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Sample records for african gaboon viper

  1. Efficacy of North American crotalid antivenom against the African viper Bitis gabonica (Gaboon viper).

    PubMed

    Meggs, William J; Wiley, Christopher N; Brewer, Kori L; Hack, Jason B

    2010-03-01

    Envenomations by exotic snakes occur from zoological collections and private individual collectors. Antivenoms to these snakes may not be readily available. The objective of this study is to determine the efficacy of North American crotalid antivenin in treating mice envenomated with venom of the African viper Bitis gabonica (Gaboon viper). The subjects of the study were Swiss Webster mice weighing approximately 30 g. The study was conducted in the University research laboratory. B. gabonica venom was obtained from Venom Supplies Pty Ltd (Tanunda, South Australia) and reconstituted in sterile water. North American Crotalid Fab2 antivenin (Anavyp, Instituto Bioclon, Mexico) was donated by the manufacturer. The experimental groups were: Group I received two times an intraperitoneal LD(50) dose of venom, 2.58 mg/kg. Group II received the same dose after incubation for 1 h with 10 mg of antivenin. Time to onset of toxicity defined as respiratory rate <10/min or absence of response to prodding. t test and Chi square with p < 0.05 considered significant. Time to onset of toxicity was 7.040 +/- 4.334 h in group I, and 20.665 +/- 2.074 in group II (p = 0.0064, 95% confidence interval of difference of means -22.694 to -4.556). Antivenin was efficacious to statistical significance at 4, 8, 12, and 16 h (p values of 0.062, 0.0067, 0.0067, and 0.0253, respectively). Improvement at 20 and 24 h (p values of 0.0673 and 0.0673, respectively) did not achieve statistical significance. North American Crotalid antivenin (Anavyp, Instituto Bioclon, Mexico) demonstrated efficacy in increasing time to onset of distress in mice poisoned with B. gabonica (Gaboon viper) venom. Based on this result, treatment of humans envenomated with B. gabonica with North American Croatlid antivenin could be considered for severe envenomations if specific B. gabonica antivenin is unavailable.

  2. Non-Contaminating Camouflage: Multifunctional Skin Microornamentation in the West African Gaboon Viper (Bitis rhinoceros)

    PubMed Central

    Spinner, Marlene; Gorb, Stanislav N.; Balmert, Alexander; Bleckmann, Horst; Westhoff, Guido

    2014-01-01

    The West African Gaboon viper (Bitis rhinoceros) has an extraordinary coloration of pale brown and velvety black markings. The velvety black appearance is caused by a unique hierarchical surface structures which was not found on the pale brown scales. In the present study we examined the wettability of the vipeŕs scales by measuring contact angles of water droplets. Velvet black scale surfaces had high static contact angles beyond 160° and low roll-off angles below 20° indicating an outstanding superhydrophobicity. Our calculations showed that the Cassie-Baxter model describes well wettability effects for these surfaces. Self-cleaning capabilities were determined by contaminating the scales with particles and fogging them until droplets formed. Black scales were clean after fogging, while pale scales stayed contaminated. Black scales feature multifunctional structures providing not only water-repellent but also self-cleaning properties. The pattern of nanoridges can be used as a model for surface-active technical surfaces. PMID:24599379

  3. Cloning of a prothrombin activator-like metalloproteinase from the West African saw-scaled viper, Echis ocellatus.

    PubMed

    Hasson, S S; Theakston, R D G; Harrison, R A

    2003-11-01

    Systemic envenoming by the saw-scaled viper, Echis ocellatus, is responsible for more deaths than any other snake in West Africa. Despite its medical importance, there have been few investigations into the toxin composition of the venom of this viper. Here we describe the isolation of E. ocellatus venom gland cDNAs encoding a protein of 514 amino acids that showed 91% sequence similarity to Ecarin, a prothrombin-activating metalloproteinase from the venom of the East African viper, E. pyramidum leakeyi, that induces severe consumption coagulopathy. Structural similarities between the E. ocellatus metalloproteinase and analogues in venoms of related vipers suggest that antibodies raised to phylogenetically conserved E. ocellatus metalloproteinase domains may have potential for cross-specific and cross-generic neutralisation of analogous venom toxins. PMID:14602118

  4. VIPER project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kershaw, John

    1990-01-01

    The VIPER project has so far produced a formal specification of a 32 bit RISC microprocessor, an implementation of that chip in radiation-hard SOS technology, a partial proof of correctness of the implementation which is still being extended, and a large body of supporting software. The time has now come to consider what has been achieved and what directions should be pursued in the future. The most obvious lesson from the VIPER project was the time and effort needed to use formal methods properly. Most of the problems arose in the interfaces between different formalisms, e.g., between the (informal) English description and the HOL spec, between the block-level spec in HOL and the equivalent in ELLA needed by the low-level CAD tools. These interfaces need to be made rigorous or (better) eliminated. VIPER 1A (the latest chip) is designed to operate in pairs, to give protection against breakdowns in service as well as design faults. We have come to regard redundancy and formal design methods as complementary, the one to guard against normal component failures and the other to provide insurance against the risk of the common-cause failures which bedevil reliability predictions. Any future VIPER chips will certainly need improved performance to keep up with increasingly demanding applications. We have a prototype design (not yet specified formally) which includes 32 and 64 bit multiply, instruction pre-fetch, more efficient interface timing, and a new instruction to allow a quick response to peripheral requests. Work is under way to specify this device in MIRANDA, and then to refine the spec into a block-level design by top-down transformations. When the refinement is complete, a relatively simple proof checker should be able to demonstrate its correctness. This paper is presented in viewgraph form.

  5. Envenoming after a snakebite from the Northeast African saw-scaled viper Echis pyramidum: prolonged therapy upon failed treatment by antivenom.

    PubMed

    Valenta, J; Stach, Z; Kolář, M

    2011-01-01

    A reptile holder based in the Czech Republic was bitten into his hand and foot by the Northeast saw-scaled viper (Echis pyramidum). The person arrived at the health institution after twenty hours for anuria. Despite the antivenom against the Asian Echis carinatum - the Echis pyramidum's close relative - was readily available and administered repeatedly, the envenoming continued to develop with subsequent coagulopathy, hepatopathy and respiratory failure. The effects of plasmapheresis and symptomatic therapy were positive, but only temporary. Continual renal replacement therapy and plasmapheresis were complicated by thrombotic occlusions of the device tubing set. A turning point arrived following repeated application of imported antivenom containing antigens against venom components of another African saw-scaled viper species, Echis leucogaster (the antivenom containing E. pyramidum antigens was not available). The clinical status, including complications, resolved following 30 days of hospitalization. The case further validates the geographical specifics of immunogenicity of venom components with similar clinical action in snakes of the same genus. PMID:21978783

  6. Effects of three novel metalloproteinases from the venom of the West African saw-scaled viper, Echis ocellatus on blood coagulation and platelets.

    PubMed

    Howes, J-M; Kamiguti, A S; Theakston, R D G; Wilkinson, M C; Laing, G D

    2005-06-20

    Two metalloproteinases, a 24-kDa P-I EoVMP1 and a 56-kDa P-III EoVMP2, have recently been isolated from the venom of the West African saw-scaled viper Echis ocellatus. We now reveal a new 65-kDa haemorrhagic group P-III metalloproteinase which we have designated EoVMP3. The aim of this study was to determine whether these three snake venom metalloproteinases (SVMPs) affect platelets and blood coagulation. EoVMP1 had no effect on the aggregation of washed human platelets, whereas EoVMP2 inhibited collagen-induced platelet aggregation. In contrast, EoVMP3 did not inhibit the aggregation of platelets by collagen but instead activated platelets in the absence of any additional co-factors. All three SVMPs were capable of activating prothrombin to varying degrees and can therefore be described as procoagulants. EoVMP1, EoVMP2 and EoVMP3 share sequence identity with other members of the reprolysin family, but differ greatly in their effects on some of the components that control haemostasis. PMID:15863354

  7. Viper. [Design modification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilbert, L. E. Paul; Berry, Cassie; Lamborn, Dana; Murphy, Jack; Okelly, Chris

    1993-01-01

    A Viper aircraft was redesigned with a new airfoil and engine to verify if improvements can be made to the baseline configuration. The two major redesigning processes were: replacing the baseline aircraft's NACA 652-415 airfoil with an NLF 0414 Natural Laminar Flow airfoil, and the baseline aircraft's Lycoming 0-235 engine with a Teledyne Continental GR-36 rotary combustion engine. As a result of these changes: (1) the Viper aircraft becomes smaller in most respects (gross weight, wing platform area, and horizontal tail area); (2) overall drag of the aircraft decreased (due to reduction in area and the reduced drug of the new airfoil); (3) cruise velocity, the maximum rate of climb at sea level, and takeoff distance (but not landing distance) decreased; and (4) cost increased. Although the overall drag decreased, the performance remained about the same due to the reduced horsepower available from the Teledyne Continental engine.

  8. Sinus node dysfunction complicating viper bite.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Ashish; Kumar, Tarun; Ravindranath, Khandenahally S; Bhat, Prabhavathi; Manjunath, Cholenahally N; Agarwal, Neena

    2015-02-01

    Viper venom toxicities comprise mainly bleeding disorders and nephrotoxicity. Cardiotoxicity is a rare manifestation of viper bite. We describe the case of a previously healthy 35-year-old man who developed coagulopathy and sinus node dysfunction following a viper bite. Electrocardiography showed sinus arrest and junctional escape rhythm. This is the first account of sinus node dysfunction caused by a viper bite.

  9. Taming the Viper: Software Upgrade for VFAUser and Viper

    SciTech Connect

    DORIN,RANDALL T.; MOSER III,JOHN C.

    2000-08-08

    This report describes the procedure and properties of the software upgrade for the Vibration Performance Recorder. The upgrade will check the 20 memory cards for proper read/write operation. The upgrade was successfully installed and uploaded into the Viper and the field laptop. The memory checking routine must run overnight to complete the test, although the laptop need only be connected to the Viper unit until the downloading routine is finished. The routine has limited ability to recognize incomplete or corrupt header and footer files. The routine requires 400 Megabytes of free hard disk space. There is one minor technical flaw detailed in the conclusion.

  10. [Viper bite treatment in Spain].

    PubMed

    Estefanía Díez, M; Alonso Peña, D; García Cano, P; López Gamo, A

    2016-01-01

    Viper snake bite is, by far, the most common ophidian accident in Spain. It is responsible for between 100 and 150 hospitalizations per year in this country, although it is difficult to determine the frequency of emergency admissions due to this cause. The cornerstone to their approach rests on the correct evaluation of the possible effects derived from envenomation and the use of anti-venoms. In spite of all the controversies surrounding the use of anti-venoms, they have become a powerful therapeutic weapon ever since the serum has been highly purified and the great decrease of related anaphylactic reactions. The aim of this article is to update the emergency room procedures when viper bites are suspected, and to clarify the main therapeutic recommendations. PMID:25440968

  11. [Viper envenomation by Echis coloratus].

    PubMed

    Gilon, D; Mann, G; Shalev, O

    1991-06-01

    Clinical and therapeutic experience with 24 cases of envenomation by Echis coloratus, the Mideast saw-scaled viper, is reported. These cases were seen between 1979-1989 at this hospital (Mt. Scopus). A clinical classification is proposed, based on severity of the bleeding diathesis and platelet count at presentation. It is suggested as a predictor of clinical outcome and as a guide to whether antiserum should be administered. PMID:1937209

  12. [Etiological study of low fertility in eastern Gaboon. III. Filarial endemicity (Loa loa, D. perstans). Prevalence of microfilariae in hydroceles (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Languillat, G; Garin, Y; Tursz, A; Beauvais, B; Lariviére, M

    1977-10-30

    During an inquiry performed in Gaboon the prevalence of hydroceles had led to puncture systematically every vaginal flow. 68 fluids were so collected at the end of the inquiry. Subsequently the statistical analysis of the results in men seems to suggest a correlation between microfilaremia (Loa loa and D. perstans) and the prevalence of hydroceles. Microfilariae were found in 77% according to the following distribution: Loa loa seldom diagnosed in this kind of flow were detected in 10%; D. perstans although never reported so far in hydrocele fluids appeared to be present in 62%. O. volvulus more currently referred to in hydrocele liquids were scarcely traced.

  13. Development of venom toxin-specific antibodies by DNA immunisation: rationale and strategies to improve therapy of viper envenoming.

    PubMed

    Harrison, R A

    2004-04-16

    DNA vaccination induces potent cellular immune responses against infectious and parasitic intracellular pathogens. This paper illustrates that DNA immunisation protocols can be adapted to induce high titre antibody responses with potential to improve the treatment of systemic snake envenoming that kills 20000 people annually in Africa. Envenoming by the saw-scaled vipers and puff adders are responsible for the majority of these deaths. DNA sequences encoding haemorrhagic, pro- and anti-coagulant and other haemostasis-disruptive venom toxins from these vipers showed extensive cross-specific and cross-generic sequence and structural similarities. The predicted antigenic profiles of these toxin sequences are utilised to design DNA immunisation constructs to generate toxin-specific antibodies with potential to polyspecifically neutralise venoms from the most medically-important African vipers. PMID:15068847

  14. Lessons Learned from Pit Viper System Deployment

    SciTech Connect

    Catalan, Michael A.; Bailey, Sharon A.; Alzheimer, James M.; Baker, Carl P.; Valdez, Patrick L.

    2002-08-08

    The Pit Viper is a tele-operated system intended to enhance worker safety while simultaneously improving the efficiency of pit operations at the Hanford Site. Commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) components were used in an attempt to increase system reliability and reduce integration difficulties. The Pit Viper, as is, provides significant improvement over the current baseline approach. During integration, multiple areas where technology development would enhance the effectiveness of the system were identified. Most notable of these areas were the manipulator control system, tool design, and tool handling. Various issues were identified regarding the interfacing of the Pit Viper with the Tank Farm environment and the maturity of remote/ robotic systems for unstructured environments.

  15. [The viper--Finland's only poisonous snake].

    PubMed

    Vuori, Arno

    2011-01-01

    The viper (Vipera berus) is the most common poisonous snake in Europe, and the only one in Finland. In viper bites, highly varying amounts of venom end up into the victim, whereby prediction of the progression of symptoms of poisoning is very difficult. A severe clinical picture must always be anticipated. The size of the victim has also an effect on the outcome. Adequate monitoring and when necessary, massive fluid therapy are essential in the treatment. Due to possible kidney damage, anti-inflammatory drugs are not recommended. Severe or rapidly progressing symptoms require the use of an antidote.

  16. Predator facilitation or interference: a game of vipers and owls.

    PubMed

    Embar, Keren; Raveh, Ashael; Hoffmann, Ishai; Kotler, Burt P

    2014-04-01

    In predator-prey foraging games, the prey's reaction to one type of predator may either facilitate or hinder the success of another predator. We ask, do different predator species affect each other's patch selection? If the predators facilitate each other, they should prefer to hunt in the same patch; if they interfere, they should prefer to hunt alone. We performed an experiment in a large outdoor vivarium where we presented barn owls (Tyto alba) with a choice of hunting greater Egyptian gerbils (Gerbillus pyramidum) in patches with or without Saharan horned vipers (Cerastes cerastes). Gerbils foraged on feeding trays set under bushes or in the open. We monitored owl location, activity, and hunting attempts, viper activity and ambush site location, and the foraging behavior of the gerbils in bush and open microhabitats. Owls directed more attacks towards patches with vipers, and vipers were more active in the presence of owls. Owls and vipers facilitated each other's hunting through their combined effect on gerbil behavior, especially on full moon nights when vipers are more active. Owls forced gerbils into the bushes where vipers preferred to ambush, while viper presence chased gerbils into the open where they were exposed to owls. Owls and vipers took advantage of their indirect positive effect on each other. In the foraging game context, they improve each other's patch quality and hunting success. PMID:24481981

  17. 21 CFR 864.8950 - Russell viper venom reagent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Russell viper venom reagent. 864.8950 Section 864.8950 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Hematology Reagents § 864.8950 Russell viper...

  18. 21 CFR 864.8950 - Russell viper venom reagent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Russell viper venom reagent. 864.8950 Section 864.8950 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Hematology Reagents § 864.8950 Russell viper...

  19. 21 CFR 864.8950 - Russell viper venom reagent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Russell viper venom reagent. 864.8950 Section 864.8950 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Hematology Reagents § 864.8950 Russell viper...

  20. 21 CFR 864.8950 - Russell viper venom reagent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Russell viper venom reagent. 864.8950 Section 864.8950 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Hematology Reagents § 864.8950 Russell viper...

  1. 21 CFR 864.8950 - Russell viper venom reagent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Russell viper venom reagent. 864.8950 Section 864.8950 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Hematology Reagents § 864.8950 Russell viper...

  2. VIPER: Virtual Intelligent Planetary Exploration Rover

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edwards, Laurence; Flueckiger, Lorenzo; Nguyen, Laurent; Washington, Richard

    2001-01-01

    Simulation and visualization of rover behavior are critical capabilities for scientists and rover operators to construct, test, and validate plans for commanding a remote rover. The VIPER system links these capabilities. using a high-fidelity virtual-reality (VR) environment. a kinematically accurate simulator, and a flexible plan executive to allow users to simulate and visualize possible execution outcomes of a plan under development. This work is part of a larger vision of a science-centered rover control environment, where a scientist may inspect and explore the environment via VR tools, specify science goals, and visualize the expected and actual behavior of the remote rover. The VIPER system is constructed from three generic systems, linked together via a minimal amount of customization into the integrated system. The complete system points out the power of combining plan execution, simulation, and visualization for envisioning rover behavior; it also demonstrates the utility of developing generic technologies. which can be combined in novel and useful ways.

