

  1. Determining Connections between the Daily Lives of Zoo Elephants and Their Welfare: An Epidemiological Approach.

    PubMed

    Meehan, Cheryl L; Mench, Joy A; Carlstead, Kathy; Hogan, Jennifer N

    2016-01-01

    Concerns about animal welfare increasingly shape people's views about the acceptability of keeping animals for food production, biomedical research, and in zoos. The field of animal welfare science has developed over the past 50 years as a method of investigating these concerns via research that assesses how living in human-controlled environments influences the behavior, health and affective states of animals. Initially, animal welfare research focused on animals in agricultural settings, but the field has expanded to zoos because good animal welfare is essential to zoos' mission of promoting connections between animals and visitors and raising awareness of conservation issues. A particular challenge for zoos is ensuring good animal welfare for long-lived, highly social species like elephants. Our main goal in conducting an epidemiological study of African (Loxodonta africana) and Asian (Elephas maximus) elephant welfare in 68 accredited North American zoos was to understand the prevalence of welfare indicators in the population and determine the aspects of an elephant's zoo environment, social life and management that are most important to prevent and reduce a variety of welfare problems. In this overview, we provide a summary of the findings of the nine papers in the collection titled: Epidemiological Investigations of North American Zoo Elephant Welfare with a focus on the life history, social, housing, and management factors found to be associated with particular aspects of elephant welfare, including the performance of abnormal behavior, foot and joint problems, recumbence, walking rates, and reproductive health issues. Social and management factors were found to be important for multiple indicators of welfare, while exhibit space was found to be less influential than expected. This body of work results from the largest prospective zoo-based animal welfare study conducted to date and sets in motion the process of using science-based welfare benchmarks to

  2. Epidemiology of Uterine Fibroids: From Menarche to Menopause.

    PubMed

    Wise, Lauren A; Laughlin-Tommaso, Shannon K

    2016-03-01

    Uterine leiomyomata (UL) have a substantial impact on women's health, but relatively few studies have identified opportunities for primary prevention of these neoplasms. Most established risk factors are not modifiable, including premenopausal age, African ancestry, age at menarche, and childbearing history. The main challenge in studying UL is that a large proportion of tumors are asymptomatic. Herein, we review the epidemiology of UL from published studies to date. We highlight the advantages of ultrasound screening studies and the ways in which their innovative methods have helped clarify the etiology of disease. We conclude with a discussion of promising new hypotheses. PMID:26744813

  3. Epidemiological Transition and the Double Burden of Disease in Accra, Ghana

    PubMed Central

    de-Graft Aikins, Ama

    2010-01-01

    It has long been recognized that as societies modernize, they experience significant changes in their patterns of health and disease. Despite rapid modernization across the globe, there are relatively few detailed case studies of changes in health and disease within specific countries especially for sub-Saharan African countries. This paper presents evidence to illustrate the nature and speed of the epidemiological transition in Accra, Ghana’s capital city. As the most urbanized and modernized Ghanaian city, and as the national center of multidisciplinary research since becoming state capital in 1877, Accra constitutes an important case study for understanding the epidemiological transition in African cities. We review multidisciplinary research on culture, development, health, and disease in Accra since the late nineteenth century, as well as relevant work on Ghana’s socio-economic and demographic changes and burden of chronic disease. Our review indicates that the epidemiological transition in Accra reflects a protracted polarized model. A “protracted” double burden of infectious and chronic disease constitutes major causes of morbidity and mortality. This double burden is polarized across social class. While wealthy communities experience higher risk of chronic diseases, poor communities experience higher risk of infectious diseases and a double burden of infectious and chronic diseases. Urbanization, urban poverty and globalization are key factors in the transition. We explore the structures and processes of these factors and consider the implications for the epidemiological transition in other African cities. PMID:20803094

  4. [Suicide - background, epidemiology, risk factors].

    PubMed

    Ajdacic-Gross, Vladeta

    2015-10-01

    Suicide research, in particular epidemiology, comprises a huge amount of data. However, the theoretical understanding clearly lags behind the empirical knowledge. Suicide, suicide attempts and other suicidal behaviors are more heterogeneous than most explanatory approaches would assume. The most important recent contributions to a better understanding have come from selected epidemiological findings and, interestingly, prevention. This article provides an overview of epidemiological findings, the most relevant risk factors and conclusions related to successful preventive efforts. PMID:26423878

  5. Trichinosis: Epidemiology in Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Kaewpitoon, Natthawut; Kaewpitoon, Soraya Jatesadapattaya; Philasri, Chutikan; Leksomboon, Ratana; Maneenin, Chanvit; Sirilaph, Samaporn; Pengsaa, Prasit

    2006-01-01

    Trichinosis is one of the most common food-borne parasitic zoonoses in Thailand and many outbreaks are reported each year. This paper reviews the history, species, and epidemiology of the disease and food habits of the people with an emphasis on the north, northeast, central and south regions of Thailand. The earliest record of trichinosis in Thailand was in 1962 in the Mae Sariang District, Mae Hong Son Province. Since then, about 130 outbreaks have been reported involving 7392 patients and 97 deaths (1962-2005). The highest number of cases, 557, was recorded in 1983. The annual epidemiological surveillance reports of the Bureau of Epidemiology, Department of Disease Control, Ministry of Public Health, Thailand, show that trichinosis cases increased from 61 in 1997 to 351 in 1998. In contrast to these figures, the number of reported cases decreased to 16 in 1999 and 128 cases in 2000. There was no record of trichinosis in 2001, but then the figures for 2002, 2003 and 2004 were 289, 126 and 212 respectively. The infected patients were mostly in the 35-44 years age group and the disease occurred more frequently in men than women at a ratio of 1.7-2.0:1. There were 84 reported cases of trichinosis in Chiang Rai, Nan, Chiang Mai, Si Sa ket, Nakhon Phanom, Kalasin, Nakhon Ratchasima, Nakhon Nayok, Nakhon Pathom and Surat Thani, provinces located in different parts of Thailand in 2005. The outbreaks were more common in the northern areas, especially in rural areas where people ate raw or under-cooked pork and/or wild animals. This indicates the need for health education programs to prevent and control trichinosis as soon as possible in the high-risk areas. PMID:17072975

  6. Epidemiological Perspectives of Diabetes.

    PubMed

    Tao, Ziqi; Shi, Aimin; Zhao, Jing

    2015-09-01

    The global statistics of diabetes mellitus in year 2013 indicated, about 382 million people had this disease worldwide, with type 2 diabetes making up about 90 % of the cases. This is equal to 8.3 % of the adult population with equal rates in both women and men. In year 2012 and 2013 diabetes resulted in mortality of 1.5-5.1 million people per year, making it the 8th leading cause of death in the world. It is predicted that by year 2035 about 592 million people will die of diabetes. The economic cost of diabetes seems to have increased worldwide. An average age of onset of diabetes is 42.5 years and could be due to consumption of high sugar and high-calorie diet, low physical activity, genetic susceptibility, and lifestyle. Approximately 8 % children and about 26 % young adults have diabetes mellitus in the world. The results of epidemiological study of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1D) are presented by demographic, geographic, biologic, cultural, and other factors in human populations. The prevalence of T1D has been increased by 2-5 % worldwide and its prevalence is approximately one in 300 in US by 18 years of age. The epidemiological studies are important to study the role, causes, clinical care, prevention, and treatment of type1 diabetes in pregnant women and their children before and after birth. In this article, causes, diagnosis, symptoms, treatment and medications, and epidemiology of diabetes will be described. PMID:25711186

  7. Epidemiologic research in Antarctica

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    A study of epidemiology of respiratory viruses that was begun in the early 1960's is described. Locations selected for the study included a Wisconsin University housing village, a second grade school population, individual volunteers who associated socially, married couples, and the winter-over population at McMurdo Bay and at Scott Base in the Antarctic. It was concluded that most rhinovirus transmission is through aerosolized particles. Air filtration and careful nasal sanitation with virucidal tissues are determined to be effective in blocking rhinovirus transmission and should be useful in both isolated space colonies and in ordinary earth-bound populations.

  8. Epidemiology of urethral strictures

    PubMed Central

    Blaschko, Sarah D.; McAninch, Jack W.; Breyer, Benjamin N.

    2014-01-01

    Urethral stricture disease is relatively common and is associated with a significant financial cost and potentially debilitating outcomes. Understanding urethral stricture epidemiology is important to identify risk factors associated with the etiology or progression of the disease. This understanding may lead to better treatments and preventative measures that could ameliorate disease severity, produce better health outcomes, and reduce expenditures. We performed a comprehensive review of urethral stricture disease based on available published case series, identified gaps in knowledge of this disease, and recommend future directions for research. PMID:26813256

  9. Background and Epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Sanders, Don B; Fink, Aliza K

    2016-08-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is the most common autosomal-recessive disease in white persons. Significant advances in therapies and outcomes have occurred for people with CF over the past 30 years. Many of these improvements have come about through the concerted efforts of the CF Foundation and international CF societies; networks of CF care centers; and the worldwide community of care providers, researchers, and patients and families. There are still hurdles to overcome to continue to improve the quality of life, reduce CF complications, prolong survival, and ultimately cure CF. This article reviews the epidemiology of CF, including trends in incidence and prevalence, clinical characteristics, common complications, and survival. PMID:27469176

  10. Migraine headache: epidemiologic perspectives.

    PubMed

    Linet, M S; Stewart, W F

    1984-01-01

    Clinical and epidemiologic studies suggest that a number of factors are associated with the risk of migraine and precipitation of an attack. However, the degree to which causal associations can be inferred from reported studies is very limited and is a result of the methodological problems discussed throughout this review. The study of migraine in many ways parallels the pattern seen in early investigations of other conditions, such as rheumatoid arthritis and systemic lupus erythematosus, because a number of methodological problems had to be resolved in the study of these conditions before significant progress could be made. To achieve significant advances in the improvement of our understanding of the causes of migraine, a number of related issues must be addressed and resolved in future studies. Most noteworthy among these are Recognition of the probable heterogeneity of migraine, not merely in the manifestation of symptoms but, more importantly, in the existence of distinct etiologic subtypes. A number of findings suggest that some migraine subtypes are sensitive to certain precipitants, some appear to be a part of a more generalized constitutional disorder, and some are accompanied by a higher prevalence of migraine among family members. Efforts should be made in understanding the relationship between specific biochemical markers and traits (such as monoamine oxidase deficiency and tyramine sensitivity); precipitants related to the migraine attack; and epidemiologic characteristics such as age at onset and sex. Creation of a more precise, reliable, and practically useful definition of migraine. Without such a definition, it is difficult, if not impossible, to compare results between studies, to understand the relationship between risk factors and migraine subtypes, to understand properly associations identified in selected clinic populations, and, in general, to understand the epidemiology of migraine. More accurate characterization of the case group under

  11. Epidemiology--Teaching the Fundamentals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McEachron, Donald L.; Finegold, Leonard

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the use of epidemiology as an introduction to useful aspects of biology, mathematics, and simulation skills for kindergarten through university undergraduate students. (Contains 20 references.) (ASK)

  12. Chytridiomycosis in dwarf African frogs Hymenochirus curtipes.

    PubMed

    Murphy, B G; Hillman, C; Groff, J M

    2015-05-11

    Chytridiomycosis, resulting from an infection with the fungal agent Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), has resulted in widespread population declines in both wild and captive amphibians. The dwarf African frog (DAF) Hymenochirus curtipes is native to central Africa and is commonly sold throughout North America as an aquarium pet species. Here we document fatal chytridiomycosis resulting from cutaneous Bd infections in DAF purchased directly from a pet store and from a historical lethal epizootic occurring at an aquaculture facility in central California, USA, more than 25 yr ago. Histological lesions and PCR-amplified sequence data were consistent with the etiology of Bd. The potential epidemiological relevance of this infection in DAF is discussed. PMID:25958807

  13. African-Americans and Alzheimer's

    MedlinePlus

    ... Share Plus on Google Plus African-Americans and Alzheimer's alz.org | IHaveAlz Introduction 10 Warning Signs Brain ... African-Americans are at a higher risk for Alzheimer's disease. Many Americans dismiss the warning signs of ...

  14. Transforming Epidemiology for 21st Century Medicine and Public Health

    PubMed Central

    Khoury, Muin J.; Lam, Tram Kim; Ioannidis, John P.A.; Hartge, Patricia; Spitz, Margaret R.; Buring, Julie E.; Chanock, Stephen J.; Croyle, Robert T.; Goddard, Katrina A.; Ginsburg, Geoffrey S.; Herceg, Zdenko; Hiatt, Robert A.; Hoover, Robert N.; Hunter, David J.; Kramer, Barnet S.; Lauer, Michael S.; Meyerhardt, Jeffrey A.; Olopade, Olufunmilayo I.; Palmer, Julie R.; Sellers, Thomas A.; Seminara, Daniela; Ransohoff, David F.; Rebbeck, Timothy R.; Tourassi, Georgia; Winn, Deborah M.; Zauber, Ann; Schully, Sheri D.

    2013-01-01

    In 2012, the National Cancer Institute (NCI) engaged the scientific community to provide a vision for cancer epidemiology in the 21st century. Eight overarching thematic recommendations, with proposed corresponding actions for consideration by funding agencies, professional societies, and the research community emerged from the collective intellectual discourse. The themes are (i) extending the reach of epidemiology beyond discovery and etiologic research to include multilevel analysis, intervention evaluation, implementation, and outcomes research; (ii) transforming the practice of epidemiology by moving towards more access and sharing of protocols, data, metadata, and specimens to foster collaboration, to ensure reproducibility and replication, and accelerate translation; (iii) expanding cohort studies to collect exposure, clinical and other information across the life course and examining multiple health-related endpoints; (iv) developing and validating reliable methods and technologies to quantify exposures and outcomes on a massive scale, and to assess concomitantly the role of multiple factors in complex diseases; (v) integrating “big data” science into the practice of epidemiology; (vi) expanding knowledge integration to drive research, policy and practice; (vii) transforming training of 21st century epidemiologists to address interdisciplinary and translational research; and (viii) optimizing the use of resources and infrastructure for epidemiologic studies. These recommendations can transform cancer epidemiology and the field of epidemiology in general, by enhancing transparency, interdisciplinary collaboration, and strategic applications of new technologies. They should lay a strong scientific foundation for accelerated translation of scientific discoveries into individual and population health benefits. PMID:23462917

  15. Transforming Epidemiology for 21st Century Medicine and Public Health

    SciTech Connect

    Khoury, Muin J; Lam, Tram Kim; Ioannidis, John; Hartge, Patricia; Spitz, Margaret R.; Buring, Julie E.; Chanock, Stephen J.; Tourassi, Georgia; Zauber, Ann; Schully, Sheri D

    2013-01-01

    n 2012, the National Cancer Institute (NCI) engaged the scientific community to provide a vision for cancer epidemiology in the 21st century. Eight overarching thematic recommendations, with proposed corresponding actions for consideration by funding agencies, professional societies, and the research community emerged from the collective intellectual discourse. The themes are (i) extending the reach of epidemiology beyond discovery and etiologic research to include multilevel analysis, intervention evaluation, implementation, and outcomes research; (ii) transforming the practice of epidemiology by moving toward more access and sharing of protocols, data, metadata, and specimens to foster collaboration, to ensure reproducibility and replication, and accelerate translation; (iii) expanding cohort studies to collect exposure, clinical, and other information across the life course and examining multiple health-related endpoints; (iv) developing and validating reliable methods and technologies to quantify exposures and outcomes on a massive scale, and to assess concomitantly the role of multiple factors in complex diseases; (v) integrating big data science into the practice of epidemiology; (vi) expanding knowledge integration to drive research, policy, and practice; (vii) transforming training of 21st century epidemiologists to address interdisciplinary and translational research; and (viii) optimizing the use of resources and infrastructure for epidemiologic studies. These recommendations can transform cancer epidemiology and the field of epidemiology, in general, by enhancing transparency, interdisciplinary collaboration, and strategic applications of new technologies. They should lay a strong scientific foundation for accelerated translation of scientific discoveries into individual and population health benefits.

  16. The Epidemiology of Sarcopenia.

    PubMed

    Dodds, Richard Matthew; Roberts, Helen Clare; Cooper, Cyrus; Sayer, Avan Aihie

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this review is to describe the epidemiology of sarcopenia, specifically prevalence, health outcomes, and factors across the life course that have been linked to its development. Sarcopenia definitions involve a range of measures (muscle mass, strength, and physical performance), which tend to decline with age, and hence sarcopenia becomes increasingly prevalent with age. Less is known about prevalence in older people in hospital and care homes, although it is likely to be higher than in community settings. The range of measures used, and the cutpoints suggested for each, presents a challenge for comparing prevalence estimates between studies. The importance of sarcopenia is highlighted by the range of adverse health outcomes that strength and physical performance (and to a lesser extent, muscle mass) have been linked to. This is shown most strikingly by the finding of increased all-cause mortality rates among those with weaker grip strength and slower gait speed. A life course approach broadens the window for our understanding of the etiology of sarcopenia and hence the potential intervention. An example is physical activity, with increased levels across midadulthood appearing to increase muscle mass and strength in early old age. Epidemiologic studies will continue to make an important contribution to our understanding of sarcopenia and possible avenues for intervention and prevention. PMID:26073423

  17. Epidemiology of bronchioloalveolar carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Falk, R T; Pickle, L W; Fontham, E T; Greenberg, S D; Jacobs, H L; Correa, P; Fraumeni, J F

    1992-01-01

    Descriptive features of bronchioloalveolar carcinoma (BAC) are presented using Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results Program population-based incidence data from 1973 through 1987, along with risk factors from histologically confirmed cases of BAC identified in a hospital-based case-control study conducted in Louisiana between 1979 and 1982. Compared to the rising incidence of lung cancer overall, BAC rates have remained relatively constant, accounting for less than 3% of all lung cancer. BAC incidence rates were higher in males, yet it explained proportionately more of the total lung cancer incidence in females. In the case-control study, 21 of the 33 cases originally ascertained from hospital pathology records were histologically confirmed as BAC. Most cases smoked cigarettes, with a 4-fold risk for ever smoking. Risks tended to increase with smoking intensity (reaching 10-fold for more than 1.5 packs/day) and duration (reaching 5-fold for more than 45 years of smoking). Following 10 or more years of employment, there was a 4-fold risk associated with motor freight occupations, along with nonsignificant excesses among construction workers, petroleum manufacturers, and sugar cane farmers. Cases were more likely than controls to have had emphysema or to have had a close family member with lung cancer. Although based on small numbers, this study suggests that BAC shares many of the epidemiological characteristics of lung adenocarcinoma. PMID:1339048

  18. Global epidemiology of sporotrichosis.

    PubMed

    Chakrabarti, Arunaloke; Bonifaz, Alexandro; Gutierrez-Galhardo, Maria Clara; Mochizuki, Takashi; Li, Shanshan

    2015-01-01

    Sporotrichosis is an endemic mycosis caused by the dimorphic fungus Sporothrix schenckii sensu lato. It has gained importance in recent years due to its worldwide prevalence, recognition of multiple cryptic species within the originally described species, and its distinctive ecology, distribution, and epidemiology across the globe. In this review, we describe the current knowledge of the taxonomy, ecology, prevalence, molecular epidemiology, and outbreaks due to S. schenckii sensu lato. Despite its omnipresence in the environment, this fungus has remarkably diverse modes of infection and distribution patterns across the world. We have delved into the nuances of how sporotrichosis is intimately linked to different forms of human activities, habitats, lifestyles, and environmental and zoonotic interactions. The purpose of this review is to stimulate discussion about the peculiarities of this unique fungal pathogen and increase the awareness of clinicians and microbiologists, especially in regions of high endemicity, to its emergence and evolving presentations and to kindle further research into understanding the unorthodox mechanisms by which this fungus afflicts different human populations. PMID:25526781

  19. Ecogeographic Genetic Epidemiology

    PubMed Central

    Sloan, Chantel D.; Duell, Eric J.; Shi, Xun; Irwin, Rebecca; Andrew, Angeline S.; Williams, Scott M.; Moore, Jason H.

    2009-01-01

    Complex diseases such as cancer and heart disease result from interactions between an individual's genetics and environment, i.e. their human ecology. Rates of complex diseases have consistently demonstrated geographic patterns of incidence, or spatial “clusters” of increased incidence relative to the general population. Likewise, genetic subpopulations and environmental influences are not evenly distributed across space. Merging appropriate methods from genetic epidemiology, ecology and geography will provide a more complete understanding of the spatial interactions between genetics and environment that result in spatial patterning of disease rates. Geographic Information Systems (GIS), which are tools designed specifically for dealing with geographic data and performing spatial analyses to determine their relationship, are key to this kind of data integration. Here the authors introduce a new interdisciplinary paradigm, ecogeographic genetic epidemiology, which uses GIS and spatial statistical analyses to layer genetic subpopulation and environmental data with disease rates and thereby discern the complex gene-environment interactions which result in spatial patterns of incidence. PMID:19025788

  20. Molecular Epidemiology of Amebiasis

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Ibne Karim M.; Clark, C. Graham; Petri, William A.

    2008-01-01

    Entamoeba histolytica, the causative agent of human amebiasis, remains a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in developing countries and is responsible for up to 100,000 deaths worldwide each year. Entamoeba dispar, morphologically indistinguishable from E. histolytica, is more common in humans in many parts of the world. Similarly Entamoeba moshkovskii, which was long considered to be a free-living ameba, is also morphologically identical to E. histolytica and E. dispar, and is highly prevalent in some E. histolytica endemic countries. However, the only species to cause disease in humans is E. histolytica. Most old epidemiological data on E. histolytica are unusable as the techniques employed do not differentiate between the above three Entamoeba species. Molecular tools are now available not only to diagnose these species accurately but also to study intra-species genetic diversity. Recent studies suggest that only a minority of all E. histolytica infections progress to development of clinical symptoms in the host and there exist population level differences between the E. histolytica strains isolated from the asymptomatic and symptomatic individuals. Nevertheless the underlying factors responsible for variable clinical outcome of infection by E. histolytica remain largely unknown. We anticipate that the recently completed E. histolytica genome sequence and new molecular techniques will rapidly advance our understanding of the epidemiology and pathogenicity of amebiasis. PMID:18571478

  1. Epidemiology of rickettsial diseases.

    PubMed

    Walker, D H; Fishbein, D B

    1991-05-01

    Rickettsial diseases have a diversity of epidemiologic characteristics reflective of the variety of ecologic situations in which the obligate intracellular bacteria are transmitted to humans. For the spotted fever group (SFG) rickettsiae, Rickettsia typhi, R. tsutsugamushi, Coxiella burnetii, and the human ehrlichial agent, humans are a dead-end host who plays no role in the maintenance of the organism in nature. All rickettsioses exist as zoonoses. Moreover, all rickettsiae are found in infected arthopods, which generally serve as the natural hosts and can transmit the infection to the next generation of ticks, mites, chiggers, or fleas. From our anthropocentric viewpoint, Q fever aerosol infection from parturient animals and Brill-Zinsser disease ignited epidemics of louse-borne epidemic typhus are exceptions. However, silent cycles of C. burnetii in ticks and R. prowazekii in the flying squirrel flea may have maintained these agents in transovarial or enzootic cycles for eons before humans and their domestic animals arrived on the scene. Thus, the epidemiology of rickettsial diseases must be recognized as an unfortunate aberration of the rickettsial economy. Several excellent reviews of rickettsial ecology contain a wealth of useful information. PMID:1884775

  2. Charting a Future for Epidemiologic Training

    PubMed Central

    Samet, Jonathan M.; Chavez, Gilbert F.; Davies, Megan M.; Galea, Sandro; Hiatt, Robert A.; Hornung, Carlton A.; Khoury, Muin J.; Koo, Denise; Mays, Vickie M.; Remington, Patrick; Yarber, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To identify macro level trends that are changing the needs of epidemiologic research and practice and to develop and disseminate a set of competencies and recommendations for epidemiologic training that will be responsive to these changing needs. Methods There were three stages to the project: 1) assembly of a working group of senior epidemiologists from multiple sectors, 2) Identifying relevant literature, and 3) conducting key informant interviews with 15 experienced epidemiologists. Results Twelve macro trends were identified along with associated actions for the field and educational competencies. The macro trends include: 1) “Big Data”/ informatics, 2) the changing health communication environment, 3) the Affordable Care Act/health care system reform, 4) shifting demographics, 5) globalization, 6) emerging high throughput technologies (“omics”), 7) a greater focus on accountability, 8) privacy changes, 9) a greater focus on “upstream” causes of disease, 10) the emergence of translational sciences, 11) the growing centrality of team and trans-disciplinary science, and 12) the evolving funding environment. Conclusion Addressing these issues through curricular change is needed to allow the field of epidemiology to more fully reach and sustain its full potential to benefit population health and remain a scientific discipline that makes critical contributions to ensuring clinical, social, and population health. PMID:25976024

  3. The Struggles over African Languages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maseko, Pam; Vale, Peter

    2016-01-01

    In this interview, African Language expert Pam Maseko speaks of her own background and her first encounter with culture outside of her mother tongue, isiXhosa. A statistical breakdown of South African languages is provided as background. She discusses Western (originally missionary) codification of African languages and suggests that this approach…

  4. Psychological Misdiagnosis of African Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garretson, Deborah J.

    1993-01-01

    Reviews historical and current problems with making accurate psychological diagnoses of African Americans. Suggests that misdiagnosis is strongly related to pathologization of African-American culture itself. Explores diagnostic process, stereotypes of African-American psychopathology, cultural differences in values and life stressors, and…

  5. Narcolepsy in African Americans

    PubMed Central

    Kawai, Makoto; O'Hara, Ruth; Einen, Mali; Lin, Ling; Mignot, Emmanuel

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: Although narcolepsy affects 0.02–0.05% of individuals in various ethnic groups, clinical presentation in different ethnicities has never been fully characterized. Our goal was to study phenotypic expression across ethnicities in the United States. Design/Setting: Cases of narcolepsy from 1992 to 2013 were identified from searches of the Stanford Center for Narcolepsy Research database. International Classification of Sleep Disorders, Third Edition diagnosis criteria for type 1 and type 2 narcolepsy were used for inclusion, but subjects were separated as with and without cataplexy for the purpose of data presentation. Information extracted included demographics, ethnicity and clinical data, HLA-DQB1*06:02, polysomnography (PSG), multiple sleep latency test (MSLT) data, and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) hypocretin-1 level. Patients: 182 African-Americans, 839 Caucasians, 35 Asians, and 41 Latinos with narcolepsy. Results: Sex ratio, PSG, and MSLT findings did not differ across ethnicities. Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) score was higher and age of onset of sleepiness earlier in African Americans compared with other ethnicities. HLA-DQB1*06:02 positivity was higher in African Americans (91.0%) versus others (76.6% in Caucasians, 80.0% in Asians, and 65.0% in Latinos). CSF hypocretin-1 level, obtained in 222 patients, was more frequently low (≤ 110 pg/ml) in African Americans (93.9%) versus Caucasians (61.5%), Asians (85.7%) and Latinos (75.0%). In subjects with low CSF hypocretin-1, African Americans (28.3%) were 4.5 fold more likely to be without cataplexy when compared with Caucasians (8.1%). Conclusions: Narcolepsy in African Americans is characterized by earlier symptom onset, higher Epworth Sleepiness Scale score, higher HLA-DQB1*06:02 positivity, and low cerebrospinal fluid hypocretin-1 level in the absence of cataplexy. In African Americans, more subjects without cataplexy have type 1 narcolepsy. Citation: Kawai M, O'Hara R, Einen M, Lin L

  6. Twin Studies: A Unique Epidemiological Tool

    PubMed Central

    Sahu, Monalisha; Prasuna, Josyula G

    2016-01-01

    Twin studies are a special type of epidemiological studies designed to measure the contribution of genetics as opposed to the environment, to a given trait. Despite the facts that the classical twin studies are still being guided by assumptions made back in the 1920s and that the inherent limitation lies in the study design itself, the results suggested by earlier twin studies have often been confirmed by molecular genetic studies later. Use of twin registries and various innovative yet complex software packages such as the (SAS) and their extensions (e.g., SAS PROC GENMOD and SAS PROC PHREG) has increased the potential of this epidemiological tool toward contributing significantly to the field of genetics and other life sciences. PMID:27385869

  7. 6) Epidemiology and Control of Guatemalan Onchocerciasis

    PubMed Central

    Takaoka, Hiroyuki; Suzuki, Takeshi

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies on the epidemiology and control of Guatemalan onchocerciasis, chiefly made by the Guatemala–Japan Cooperative Project on Onchocerciasis Research and Control, are reviewed. Epidemiological features of Guatemalan onchocerciasis are summarized as to characteristic altitudinal distribution of endemic areas, disease manifestation, vector taxonomy, biology and transmission dynamic of the disease. Extensive insecticide studies in the field and laboratory demonstrate that the characteristic situations of Guatemalan streams where Simulium ochraceum, the main vector of onchocerciasis, breeds require ingenious methods of larviciding. Finally, the feasibility of an area vector control is indicated by the successful control operation in the San Vicente Pacaya Pilot Area, in which a new fixed-dose larviciding method was applied. PMID:26744576

  8. Epidemiology today: Mitigating threats to an ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Kreiger, Nancy

    2016-01-01

    Ecosystems comprise all the living and non-living things in a particular area (e.g., rain forest, desert), which interact and maintain equilibrium. Loss of equilibrium (e.g., clear-cutting trees in a rain forest) can mean the decline of the ecosystem, unless it is able to adapt to the new circumstances. The term "knowledge ecosystem" describes an approach to managing knowledge in a particular field; the components of this system include the people, the technological skills and resources, and information or data. Epidemiology can be thought of as a knowledge ecosystem and, like ecological systems, its existence can be threatened, from both internal and external forces that may alter its equilibrium. This paper describes some threats to the epidemiology knowledge ecosystem, how these threats came about, and what responses we can make that may serve to mitigate those threats. PMID:27348106

  9. The Attainment of a Science Degree by African American College Students at Arizona State University: An Investigation to Identify the Barriers and Affordances

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyce, Quintin

    2012-01-01

    Historically, African American students have been underrepresented in the fields of science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM). If African American students continue to be underrepresented in STEM fields, they will not have access to valuable and high-paying sectors of the economy. Despite the number of African Americans in these…

  10. Commentary: Epidemiology in the era of big data.

    PubMed

    Mooney, Stephen J; Westreich, Daniel J; El-Sayed, Abdulrahman M

    2015-05-01

    Big Data has increasingly been promoted as a revolutionary development in the future of science, including epidemiology. However, the definition and implications of Big Data for epidemiology remain unclear. We here provide a working definition of Big Data predicated on the so-called "three V's": variety, volume, and velocity. From this definition, we argue that Big Data has evolutionary and revolutionary implications for identifying and intervening on the determinants of population health. We suggest that as more sources of diverse data become publicly available, the ability to combine and refine these data to yield valid answers to epidemiologic questions will be invaluable. We conclude that while epidemiology as practiced today will continue to be practiced in the Big Data future, a component of our field's future value lies in integrating subject matter knowledge with increased technical savvy. Our training programs and our visions for future public health interventions should reflect this future. PMID:25756221

  11. Epidemiology in Early Childhood Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gratz, Rene R.

    1994-01-01

    Describes the importance of early childhood education as a source of information about health and safety of young children. Discusses the significance of early childhood programs adopting an epidemiological approach to document this information. Outlines a five-step plan to conduct an epidemiological study, using examples from epidemiological…

  12. CEDR: Comprehensive Epidemiologic Data Resource

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-08-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) and its predecessor agencies have a long history of epidemiologic research programs. The main focus of these programs has been the Health and Mortality Study of the DOE work force. This epidemiologic study began in 1964 with a feasibility study of workers at the Hanford facility. Studies of other populations exposed to radiation have also been supported, including the classic epidemiologic study of radium dial painters and studies of atomic bomb survivors. From a scientific perspective, these epidemiologic research program have been productive, highly credible, and formed the bases for many radiological protection standards. Recently, there has been concern that, although research results were available, the data on which these results were based were not easily obtained by interested investigators outside DOE. Therefore, as part of an effort to integrate and broaden access to its epidemiologic information, the DOE has developed the Comprehensive Epidemiologic Data Resource (CEDR) Program. Included in this effort is the development of a computer information system for accessing the collection of CEDR data and its related descriptive information. The epidemiologic data currently available through the CEDAR Program consist of analytic data sets, working data sets, and their associated documentation files. In general, data sets are the result of epidemiologic studies that have been conducted on various groups of workers at different DOE facilities during the past 30 years.

  13. Epidemiology of Depression for Clinicians.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bromberger, Joyce T.; Costello, Elizabeth Jane

    1992-01-01

    Reviews epidemiology of depression and ways this information can be useful for clinicians. Defines frequently used epidemiological terms; presents prevalence rates and risk factors; discusses impact and consequences of depression; and suggests arenas for prevention, early intervention, and treatment that can help clinicians in their everyday work.…

  14. A Phylogeographic Investigation of African Monkeypox

    PubMed Central

    Nakazawa, Yoshinori; Mauldin, Matthew R.; Emerson, Ginny L.; Reynolds, Mary G.; Lash, R. Ryan; Gao, Jinxin; Zhao, Hui; Li, Yu; Muyembe, Jean-Jacques; Mbala Kingebeni, Placide; Wemakoy, Okito; Malekani, Jean; Karem, Kevin L.; Damon, Inger K.; Carroll, Darin S.

    2015-01-01

    Monkeypox is a zoonotic disease caused by a virus member of the genus Orthopoxvirus and is endemic to Central and Western African countries. Previous work has identified two geographically disjuct clades of monkeypox virus based on the analysis of a few genomes coupled with epidemiological and clinical analyses; however, environmental and geographic causes of this differentiation have not been explored. Here, we expand previous phylogenetic studies by analyzing a larger set of monkeypox virus genomes originating throughout Sub-Saharan Africa to identify possible biogeographic barriers associated with genetic differentiation; and projected ecological niche models onto environmental conditions at three periods in the past to explore the potential role of climate oscillations in the evolution of the two primary clades. Analyses supported the separation of the Congo Basin and West Africa clades; the Congo Basin clade shows much shorter branches, which likely indicate a more recent diversification of isolates within this clade. The area between the Sanaga and Cross Rivers divides the two clades and the Dahomey Gap seems to have also served as a barrier within the West African clade. Contraction of areas with suitable environments for monkeypox virus during the Last Glacial Maximum, suggests that the Congo Basin clade of monkeypox virus experienced a severe bottleneck and has since expanded its geographic range. PMID:25912718

  15. Counting apples as oranges: epidemiology and ethnography in adolescent substance abuse treatment.

    PubMed

    Reisinger, Heather Schacht

    2004-02-01

    In spite of a history of collaboration between epidemiology and qualitative research, the mix of these two perspectives is not well developed in the substance use field. Part of the reason for the difficult match is that qualitative research often adds issues of context and meaning that complicate the epidemiological data of interest. In the substance use field, epidemiological indicators tend to focus on a single drug, but the context typically involves persons who use multiple illicit and licit substances in a variety of ways that change over time. In this article, the author describes four adolescents in an outpatient substance abuse treatment center to provide context and insight into the lives behind the epidemiological indicators. Studying a site of epidemiological data collection ethnographically is yet another way to build collaboration between epidemiology and qualitative research. PMID:14768460

  16. [Descriptive epidemiology of urolithiasis].

    PubMed

    Kodama, H; Ohno, Y

    1989-06-01

    In this paper, urolithiasis is remarked from the standpoint of descriptive epidemiology, which examines the frequency distribution of a given disease in a population in terms of time, place and personal characteristics with an aim of identifying risk factors or some clues to the etiology. Some descriptive epidemiological features of urolithiasis are summarized. Prevalence rate is around 4% (4-15% in males and 4-8% in females), and incidence rate varies from area to area: 53.2 per 100,000 population in 1975 in Japan, 364 in 1976 in Malaysia, and 540 in 1979 in West Germany. Prevalence and/or incidence rates have, in general, increased in the developed countries since World War II and in the developing countries as well, where upward trends are quite analogous to the trends observed in the nineteenth century in Europe. Recurrence rate, which is much higher in males than in females, ranges from 31% to 75%, depending on the follow-up periods. In the industrialized countries, upper urinary (renal and ureteral) stones account for more than 90% of total stones, which are ordinarily calcium complexes in composition. More common in the developing countries are lower urinary (bladder and urethral) stones, frequently composed of magnesium ammonium phosphate, which indicates a close association with urinary tract infections. Variations in frequency are evident by season and by region within a country. Age and sex differentials in urinary stone formers are substantial: more common in males 30-40 years old in the industrialized countries and in children under 10 years old in the developing countries. Racial differentials are also noted; blacks appear to suffer less frequently than whites. Stone formers experience more frequent episodes of stone formation in their family members, particularly father and brothers, than non-stone formers. These findings on racial differentials and family preponderance suggest the possible relevance of genetic factors in stone formation. Stone

  17. The Epidemiology of Sarcoma

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Sarcomas account for over 20% of all pediatric solid malignant cancers and less than 1% of all adult solid malignant cancers. The vast majority of diagnosed sarcomas will be soft tissue sarcomas, while malignant bone tumors make up just over 10% of sarcomas. The risks for sarcoma are not well-understood. We evaluated the existing literature on the epidemiology and etiology of sarcoma. Risks for sarcoma development can be divided into environmental exposures, genetic susceptibility, and an interaction between the two. HIV-positive individuals are at an increased risk for Kaposi’s sarcoma, even though HHV8 is the causative virus. Radiation exposure from radiotherapy has been strongly associated with secondary sarcoma development in certain cancer patients. In fact, the risk of malignant bone tumors increases as the cumulative dose of radiation to the bone increases (p for trend <0.001). A recent meta-analysis reported that children with a history of hernias have a greater risk of developing Ewing’s sarcoma (adjusted OR 3.2, 95% CI 1.9, 5.7). Bone development during pubertal growth spurts has been associated with osteosarcoma development. Occupational factors such as job type, industry, and exposures to chemicals such as herbicides and chlorophenols have been suggested as risk factors for sarcomas. A case-control study found a significant increase in soft tissue sarcoma risk among gardeners (adjusted OR 4.1, 95% CI 1.00, 14.00), but not among those strictly involved in farming. A European-based study reported an increased risk in bone tumors among blacksmiths, toolmakers, or machine-tool operators (adjusted OR 2.14, 95% CI 1.08, 4.26). Maternal and paternal characteristics such as occupation, age, smoking status, and health conditions experienced during pregnancy also have been suggested as sarcoma risk factors and would be important to assess in future studies. The limited studies we identified demonstrate significant relationships with sarcoma risk, but many of

  18. Identifying Transmission Cycles at the Human-Animal Interface: The Role of Animal Reservoirs in Maintaining Gambiense Human African Trypanosomiasis

    PubMed Central

    Funk, Sebastian; Nishiura, Hiroshi; Heesterbeek, Hans; Edmunds, W. John; Checchi, Francesco

    2013-01-01

    Many infections can be transmitted between animals and humans. The epidemiological roles of different species can vary from important reservoirs to dead-end hosts. Here, we present a method to identify transmission cycles in different combinations of species from field data. We used this method to synthesise epidemiological and ecological data from Bipindi, Cameroon, a historical focus of gambiense Human African Trypanosomiasis (HAT, sleeping sickness), a disease that has often been considered to be maintained mainly by humans. We estimated the basic reproduction number of gambiense HAT in Bipindi and evaluated the potential for transmission in the absence of human cases. We found that under the assumption of random mixing between vectors and hosts, gambiense HAT could not be maintained in this focus without the contribution of animals. This result remains robust under extensive sensitivity analysis. When using the distributions of species among habitats to estimate the amount of mixing between those species, we found indications for an independent transmission cycle in wild animals. Stochastic simulation of the system confirmed that unless vectors moved between species very rarely, reintroduction would usually occur shortly after elimination of the infection from human populations. This suggests that elimination strategies may have to be reconsidered as targeting human cases alone would be insufficient for control, and reintroduction from animal reservoirs would remain a threat. Our approach is broadly applicable and could reveal animal reservoirs critical to the control of other infectious diseases. PMID:23341760

  19. Genetic Epidemiology of Psoriasis

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Rashmi; Debbaneh, Maya G.; Liao, Wilson

    2014-01-01

    Psoriasis is a chronic, inflammatory, immune-mediated skin condition with a prevalence of 0-11.8% across the world. It is associated with a number of cardiovascular, metabolic, and autoimmune disease co-morbidities. Psoriasis is a multifactorial disorder, influenced by both genetic and environmental factors. Its genetic basis has long been established through twin studies and familial clustering. The association of psoriasis with the HLA-Cw6 allele has been shown in many studies. Recent genome-wide association studies have identified a large number of other genes associated with psoriasis. Many of these genes regulate the innate and adaptive immune system. These findings indicate that a dysregulated immune system may play a major role in the pathogenesis of psoriasis. In this article, we review the clinical and genetic epidemiology of psoriasis with a brief description of the pathogenesis of disease. PMID:25580373

  20. Melanoma Epidemiology and Prevention.

    PubMed

    Berwick, Marianne; Buller, David B; Cust, Anne; Gallagher, Richard; Lee, Tim K; Meyskens, Frank; Pandey, Shaily; Thomas, Nancy E; Veierød, Marit B; Ward, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    The epidemiology of melanoma is complex, and individual risk depends on sun exposure, host factors, and genetic factors, and in their interactions as well. Sun exposure can be classified as intermittent, chronic, or cumulative (overall) exposure, and each appears to have a different effect on type of melanoma. Other environmental factors, such as chemical exposures-either through occupation, atmosphere, or food-may increase risk for melanoma, and this area warrants further study. Host factors that are well known to be important are the numbers and types of nevi and the skin phenotype. Genetic factors are classified as high-penetrant genes, moderate-risk genes, or low-risk genetic polymorphisms. Subtypes of tumors, such as BRAF-mutated tumors, have different risk factors as well as different therapies. Prevention of melanoma has been attempted using various strategies in specific subpopulations, but to date optimal interventions to reduce incidence have not emerged. PMID:26601858

  1. [Epidemiology of "sick buildings"].

    PubMed

    Sterling, T D; Collett, C; Rumel, D

    1991-02-01

    The indoor environment of modern buildings, especially those designed for commercial and administrative purposes, constitutes a unique ecological niche with its own biochemical environment, fauna and flora. Sophisticated construction methods and the new materials and machinery required to maintain the indoor environment of these enclosed structures produce a large number of chemical by-products and permit the growth of many different microorganisms. Because modern office buildings are sealed, the regulation of humidification and temperature of ducted air presents a dilemma, since difference species of microorganisms flourish at different combinations of humidity and temperature. If the indoor environment of modern office buildings is not properly maintained, the environment may become harmful to its occupants' health. Such buildings are classified as "Sick Buildings". A review of the epidemiology of building illness is presented. The etiology of occupant illnesses, sources of toxic substances, and possible methods of maintaining a safe indoor environment are described. PMID:1784964

  2. [Epidemiology of osteoporosis].

    PubMed

    Grazio, Simeon

    2006-01-01

    Osteoporosis represents a major and increasing public health problem with the aging of population. Major clinical consequences and economic burden of the disease are fractures. Many risk factors are associated with the fractures including low bone mass, hormonal disorders, personal and family history of fractures, low body weight, use of certain drugs (e.g. glucocorticoids), cigarette smoking, elevated intake of alchohol, low physical activity, insufficient level of vitamin D and low intake of calcium. This epidemiological review describes frequency, importance of risk factors and impact of osteoporosis and osteoporotic fractures. Objective measures of bone mineral density along with clinical assessment of risk factors can help identify patients who will benefit from prevention and intervention efforts and eventually reduce the morbidity and mortality associated with osteoporosis-related fractures. PMID:17580550

  3. EPIDEMIOLOGY OF PARACOCCIDIOIDOMYCOSIS

    PubMed Central

    MARTINEZ, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY The epidemiological characteristics of paracoccidioidomycosis were reviewed and updated. The new endemic areas in Brazil were discussed in the section regarding the geographic distribution of the mycosis. Subclinical infection with Paracoccidioides brasiliensis was discussed on the basis of skin test surveys with antigens of the fungus, seroepidemiological studies, and disease cases outside Latin America. Large case series permitted a comparison of the prevalence of the mycosis in different regions, its estimated incidence and risk factors for the development of the disease. Aspects modulating the expression of the clinical forms of paracoccidioidomycosis are also presented. This review also deals with diseases associated with the mycosis, opportunistic paracoccidioidomycosis, lethality, mortality and infection and disease in animals. PMID:26465364

  4. The Other African Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matory, J. Lorand

    Black North America is ethnically and culturally diverse. It contains many groups who do not call themselves or have not always called themselves "Negro,""Black,""African-American," and so forth, such as Louisiana Creoles of color and many of the Indian tribes east of the Mississippi. There are also numerous North American ethnic groups of African…

  5. African American rhinoplasty.

    PubMed

    Boyette, Jennings R; Stucker, Fred J

    2014-08-01

    Rhinoplasty in patients of African descent requires a patient-specific approach, because the goals and ideal proportions differ from the white nose. This article discusses approaches to surgical correction of common anatomic variations. In addition, common pitfalls are outlined. PMID:25049123

  6. Elective: African Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenkins, Kenneth V.

    The make-up of a course in African literature for high school students is discussed. It is pointed out that the course can be constructed on already familiar lines. High school students will be able to describe clearly, for example, the relationship between environment and character or the dilemma of characters caught between traditional values…

  7. Epidemiology of acne vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Bhate, K; Williams, H C

    2013-03-01

    Despite acne being an almost universal condition in younger people, relatively little is known about its epidemiology. We sought to review what is known about the distribution and causes of acne by conducting a systematic review of relevant epidemiological studies. We searched Medline and Embase to the end of November 2011. The role of Propionibacterium acnes in pathogenesis is unclear: antibiotics have a direct antimicrobial as well as an anti-inflammatory effect. Moderate-to-severe acne affects around 20% of young people and severity correlates with pubertal maturity. Acne may be presenting at a younger age because of earlier puberty. It is unclear if ethnicity is truly associated with acne. Black individuals are more prone to postinflammatory hyperpigmentation and specific subtypes such as 'pomade acne'. Acne persists into the 20s and 30s in around 64% and 43% of individuals, respectively. The heritability of acne is almost 80% in first-degree relatives. Acne occurs earlier and is more severe in those with a positive family history. Suicidal ideation is more common in those with severe compared with mild acne. In the U.S.A., the cost of acne is over 3 billion dollars per year in terms of treatment and loss of productivity. A systematic review in 2005 found no clear evidence of dietary components increasing acne risk. One small randomized controlled trial showed that low glycaemic index (GI) diets can lower acne severity. A possible association between dairy food intake and acne requires closer scrutiny. Natural sunlight or poor hygiene are not associated. The association between smoking and acne is probably due to confounding. Validated core outcomes in future studies will help in combining future evidence. PMID:23210645

  8. Myeloma aetiology and epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Morgan, G J; Davies, F E; Linet, M

    2002-07-01

    Recently there have been substantial improvements in our understanding of the biology of myeloma. These findings have important implications for aetiological studies aimed at defining the causative factors for myeloma. Myeloma is closely related to monoclonal gammopathy of unknown significance (MGUS), which is now recognized to be very common in the older population. The epidemiology of these conditions is presented and discussed in the context of the genetic factors governing both the risk of developing MGUS or of transformation to myeloma. Biological studies support a role for aberrant class switch recombination early in the natural history of myeloma suggesting that factors in the environment may interact with this mechanism to increase myeloma risk. Case-control and cohort studies have identified several known and suspected environmental exposures. These exposures include high doses of ionizing radiation, and occupational exposure in the farming and petrochemical industries. The data supporting these associations are presented and discussed in the context of the molecular mechanisms underlying these exposures. In particular DNA damage occurring as a consequence could readily interact with the class switch recombination process to increase the risk of chromosomal translocations, oncogene deregulation and malignant transformation. A further hypothesis, which has been extensively investigated, is the role of chronic immune/antigenic stimulation and the risk of myeloma. This concept is difficult to explain in the context of our current immunological concepts. The data supporting the association and how molecular epidemiological studies using genetic variants in cytokine genes are allowing us to revisit this concept are discussed in detail. PMID:12199621

  9. Evaluation of Health Disparity in Bacterial Vaginosis and the Implications for HIV-1 Acquisition in African American Women.

    PubMed

    Alcendor, Donald J

    2016-08-01

    There is a health disparity for both bacterial vaginosis (BV) and human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection in African American women that may be linked. The evidence that BV predisposes women to higher risk for HIV infection is well documented. The underlying mechanisms to support the epidemiological connections will require further investigations. This review explores the risk factors for BV disease with implications for HIV-1 acquisition in the context of race as a potential driver of the 20-fold increase in HIV-1 acquisition for African American women compared to white women. Specifically, it explores (i) disparities for BV in African American women, (ii) racial disparity for HIV-1 acquisition in African American women, (iii) common factors associated with BV and HIV acquisition in African American women, and (iv) potential mechanisms of the enhancement of HIV-1 transmission by BV. PMID:26847837

  10. Environment, Health and Climate: Impact of African aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liousse, C.; Doumbia, T.; Assamoi, E.; Galy-Lacaux, C.; Baeza, A.; Penner, J. E.; Val, S.; Cachier, H.; Xu, L.; Criqui, P.

    2012-12-01

    Fossil fuel and biofuel emissions of particles in Africa are expected to significantly increase in the near future, particularly due to rapid growth of African cities. In addition to biomass burning emissions prevailing in these areas, air quality degradation is then expected with important consequences on population health and climatic/radiative impact. In our group, we are constructing a new integrated methodology to study the relations between emissions, air quality and their impacts. This approach includes: (1) African combustion emission characterizations; (2) joint experimental determination of aerosol chemistry from ultrafine to coarse fractions and health issues (toxicology and epidemiology). (3) integrated environmental, health and radiative modeling. In this work, we show some results illustrating our first estimates of African anthropogenic emission impacts: - a new African anthropogenic emission inventory adapted to regional specificities on traffic, biofuel and industrial emissions has been constructed for the years 2005 and 2030. Biomass burning inventories were also improved in the frame of AMMA (African Monsoon) program. - carbonaceous aerosol radiative impact in Africa has been modeled with TM5 model and Penner et al. (2011) radiative code for these inventories for 2005 and 2030 and for two scenarios of emissions : a reference scenario, with no further emission controls beyond those achieved in 2003 and a ccc* scenario including planned policies in Kyoto protocol and regulations as applied to African emission specificities. In this study we will show that enhanced heating is expected with the ccc* scenarios emissions in which the OC fraction is relatively lower than in the reference scenario. - results of short term POLCA intensive campaigns in Bamako and Dakar in terms of aerosol chemical characterization linked to specific emissions sources and their inflammatory impacts on the respiratory tract through in vitro studies. In this study, organic

  11. Africans and the myth of rural retirement in South Africa, ca 1900-1950.

    PubMed

    MacKinnon, Aran S

    2008-06-01

    The South African mining industry relied upon a massive African migrant workforce from the rural areas. Rural transformations in this migrant labor system form an important part of the story of developing capitalism in industrializing South Africa. Yet, recent historical studies on southern African migrant and rural wage labor have paid little attention to life adjustments made by the elderly and those 'burned out' by the mines and forced to leave formal wage employment in the urban areas. The South African segregationist state's rhetoric implied that 'retired' Africans could find economic security in their designated rural reserves. Indeed, legislation sought to prohibit Africans who were not employed from remaining in the 'white' urban areas. By the 1930s, however, the reserves were rapidly deteriorating. Many elderly Africans could not retire and were forced to seek wage labor. This raises significant questions about how retirement came to be defined and experienced by Africans in South Africa during a critical period of dramatic economic decline in the 1930s and 40s, and what the underlying material circumstances of African South Africans were with regard to adaptations to employment and ageing-related life changes. In many cases, elderly Africans were forced to forgo retirement, and find wage labor, usually in the most poorly paid, least sought-after or dangerous fields of employment. This article thus seeks to illuminate critical generational dimensions of the impact of segregation and racism in South Africa prior to the formal articulation of Apartheid. PMID:17939024

  12. Epidemiology of cancer in children

    SciTech Connect

    Greenberg, R.S.; Shuster, J.L. Jr.

    1985-01-01

    The epidemiologic features of cancers among children have stimulated abundant descriptive and analytic investigation. The descriptive work has demonstrated consistent differences in the incidence rates of these cancers by anatomic site, age, race, and gender. It is clear that the various forms of cancer during childhood have distinctive patterns of occurrence. To a large extent, the characteristic population distributions of these diseases may represent differences in the underlying etiologic processes. Analytic studies of cancer during childhood have addressed possible genetic and environmental risk factors for these diseases. The demonstration of cancers induced by transplacental exposure to diethylstilbestrol has confirmed the speculation that the prenatal environment may influence subsequent carcinogenesis. Although possible leukemogenic effects of intrauterine diagnostic irradiation remain controversial, the issue may become unimportant clinically as prenatal irradiation is replaced by other diagnostic modalities (194). To date, studies of prenatal ultrasound have provided no evidence of an overall excess of subsequent malignancies. Postnatal exposure to high doses of irradiation is known to produce considerable excesses of leukemias and other cancers. At present, there are insufficient data available to reach a firm conclusion on the possible carcinogenic effects of exposure during childhood to low doses of irradiation, fringe magnetic fields, or chemicals.

  13. African Ancestry Is Associated with Asthma Risk in African Americans

    PubMed Central

    Pino-Yanes, María; Wade, Michael S.; Pérez-Méndez, Lina; Kittles, Rick A.; Wang, Deli; Papaiahgari, Srinivas; Ford, Jean G.; Kumar, Rajesh; Garcia, Joe G. N.