  3. Debunking the viper's strike: harmless snakes kill a common assumption.

    PubMed

    Penning, David A; Sawvel, Baxter; Moon, Brad R

    2016-03-01

    To survive, organisms must avoid predation and acquire nutrients and energy. Sensory systems must correctly differentiate between potential predators and prey, and elicit behaviours that adjust distances accordingly. For snakes, strikes can serve both purposes. Vipers are thought to have the fastest strikes among snakes. However, strike performance has been measured in very few species, especially non-vipers. We measured defensive strike performance in harmless Texas ratsnakes and two species of vipers, western cottonmouths and western diamond-backed rattlesnakes, using high-speed video recordings. We show that ratsnake strike performance matches or exceeds that of vipers. In contrast with the literature over the past century, vipers do not represent the pinnacle of strike performance in snakes. Both harmless and venomous snakes can strike with very high accelerations that have two key consequences: the accelerations exceed values that can cause loss of consciousness in other animals, such as the accelerations experienced by jet pilots during extreme manoeuvres, and they make the strikes faster than the sensory and motor responses of mammalian prey and predators. Both harmless and venomous snakes can strike faster than the blink of an eye and often reach a target before it can move.

  4. Palestine Saw-scaled Vipers hunt disadvantaged avian migrants.

    PubMed

    Yosef, Reuven; Zduniak, Piotr

    2015-11-01

    The selection of an ambush-cum-foraging site and proper prey are indispensable for maintaining an adequate energy intake by sit-and-wait predators to optimize survival and future fitness. This is important for snakes, where an ambush site has suitable ambience. We studied the foraging strategy of the Palestine Saw-scaled Viper (Echis coloratus) at an avian migratory stopover site. Following initial observations, we hypothesized that vipers are able to discern the body mass of a perched bird and hunt accordingly. We implemented an experiment where vipers chose between four groups of migratory Blackcaps with different body mass. Prey choice by vipers of both age classes was not random and adults focused on Blackcaps with the lightest body mass. Juveniles displayed a variability of prey choice but selected mainly birds from the lightest categories. We concluded that Saw-scaled Vipers hunt prey based on thermal cues; juveniles practice on different prey groups prior to perfecting their foraging techniques i.e., hunting is a learned process; and that they prefer birds with the lowest body mass. The last because Blackcaps, when on migration, save energy by entering a state of deep torpor in which they sacrifice their vigilance capabilities. PMID:26319368

  5. Report on the formal specification and partial verification of the VIPER microprocessor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brock, Bishop; Hunt, Warren A., Jr.

    1991-01-01

    The formal specification and partial verification of the VIPER microprocessor is reviewed. The VIPER microprocessor was designed by RSRE, Malvern, England, for safety critical computing applications (e.g., aircraft, reactor control, medical instruments, armaments). The VIPER was carefully specified and partially verified in an attempt to provide a microprocessor with completely predictable operating characteristics. The specification of VIPER is divided into several levels of abstraction, from a gate-level description up to an instruction execution model. Although the consistency between certain levels was demonstrated with mechanically-assisted mathematical proof, the formal verification of VIPER was never completed.

  6. Study of Sperm Reproductive Parameters in Mature Zanjani Viper

    PubMed Central

    Moshiri, Malihe; Todehdehghan, Fatemeh; Shiravi, Abdolhossein

    2014-01-01

    Objective Zanjani viper (Vipera albicornuta) is an endemic venomous snake in East Azerbai- jan Province, Iran which is medically important due to its application for antivenin production in the laboratory. We need to produce this snake in captivity. This study was conducted to charac- terize mature male Zanjani viper and to evaluate its sperm reproductive parameters. Materials and Methods This applied- descriptive study was conducted on twenty Zan- jani viper samples collected from Ag Dag Mountain in East Azarbaijan Province, Iran, between September and October 2010. After the snakes were anesthetized and sacrificed humanly, their morphometric specifications and sperm reproductive parameters, including concentration, motility, vitality, morphology, and survival time, were measured. Results Morphometric specifications and evaluation of sperms of the snake showed the following information: Zanjani male viper, body length of 73.65 ± 4.35 cm, tail length of 5.465 ± 0.48 cm, and mature snakes with testicular volumes of 0.61 ± 0.81 ml (right) and of 0.46 ± 0.17 ml (left). Our findings revealed average sperm concen- tration of 0.47 ± 0.1 ×106ml-1, motility of 49 -55 %, vitality of 46.11 ± 9.63 %, normal morphology of 61.71 ± 5.3%, and survival time of 6 ± 2 hours at the laboratory tem- perature. Statistical analyses were performed using Student’s t test for comparison of two values, and one-way ANOVA was applied where three values were compared. Conclusion Results suggest that mature Zanjani male viper with mature sperms in its vas deferens is present in late summer and early autumn seasons in Bostanabad County, Iran. PMID:24567940

  7. A case study for the real-time experimental evaluation of the VIPER microprocessor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carreno, Victor A.; Angellatta, Rob K.

    1991-01-01

    An experiment to evaluate the applicability of the Verifiable Integrated Processor for Enhanced Reliability (VIPER) microprocessor to real time control is described. The VIPER microprocessor was invented by the Royal Signals and Radar Establishment (RSRE), U.K., and is an example of the use of formal mathematical methods for developing electronic digital systems with a high degree of assurance on the system design and implementation correctness. The experiment consisted of selecting a control law, writing the control law algorithm for the VIPER processor, and providing real time, dynamic inputs into the processor and monitoring the outputs. The control law selected and coded for the VIPER processor was the yaw damper function of an automatic landing program for a 737 aircraft. The mechanisms for interfacing the VIPER Single Board Computer to the VAX host are described. Results include run time experiences, performance evaluation, and comparison of VIPER and FORTRAN yaw damper algorithm output for accuracy estimation.

  8. Measuring the VIPERS galaxy power spectrum at z∼1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rota, Stefano; Bel, Julien; Granett, Ben; Guzzo, Luigi

    2016-10-01

    The VIMOS Public Extragalactic Redshift Survey [VIPERS, Guzzo et al. 2014] is using the VIMOS spectrograph at the ESO VLT to measure redshifts for ~ 100,000 galaxies with IAB < 22.5 and 0.5 < z < 1.2, over an area of 24 deg2 (split over the W1 and W4 fields of CFHTLS). VIPERS currently provides, at such redshifts, the best compromise between volume, number of galaxies and dense spatial sampling. We present here the first estimate of the power spectrum of the galaxy distribution, P(k), at redshifts z ~ 0.75 and z ~ 1, obtained from the ~ 55,000 redshifts of the PDR-1 data release. We discuss first constraints on cosmological quantities, as the matter density and the baryonic fraction, obtained for the first time at an epoch when the Universe was about half its current age.

  9. Bilateral Pulmonary Embolism Following a Viper Envenomation in France

    PubMed Central

    Bart, Géraldine; Pineau, Samuel; Biron, Charlotte; Connault, Jérôme; Artifoni, Mathieu

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Complications following snake bites are not common in France. We report the case of a bilateral pulmonary embolism following a viper envenomation in France. A healthy 72-year-old female presented with a lower limb hematoma following a viper bite. She was admitted at the hospital 2 days later and received low-molecular-weight heparin because of bed rest. Seven days later, she complained of thoracic pain and respiratory failure, and a bilateral pulmonary was diagnosed, without biological sign of neither disseminated intravascular coagulation nor coagulation trouble. Repeated lower limbs Doppler ultrasound were normal. This case is particularly interesting because it is only the 7th reported case of pulmonary embolism following a snake envenomation; moreover, it happened in France where poisonous snakes are very rare. Several hypotheses have been made to explain this late localized coagulopathy: an increased level of unstable fibrin produced by thrombin-like glycoproteins from the venom is one of them. PMID:27175626

  10. Formal verification of a microcoded VIPER microprocessor using HOL

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levitt, Karl; Arora, Tejkumar; Leung, Tony; Kalvala, Sara; Schubert, E. Thomas; Windley, Philip; Heckman, Mark; Cohen, Gerald C.

    1993-01-01

    The Royal Signals and Radar Establishment (RSRE) and members of the Hardware Verification Group at Cambridge University conducted a joint effort to prove the correspondence between the electronic block model and the top level specification of Viper. Unfortunately, the proof became too complex and unmanageable within the given time and funding constraints, and is thus incomplete as of the date of this report. This report describes an independent attempt to use the HOL (Cambridge Higher Order Logic) mechanical verifier to verify Viper. Deriving from recent results in hardware verification research at UC Davis, the approach has been to redesign the electronic block model to make it microcoded and to structure the proof in a series of decreasingly abstract interpreter levels, the lowest being the electronic block level. The highest level is the RSRE Viper instruction set. Owing to the new approach and some results on the proof of generic interpreters as applied to simple microprocessors, this attempt required an effort approximately an order of magnitude less than the previous one.

  11. Clustering-based redshift estimation: application to VIPERS/CFHTLS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scottez, V.; Mellier, Y.; Granett, B. R.; Moutard, T.; Kilbinger, M.; Scodeggio, M.; Garilli, B.; Bolzonella, M.; de la Torre, S.; Guzzo, L.; Abbas, U.; Adami, C.; Arnouts, S.; Bottini, D.; Branchini, E.; Cappi, A.; Cucciati, O.; Davidzon, I.; Fritz, A.; Franzetti, P.; Iovino, A.; Krywult, J.; Le Brun, V.; Le Fèvre, O.; Maccagni, D.; Małek, K.; Marulli, F.; Polletta, M.; Pollo, A.; Tasca, L. A. M.; Tojeiro, R.; Vergani, D.; Zanichelli, A.; Bel, J.; Coupon, J.; De Lucia, G.; Ilbert, O.; McCracken, H. J.; Moscardini, L.

    2016-10-01

    We explore the accuracy of the clustering-based redshift estimation proposed by Ménard et al. when applied to VIMOS Public Extragalactic Redshift Survey (VIPERS) and Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope Legacy Survey (CFHTLS) real data. This method enables us to reconstruct redshift distributions from measurement of the angular clustering of objects using a set of secure spectroscopic redshifts. We use state-of-the-art spectroscopic measurements with iAB < 22.5 from the VIPERS as reference population to infer the redshift distribution of galaxies from the CFHTLS T0007 release. VIPERS provides a nearly representative sample to a flux limit of iAB < 22.5 at a redshift of >0.5 which allows us to test the accuracy of the clustering-based redshift distributions. We show that this method enables us to reproduce the true mean colour-redshift relation when both populations have the same magnitude limit. We also show that this technique allows the inference of redshift distributions for a population fainter than the reference and we give an estimate of the colour-redshift mapping in this case. This last point is of great interest for future large-redshift surveys which require a complete faint spectroscopic sample.

  12. Alleviation of viper venom induced platelet apoptosis by crocin (Crocus sativus): implications for thrombocytopenia in viper bites.

    PubMed

    Santhosh, M Sebastin; Thushara, R M; Hemshekhar, M; Sunitha, K; Devaraja, S; Kemparaju, K; Girish, K S

    2013-11-01

    Viper envenomations are characterized by prominent local and systemic manifestations including hematological alterations. Snake venom metalloproteinases (SVMPs) and phospholipase A2 (PLA2) plays crucial role in the pathophysiology of hemorrhage by targeting/altering the platelets function which may result in thrombocytopenia. Platelets undergo the classic events of mitochondria-mediated apoptotic pathway due to augmented endogenous reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels. The observed anticoagulant effects during viper envenomations could be due to exacerbated platelet apoptosis and thrombocytopenia. Moreover, antivenin treatments are ineffective against the venom-induced oxidative stress; therefore, it necessitates an auxiliary therapy involving antioxidants which can effectively scavenge the endothelium-generated/endogenous ROS and protect the platelets. The present study explored the effects of viper venom on platelet apoptosis and its amelioration by a phytochemical crocin. The study evaluated the Vipera russelli venom-induced apoptotic events including endogenous ROS generation, intracellular Ca(2+) mobilization, mitochondrial membrane depolarization, cyt-c translocation, caspase activation and phosphatidylserine externalization which were effectively mitigated when the venom was pre-treated with crocin. The study highlights one of the less studied features of venom-induced secondary complications i.e. platelet apoptosis and sheds light on the underlying basis for venom-induced thrombocytopenia, systemic hemorrhage and in vivo anticoagulant effect.

  13. Snakebite by the Shore Pit Viper (Trimeresurus purpureomaculatus) Treated With Polyvalent Antivenom.

    PubMed

    Mong, Rupeng; Tan, Hock Heng

    2016-06-01

    Although snakebites are uncommon, there are several species of medically important venomous snakes native to Singapore. We present a case of envenoming by the shore pit viper (Trimeresurus purpureomaculatus) that showed clinical improvement when treated with the Indian (Haffkine) polyvalent antivenom. A 40-year-old man was bitten on his right hand by a snake, which was identified through photos and his description to be a shore pit viper, which is native to the local mangrove area. Severe swelling and pain developed immediately after the bite, which progressed up the arm. Because of the progression of local swelling, antivenom was started. He was given a total of 6 vials (60 mL) of polyvalent antivenom, with the first vial started 3 hours after the bite. He showed clinical improvement within 24 hours. His subsequent recovery was uneventful, with no other complications as a result of envenomation or antivenom use. Severe envenoming by the shore pit viper can lead to marked local effects such as extensive swelling and tissue necrosis. Antivenom is indicated in the presence of severe local envenomation. Antivenom against the shore pit viper is however not available locally. The Indian (Haffkine) polyvalent antivenom contains antibodies against 4 common venomous snakes in India, namely the Indian cobra, common krait, Russell's viper, and sawscaled viper. The improvement seen in this patient suggests possible cross-neutralizing activity of the Indian vipers' antivenom against the local shore pit viper venom. Further in vivo and in vitro studies should be performed to verify this clinical case.

  14. Antivenom cross neutralisation in a suspected Asian pit viper envenoming causing severe coagulopathy.

    PubMed

    Isbister, G K; Maduwage, K; Page, C B

    2014-11-01

    There is evidence of cross-neutralisation between common toxin groups in snake venoms and therefore the potential for antivenoms to be effective against species they are not raised against. Here we present a 49 year old female bitten by an unknown pit-viper in Nepal. She developed a venom induced consumption coagulopathy with an unrecordable international normalised ratio and undetectable fibrinogen. On return to Australia 5 days post-bite she was treated successfully with one antivenom raised against Malayan pit viper and green pit viper venoms (Haemato-polvalent antivenom from Thailand) and then subsequently with another antivenom raised against American pit-viper venoms (Antivipmyn). Presumed pit viper venom was detected in patient sera with an enzyme immunoassay against Hypnale hypnale venom. There was increased absorbance before antivenom compared to non-envenomed control samples, which then decreased after the administration of each antivenom. The recurrence of venom detected by enzyme immunoassay between antivenom doses was accompanied by a recurrence of the coagulopathy. Cross reactivity between the unknown venom and both antivenoms was supported by the fact that no venom was detected in the pre-antivenom samples after they were incubated in vitro with both antivenoms. This case and investigation of the venom and antivenoms suggest cross-neutralisation between pit vipers, including pit vipers from different continents. PMID:25178876

  15. Hump-nosed viper bite: an important but under-recognized cause of systemic envenoming.

    PubMed

    Shivanthan, Mitrakrishnan Chrishan; Yudhishdran, Jevon; Navinan, Rayno; Rajapakse, Senaka

    2014-01-01

    Hump-nosed viper bites are common in the Indian subcontinent. In the past, hump-nosed vipers (Hypnale species) were considered moderately venomous snakes whose bites result mainly in local envenoming. However, a variety of severe local effects, hemostatic dysfunction, microangiopathic hemolysis, kidney injury and death have been reported following envenoming by Hypnale species. We systematically reviewed the medical literature on the epidemiology, toxin profile, diagnosis, and clinical, laboratory and postmortem features of hump-nosed viper envenoming, and highlight the need for development of an effective antivenom.

  16. Hump-nosed viper bite: an important but under-recognized cause of systemic envenoming

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Hump-nosed viper bites are common in the Indian subcontinent. In the past, hump-nosed vipers (Hypnale species) were considered moderately venomous snakes whose bites result mainly in local envenoming. However, a variety of severe local effects, hemostatic dysfunction, microangiopathic hemolysis, kidney injury and death have been reported following envenoming by Hypnale species. We systematically reviewed the medical literature on the epidemiology, toxin profile, diagnosis, and clinical, laboratory and postmortem features of hump-nosed viper envenoming, and highlight the need for development of an effective antivenom. PMID:24948957

  17. Report on the formal specification and partial verification of the VIPER microprocessor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brock, Bishop; Hunt, Warren A., Jr.

    1991-01-01

    The VIPER microprocessor chip is partitioned into four levels of abstractions. At the highest level, VIPER is described with decreasingly abstract sets of functions in LCF-LSM. At the lowest level are the gate-level models in proprietary CAD languages. The block-level and gate-level specifications are also given in the ELLA simulation language. Among VIPER's deficiencies are the fact that there is no notion of external events in the top-level specification, and it is impossible to use the top-level specifications to prove abstract properties of programs running on VIPER computers. There is no complete proof that the gate-level specifications implement the top-level specifications. Cohn's proof that the major-state machine correctly implements the top-level specifications has no formal connection with any of the other proof attempts. None of the latter address resetting the machine, memory timeout, forced error, or single step modes.