    2012-01-01

    Background Asthma is a common complex condition with clear racial and ethnic differences in both prevalence and severity. Asthma consultation rates, mortality, and severe symptoms are greatly increased in African descent populations of developed countries. African ancestry has been associated with asthma, total serum IgE and lower pulmonary function in African-admixed populations. To replicate previous findings, here we aimed to examine whether African ancestry was associated with asthma susceptibility in African Americans. In addition, we examined for the first time whether African ancestry was associated with asthma exacerbations. Methodology/Principal Findings After filtering for self-reported ancestry and genotype data quality, samples from 1,117 self-reported African-American individuals from New York and Baltimore (394 cases, 481 controls), and Chicago (321 cases followed for asthma exacerbations) were analyzed. Genetic ancestry was estimated based on ancestry informative markers (AIMs) selected for being highly divergent among European and West African populations (95 AIMs for New York and Baltimore, and 66 independent AIMs for Chicago). Among case-control samples, the mean African ancestry was significantly higher in asthmatics than in non-asthmatics (82.0±14.0% vs. 77.8±18.1%, mean difference 4.2% [95% confidence interval (CI):2.0–6.4], p<0.0001). This association remained significant after adjusting for potential confounders (odds ratio: 4.55, 95% CI: 1.69–12.29, p = 0.003). African ancestry failed to show an association with asthma exacerbations (p = 0.965) using a model based on longitudinal data of the number of exacerbations followed over 1.5 years. Conclusions/Significance These data replicate previous findings indicating that African ancestry constitutes a risk factor for asthma and suggest that elevated asthma rates in African Americans can be partially attributed to African genetic ancestry. PMID:22235241

  14. Methodologic frontiers in environmental epidemiology.

    PubMed Central

    Rothman, K J

    1993-01-01

    Environmental epidemiology comprises the epidemiologic study of those environmental factors that are outside the immediate control of the individual. Exposures of interest to environmental epidemiologists include air pollution, water pollution, occupational exposure to physical and chemical agents, as well as psychosocial elements of environmental concern. The main methodologic problem in environmental epidemiology is exposure assessment, a problem that extends through all of epidemiologic research but looms as a towering obstacle in environmental epidemiology. One of the most promising developments in improving exposure assessment in environmental epidemiology is to find exposure biomarkers, which could serve as built-in dosimeters that reflect the biologic footprint left behind by environmental exposures. Beyond exposure assessment, epidemiologists studying environmental exposures face the difficulty of studying small effects that may be distorted by confounding that eludes easy control. This challenge may prompt reliance on new study designs, such as two-stage designs in which exposure and disease information are collected in the first stage, and covariate information is collected on a subset of subjects in state two. While the analytic methods already available for environmental epidemiology are powerful, analytic methods for ecologic studies need further development. This workshop outlines the range of methodologic issues that environmental epidemiologists must address so that their work meets the goals set by scientists and society at large. PMID:8206029

  15. Epigenetic research in cancer epidemiology: trends, opportunities, and challenges.

    PubMed

    Verma, Mukesh; Rogers, Scott; Divi, Rao L; Schully, Sheri D; Nelson, Stefanie; Joseph Su, L; Ross, Sharon A; Pilch, Susan; Winn, Deborah M; Khoury, Muin J

    2014-02-01

    Epigenetics is emerging as an important field in cancer epidemiology that promises to provide insights into gene regulation and facilitate cancer control throughout the cancer care continuum. Increasingly, investigators are incorporating epigenetic analysis into the studies of etiology and outcomes. To understand current progress and trends in the inclusion of epigenetics in cancer epidemiology, we evaluated the published literature and the National Cancer Institute (NCI)-supported research grant awards in this field to identify trends in epigenetics research. We present a summary of the epidemiologic studies in NCI's grant portfolio (from January 2005 through December 2012) and in the scientific literature published during the same period, irrespective of support from the NCI. Blood cells and tumor tissue were the most commonly used biospecimens in these studies, although buccal cells, cervical cells, sputum, and stool samples were also used. DNA methylation profiling was the focus of the majority of studies, but several studies also measured microRNA profiles. We illustrate here the current status of epidemiologic studies that are evaluating epigenetic changes in large populations. The incorporation of epigenomic assessments in cancer epidemiology studies has and is likely to continue to provide important insights into the field of cancer research. PMID:24326628

  16. Understanding Nutritional Epidemiology and Its Role in Policy12

    PubMed Central

    Satija, Ambika; Yu, Edward; Willett, Walter C; Hu, Frank B

    2015-01-01

    Nutritional epidemiology has recently been criticized on several fronts, including the inability to measure diet accurately, and for its reliance on observational studies to address etiologic questions. In addition, several recent meta-analyses with serious methodologic flaws have arrived at erroneous or misleading conclusions, reigniting controversy over formerly settled debates. All of this has raised questions regarding the ability of nutritional epidemiologic studies to inform policy. These criticisms, to a large degree, stem from a misunderstanding of the methodologic issues of the field and the inappropriate use of the drug trial paradigm in nutrition research. The exposure of interest in nutritional epidemiology is human diet, which is a complex system of interacting components that cumulatively affect health. Consequently, nutritional epidemiology constantly faces a unique set of challenges and continually develops specific methodologies to address these. Misunderstanding these issues can lead to the nonconstructive and sometimes naive criticisms we see today. This article aims to clarify common misunderstandings of nutritional epidemiology, address challenges to the field, and discuss the utility of nutritional science in guiding policy by focusing on 5 broad questions commonly asked of the field. PMID:25593140

  17. Multi-stage sampling in genetic epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Whittemore, A S; Halpern, J

    When data are expensive to collect, it can be cost-efficient to sample in two or more stages. In the first stage a simple random sample is drawn and then stratified according to some easily measured attribute. In each subsequent stage a random subset of previously selected units is sampled for more detailed observation, with a unit's sampling probability determined by its attributes as observed in the previous stages. These designs are useful in many medical studies; here we use them in genetic epidemiology. Two genetic studies illustrate the strengths and limitations of the approach. The first study evaluates nuclear and mitochondrial DNA in U.S. blacks. The goal is to estimate the relative contributions of white male genes and white female genes to the gene pool of African-Americans. This example shows that the Horvitz-Thompson estimators proposed for multi-stage designs can be inefficient, particularly when used with unnecessary stratification. The second example is a multi-stage study of familial prostate cancer. The goal is to gather pedigrees, blood samples and archived tissue for segregation and linkage analysis of familial prostate cancer data by first obtaining crude family data from prostate cancer cases and cancer-free controls. This second example shows the gains in efficiency from multi-stage sampling when the individual likelihood or quasilikelihood scores vary substantially across strata. PMID:9004389

  18. Genomic epidemiology of artemisinin resistant malaria.

    PubMed

    2016-01-01

    The current epidemic of artemisinin resistant Plasmodium falciparum in Southeast Asia is the result of a soft selective sweep involving at least 20 independent kelch13 mutations. In a large global survey, we find that kelch13 mutations which cause resistance in Southeast Asia are present at low frequency in Africa. We show that African kelch13 mutations have originated locally, and that kelch13 shows a normal variation pattern relative to other genes in Africa, whereas in Southeast Asia there is a great excess of non-synonymous mutations, many of which cause radical amino-acid changes. Thus, kelch13 is not currently undergoing strong selection in Africa, despite a deep reservoir of variations that could potentially allow resistance to emerge rapidly. The practical implications are that public health surveillance for artemisinin resistance should not rely on kelch13 data alone, and interventions to prevent resistance must account for local evolutionary conditions, shown by genomic epidemiology to differ greatly between geographical regions. PMID:26943619

  19. Genomic epidemiology of artemisinin resistant malaria

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The current epidemic of artemisinin resistant Plasmodium falciparum in Southeast Asia is the result of a soft selective sweep involving at least 20 independent kelch13 mutations. In a large global survey, we find that kelch13 mutations which cause resistance in Southeast Asia are present at low frequency in Africa. We show that African kelch13 mutations have originated locally, and that kelch13 shows a normal variation pattern relative to other genes in Africa, whereas in Southeast Asia there is a great excess of non-synonymous mutations, many of which cause radical amino-acid changes. Thus, kelch13 is not currently undergoing strong selection in Africa, despite a deep reservoir of variations that could potentially allow resistance to emerge rapidly. The practical implications are that public health surveillance for artemisinin resistance should not rely on kelch13 data alone, and interventions to prevent resistance must account for local evolutionary conditions, shown by genomic epidemiology to differ greatly between geographical regions. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.08714.001 PMID:26943619

  20. Epidemiology of fractures in type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Ann V

    2016-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes affects an increasing proportion of older adults, the population that is also at elevated risk of fracture. Type 2 diabetes itself increases the risk of fracture, particularly in African-American and Latino populations. In Western countries, overweight and obesity, associated with reduced fracture risk, are highly prevalent in diabetic patients. Studies in East Asian countries that have a lower prevalence of obesity with diabetes may help to disentangle the effects of diabetes and obesity on the skeleton. Type 2 diabetes is also associated with higher bone density, and as a result standard tools for fracture prediction tend to underestimate fracture risk in this population, an important challenge for risk assessment in the clinical setting. Contributing factors to the increased fracture risk in type 2 diabetes include more frequent falls and deficits in diabetic bone, not captured by dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), that are as yet not clearly understood. Recent epidemiological studies indicate that poor glycemic control contributes to increased fracture risk although intensive lowering of A1C is not effective in preventing fracture. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled "Bone and diabetes". PMID:26027505

  1. The epidemiology of homicide in Chicago.

    PubMed Central

    Whitman, S.; Benbow, N.; Good, G.

    1996-01-01

    Public health agencies across the country are beginning to view violence as a problem that demands a public health response. However, before such a response can be mounted effectively, there must be a sound data-based understanding of this epidemic. With this in mind, the Chicago Department of Public Health implemented an epidemiological analysis of homicide in the city. Using vital records, police data, and census data, we found that the city's homicide rate in 1993 was 31 per 100,000 population. This rate placed Chicago 14th among other large cities in the United States and 4th out of the eight cities with a population > 1 million. The homicide rate in the city has been increasing over the past 30 years, but not steadily. For some intervals, the homicide rate has remained almost constant. African Americans, Hispanics, the young, and males are overrepresented in the epidemic. While guns accounted for almost 75% of all homicides in Chicago in 1993, gangs accounted for only 15%. Homicide cannot be viewed in isolation from the context of society. The literature suggests that poverty and racism are important risk factors for this epidemic. Although we cannot wait until these risk factors are remedied to develop violence prevention interventions, we also cannot proceed effectively without understanding this context. PMID:8990803

  2. Intelligent management of epidemiologic data.

    PubMed Central

    Ferri, F.; Evoli, L. M.; Pisanelli, D. M.; Ricci, F. L.

    1991-01-01

    In the lifecycle of epidemiologic data three steps can be identified: production, interpretation and exploitation for decision. Computerized support can be precious, if not indispensable, at any of the three levels, therefore several epidemiologic data management systems were developed. In this paper we focus on intelligent management of epidemiologic data, where intelligence is needed in order to analyze trends or to compare observed with reference value and possibly detect abnormalities. After having outlined the problems involved in such a task, we show the features of ADAMS, a system realized to manage aggregated data and implemented in a personal computer environment. PMID:1807619

  3. Epidemiological surveillance of infectious diseases in France.

    PubMed

    Dufour, B; La Vieille, S

    2000-01-01

    Epidemiological surveillance, namely the continuous monitoring of diseases and health determinants in a population, has developed over the past fifteen years, in the sphere of human health as well as in animal health. All epidemiological surveillance networks include the following four stages: data collection, data transmission, data processing and dissemination of information. However, despite this basic similarity, the very many networks existing in France are extremely varied in nature. At the national level, the bodies involved in epidemiological surveillance for infectious animal diseases are the Direction générale de l'alimentation, the Agence française de sécurité sanitaire des aliments and, to a lesser degree, the Institut français de recherche pour l'exploitation de la mer. In the field, the networks rely on the Direction des services vétérinaires, veterinary practitioners, laboratories in each département, and livestock producers' groups (especially animal health protection groups). Some twenty French networks currently in operation are presented in this article according to a classification based on published criteria. In the case of human infectious diseases, epidemiological surveillance is carried out almost entirely by the Direction générale de la santé and the Directions départementales d'action sanitaire et sociale, the Institut de veille sanitaire and the various Centres nationaux de référence (CNRs). Most human infectious diseases are monitored by one or more of the following broad categories of networks: reporting of notifiable diseases, the CNRs, the network of sentinel doctors, the network of hospital laboratories and departments, and medical causes of death. An example where surveillance is covered by several networks is also presented, namely surveillance for salmonellosis and Salmonella. Lastly, methods for evaluating networks are discussed. PMID:10779198

  4. HIV/AIDS epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Todd, C

    2000-10-14

    In this paper, Charles Todd comments that the report of Evan Wood and colleagues illustrates the dangers of taking a narrow medical view of the HIV/AIDS epidemic in Africa. It runs the risk of reversing the growing realization that the HIV/AIDS epidemic in southern Africa is a broad, social, cultural, political, and economic issue rather than a purely medical one. Todd raises the point that Wood and colleagues did not model the costs associated with the voluntary testing and counseling that should accompany a prophylaxis program. To this effect, a more helpful approach on meeting basic health needs and eradicating poverty would be to compare the impact of such levels of expenditure. It is also emphasized that the title of the paper of Wood and colleagues is misleading, implying that the focus of the modeling was sub-Saharan Africa as a whole, when it was in fact South Africa alone. Accordingly, the gross domestic product of South Africa per person is higher than that of nearly all other sub-Saharan African countries, and health expenditure is 10-20 times greater. PMID:11073053

  5. Planning for the Future of Epidemiology in the Era of Big Data and Precision Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Khoury, Muin J.

    2015-01-01

    We live in the era of genomics and big data. Evaluating the impact on health of large-scale biological, social, and environmental data is an emerging challenge in the field of epidemiology. In the past 3 years, major discussions and plans for the future of epidemiology, including with several recommendations for actions to transform the field, have been launched by 2 institutes within the National Institutes of Health. In the present commentary, I briefly explore the themes of these recommendations and their effects on leadership, resources, cohort infrastructure, and training. Ongoing engagement within the epidemiology community is needed to determine how to shape the evolution of the field and what truly matters for changing population health. We also need to assess how to leverage existing epidemiology resources and develop new studies to improve human health. Readers are invited to examine these recommendations, consider others that might be important, and join in the conversation about the future of epidemiology. PMID:26628513

  6. Planning for the Future of Epidemiology in the Era of Big Data and Precision Medicine.

    PubMed

    Khoury, Muin J

    2015-12-15

    We live in the era of genomics and big data. Evaluating the impact on health of large-scale biological, social, and environmental data is an emerging challenge in the field of epidemiology. In the past 3 years, major discussions and plans for the future of epidemiology, including with several recommendations for actions to transform the field, have been launched by 2 institutes within the National Institutes of Health. In the present commentary, I briefly explore the themes of these recommendations and their effects on leadership, resources, cohort infrastructure, and training. Ongoing engagement within the epidemiology community is needed to determine how to shape the evolution of the field and what truly matters for changing population health. We also need to assess how to leverage existing epidemiology resources and develop new studies to improve human health. Readers are invited to examine these recommendations, consider others that might be important, and join in the conversation about the future of epidemiology. PMID:26628513

  7. Impacts of an African Green Revolution on Greenhouse Gases and Pollution Precursors: Nonlinear Trace N Gas Emission Responses to Incremental Increases in Fertilizer Inputs in a Western Kenyan Maize Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hickman, J. E.; Palm, C.

    2011-12-01

    Over the last several decades, agricultural soils in many parts of sub-Saharan Africa have become depleted of nitrogen (N) and other nutrients, creating challenges to achieving food security in many countries. At only 7 kg N ha-1 yr-1, average fertilizer application rates in the region are an order of magnitude lower than typical rates in the United States, and well below optimal levels. Increased use of nutrient inputs is a centerpiece of most African Green Revolution strategies, making it important to quantify the impacts of this change in practices as farmers begin moving towards 50-80 kg N ha-1 yr-1. Increased N inputs are invariably accompanied by losses of trace N gases to the atmosphere, including the greenhouse gas nitrous oxide (N2O), and nitric oxide (NO), a precursor to tropospheric ozone pollution. Several investigations of greenhouse gas emissions and one investigation of NO emissions from sub-Saharan agricultural systems have been conducted over the last 20 years, but they are few in number and were not designed to identify potentially important thresholds in the response of trace gas emissions to fertilization rate. Here we examine the response function of NO and N2O emissions to 6 different levels of inorganic fertilizer additions in a maize field in Yala, Kenya during the 2011 long rainy season. We used a randomized complete block design incorporating inorganic fertilizer treatments of 0, 50, 75, 100, 150, and 200 kg N ha-1 in 4 blocks. After each of 2 fertilizer applications, we measured trace gas fluxes daily, and conducted weekly measurements until trace gas emissions subsided to control levels. We fit the data to linear and exponential models relating N gas emissions to N input levels, and conducted a model comparison using AIC. Preliminary analysis suggests that NO emissions do respond in a non-linear fashion over the course of 67 days, as has been found in several commercial agroecosystems for N2O. Although N2O emissions responded linearly

  8. An engineering journey: A transcendental phenomenological study of African-American female engineers' persistence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Somerville-Midgette, Kristy Nicole

    This transcendental phenomenological research study examined the perspectives and lived experiences of African-American female engineers related to the factors that led to their persistence to enter, persist through, and remain in the field. The study was guided by four research questions: (a) How do K-12 experiences shape African-American female engineers' decisions to enter the STEM field? (b) What persistence factors motivated African-American female engineers to enter the engineering profession? (c) What are the factors that shape African-American female engineers' persistence to progress through postsecondary engineering programs? (d) How do professional experiences shape African-American female engineers' persistence in the field? Cognitive interviewing techniques were used to validate data collection instruments. Interviews, focus groups, and timelines were used to collect data aimed at capturing the essence of the phenomenon of African-American engineers' persistence. The data was analyzed using Moustakas' (1994) phenomenological data analysis methods. The findings indicated that early academic experiences and achievement shaped participants' decision to enter the engineering field. Environmental factors, intrinsic motivation, support systems motivated participants to persist through postsecondary programs and to enter the engineering field. Further research is needed to examine the early academic experiences that encourage African-American females to enter engineering. In addition, research is needed to examine the barriers that lead to attrition of African-American females in engineering.

  9. Understanding traditional African healing

    PubMed Central

    MOKGOBI, M.G.

    2015-01-01

    Traditional African healing has been in existence for many centuries yet many people still seem not to understand how it relates to God and religion/spirituality. Some people seem to believe that traditional healers worship the ancestors and not God. It is therefore the aim of this paper to clarify this relationship by discussing a chain of communication between the worshipers and the Almighty God. Other aspects of traditional healing namely types of traditional healers, training of traditional healers as well as the role of traditional healers in their communities are discussed. In conclusion, the services of traditional healers go far beyond the uses of herbs for physical illnesses. Traditional healers serve many roles which include but not limited to custodians of the traditional African religion and customs, educators about culture, counselors, social workers and psychologists. PMID:26594664

  10. Epidemiology of severe trauma.

    PubMed

    Alberdi, F; García, I; Atutxa, L; Zabarte, M

    2014-12-01

    Major injury is the sixth leading cause of death worldwide. Among those under 35 years of age, it is the leading cause of death and disability. Traffic accidents alone are the main cause, fundamentally in low- and middle-income countries. Patients over 65 years of age are an increasingly affected group. For similar levels of injury, these patients have twice the mortality rate of young individuals, due to the existence of important comorbidities and associated treatments, and are more likely to die of medical complications late during hospital admission. No worldwide, standardized definitions exist for documenting, reporting and comparing data on severely injured trauma patients. The most common trauma scores are the Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS), the Injury Severity Score (ISS) and the Trauma and Injury severity Score (TRISS). Documenting the burden of injury also requires evaluation of the impact of post-trauma impairments, disabilities and handicaps. Trauma epidemiology helps define health service and research priorities, contributes to identify disadvantaged groups, and also facilitates the elaboration of comparable measures for outcome predictions. PMID:25241267

  11. Shigellosis: Epidemiology in India

    PubMed Central

    Taneja, Neelam; Mewara, Abhishek

    2016-01-01

    Shigellosis is one of the major causes of diarrhoea in India. The accurate estimates of morbidity and mortality due to shigellosis are lacking, though it is endemic in the country and has been reported to cause many outbreaks. The limited information available indicates Shigella to be an important food-borne pathogen in India. S. flexneri is the most common species, S. sonnei and non-agglutinable shigellae seem to be steadily surfacing, while S. dysenteriae has temporarily disappeared from the northern and eastern regions. Antibiotic-resistant strains of different Shigella species and serotypes have emerged all over the world. Especially important is the global emergence of multidrug resistant shigellae, notably the increasing resistance to third generation cephalosporins and fluoroquinolones, and also azithromycin. This calls for a continuous and strong surveillance of antibiotic resistance across the country for periodic updation of the local antibiograms. The prevention of shigellosis is desirable as it will substantially reduce the morbidity associated with diarrhoea in the country. Public health measures like provision of safe water and adequate sanitation are of immense importance to reduce the burden of shigellosis, however, the provision of resources to develop such an infrastructure in India is a complex issue and will take time to resolve. Thus, the scientific thrust should be focused towards development of a safe and affordable multivalent vaccine. This review is focused upon the epidemiology, disease burden and the therapeutic challenges of shigellosis in Indian perspective. PMID:27487999

  12. Shigellosis: Epidemiology in India.

    PubMed

    Taneja, Neelam; Mewara, Abhishek

    2016-05-01

    Shigellosis is one of the major causes of diarrhoea in India. The accurate estimates of morbidity and mortality due to shigellosis are lacking, though it is endemic in the country and has been reported to cause many outbreaks. The limited information available indicates Shigella to be an important food- borne pathogen in India. S. flexneri is the most common species, S. sonnei and non-agglutinable Shigellae seem to be steadily surfacing, while S. dysenteriae has temporarily disappeared from the northern and eastern regions. Antibiotic-resistant strains of different Shigella species and serotypes have emerged all over the world. Especially important is the global emergence of multidrug resistant Shigellae, notably the increasing resistance to third generation cephalosporins and fluoroquinolones, and also azithromycin. This calls for a continuous and strong surveillance of antibiotic resistance across the country for periodic updation of the local antibiograms. The prevention of shigellosis is desirable as it will substantially reduce the morbidity associated with diarrhoea in the country. Public health measures like provision of safe water and adequate sanitation are of immense importance to reduce the burden of shigellosis, however, the provision of resources to develop such an infrastructure in India is a complex issue and will take time to resolve. Thus, the scientific thrust should be focused towards development of a safe and affordable multivalent vaccine. this review is focused upon the epidemiology, disease burden and the therapeutic challenges of shigellosis in Indian perspective. PMID:27487999

  13. [Epidemiology of brain metastases].

    PubMed

    Taillibert, S; Le Rhun, É

    2015-02-01

    The most frequent intracranial brain tumours are brain metastases. All types of cancer can develop brain metastases but two thirds of brain metastases occurring in adult patients are secondary to one of these three cancers: lung cancer, breast cancer and melanoma. In accordance with these data, this review is focusing on the epidemiology of these three types of cancer. We report here the incidence, risk factors, median time of brain metastases occurrence after diagnosis of the primary cancer, prognosis and median survival for these three types of cancer. We also discuss the clinical implications of these data. The second part of this review is focusing on the Graded Prognostic Assessment scores in all types of primary cancer with brain metastases, how they can be applied in clinical research for a better stratification of patients, and to some extent in clinical practice to guide decisions for personalized treatments. These scores provide a better understanding of the different profiles of clinical evolution that can be observed amongst patients suffering from brain metastases according to the type of primary cancer. We highlighted the most remarkable and useful clinical implications of these data. PMID:25636729

  14. [Epidemiology of teeth hypersensitivity].

    PubMed

    Lutskaia, I K; Zinovenko, O G; Kovalenko, I P

    2015-01-01

    A clinical examination of 98 patients aged 20 to 75 years was carried out to identifyclinical and epidemiological features of hard tooth tissueshypersensitivity. The survey found out what stimuli (cold, hot, sour, mechanical, chemical) cause the appearance of dental hyperesthesia. The detailed survey of the affected area aimed to determine the presence of dental caries, gingival recession, wedge-shaped defects, erosions, microcracks and chipped enamel, as well as wear of the tooth crown. Forty-threepatients of 98 (43.88%) had tooth sensitivity. Most affected age group was 25-34 years (33%). Among patients studied with hyperesthesia 86% complained of pain. It was establishedthat dental hyperesthesia most often causes an intense, but quickly passing pain response, wherein upon exposure of several types of stimuli. Teeth with high sensitivity showed signs of abrasion (74.1%), most often--on the vestibular surface (44.4%). Patients under 45 years had notable cracks and wedge-shaped defects. In patients 45 years and older cracks and increased abrasion of hard dental tissues was seen. PMID:26271696

  15. Epidemiology of Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Brock, Malcolm V.; Ford, Jean G.; Samet, Jonathan M.; Spivack, Simon D.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Ever since a lung cancer epidemic emerged in the mid-1900s, the epidemiology of lung cancer has been intensively investigated to characterize its causes and patterns of occurrence. This report summarizes the key findings of this research. Methods: A detailed literature search provided the basis for a narrative review, identifying and summarizing key reports on population patterns and factors that affect lung cancer risk. Results: Established environmental risk factors for lung cancer include smoking cigarettes and other tobacco products and exposure to secondhand tobacco smoke, occupational lung carcinogens, radiation, and indoor and outdoor air pollution. Cigarette smoking is the predominant cause of lung cancer and the leading worldwide cause of cancer death. Smoking prevalence in developing nations has increased, starting new lung cancer epidemics in these nations. A positive family history and acquired lung disease are examples of host factors that are clinically useful risk indicators. Risk prediction models based on lung cancer risk factors have been developed, but further refinement is needed to provide clinically useful risk stratification. Promising biomarkers of lung cancer risk and early detection have been identified, but none are ready for broad clinical application. Conclusions: Almost all lung cancer deaths are caused by cigarette smoking, underscoring the need for ongoing efforts at tobacco control throughout the world. Further research is needed into the reasons underlying lung cancer disparities, the causes of lung cancer in never smokers, the potential role of HIV in lung carcinogenesis, and the development of biomarkers. PMID:23649439

  16. Tuberculosis: Epidemiology and Control

    PubMed Central

    Sulis, Giorgia; Roggi, Alberto; Matteelli, Alberto; Raviglione, Mario C.