  18. Snakebite by the Shore Pit Viper (Trimeresurus purpureomaculatus) Treated With Polyvalent Antivenom.

    PubMed

    Mong, Rupeng; Tan, Hock Heng

    2016-06-01

    Although snakebites are uncommon, there are several species of medically important venomous snakes native to Singapore. We present a case of envenoming by the shore pit viper (Trimeresurus purpureomaculatus) that showed clinical improvement when treated with the Indian (Haffkine) polyvalent antivenom. A 40-year-old man was bitten on his right hand by a snake, which was identified through photos and his description to be a shore pit viper, which is native to the local mangrove area. Severe swelling and pain developed immediately after the bite, which progressed up the arm. Because of the progression of local swelling, antivenom was started. He was given a total of 6 vials (60 mL) of polyvalent antivenom, with the first vial started 3 hours after the bite. He showed clinical improvement within 24 hours. His subsequent recovery was uneventful, with no other complications as a result of envenomation or antivenom use. Severe envenoming by the shore pit viper can lead to marked local effects such as extensive swelling and tissue necrosis. Antivenom is indicated in the presence of severe local envenomation. Antivenom against the shore pit viper is however not available locally. The Indian (Haffkine) polyvalent antivenom contains antibodies against 4 common venomous snakes in India, namely the Indian cobra, common krait, Russell's viper, and sawscaled viper. The improvement seen in this patient suggests possible cross-neutralizing activity of the Indian vipers' antivenom against the local shore pit viper venom. Further in vivo and in vitro studies should be performed to verify this clinical case. PMID:27061038

  19. Studies on pharmacological effects of Russell's viper and Saw-scaled viper venom and its neutralization by chicken egg yolk antibodies.

    PubMed

    Meenatchisundaram, S; Parameswari, G; Michael, A; Ramalingam, S

    2008-08-01

    Antivenom antibodies were raised in 24-week-old white leghorn chickens against hemotoxic venoms of Russell's viper and Saw-scaled viper snakes. Booster injections of increasing concentrations of venom were given at 14days of time interval to raise the antivenom level in egg yolk. Antibodies were extracted from immunized chicken egg yolk by Polson et al. (Polson A., Von Wechmar M.B., Van Regenmortel M.H.V. Isolation of viral IgY antibodies from yolks of immunized hens. Immunological Communications 1980; 9:475-493.) and further purified by DEAE cellulose ion exchange column chromatography, which gave pure (180-200kDa) specific antibodies against venom. High titre of more than 1:10,000 antibodies were detected by ELISA at the 135th day of observation. The lethal toxicity and various pharmacological activities like hemorrhagic activity, phospholipase activity, edema and procoagulant activities of venom were carried out by both in vivo and in vitro methods. The effectiveness of antivenom in neutralizing these effects was carried out involving pre-incubation type experiments. The median effective dose (ED50) for Russell's viper venom was 0.96mg/2LD50/18g mice and for Saw-scaled viper venom it was 1.28mg/2LD50/18g mice. One millilitre of specific antivenom was effective in neutralizing 0.110mg of Russell's viper and 0.137mg of Saw-scaled viper venoms respectively (PD50). Antivenom was effective in neutralization assays in a dose dependent manner. The results indicate that antibodies raised in chicken could effectively neutralize the pharmacological effects induced by venoms and chickens therefore present an alternative and cheaper source of specific antibody generation. PMID:18550009

  20. Envenomation by a juvenile Malayan pit viper (Agkistrodon rhodostoma).

    PubMed

    Vest, D K; Kardong, K V

    1980-05-01

    Following an accidental bite inflicted by a juvenile Malayan pit viper (Agkistrodon rhodostoma), the progress of envenomation was carefully monitored and subsequent laboratory work performed to determine the amount and quality of venom injected. Even a very small amount of venom from this species is capable of inducing noticeable local symptoms including edema, subcutaneous bleeding, and throbbing. Constitutional symptoms were present but minimal. The extent of inflammation present at any given time following envenomation was found to be a more accurate diagnostic signal than the speed with which it developed. This case is similar to that of bites by juveniles of other species of viperines and crotalines and may serve to aid in the diagnosis and treatment of bites by juvenile specimens of serpents in these families.

  1. Improved correction of VIPERS angular selection effects in clustering measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pezzotta, A.; Granett, B. R.; Bel, J.; Guzzo, L.; de la Torre, S.; Aff004

    2016-10-01

    Clustering estimates in galaxy redshift surveys need to account and correct for the way targets are selected from the general population, as to avoid biasing the measured values of cosmological parameters. The VIMOS Public Extragalactic Redshift Survey (VIPERS) is no exception to this, involving slit collisions and masking effects. Pushed by the increasing precision of the measurements, e.g. of the growth rate f, we have been re-assessing these effects in detail. We present here an improved correction for the two-point correlation function, capable to recover the amplitude of the monopole of the two-point correlation function ξ(r) above 1 h-1 Mpc to better than 2.

  2. Viper bites complicate chronic agrochemical nephropathy in rural Sri Lanka

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Snakebite is a common occupational health hazard among Sri Lankan agricultural workers, particularly in the North Central Province. Viperine snakes, mainly Russell’s viper envenomation, frequently lead to acute renal failure. During the last two decades, an agrochemical nephropathy, a chronic tubulointerstitial disease has rapidly spread over this area leading to high morbidity and mortality. Most of the epidemiological characteristics of these two conditions overlap, increasing the chances of co-occurrence. Herein, we describe four representative cases of viperine snakebites leading to variable clinical presentations, in patients with chronic agrochemical nephropathy, including two patients presented with acute and delayed anuria. These cases suggest the possibility of unusual manifestations of snakebite in patients with Sri Lankan agrochemical nephropathy, of which the clinicians should be aware. It could be postulated that the existing scenario in the Central America could also lead to similar clinical presentations. PMID:25136354

  3. Effects of Tamarind (Tamarindus indicus Linn) seed extract on Russell's viper (Daboia russelli siamensis) venom.

    PubMed

    Maung, K M; Lynn, Z

    2012-12-01

    Snake bite has been regarded as an important health problem in Myanmar since early 1960's. In the recent years, there has been growing interest in alternative therapies and therapeutic use of natural products, especially those derive from plants. In Myanmar and Indian traditional medicine, various plants have used as a remedy for treating snake bite. The present study was carried out to evaluate the effects of alcohol extract of Tamarind (Tamarindus indica Linn.) seed on some biologic properties of Russell's viper (Daboia russelli siamensis) venom (RVV). The Phospholipase A2 (PLA2) enzyme, coagulase enzyme and caseinolytic enzyme activities of Russell's viper venom (RVV) were reduced when mixed and incubated with the extract. When the RVV and the different amount of extracts were preincubated and injected intramuscularly into mice, all of them survived, but all the mice in the control group died. On the other hand, when RVV were injected first followed by the extract into mice, all of them died. If the extract was injected near the site where Russell's viper venom was injected, all the mice survived for more than 24 hours and the survival time prolonged but they all died within 96 hours. In conclusion, according to the results obtained, the extract neutralizes some biologic properties of the Russell's viper venom and prolonged the survival time if the extract was injected near the site where the Russell's viper venom was injected.

  4. Effects of Tamarind (Tamarindus indicus Linn) seed extract on Russell's viper (Daboia russelli siamensis) venom.

    PubMed

    Maung, K M; Lynn, Z

    2012-12-01

    Snake bite has been regarded as an important health problem in Myanmar since early 1960's. In the recent years, there has been growing interest in alternative therapies and therapeutic use of natural products, especially those derive from plants. In Myanmar and Indian traditional medicine, various plants have used as a remedy for treating snake bite. The present study was carried out to evaluate the effects of alcohol extract of Tamarind (Tamarindus indica Linn.) seed on some biologic properties of Russell's viper (Daboia russelli siamensis) venom (RVV). The Phospholipase A2 (PLA2) enzyme, coagulase enzyme and caseinolytic enzyme activities of Russell's viper venom (RVV) were reduced when mixed and incubated with the extract. When the RVV and the different amount of extracts were preincubated and injected intramuscularly into mice, all of them survived, but all the mice in the control group died. On the other hand, when RVV were injected first followed by the extract into mice, all of them died. If the extract was injected near the site where Russell's viper venom was injected, all the mice survived for more than 24 hours and the survival time prolonged but they all died within 96 hours. In conclusion, according to the results obtained, the extract neutralizes some biologic properties of the Russell's viper venom and prolonged the survival time if the extract was injected near the site where the Russell's viper venom was injected. PMID:23202603

  5. Direct nephrotoxicity of Russell's viper venom demonstrated in the isolated perfused rat kidney.

    PubMed

    Ratcliffe, P J; Pukrittayakamee, S; Ledingham, J G; Warrell, D A

    1989-03-01

    Envenoming by Russell's Viper (Vipera russelli) is an important cause of acute renal failure. The mechanism of renal damage is unresolved. It is difficult to obtain evidence of a direct nephrotoxic action because of the coincidental disturbance to the systemic circulation. We studied the action of Russell's Viper venom on the function of the isolated perfused rat kidney. Direct nephrotoxic action was indicated by a dose dependent decrease in inulin clearance and an increase in fractional excretion of sodium seen at venom concentrations down to 50 ng/ml, a concentration likely to be achieved in the human circulation after envenoming. The isolated perfused kidney was also used to assess the efficiency of antivenom and for a comparison with snake venoms from the Thai cobra (Naja kauothia) and the Nigerian Saw-Scaled Viper (Echis ocellatus). PMID:2929855

  6. Antiphospholipid syndrome: analysis of dilute Russell's viper venom time titer.

    PubMed

    Martinez, Alan P; Cunningham, Mark T

    2016-07-01

    To evaluate the characteristic features of the dilute Russell's viper venom time (DRVVT) titer in the antiphospholipid syndrome (APS). The medical record of 3660 consecutive patients with DRVVT orders between 2006 and 2015 were examined for criteria satisfying the diagnosis of APS. DRVVT titer was studied as a function of titer distribution, titer stability, and clinicopathologic features. Twenty-six patients were diagnosed with APS based on a persistently positive DRVVT and a history of arterial or venous thrombosis. DRVVT titer was mostly of low magnitude (65-77% of patients), was of similar value between initial and repeat testing (mean DRVVT titer 1.40 vs. 1.38; P = 0.858; mean time interval 216 days), and was positively associated with anticardiolipin antibodies (IgG and IgM) and antibeta-2-glycoprotein I antibodies (IgG and IgM) (P < 0.020). Low titer and moderate/high titer DRVVT were associated with a triple positive antiphospholipid antibody profile in 0 and 62% of patients, respectively (P < 0.020). DRVVT titer in APS was predominantly low in magnitude, stable over time, and associated with specific antiphospholipid antibody profiles.

  7. Lessons Learned from Pit Viper Integration into Hanford Tank Farm Reality

    SciTech Connect

    Catalan, Michael A.; Bailey, Sharon A.; Alzheimer, James M.; Niebuhr, Daniel P.

    2002-05-11

    The Pit Viper is a tele-operated system intended to enhance worker safety while simultaneously improving the efficiency of pit operations at the Hanford Site. Commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) components were used in an attempt to increase system efficiency. During preparation for initial deployment, the Pit Viper team identified multiple areas where more advanced technology offers substantial improvement in system capabilities. The team also ensured that the system as is, was capable of fulfilling its mission. However, there are valid concerns of the reliability of the technology. Areas where improvement are desired include; operator feedback, manipulator dexterous envelope, and system reliability.

  8. VizieR Online Data Catalog: VIPERS Multi-Lambda Survey (Moutard+, 2016)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moutard, T.; Arnouts, S.; Ilbert, O.; Coupon, J.; Hudelot, P.; Vibert, D.; Comte, V.; Conseil, S.; Davidzon, I.; Guzzo, L.; Llebaria, A.; Martin, C.; McCracken, H. J.; Milliard, B.; Morrison, G.; Schiminovich, D.; Treyer, M.; van Werbaeke, L.

    2016-05-01

    The Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope Legacy Survey (CFHTLS) is an imaging survey performed with Mega-Cam in five optical bands u*, g, r, i, z. we use the images and photometric catalogues of the W1 and W4 fields from the worldwide T00073 release produced by TERAPIX4. Since 2010, we have conducted a Ks-band follow-up of the VIPERS fields with the WIRCam instrument at CFHT. The original motivation was to guarantee an almost complete detection in Ks band of the VIPERS spectroscopic galaxies. (2 data files).

  9. Presumptive thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura following a hump-nosed viper (Hypnale hypnale) bite: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Hump-nosed viper bites are frequent in southern India and Sri Lanka. However, the published literature on this snakebite is limited and its venom composition is not well characterized. In this case, we report a patient with thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura-like syndrome following envenoming which, to the best of our knowledge, has not been reported in the literature before. A 55-year-old woman from southern Sri Lanka presented to the local hospital 12 hours after a hump-nosed viper (Hypnale hypnale) bite. Five days later, she developed a syndrome that was characteristic of thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura with fever, thrombocytopenia, microangiopathic hemolysis, renal impairment and neurological dysfunction in the form of confusion and coma. Her clinical syndrome and relevant laboratory parameters improved after she was treated with therapeutic plasma exchange. We compared our observations on this patient with the current literature and concluded that thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura is a theoretically plausible yet unreported manifestation of hump-nosed viper bite up to this moment. This study also provides an important message for clinicians to look out for this complication in hump-nosed viper bites since timely treatment can be lifesaving. PMID:24987409

  10. Novel sequences encoding venom C-type lectins are conserved in phylogenetically and geographically distinct Echis and Bitis viper species.

    PubMed

    Harrison, R A; Oliver, J; Hasson, S S; Bharati, K; Theakston, R D G

    2003-10-01

    Envenoming by Echis saw scaled vipers and Bitis arietans puff adders is the leading cause of death and morbidity in Africa due to snake bite. Despite their medical importance, the composition and constituent functionality of venoms from these vipers remains poorly understood. Here, we report the cloning of cDNA sequences encoding seven clusters or isoforms of the haemostasis-disruptive C-type lectin (CTL) proteins from the venom glands of Echis ocellatus, E. pyramidum leakeyi, E. carinatus sochureki and B. arietans. All these CTL sequences encoded the cysteine scaffold that defines the carbohydrate-recognition domain of mammalian CTLs. All but one of the Echis and Bitis CTL sequences showed greater sequence similarity to the beta than alpha CTL subunits in venoms of related Asian and American vipers. Four of the new CTL clusters showed marked inter-cluster sequence conservation across all four viper species which were significantly different from that of previously published viper CTLs. The other three Echis and Bitis CTL clusters showed varying degrees of sequence similarity to published viper venom CTLs. Because viper venom CTLs exhibit a high degree of sequence similarity and yet exert profoundly different effects on the mammalian haemostatic system, no attempt was made to assign functionality to the new Echis and Bitis CTLs on the basis of sequence alone. The extraordinary level of inter-specific and inter-generic sequence conservation exhibited by the Echis and Bitis CTLs leads us to speculate that antibodies to representative molecules should neutralise the biological function of this important group of venom toxins in vipers that are distributed throughout Africa, the Middle East and the Indian subcontinent. PMID:14557069

  11. Probing the accelerating Universe with redshift-space distortions in VIPERS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de la Torre, Sylvain

    2016-10-01

    We present the first measurement of the growth rate of structure at z=0.8. It has been obtained from the redshift-space distortions observed in the galaxy clustering pattern in the VIMOS Public Redshift survey (VIPERS) first data release. VIPERS is a large galaxy redshift survey probing the large-scale structure at 0.5 < z < 1.2 with an unprecedented accuracy. This measurement represents a new reference in the distant Universe, which has been poorly explored until now. We obtain σ8 = 0.47 +/- 0.08 at z = 0.8 that is consistent with the predictions of standard cosmological models based on Einstein gravity. This measurement alone is however not accurate enough to allow the detection of possible deviations from standard gravity.

  12. Pit Viper strikes at the Hanford site. Pit maintenance using robotics at the Hanford Tank Farms

    SciTech Connect

    Roeder-Smith, Lynne

    2002-06-30

    The Pit Viper - a remote operations waste retrieval system - was developed to replace manual operations in the valve pits of waste storge tanks at the Hanford Site. The system consists of a typical industrial backhoe fitted with a robotic manipulator arm and is operated remotely from a control trailer located outside of the tank farm. Cameras mounted to the arm and within the containment tent allow the operator to view the entire pit area and operate the system using a joystick. The arm's gripper can grasp a variety of tools that allow personnel to perform cleaning, debris removal, and concrete repair tasks -- a more efficient and less dose-intensive process than the previous "long-pole" method. The project team overcame a variety of obstacles during development and testing of the Pit Viper system, and deployment occurred in Hanford Tank C-104 in December 2001.

  13. Do aposematism and Batesian mimicry require bright colours? A test, using European viper markings.

    PubMed Central

    Wüster, Wolfgang; Allum, Christopher S. E.; Bjargardóttir, I. Birta; Bailey, Kimberley L.; Dawson, Karen J.; Guenioui, Jamel; Lewis, John; McGurk, Joe; Moore, Alix G.; Niskanen, Martti; Pollard, Christopher P.

    2004-01-01

    Predator avoidance of noxious prey, aposematism and defensive mimicry are normally associated with bright, contrasting patterns and colours. However, noxious prey may be unable to evolve conspicuous coloration because of other selective constraints, such as the need to be inconspicuous to their own prey or to specialist predators. Many venomous snakes, particularly most vipers, display patterns that are apparently cryptic, but nevertheless highly characteristic, and appear to be mimicked by other, non-venomous snakes. However, predator avoidance of viper patterns has never been demonstrated experimentally. Here, the analysis of 813 avian attacks on 12,636 Plasticine snake models in the field shows that models bearing the characteristic zigzag band of the adder (Vipera berus) are attacked significantly less frequently than plain models. This suggests that predator avoidance of inconspicuously but characteristically patterned noxious prey is possible. Our findings emphasize the importance of mimicry in the ecological and morphological diversification of advanced snakes. PMID:15590601

  14. Purification and characterization of an organ specific haemorrhagic toxin from Vipera russelli russelli (Russell's viper) venom.