    2014-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is a major public health concern worldwide: despite a regular, although slow, decline in incidence over the last decade, as many as 8.6 million new cases and 1.3 million deaths were estimated to have occurred in 2012. TB is by all means a poverty-related disease, mainly affecting the most vulnerable populations in the poorest countries. The presence of multidrug-resistant strains of M. tuberculosis in most countries, with somewhere prevalence is high, is among the major challenges for TB control, which may hinder recent achievements especially in some settings. Early TB case detection especially in resource-constrained settings and in marginalized groups remains a challenge, and about 3 million people are estimated to remain undiagnosed or not notified and untreated. The World Health Organization (WHO) has recently launched a new global TB strategy for the “post-2015 era” aimed at “ending the global TB epidemic” by 2035. This strategy is based on the three pillars that emphasize patient-centred TB care and prevention, bold policies and supportive systems, and intensified research and innovation. This paper aims to provide an overview of the global TB epidemiology as well as of the main challenges that must be faced to eliminate the disease as a public health problem everywhere. PMID:25408856

  17. Epidemiology of clavicle fractures.

    PubMed

    Postacchini, Franco; Gumina, Stefano; De Santis, Pierfrancesco; Albo, Francesco

    2002-01-01

    An epidemiologic study of 535 isolated clavicle fractures treated in a hospital of a large metropolis during an 11-year period was performed. Data regarding patient's age and sex, side involved, mechanism of injury, and season in which the fracture occurred were obtained from the clinical records. Radiographic classification was performed with the Allman system. Clavicle fractures represented 2.6% of all fractures and 44% of those in the shoulder girdle. Most patients were men (68%), and the left side was involved in 61% of cases. Fractures of the middle third of the clavicle, which were the most common (81%), were displaced in 48% of cases and comminuted in 19%. Fractures of the medial third were the least common (2%). The prevalence of midclavicular fractures was found to decrease progressively with age, starting from the first decade of life when they represented 88.2% of all clavicle fractures and were undisplaced in 55.5% of cases. In adults, the incidence of displaced fractures, independent of location, was higher than that of undisplaced fractures. Traffic accidents were the most common cause of the injury. In the period under study, the incidence of fractures showed no significant change over time and no seasonal variation. PMID:12378163

  18. Epidemiology of malignant melanoma.

    PubMed

    Liu, T; Soong, S J

    1996-12-01

    Descriptive epidemiology of melanoma indicates increases in both incidence and mortality over the past two to three decades. A moderation in both rates began to emerge in several regions after the 1980s, especially in younger age groups. Recent improvement in survival rates is more likely due to earlier diagnosis than to real improvement in treatment. This suggests the potential effectiveness of secondary prevention. Continued health education efforts to improve awareness about signs and symptoms of melanoma should lead to earlier diagnosis and may increase incidence for a certain period of time. However, reduction in mortality will eventually be achieved owing to thinner melanoma at time of diagnosis. Etiologic studies indicate that the most important environmental risk factor for melanoma is extensive exposure to the sun. Primary prevention efforts should target public education about the risk of sun exposure and the benefit of wearing hats and adequate clothing. Specific prevention and control programs should be implemented among high-risk groups, such as those with light complexions and those sensitive to sunburn. In view of the long latency of melanoma, as much as 10 years, past exposure to the risk factors continues to cause melanoma, and any benefits of preventive efforts do not appear for some time. Although a dramatic decline is not expected in melanoma rates immediately, continuous preventive efforts ultimately should lead to a reduction in incidence and mortality. PMID:8977547

  19. The People's Library of Epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Last, John M

    2012-03-01

    The People's Library of Epidemiology is in the process of development. It consists of a website (http://www.jameslindlibrary.org) with links to online excerpts of papers and monographs of historical and scientific importance in epidemiology and related public health sciences that are held by the library of the Royal College of Physicians of Edinburgh. This paper reflects the lively panel discussion which took place on 9 August 2011. The panel members who opened the discussion were Alfredo Morabia, Anne Hardy, Roger Bernier, Jan Vandenbroucke, George Davey Smith, Esther Villalonga and Stephen Walter, who had won the prize awarded by Epidemiology Monitor for an essay on the People's Library of Epidemiology. PMID:22326598

  20. Epidemiology: Cornerstone for Health Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Markellis, Victoria C.

    1986-01-01

    Epidemiology has been used historically to reduce the incidence of communicable diseases and is used presently to study chronic conditions, environmental conditions, and social conditions. Its analytical method is necessary for health educators to evaluate tactics and recommend programs. (MT)

  1. Rosacea: current state of epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Tan, Jerry; Berg, Mats

    2013-12-01

    Case definitions are critical in epidemiologic research. However, modern disease indicators must now consider complex data from gene-based research along with traditional clinical parameters. Rosacea is a skin disorder with multiple signs and symptoms. In individuals, these features may be multiple or one may predominate. While studies on the epidemiology of rosacea have previously been sparse, there has been a recent increase in research activity. A broader body of epidemiological information that includes a greater variety of countries beyond Northern Europe and general population-based demographics is needed. As there are operational issues in current case definitions of rosacea subtypes--rationalization and standardization--universal consistent applications in future research is also imperative. Further improvement in disease definition combining new research information along with clinical pragmatism should increase the accuracy of rosacea case ascertainment and facilitate further epidemiological research. PMID:24229634

  2. Sample Cancer Epidemiology Grant Applications

    Cancer.gov

    The National Cancer Institute frequently receives questions from investigators for examples of successfully funded grant applications. Several investigators agreed to let the Epidemiology and Genomics Research Program post excerpts of their grant applications online.

  3. Genomic Resources for Cancer Epidemiology

    Cancer.gov

    This page provides links to research resources, complied by the Epidemiology and Genomics Research Program, that may be of interest to genetic epidemiologists conducting cancer research, but is not exhaustive.

  4. Using an Epidemiological Approach to Examine Outcomes Affecting Young Children with Down Syndrome and Their Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodapp, Robert M.; Urbano, Richard C.; So, Stephanie A.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we utilise an approach drawn from the field of epidemiology to explore what is known and unknown about young children with Down syndrome and their families. After describing what we mean by an epidemiological approach, we review basic findings for children with intellectual disabilities, as well as challenges to performing such…

  5. Epidemiology in a changing world: implications for population-based research on mental disorders.

    PubMed

    Cooper, B

    2014-06-01

    Introduction and objectives. Population-based research on mental disorders needs to keep pace with trends in general epidemiology. At present, this requirement is complicated by uncertainty within the parent discipline about its future development. The present study examines proposals for new directions in strategy and methods and considers their significance for psychiatric epidemiology. Method. Narrative review, cross-checked by search of English-language journals of epidemiology for new trends and developments reported in the years from 2000 onwards. Results. The proposals reviewed here are divided into three groups: 1. A new research paradigm of 'eco-epidemiology', which includes both individual risk factors and macro-environmental systems that mediate population levels of health and sickness. 2. Improved 'translation' of research findings - i.e. more rapid and effective implementation of epidemiological evidence into health policy and practice. 3. Adaptation of epidemiology to a globalised economy, with firmer regulation of funding and resources. Conclusions. Each of these proposals has implications for psychiatric epidemiology. Workers in this field, however, are still preoccupied by relatively specific problems of definition, measurement and classification, and so far the current debates in general epidemiology are scarcely reflected. The proposals outlined above call for: • a working model of eco-epidemiology as it relates to psychiatric disorders; • implementation strategies to encourage more active participation in epidemiological research by community health services and caregiver organisations; • international collaborative projects that offer practical benefits in training and service facilities for the countries taking part. PMID:24345606

  6. Depression in African-American patients with kidney disease.

    PubMed Central

    Kimmel, Paul L.; Patel, Somir S.; Peterson, Rolf A.

    2002-01-01

    There are few data on the epidemiology, consequences and treatment of depression in African-American patients with kidney disease in the US, even though such patients disproportionately bear the burden of this illness. This paper reviews data on the diagnosis and pathogenesis of depression and its consequences in patients with and without kidney disease, in addition to work on the epidemiology of depression in the African-American population and in the US End-stage Renal Disease (ESRD) program. African Americans are thought to have similar susceptibility to the development of depression as other populations in the US, but diminished access to care for this group of patients may be associated with differential outcomes. Data are presented from longitudinal studies of psychosocial outcomes in a population comprising primarily African-American patients with ESRD, and is reviewed the treatment of depression in patients with and without kidney disease. There are few studies of the management of depression that focus on minority populations. The authors agree with recommendations that treatment trials should include minority patients, patients with medical comorbidities, and the elderly, and assess function and quality of life as outcomes. The relationships between age, marital status and satisfaction, ethnicity, and perception of quality of life and depressive affect level and diagnosis of depression, and medical outcomes have not been determined in ESRD patients, or in African-American patients with ESRD. There are few studies of drugs for the treatment of depression in ESRD patients, and only one small randomized controlled trial. These have shown that therapy with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors appears to be a safe treatment option for patients with ESRD. The long-term effectiveness of therapy, and its association with clinically important outcomes such as perception of quality of life, compliance, and survival have not been evaluated in ESRD patients. Also

  7. East African Rift Valley, Kenya

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    This rare, cloud free view of the East African Rift Valley, Kenya (1.5N, 35.5E) shows a clear view of the Turkwell River Valley, an offshoot of the African REift System. The East African Rift is part of a vast plate fracture which extends from southern Turkey, through the Red Sea, East Africa and into Mozambique. Dark green patches of forests are seen along the rift margin and tea plantations occupy the cooler higher ground.

  8. Epidemiology and genetic characterization of hepatitis A virus genotype IIA.

    PubMed

    Desbois, Delphine; Couturier, Elisabeth; Mackiewicz, Vincent; Graube, Arielle; Letort, Marie-José; Dussaix, Elisabeth; Roque-Afonso, Anne-Marie

    2010-09-01

    Three hepatitis A virus (HAV) genotypes, I, II, and III, divided into subtypes A and B, infect humans. Genotype I is the most frequently reported, while genotype II is hardly ever isolated, and its genetic diversity is unknown. From 2002 to 2007, a French epidemiological survey of HAV identified 6 IIA isolates, mostly from patients who did not travel abroad. The possible African origin of IIA strains was investigated by screening the 2008 mandatory notification records of HAV infection: 171 HAV strains from travelers to West Africa and Morocco were identified. Genotyping was performed by sequencing of the VP1/2A junction in 68 available sera. Entire P1 and 5' untranslated regions of IIA strains were compared to reference sequences of other genotypes. The screening retrieved 5 imported IIA isolates. An additional autochthonous case and 2 more African cases were identified in 2008 and 2009, respectively. A total of 14 IIA isolates (8 African and 6 autochthonous) were analyzed. IIA sequences presented lower nucleotide and amino acid variability than other genotypes. The highest variability was observed in the N-terminal region of VP1, while for other genotypes the highest variability was observed at the VP1/2A junction. Phylogenetic analysis identified 2 clusters, one gathering all African and two autochthonous cases and a second including only autochthonous isolates. In conclusion, most IIA strains isolated in France are imported by travelers returning from West Africa. However, the unexplained contamination mode of autochthonous cases suggests another, still to be discovered geographical origin or a French reservoir to be explored. PMID:20592136

  9. Epidemiology and Genetic Characterization of Hepatitis A Virus Genotype IIA▿

    PubMed Central

    Desbois, Delphine; Couturier, Elisabeth; Mackiewicz, Vincent; Graube, Arielle; Letort, Marie-José; Dussaix, Elisabeth; Roque-Afonso, Anne-Marie

    2010-01-01

    Three hepatitis A virus (HAV) genotypes, I, II, and III, divided into subtypes A and B, infect humans. Genotype I is the most frequently reported, while genotype II is hardly ever isolated, and its genetic diversity is unknown. From 2002 to 2007, a French epidemiological survey of HAV identified 6 IIA isolates, mostly from patients who did not travel abroad. The possible African origin of IIA strains was investigated by screening the 2008 mandatory notification records of HAV infection: 171 HAV strains from travelers to West Africa and Morocco were identified. Genotyping was performed by sequencing of the VP1/2A junction in 68 available sera. Entire P1 and 5′ untranslated regions of IIA strains were compared to reference sequences of other genotypes. The screening retrieved 5 imported IIA isolates. An additional autochthonous case and 2 more African cases were identified in 2008 and 2009, respectively. A total of 14 IIA isolates (8 African and 6 autochthonous) were analyzed. IIA sequences presented lower nucleotide and amino acid variability than other genotypes. The highest variability was observed in the N-terminal region of VP1, while for other genotypes the highest variability was observed at the VP1/2A junction. Phylogenetic analysis identified 2 clusters, one gathering all African and two autochthonous cases and a second including only autochthonous isolates. In conclusion, most IIA strains isolated in France are imported by travelers returning from West Africa. However, the unexplained contamination mode of autochthonous cases suggests another, still to be discovered geographical origin or a French reservoir to be explored. PMID:20592136

  10. [Opportunity and challenge on molecular epidemiology].

    PubMed

    Duan, G C; Chen, S Y

    2016-08-10

    Molecular epidemiology, a branch of epidemiology, combines the theories and methods, both in epidemiology and molecular biology. Molecular epidemiology mainly focuses on biological markers, describing the distribution, occurrence, development and prognosis of diseases at the molecular level. The completion of Human Genome Project and rapid development of Precision Medicine and Big Data not only offer the new development opportunities but also bring about a higher demand and new challenge for molecular epidemiology. PMID:27539332

  11. Epidemiology of juvenile violence.

    PubMed

    Farrington, D P; Loeber, R

    2000-10-01

    It is difficult to review the epidemiology of juvenile violence because few studies focus specifically on this topic as opposed to childhood aggression or delinquency in general. More research is needed specifically on juvenile violence, which is generally measured using official records or self-reports. Self-report research shows that a substantial fraction of the male juvenile population commits violence, and that very few violent acts are followed by arrests or convictions. Racial differences in violence may be explainable by reference to racial differences in community contexts. There is a great deal of versatility in juvenile violence. Juveniles who commit one type of violent offense also tend to commit other types and nonviolent offenses. Violent offenders tend to be persistent or frequent offenders, and there is little difference between violent offenders and nonviolent but equally frequent offenders. Nevertheless, there is some degree of specialization in violence. More research is needed to investigate whether risk factors exist for violence that are not risk factors for serious nonviolent delinquency (e.g., biologic factors). Violent juveniles tend to have co-occurring problems such as victimization, substance abuse, and school failure. Often, they might be described as multiple-problem youth. There is considerable continuity from childhood aggression to juvenile violence. An early age of onset of violence predicts a large number of violent offenses. The major long-term risk factors for juvenile violence are individual (high impulsiveness and low intelligence, possibly linked to the executive functions of the brain), family (poor supervision, harsh discipline, child physical abuse, a violent parent, large family size, poverty, a broken family), peer delinquency, gang membership, urban residence, and living in a high-crime neighborhood (characterized by gangs, guns, and drugs in the United States). More research is needed on interactions among risk factors

  12. Epidemiology of Spondyloarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Stolwijk, Carmen; van Tubergen, Astrid; Reveille, John D.

    2014-01-01

    Synopsis Spondyloarthritis (SpA) represents a group of interrelated diseases with common clinical features and a close association with HLA-B27. Figures on the incidence and prevalence of diseases vary highly dependent on methodological differences between studies, the case definition used to classify disease and on the prevalence of HLA-B27 in the population studied. When summarizing the available literature, incidence rates of SpA are mainly based on the ESSG criteria and range between 0.48 and 63/100.000 while prevalence rates vary between 0.01 and 2.5%. For ankylosing spondylitis (AS), the most widely recognized representative of the SpA group of diseases, incidence rates of 0.44-7.3/100.000 and prevalence rates of 0.007-1.7% have been described in studies that were based on the (modified) New York criteria to classify cases. The incidence of psoriatic arthritis (PsA) varied from 3.6 up to 23.1/100.000 in different studies and prevalence between <0.1% and 0.4%, using a variety of classification criteria. The incidence of ReA has been estimated between 0.6 up to 28/100.000 in studies based on different source populations and different case definitions. The newly proposed criteria for axial SpA and peripheral SpA present an attractive new approach to facilitate classification of the SpA into two main subtypes and the axial SpA criteria allow earlier detection of patents with inflammatory back pain. It should be emphasized that these criteria were developed for use in a (specialized) clinical setting and not for large epidemiological studies. PMID:23083748

  13. Demographic, epidemiological, and health transitions: are they relevant to population health patterns in Africa?

    PubMed Central

    Kuate Defo, Barthélémy

    2014-01-01

    Background Studies of trends in population changes and epidemiological profiles in the developing world have overwhelmingly relied upon the concepts of demographic, epidemiological, and health transitions, even though their usefulness in describing and understanding population and health trends in developing countries has been repeatedly called into question. The issue is particularly relevant for the study of population health patterns in Africa and sub-Saharan Africa, as the history and experience there differs substantially from that of Western Europe and North America, for which these concepts were originally developed. Objective The aim of this study is two-fold: to review and clarify any distinction between the concepts of demographic transition, epidemiological transition and health transition and to identify summary indicators of population health to test how well these concepts apply in Africa. Results Notwithstanding the characteristically diverse African context, Africa is a continent of uncertainties and emergencies where discontinuities and interruptions of health, disease, and mortality trends reflect the enduring fragility and instability of countries and the vulnerabilities of individuals and populations in the continent. Africa as a whole remains the furthest behind the world's regions in terms of health improvements and longevity, as do its sub-Saharan African regions and societies specifically. This study documents: 1) theoretically and empirically the similarities and differences between the demographic transition, epidemiological transition, and health transition; 2) simple summary indicators that can be used to evaluate their descriptive and predictive features; 3) marked disparities in the onset and pace of variations and divergent trends in health, disease, and mortality patterns as well as fertility and life expectancy trajectories among African countries and regions over the past 60 years; 4) the rapid decline in infant mortality and gains

  14. The Role of Gender in the Racial and Ethnic Socialization of African American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Tiffany L.; Linver, Miriam R.; Evans, Melanie

    2010-01-01

    Scholars in the field of African American family studies recognize the influence of gender on socialization. However, few studies investigate how gender influences the racial and ethnic socialization of African American youth. To examine the role of gender (both caregiver and adolescent) in socialization practices, data were obtained from 218…

  15. African American and Latino Enrollment Trends among Medicine, Law, Business, and Public Affairs Graduate Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de la Garza, Rodolfo; Moghadam, Sepehr Hejazi

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this Tomas Rivera Policy Institute (TRPI) report is twofold: to provide an analysis of the enrollment trends for African American and Latino students among graduate professional programs in the fields of medicine, business, law, and public affairs, and to present other relevant data pertaining to African American and Latino students…

  16. Taking Stock: African American Studies at the Edge of the 21st Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayes, Floyd W., III

    1994-01-01

    Explores the role and place of African American Studies in the academy and in American society. The major intellectual tendencies of the field are examined, and possible future challenges to African American Studies and black intellectual advancement posed by the postindustrial society are considered. (SLD)

  17. Back to Africa: Second Chances for the Children of West African Immigrants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bledsoe, Caroline H.; Sow, Papa

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the phenomenon of West African parents living in Europe and North America who send their older children back home: from places of high immigrant aspiration to those of hardship and privation. Drawing on a project on West African immigration to Europe and on previous field studies in Africa, we conclude that West African…

  18. African-American Heritage. A Resource Guide for Teachers. Grades 6-8. Draft.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York City Board of Education, Brooklyn. Office of Multicultural Education.

    This curriculum guide provides teachers with materials on African-American history and culture that include some of the most recent scholarship in the field. The activities and resources assembled do not constitute a comprehensive treatment of African-American history, but they do examine many topics within that history. The volume encompasses six…

  19. African American Students' Graphic Understanding of the Derivative: Critical Case Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stringer, Eddy W., III.

    2011-01-01

    Data suggests that a significant loss of African American students from STEM majors occur between their freshmen and sophomore year. This attrition corresponds to the time period when students encounter the calculus sequence. For this reason, calculus persists as a serious barrier preventing African American students from entering STEM fields.…

  20. A Teacher's Guide to African Narratives. Studies in African Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Brien, Sara Talis

    This guide is designed to help secondary school teachers include African literature in their classes. It furnishes English and social studies teachers with a foundation for teaching African literature by offering critical commentary on the texts themselves. A synthesis of anthropological and historical material is presented to help both teachers…

  1. Environmental epidemiology: challenges and opportunities.

    PubMed Central

    Pekkanen, J; Pearce, N

    2001-01-01

    Epidemiology is struggling increasingly with problems with correlated exposures and small relative risks. As a consequence, some scholars have strongly emphasized molecular epidemiology, whereas others have argued for the importance of the population context and the reintegration of epidemiology into public health. Environmental epidemiology has several unique features that make these debates especially pertinent to it. The very large number of environmental exposures require prioritization, and the relative risks are usually very low. Furthermore, many environmental exposures can be addressed only by comparing populations rather than individuals, and the disruption of both local and global ecosystems requires us to develop new methods of study design. The population context is also very important to consider in risk management decisions because of the involuntary nature of most environmental exposures and the diversity of possible outcomes, both health- and nonhealth-related. Studies at the individual or molecular level tend to focus the research hypotheses and subsequent interventions at that level, even when research and interventions at other levels may be more appropriate. Thus, only by starting from the population and ecosystem levels can we ensure that these are given appropriate consideration. Although better research is needed at all levels, it is crucially important to choose the most appropriate level, or levels, of research for a particular problem. Only by conducting research at all these levels and by developing further methods to combine evidence from these different levels can we hope to address the challenges facing environmental epidemiology today. PMID:11171517

  2. African-American Sacred Music.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, A. Peter

    1991-01-01

    The history of African-American sacred music is traced from the time of slavery to the present interest in gospel music. The religious music of African Americans is geared toward liberation themes. It is important that this music does not dilute its power through cross-over with other music forms. (SLD)

  3. Ectomycorrhizal symbiosis of tropical African trees.

    PubMed

    Bâ, Amadou M; Duponnois, Robin; Moyersoen, Bernard; Diédhiou, Abdala G

    2012-01-01

    The diversity, ecology and function of ectomycorrhizal (EM) fungi and ectomycorrhizas (ECMs) on tropical African tree species are reviewed here. While ECMs are the most frequent mycorrhizal type in temperate and boreal forests, they concern an economically and ecologically important minority of plants in African tropical forests. In these African tropical forests, ECMs are found mainly on caesalpionioid legumes, Sarcolaenaceae, Dipterocarpaceae, Asterpeiaceae, Phyllantaceae, Sapotaceae, Papilionoideae, Gnetaceae and Proteaceae, and distributed in open, gallery and rainforests of the Guineo-Congolian basin, Zambezian Miombo woodlands of East and South-Central Africa and Sudanian savannah woodlands of the sub-sahara. Overall, EM status was confirmed in 93 (26%) among 354 tree species belonging to EM genera. In addition, 195 fungal taxa were identified using morphological descriptions and sequencing of the ML5/ML6 fragment of sporocarps and ECMs from West Africa. Analyses of the belowground EM fungal communities mostly based on fungal internal transcribed spacer sequences of ECMs from Continental Africa, Madagascar and the Seychelles also revealed more than 350 putative species of EM fungi belonging mainly to 18 phylogenetic lineages. As in temperate forests, the /russula-lactarius and /tomentella-thelephora lineages dominated EM fungal flora in tropical Africa. A low level of host preference and dominance of multi-host fungal taxa on different African adult tree species and their seedlings were revealed, suggesting a potential for the formation of common ectomycorrhizal networks. Moreover, the EM inoculum potential in terms of types and density of propagules (spores, sclerotia, EM root fragments and fragments of mycelia strands) in the soil allowed opportunistic root colonisation as well as long-term survival in the soil during the dry season. These are important characteristics when choosing an EM fungus for field application. In this respect, Thelephoroid fungal sp

  4. Rationale and design of the Pan-African Sudden Cardiac Death survey: the Pan-African SCD study

    PubMed Central

    Bonny, Aimé; Bonny, Aimé; Ngantcha, Marcus; Ndongo Amougou, Sylvie; Kane, Adama; Marrakchi, Sonia; Okello, Emmy; Taty, Georges; Gehani, Abdulrrazzak; Diakite, Mamadou; Talle, Mohammed A; Lambiase, Pier D; Houenassi, Martin; Chin, Ashley; Otieno, Harun; Temu, Gloria; Koffi Owusu, Isaac; Karaye, Kamilu M; Awad, Abdalla AM; Gregers Winkel, Bo; Priori, Silvia G; Priori, Silvia G

    2014-01-01

    Summary Background The estimated rate of sudden cardiac death (SCD) in Western countries ranges from 300 000 to 400 000 annually, which represents 0.36 to 1.28 per 1 000 inhabitants in Europe and the United States. The burden of SCD in Africa is unknown. Our aim is to assess the epidemiology of SCD in Africa. Methods The Pan-Africa SCD study is a prospective, multicentre, community-based registry monitoring all cases of cardiac arrest occurring in victims over 15 years old. We will use the definition of SCD as ‘witnessed natural death occurring within one hour of the onset of symptoms’ or ‘unwitnessed natural death within 24 hours of the onset of symptoms’. After appro val from institutional boards, we will record demographic, clinical, electrocardiographic and biological variables of SCD victims (including survivors of cardiac arrest) in several African cities. All deaths occurring in residents of districts of interest will be checked for past medical history, circumstances of death, and autopsy report (if possible). We will also analyse the employment of resuscitation attempts during the time frame of sudden cardiac arrest (SCA) in various patient populations throughout African countries. Conclusion This study will provide comprehensive, contemporary data on the epidemiology of SCD in Africa and will help in the development of strategies to prevent and manage cardiac arrest in this region of the world. PMID:25192301

  5. AIDS Epidemiological models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahmani, Fouad Lazhar

    2010-11-01

    The aim of this paper is to present mathematical modelling of the spread of infection in the context of the transmission of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and the acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). These models are based in part on the models suggested in the field of th AIDS mathematical modelling as reported by ISHAM [6].

  6. The role of epigenetics in genetic and environmental epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Ladd-Acosta, Christine; Fallin, M Daniele

    2016-02-01

    Epidemiology is the branch of science that investigates the causes and distribution of disease in populations in order to provide preventative measures and promote human health. The fields of genetic and environmental epidemiology primarily seek to identify genetic and environmental risk factors for disease, respectively. Epigenetics is emerging as an important piece of molecular data to include in these studies because it can provide mechanistic insights into genetic and environmental risk factors for disease, identify potential intervention targets, provide biomarkers of exposure, illuminate gene-environment interactions and help localize disease-relevant genomic regions. Here, we describe the importance of including epigenetics in genetic and environmental epidemiology studies, provide a conceptual framework when considering epigenetic data in population-based studies and touch upon the many challenges that lie ahead. PMID:26505319

  7. Epidemiological studies are like cherries, one draws another.

    PubMed

    Lunet, Nuno

    2009-01-01

    The proverb "Words are like cherries", meaning that when you start talking subjects pop up and you end up with long conversations, just like cherries coming out of the plate in chains when you pick one, may also be applied to epidemiological research. A sequence of epidemiological studies, each being drawn from the previous, is presented as an example of how each investigation may raise new questions to be addressed in following studies. This description stresses the need for appropriate planning and the usefulness of pilot testing to depict inadequacies that can hardly be anticipated without field work. I intend to illustrate how epidemiological research can provide a deep approach to research questions, as long as findings are properly interpreted and suboptimal methodological options are taken into account in future investigations. PMID:19713008

  8. Improving Concordance in Environmental Epidemiology: A Three-Part Proposal.

    PubMed

    LaKind, Judy S; Goodman, Michael; Makris, Susan L; Mattison, Donald R

    2015-01-01

    In observational research, evidence is usually derived from multiple studies, and any single result is rarely considered sufficient for public health decision making. Despite more than five decades of research and thousands of studies published, the ability to draw robust conclusions regarding the presence or absence of causal links between specific environmental exposures and human health remains limited. To develop policies that are protective of public health and can withstand scrutiny, agencies need to rely on investigations of satisfactory quality that follow sufficiently concordant protocols in terms of exposure assessment, outcome ascertainment, data analysis, and reporting of results. Absent such concordance, the ability of environmental epidemiology studies to inform decision making is greatly diminished. Systems and tools are proposed here to improve concordance among environmental epidemiology studies. Specifically, working systems in place in other fields of research are critically examined and used as guidelines to develop analogous policies and procedures for environmental epidemiology. A three-part path forward toward more concordant, transparent, and readily accessible environmental epidemiology evidence that parallels ongoing efforts in medical research is proposed. The three parts address methods for improving quality and accessibility of systematic reviews, access to information on ongoing and completed studies, and principles for reporting. The goals are to increase the value of epidemiological research in public health decision making and to stimulate discussions around solutions proposed herein. PMID:26158301

  9. Improving Concordance in Environmental Epidemiology: A Three-Part Proposal

    PubMed Central

    LaKind, Judy S.; Goodman, Michael; Makris, Susan L.; Mattison, Donald R.

    2015-01-01

    In observational research, evidence is usually derived from multiple studies, and any single result is rarely considered sufficient for public health decision making. Despite more than five decades of research and thousands of studies published, the ability to draw robust conclusions regarding the presence or absence of causal links between specific environmental exposures and human health remains limited. To develop policies that are protective of public health and can withstand scrutiny, agencies need to rely on investigations of satisfactory quality that follow sufficiently concordant protocols in terms of exposure assessment, outcome ascertainment, data analysis, and reporting of results. Absent such concordance, the ability of environmental epidemiology studies to inform decision making is greatly diminished. Systems and tools are proposed here to improve concordance among environmental epidemiology studies. Specifically, working systems in place in other fields of research are critically examined and used as guidelines to develop analogous policies and procedures for environmental epidemiology. A three-part path forward toward more concordant, transparent, and readily accessible environmental epidemiology evidence that parallels ongoing efforts in medical research is proposed. The three parts address methods for improving quality and accessibility of systematic reviews, access to information on ongoing and completed studies, and principles for reporting. The goals are to increase the value of epidemiological research in public health decision making and to stimulate discussions around solutions proposed herein. PMID:26158301

  10. African oil plays

    SciTech Connect

    Clifford, A.J. )

    1989-09-01

    The vast continent of Africa hosts over eight sedimentary basins, covering approximately half its total area. Of these basins, only 82% have entered a mature exploration phase, 9% have had little or no exploration at all. Since oil was first discovered in Africa during the mid-1950s, old play concepts continue to bear fruit, for example in Egypt and Nigeria, while new play concepts promise to become more important, such as in Algeria, Angola, Chad, Egypt, Gabon, and Sudan. The most exciting developments of recent years in African oil exploration are: (1) the Gamba/Dentale play, onshore Gabon; (2) the Pinda play, offshore Angola; (3) the Lucula/Toca play, offshore Cabinda; (4) the Metlaoui play, offshore Libya/Tunisia; (5) the mid-Cretaceous sand play, Chad/Sudan; and (6) the TAG-I/F6 play, onshore Algeria. Examples of these plays are illustrated along with some of the more traditional oil plays. Where are the future oil plays likely to develop No doubt, the Saharan basins of Algeria and Libya will feature strongly, also the presalt of Equatorial West Africa, the Central African Rift System and, more speculatively, offshore Ethiopia and Namibia, and onshore Madagascar, Mozambique, and Tanzania.

  11. Bioenergy and African transformation.

    PubMed

    Lynd, Lee R; Sow, Mariam; Chimphango, Annie Fa; Cortez, Luis Ab; Brito Cruz, Carlos H; Elmissiry, Mosad; Laser, Mark; Mayaki, Ibrahim A; Moraes, Marcia Afd; Nogueira, Luiz Ah; Wolfaardt, Gideon M; Woods, Jeremy; van Zyl, Willem H

    2015-01-01

    Among the world's continents, Africa has the highest incidence of food insecurity and poverty and the highest rates of population growth. Yet Africa also has the most arable land, the lowest crop yields, and by far the most plentiful land resources relative to energy demand. It is thus of interest to examine the potential of expanded modern bioenergy production in Africa. Here we consider bioenergy as an enabler for development, and provide an overview of modern bioenergy technologies with a comment on application in an Africa context. Experience with bioenergy in Africa offers evidence of social benefits and also some important lessons. In Brazil, social development, agricultural development and food security, and bioenergy development have been synergistic rather than antagonistic. Realizing similar success in African countries will require clear vision, good governance, and adaptation of technologies, knowledge, and business models to myriad local circumstances. Strategies for integrated production of food crops, livestock, and bioenergy are potentially attractive and offer an alternative to an agricultural model featuring specialized land use. If done thoughtfully, there is considerable evidence that food security and economic development in Africa can be addressed more effectively with modern bioenergy than without it. Modern bioenergy can be an agent of African transformation, with potential social benefits accruing to multiple sectors and extending well beyond energy supply per se. Potential negative impacts also cut across sectors. Thus, institutionally inclusive multi-sector legislative structures will be more effective at maximizing the social benefits of bioenergy compared to institutionally exclusive, single-sector structures. PMID:25709714

  12. How to assess epidemiological studies

    PubMed Central

    Zaccai, J

    2004-01-01

    Assessing the quality of an epidemiological study equates to assessing whether the inferences drawn from it are warranted when account is taken of the methods, the representativeness of the study sample, and the nature of the population from which it is drawn. Bias, confounding, and chance can threaten the quality of an epidemiological study at all its phases. Nevertheless, their presence does not necessarily imply that a study should be disregarded. The reader must first balance any of these threats or missing information with their potential impact on the conclusions of the report. PMID:15016934

  13. Common roots: a contextual review of HIV epidemics in black men who have sex with men across the African diaspora.

    PubMed

    Millett, Gregorio A; Jeffries, William L; Peterson, John L; Malebranche, David J; Lane, Tim; Flores, Stephen A; Fenton, Kevin A; Wilson, Patrick A; Steiner, Riley; Heilig, Charles M

    2012-07-28

    Pooled estimates from across the African diaspora show that black men who have sex with men (MSM) are 15 times more likely to be HIV positive compared with general populations and 8·5 times more likely compared with black populations. Disparities in the prevalence of HIV infection are greater in African and Caribbean countries that criminalise homosexual activity than in those that do not criminalise such behaviour. With the exception of US and African epidemiological studies, most studies of black MSM mainly focus on outcomes associated with HIV behavioural risk rather than on prevalence, incidence, or undiagnosed infection. Nevertheless, black MSM across the African diaspora share common experiences such as discrimination, cultural norms valuing masculinity, concerns about confidentiality during HIV testing or treatment, low access to HIV drugs, threats of violence or incarceration, and few targeted HIV prevention resources. PMID:22819654

  14. Spatial air pollution modelling for a West-African town.

    PubMed

    Gebreab, Sirak Zenebe; Vienneau, Danielle; Feigenwinter, Christian; Bâ, Hâmpaté; Cissé, Guéladio; Tsai, Ming-Yi

    2015-01-01

    Land use regression (LUR) modelling is a common approach used in European and Northern American epidemiological studies to assess urban and traffic related air pollution exposures. Studies applying LUR in Africa are lacking. A need exists to understand if this approach holds for an African setting, where urban features, pollutant exposures and data availability differ considerably from other continents. We developed a parsimonious regression model based on 48-hour nitrogen dioxide (NO2) concentrations measured at 40 sites in Kaédi, a medium sized West-African town, and variables generated in a geographic information system (GIS). Road variables and settlement land use characteristics were found to be important predictors of 48-hour NO2 concentration in the model. About 68% of concentration variability in the town was explained by the model. The model was internally validated by leave-one-out cross-validation and it was found to perform moderately well. Furthermore, its parameters were robust to sampling variation. We applied the model at 100 m pixels to create a map describing the broad spatial pattern of NO2 across Kaédi. In this research, we demonstrated the potential for LUR as a valid, cost-effective approach for air pollution modelling and mapping in an African town. If the methodology were to be adopted by environmental and public health authorities in these regions, it could provide a quick assessment of the local air pollution burden and potentially support air pollution policies and guidelines. PMID:26618306

  15. Assimilation Differences among Africans in America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dodoo, F. Nii-Amoo

    1997-01-01

    Census data (1990) indicate that male African immigrants earn more than their Caribbean-born counterparts or native-born African Americans, but controlling for relevant earnings-related endowments erases the African advantage and elevates Caribbean earnings above those of the other groups. Also, African (but not Caribbean) university degree…

  16. Successfully Educating Our African-American Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moncree-Moffett, Kareem

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this empirical study was to explore the lived experiences of African American retired female teachers who have prior experience with educating urban African American students in public schools. Also explored are the experiences of active African American female teachers of urban African American students and comparisons are…

  17. Revealing the Micro-scale Signature of Endemic Zoonotic Disease Transmission in an African Urban Setting.

    PubMed

    Bourhy, Hervé; Nakouné, Emmanuel; Hall, Matthew; Nouvellet, Pierre; Lepelletier, Anthony; Talbi, Chiraz; Watier, Laurence; Holmes, Edward C; Cauchemez, Simon; Lemey, Philippe; Donnelly, Christl A; Rambaut, Andrew

    2016-04-01

    The development of novel approaches that combine epidemiological and genomic data provides new opportunities to reveal the spatiotemporal dynamics of infectious diseases and determine the processes responsible for their spread and maintenance. Taking advantage of detailed epidemiological time series and viral sequence data from more than 20 years reported by the National Reference Centre for Rabies of Bangui, the capital city of Central African Republic, we used a combination of mathematical modeling and phylogenetic analysis to determine the spatiotemporal dynamics of rabies in domestic dogs as well as the frequency of extinction and introduction events in an African city. We show that although dog rabies virus (RABV) appears to be endemic in Bangui, its epidemiology is in fact shaped by the regular extinction of local chains of transmission coupled with the introduction of new lineages, generating successive waves of spread. Notably, the effective reproduction number during each wave was rarely above the critical value of 1, such that rabies is not self-sustaining in Bangui. In turn, this suggests that rabies at local geographic scales is driven by human-mediated dispersal of RABV among sparsely connected peri-urban and rural areas as opposed to dispersion in a relatively large homogenous urban dog population. This combined epidemiological and genomic approach enables development of a comprehensive framework for understanding disease persistence and informing control measures, indicating that control measures are probably best targeted towards areas neighbouring the city that appear as the source of frequent incursions seeding outbreaks in Bangui. PMID:27058957

  18. Revealing the Micro-scale Signature of Endemic Zoonotic Disease Transmission in an African Urban Setting

    PubMed Central

    Bourhy, Hervé; Nakouné, Emmanuel; Hall, Matthew; Nouvellet, Pierre; Lepelletier, Anthony; Talbi, Chiraz; Watier, Laurence; Holmes, Edward C.; Cauchemez, Simon; Lemey, Philippe; Donnelly, Christl A.; Rambaut, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    The development of novel approaches that combine epidemiological and genomic data provides new opportunities to reveal the spatiotemporal dynamics of infectious diseases and determine the processes responsible for their spread and maintenance. Taking advantage of detailed epidemiological time series and viral sequence data from more than 20 years reported by the National Reference Centre for Rabies of Bangui, the capital city of Central African Republic, we used a combination of mathematical modeling and phylogenetic analysis to determine the spatiotemporal dynamics of rabies in domestic dogs as well as the frequency of extinction and introduction events in an African city. We show that although dog rabies virus (RABV) appears to be endemic in Bangui, its epidemiology is in fact shaped by the regular extinction of local chains of transmission coupled with the introduction of new lineages, generating successive waves of spread. Notably, the effective reproduction number during each wave was rarely above the critical value of 1, such that rabies is not self-sustaining in Bangui. In turn, this suggests that rabies at local geographic scales is driven by human-mediated dispersal of RABV among sparsely connected peri-urban and rural areas as opposed to dispersion in a relatively large homogenous urban dog population. This combined epidemiological and genomic approach enables development of a comprehensive framework for understanding disease persistence and informing control measures, indicating that control measures are probably best targeted towards areas neighbouring the city that appear as the source of frequent incursions seeding outbreaks in Bangui. PMID:27058957

  19. About the Epidemiology and Genomics Research Program

    Cancer.gov

    Epidemiology is the scientific study of the causes and distribution of disease in populations. NCI-funded epidemiology research is conducted through research at institutions in the United States and internationally.

  20. Field, geochemistry and Sr-Nd isotopes of the Pan-African granitoids from the Tifnoute Valley (Sirwa, Anti-Atlas, Morocco): a post-collisional event in a metacratonic setting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toummite, A.; Liegeois, J. P.; Gasquet, D.; Bruguier, O.; Beraaouz, E. H.; Ikenne, M.

    2013-10-01

    In the Tifnoute Valley, three plutonic units have been defined: the Askaoun intrusion, the Imourkhssen intrusion and the Ougougane group of small intrusions. They are made of quartz diorite, granodiorite and granite and all contain abundant mafic microgranular enclaves (MME). The Askaoun granodiorite and the Imourkhssen granite have been dated by LA-ICP-MS on zircon at 558 ± 2 Ma and 561 ± 3 Ma, respectively. These granitic intrusions are subcontemporaneous to the widespread volcanic and volcano-detrital rocks from the Ouarzazate Group (580-545 Ma), marking the post-collisional transtensional period in the Anti-Atlas and which evolved towards alkaline and tholeiitic lavas in minor volume at the beginning of the Cambrian anorogenic intraplate extensional period. Geochemically, the Tifnoute Valley granitoids belong to an alkali-calcic series (high-K calc-alkaline) with typical Nb-Ta negative anomalies and no alkaline affinities. Granitoids and enclaves display positive ɛNd-560Ma (+0.8 to +3.5) with young Nd-TDM between 800 and 1200 Ma and relatively low 87Sr/86Sr initial ratios (Sri: 0.7034 and 0.7065). These values indicate a mainly juvenile source corresponding to a Pan-African metasomatized lithospheric mantle partly mixed with an old crustal component from the underlying West African Craton (WAC). Preservation in the Anti-Atlas of pre-Pan-African lithologies (c. 2.03 Ga basement, c. 800 Ma passive margin greenschist-facies sediments, allochthonous 750-700 Ma ophiolitic sequences) indicates that the Anti-Atlas lithosphere has not been thickened and was never an active margin during the Neoproterozoic. After a transpressive period, the late Ediacaran period (580-545 Ma) is marked by movement on near vertical transtensional faults, synchronous with the emplacement of the huge Ouarzazate Group and the Tifnoute Valley granitoids. We propose here a geodynamical model where the Tifnoute Valley granitoids as well as the Ouarzazate Group were generated during the post

  1. Doing Justice to Social Justice in South African Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tjabane, Masebala; Pillay, Venitha

    2011-01-01

    This paper attempts to develop a conceptualisation of social justice in higher education based on a close reading of the current literature in the field. An important assumption we make is that higher education is a valuable mechanism for social justice. We set the literature against policy documents that detail South African aspirations with…

  2. South African Human Sciences Research Networking Directory. First Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Berg, Henda, Ed.; Maree-Snijders, Asa, Ed.; Prinsloo, Roelf, Ed.

    This networking directory is a comprehensive reference source of names, locations, and fields of interest of South African human sciences researchers. The guide is intended to promote research cooperation, facilitate networking, and organize conferences. The directory is intended for use at both the international level and the local level. The…

  3. Notes toward an African Cultural Studies of Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Handel Kashope

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, the author attempts to sketch out both an argument for and the outlines of what might be termed an African cultural studies of education. This formation would actually be composed of several fields and discourses that are often taken up as quite distinct, namely critical approaches to education, cultural studies, and African…

  4. Aestivation and brain of the African lungfish Protopterus annectens

    PubMed Central

    Chew, Shit F; Hiong, Kum

    2014-01-01

    Scientists have long been fascinated by animals undergoing aestivation, a state of torpor at high temperature, due to its great potential in fields ranging from medicine to space travel. The brain of the African lungfish is able to coordinate a whole-body response to induce aestivation and to arouse from aestivation. PMID:27581948

  5. Albert Sidney Beckham: The First African American School Psychologist

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graves, Scott L., Jr.

    2009-01-01

    Albert Sidney Beckham was the first African American to hold the title school psychologist. This article examines the life and professional career of Beckham in the context of his contributions to the field of school psychology. It explores his graduate education, the founding of Howard University's Psychological Laboratory and his research and…

  6. Epidemiological approaches to safety investigations.

    PubMed

    Wood, J L N; Adams, V J

    2006-10-01

    This paper considers the different approaches to post-authorisation safety monitoring of veterinary medicinal products that is essential to ensure confidence in their safety. Most safety testing is undertaken prior to granting of a marketing authorisation and is generally on a small scale. Field trials are usually much larger, but still involve relatively low numbers of animals compared to the number to which authorised products are administered. Safety testing is generally aimed at detecting common events; the numbers of animals used in the tests are too small for detection of all but the most common reactions. The efficiency of the tests depends on the frequency and severity of the adverse reaction and the ability to associate the adverse event with the product. The latter is affected by the period of time between administration and the event, as well as by its underlying frequency. Adverse reaction surveillance is critical in monitoring the safety of a marketed product. Most is entirely passive and so reporting rates are likely to underestimate true incidence. It is relatively efficient for rare, serious adverse effects and for those with a low underlying frequency in the population, but it is less useful when there is long period between administration and the event, or where the event has a relatively high underlying frequency. Greater emphasis should be placed on active surveillance after production registration. Detailed epidemiological investigations, including cohort, case control and cross-sectional designs, offer the only approaches that provide more information on the association between a product and events that have a high underlying frequency in the population or where there is a long period between administration and the adverse event. The relative merits of different approaches are discussed, with particular reference to our recently published study of the temporal association between canine vaccination and non-specific signs of ill health and

  7. EPIDEMIOLOGICAL WORK ON DBP EXPOSURES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This effort was based on several completed or existing projects where disinfection by-products ( or DBPs) have been the primary exposure of interest. Previous epidemiologic results on reproductive or developmental risks that may be associated with consumption of disinfected drink...

  8. Quantifying Uncertainty in Epidemiological Models

    SciTech Connect

    Ramanathan, Arvind; Jha, Sumit Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Modern epidemiology has made use of a number of mathematical models, including ordinary differential equation (ODE) based models and agent based models (ABMs) to describe the dynamics of how a disease may spread within a population and enable the rational design of strategies for intervention that effectively contain the spread of the disease. Although such predictions are of fundamental importance in preventing the next global pandemic, there is a significant gap in trusting the outcomes/predictions solely based on such models. Hence, there is a need to develop approaches such that mathematical models can be calibrated against historical data. In addition, there is a need to develop rigorous uncertainty quantification approaches that can provide insights into when a model will fail and characterize the confidence in the (possibly multiple) model outcomes/predictions, when such retrospective analysis cannot be performed. In this paper, we outline an approach to develop uncertainty quantification approaches for epidemiological models using formal methods and model checking. By specifying the outcomes expected from a model in a suitable spatio-temporal logic, we use probabilistic model checking methods to quantify the probability with which the epidemiological model satisfies the specification. We argue that statistical model checking methods can solve the uncertainty quantification problem for complex epidemiological models.

  9. Brain Tumor Epidemiology Consortium (BTEC)

    Cancer.gov

    The Brain Tumor Epidemiology Consortium is an open scientific forum organized to foster the development of multi-center, international and inter-disciplinary collaborations that will lead to a better understanding of the etiology, outcomes, and prevention of brain tumors.

  10. Radiation epidemiology: Past and present

    SciTech Connect

    Boice, J.D. Jr.

    1997-03-01

    Major advancements in radiation epidemiology have occurred during the last several years in studies of atomic bomb survivors, patients given medical radiation, and radiation workers, including underground miners. Risks associated with the Chernobyl accident, indoor radon and childhood exposure to I-131 have yet to be elucidated. Situations in the former Soviet Union around Chelyabinsk, a nuclear installation in the southern Urals, and in the Altai, which received radioactive fallout from weapons testing at Semipalatinsk, Kazakhstan, have the potential to provide information on the effects of chronic radiation exposure. Since Roentgen`s discovery of x-rays just 100 years ago, a tremendous amount of knowledge has been accumulated about human health effects following irradiation. The 1994 UNSCEAR report contains the latest compilation and synthesis of radiation epidemiology. This overview will cover epidemiology from a radiation perspective. The different types of study methodologies will be described, followed by a kaleidoscope coverage of past and present studies; ending with some remaining questions in radiation epidemiology. This should set the stage for future chapters, and stimulate thinking about implications of the new data on radiation cancer risks.

  11. The epidemiology of oral and oropharyngeal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Wahi, P. N.

    1968-01-01

    Records of the Sarojini Naidu Medical College Hospital, Agra, India, suggested that there was a much higher endemicity of oral and oropharyngeal cancer in Mainpuri district, a rural area about 75 miles (120 km) from Agra City, than there was in Agra district itself. It was decided in 1963 to set up a complete cancer registry in Mainpuri district, based on the Sarojini Naidu Medical College and in association with the WHO International Reference Centre for the Histopathological Nomenclature and Classification of Oropharyngeal Tumours, which would, among other duties, undertake a study of the epidemiology by means of an intensive field-programme in the area. The epidemiological survey was carried out between March 1964 and September 1966. All factors considered to have any relevance to the disease were surveyed and particularly strong correlations were discovered between the prevalence of oral cancer and the use of local tobaccos (adulterated to a greater or lesser extent with various other materials), especially for chewing but also for smoking. There was also some correlation between prevalence of oral cancer and the use of certain alcoholic drinks. A number of other factors, most probably influencing or modifying the use of tobacco and alcohol, were found to be significant also. PMID:5302449

  12. A Bayesian Ensemble Approach for Epidemiological Projections

    PubMed Central

    Lindström, Tom; Tildesley, Michael; Webb, Colleen

    2015-01-01

    Mathematical models are powerful tools for epidemiology and can be used to compare control actions. However, different models and model parameterizations may provide different prediction of outcomes. In other fields of research, ensemble modeling has been used to combine multiple projections. We explore the possibility of applying such methods to epidemiology by adapting Bayesian techniques developed for climate forecasting. We exemplify the implementation with single model ensembles based on different parameterizations of the Warwick model run for the 2001 United Kingdom foot and mouth disease outbreak and compare the efficacy of different control actions. This allows us to investigate the effect that discrepancy among projections based on different modeling assumptions has on the ensemble prediction. A sensitivity analysis showed that the choice of prior can have a pronounced effect on the posterior estimates of quantities of interest, in particular for ensembles with large discrepancy among projections. However, by using a hierarchical extension of the method we show that prior sensitivity can be circumvented. We further extend the method to include a priori beliefs about different modeling assumptions and demonstrate that the effect of this can have different consequences depending on the discrepancy among projections. We propose that the method is a promising analytical tool for ensemble modeling of disease outbreaks. PMID:25927892

  13. The African Millennium Villages

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez, Pedro; Palm, Cheryl; Sachs, Jeffrey; Denning, Glenn; Flor, Rafael; Harawa, Rebbie; Jama, Bashir; Kiflemariam, Tsegazeab; Konecky, Bronwen; Kozar, Raffaela; Lelerai, Eliud; Malik, Alia; Modi, Vijay; Mutuo, Patrick; Niang, Amadou; Okoth, Herine; Place, Frank; Sachs, Sonia Ehrlich; Said, Amir; Siriri, David; Teklehaimanot, Awash; Wang, Karen; Wangila, Justine; Zamba, Colleen

    2007-01-01

    We describe the concept, strategy, and initial results of the Millennium Villages Project and implications regarding sustainability and scalability. Our underlying hypothesis is that the interacting crises of agriculture, health, and infrastructure in rural Africa can be overcome through targeted public-sector investments to raise rural productivity and, thereby, to increased private-sector saving and investments. This is carried out by empowering impoverished communities with science-based interventions. Seventy-eight Millennium Villages have been initiated in 12 sites in 10 African countries, each representing a major agroecological zone. In early results, the research villages in Kenya, Ethiopia, and Malawi have reduced malaria prevalence, met caloric requirements, generated crop surpluses, enabled school feeding programs, and provided cash earnings for farm families. PMID:17942701

  14. Techniques for assessing teratogenic effects: epidemiology.

    PubMed Central

    Flynt, J W

    1976-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies of malformations can aid in the understanding of human teratogenesis. Employing a variety of approaches epidemiology can develop or test hypotheses concerning possible causes or through surveillance provide data useful for a variety of purposes. Drawing heavily upon our experiences at the Center for Disease Control, this paper reviews some concepts and uses of epidemiology in studies of human teratogenesis. PMID:1030396

  15. Cancer Epidemiology Matters Blog - 2013 Archive

    Cancer.gov

    The Cancer Epidemiology Matters blog helps foster a dialogue between the National Cancer Institute's (NCI) Epidemiology and Genomics Research Program (EGRP), extramural researchers, and other individuals, such as clinicians, community partners, and advocates, who are interested in cancer epidemiology and genomics.

  16. Cancer Epidemiology Matters Blog - 2015 Archive

    Cancer.gov

    The Cancer Epidemiology Matters blog helps foster a dialogue between the National Cancer Institute's (NCI) Epidemiology and Genomics Research Program (EGRP), extramural researchers, and other individuals, such as clinicians, community partners, and advocates, who are interested in cancer epidemiology and genomics.

  17. Cancer Epidemiology Matters Blog - 2012 Archive

    Cancer.gov

    The Cancer Epidemiology Matters blog helps foster a dialogue between the National Cancer Institute's (NCI) Epidemiology and Genomics Research Program (EGRP), extramural researchers, and other individuals, such as clinicians, community partners, and advocates, who are interested in cancer epidemiology and genomics.

  18. Cancer Epidemiology Matters Blog - 2014 Archive

    Cancer.gov

    The Cancer Epidemiology Matters blog helps foster a dialogue between the National Cancer Institute's (NCI) Epidemiology and Genomics Research Program (EGRP), extramural researchers, and other individuals, such as clinicians, community partners, and advocates, who are interested in cancer epidemiology and genomics.

  19. Essential evidence for guiding health system priorities and policies: anticipating epidemiological transition in Africa

    PubMed Central

    Byass, Peter; de Savigny, Don; Lopez, Alan D.