    PubMed

    Kole, L; Chakrabarty, D; Datta, K; Bhattacharyya, D

    2000-04-01

    A haemorrhagic toxin (VRR-12) from Vipera russelli russelli (Russell's viper) venom has been purified by ion-exchange chromatography on CM-Sephadex C-50 followed by size-exclusion HPLC to electrophoretically homogeneous state. It is a 12 kDa single polypeptide having 1 mole of Zn+2 ion. This toxin induces intense intestinal haemorrhage and to a lesser extent skeletal muscle haemorrhage in mice. It does not show detectable proteolytic and esterolytic activity with selected substrates under specified conditions, haemolytic and phospholipase activity. When VRR-12, preincubated with bivalent antiserum against Saw-scaled and Russell's viper venom or EDTA was injected, haemorrhagic activity was not reduced, on the other hand preincubation with phenylmethyl sulphonyl fluoride reduced the activity markedly. Biodistribution studies with 125I VRR-12 show that haemorrhagic manifestation by this toxin is not a direct function of the fraction of the totally administered toxin distributed to that tissue. PMID:10983422

  15. Do aposematism and Batesian mimicry require bright colours? A test, using European viper markings.

    PubMed

    Wüster, Wolfgang; Allum, Christopher S E; Bjargardóttir, I Birta; Bailey, Kimberley L; Dawson, Karen J; Guenioui, Jamel; Lewis, John; McGurk, Joe; Moore, Alix G; Niskanen, Martti; Pollard, Christopher P

    2004-12-01

    Predator avoidance of noxious prey, aposematism and defensive mimicry are normally associated with bright, contrasting patterns and colours. However, noxious prey may be unable to evolve conspicuous coloration because of other selective constraints, such as the need to be inconspicuous to their own prey or to specialist predators. Many venomous snakes, particularly most vipers, display patterns that are apparently cryptic, but nevertheless highly characteristic, and appear to be mimicked by other, non-venomous snakes. However, predator avoidance of viper patterns has never been demonstrated experimentally. Here, the analysis of 813 avian attacks on 12,636 Plasticine snake models in the field shows that models bearing the characteristic zigzag band of the adder (Vipera berus) are attacked significantly less frequently than plain models. This suggests that predator avoidance of inconspicuously but characteristically patterned noxious prey is possible. Our findings emphasize the importance of mimicry in the ecological and morphological diversification of advanced snakes. PMID:15590601

  16. Resembling a viper: implications of mimicry for conservation of the endangered smooth snake.

    PubMed

    Valkonen, Janne K; Mappes, Johanna

    2014-12-01

    The phenomenon of Batesian mimicry, where a palatable animal gains protection against predation by resembling an unpalatable model, has been a core interest of evolutionary biologists for 150 years. An extensive range of studies has focused on revealing mechanistic aspects of mimicry (shared education and generalization of predators) and the evolutionary dynamics of mimicry systems (co-operation vs. conflict) and revealed that protective mimicry is widespread and is important for individual fitness. However, according to our knowledge, there are no case studies where mimicry theories have been applied to conservation of mimetic species. Theoretically, mimicry affects, for example, frequency dependency of predator avoidance learning and human induced mortality. We examined the case of the protected, endangered, nonvenomous smooth snake (Coronella austriaca) that mimics the nonprotected venomous adder (Vipera berus), both of which occur in the Åland archipelago, Finland. To quantify the added predation risk on smooth snakes caused by the rarity of vipers, we calculated risk estimates from experimental data. Resemblance of vipers enhances survival of smooth snakes against bird predation because many predators avoid touching venomous vipers. Mimetic resemblance is however disadvantageous against human predators, who kill venomous vipers and accidentally kill endangered, protected smooth snakes. We found that the effective population size of the adders in Åland is very low relative to its smooth snake mimic (28.93 and 41.35, respectively).Because Batesian mimicry is advantageous for the mimic only if model species exist in sufficiently high numbers, it is likely that the conservation program for smooth snakes will fail if adders continue to be destroyed. Understanding the population consequences of mimetic species may be crucial to the success of endangered species conservation. We suggest that when a Batesian mimic requires protection, conservation planners should

  17. Lessons Learned from Pit Viper Integration into Hanford Tank Farm Reality

    SciTech Connect

    Catalan, Michael A.; Bailey, Sharon A.; Alzheimer, James M.; Niebuhr, Daniel P.

    2002-05-11

    Application of the As Low As Reasonably Achievable (ALARA) principle to many tasks across the Department of Energy (DOE) complex logically leads to the realization that remotely operated equipment is highly desirable. The Pit Viper is a tele-operated system intended for pit operations at the Hanford Site. Commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) components were used in an attempt to reduce integration hurdles and increase reliability. One key factor is that only a limited number of available, off-the-shelf robotic manipulator systems are available and all of them have some characteristics that present interfacing challenges. The state-of-the-art in remote technology is not as mature as many might hope. This paper describes the issues (and proposed improvements) that surfaced during the development and first deployment of the Pit Viper System. Important areas are contamination control, operator interface and operator training, adaptation of tools, and workspace interfaces. The Pit Viper, as is, provides significant improvement over the current baseline approaches.

  18. VIPER: a visualisation tool for exploring inheritance inconsistencies in genotyped pedigrees

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Pedigree genotype datasets are used for analysing genetic inheritance and to map genetic markers and traits. Such datasets consist of hundreds of related animals genotyped for thousands of genetic markers and invariably contain multiple errors in both the pedigree structure and in the associated individual genotype data. These errors manifest as apparent inheritance inconsistencies in the pedigree, and invalidate analyses of marker inheritance patterns across the dataset. Cleaning raw datasets of bad data points (incorrect pedigree relationships, unreliable marker assays, suspect samples, bad genotype results etc.) requires expert exploration of the patterns of exposed inconsistencies in the context of the inheritance pedigree. In order to assist this process we are developing VIPER (Visual Pedigree Explorer), a software tool that integrates an inheritance-checking algorithm with a novel space-efficient pedigree visualisation, so that reported inheritance inconsistencies are overlaid on an interactive, navigable representation of the pedigree structure. Methods and results This paper describes an evaluation of how VIPER displays the different scales and types of dataset that occur experimentally, with a description of how VIPER's display interface and functionality meet the challenges presented by such data. We examine a range of possible error types found in real and simulated pedigree genotype datasets, demonstrating how these errors are exposed and explored using the VIPER interface and we evaluate the utility and usability of the interface to the domain expert. Evaluation was performed as a two stage process with the assistance of domain experts (geneticists). The initial evaluation drove the iterative implementation of further features in the software prototype, as required by the users, prior to a final functional evaluation of the pedigree display for exploring the various error types, data scales and structures. Conclusions The VIPER display was

  19. Development of VIPER: a simulator for assessing vision performance of warfighters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Familoni, Jide; Thompson, Roger; Moyer, Steve; Mueller, Gregory; Williams, Tim; Nguyen, Hung-Quang; Espinola, Richard L.; Sia, Rose K.; Ryan, Denise S.; Rivers, Bruce A.

    2016-05-01

    Background: When evaluating vision, it is important to assess not just the ability to read letters on a vision chart, but also how well one sees in real life scenarios. As part of the Warfighter Refractive Eye Surgery Program (WRESP), visual outcomes are assessed before and after refractive surgery. A Warfighter's ability to read signs and detect and identify objects is crucial, not only when deployed in a military setting, but also in their civilian lives. Objective: VIPER, a VIsion PERformance simulator was envisioned as actual video-based simulated driving to test warfighters' functional vision under realistic conditions. Designed to use interactive video image controlled environments at daytime, dusk, night, and with thermal imaging vision, it simulates the experience of viewing and identifying road signs and other objects while driving. We hypothesize that VIPER will facilitate efficient and quantifiable assessment of changes in vision and measurement of functional military performance. Study Design: Video images were recorded on an isolated 1.1 mile stretch of road with separate target sets of six simulated road signs and six objects of military interest, separately. The video footage were integrated with customdesigned C++ based software that presented the simulated drive to an observer on a computer monitor at 10, 20 or 30 miles/hour. VIPER permits the observer to indicate when a target is seen and when it is identified. Distances at which the observer recognizes and identifies targets are automatically logged. Errors in recognition and identification are also recorded. This first report describes VIPER's development and a preliminary study to establish a baseline for its performance. In the study, nine soldiers viewed simulations at 10 miles/hour and 30 miles/hour, run in randomized order for each participant seated at 36 inches from the monitor. Relevance: Ultimately, patients are interested in how their vision will affect their ability to perform daily

  20. Neurotoxicity, haemostatic disturbances and haemolytic anaemia after a bite by a Tunisian saw-scaled or carpet viper (Echis 'pyramidum'-complex): failure of antivenom treatment.

    PubMed

    Gillissen, A; Theakston, R D; Barth, J; May, B; Krieg, M; Warrell, D A

    1994-08-01

    A young man in Germany was bitten by a large captive saw-scaled viper (Echis 'pyramidum'-complex) of Tunisian origin. During the first few hours after the bite he developed evidence of disseminated intravascular coagulation and fibrinolysis, and bled spontaneously. Despite being given a total of 310 ml of three different Echis-specific antivenoms (together with large amounts of fresh frozen plasma and concentrated clotting factors), venom antigenaemia (measured by enzyme immunoassay) and coagulopathy persisted for more than 10 days, and he developed a haemolytic anaemia and mild renal dysfunction. Transient bilateral ptosis was attributed to envenoming. The venom of the snake responsible for the bite was immunologically distinct from that of Nigerian E. ocellatus and was clearly not neutralised by the three monospecific antivenoms which had been administered. This case is another illustration of the geographical variation in snake venoms and the need for pooling venoms from snakes from different parts of the geographical range in the preparation of antivenoms. Envenoming by North African Echis species may not be reversible by available antivenoms. PMID:7985198

  1. Venomics of New World pit vipers: Genus-wide comparisons of venom proteomes across Agkistrodon

    PubMed Central

    Lomonte, Bruno; Tsai, Wan-Chih; Ureña-Diaz, Juan Manuel; Sanz, Libia; Mora-Obando, Diana; Sánchez, Elda E.; Fry, Bryan G.; Gutiérrez, José María; Gibbs, H. Lisle; Sovic, Michael G.; Calvete, Juan J.

    2015-01-01

    We report a genus-wide comparison of venom proteome variation across New World pit vipers in the genus Agkistrodon. Despite the wide variety of habitats occupied by this genus and that all its taxa feed on diverse species of vertebrates and invertebrate prey, the venom proteomes of copperheads, cottonmouths, and cantils are remarkably similar, both in the type and relative abundance of their different toxin families. The venoms from all the eleven species and subspecies sampled showed relatively similar proteolytic and PLA2 activities. In contrast, quantitative differences were observed in hemorrhagic and myotoxic activities in mice. The highest myotoxic activity was observed with the venoms of A. b. bilineatus, followed by A. p. piscivorus, whereas the venoms of A. c. contortrix and A. p. leucostoma induced the lowest myotoxic activity. The venoms of Agkistrodon bilineatus subspecies showed the highest hemorrhagic activity and A. c. contortrix the lowest. Compositional and toxicological analyses agree with clinical observations of envenomations by Agkistrodon in the USA and Central America. A comparative analysis of Agkistrodon shows that venom divergence tracks phylogeny of this genus to a greater extent than in Sistrurus rattlesnakes, suggesting that the distinct natural histories of Agkistrodon and Sistrurus clades may have played a key role in molding the patterns of evolution of their venom protein genes. Biological significance A deep understanding of the structural and functional profiles of venoms and of the principles governing the evolution of venomous systems is a goal of venomics. Isolated proteomics analyses have been conducted on venoms from many species of vipers and pit vipers. However, making sense of these large inventories of data requires the integration of this information across multiple species to identify evolutionary and ecological trends. Our genus-wide venomics study provides a comprehensive overview of the toxic arsenal across

  2. Psychosis in Secondary Empty Sella Syndrome following a Russell's Viper Bite

    PubMed Central

    Ratnakaran, Badr; Punnoose, Varghese P.; Das, Soumitra; Kartha, Arjun

    2016-01-01

    Hypopituitarism can present with psychiatric symptoms. We report a unique case of psychosis in clear consciousness in a case of hypopituitarism due to the secondary empty sella syndrome following a Russell's viper bite which was untreated and presented with psychotic symptoms for past 13 years following the snake bite. After the diagnosis of psychosis due to hypopituitarism was made, the patient was treated with levothyroxine and prednisolone supplements and his psychotic symptoms subsided without any psychotropic drugs. Vasculotoxic snake bites can cause hypopituitarism and can present with psychosis. Further research will be needed into the prevalence of this phenomenon. PMID:27335524

  3. Snake velvet black: Hierarchical micro- and nanostructure enhances dark colouration in Bitis rhinoceros

    PubMed Central

    Spinner, Marlene; Kovalev, Alexander; Gorb, Stanislav N.; Westhoff, Guido

    2013-01-01

    The West African Gaboon viper (Bitis rhinoceros) is a master of camouflage due to its colouration pattern. Its skin is geometrically patterned and features black spots that purport an exceptional spatial depth due to their velvety surface texture. Our study shades light on micromorphology, optical characteristics and principles behind such a velvet black appearance. We revealed a unique hierarchical pattern of leaf-like microstructures striated with nanoridges on the snake scales that coincides with the distribution of black colouration. Velvet black sites demonstrate four times lower reflectance and higher absorbance than other scales in the UV – near IR spectral range. The combination of surface structures impeding reflectance and absorbing dark pigments, deposited in the skin material, provides reflecting less than 11% of the light reflected by a polytetrafluoroethylene diffuse reflectance standard in any direction. A view-angle independent black structural colour in snakes is reported here for the first time. PMID:23677278

  4. Structural and Pharmacological Comparison of Daboiatoxin from Badoia russelli siamensis with Viperotoxing F and Vipoxin from Other Vipers

    SciTech Connect

    Gopolan,G.; Thwin, M.; Gopalakrishnakone, P.; Swaminathan, K.

    2007-01-01

    Russell's viper (Vipera russelli, also known as Daboia russelli) is one of the major causes of fatal snakebites. To date, five Daboia russelli subspecies have been recognized. Daboiatoxin (DbTx) is the main lethal phospholipase A{sub 2} (PLA{sub 2}) toxin in the venom of D. russelli siamensis (Myanmar viper) and has strong neurotoxic, myotoxic and cytotoxic activities. DbTx and its homologous neurotoxins viperotoxin F from D. russelli formosensis (Taiwan viper) and vipoxin from the Bulgarian sand viper V. ammodytes meridionalis consist of complexes between a nontoxic acidic PLA2 protein and an enzymatically active basic PLA2. DbTx and viperotoxin F are presynaptic toxins, while vipoxin is postsynaptic. The two chains of DbTx have been separated and their PLA2 enzymatic activity has been measured using the secretory PLA2 assay kit. The enzymatic activity of DbTx chain B is reduced by 30% of its original activity by chain A in a unimolar ratio, thus indicating that DbTx chain A acts as an inhibitor. The lethal activity of the two chains has also been studied in male albino mice and chain A is less lethal than chain B. The crystal structure of DbTx has also been determined and its structural details are compared with those of the two homologues. Furthermore, an attempt is made to correlate the sequence and structural determinants of these toxins with their enzymatic activities and their pharmacological effects.

  5. Evolutionary trajectories of snake genes and genomes revealed by comparative analyses of five-pacer viper

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Wei; Wang, Zong-ji; Li, Qi-ye; Lian, Jin-ming; Zhou, Yang; Lu, Bing-zheng; Jin, Li-jun; Qiu, Peng-xin; Zhang, Pei; Zhu, Wen-bo; Wen, Bo; Huang, Yi-jun; Lin, Zhi-long; Qiu, Bi-tao; Su, Xing-wen; Yang, Huan-ming; Zhang, Guo-jie; Yan, Guang-mei; Zhou, Qi

    2016-01-01

    Snakes have numerous features distinctive from other tetrapods and a rich history of genome evolution that is still obscure. Here, we report the high-quality genome of the five-pacer viper, Deinagkistrodon acutus, and comparative analyses with other representative snake and lizard genomes. We map the evolutionary trajectories of transposable elements (TEs), developmental genes and sex chromosomes onto the snake phylogeny. TEs exhibit dynamic lineage-specific expansion, and many viper TEs show brain-specific gene expression along with their nearby genes. We detect signatures of adaptive evolution in olfactory, venom and thermal-sensing genes and also functional degeneration of genes associated with vision and hearing. Lineage-specific relaxation of functional constraints on respective Hox and Tbx limb-patterning genes supports fossil evidence for a successive loss of forelimbs then hindlimbs during snake evolution. Finally, we infer that the ZW sex chromosome pair had undergone at least three recombination suppression events in the ancestor of advanced snakes. These results altogether forge a framework for our deep understanding into snakes' history of molecular evolution. PMID:27708285

  6. Severe envenomation by Cerastes cerastes viper: an unusual mechanism of acute ischemic stroke.

    PubMed

    Rebahi, Houssam; Nejmi, Hicham; Abouelhassan, Taoufik; Hasni, Khadija; Samkaoui, Mohamed-Abdenasser

    2014-01-01

    Cerebral complications after snake bites--particularly ischemic complications--are rare. Very few cases of cerebral infarction resulting from a viper bite have been reported, and we call attention to this uncommon etiology. We discuss 3 authenticated reports of acute ischemic cerebrovascular accidents after 3 typical severe envenomations by Cerastes cerastes vipers. The 3 patients developed extensive local swelling and life-threatening systemic envenomation characterized by disseminated intravascular coagulopathy, increased fibrinolysis, thrombocytopenia, microangiopathic hemolytic anemia, and acute renal failure. This clinical picture involved atypical neurologic manifestations. These patients had either low Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) or hemiparesis within hours to 4 days after being bitten, and they were found to have computed tomographic evidence of single or multiple ischemic (nonhemorrhagic) strokes of small- to large-vessel territories of the brain. One patient had good clinical recovery without neurologic deficits. Thrombotic complications occurred an average of 36 hours after being bitten, and their importance depends on the degree of envenomation. The possible mechanisms for cerebral infarction in these cases include generalized prothrombotic action of the venom (consumptive coagulopathy), toxin-induced vasculitis, and endothelial damage.

  7. Transcriptome analysis of the Amazonian viper Bothrops atrox venom gland using expressed sequence tags (ESTs).

    PubMed

    Neiva, Márcia; Arraes, Fabricio B M; de Souza, Jonso Vieira; Rádis-Baptista, Gandhi; Prieto da Silva, Alvaro R B; Walter, Maria Emilia M T; Brigido, Marcelo de Macedo; Yamane, Tetsuo; López-Lozano, Jorge Luiz; Astolfi-Filho, Spartaco

    2009-03-15

    Bothrops atrox is a highly dangerous pit viper in the Brazilian Amazon region. We produced a global catalogue of gene transcripts to identify the main toxin and other protein families present in the B. atrox venom gland. We prepared a directional cDNA library, from which a set of 610 high quality expressed sequence tags (ESTs) were generated by bioinformatics processing. Our data indicated a predominance of transcripts encoding mainly metalloproteinases (59% of the toxins). The expression pattern of the B. atrox venom was similar to Bothrops insularis, Bothrops jararaca and Bothrops jararacussu in terms of toxin type, although some differences were observed. B. atrox showed a higher amount of the PIII class of metalloproteinases which correlates well with the observed intense hemorrhagic action of its toxin. Also, the PLA2 content was the second highest in this sample compared to the other three Bothrops transcriptomes. To our knowledge, this work is the first transcriptome analysis of an Amazonian rain forest pit viper and it will contribute to the body of knowledge regarding the gene diversity of the venom gland of members of the Bothrops genus. Moreover, our results can be used for future studies with other snake species from the Amazon region to investigate differences in gene patterns or phylogenetic relationships. PMID:19708221

  8. Antitoxin use and pediatric intensive care for viper bites in Rome, Italy.

    PubMed

    Marano, M; Pisani, M; Stoppa, F; Di Nardo, M; Pirozzi, N; Luca, E; Pulitanò, S; Conti, G; Marzano, L; De Luca, D; Valentini, P; Pietrini, D; Piastra, M

    2014-01-01

    In Italy viper bites represent an uncommon event, though envenomation can cause severe complications, more in children than adults, because of dose/body size ratio. We present a case series within a selected population: 10 Italian cases (from Rome surroundings) of viperbites requiring PICU admission, over a 5-year interval. Five children showed a systemic involvement, whereas the remaining patients showed a damage. All were managed and closely monitored in an ICU setting. Relevant clinical findings and therapeutic approach, ICU course and complications have been recorded. Age range was 3-15 years with mean age of 6,9 (SD±4,58) years; 2 patients needed respiratory support beyond oxygen supplementation. Most patients underwent fluid loading, while hemodynamic support was given to4/10. Median PICU stay was 60 hours (IQR=24.0-75.5). No mortality was reported. Indications and precautions for administration of antivenom in the last years have been reviewed: early treatment seems to reduce mortality/morbidity, though representing a threat for children. Current recommendations for the treatment of viper envenomation have been described, based on a literature's review and the application of these knowledges to clinical reality of our PICUs. Therefore, paediatric patients with systemic or rapidly evolving symptoms should be monitored carefully for the development of bite-related complications in an ICU setting mostly in younger children.

  9. Echistatin. A potent platelet aggregation inhibitor from the venom of the viper, Echis carinatus.

    PubMed

    Gan, Z R; Gould, R J; Jacobs, J W; Friedman, P A; Polokoff, M A

    1988-12-25

    A 49-residue protein, echistatin, which inhibits platelet aggregation, was purified from the venom of the saw-scaled viper Echis carinatus. The purification procedure included gel filtration on Sephadex G-50, cation-exchange chromatography on Mono S, and C18 reverse-phase high pressure liquid chromatography. The purified protein was homogeneous as judged by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, isoelectric focusing, reverse-phase high pressure liquid chromatography, and NH2-terminal sequence analysis. Echistatin is a single-chain polypeptide with a molecular weight of 5400 and a native isoelectric point of 8.3. The most abundant amino acid, cysteine, accounts for 8 of the 49 residues in the protein. A 10-residue segment of echistatin shows 90% identity to a portion of the sequence of trigramin, a platelet aggregation inhibitor from the green tree viper Trimereserus gramineus (Huang, T.-F., Holt, J. C., Lukasiewicz, H., and Niewiarowski, S. (1987) J. Biol. Chem. 262, 16157-16163). Echistatin contains the sequence arginine-glycine-aspartic acid, which is common to proteins which bind to the glycoprotein IIb/IIIa complex. It also contains the sequence proline-arginine-asparagine-proline, which is found in the A alpha chain of human fibrinogen at position 267-270. The purified protein inhibits fibrinogen-dependent platelet aggregation initiated by ADP with an IC50 of 3 x 10(-8) M and also prevents aggregation initiated by thrombin, epinephrine, collagen, or platelet-activating factor. Reduction of echistatin abolished its inhibitory activity. PMID:3198653

  10. Anti-venom potential of butanolic extract of Eclipta prostrata against Malayan pit viper venom.

    PubMed

    Pithayanukul, Pimolpan; Laovachirasuwan, Sasitorn; Bavovada, Rapepol; Pakmanee, Narumol; Suttisri, Rutt

    2004-02-01

    The butanolic and purified butanolic extracts (PBEs) of Eclipta prostrata were evaluated for their anti-venom potential. Inhibition of lethal, hemorrhagic, proteolytic, and phospholipase A2 activities of Calloselasma rhodostoma (Malayan pit viper (MPV)) venom by these extracts were determined. Demethylwedelolactone was identified as their major constituent. The butanolic extract, at 2.5 mg per mouse, was able to completely neutralize the lethal activity of 2LD50 of MPV venom, but increasing the dose diminished the effect. The PBE, at 1.5-4.5 mg per mouse, was able to neutralize the lethality of the venom at around 50-58%. Both extracts partially inhibited the hemorrhagic activity but displayed very low anti-phospholipase A2 activity and did not inhibit proteolytic activity of MPV venom.

  11. A fatal outcome due to pulmonary hemorrhage following Russell’s viper bite

    PubMed Central

    Palangasinghe, Dhammika R.; Weerakkody, Ranga M.; Dalpatadu, Chamila G.; Gnanathasan, Christeine A.

    2015-01-01

    Russell’s viper (RV) envenomation causes local effects, coagulopathy, thrombosis, rhabdomyolysis, acute kidney injury, and neurological manifestations. Although coagulopathy and endothelial destruction causing local and mucosal surface bleeding is known, isolated severe pulmonary hemorrhage is not commonly reported. We report a previously healthy 18-year-old male who had bilateral severe pulmonary hemorrhages, which resulted in a fatal outcome following RV bite. This diagnosis was supported by persistent alveolar shadows, with minimum improvement despite hemodialysis without heparin, mixed acidosis and endotracheal tube bleeding. Other bleeding manifestations were absent. Polyvalent antivenom was administered in lieu of prolonged whole blood clotting time. Thrombocytopenia and mildly deranged clotting parameters were noted. Pulmonary hemorrhages were significant enough to require transfusion. This case highlights the importance of suspecting pulmonary hemorrhages in patients with alveolar shadows and desaturation following RV bite despite the absence of other bleeding manifestations in light of failure of optimum therapy including hemodialysis. PMID:25935188

  12. Sequence diversity and ligand-induced structural rearrangements of viper hyaluronidase.

    PubMed

    Bharathi, A Christian; Yadav, Pradeep Kumar; Syed Ibrahim, B

    2016-04-01

    Hyaluronidases (Hyals) are a class of carbohydrate-active enzyme involved in angiogenesis, cancer proliferation, tumour growth and venom spreading. Functionally significant Hyals are responsible for the fast spreading of venom to the target site of action. The absence of molecular diversity and the structural and functional behaviour of snake venom Hyals was the inspiration for the objective of this study. Echis pyramidum leakeyi hyaluronidase (EHY)-based phylogenetic analysis showed the existence of two functional groups of Hyals which had diverged from the coral snake (the ancestor). The structure was modelled and it was found that the E-loop region (211-224 AA) was only present in EHY compared to the templates which may account for the significant function of viper Hyal. The best interacting ligands were screened from the selected plant derivatives and MYR consisted of better pharmacophore features (AADDRRR) in comparison with other ligands. Furthermore, the HOMO, LUMO, and MO energies and energy gaps of CGA, MIM and MYR were calculated by DFT analysis. EHY-ligand complex stability and interactions were investigated through MD simulation and FEL analysis. These revealed that MIM and MYR or their derivative compounds could be prominent lead molecules for both EHY and other eukaryotic Hyals. PCA analysis of both the non-ligated and ligated forms confirmed that loop-III (86-96 AA) and E-loop region structural rearrangements were essential for the association and dissociation process of the substrate. Particularly, ARG92 and LYS219 are determined as important key residues from the conformational changes. These regions' dynamic behaviour can be associated with HA binding and the catalytic function of EHY. This result can extend our knowledge of viper Hyal functional behaviour and provides structural insight to target eukaryotic Hyals as forthcoming drug targets in cancer treatment and venom spreading. PMID:26867694

  13. Viper and Cobra Venom Neutralization by Alginate Coated Multicomponent Polyvalent Antivenom Administered by the Oral Route

    PubMed Central

    Bhattacharya, Sourav; Chakraborty, Mousumi; Mukhopadhyay, Piyasi; Kundu, P. P.; Mishra, Roshnara

    2014-01-01

    Background Snake bite causes greater mortality than most of the other neglected tropical diseases. Snake antivenom, although effective in minimizing mortality in developed countries, is not equally so in developing countries due to its poor availability in remote snake infested areas as, and when, required. An alternative approach in this direction could be taken by making orally deliverable polyvalent antivenom formulation, preferably under a globally integrated strategy, for using it as a first aid during transit time from remote trauma sites to hospitals. Methodology/Principal Findings To address this problem, multiple components of polyvalent antivenom were entrapped in alginate. Structural analysis, scanning electron microscopy, entrapment efficiency, loading capacity, swelling study, in vitro pH sensitive release, acid digestion, mucoadhesive property and venom neutralization were studied in in vitro and in vivo models. Results showed that alginate retained its mucoadhesive, acid protective and pH sensitive swelling property after entrapping antivenom. After pH dependent release from alginate beads, antivenom (ASVS) significantly neutralized phospholipaseA2 activity, hemolysis, lactate dehydrogenase activity and lethality of venom. In ex vivo mice intestinal preparation, ASVS was absorbed significantly through the intestine and it inhibited venom lethality which indicated that all the components of antivenom required for neutralization of venom lethality were retained despite absorption across the intestinal layer. Results from in vivo studies indicated that orally delivered ASVS can significantly neutralize venom effects, depicted by protection against lethality, decreased hemotoxicity and renal toxicity caused by russell viper venom. Conclusions/Significance Alginate was effective in entrapping all the structural components of ASVS, which on release and intestinal absorption effectively reconstituted the function of antivenom in neutralizing viper and cobra

  14. Factor X activating enzyme from Russell's viper venom: isolation and characterization.

    PubMed

    Kisiel, W; Hermodson, M A; Davie, E W

    1976-11-01

    The protease from Russell's viper venom that activates factor X (Stuart factor), factor IX (Christmas factor), and protein C was purified by gel filtration on Sephadex G-150 and QAE-Sephadex A-50 column chromatography. The purified enzyme migrated as a single band in sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis with an apparent molecular weight of 79 000. A minimal molecular weight of 78 500 +/- 800 was determined by sedimentation equilibrium in the presence of 6 M guanidine hydrochloride. Upon reduction with 2-mercaptoethanol, a heavy chain (mol wt 59 000) and a light chain were observed. The light chain migrated as a single band (mol wt 19 000) in 7.5% polyacrylamide-sodium dodecyl sulfate gels but appeared as a doublet (mol wt 18 000 and 20 000) in 10% polyacrylamide-sodium dodecyl sulfate gels. The amino-terminal end of the heavy chain was heterogeneous and contained isoleucine, valine and serine. The amino-terminal sequence of the light chain was Val-Leu-Asp. The factor X activator contained 13% carbohydrate including 6.0% hexose, 1.7% N-acetyleneuraminic acid, and 5.3% galactosamine. Most of the carbohydrate was found to be present in the heavy chain, although some was also observed in both forms of the light chain. The factor X activator had no esterase activity toward benzoyl-Phe-Val-Arg-p-nitroanilide or benzoylarginine ethyl ester and was not inhibited by 0.05 M diisopropyl phosphorofluoridate. These data indicate that factor X activator from Russell's viper venom is a highly specific protease composed of one heavy chain and one light chain, and these chains are held together by a disulfide bond(s).

  15. The VIMOS Public Extragalactic Redshift Survey (VIPERS). Hierarchical scaling and biasing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cappi, A.; Marulli, F.; Bel, J.; Cucciati, O.; Branchini, E.; de la Torre, S.; Moscardini, L.; Bolzonella, M.; Guzzo, L.; Abbas, U.; Adami, C.; Arnouts, S.; Bottini, D.; Coupon, J.; Davidzon, I.; De Lucia, G.; Fritz, A.; Franzetti, P.; Fumana, M.; Garilli, B.; Granett, B. R.; Ilbert, O.; Iovino, A.; Krywult, J.; Le Brun, V.; Le Fèvre, O.; Maccagni, D.; Małek, K.; McCracken, H. J.; Paioro, L.; Polletta, M.; Pollo, A.; Scodeggio, M.; Tasca, L. A. M.; Tojeiro, R.; Vergani, D.; Zanichelli, A.; Burden, A.; Di Porto, C.; Marchetti, A.; Marinoni, C.; Mellier, Y.; Nichol, R. C.; Peacock, J. A.; Percival, W. J.; Phleps, S.; Schimd, C.; Schlagenhaufer, H.; Wolk, M.; Zamorani, G.

    2015-07-01

    Aims: Building on the two-point correlation function analyses of the VIMOS Public Extragalactic Redshift Survey (VIPERS), we investigate the higher-order correlation properties of the same galaxy samples to test the hierarchical scaling hypothesis at z ~ 1 and the dependence on galaxy luminosity, stellar mass, and redshift. With this work we also aim to assess possible deviations from the linearity of galaxy bias independently from a previously performed analysis of our survey. Methods: We have measured the count probability distribution function in spherical cells of varying radii (3 ≤ R ≤ 10 h-1 Mpc), deriving σ8g (the galaxy rms at 8 h-1 Mpc), the volume-averaged two-, three-, and four-point correlation functions and the normalized skewness S3g and kurtosis S4g for different volume-limited subsamples, covering the following ranges: -19.5 ≤ MB(z = 1.1) - 5log (h) ≤ -21.0 in absolute magnitude, 9.0 ≤ log (M∗/M⊙h-2) ≤ 11.0 in stellar mass, and 0.5 ≤ z< 1.1 in redshift. Results: We have performed the first measurement of high-order correlation functions at z ~ 1 in a spectroscopic redshift survey. Our main results are the following. 1) The hierarchical scaling between the volume-averaged two- and three-point and two- and four-point correlation functions holds throughout the whole range of scale and redshift we could test. 2) We do not find a significant dependence of S3g on luminosity (below z = 0.9 the value of S3g decreases with luminosity, but only at 1σ-level). 3) We do not detect a significant dependence of S3g and S4g on scale, except beyond z ~ 0.9, where S3g and S4g have higher values on large scales (R ≥ 10 h-1 Mpc): this increase is mainly due to one of the two CFHTLS Wide Fields observed by VIPERS and can be explained as a consequence of sample variance, consistently with our analysis of mock catalogs. 4) We do not detect a significant evolution of S3g and S4g with redshift (apart from the increase of their values with scale in the

  16. Venom phospholipases A2 of bamboo viper (Trimeresurus stejnegeri): molecular characterization, geographic variations and evidence of multiple ancestries.

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Inn-Ho; Wang, Ying-Ming; Chen, Yi-Hsuan; Tsai, Tein-Shun; Tu, Ming-Chung

    2004-01-01

    Phospholipases A2 (PLA2s) were purified from the Trimeresurus stejnegeri venom obtained from various localities in Taiwan and three provinces in China, by gel filtration followed by reversed-phase HPLC. The precise molecular mass and N-terminal sequence of each PLA2 were determined. In addition to the six previously documented PLA2 isoforms of this species, we identified ten novel isoforms. The venom gland cDNAs of individual specimens of the viper from four localities were used for PCR and subsequent cloning of the PLA2s. The molecular masses and partial sequences of most of the purified PLA2s matched with those deduced from a total of 13 distinct cDNA sequences of these clones. Besides the commonly known Asp49 or Lys-49 PLA2s of crotalid venoms, a novel type of PLA2 with Asn-49 substitution at the Ca2+-binding site was discovered. This type of PLA2 is non-catalytic, but may cause local oedema and appears to be a venom marker of many tree vipers. In particular, we showed that T. stejnegeri displayed high geographic variations of the PLA2s within and between their Taiwanese and Chinese populations, which can be explained by geological isolation and prey ecology. A phylogenetic tree of the acidic venom PLA2s of this species and other related Asian vipers reveals that T. stejnegeri contains venom genes related to those from several sympatric pit vipers, including the genera Tropedolaemus and Gloydius besides the Trimeresurus itself. Taken together, these findings may explain the exceptionally high variations in the venom as well as the evolutionary advantage of this species. PMID:12959640

  17. Raman spectroscopic studies of the skins of the Sahara sand viper, the carpet python and the American black rat snake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edwards, H. G. M.; Farwell, D. W.; Williams, A. C.; Barry, B. W.