    2014-01-01

    Background Despite indications that infection-related mortality in sub-Saharan Africa may be decreasing and the burden of non-communicable diseases increasing, the overwhelming reality is that health information systems across most of sub-Saharan Africa remain too weak to track epidemiological transition in a meaningful and effective way. Proposals We propose a minimum dataset as the basis of a functional health information system in countries where health information is lacking. This would involve continuous monitoring of cause-specific mortality through routine civil registration, regular documentation of exposure to leading risk factors, and monitoring effective coverage of key preventive and curative interventions in the health sector. Consideration must be given as to how these minimum data requirements can be effectively integrated within national health information systems, what methods and tools are needed, and ensuring that ethical and political issues are addressed. A more strategic approach to health information systems in sub-Saharan African countries, along these lines, is essential if epidemiological changes are to be tracked effectively for the benefit of local health planners and policy makers. Conclusion African countries have a unique opportunity to capitalize on modern information and communications technology in order to achieve this. Methodological standards need to be established and political momentum fostered so that the African continent's health status can be reliably tracked. This will greatly strengthen the evidence base for health policies and facilitate the effective delivery of services. PMID:24848653

  20. Impact of immigration on HIV-1 molecular epidemiology in West Africa, Maghreb and Southern Europe.

    PubMed

    Miri, Lamia; Wakrim, Lahcen; Kassar, Hassène; Hemminki, Kari; Khyatti, Meriem

    2014-01-01

    There is global concern about the relation between international migration and the course of the AIDS epidemic. Maghreb is a North African region, which lies between sub-Saharan Africa and Europe. It has been turned recently into a region of immigration, since there are more and more flows of West African migrants hoping to reach European countries. Here we provide an overview on HIV-1 molecular epidemiology particularly in West African countries, Maghreb (Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia) and southern European countries (Spain, France, and Italy). The studies conducted in several countries of the region revealed different features of HIV-1 molecular epidemiology, especially for the distribution of viral subtypes and for transmitted drug resistance profiles. Furthermore, migration from West Africa to Europe seems to be a potential source of non-B subtype mobility to Maghreb and eventually to southern Europe, where HIV-1 non-B variants significantly increased in the last 10 to 15 years. As genetic differences between subtypes might impact the drug resistance pathways, it is important to provide continuous surveillance programs for the early detection of new variants spreading in the population before they become more prevalent, and to identify resistance profiles in different infected populations, especially migrants. PMID:24802562

  1. Larger genetic differences within africans than between Africans and Eurasians.

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Ning; Chen, Feng-Chi; Ota, Satoshi; Jorde, Lynn B; Pamilo, Pekka; Patthy, Laszlo; Ramsay, Michele; Jenkins, Trefor; Shyue, Song-Kun; Li, Wen-Hsiung

    2002-01-01

    The worldwide pattern of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) variation is of great interest to human geneticists, population geneticists, and evolutionists, but remains incompletely understood. We studied the pattern in noncoding regions, because they are less affected by natural selection than are coding regions. Thus, it can reflect better the history of human evolution and can serve as a baseline for understanding the maintenance of SNPs in human populations. We sequenced 50 noncoding DNA segments each approximately 500 bp long in 10 Africans, 10 Europeans, and 10 Asians. An analysis of the data suggests that the sampling scheme is adequate for our purpose. The average nucleotide diversity (pi) for the 50 segments is only 0.061% +/- 0.010% among Asians and 0.064% +/- 0.011% among Europeans but almost twice as high (0.115% +/- 0.016%) among Africans. The African diversity estimate is even higher than that between Africans and Eurasians (0.096% +/- 0.012%). From available data for noncoding autosomal regions (total length = 47,038 bp) and X-linked regions (47,421 bp), we estimated the pi-values for autosomal regions to be 0.105, 0.070, 0.069, and 0.097% for Africans, Asians, Europeans, and between Africans and Eurasians, and the corresponding values for X-linked regions to be 0.088, 0.042, 0.053, and 0.082%. Thus, Africans differ from one another slightly more than from Eurasians, and the genetic diversity in Eurasians is largely a subset of that in Africans, supporting the out of Africa model of human evolution. Clearly, one must specify the geographic origins of the individuals sampled when studying pi or SNP density. PMID:12019240

  2. [West African childbirth traditions].

    PubMed

    Hallgren, R

    1983-11-01

    Religious and medical practices are steeped in the traditions of West African culture vis-a-vis childbirth. It is customary for delivery to occur with the woman squatting on the ground surrounded by sisters and female relatives, some of whom function as midwives. Midwives get paid only if delivery is successful. A stool is also often used in childbirth. The name given to a child in the Yoruba tribe in Nigeria has to refer to the circumstances of the individual's birth. The contact with the earth (as in the squatting position) has religious overtones--it indicates the fecundity of the earth, and the mother's contact with it. Infertility is considered the greatest tragedy in traditional African society. In Senegal, a childless woman pays a fertile one a certain sum in return for bearing her a child who would be raised as her own (this tradition is not unlike surrogate motherhood in Western countries). Men are never present at birth; however, in urban settings this practice is changing. The burial of the placenta and umbilical cord is thought to restore the woman's fertility and help heal her womb. This practice was even recorded in 19th century Sweden harkening back to heathen times. In Ghana, an infertile woman urinates on the ground where the placenta is buried in the belief that her fertility will be restored. The birth of twins is regarded as a great blessing, and as a sign of fertility; however, the inability of the mother to breast-feed both twins may result in the death of the weaker child. The harmony of nature, animals, and human beings is paramount in traditional West Africa religion and life, and undoubtedly Western culture could learn from some of these beliefs. PMID:6558064

  3. Some unsolved problems in the epidemiology of onchocerciasis.

    PubMed

    Southgate, B A

    1987-01-01

    The descriptive epidemiology of onchocerciasis is well understood in the major foci of infection; a great stimulus to epidemiological research has been the implementation of the first control programme, which led to the eradication of infection in Kenya and, more recently, the vast Onchocerciasis Control Programme in the Volta River Basin of West Africa. However, there are still significant gaps in epidemiological knowledge which hamper the planning of future control programmes and the evaluation of current programmes. The four most important unsolved problems are: the refinement of field diagnostic techniques to identify skin microfilariae at the ultra-low densities that will become common in the late stages of vector-control campaigns; the definitive identification of Onchocerca volvulus infective larvae in Simulium species; strain analysis in the field of microfilariae from humans and of developing stages from Simulium, to determine their potential for ocular pathogenicity; determination of the lifespan, or maximum fecundity span, of adult female O. volvulus after the interruption of transmission. Three other unsolved problems are of enormous interest epidemiologically, although less urgent in practical importance. They are the identification of factors causing severe disease as opposed to heavy infection; the effects of seasonal as opposed to perennial transmission; and the importance of transplacental transmission of microfilariae or soluble antigens. PMID:3297559

  4. Cardiovascular disease, diabetes and established risk factors among populations of sub-Saharan African descent in Europe: a literature review

    PubMed Central

    Agyemang, Charles; Addo, Juliet; Bhopal, Raj; de Graft Aikins, Ama; Stronks, Karien

    2009-01-01

    Background Most European countries are ethnically and culturally diverse. Globally, cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death. The major risk factors for CVD have been well established. This picture holds true for all regions of the world and in different ethnic groups. However, the prevalence of CVD and related risk factors vary among ethnic groups. Methods This article provides a review of current understanding of the epidemiology of vascular disease, principally coronary heart disease (CHD), stroke and related risk factors among populations of Sub-Sahara African descent (henceforth, African descent) in comparison with the European populations in Europe. Results Compared with European populations, populations of African descent have an increased risk of stroke, whereas CHD is less common. They also have higher rates of hypertension and diabetes than European populations. Obesity is highly prevalent, but smoking rate is lower among African descent women. Older people of African descent have more favourable lipid profile and dietary habits than their European counterparts. Alcohol consumption is less common among populations of African descent. The rate of physical activity differs between European countries. Dutch African-Suriname men and women are less physically active than the White-Dutch whereas British African women are more physically active than women in the general population. Literature on psychosocial stress shows inconsistent results. Conclusion Hypertension and diabetes are highly prevalent among African populations, which may explain their high rate of stroke in Europe. The relatively low rate of CHD may be explained by the low rates of other risk factors including a more favourable lipid profile and the low prevalence of smoking. The risk factors are changing, and on the whole, getting worse especially among African women. Cohort studies and clinical trials are therefore needed among these groups to determine the relative

  5. Genetic Epidemiology and Preventive Healthcare in Multiethnic Societies: The Hemoglobinopathies

    PubMed Central

    Giordano, Piero C.; Harteveld, Cornelis L.; Bakker, Egbert

    2014-01-01

    Healthy carriers of severe Hemoglobinopathies are usually asymptomatic and only efficiently detected through screening campaigns. Based upon epidemiological data, screenings have been offered for decades to populations of endemic Southern Europe for primary prevention of Thalassemia Major, while for many populations of the highly endemic African and Asian countries prevention for Sickle Cell Disease and Thalassemia Major is mainly unavailable. The massive migrations of the last decades have brought many healthy carriers of these diseases to live and reproduce in non-endemic immigration areas changing the epidemiological pattern of the local recessive diseases and bringing an urgent need for treatment and primary prevention in welfare countries. Nonetheless, no screening for an informed reproductive choice is actively offered by the healthcare systems of most of these welfare countries. As a consequence more children affected with severe Hemoglobinopathies are born today in the immigration countries of Northern Europe than in the endemic Southern European area. Following the Mediterranean example, some countries like the UK and The Netherlands have been offering early pregnancy carrier screening at different levels and/or in specific areas but more accessible measures need to be taken at the national level in all immigration countries. Identification of carriers using simple and inexpensive methods should be included in the Rhesus and infectious diseases screening which is offered early in pregnancy in most developed countries. This would allow identification of couples at risk in time for an informed choice and for prenatal diagnosis if required before the first affected child is born. PMID:24921462

  6. Epidemiology of Carbapenem Resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae Infections in Mediterranean Countries

    PubMed Central

    Girmenia, Corrado; Serrao, Alessandra; Canichella, Martina

    2016-01-01

    Infections by Carbapenem-Resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE), in particular, carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae (CRKp), are a significant public health challenge worldwide. Resistance to carbapenems in enterobacteriaceae is linked to different mechanisms, including the production of the various types of enzymes like KPC, VIM, IMP, NDM, and OXA-48. Despite several attempts to control the spread of these infections at the local and national level, the epidemiological situation for CRKp had worsened in the last years in the Mediterranean area. The rate and types of CRKp isolates greatly differ in the various Mediterranean countries. KPC-producing K. pneumoniae is diffused particularly in the European countries bordering the Mediterranean Sea and is endemic in Greece and Italy. On the contrary, OXA-48-producing K. pneumoniae is endemic in Turkey and Malta and diffused at inter-regional level particularly in some North African and Middle East countries. The spread of these multiresistant pathogens in the world and the Mediterranean countries has been related to various epidemiological factors including the international transfer of patients coming from endemic areas. PMID:27441063

  7. Early African Hominids: Pedagogic Patterns.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, James L.

    1984-01-01

    By studying early African hominids, students can learn about the interactive testing and creative aspects of scientific thinking and sharpen their geographical skills. It is impossible to study this topic without giving prominence to space and time. (RM)

  8. Childhood Brain Tumor Epidemiology: A Brain Tumor Epidemiology Consortium Review

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Kimberly J.; Cullen, Jennifer; Barnholtz-Sloan, Jill S.; Ostrom, Quinn T.; Langer, Chelsea E.; Turner, Michelle C.; McKean-Cowdin, Roberta; Fisher, James L.; Lupo, Philip J.; Partap, Sonia; Schwartzbaum, Judith A.; Scheurer, Michael E.

    2014-01-01

    Childhood brain tumors are the most common pediatric solid tumor and include several histological subtypes. Although progress has been made in improving survival rates for some subtypes, understanding of risk factors for childhood brain tumors remains limited to a few genetic syndromes and ionizing radiation to the head and neck. In this report, we review descriptive and analytical epidemiology childhood brain tumor studies from the past decade and highlight priority areas for future epidemiology investigations and methodological work that is needed to advance our understanding of childhood brain tumor causes. Specifically, we summarize the results of a review of studies published since 2004 that have analyzed incidence and survival in different international regions and that have examined potential genetic, immune system, developmental and birth characteristics, and environmental risk factors. PMID:25192704

  9. Molecular Epidemiology of Mycobacterium bovis in Humans and Cattle.

    PubMed

    El-Sayed, A; El-Shannat, S; Kamel, M; Castañeda-Vazquez, M A; Castañeda-Vazquez, H

    2016-06-01

    Bovine tuberculosis (bTB), caused by Mycobacterium bovis (M. bovis), is a serious re-emerging disease in both animals and humans. The evolution of the Multi- and Extensively drug-resistant M. bovis strains (MDR-TB and XDR-TB) represents a global threat to public health. Worldwide, the disease is responsible for great economic losses in the veterinary field, serious threat to the ecosystem, and about 3.1% of human TB cases, up to 16% in Tanzania. Only thorough investigation to understand the pathogen's epidemiology can help in controlling the disease and minimizing its threat. For this purpose, various tools have been developed for use in advanced molecular epidemiological studies of bTB, either alone or in combination with standard conventional epidemiological approaches. These techniques enable the analysis of the intra- and inter-species transmission dynamics of bTB. The delivered data can reveal detailed insights into the source of infection, correlations among human and bovine isolates, strain diversity and evolution, spread, geographical localization, host preference, tracing of certain virulence factors such as antibiotic resistance genes, and finally the risk factors for the maintenance and spread of M. bovis. They also allow for the determination of epidemic and endemic strains. This, in turn, has a significant diagnostic impact and helps in vaccine development for bTB eradication programs. The present review discusses many topics including the aetiology, epidemiology and importance of M. bovis, the prevalence of bTB in humans and animals in various countries, the molecular epidemiology of M. bovis, and finally applied molecular epidemiological techniques. PMID:26684712

  10. Lack of Co-occurring Interpersonal Violence Emotionally-Related Difficulties, or Alcohol and Other-Drug Problems among African American Youth with Conduct Disorder.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singleton, Edward G.; Dale, Grady A., Jr.

    Case studies of African American youth with conduct disorder were examined in the context of a descriptive evaluation of co-occurring substance-related problems and mental disorders. The purpose of this study was to extend the findings of the Epidemiologic Catchment Area (ECA) study of the National Institute of Mental Health into the area of…

  11. The epidemiology of disasters.

    PubMed Central

    Lechat, M. F.

    1976-01-01

    Over the last few years there has been an increasing awareness that some kind of disaster management should be possible. The emphasis is now moving from post-disaster improvisation to predisaster preparedness. The League of Red Cross Societies has increasingly encouraged predisaster planning in countries at risk. A new United Nations agency - United Nations Disaster Relief Office (UNDRO)- has been set up with headquarters in Geneva. Coordination and exchange of information between agencies engaged in disaster relief are becoming the rule rather than the exception, and a number of groups have started with the specific objective of making professional expertise available to disaster management. A number of private initiatives have been taken, meetings have been organized, research centers set up, and research projects launched. The study of disasters needs to be approached on a multidisciplinary basis, the more so since the health component is only one part of the broad disaster problem and, perhaps not the major one. Social scientists, psychologists, administrators, economists, geographers, have been or are conducting a number of studies on natural disasters. These studies have provided new insights and have proved most useful in preparing for disasters and increasing the effectiveness and acceptance of relief operations. This is a vital and challenging field, wide open for research. It is now time for epidemiologists and community health scientists to enter the fray and provide much needed information on which a rational, effective and flexible policy for the management of disasters can be based. PMID:959212

  12. Genetic epidemiology of melanoma.

    PubMed

    Ribero, Simone; Glass, Dan; Bataille, Veronique

    2016-08-01

    The field of melanoma genetics is moving at great pace with new platforms to investigate single nucleotide polymorphism, genome sequencing, gene expression, and methylation. Melanoma incidence is still rising mainly because of screening campaigns, which has increased the number of reported melanomas. However, mortality due to melanoma is not decreasing. Many cutaneous phenotypic risk factors have been linked to melanoma, but the association with UV radiation is very complex. The level of vitamin D affects both the risk of melanoma and prognosis, but more studies are needed. The genetics of melanoma involves genes involved in pigmentation and naevi, as well as genes involved in the cell cycle and senescence, which have been identified via genome-wide association studies over the last 10 years. One area of research highly relevant to melanoma is telomere biology with further links to reduced senescence. At the somatic level, new gene pathways are being explored with many new therapeutic targets, and boosting immune responses against the tumour appears to offer the best long-term outcome. PMID:27436815

  13. Molecular epidemiology of norovirus in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sung-Geun; Cho, Han-Gil; Paik, Soon-Young

    2015-02-01

    Norovirus is a major cause of viral gastroenteritis and a common cause of foodborne and waterborne outbreaks. Norovirus outbreaks are responsible for economic losses, most notably to the public health and food industry field. Norovirus has characteristics such as low infectious dose, prolonged shedding period, strong stability, great diversity, and frequent genome mutations. Besides these characteristics, they are known for rapid and extensive spread in closed settings such as hospitals, hotels, and schools. Norovirus is well known as a major agent of food-poisoning in diverse settings in South Korea. For these reasons, nationwide surveillance for norovirus is active in both clinical and environmental settings in South Korea. Recent studies have reported the emergence of variants and novel recombinants of norovirus. In this review, we summarized studies on the molecular epidemiology and nationwide surveillance of norovirus in South Korea. This review will provide information for vaccine development and prediction of new emerging variants of norovirus in South Korea. PMID:25441425

  14. Update on the epidemiology of osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Wolf, R L; Zmuda, J M; Stone, K L; Cauley, J A

    2000-02-01

    Osteoporosis is a major public health problem that affects the entire aging population. This report provides an update on the epidemiology of osteoporosis and its associated fractures. Published studies from 1997 to the present are highlighted. The current US prevalence estimates for osteoporosis, trends in fracture incidence rates, and latest reports on the morbidity, mortality, and costs attributable to osteoporotic fractures are discussed. Recent advances in our understanding of risk factors associated with osteoporosis and related fractures are reviewed. Special attention is paid to the rapid progress being made in the field of genetics, the growing importance of nutrition, and the new questions being raised as to the influence of hormonal factors on bone mineral density and fracture risk. New studies linking osteoporosis to several other important diseases in women including breast cancer, osteoarthritis, and stroke are also reviewed. PMID:11123043

  15. Common Variants Associated with Type 2 Diabetes in a Black South African Population of Setswana Descent: African Populations Diverge.

    PubMed

    Chikowore, Tinashe; Conradie, Karin R; Towers, Gordon W; van Zyl, Tertia

    2015-10-01

    The increasing worldwide prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) is a serious global health concern. Although T2D has a strong genetic etiology, limited knowledge exists about the common variants associated with it in the black South African population. This study set out to evaluate the association of previously reported common variants in other world populations with T2D susceptibility in a black South African population of Setswana descent. A case-control study design of 178 cases and 178 controls nested in the Prospective Urban Rural Epidemiology (PURE) study was conducted wherein we genotyped for 77 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). PLINK software was used to evaluate the standard genetic models of disease penetrance for the association of the common variants with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) while adjusting for age, sex, and body mass index. Only rs1436955 significantly associated with an increase in T2D risk; three other variants, rs831571, rs8050136, and rs7542900, significantly associated with decreased risk of T2D. However, none of the four SNPs had significant associations after correcting for multiple testing (p<0.05). Although further studies are required to confirm these observations, the common variants associated with T2D risk among the Black South Africans of Setswana descent might likely be different than those in the Asian and European populations. This study supports the broader thesis that the genetic background of Africans is diverse and cannot be directly extrapolated using genetic variants from other ethnicities. Therefore there is a need to identify the population-specific variants linked with T2D in Africa. PMID:26382014

  16. The use of epidemiology in alcohol research

    PubMed Central

    Rossow, Ingeborg; Norström, Thor

    2013-01-01

    Aims This paper presents examples to illustrate the utility and limitations in the use of epidemiology in alcohol research and discusses some promising new directions. Methods Review of literature, concentrating on epidemiological alcohol research with relevance to public health. Findings and conclusion Epidemiology offers tools for assessment of causes and effects of alcohol consumption as well as the effects of efforts to prevent alcohol consumption and its consequences. Epidemiological studies have made significant contributions to alcohol research with respect to public health and public policy. Fixed-effects modelling, difference-in-differences estimation and integrated qualitative and epidemiological methods are promising but underused methods in epidemiological studies. Many epidemiological studies have limited transferability of knowledge to other cultures and jurisdictions. PMID:23134358

  17. Epidemiology of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Ley, Brett; Collard, Harold R

    2013-01-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis is a chronic fibrotic lung disease of unknown cause that occurs in adults and has a poor prognosis. Its epidemiology has been difficult to study because of its rarity and evolution in diagnostic and coding practices. Though uncommon, it is likely underappreciated both in terms of its occurrence (ie, incidence, prevalence) and public health impact (ie, health care costs and resource utilization). Incidence and mortality appear to be on the rise, and prevalence is expected to increase with the aging population. Potential risk factors include occupational and environmental exposures, tobacco smoking, gastroesophageal reflux, and genetic factors. An accurate understanding of its epidemiology is important, especially as novel therapies are emerging. PMID:24348069

  18. [The epidemiological transition in Chile].

    PubMed

    Albalá, C; Vio, F; Robledo, A; Icaza, G

    1993-12-01

    Aiming to describe the place that Chile has in the epidemiological transition, a descriptive study of the changes in demographic and epidemiological profiles of the country during the last 30 years is presented. The important decrease in general and child mortality rates, that has lead to an increase in life expectancy and ageing of the population, is emphasized. A 82% reduction in the proportion of deaths among less than one year old children and a 62% increase in mortality among people 65 years or older is observed. In agreement with these changes, non transmissible chronic diseases appear as the principal cause of mortality (65% of all deaths). However, regarding morbidity, an increase in digestive infectious and sexually transmitted diseases and a decrease in immuno-preventable diseases, excepting measles, is noted. It is concluded that, according to mortality, Chile is in a post transition stage, but there is persistence of some infectious diseases, typical of a pre-transition stage. PMID:8085073

  19. Recruitment of a hidden population: African Americans with obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    PubMed

    Williams, Monnica T; Proetto, Dante; Casiano, Delane; Franklin, Martin E

    2012-01-01

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a leading cause of disability worldwide, however for reasons that are poorly understood ethnic minority groups are not well represented in clinical research studies. Thus, although African Americans experience equivalent rates of OCD according to epidemiological surveys, the generalizability of findings from clinical trials remains unknown. Research designed to improve identification, assessment and treatment of OCD is an important public health priority. The purpose of this study is to report outreach methods used to recruit African American adults for participation in an OCD research study. A variety of methods were employed, including radio advertisements, public transportation advertising, community outreach, and online advertising. A total of 83 African American adult participants were recruited over a 9.5 month period at the University of Pennsylvania in Philadelphia, and given comprehensive psychiatric assessments. African Americans with OCD symptoms were reliably identified and assessed, for a total of 75 with lifetime OCD (4 past and 71 current diagnoses). There was variability in the success and cost effectiveness of study recruitment methods. Radio ads were the most expensive means of recruitment, newspaper ads accounted for the largest number of eligible participants, and no cost methods such as Craig's List and word of mouth were also effective. The authors conclude that, with focused efforts, there are many effective methods for recruiting African Americans with OCD. Guidelines for recruitment are discussed, with a focus on cultural considerations. PMID:21983626

  20. Recruitment of a Hidden Population: African Americans with Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Monnica T.; Proetto, Dante; Casiano, Delane; Franklin, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a leading cause of disability worldwide, however for reasons that are poorly understood ethnic minority groups are not well represented in clinical research studies. Thus, although African Americans experience equivalent rates of OCD according to epidemiological surveys, the generalizability of findings from clinical trials remains unknown. Research designed to improve identification, assessment and treatment of OCD is an important public health priority. The purpose of this study is to report outreach methods used to recruit African American adults for participation in an OCD research study. A variety of methods were employed, including radio advertisements, public transportation advertising, community outreach, and online advertising. A total of 83 African American adult participants were recruited over a 9.5 month period at the University of Pennsylvania in Philadelphia, and given comprehensive psychiatric assessments. African Americans with OCD symptoms were reliably identified and assessed, for a total of 75 with lifetime OCD (4 past and 71 current diagnoses). There was variability in the success and cost effectiveness of study recruitment methods. Radio ads were the most expensive means of recruitment, newspaper ads accounted for the largest number of eligible participants, and no cost methods such as Craig’s List and word of mouth were also effective. The authors conclude that, with focused efforts, there are many effective methods for recruiting African Americans with OCD. Guidelines for recruitment are discussed, with a focus on cultural considerations. PMID:21983626

  1. Epidemiology of Substance Use Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Merikangas, Kathleen R.; McClair, Vetisha L.

    2013-01-01

    Epidemiological studies of substance use and substance use disorders (SUDs) have provided an abundance of data on the patterns of substance use in nationally representative samples across the world (Degenhardt et al. 2008; Johnston et al. 2011; SAMHSA 2011). This paper presents a summary of the goals, methods and recent findings on the epidemiology of substance use and disorders in the general population of adults and adolescents and describes the methods and findings on the genetic epidemiology of drug use disorders. The high 12 month prevalence rates of substance dependence in U.S. adults (about 12% for alcohol and 2–3% for illicit drugs) approximate those of other mental disorders as well as chronic physical disorders with major public health impact. New findings from the nationally representative samples of U.S. youth reveal that the lifetime prevalence of alcohol use disorders is approximately 8% and illicit drug use disorders is 2–3% (Merikangas et al. 2010; Swendsen et al. in press, SAMSHA, 2011). The striking increase in prevalence rates from ages 13 to 18 highlight adolescence as the key period of development of substance use disorders. The application of genetic epidemiological studies has consistently demonstrated that genetic factors have a major influence on progression of substance use to dependence, whereas environmental factors unique to the individual play an important role in exposure and initial use of substances. Identification of specific susceptibility genes and environmental factors that influence exposure and progression of drug use may enhance our ability to prevent and treat substance use disorders. PMID:22543841

  2. Current Epidemiology of Genitourinary Trauma

    PubMed Central

    McGeady, James B.; Breyer, Benjamin N.

    2013-01-01

    Synopsis This article reviews recent publications evaluating the current epidemiology of urologic trauma. It begins by providing a brief explanation of databases that have been recently used to study this patient population, then proceeds to discuss each genitourinary organ individually, discussing the most relevant and up to date information published for each one. The conclusion of the article briefly discusses possible future research and development areas pertaining to the topic. PMID:23905930

  3. Causal diagrams in systems epidemiology

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Methods of diagrammatic modelling have been greatly developed in the past two decades. Outside the context of infectious diseases, systematic use of diagrams in epidemiology has been mainly confined to the analysis of a single link: that between a disease outcome and its proximal determinant(s). Transmitted causes ("causes of causes") tend not to be systematically analysed. The infectious disease epidemiology modelling tradition models the human population in its environment, typically with the exposure-health relationship and the determinants of exposure being considered at individual and group/ecological levels, respectively. Some properties of the resulting systems are quite general, and are seen in unrelated contexts such as biochemical pathways. Confining analysis to a single link misses the opportunity to discover such properties. The structure of a causal diagram is derived from knowledge about how the world works, as well as from statistical evidence. A single diagram can be used to characterise a whole research area, not just a single analysis - although this depends on the degree of consistency of the causal relationships between different populations - and can therefore be used to integrate multiple datasets. Additional advantages of system-wide models include: the use of instrumental variables - now emerging as an important technique in epidemiology in the context of mendelian randomisation, but under-used in the exploitation of "natural experiments"; the explicit use of change models, which have advantages with respect to inferring causation; and in the detection and elucidation of feedback. PMID:22429606

  4. Biomarkers in Prostate Cancer Epidemiology

    PubMed Central

    Verma, Mukesh; Patel, Payal; Verma, Mudit

    2011-01-01

    Understanding the etiology of a disease such as prostate cancer may help in identifying populations at high risk, timely intervention of the disease, and proper treatment. Biomarkers, along with exposure history and clinical data, are useful tools to achieve these goals. Individual risk and population incidence of prostate cancer result from the intervention of genetic susceptibility and exposure. Biochemical, epigenetic, genetic, and imaging biomarkers are used to identify people at high risk for developing prostate cancer. In cancer epidemiology, epigenetic biomarkers offer advantages over other types of biomarkers because they are expressed against a person's genetic background and environmental exposure, and because abnormal events occur early in cancer development, which includes several epigenetic alterations in cancer cells. This article describes different biomarkers that have potential use in studying the epidemiology of prostate cancer. We also discuss the characteristics of an ideal biomarker for prostate cancer, and technologies utilized for biomarker assays. Among epigenetic biomarkers, most reports indicate GSTP1 hypermethylation as the diagnostic marker for prostate cancer; however, NKX2-5, CLSTN1, SPOCK2, SLC16A12, DPYS, and NSE1 also have been reported to be regulated by methylation mechanisms in prostate cancer. Current challenges in utilization of biomarkers in prostate cancer diagnosis and epidemiologic studies and potential solutions also are discussed. PMID:24213111

  5. The African Pediatric Fellowship Program: Training in Africa for Africans.

    PubMed

    Wilmshurst, Jo M; Morrow, Brenda; du Preez, Avril; Githanga, David; Kennedy, Neil; Zar, Heather J

    2016-01-01

    Africa has a significant burden of childhood disease, with relatively few skilled health care professionals. The African Paediatric Fellowship Programme was developed by the Department of Pediatrics and Child Health at the University of Cape Town to provide relevant training for African child health professionals, by Africans, within Africa. Trainees identified by partner academic institutions spend 6 months to 2 years training in the Department of Pediatrics and allied disciplines. They then return to their home institution to build practice, training, research, and advocacy. From 2008 to 2015, 73 physicians have completed or are completing training in general pediatrics or a pediatric subspecialty. At 1 year posttraining, 98% to 100% are practicing back in their home institution. The impact of the returning fellows is evident from their practice interventions, research collaborations, and positions as stakeholders who can change health care policies. Thirty-three centers in 13 African countries are partners with the program, and the program template is now followed by other partner sites in Africa. Increasing and retaining the skills pool of African child health specialists is building a network of motivated, highly skilled clinicians who are equipped to advance child health in Africa. PMID:26659458

  6. East African Rift

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    Places where the earth's crust has formed deep fissures and the plates have begun to move apart develop rift structures in which elongate blocks have subsided relative to the blocks on either side. The East African Rift is a world-famous example of such rifting. It is characterized by 1) topographic deep valleys in the rift zone, 2) sheer escarpments along the faulted walls of the rift zone, 3) a chain of lakes within the rift, most of the lakes highly saline due to evaporation in the hot temperatures characteristic of climates near the equator, 4) voluminous amounts of volcanic rocks that have flowed from faults along the sides of the rift, and 5) volcanic cones where magma flow was most intense. This example in Kenya displays most of these features near Lake Begoria.

    The image was acquired December 18, 2002, covers an area of 40.5 x 32 km, and is located at 0.1 degrees north latitude, 36.1 degrees east longitude.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  7. Genomic epidemiology and global diversity of the emerging bacterial pathogen Elizabethkingia anophelis.

    PubMed

    Breurec, Sebastien; Criscuolo, Alexis; Diancourt, Laure; Rendueles, Olaya; Vandenbogaert, Mathias; Passet, Virginie; Caro, Valérie; Rocha, Eduardo P C; Touchon, Marie; Brisse, Sylvain

    2016-01-01

    Elizabethkingia anophelis is an emerging pathogen involved in human infections and outbreaks in distinct world regions. We investigated the phylogenetic relationships and pathogenesis-associated genomic features of two neonatal meningitis isolates isolated 5 years apart from one hospital in Central African Republic and compared them with Elizabethkingia from other regions and sources. Average nucleotide identity firmly confirmed that E. anophelis, E. meningoseptica and E. miricola represent demarcated genomic species. A core genome multilocus sequence typing scheme, broadly applicable to Elizabethkingia species, was developed and made publicly available (http://bigsdb.pasteur.fr/elizabethkingia). Phylogenetic analysis revealed distinct E. anophelis sublineages and demonstrated high genetic relatedness between the African isolates, compatible with persistence of the strain in the hospital environment. CRISPR spacer variation between the African isolates was mirrored by the presence of a large mobile genetic element. The pan-genome of E. anophelis comprised 6,880 gene families, underlining genomic heterogeneity of this species. African isolates carried unique resistance genes acquired by horizontal transfer. We demonstrated the presence of extensive variation of the capsular polysaccharide synthesis gene cluster in E. anophelis. Our results demonstrate the dynamic evolution of this emerging pathogen and the power of genomic approaches for Elizabethkingia identification, population biology and epidemiology. PMID:27461509

  8. Genomic epidemiology and global diversity of the emerging bacterial pathogen Elizabethkingia anophelis

    PubMed Central

    Breurec, Sebastien; Criscuolo, Alexis; Diancourt, Laure; Rendueles, Olaya; Vandenbogaert, Mathias; Passet, Virginie; Caro, Valérie; Rocha, Eduardo P. C.; Touchon, Marie; Brisse, Sylvain

    2016-01-01

    Elizabethkingia anophelis is an emerging pathogen involved in human infections and outbreaks in distinct world regions. We investigated the phylogenetic relationships and pathogenesis-associated genomic features of two neonatal meningitis isolates isolated 5 years apart from one hospital in Central African Republic and compared them with Elizabethkingia from other regions and sources. Average nucleotide identity firmly confirmed that E. anophelis, E. meningoseptica and E. miricola represent demarcated genomic species. A core genome multilocus sequence typing scheme, broadly applicable to Elizabethkingia species, was developed and made publicly available (http://bigsdb.pasteur.fr/elizabethkingia). Phylogenetic analysis revealed distinct E. anophelis sublineages and demonstrated high genetic relatedness between the African isolates, compatible with persistence of the strain in the hospital environment. CRISPR spacer variation between the African isolates was mirrored by the presence of a large mobile genetic element. The pan-genome of E. anophelis comprised 6,880 gene families, underlining genomic heterogeneity of this species. African isolates carried unique resistance genes acquired by horizontal transfer. We demonstrated the presence of extensive variation of the capsular polysaccharide synthesis gene cluster in E. anophelis. Our results demonstrate the dynamic evolution of this emerging pathogen and the power of genomic approaches for Elizabethkingia identification, population biology and epidemiology. PMID:27461509

  9. An African ethic for nursing?

    PubMed

    Haegert, S

    2000-11-01

    This article derives from a doctoral thesis in which a particular discourse was used as a 'paradigm case'. From this discourse an ethic set within a South African culture arose. Using many cultural 'voices' to aid the understanding of this narrative, the ethic shows that one can build on both a 'justice' and a 'care' ethic. With further development based on African culture one can take the ethic of care deeper and reveal 'layers of understanding'. Care, together with compassion, forms the foundation of morality. Nursing ethics has followed particular western moral philosophers. Often nursing ethics has been taught along the lines of Kohlberg's theory of morality, with its emphasis on rules, rights, duties and general obligations. These principles were universalistic, masculine and noncontextual. However, there is a new ethical movement among Thomist philosophers along the lines to be expounded in this article. Nurses such as Benner, Bevis, Dunlop, Fry and Gadow--to name but a few--have welcomed the concept of an 'ethic of care'. Gilligan's work gave a feminist view and situated ethics in the everyday aspects of responsiveness, responsibility, context and concern. Shutte's search for a 'philosophy for Africa' has resulted in finding similarities in Setiloane and in Senghor with those of Thomist philosophers. Using this African philosophy and a research participant's narrative, an African ethic evolves out of the African proverb: 'A person is a person through other persons', or its alternative rendering: 'I am because we are: we are because I am.' This hermeneutic narrative reveals 'the way affect imbues activity with ethical meaning' within the context of a black nursing sister in a rural South African hospital. It expands upon the above proverb and incorporates the South African constitutional idea of 'Ubuntu' (compassion and justice or humanness). PMID:11221391

  10. Overcoming Workplace Barriers: A Focus Group Study Exploring African American Mothers' Needs for Workplace Breastfeeding Support

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Angela Marie; Kirk, Rosalind; Muzik, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Background Persistent racial disparities in breastfeeding show that African American women breastfeed at the lowest rates. Return to work is a critical breastfeeding barrier for African American women who return to work sooner than other ethnic groups and more often encounter unsupportive work environments. They also face psychosocial burdens that make breastfeeding at work uniquely challenging. Participants share personal struggles with combining paid employment and breastfeeding and suggest workplace and personal support strategies that they believe will help continue breastfeeding after a return to work. Objective To explore current perspectives on ways to support African American mothers' workplace breastfeeding behavior. Methods Pregnant African American women (n = 8), African American mothers of infants (n = 21), and lactation support providers (n = 9) participated in 1 of 6 focus groups in the Greater Detroit area. Each focus group audiotape was transcribed verbatim. Thematic analysis was used to inductively analyze focus group transcripts and field notes. Focus groups explored thoughts, perceptions, and behavior on interventions to support African American women's breastfeeding. Results Participants indicate that they generally believed breastfeeding was a healthy option for the baby; however, paid employment is a critical barrier to successful breastfeeding for which mothers receive little help. Participants felt breastfeeding interventions that support working African American mothers should include education and training for health care professionals, regulation and enforcement of workplace breastfeeding support policies, and support from peers who act as breastfeeding role models. Conclusion Culturally appropriate interventions are needed to support breastfeeding among working African American women. PMID:25714345

  11. [Epidemiological imaginary in Campania Region].

    PubMed

    Greco, Pietro

    2012-01-01

    The interviews on the epidemiological imaginary, collected within the framework of the project Sebiorec,(1) clearly demonstrate that also in Campania, on the border between the provinces of Naples and Caserta - where the issue of waste and land devastation take forms that are unprecedented compared to any other part of Europe - there is a widespread, strong, sacrosanct demand of participation in environment and health management. The request of deliberative ecological democracy is pressing.(2) There is an urgent need to meet that plethora of rights emerging in the "knowledge society" and in the "risk society" that someone has called "rights for scientific citizenship."(3) This request of the population of Campania, net of local cultural specificity, it is quite similar to that of the people of any other region of Europe. The context in which this request of participation is expressed, however, is quite different. Not only and not just for that real or perceived social pre-modern and familist web that would replace a modern civil society in Campania and all across the Southern Italian regions, but also and especially for some structural causes that we here try to list. Campania is a unique region in Europe - in many ways different even from other regions of southern Italy - due to the conjunction of at least five factors, not independent from each other. 1) The presence of a widespread organized crime which, in many areas, metropolitan and non-metropolitan alike, and especially in the provinces of Naples and Caserta, is a sort of state against the State and has one of its main levers of power and a major source of its wealth in the illegal control of the territory, in its different dimensions (military, but also economic, social and even cultural). 2) A huge social and economic disintegration, exacerbated in the last twenty years by a process of deindustrialization (until the early nineties Naples was the fifth industrial city of Italy, today it is a desert where

  12. A nationwide epidemiological study of testicular torsion in Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sol Min; Huh, Jung-Sik; Baek, Minki; Yoo, Koo Han; Min, Gyeong Eun; Lee, Hyung-Lae; Lee, Dong-Gi

    2014-12-01

    Testicular torsion is a surgical emergency in the field of urology. Knowledge of the epidemiology and pathophysiology is significant to an urologist. However, the epidemiology of testicular torsion in Korea has not been studied. We performed a nationwide epidemiological study to improve knowledge of the epidemiology of testicular torsion. From 2006-2011, the Korean Urologic Association began the patient registry service. The annual number of patients with testicular torsion from 2006 to 2011 were 225, 250, 271, 277, 345, and 210, respectively. The overall incidence of testicular torsion in males was 1.1 per 100,000; However, the incidence in men less than 25 yr old was 2.9 per 100,000. Adolescents showed the highest incidence. Total testicular salvage rate was 75.7% in this survey. There was no geographic difference of testicular salvage rate. Minimizing the possibility of orchiectomy for testicular torsion is important to improve public awareness to expedite presentation and provider education to improve diagnosis and surgery. PMID:25469070

  13. The Complexities of Epidemiology and Prevention of Gastrointestinal Cancers

    PubMed Central

    Haq, Saba; Ali, Shadan; Mohammad, Ramzi; Sarkar, Fazlul H.

    2012-01-01

    Cancer epidemiology and prevention is one of the most well studied fields today. The more we can understand about the incidence and pathogenesis of this disease, the better we will be able to prevent it. Effective prevention strategies can decrease the mortality rate of cancer significantly; this is why it is important to delineate the underlying causes. It has been well recognized that genetic mutations, sporadic or hereditary, may lead to increased chance of tumorigenesis. Detecting genetic mutations can lead to the identification of high-risk individuals with hereditary cancer syndromes, which may assist in devising prevention strategies. Further, environmental factors are known to play important roles in epidemiology and suggest prevention tools that could be implemented to reduce cancer incidence and subsequent cancer-associated morbidity and mortality. Chemoprevention has been tried in colon cancer and is finding new advancements in other carcinomas as well. Out of many environmental cancer preventive agents, the most notable developments are the identification of the role of vitamins E, vitamin D and folic acid. Increased consumption of these vitamins has shown to be inversely correlated with cancer risk. This review will highlight important aspects of cancer epidemiology in the most aggressive carcinomas of the gastrointestinal system focusing on colorectal adenocarcinoma and pancreatic adenocarcinoma. Additionally, some of the well-known and evolving aspects of epidemiology of colorectal and pancreatic cancer along with current and new prevention strategies will also be reviewed. PMID:23202913

  14. Still Excluded? An Update on the Status of African American Scholars in the Discipline of Criminology and Criminal Justice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gabbidon, Shaun L.; Greene, Helen Taylor; Wilder, Kideste

    2004-01-01

    This article reexamines the exclusion of African Americans in the discipline of criminology and criminal justice. Young and Sulton raised this issue in their important article that focused on the role of African American scholars in various aspects of the field. The article revisits several areas investigated in the original article, including the…

  15. Persistence to Doctoral Completion of African American Men at Predominately White Universities in One Mid-Atlantic State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, Kimberly Ann

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative study examined the experiences of 20 African American men who graduated from predominately White institutions in one mid-Atlantic state between the years of 2001 and 2011 with doctoral degrees in Education or in a Humanities and Sciences field. Interviews were conducted to gather the lived experiences of the African American men…

  16. Evaluation Roots Reconsidered: Asa Hilliard, a Fallen Hero in the "Nobody Knows My Name" Project, and African Educational Excellence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hood, Stafford; Hopson, Rodney K.

    2008-01-01

    Asa Hilliard has left his mark, and his name belongs in the pantheon of esteemed African American scholars, educational researchers, teachers, and activists. Although his work has served as a clarion call for an Afrocentric orientation in psychology and education to address the needs of African American students, his contributions to the field's…

  17. The Black Body as a Counterspace: The Experiences of African American Students at a Predominantly White Institution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones-Malone, Dionne LaShell

    2011-01-01

    This qualitative study examines the use of counterspaces by eight upperclassman African American students at a predominantly White institution. This study sought to identify how counterspaces were used by African American students and how those counterspaces foster a sense of belonging for students. Field observations and semi-structured, in-depth…

  18. The Descriptive Epidemiology of Yersiniosis: A Multistate Study, 2005–2011

    PubMed Central

    Chakraborty, Apurba; Komatsu, Kenneth; Roberts, Matthew; Collins, Jim; Beggs, Jennifer; Turabelidze, George; Safranek, Tom; Maillard, Jean-Marie; Bell, Linda J.; Young, David; Marsden-Haug, Nicola; Klos, Rachel F.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Yersiniosis, a foodborne infection of zoonotic origin caused by the bacteria Yersinia enterocolitica and Yersinia pseudotuberculosis, is a reportable disease in 38 states. Both sporadic and foodborne outbreaks of yersiniosis have been reported in the U.S., with annual occurrence of an estimated 98,000 episodes of illness, 533 hospitalizations, and 29 deaths. We analyzed surveillance data from nine non-FoodNet-participating U.S. states during the period 2005–2011 to describe the epidemiology of this disease. Methods As part of a passive surveillance system, laboratory-confirmed cases of yersiniosis were reported to state health departments in Arizona, Illinois, Michigan, Missouri, Nebraska, North Carolina, South Carolina, Washington, and Wisconsin. We calculated overall, age-, and race-specific annual incidence rates per 100,000 population using 2010 Census data as the denominator. We used Poisson regression to examine seasonal variation and annual incidence trends by race, age group, and overall. Results The average annual incidence of yersiniosis was 0.16 cases per 100,000 population during 2005–2011. We observed a statistically significant decreasing annual trend of yersiniosis incidence among African Americans <5 years of age (p<0.01), whereas white people aged 19–64 years (p=0.08) and Hispanic people (p=0.05) had an overall increasing annual incidence of yersiniosis. We observed higher incidence during October–December (p<0.01) and January–March (p=0.03) quarters among African Americans, whereas white people had a higher incidence during April–June (p=0.05). Conclusion This multistate analysis revealed differences in the epidemiology of yersiniosis by race/ethnicity that may be useful for future research and prevention efforts. While this study was consistent with the FoodNet report in recognizing the high and declining incidence among African American children and winter seasonality among African Americans, our study also identified

  19. Prevalence of the apolipoprotein E Arg145Cys dyslipidemia at-risk polymorphism in African-derived populations.

    PubMed

    Abou Ziki, Maen D; Strulovici-Barel, Yael; Hackett, Neil R; Rodriguez-Flores, Juan L; Mezey, Jason G; Salit, Jacqueline; Radisch, Sharon; Hollmann, Charleen; Chouchane, Lotfi; Malek, Joel; Zirie, Mahmoud A; Jayyuosi, Amin; Gotto, Antonio M; Crystal, Ronald G

    2014-01-15

    Apolipoprotein E, a protein component of blood lipid particles, plays an important role in lipid transport. Different mutations in the apolipoprotein E gene have been associated with various clinical phenotypes. In an initiated study of Qataris, we observed that 17% of the African-derived genetic subgroup were heterozygotes for a rare Arg145Cys (R145C) variant that functions as a dominant trait with incomplete penetrance associated with type III hyperlipoproteinemia. On the basis of this observation, we hypothesized that the R145C polymorphism might be common in African-derived populations. The prevalence of the R145C variant was assessed worldwide in the "1000 Genomes Project" and in 1,012 whites and 1,226 African-Americans in New York, New York. The 1000 Genomes Project data demonstrated that the R145C polymorphism is rare in non-African-derived populations but present in 5% to 12% of Sub-Saharan African-derived populations. The R145C polymorphism was also rare in New York whites (1 of 1,012, 0.1%); however, strikingly, 53 of the 1,226 New York African-Americans (4.3%) were R145C heterozygotes. The lipid profiles of the Qatari and New York R145C heterozygotes were compared with those of controls. The Qatari R145C subjects had higher triglyceride levels than the Qatari controls (p <0.007) and the New York African-American R145C subjects had an average of 52% greater fasting triglyceride levels than the New York African-American controls (p <0.002). From these observations, likely millions of people worldwide derived from Sub-Saharan Africans are apolipoprotein E R145C. In conclusion, although larger epidemiologic studies are necessary to determine the long-term consequences of this polymorphism, the available evidence suggests it is a common cause of a mild triglyceride dyslipidemia. PMID:24239320

  20. Prevalence of the ApoE Arg145Cys Dyslipidemia At-risk Polymorphism in African-derived Populations

    PubMed Central

    Abou Ziki, Maen D.; Strulovici-Barel, Yael; Hackett, Neil R.; Rodriguez-Flores, Juan L.; Mezey, Jason G.; Salit, Jacqueline; Radisch, Sharon; Hollmann, Charleen; Chouchane, Lotfi; Malek, Joel; Zirie, Mahmoud A.; Jayyuosi, Amin; Gotto, Antonio M.; Crystal, Ronald G.

    2013-01-01

    Apolipoprotein E (ApoE), a protein component of blood lipid particles, plays an important role in lipid transport. Different mutations in the ApoE gene have been associated with various clinical phenotypes. In an initiated study of Qataris, we observed that 17% of the African-derived genetic subgroup were heterozygotes for a rare Arg145Cys (R145C) variant that functions as a dominant trait with incomplete penetrance associated with type III hyperlipoproteinemia. Based on this observation, we hypothesized that the R145C polymorphism may be common in African-derived populations. The prevalence of the R145C variant was assessed worldwide in the 1000 Genomes Project (1000G) and in 1012 Caucasians and 1226 African-Americans in New York City. The 1000G data demonstrated that the R145C polymorphism is rare in non-African derived populations, but present in 5–12% of sub-Saharan African-derived populations. The R145C polymorphism was also rare in New York City Caucasians (1/1012, 0.1%), but strikingly, 53 (4.3%) of 1226 New York City African-Americans were R145C heterozygotes. Lipid profiles of the Qatari and New York R145C were compared to controls. Qatari R145C had higher triglyceride levels compared to Qatari controls (p<0.007) and NY African-Americans R145C had an average of 52% higher fasting triglyceride levels compared to NY African-American controls (p<0.002). Based on these observations, there are likely millions of people worldwide derived from Sub-Saharan Africans that are ApoE R145C. In conclusion, while larger epidemiologic studies are necessary to determine the long-term consequences of this polymorphism, the available evidence suggests it is a common cause of a mild triglyceride dyslipidemia. PMID:24239320

  1. Modelling, Simulation and Social Network Data: What’s New for Public Health and Epidemiology Informatics?

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Summary Objectives Summarize excellent current research in the field of Public Health and Epidemiology Informatics. Method Synopsis of the articles selected for the IMIA Yearbook 2015. Results Four papers from international peer-reviewed journals have been selected as best papers for the section on Public Health and Epidemiology Informatics. Conclusions The selected articles illustrate current research regarding the impact and assessment of health IT and the latest developments in health information exchange. PMID:26293870

  2. Innovative tephra studies in the East African Rift System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    WoldeGabriel, Giday; Hart, William K.; Heiken, Grant

    Geosciences investigations form the foundation for paleoanthropological research in the East African Rift System. However, innovative applications of tephra studies for constraining spatial and temporal relations of diverse geological processes, biostratigraphic records, and paleoenvironmental conditions within the East African Rift System were fueled by paleoanthropological investigations into the origin and evolution of hominids and material culture. Tephra is a collective, size-independent term used for any material ejected during an explosive volcanic eruption.The East African Rift System has become a magnet for paleoanthropological research ever since the discovery of the first hominids at Olduvai Gorge, in Tanzania, in the 1950s [Leakey et al., 1961]. Currently, numerous multidisciplinary scientific teams from academic institutions in the United States and Western Europe make annual pilgrimages for a couple of months to conduct paleoanthropological field research in the fossil-rich sedimentary deposits of the East African Rift System in Ethiopia, Kenya, and Tanzania. The field expedition consists of geological, paleontological, archaeological, and paleoenvironmental investigations.

  3. Multilocus microsatellite analysis of European and African Candida glabrata isolates.

    PubMed

    Chillemi, V; Lo Passo, C; van Diepeningen, A D; Rharmitt, S; Delfino, D; Cascio, A; Nnadi, N E; Cilo, B D; Sampaio, P; Tietz, H-J; Pemán, J; Criseo, G; Romeo, O; Scordino, F

    2016-06-01

    This study aimed to elucidate the genetic relatedness and epidemiology of 127 clinical and environmental Candida glabrata isolates from Europe and Africa using multilocus microsatellite analysis. Each isolate was first identified using phenotypic and molecular methods and subsequently, six unlinked microsatellite loci were analyzed using automated fluorescent genotyping. Genetic relationships were estimated using the minimum-spanning tree (MStree) method. Microsatellite analyses revealed the existence of 47 different genotypes. The fungal population showed an irregular distribution owing to the over-representation of genetically different infectious haplotypes. The most common genotype was MG-9, which was frequently found in both European and African isolates. In conclusion, the data reported here emphasize the role of specific C. glabrata genotypes in human infections for at least some decades and highlight the widespread distribution of some isolates, which seem to be more able to cause disease than others. PMID:26946511

  4. Breast cancer in sub-Saharan African women.

    PubMed

    Anim, J T

    1993-03-01

    The literature on breast cancer in sub-Saharan women is reviewed. In general, breast cancer is the second most common malignancy of women in the region, after cancer of the uterine cervix. Available reports indicate that data on the disease are incomplete and mostly, of epidemiological or clinical nature. Breast cancer is less common in sub-Saharan Africa compared to the Western countries (USA or Europe), occurs in younger individuals with peak incidences about a decade younger and the majority present late, with advanced, sometimes terminal disease. Absence of health educational programmes on cancer as well as lack of screening facilities in nearly all countries in the region are contributory factors to the late presentation of the cases. The need for more in-depth studies of the disease in the black African population has been highlighted. PMID:7839882

  5. Seroprevalence of African Swine Fever in Senegal, 2006

    PubMed Central

    Seck, Ismaila; Grosbois, Vladimir; Jori, Ferran; Blanco, Esther; Vial, Laurence; Akakpo, Ayayi J.; Bada-Alhambedji, Rianatou; Kone, Philippe; Roger, Francois L.

    2011-01-01

    In Senegal, during 2002–2007, 11 outbreaks of African swine fever (ASF) were reported to the World Organisation for Animal Health. Despite this, little was known of the epidemiology of ASF in the country. To determine the prevalence of ASF in Senegal in 2006, we tested serum specimens collected from a sample of pigs in the 3 main pig-farming regions for antibodies to ASF virus using an ELISA. Of 747 serum samples examined, 126 were positive for ASF, suggesting a prevalence of 16.9%. The estimated prevalences within each of the regions (Fatick, Kolda, and Ziguinchor) were 13.3%, 7.8%, and 22.1%, respectively, with statistical evidence to suggest that the prevalence in Ziguinchor was higher than in Fatick or Kolda. This regional difference is considered in relation to different farming systems and illegal trade with neighboring countries where the infection is endemic. PMID:21192854

  6. African American Males. A Critical Link in the African American Family.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Dionne J., Ed.

    African Americans are experiencing extreme stress in the United States, and African-American males appear to suffer the most. The chapters in this volume examine some of the issues confronting African-American men today. They include: (1) "Introduction" (Dionne J. Jones); (2) "Reaffirming Young African American Males: Mentoring and Community…

  7. African American Preschoolers' Language, Emergent Literacy Skills, and Use of African American English: A Complex Relation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connor, Carol McDonald; Craig, Holly K.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined the relation between African American preschoolers' use of African American English (AAE) and their language and emergent literacy skills in an effort to better understand the perplexing and persistent difficulties many African American children experience learning to read proficiently. Method: African American…

  8. Technical Consulting: The African-American Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitfield, Tracy N.

    2010-01-01

    The qualitative research study explored the organizational characteristics necessary in addressing the low concentration of African American technical consultants employed in the information technology industry. Using research participants' professional experience, participants responded to a developed questionnaire. African American technical…

  9. Towards an African Philosophy of Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ocaya-Lakidi, Dent

    1980-01-01

    Compares and contrasts contemporary philosophies of education in Africa with two philosophical doctrines (naturalism and idealism). Topics discussed include value selectors, westernization, the role of missionaries in African education, critical consciousness, relevance, and African education today. (DB)

  10. Overview of the Jackson Heart Study: a study of cardiovascular diseases in African American men and women.

    PubMed

    Sempos, C T; Bild, D E; Manolio, T A

    1999-03-01

    The Jackson Heart Study is a partnership among Jackson State University, Tougaloo College, the University of Mississippi Medical Center and the National Institutes of Health's National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) and Office of Research on Minority Health. The purposes of the study are to: (1) establish a single-site cohort study to identify the risk factors for the development of cardiovascular diseases, especially those related to hypertension, in African American men and women; (2) build research capabilities in minority institutions by building partnerships; (3) attract minority students to careers in public health and epidemiology; and (4) establish an NHLBI Field Site in Jackson, Mississippi, similar to those established for the Framingham Heart Study and the Honolulu Heart Program. The study will consist of participants from the Jackson site of the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study and a sample of residents from the Jackson metropolitan area. The study will have a sample size of approximately 6,500 men and women aged 35-84 years and will include approximately 400 families. Exam 1 is scheduled to take place in the spring of the year 2000. PMID:10100686

  11. The African Cultural Astronomy Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urama, Johnson O.; Holbrook, Jarita C.