    1993-07-01

    Vibrational Raman spectra of the skins of the snakes Cerastes vipera (Sahara sand viper) and Morelia argus (carpet python) have been recorded for the first time using visible and IR laser excitation. Full vibrational assignments are proposed and comparisons made with vibrational Raman spectra of the snake Elaphe obsoleta (American black rat snake); such studies may be important in correlating the permeabilities of human and snake skins to drugs and contaminants.

  18. The VIMOS Public Extragalactic Redshift Survey (VIPERS). On the recovery of the count-in-cell probability distribution function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bel, J.; Branchini, E.; Di Porto, C.; Cucciati, O.; Granett, B. R.; Iovino, A.; de la Torre, S.; Marinoni, C.; Guzzo, L.; Moscardini, L.; Cappi, A.; Abbas, U.; Adami, C.; Arnouts, S.; Bolzonella, M.; Bottini, D.; Coupon, J.; Davidzon, I.; De Lucia, G.; Fritz, A.; Franzetti, P.; Fumana, M.; Garilli, B.; Ilbert, O.; Krywult, J.; Le Brun, V.; Le Fèvre, O.; Maccagni, D.; Małek, K.; Marulli, F.; McCracken, H. J.; Paioro, L.; Polletta, M.; Pollo, A.; Schlagenhaufer, H.; Scodeggio, M.; Tasca, L. A. M.; Tojeiro, R.; Vergani, D.; Zanichelli, A.; Burden, A.; Marchetti, A.; Mellier, Y.; Nichol, R. C.; Peacock, J. A.; Percival, W. J.; Phleps, S.; Wolk, M.

    2016-04-01

    We compare three methods to measure the count-in-cell probability density function of galaxies in a spectroscopic redshift survey. From this comparison we found that, when the sampling is low (the average number of object per cell is around unity), it is necessary to use a parametric method to model the galaxy distribution. We used a set of mock catalogues of VIPERS to verify if we were able to reconstruct the cell-count probability distribution once the observational strategy is applied. We find that, in the simulated catalogues, the probability distribution of galaxies is better represented by a Gamma expansion than a skewed log-normal distribution. Finally, we correct the cell-count probability distribution function from the angular selection effect of the VIMOS instrument and study the redshift and absolute magnitude dependency of the underlying galaxy density function in VIPERS from redshift 0.5 to 1.1. We found a very weak evolution of the probability density distribution function and that it is well approximated by a Gamma distribution, independently of the chosen tracers. Based on observations collected at the European Southern Observatory, Cerro Paranal, Chile, using the Very Large Telescope under programmes 182.A-0886 and partly 070.A-9007. Also based on observations obtained with MegaPrime/MegaCam, a joint project of CFHT and CEA/DAPNIA, at the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT), which is operated by the National Research Council (NRC) of Canada, the Institut National des Sciences de l'Univers of the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS) of France, and the University of Hawaii. This work is based in part on data products produced at TERAPIX and the Canadian Astronomy Data Centre as part of the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope Legacy Survey, a collaborative project of NRC and CNRS. The VIPERS web site is http://www.vipers.inaf.it/

  19. Venom Concentrations and Clotting Factor Levels in a Prospective Cohort of Russell’s Viper Bites with Coagulopathy

    PubMed Central

    Isbister, Geoffrey K.; Maduwage, Kalana; Scorgie, Fiona E.; Shahmy, Seyed; Mohamed, Fahim; Abeysinghe, Chandana; Karunathilake, Harendra; O’Leary, Margaret A.; Gnanathasan, Christeine A.; Lincz, Lisa F.

    2015-01-01

    Background Russell’s viper envenoming is a major problem in South Asia and causes venom induced consumption coagulopathy. This study aimed to investigate the kinetics and dynamics of venom and clotting function in Russell’s viper envenoming. Methodology/Principal Findings In a prospective cohort of 146 patients with Russell’s viper envenoming, we measured venom concentrations, international normalised ratio [INR], prothrombin time (PT), activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT), coagulation factors I, II, V, VII, VIII, IX and X, and von Willebrand factor antigen. The median age was 39y (16–82y) and 111 were male. The median peak INR was 6.8 (interquartile range[IQR]:3.7 to >13), associated with low fibrinogen [median,<0.01g/L;IQR:<0.01–0.9g/L), low factor V levels [median,<5%;IQR:<5–4%], low factor VIII levels [median,40%;IQR:12–79%] and low factor X levels [median,48%;IQR:29–67%]. There were smaller reductions in factors II, IX and VII over time. All factors recovered over 48h post-antivenom. The median INR remained >3 at 6h post-antivenom but had reduced to <2, by 24h. The aPTT had also returned to close to normal (<50sec) at 24h. Factor VII, VIII and IX levels were unusually high pre-antivenom, median peak concentrations of 393%, 307% and 468% respectively. Pre-antivenom venom concentrations and the INR (r = 0.20, p = 0.02) and aPTT (r = 0.19, p = 0.03) were correlated (non-parametric Spearman analysis). Conclusions Russell’s viper coagulopathy results in prolonged aPTT, INR, low fibrinogen, factors V, VIII and X which recover over 48h. Severity of clotting abnormalities was associated with venom concentrations. PMID:26296235

  20. Detection of Venom after Antivenom Is Not Associated with Persistent Coagulopathy in a Prospective Cohort of Russell's Viper (Daboia russelii) Envenomings

    PubMed Central

    Maduwage, Kalana; O'Leary, Margaret A.; Scorgie, Fiona E.; Shahmy, Seyed; Mohamed, Fahim; Abeysinghe, Chandana; Karunathilake, Harindra; Lincz, Lisa F.; Gnanathasan, Christeine A.; Isbister, Geoffrey K.

    2014-01-01

    Background Venom recurrence or persistence in the circulation after antivenom treatment has been documented many times in viper envenoming. However, it has not been associated with clinical recurrence for many snakes, including Russell's viper (Daboia spp.). We compare the recovery of coagulopathy to the recurrence or persistence of venom in patients with Russell's viper envenoming. Methodology/Principal Findings The study included patients with Russell's viper (D. russelii) envenoming presenting over a 30 month period who had Russell's viper venom detected by enzyme immunoassay. Demographics, information on the snake bite, and clinical effects were collected for all patients. All patients had serum collected for venom specific enzyme immunoassay and citrate plasma to measure fibrinogen levels and prothrombin time (international normalised ratio; INR). Patients with venom recurrence/persistence were compared to those with no detectable recurrence of venom. There were 55 patients with confirmed Russell's viper envenoming and coagulopathy with low fibrinogen concentrations: 31 with venom recurrence/persistence, and 24 with no venom detected post-antivenom. Fibrinogen concentrations increased and INR decreased after antivenom in both the recurrence and non-recurrence patients. Clinical features, laboratory parameters, antivenom dose and length of hospital were similar for both groups. Pre-antivenom venom concentrations were higher in patients with venom recurrence/persistence with a median venom concentration of 385 ng/mL (16–1521 ng/mL) compared to 128 ng/mL (14–1492 ng/mL; p = 0.008). Conclusion Recurrence of Russell's viper venom was not associated with a recurrence of coagulopathy and length of hospital stay. Further work is required to determine if the detection of venom recurrence is due to the venom specific enzyme immunoassay detecting both venom-antivenom complexes as well as free venom. PMID:25521820

  1. Immunological Cross-Reactivity and Neutralisation of European Viper Venoms with the Monospecific Vipera berus Antivenom ViperaTAb

    PubMed Central

    Casewell, Nicholas R.; Al-Abdulla, Ibrahim; Smith, David; Coxon, Ruth; Landon, John

    2014-01-01

    Medically important cases of snakebite in Europe are predominately caused by European vipers of the genus Vipera. The mainstay of snakebite therapy is polyclonal antibody therapy, referred to as antivenom. Here we investigate the capability of the monospecific V. berus antivenom, ViperaTAb®, to cross-react with, and neutralise lethality induced by, a variety of European vipers. Using ELISA and immunoblotting, we find that ViperaTAb® antibodies recognise and bind to the majority of toxic components found in the venoms of the Vipera species tested at comparably high levels to those observed with V. berus. Using in vivo pre-clinical efficacy studies, we demonstrate that ViperaTAb® effectively neutralises lethality induced by V. berus, V. aspis, V. ammodytes and V. latastei venoms and at much higher levels than those outlined by regulatory pharmacopoeial guidelines. Notably, venom neutralisation was found to be superior to (V. berus, V. aspis and V. latastei), or as equally effective as (V. ammodytes), the monospecific V. ammodytes “Zagreb antivenom”, which has long been successfully used for treating European snake envenomings. This study suggests that ViperaTAb® may be a valuable therapeutic product for treating snakebite by a variety of European vipers found throughout the continent. PMID:25153254

  2. Revisiting saw-scaled viper (Echis carinatus) bites in the Jaffna Peninsula of Sri Lanka: distribution, epidemiology and clinical manifestations.

    PubMed

    Kularatne, S A M; Sivansuthan, S; Medagedara, S C; Maduwage, K; de Silva, A

    2011-10-01

    In Sri Lanka, the saw-scaled viper (Echis carinatus) is distributed in the arid, dry and sandy coastal plains and in a prospective study we describe its bites in the Jaffna peninsula. Of the 304 snake bite admissions to the Jaffna Hospital in 2009, 217 (71.4%) were bitten by either venomous species or envenomed by unidentified snakes. There were 99 (45.6%) reported saw-scaled viper bites, of which 26 were confirmed cases. The length of the offending snakes ranged from 228-310mm and bites mainly occurred in the nearby islands. The median age of the confirmed cases was 34 years (range 1.5-72 years); occupations included housewives (8, 31%), school children (4, 15%) and farmers (2, 8%). In 18 patients (69%), bites occurred in daylight and in 8 (31%) within or near the compounds. The fingers were bitten in 8 (31%) and toes/foot in 11 (42%) cases. There were 2 (8%) dry bites and 19 patients (73%) developed local swelling; one patient developed haemorrhagic blisters. In 24 patients (92%), blood incoagulability manifested between 40 and 1095min after the bite, and three patients (12%) developed spontaneous bleeding. One patient (4%) developed mild acute renal dysfunction. The median time for correction of coagulopathy was 802min (range 180-1669min) with Indian polyvalent antivenom. All recovered. The saw scaled viper is responsible for most venomous bites in the Jaffna peninsula. PMID:21868049

  3. Haemostatic dysfunction and acute renal failure following envenoming by Merrem's hump-nosed viper (Hypnale hypnale) in Sri Lanka: first authenticated case.

    PubMed

    de Silva, A; Wijekoon, A S; Jayasena, L; Abeysekera, C K; Bao, C X; Hutton, R A; Warrell, D A

    1994-01-01

    A five years old boy was bitten by a Merrem's hump-nosed viper (Hypnale hypnale) in Central Province, Sri Lanka. He developed local swelling, incoagulable blood, thrombocytopenia, bleeding into the gastrointestinal tract, and acute renal failure. Treatment with Serum Institute of Indian polyspecific antivenom (specific for venoms of cobra, common krait, Russell's viper and saw-scaled viper) had no effect on the coagulopathy, which persisted for more than a week. The boy recovered after 27 d in hospital, during which he was treated with peritoneal dialysis for renal failure. Laboratory studies demonstrated that the venom of H. hypnale was procoagulant, fibrinolytic and aggregated platelets. This first authenticated case of life-threatening acute renal failure and haemostatic disturbances caused by H. hypnale, a species responsible for 27% of snake bites in Sri Lanka, demonstrates the need for a new antivenom with specific activity against the venom of this species. PMID:8036678

  4. Measuring dabigatran with the dilute Russell viper venom confirm assay in an anticoagulation clinic population.

    PubMed

    McGlasson, David L; Fritsma, George A

    2016-01-01

    The dabigatran dose-response is predictable; however, it is necessary to measure plasma levels in a variety of clinical conditions. We evaluated a novel dabigatran measure - the 'dilute Russell viper venom confirm (DRVVC) assay' - against current developmental assays and a reference method. We measured plasma dabigatran and compared results from the Stago Sta-Clot DRVVC assay, Stago Ecarin Chromogenic Assay, Biophen Hemoclot Thrombin Inhibitor, and liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. We obtained dabigatran calibrators and controls from Biophen, and performed the coagulation assays using a Stago STA-R Evolution coagulometer. Liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry method specimens were performed on an AB Sciex instrument at LabCorp. We enrolled 97 anticoagulation clinic patients (mean age 76 years) who were taking 150 mg dabigatran twice daily. All had creatinine clearances above 30 ml/min; patients were not excluded for concurrent medications or health issues. Citrated blood specimens were processed immediately, and stored at -70°C. We did not correlate collection time with medication time. We employed descriptive statistics, analysis of variance, and the Bland-Altman difference plot to assess the data. The range for all assays was 11.6-917 ng/ml. Analysis of variance generated a P value of 0.1 and Bland-Altman differences were all below 4.0% compared with DRVVC. The DRVVC measures dabigatran with validity comparable to other methods.

  5. Impact of cool versus warm temperatures on gestation in the aspic viper (Vipera aspis).

    PubMed

    Michel, Catherine Louise; Pastore, Jean-Henri; Bonnet, Xavier

    2013-07-01

    Previous experimental data suggested that digestion and growth rates are not impaired under cool constant temperature (23°C) in a viviparous snake (Vipera aspis). These results challenged the widespread notion that both elevated temperatures (e.g. 30°C) and temperature fluctuations are required for digestion and growth in temperate climate reptiles. Here, we investigated the impact of constant cool temperatures on another physiological performance that is crucial to population persistence: gestation. At the time when reproductive females were midway through vitellogenesis, we placed ten reproductive and two non-reproductive female aspic vipers at each of two contrasted constant temperature conditions: cool (23°C) versus warm (28°C). Sixty percent of the females placed at 28°C gave birth to healthy offspring, suggesting that constant warm body temperatures were compatible with normal offspring production. Conversely, none of the cool females gave birth to healthy offspring. A blister disease affected exclusively cool pregnant females. Apparently, the combination of cool temperatures plus gestation was too challenging for such females. Our results suggest that reproduction is more thermally sensitive than digestion or growth, indeed gestation faltered under moderately cool thermal constraints. This sensitivity could be a crucial factor determining the capacity of this species to colonize different habitats.

  6. Ecological aspects of the horned viper, Cerastes cerastes gasperettii in the central region of Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Al-Sadoon, Mohammad K.; Paray, Bilal Ahmad

    2015-01-01

    Feeding ecology of any species can help us to understand its natural history, ecological requirements and approaches involved in searching for food. Feeding ecology and sexual dimorphism in the horned viper, Cerastes cerastes gasperetti collected from the Al-Thumama area, central region of Saudi Arabia was described. The gut content of Cerastes c. gasperetti mainly consisted of rodents (70%) in addition to arthropods (15%) and lizards (10%). Least sexual size dimorphism was noticed in the species in terms of total length. Significant difference was noticed between males and females in terms of two correlation points vent tail length (VT) and total length (TL) with the males attaining a larger size (P < 0.05). The mean number of the dorsal body scales, ventrals and subcaudals for the females was 102, 156 and 33 scales respectively which were significantly different from respective ones in males 95, 160 and 38 scales. There are many aspects of the feeding of this snake that remain unknown and further studies are clearly needed. PMID:26858550

  7. Measuring Large-Scale Structure at z ~ 1 with the VIPERS galaxy survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guzzo, Luigi

    2016-10-01

    The VIMOS Public Extragalactic Redshift Survey (VIPERS) is the largest redshift survey ever conducted with the ESO telescopes. It has used the Very Large Telescope to collect nearly 100,000 redshifts from the general galaxy population at 0.5 < z < 1.2. With a combination of volume and high sampling density that is unique for these redshifts, it allows statistical measurements of galaxy clustering and related cosmological quantities to be obtained on an equal footing with classic results from local redshift surveys. At the same time, the simple magnitude-limited selection and the wealth of ancillary photometric data provide a general view of the galaxy population, its physical properties and the relation of the latter to large-scale structure. This paper presents an overview of the galaxy clustering results obtained so far, together with their cosmological implications. Most of these are based on the ~ 55,000 galaxies forming the first public data release (PDR-1). As of January 2015, observations and data reduction are complete and the final data set of more than 90,000 redshifts is being validated and made ready for the final investigations.

  8. Russell's viper venom levels in serum of snake bite victims in Burma.

    PubMed

    Khin Ohn Lwin; Aye Aye Myint; Tun, P e; Theingie Nwe; Min Naing

    1984-01-01

    Serum levels of venom antigen were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in 38 Russel's viper bite victims before and after administration of 40 ml of monovalent liquid antivenom. Initial serum levels ranged from one with less than 10.0 ng to 290 ng/ml and in one case a level of 75 ng/ml was detected 27 hours after the bite. Serum venom levels after liquid monospecific antivenom therapy indicated that venom clearance was similar in each case to the natural clearance of venom in the absence of antivenom therapy. In one case a venom level of 11.5 ng/ml was detected 66 hours after liquid antivenom therapy whereas in two fatal cases, serum venom levels of 95 ng/ml and 185 ng/ml were detected after the same interval. Failure of complete neutralization of venom is probably the result of loss of potency of antivenom during improper storage. The amount of venom excreted in the urine was not related to initial serum levels. PMID:6464103

  9. Myocardial cell damage in 24 dogs bitten by the common European viper (Vipera berus).

    PubMed

    Pelander, L; Ljungvall, I; Häggström, J

    2010-05-29

    This study investigated whether myocardial damage, as reflected by increased serum concentrations of cardiac-specific troponin I (cTnI), develops in dogs as a result of a bite from a common European viper (Vipera berus), and whether this damage occurs in the absence of clinically relevant ECG abnormalities. Twenty-four dogs presented following a snake bite were tested. On admission, and after 12, 24 and 36 hours, an ECG was recorded and serum was collected for analysis of cTnI from all the dogs. Thirteen dogs (54 per cent) had an undetectable serum cTnI concentration (<0.2 microg/l) and no abnormalities on ECG, five dogs (21 per cent) had increased serum concentrations of cTnI and no ECG abnormalities, six dogs (12.5 per cent) had increased cTnI concentrations and ECG abnormalities, and six dogs (12.5 per cent) had ECG abnormalities and undetectable cTnI concentrations. Only three dogs (12.5 per cent) had serum cTnI concentrations exceeding 1.0 microg/l at any time during the study. Evidence of myocardial cell damage was found in eight (32 per cent) of the 24 dogs. Cardiac arrhythmia was detected in three of these eight dogs. PMID:20511652

  10. Heparin therapy in Russell's viper bite victims with impending dic (a controlled trial).

    PubMed

    Myint-Lwin; Tin-Nu-Swe; Myint-Aye-Mu; Than-Than; Thein-Than; Tun-Pe

    1989-06-01

    A controlled clinical trial of low-dose heparin was carried out in confirmed cases of Russell's viper bite. Twenty-eight patients with coagulable blood and serum FDP levels (more than 80 micrograms/ml) were included in the study. They were randomised to receive low-dose heparin in an initial dose of 50 units/kg body weight intravenously immediately after antivenom followed by a continuous infusion of 10 units/kg/hr in isotonic saline for 24 hours, or antivenom alone. Response to treatment was assessed clinically as well as by serial measurements of coagulation factors and biochemical variables. No features of systemic envenoming developed in any patient after treatment, but one patient in each group developed microscopic haematuria. No systemic bleeding or acute renal failure occurred in any patient. Recovery rate from the clotting defect was similar in the two groups, but in patients with initially very low fibrinogen levels there was a tendency for the heparin to restore fibrinogen faster than in comparable patients who did not receive heparin. PMID:2532790

  11. Clinical significance of venom antigen levels in patients envenomed by the Malayan pit viper (Calloselasma rhodostoma).

    PubMed

    Ho, M; Warrell, D A; Looareesuwan, S; Phillips, R E; Chanthavanich, P; Karbwang, J; Supanaranond, W; Viravan, C; Hutton, R A; Vejcho, S

    1986-05-01

    Serial venom antigen levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in 46 patients with systemic envenoming by the Malayan pit viper (Calloselasma rhodostoma), a major cause of snake bite in Southeast Asia. The principal effects of the venom are defibrination, hemorrhage and local tissue necrosis. Admission venom levels, which varied between 0 and 595 ng/ml, correlated with the incidence of spontaneous systemic bleeding, blood incoagulability and concentrations of plasma fibrinogen and serum fibrin degradation products. The presence or absence of nonclotting blood also correlated with the time elapsed between the bite and hospital admission. The development of nonclotting blood may be delayed by up to 72 hr after the bite even though circulating venom and raised FDP may be detected at presentation. This is probably explained by a temporary equilibrium between synthesis and consumption of fibrinogen. Venom antigenemia recurred in 12 patients (26%) suggesting continuous absorption of venom from the wound or saturation of extravascular binding sites. Admission venom levels also correlated with the extent of local swelling and the occurrence of tissue necrosis at the site of the bite. Venom was detected in 87% of wound aspirates and 88% of urine specimens taken on admission. Tourniquets, of the type used in rural Thailand, did not delay the absorption of venom into the circulation. PMID:3706625

  12. Snakebite Envenoming by Sochurek's Saw-scaled Viper Echis Carinatus Sochureki.

    PubMed

    Valenta, Jiří; Stach, Zdeněk; Michálek, Pavel

    2016-01-01

    A snake breeder, 47-years-old man, was bitten by the saw-scaled viper (Echis carinatus sochureki). After admission to Toxinology Centre, within 1.5 h, laboratory evaluation showed clotting times prolonged to non-measurable values, afibrinogenaemia, significantly elevated D-dimers, haemolysis and myoglobin elevation. Currently unavailable antivenom was urgently imported and administered within 10 hours. In 24 hours, oligoanuric acute kidney injury (AKI) and mild acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) developed. Despite administration of 10 vials of urgently imported Polyvalent Snake Antivenom Saudi Arabia, the venom-induced consumption coagulopathy (VICC) and AKI persisted. Another ten vials of antivenom were imported from abroad. VICC slowly subsided during the antivenom treatment and disappeared after administration of total 20 vials during 5 day period. No signs of haemorrhage were present during treatment. After resolving VICC, patient was transferred to Department of Nephrology for persisting AKI and requirement for haemodialysis. AKI completely resolved after 20 days. Despite rather timed administration of appropriate antivenom, VICC and AKI developed and the quantity of 20 vials was needed to cease acute symptoms of systemic envenoming. The course illustrates low immunogenicity of the venom haemocoagulation components and thus higher requirements of the antivenom in similar cases. PMID:26995204

  13. Viper cabin-fuselage structural design concept with engine installation and wing structural design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marchesseault, B.; Carr, D.; Mccorkle, T.; Stevens, C.; Turner, D.

    1993-01-01

    This report describes the process and considerations in designing the cabin, nose, drive shaft, and wing assemblies for the 'Viper' concept aircraft. Interfaces of these assemblies, as well as interfaces with the sections of the aircraft aft of the cabin, are also discussed. The results of the design process are included. The goal of this project is to provide a structural design which complies with FAR 23 requirements regarding occupant safety, emergency landing loads, and maneuvering loads. The design must also address the interfaces of the various systems in the cabin, nose, and wing, including the drive shaft, venting, vacuum, electrical, fuel, and control systems. Interfaces between the cabin assembly and the wing carrythrough and empennage assemblies were required, as well. In the design of the wing assemblies, consistency with the existing cabin design was required. The major areas considered in this report are materials and construction, loading, maintenance, environmental considerations, wing assembly fatigue, and weight. The first three areas are developed separately for the nose, cabin, drive shaft, and wing assemblies, while the last three are discussed for the entire design. For each assembly, loading calculations were performed to determine the proper sizing of major load carrying components. Table 1.0 lists the resulting margins of safety for these key components, along with the types of the loads involved, and the page number upon which they are discussed.

  14. The VIMOS Public Extragalactic Redshift Survey (VIPERS). Measuring non-linear galaxy bias at z ~ 0.8

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Porto, C.; Branchini, E.; Bel, J.; Marulli, F.; Bolzonella, M.; Cucciati, O.; de la Torre, S.; Granett, B. R.; Guzzo, L.; Marinoni, C.; Moscardini, L.; Abbas, U.; Adami, C.; Arnouts, S.; Bottini, D.; Cappi, A.; Coupon, J.; Davidzon, I.; De Lucia, G.; Fritz, A.; Franzetti, P.; Fumana, M.; Garilli, B.; Ilbert, O.; Iovino, A.; Krywult, J.; Le Brun, V.; Le Fèvre, O.; Maccagni, D.; Małek, K.; McCracken, H. J.; Paioro, L.; Polletta, M.; Pollo, A.; Scodeggio, M.; Tasca, L. A. M.; Tojeiro, R.; Vergani, D.; Zanichelli, A.; Burden, A.; Marchetti, A.; Martizzi, D.; Mellier, Y.; Nichol, R. C.; Peacock, J. A.; Percival, W. J.; Viel, M.; Wolk, M.; Zamorani, G.

    2016-10-01

    Aims: We use the first release of the VImos Public Extragalactic Redshift Survey of galaxies (VIPERS) of ~50 000 objects to measure the biasing relation between galaxies and mass in the redshift range z = [ 0.5,1.1 ]. Methods: We estimate the 1-point distribution function [PDF] of VIPERS galaxies from counts in cells and, assuming a model for the mass PDF, we infer their mean bias relation. The reconstruction of the bias relation is performed through a novel method that accounts for Poisson noise, redshift distortions, inhomogeneous sky coverage. and other selection effects. With this procedure we constrain galaxy bias and its deviations from linearity down to scales as small as 4 h-1 Mpc and out to z = 1.1. Results: We detect small (up to 2%) but statistically significant (up to 3σ) deviations from linear bias. The mean biasing function is close to linear in regions above the mean density. The mean slope of the biasing relation is a proxy to the linear bias parameter. This slope increases with luminosity, which is in agreement with results of previous analyses. We detect a strong bias evolution only for z> 0.9, which is in agreement with some, but not all, previous studies. We also detect a significant increase of the bias with the scale, from 4 to 8 h-1 Mpc , now seen for the first time out to z = 1. The amplitude of non-linearity depends on redshift, luminosity, and scale, but no clear trend is detected. Owing to the large cosmic volume probed by VIPERS, we find that the mismatch between the previous estimates of bias at z ~ 1 from zCOSMOS and VVDS-Deep galaxy samples is fully accounted for by cosmic variance. Conclusions: The results of our work confirm the importance of going beyond the over-simplistic linear bias hypothesis showing that non-linearities can be accurately measured through the applications of the appropriate statistical tools to existing datasets like VIPERS. Based on observations collected at the European Southern Observatory, Paranal, Chile

  15. The VIMOS Public Extragalactic Redshift Survey (VIPERS). Never mind the gaps: comparing techniques to restore homogeneous sky coverage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cucciati, O.; Granett, B. R.; Branchini, E.; Marulli, F.; Iovino, A.; Moscardini, L.; Bel, J.; Cappi, A.; Peacock, J. A.; de la Torre, S.; Bolzonella, M.; Guzzo, L.; Polletta, M.; Fritz, A.; Adami, C.; Bottini, D.; Coupon, J.; Davidzon, I.; Franzetti, P.; Fumana, M.; Garilli, B.; Krywult, J.; Małek, K.; Paioro, L.; Pollo, A.; Scodeggio, M.; Tasca, L. A. M.; Vergani, D.; Zanichelli, A.; Di Porto, C.; Zamorani, G.

    2014-05-01

    Aims: Non-uniform sampling and gaps in sky coverage are common in galaxy redshift surveys, but these effects can degrade galaxy counts-in-cells measurements and density estimates. We carry out a comparative study of methods that aim to fill the gaps to correct for the systematic effects. Our study is motivated by the analysis of the VIMOS Public Extragalactic Redshift Survey (VIPERS), a flux-limited survey at iAB < 22.5 consisting of single-pass observations with the VLT Visible Multi-Object Spectrograph (VIMOS) with gaps representing 25% of the surveyed area and an averagesampling rate of 35%. However, our findings are generally applicable to other redshift surveys with similar observing strategies. Methods: We applied two algorithms that use photometric redshift information and assign redshifts to galaxies based upon the spectroscopic redshifts of the nearest neighbours. We compared these methods with two Bayesian methods, the Wiener filter and the Poisson-Lognormal filter. Using galaxy mock catalogues we quantified the accuracy and precision of the counts-in-cells measurements on scales of R = 5 h-1 Mpc and 8 h-1 Mpc after applying each of these methods. We further investigated how these methods perform to account for other sources of uncertainty typical of spectroscopic surveys, such as the spectroscopic redshift error and the sparse, inhomogeneous sampling rate. We analysed each of these sources separately, then all together in a mock catalogue that mimicks the full observational strategy of a VIPERS-like survey. Results: In a survey such as VIPERS, the errors in counts-in-cells measurements on R < 10 h-1 Mpc scales are dominated by the sparseness of the sample due to the single-pass observing strategy. All methods under-predict the counts in high-density regions by 20-35%, depending on the cell size, method, and underlying overdensity. This systematic bias is similar to random errors. No method outperforms the others: differences are not large, and methods

  16. The VIPERS Multi-Lambda Survey. I. UV and near-IR observations, multi-colour catalogues, and photometric redshifts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moutard, T.; Arnouts, S.; Ilbert, O.; Coupon, J.; Hudelot, P.; Vibert, D.; Comte, V.; Conseil, S.; Davidzon, I.; Guzzo, L.; Llebaria, A.; Martin, C.; McCracken, H. J.; Milliard, B.; Morrison, G.; Schiminovich, D.; Treyer, M.; Van Werbaeke, L.

    2016-05-01

    We present observations collected in the CFHTLS-VIPERS region in the ultraviolet with the GALEX satellite (far- and near-ultraviolet channels) and in the near-infrared with the CFHT/WIRCam camera (Ks band) over an area of 22 and 27 deg2, respectively. The depth of the photometry was optimised to measure the physical properties (e.g., star formation rate, stellar masses) of all the galaxies in the VIPERS spectroscopic survey. The large volume explored by VIPERS will enable a unique investigation of the relationship between the galaxy properties and their environment (density field and cosmic web) at high redshift (0.5 ≤ z ≤ 1.2). In this paper, we present the observations, the data reductions, and the build-up of the multi-colour catalogues. The CFHTLS-T0007 (gri-χ2) images are used as reference to detect and measure the Ks-band photometry, while the T0007 u∗-selected sources are used as priors to perform the GALEX photometry based on a dedicated software (EMphot). Our final sample reaches NUVAB ~ 25 (at 5σ) and KAB ~ 22 (at 3σ). The large spectroscopic sample (~51 000 spectroscopic redshifts) allows us to highlight the robustness of our star/galaxy separation and the reliability of our photometric redshifts with a typical accuracy of σz ≤ 0.04 and a fraction of catastrophic failures η ≤ 2% down to i ~ 23. We present various tests on the Ks-band completeness and photometric redshift accuracy by comparing our results with existing overlapping deep photometric catalogues. Finally, we discuss the BzK sample of passive and active galaxies at high redshift and the evolution of galaxy morphology in the (NUV-r) vs. (r-Ks) diagram at low redshift (z ≤ 0.25) based on the high image quality of the CFHTLS. The catalogue is available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (http://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/590/A102The images, catalogues, and photometric redshifts for 1.5 million sources (down to NUV

  17. The VIMOS Public Extragalactic Redshift Survey (VIPERS). Environmental effects shaping the galaxy stellar mass function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davidzon, I.; Cucciati, O.; Bolzonella, M.; De Lucia, G.; Zamorani, G.; Arnouts, S.; Moutard, T.; Ilbert, O.; Garilli, B.; Scodeggio, M.; Guzzo, L.; Abbas, U.; Adami, C.; Bel, J.; Bottini, D.; Branchini, E.; Cappi, A.; Coupon, J.; de la Torre, S.; Di Porto, C.; Fritz, A.; Franzetti, P.; Fumana, M.; Granett, B. R.; Guennou, L.; Iovino, A.; Krywult, J.; Le Brun, V.; Le Fèvre, O.; Maccagni, D.; Małek, K.; Marulli, F.; McCracken, H. J.; Mellier, Y.; Moscardini, L.; Polletta, M.; Pollo, A.; Tasca, L. A. M.; Tojeiro, R.; Vergani, D.; Zanichelli, A.

    2016-02-01

    We exploit the first public data release of VIPERS to investigate environmental effects in the evolution of galaxies between z ~ 0.5 and 0.9. The large number of spectroscopic redshifts (more than 50 000) over an area of about 10 deg2 provides a galaxy sample with high statistical power. The accurate redshift measurements (σz = 0.00047(1 + zspec)) allow us to robustly isolate galaxies living in the lowest and highest density environments (δ< 0.7 and δ> 4, respectively) as defined in terms of spatial 3D density contrast δ. We estimate the stellar mass function of galaxies residing in these two environments and constrain the high-mass end (ℳ ≳ 1011 ℳ⊙) with unprecedented precision. We find that the galaxy stellar mass function in the densest regions has a different shape than was measured at low densities, with an enhancement of massive galaxies and a hint of a flatter (less negative) slope at z< 0.8. We normalise each mass function to the comoving volume occupied by the corresponding environment and relate estimates from different redshift bins. We observe an evolution of the stellar mass function of VIPERS galaxies in high densities, while the low-density one is nearly constant. We compare these results to semi-analytical models and find consistent environmental signatures in the simulated stellar mass functions. We discuss how the halo mass function and fraction of central/satellite galaxies depend on the environments considered, making intrinsic and environmental properties of galaxies physically coupled, hence difficult to disentangle. The evolution of our low-density regions is described well by the formalism introduced by Peng et al. (2010, ApJ, 721, 193), and is consistent with the idea that galaxies become progressively passive because of internal physical processes. The same formalism could also describe the evolution of the mass function in the high density regions, but only if a significant contribution from dry mergers is considered. Based on

  18. Effect of ambient temperature in neonate aspic vipers: growth, locomotor performance and defensive behaviors.

    PubMed

    Aïdam, Aurélie; Michel, Catherine Louise; Bonnet, Xavier

    2013-07-01

    The impact of temperature during incubation and gestation has been tested in various reptiles; the postnatal period has been rarely investigated however. Three groups of newborn aspic vipers (Vipera aspis) were placed under contrasted thermal regimes during 7 months: (1) a cool 23°C constant regime, (2) a warm 28°C constant regime, and (3) an optimal regime with free-access to a wide range of temperatures. Later, all the snakes were placed under hibernation conditions (6°C) during 3 months. Finally all the snakes were placed in the optimal thermal regime during 2 additional months. The total duration of the experiment was of 12 months. Body mass and feeding rates were recorded weekly, body size was measured monthly. We also assessed locomotor performance and recorded several behavioral traits (e.g., defensive and predatory behaviors). As expected, snakes raised under cool temperatures exhibited low feeding rate, growth rate, body condition, and they exhibited poor locomotor performance; they also displayed marked defensive behaviors (e.g., high number of defensive bites) whilst hesitating during longer periods to bite a prey. Such behavioral effects were detected at the end of the experiment (i.e., 5 months after exposure to contrasted thermal treatments [3 months of hibernation plus 2 months of optimal regime]), revealing long term effects. Surprisingly, growth rate and locomotor performance were not different between the two other groups, warm constant 28°C versus optimal regimes (albeit several behavioral traits differed), suggesting that the access to a wide range of ambient temperatures was not a crucial factor.