    2011-06-01

    Indigenous, endogenous, traditional, or cultural astronomy focuses on the many ways that people and cultures interact with celestial bodies. In most parts of Africa, there is very little or no awareness about modern astronomy. However, like ancient people everywhere, Africans wondered at the sky and struggled to make sense of it. The African Cultural Astronomy Project aims to unearth the body of traditional knowledge of astronomy possessed by peoples of the different ethnic groups in Africa and to consider scientific interpretations when appropriate for cosmogonies and ancient astronomical practices. Regardless of scientific validity, every scientist can relate to the process of making observations and creating theoretical mechanisms for explaining what is observed. Through linking the traditional and the scientific, it is believed that this would be used to create awareness and interest in astronomy in most parts of Africa. This paper discusses the vision, challenges and prospects of the African Cultural Astronomy Project in her quest to popularize astronomy in Africa.

  12. Plio-pleistocene African climate

    SciTech Connect

    deMenocal, P.B.

    1995-10-06

    Marine records of African climate variability document a shift toward more arid conditions after 2.8 million years ago (Ma), evidently resulting from remote forcing by cold North Atlantic sea-surface temperatures associated with the onset of Northern Hemisphere glacial cycles. African climate before 2.8 Ma was regulated by low-latitude insolation forcing of monsoonal climate due to Earth orbital precession. Major steps in the evolution of African hominids and other vertebrates are coincident with shifts to more arid, open conditions near 2.8 Ma, 1.7 Ma, and 1.0 Ma, suggesting that some Pliocene (Plio)-Pleistocene speciation events may have been climatically mediated. 65 refs., 6 figs.

  13. Plio-Pleistocene African Climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demenocal, Peter B.

    1995-10-01

    Marine records of African climate variability document a shift toward more arid conditions after 2.8 million years ago (Ma), evidently resulting from remote forcing by cold North Atlantic sea-surface temperatures associated with the onset of Northern Hemisphere glacial cycles. African climate before 2.8 Ma was regulated by low-latitude insolation forcing of monsoonal climate due to Earth orbital precession. Major steps in the evolution of African hominids and other vertebrates are coincident with shifts to more arid, open conditions near 2.8 Ma, 1.7 Ma, and 1.0 Ma, suggesting that some Pliocene (Plio)-Pleistocene speciation events may have been climatically mediated.

  14. Understanding epidemiological transition in India

    PubMed Central

    Yadav, Suryakant; Arokiasamy, Perianayagam

    2014-01-01

    Background Omran's theory explains changing disease patterns over time predominantly from infectious to chronic noncommunicable diseases (NCDs). India's epidemiological transition is characterized by dual burden of diseases. Kumar addressed low mortality and high morbidity in Kerala, which seems also to be true for India as a country in the current demographic scenario. Methods NSS data (1986–1987, 1995–1996, 2004) and aggregated data on causes of death provided by Registrar General India (RGI) were used to examine the structural changes in morbidity and causes of death. A zero-inflated poisson (ZIP) regression model and a beta-binomial model were used to corroborate the mounting age pattern of morbidity. Measures, namely the 25th and 75th percentiles of age-at-death and modal age-at-death, were used to examine the advances in mortality transition. Objective This study addressed the advances in epidemiological transition via exploring the structural changes in pattern of diseases and progress in mortality transition. Results The burden of NCDs has been increasing in old age without replacing the burden of communicable diseases. The manifold rise of chronic diseases in recent decades justifies the death toll and is responsible for transformation in the age pattern of morbidity. Over time, deaths have been concentrated near the modal age-at-death. Modal age-at-death increased linearly by 5 years for females (r2=0.9515) and males (r2=0.9020). Significant increase in modal age-at-death ascertained the dominance of old age mortality over the childhood/adult age mortality. Conclusions India experiences a dual burden of diseases associated with a remarkable transformation in the age pattern of morbidity and mortality, contemporaneous with structural changes in disease patterns. Continued progress in the pattern of diseases and mortality transition, accompanied by a linear rise in ex, unravels a compelling variation in advances found so far in epidemiological

  15. Comparison of HIV/AIDS Rates Between U.S.-Born Blacks and African-Born Blacks in Utah, 2000 – 2009

    PubMed Central

    Ashton, Crystal; Bernhardt, Scott A; Lowe, Mike; Mietchen, Matthew; Johnston, Jim

    2012-01-01

    The Utah Department of Health currently groups African-born blacks with U.S.-born blacks when reporting HIV/AIDS surveillance data. Studies suggest that categorizing HIV/AIDS cases in this manner may mask important epidemiological trends, and the distinct differences between these two populations warrant disaggregating data prior to reporting. The purpose of this study was to characterize the HIV/AIDS positive populations in U.S. and African-born blacks in Utah and evaluate the need for disaggregating the two groups. A total of 1,111 cases were identified through the statewide electronic HIV/AIDS Reporting System from 2000 - 2009. Data were analyzed for prevalence of HIV diagnosis for African-born blacks, U.S.-born blacks, and U.S.-born whites. Secondary analysis included HIV diagnosis by age, sex, African region of nativity, transmission risk factors, and differences in late diagnosis of HIV infection. U.S.-born whites accounted for 914 (82.3%) cases, and had the lowest annual prevalence (4/100,000). Conversely, African-born and U.S.- born blacks had the highest prevalence, 162/100,000 and 24/100,000 respectively. African-born blacks made up 0.25% of the total population, but accounted for 7.9% of all HIV/AIDS cases. African-born black males were more likely to report “no reported risk” for HIV transmission than U.S.-born black males. Of African-born blacks, 55.7% reported East-African nativity. These results demonstrate the importance of stratifying the black/African American racial category by African-born and U.S.-born blacks when collecting and reporting HIV/AIDS state surveillance data even in a low-incidence state,which will better inform prevention and linkage-to-care efforts in Utah. PMID:23049664

  16. Epidemiology

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This chapter reviews the incidence of Listeria species in environments, food product and facility, animals and human population; and examines the mechanisms of survival and control measures for listerial bacteria....

  17. Pulmonary embolism: Epidemiology and registries.

    PubMed

    Monreal, Manuel; Mahé, Isabelle; Bura-Riviere, Alessandra; Prandoni, Paolo; Verhamme, Peter; Brenner, Benjamin; Wells, Phil S; Di Micco, Pierpaolo; Bertoletti, Laurent

    2015-12-01

    Real-life data is important in understanding the needs of patients in routine clinical practice, particularly owing to the fact that almost a quarter of patients with venous thromoboembolism (VTE) have at least one exclusion criterion preventing their recruitment into randomized clinical trials. The Registro Informatizado de Enfermedad Trombo Embólica (RIETE) registry is an ongoing, international, multicentre, prospective registry of consecutive patients presenting with acute VTE. In this chapter, we summarized some of the most relevant data concerning the epidemiology of VTE in the RIETE registry. PMID:26547675

  18. Intrathoracic neoplasia: Epidemiology and etiology

    SciTech Connect

    Weller, R.E.

    1992-05-01

    Neoplasms of the thorax encompass those derived from the thoracic wall, trachea, mediastinum, lungs and pleura. They represent a wide variety of lesions including benign and malignant tumors arising from many tissues. The large surface area, 60 to 90 m{sup 2} in man, represented by the respiratory epithelium and associated thoracic structures are ideal targets for carcinogens carried by inspired air. The topic of discussion in this report is the epidemiology, etiology, and mechanisms of spontaneous intrathoracic neoplasia in animals and man. Much of what we know or suspect about thoracic neoplasia in animals has been extrapolated from experimentally-induced neoplasms.

  19. Some aspects of cancer epidemiology

    SciTech Connect

    Lilienfeld, A.M.

    1982-03-01

    Epidemiolgic studies have strongly suggested that a vast majority (80-90%) of cancers are caused by radiation, chemical and biologic agents; the remainder result from endogenous or genetic factors. Biologically, cancer is most probably the end result of a complex multistage process and therefore may be due to a sequence of exposures to different agents at each of these stages. This emphasizes the need to stress the study of interactions in epidemiologic studies to a greater extent than has been done thus far. Examples of the importance of interactions in several types of cancer are presented.

  20. Clinical Epidemiology Unit - overview of research areas

    Cancer.gov

    Clinical Epidemiology Unit (CEU) conducts etiologic research with potential clinical and public health applications, and leads studies evaluating population-based early detection and cancer prevention strategies

  1. Clinical and Translational Epidemiology Branch (CTEB)

    Cancer.gov

    The Clinical and Translational Epidemiology Branch focuses on factors that influence cancer progression, recurrence, survival, and other treatment outcomes, and factors associated with cancer development.

  2. Effect of background and transport dose on the results of the personal dose equivalent Hp(10) measurements in photon fields obtained during the intercomparison 2013 of the African region.

    PubMed

    Arib, M; Herrati, A; Dari, F; Lounis-Mokrani, Z

    2015-12-01

    As part of the intercomparison on the measurement of personal dose equivalent Hp(10), jointly organised by the International Atomic Energy Agency and the Algerian Secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratory, for the African region, up to 12 dosemeters were added to the packages of the 28 participants to evaluate the background and transport dose (BGTD), received by the dosemeters before and after their irradiation at the SSDL (environmental irradiations, scanning process at the airports, etc.). Out of the 28 participants, only 17 reported the corresponding BGTD measured values, which lied between 0.03 and 0.8 mSv. The mean measured value of BG was (0.25±0.14) mSv, which is significantly high compared with the lowest dose value used in the intercomparison exercise. The BGTD correction shifted the overall results of the intercomparison from an overestimation of dose (∼8 % before applying BGT dose correction) to an underestimation of dose (-9 % after correction). The measurement protocol and the detailed analysis of the results and applied corrections are discussed in this paper. PMID:25433048

  3. The Education of African-Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willie, Charles V., Ed.; And Others

    The 17 papers in this volume are products of a study group on the education of African Americans that was part of a national project, "The Assessment of the Status of African-Americans." The volume takes a comprehensive look at the education of African Americans, specifically early childhood through postsecondary education, and relevant public…

  4. An Introduction to West African Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taiwo, Oladele

    Intended to provide help for those interested in studying West African literature, this book is divided into three parts. Part One provides background information: the various African oral traditions are discussed, related to the way of life of the people, and examined for the extent to which they form the basis of present West African literary…

  5. Engaging African Americans in Smoking Cessation Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallen, Jacqueline; Randolph, Suzanne; Carter-Pokras, Olivia; Feldman, Robert; Kanamori-Nishimura, Mariano

    2014-01-01

    Background: African Americans are disproportionately exposed to and targeted by prosmoking advertisements, particularly menthol cigarette ads. Though African Americans begin smoking later than whites, they are less likely to quit smoking than whites. Purpose: This study was designed to explore African American smoking cessation attitudes,…

  6. Freedom Road: Adult Education of African Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Elizabeth A., Ed.

    This book contains six chapters by various authors about the history of African Americans' contributions and participation in adult education. The book reports on how some African American leaders saw the connection between education and the eventual freedom or uplift of the African American people. Following a foreword (Phyllis M. Cunningham) and…

  7. A Scale To Assess African American Acculturation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snowden, Lonnie R.; Hines, Alice M.

    1999-01-01

    Investigated an acculturation scale designed for use in the African-American population. Responses from more than 900 African Americans generally indicate an African-American orientation within the sample, although there are notable variations on all 10 scale items. Discusses evidence for scale reliability and validity. (SLD)

  8. Towards a Norm in South African Englishes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Walt, Johann L.; van Rooy, Bertus

    2002-01-01

    Investigates the perception and application of the norm in South African English with specific reference to Black South African English. Hypothesizes that South African English is in the hibernation and expansion phase. Three sets of data are presented and analyzed. (Author/VWL)

  9. African Heritage Curriculum Materials. Teacher's Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Museum of African Art, Washington, DC.

    This guide for secondary teachers focuses on sub-Saharan (Black) African history and culture. Although the guide is intended to be used in conjunction with the audiovisual materials on African heritage produced by the Museum of African Art, it can also be used as a source of background reading for teachers and as a guide to additional…

  10. Ophthalmic epidemiology in Europe: the "European Eye Epidemiology" (E3) consortium.

    PubMed

    Delcourt, Cécile; Korobelnik, Jean-François; Buitendijk, Gabriëlle H S; Foster, Paul J; Hammond, Christopher J; Piermarocchi, Stefano; Peto, Tunde; Jansonius, Nomdo; Mirshahi, Alireza; Hogg, Ruth E; Bretillon, Lionel; Topouzis, Fotis; Deak, Gabor; Grauslund, Jakob; Broe, Rebecca; Souied, Eric H; Creuzot-Garcher, Catherine; Sahel, José; Daien, Vincent; Lehtimäki, Terho; Hense, Hans-Werner; Prokofyeva, Elena; Oexle, Konrad; Rahi, Jugnoo S; Cumberland, Phillippa M; Schmitz-Valckenberg, Steffen; Fauser, Sascha; Bertelsen, Geir; Hoyng, Carel; Bergen, Arthur; Silva, Rufino; Wolf, Sebastian; Lotery, Andrew; Chakravarthy, Usha; Fletcher, Astrid; Klaver, Caroline C W

    2016-02-01

    The European Eye Epidemiology (E3) consortium is a recently formed consortium of 29 groups from 12 European countries. It already comprises 21 population-based studies and 20 other studies (case-control, cases only, randomized trials), providing ophthalmological data on approximately 170,000 European participants. The aim of the consortium is to promote and sustain collaboration and sharing of data and knowledge in the field of ophthalmic epidemiology in Europe, with particular focus on the harmonization of methods for future research, estimation and projection of frequency and impact of visual outcomes in European populations (including temporal trends and European subregions), identification of risk factors and pathways for eye diseases (lifestyle, vascular and metabolic factors, genetics, epigenetics and biomarkers) and development and validation of prediction models for eye diseases. Coordinating these existing data will allow a detailed study of the risk factors and consequences of eye diseases and visual impairment, including study of international geographical variation which is not possible in individual studies. It is expected that collaborative work on these existing data will provide additional knowledge, despite the fact that the risk factors and the methods for collecting them differ somewhat among the participating studies. Most studies also include biobanks of various biological samples, which will enable identification of biomarkers to detect and predict occurrence and progression of eye diseases. This article outlines the rationale of the consortium, its design and presents a summary of the methodology. PMID:26686680

  11. Review of the epidemiologic literature on EMF and Health.

    PubMed Central

    Ahlbom, I C; Cardis, E; Green, A; Linet, M; Savitz, D; Swerdlow, A

    2001-01-01

    Exposures to extremely low-frequency electric and magnetic fields (EMF) emanating from the generation, transmission, and use of electricity are a ubiquitous part of modern life. Concern about potential adverse health effects was initially brought to prominence by an epidemiologic report two decades ago from Denver on childhood cancer. We reviewed the now voluminous epidemiologic literature on EMF and risks of chronic disease and conclude the following: a) The quality of epidemiologic studies on this topic has improved over time and several of the recent studies on childhood leukemia and on cancer associated with occupational exposure are close to the limit of what can realistically be achieved in terms of size of study and methodological rigor. b) Exposure assessment is a particular difficulty of EMF epidemiology, in several respects: i) The exposure is imperceptible, ubiquitous, has multiple sources, and can vary greatly over time and short distances. ii) The exposure period of relevance is before the date at which measurements can realistically be obtained and of unknown duration and induction period. iii) The appropriate exposure metric is not known and there are no biological data from which to impute it. c) In the absence of experimental evidence and given the methodological uncertainties in the epidemiologic literature, there is no chronic disease for which an etiological relation to EMF can be regarded as established. d) There has been a large body of high quality data for childhood cancer, and also for adult leukemia and brain tumor in relation to occupational exposure. Among all the outcomes evaluated in epidemiologic studies of EMF, childhood leukemia in relation to postnatal exposures above 0.4 microT is the one for which there is most evidence of an association. The relative risk has been estimated at 2.0 (95% confidence limit: 1.27-3.13) in a large pooled analysis. This is unlikely to be due to chance but, may be, in part, due to bias. This is

  12. The New Epidemiology--A Challenge to Health Administration. Issues in Epidemiology for Administration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crichton, Anne, Ed.; Neuhauser, Duncan, Ed.

    The role of epidemiology in health administration is considered in 11 articles, and three course descriptions and a bibliography are provided. Titles and authors include the following: "The Need for Creative Managerial Epidemiology" (Gary L. Filerman); "The Growing Role of Epidemiology in Health Administration" (Maureen M. Henderson, Robin E.…

  13. [Breast cancer in Sub-Saharan African women: review].

    PubMed

    Ly, Madani; Antoine, Martine; André, Fabrice; Callard, Patrice; Bernaudin, Jean-François; Diallo, Dapa A

    2011-07-01

    Breast cancer is the second most frequent cancer in Sub-Saharan African women with an incidence of 15-53 per 100,000 women. Using PubMed, we reviewed all the articles published on this topic between 1989 and 2009. Breast cancer is usually diagnosed in women younger than in developed countries (mean age: 42-53 years), with later stages (III or IV, i.e. with axillary nodes and distant metastases). Reported tumors are mostly invasive ductal carcinomas with aggressive characteristics: grade III histoprognosis, absence of hormonal receptors or HER2 expression. According to the new breast cancer classification, nearly half of these tumors should be classified as triple negative. However, studies are rare and require confirmation. In conclusion, data on epidemiology and biology of breast cancer in Sub-Saharan African women are still scarce and need more extensive studies. In these countries, the pattern of breast cancer will likely change in the future, according to the evolution of lifestyle namely urbanisation. There is a great need for commitment of research and clinical resources in Sub-Saharan Africa in order to develop specific strategies. PMID:21700549

  14. The business of preventing African-American infant mortality.

    PubMed Central

    Gates-Williams, J; Jackson, M N; Jenkins-Monroe, V; Williams, L R

    1992-01-01

    African-American women are twice as likely as women from other ethnic groups to have babies with low birth weights and to experience the loss of infant death. The problem is so endemic in black communities in Alameda County, California, that numerous programs have been developed over the past decade to reduce maternal risk factors and eliminate barriers to prenatal care. Despite these efforts, African-American ethnicity continues to be a major risk factor for infant mortality for reasons that are poorly understood. We take a critical look at 3 types of studies characteristic of infant mortality research: epidemiologic, studies that advocate prenatal care, and ethnomedical (cultural). We argue that the assumptions informing this research restrict the thinking about infant mortality and the political issues involved in how prevention programs are developed and structured. The persistent focus on maternal behavioral characteristics limits more in-depth analysis of the micropolitics of perinatal bureaucracies established in response to this ongoing crisis. PMID:1413783

  15. Research priorities for Chagas disease, human African trypanosomiasis and leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    2012-01-01

    This report provides a review and analysis of the research landscape for three diseases - Chagas disease, human African trypanosomiasis and leishmaniasis - that disproportionately afflict poor and remote populations with limited access to health services. It represents the work of the disease reference group on Chagas Disease, Human African Trypanosomiasis and Leishmaniasis (DRG3) which was established to identify key research priorities through review of research evidence and input from stakeholders' consultations. The diseases, which are caused by related protozoan parasites, are described in terms of their epidemiology and diseases burden, clinical forms and pathogenesis, HIV coinfection, diagnosis, drugs and drug resistance, vaccines, vector control, and health-care interventions. Priority areas for research are identified based on criteria such as public health relevance, benefit and impact on poor populations and equity, and feasibility. The priorities are found in the areas of diagnostics, drugs, vector control, asymptomatic infection, economic analysis of treatment and vector control methods, and in some specific issues such as surveillance methods or transmission-blocking vaccines for particular diseases. This report will be useful to researchers, policy and decision-makers, funding bodies, implementation organizations, and civil society. This is one of ten disease and thematic reference group reports that have come out of the TDR Think Tank, all of which have contributed to the development of the Global Report for Research on Infectious Diseases of Poverty, available at: www.who.int/tdr/stewardship/global_report/en/index.html. PMID:23484340

  16. Toxicology and epidemiology: improving the science with a framework for combining toxicological and epidemiological evidence to establish causal inference.

    PubMed

    Adami, Hans-Olov; Berry, Sir Colin L; Breckenridge, Charles B; Smith, Lewis L; Swenberg, James A; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Weiss, Noel S; Pastoor, Timothy P

    2011-08-01

    Historically, toxicology has played a significant role in verifying conclusions drawn on the basis of epidemiological findings. Agents that were suggested to have a role in human diseases have been tested in animals to firmly establish a causative link. Bacterial pathogens are perhaps the oldest examples, and tobacco smoke and lung cancer and asbestos and mesothelioma provide two more recent examples. With the advent of toxicity testing guidelines and protocols, toxicology took on a role that was intended to anticipate or predict potential adverse effects in humans, and epidemiology, in many cases, served a role in verifying or negating these toxicological predictions. The coupled role of epidemiology and toxicology in discerning human health effects by environmental agents is obvious, but there is currently no systematic and transparent way to bring the data and analysis of the two disciplines together in a way that provides a unified view on an adverse causal relationship between an agent and a disease. In working to advance the interaction between the fields of toxicology and epidemiology, we propose here a five-step "Epid-Tox" process that would focus on: (1) collection of all relevant studies, (2) assessment of their quality, (3) evaluation of the weight of evidence, (4) assignment of a scalable conclusion, and (5) placement on a causal relationship grid. The causal relationship grid provides a clear view of how epidemiological and toxicological data intersect, permits straightforward conclusions with regard to a causal relationship between agent and effect, and can show how additional data can influence conclusions of causality. PMID:21561883

  17. Toxicology and Epidemiology: Improving the Science with a Framework for Combining Toxicological and Epidemiological Evidence to Establish Causal Inference

    PubMed Central

    Adami, Hans-Olov; Berry, Sir Colin L.; Breckenridge, Charles B.; Smith, Lewis L.; Swenberg, James A.; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Weiss, Noel S.; Pastoor, Timothy P.

    2011-01-01

    Historically, toxicology has played a significant role in verifying conclusions drawn on the basis of epidemiological findings. Agents that were suggested to have a role in human diseases have been tested in animals to firmly establish a causative link. Bacterial pathogens are perhaps the oldest examples, and tobacco smoke and lung cancer and asbestos and mesothelioma provide two more recent examples. With the advent of toxicity testing guidelines and protocols, toxicology took on a role that was intended to anticipate or predict potential adverse effects in humans, and epidemiology, in many cases, served a role in verifying or negating these toxicological predictions. The coupled role of epidemiology and toxicology in discerning human health effects by environmental agents is obvious, but there is currently no systematic and transparent way to bring the data and analysis of the two disciplines together in a way that provides a unified view on an adverse causal relationship between an agent and a disease. In working to advance the interaction between the fields of toxicology and epidemiology, we propose here a five-step “Epid-Tox” process that would focus on: (1) collection of all relevant studies, (2) assessment of their quality, (3) evaluation of the weight of evidence, (4) assignment of a scalable conclusion, and (5) placement on a causal relationship grid. The causal relationship grid provides a clear view of how epidemiological and toxicological data intersect, permits straightforward conclusions with regard to a causal relationship between agent and effect, and can show how additional data can influence conclusions of causality. PMID:21561883

  18. Malaria epidemiological trends in Italy.

    PubMed

    Sabatinelli, G; Majori, G; D'Ancona, F; Romi, R

    1994-08-01

    Based on the official reports received from local health laboratories, an epidemiological analysis of malaria cases reported in Italy from 1989 to 1992 is presented. A total of 1,941 cases were reported, 1,287 among Italians and 654 among foreigners. The incidence of cases was on average 500 per year with a maximum in 1990. A slight, but constant decrease of incidence of malaria cases was recorded in this period among Italian citizens (-21.5%), while the incidence among foreigners increased (+80%). Plasmodium falciparum accounted for 74.2% of total infections, followed by P. vivax (19%). The highest number of cases was imported from Africa (86.5%), followed by Asia, South America, and Oceania. 11 cases were contracted in Europe (transfusion, airport and cryptic malaria). 26 people died from malaria during the four years, with a fatality rate of 2.3% among Italians. Other epidemiological features concerning incidence in the different categories of travellers, countries of infection, clinical and therapeutic aspects of cases, are also discussed. PMID:7843343

  19. Environmental Epidemiology of Essential Tremor

    PubMed Central

    Louis, Elan D.

    2008-01-01

    Background Essential tremor (ET) is one of the most common neurological disorders. Despite this, the disease mechanisms and etiology are not well understood. While susceptibility genotypes undoubtedly underlie many ET cases, no ET genes have been identified thus far. As with many other progressive, degenerative neurological disorders, it is likely that environmental factors contribute to the etiology of ET. Environmental epidemiology is the study in specific populations or communities of the effect on human health of physical, biologic and chemical factors in the external environment. The purpose of this article is to review current knowledge with regards to the environmental epidemiology of ET. Results As will be discussed, a series of preliminary case-control studies in recent years has begun to explore several candidate toxins/exposures, including harmane (1-methyl-9H-pyrido[3,4-b]indole), lead and agricultural exposures/pesticides. Conclusions While several initial results are promising, as will be discussed, additional studies are needed to more definitively establish whether these exposures are associated with ET and if they are of etiological importance. PMID:18716411

  20. Epidemiology: second-rate science?

    PubMed

    Parascandola, M

    1998-01-01

    In recent years epidemiology has come under increasing criticism in regulatory and public arenas for being "unscientific." The tobacco industry has taken advantage of this, insisting for decades that evidence linking cigarettes and lung cancer falls short of proof. Moreover, many epidemiologists remain unduly skeptical and self-conscious about the status of their own causal claims. This situation persists in part because of a widespread belief that only the laboratory can provide evidence sufficient for scientific proof. Adherents of this view erroneously believe that there is no element of uncertainty or inductive inference in the "direct observation" of the laboratory researcher and that epidemiology provides mere "circumstantial" evidence. The historical roots of this attitude can be traced to philosopher John Stuart Mill and physiologist Claude Bernard and their influence on modern experimental thinking. The author uses the debate over cigarettes and lung cancer to examine ideas of proof in medical science and public health, concluding that inductive inference from a limited sample to a larger population is an element in all empirical science. PMID:9672568