  19. Upward Altitudinal Shifts in Habitat Suitability of Mountain Vipers since the Last Glacial Maximum

    PubMed Central

    Yousefi, Masoud; Ahmadi, Mohsen; Nourani, Elham; Behrooz, Roozbeh; Rajabizadeh, Mehdi; Geniez, Philippe; Kaboli, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    We determined the effects of past and future climate changes on the distribution of the Montivipera raddei species complex (MRC) that contains rare and endangered viper species limited to Iran, Turkey and Armenia. We also investigated the current distribution of MRC to locate unidentified isolated populations as well as to evaluate the effectiveness of the current network of protected areas for their conservation. Present distribution of MRC was modeled based on ecological variables and model performance was evaluated by field visits. Some individuals at the newly identified populations showed uncommon morphological characteristics. The distribution map of MRC derived through modeling was then compared with the distribution of protected areas in the region. We estimated the effectiveness of the current protected area network to be 10%, which would be sufficient for conserving this group of species, provided adequate management policies and practices are employed. We further modeled the distribution of MRC in the past (21,000 years ago) and under two scenarios in the future (to 2070). These models indicated that climatic changes probably have been responsible for an upward shift in suitable habitats of MRC since the Last Glacial Maximum, leading to isolation of allopatric populations. Distribution will probably become much more restricted in the future as a result of the current rate of global warming. We conclude that climate change most likely played a major role in determining the distribution pattern of MRC, restricting allopatric populations to mountaintops due to habitat alterations. This long-term isolation has facilitated unique local adaptations among MRC populations, which requires further investigation. The suitable habitat patches identified through modeling constitute optimized solutions for inclusion in the network of protected areas in the region. PMID:26367126

  20. Viperatoxin-II: A novel viper venom protein as an effective bactericidal agent.

    PubMed

    Samy, Ramar Perumal; Stiles, Bradley G; Chinnathambi, Arunachalam; Zayed, M E; Alharbi, Sulaiman Ali; Franco, Octavio Luiz; Rowan, Edward G; Kumar, Alan Prem; Lim, Lina H K; Sethi, Gautam

    2015-01-01

    Infections caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) have become a rising threat to public health. There is an urgent need for development of promising new therapeutic agents against drug resistant bacteria like S. aureus. This report discusses purification and characterization of proteins from Indian Russell's viper snake venom. Novel 15-kDa proteins called "Viperatoxin" (VipTx-I and VipTx-II) were extracted from the whole venom and evaluated using in vitro antimicrobial experiments. The N-terminal amino acid sequence of "Viperatoxin" showed high sequence homology to daboiatoxin isolated from the same venom and also matched phospholipase A2 (PLA2) enzymes isolated from other snake venoms. In an in vitro plate assay, VipTx-II but not VipTx-I showed strong antimicrobial effects against S. aureus and Burkholderia pseudomallei (KHW & TES), Proteus vulgaris and P. mirabilis. The VipTx-II was further tested by a broth-dilution assay at 100-3.1 μg/ml concentrations. The most potent bactericidal effect was found at the lowest dilutions (MICs of 6.25 μg/ml) against B. pseudomallei, S. aureus and P. vulgaris (MICs of 12.25 μg/ml). Electron microscopic investigation revealed that the protein-induced bactericidal potency was closely associated with pore formation and membrane damage, even at the lowest concentrations (<20 μg/ml). The toxin caused a low level of cytotoxic effects as observed in human (THP-1) cells at higher concentrations. Molecular weight determinations of VipTx-II by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis showed one major, along with a few minor bands. The results indicate that VipTx-II plays a significant role in bactericidal and membrane damaging effects in vitro. Non-cytotoxic properties on human cells highlight it as a promising candidate for further evaluation of antimicrobial potential in vivo. PMID:26793432

  1. Viper and cobra venom neutralization by beta-sitosterol and stigmasterol isolated from the root extract of Pluchea indica Less. (Asteraceae).

    PubMed

    Gomes, A; Saha, Archita; Chatterjee, Ipshita; Chakravarty, A K

    2007-09-01

    We reported previously that the methanolic root extract of the Indian medicinal plant Pluchea indica Less. (Asteraceae) could neutralize viper venom-induced action [Alam, M.I., Auddy, B., Gomes, A., 1996. Viper venom neutralization by Indian medicinal plant (Hemidesmus indicus and P. indica) root extracts. Phytother. Res. 10, 58-61]. The present study reports the neutralization of viper and cobra venom by beta-sitosterol and stigmasterol isolated from the root extract of P. indica Less. (Asteraceae). The active fraction (containing the major compound beta-sitosterol and the minor compound stigmasterol) was isolated and purified by silica gel column chromatography and the structure was determined using spectroscopic analysis (EIMS, (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR). Anti-snake venom activity was studied in experimental animals. The active fraction was found to significantly neutralize viper venom-induced lethal, hemorrhagic, defibrinogenation, edema and PLA(2) activity. Cobra venom-induced lethality, cardiotoxicity, neurotoxicity, respiratory changes and PLA(2) activity were also antagonized by the active component. It potentiated commercial snake venom antiserum action against venom-induced lethality in male albino mice. The active fraction could antagonize venom-induced changes in lipid peroxidation and superoxide dismutase activity. This study suggests that beta-sitosterol and stigmasterol may play an important role, along with antiserum, in neutralizing snake venom-induced actions.

  2. Cyclic transmission of Sarcocystis gerbilliechis n. sp. by the Arabian saw-scaled viper, Echis coloratus, to rodents of the subfamily gerbillinae.

    PubMed

    Jäkel, T

    1995-08-01

    Infection experiments with rodents and snakes were performed to elucidate the life cycle of a Sarcocystis isolate found in an Arabian saw-scaled viper, Echis coloratus. Oocytes in feces of the naturally infected and of 2 experimentally infected Arabian saw-scaled vipers were already sporulated and contained 2 sporocysts each, measuring 12.7 (12.3-13.3) microns x 11.0 (10.7-11.4) microns. After oral inoculation of various rodent species with these sporocysts, sarcocysts developed in the esophagus and skeletal muscles of gerbils and related genera. Mature sarcocysts were filiform in shape and reached a maximum length of 11.7 mm after 5 mo postinoculation (PI), whereas the width did not exceed 190 microns. The primary cyst wall formed small, knoblike protrusions, which were up to 180 nm long and 120 nm wide. Mature schizonts were present in the liver and other organs of gerbils between 11 and 14 days PI. After inoculation of vipers of 3 different genera with mature sarcocysts from gerbils, oocysts developed in the intestine of Arabian saw-scaled vipers. A comparison of these data with those from previously described Sarcocystis species with snake-rodent life cycles suggests that Sarcocystis gerbilliechis is a new species. PMID:7623207

  3. Frequent and potentially fatal envenoming by hump-nosed pit vipers (Hypnale hypnale and H. nepa) in Sri Lanka: lack of effective antivenom.

    PubMed

    Ariaratnam, C A; Thuraisingam, V; Kularatne, S A M; Sheriff, M H R; Theakston, R D G; de Silva, A; Warrell, D A

    2008-11-01

    In a prospective study of snake bites involving 10 hospitals in Sri Lanka, 302 (35%) of 860 patients with bites by identified snakes proved to have been bitten by hump-nosed pit vipers (301 by Hypnale hypnale and 1 by H. nepa). Most victims were males aged between 11 years and 50 years who had been bitten on their feet or ankles while walking at night close to their homes. There was local swelling in 276 (91%) and local necrosis in 48 (16%). Eleven (4%) required amputation of fingers or toes and 12 (4%) received skin grafts. In 117 patients (39%) blood incoagulability was first detected between 15 min and 48 h after the bite, and in 116 of them this was present on admission to hospital. Spontaneous systemic bleeding was observed in 55 patients (18%). Acute renal failure developed in 10%, five of whom died to give an overall case fatality rate of 1.7%. Thus, bites by hump-nosed pit vipers can cause debilitating local and fatal systemic envenoming. In Sri Lanka and southwestern India where bites by these snakes are common, the only available antivenoms (raised against cobra, krait, Russell's viper and saw-scaled viper venoms) are ineffective and carry a high risk of reactions. PMID:18455743

  4. Effects of mild wintering conditions on body mass and corticosterone levels in a temperate reptile, the aspic viper (Vipera aspis).

    PubMed

    Brischoux, François; Dupoué, Andréaz; Lourdais, Olivier; Angelier, Frédéric

    2016-02-01

    Temperate ectotherms are expected to benefit from climate change (e.g., increased activity time), but the impacts of climate warming during the winter have mostly been overlooked. Milder winters are expected to decrease body condition upon emergence, and thus to affect crucial life-history traits, such as survival and reproduction. Mild winter temperature could also trigger a state of chronic physiological stress due to inadequate thermal conditions that preclude both dormancy and activity. We tested these hypotheses on a typical temperate ectothermic vertebrate, the aspic viper (Vipera aspis). We simulated different wintering conditions for three groups of aspic vipers (cold: ~6 °C, mild: ~14 °C and no wintering: ~24 °C) during a one month long period. We found that mild wintering conditions induced a marked decrease in body condition, and provoked an alteration of some hormonal mechanisms involved in emergence. Such effects are likely to bear ultimate consequences on reproduction, and thus population persistence. We emphasize that future studies should incorporate the critical, albeit neglected, winter season when assessing the potential impacts of global changes on ectotherms.

  5. Quantitative Proteomic Analysis of Venoms from Russian Vipers of Pelias Group: Phospholipases A2 are the Main Venom Components

    PubMed Central

    Kovalchuk, Sergey I.; Ziganshin, Rustam H.; Starkov, Vladislav G.; Tsetlin, Victor I.; Utkin, Yuri N.

    2016-01-01

    Venoms of most Russian viper species are poorly characterized. Here, by quantitative chromato-mass-spectrometry, we analyzed protein and peptide compositions of venoms from four Vipera species (V. kaznakovi, V. renardi, V. orlovi and V. nikolskii) inhabiting different regions of Russia. In all these species, the main components were phospholipases A2, their content ranging from 24% in V. orlovi to 65% in V. nikolskii. Altogether, enzyme content in venom of V. nikolskii reached ~85%. Among the non-enzymatic proteins, the most abundant were disintegrins (14%) in the V. renardi venom, C-type lectin like (12.5%) in V. kaznakovi, cysteine-rich venom proteins (12%) in V. orlovi and venom endothelial growth factors (8%) in V. nikolskii. In total, 210 proteins and 512 endogenous peptides were identified in the four viper venoms. They represented 14 snake venom protein families, most of which were found in the venoms of Vipera snakes previously. However, phospholipase B and nucleotide degrading enzymes were reported here for the first time. Compositions of V. kaznakovi and V. orlovi venoms were described for the first time and showed the greatest similarity among the four venoms studied, which probably reflected close relationship between these species within the “kaznakovi” complex. PMID:27077884

  6. Live-birth in vipers (Viperidae) is a key innovation and adaptation to global cooling during the Cenozoic.

    PubMed

    Lynch, Vincent J

    2009-09-01

    The identification of adaptations and key innovations has long interested biologists because they confer on organisms the ability to exploit previously unavailable ecological resources and respond to novel selective pressures. Although it can be extremely difficult to test for the effects of a character on the rate of lineage diversification, the convergent evolution of a character in multiple lineages provides an excellent opportunity to test for the effect of that character on lineage diversification. Here, I examine the effect of parity mode on the diversification of vipers, which have independently evolved viviparity in at least 13 lineages. I find strong statistical evidence that viviparous species diversify at a greater rate than oviparous species and correlate major decreases in the diversification rate of oviparous species with periods of global cooling, such as the Oligocene. These results suggest that the evolution of viviparity buffered live-bearing species against the negative effects of global climate change during the Cenozoic, and was a key innovation in the evolution and diversification of live-bearing vipers.

  7. The structure-function relationship of thrombin-like enzymes from the green pit viper (Trimeresurus albolabris).

    PubMed

    Pradniwat, Paweena; Rojnuckarin, Ponlapat

    2015-06-15

    Pit viper venoms can decrease fibrinogen levels in snakebite patients. Studies have shown that the hypofibrinogenemia is a consequence of snake venom thrombin-like enzymes (TLEs), the serine proteases that have the potential to be both diagnostic and therapeutic agents. Exosites of thrombin are the molecular regions that determine the substrate specificities, but its presence and significance in TLEs are unclear. Therefore, the putative exosites of recombinant TLEs derived from Green pit viper (Trimeresurus albolabris), GPV-TL1 and GPV-TL2, were mutated in a Pichia pastoris system. In a previous report, GPV-TL1 showed a strong fibrinogenolytic activity on the Aα and Bβ chains of fibrinogen, as well as a plasma clotting activity. Compared with GPV-TL1, the GPV-TL1m mutated in the putative exosite (TRN to RRR at residues 60-62) showed a weaker fibrinogenolytic activity with a similar clotting activity of 207.1 thrombin units/mg. GPV-TL2 contained two-residue differences from GPV-TL1 in the putative exosite (N73M and V74Y). GPV-TL2 selectively cleaved only the Aα chain of fibrinogen without detectable clotting activity. The mutated GPV-TL2 (GPV-TL2m) showed a weaker fibrinogenolytic activity compared with that of the wild type. These results support the important roles of the putative exosite in snake venom TLE activities. This information is helpful for future protein engineering. PMID:25912946

  8. First authenticated cases of life-threatening envenoming by the hump-nosed pit viper (Hypnale hypnale) in India.

    PubMed

    Joseph, J K; Simpson, I D; Menon, N C S; Jose, M P; Kulkarni, K J; Raghavendra, G B; Warrell, D A

    2007-01-01

    In Kerala, south-western India, five patients developed systemic envenoming after bites by hump-nosed pit vipers (Hypnale hypnale), proved by identification of the snakes responsible. Two of the dead snakes had been misidentified as saw-scaled vipers (Echis carinatus), while three had remained unidentified. Symptoms of local envenoming were pain, swelling, haemorrhagic blistering, bruising and regional lymphadenopathy. Systemic symptoms included headache, nausea, vomiting and abdominal and chest pain. There was evidence of haemostatic dysfunction (coagulopathy, fibrinolysis, thrombocytopenia or spontaneous systemic haemorrhage) in all cases and of microangiopathic haemolysis in two. Two patients were haemodialysed for acute renal failure, one of whom developed pulmonary oedema requiring mechanical ventilation. In India, H. hypnale has not previously been regarded as a cause of frequent or potentially dangerous envenoming. Its medical importance has been overlooked throughout its geographical range, probably because of confusion with other small species. No specific antivenom exists, yet most patients are treated with non-specific antivenoms, risking reactions without hope of benefit. An effective antivenom is urgently needed in south India and in Sri Lanka, where this species is also a common cause of bites. PMID:16839578

  9. Effects of phospholipase A2 and metalloprotease fractions of Russell's viper venom on cytokines and renal hemodynamics in dogs.

    PubMed

    Mitrmoonpitak, Channarong; Chulasugandha, Pannipa; Khow, Orawan; Noiprom, Jureeporn; Chaiyabutr, Narongsak; Sitprija, Visith

    2013-01-01

    Several enzymes in Russell's viper (Daboia siamensis) venom are involved in the venom effects and renal injury. The effects of fractional components of Russell's viper venom, phospholipase A(2) and metalloprotease fractions, were examined in two groups of four experimental dogs each. Animals received an intravenous injection of 140 μg/kg of each venom fraction. The inflammatory effects and renal hemodynamic changes were assessed. Plasma concentrations of interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and PGE2 were elevated by both phospholipase A(2) (PLA(2)) and metalloprotease (MP) fractions. The plasma level of nitric oxide was increased after PLA(2) fraction injection but not with MP fraction injection. Leukocytosis with increase in lymphocytes, monocytes and granulocytes was observed after both PLA(2) and MP injections. Results from this study suggested that both PLA(2) and MP were inflammatory. Increased red blood cell count, hematocrit and hemoglobin concentration were observed in animals injected with PLA(2) fraction, but not with MP fraction. Hemodynamically, PLA(2) fraction induced marked decrease in mean arterial pressure with decreased renal vascular resistance initially followed later by increased renal vascular resistance. MP fraction caused less decrease of mean arterial pressure but increased renal vascular resistance throughout the experiment. Both enzymes decreased renal blood flow, glomerular filtration rate and urine flow. The findings indicate vasodilating effect of PLA(2) fraction and vasoconstricting effect and decreased cardiac function of MP fraction.

  10. The structure-function relationship of thrombin-like enzymes from the green pit viper (Trimeresurus albolabris).

    PubMed

    Pradniwat, Paweena; Rojnuckarin, Ponlapat

    2015-06-15

    Pit viper venoms can decrease fibrinogen levels in snakebite patients. Studies have shown that the hypofibrinogenemia is a consequence of snake venom thrombin-like enzymes (TLEs), the serine proteases that have the potential to be both diagnostic and therapeutic agents. Exosites of thrombin are the molecular regions that determine the substrate specificities, but its presence and significance in TLEs are unclear. Therefore, the putative exosites of recombinant TLEs derived from Green pit viper (Trimeresurus albolabris), GPV-TL1 and GPV-TL2, were mutated in a Pichia pastoris system. In a previous report, GPV-TL1 showed a strong fibrinogenolytic activity on the Aα and Bβ chains of fibrinogen, as well as a plasma clotting activity. Compared with GPV-TL1, the GPV-TL1m mutated in the putative exosite (TRN to RRR at residues 60-62) showed a weaker fibrinogenolytic activity with a similar clotting activity of 207.1 thrombin units/mg. GPV-TL2 contained two-residue differences from GPV-TL1 in the putative exosite (N73M and V74Y). GPV-TL2 selectively cleaved only the Aα chain of fibrinogen without detectable clotting activity. The mutated GPV-TL2 (GPV-TL2m) showed a weaker fibrinogenolytic activity compared with that of the wild type. These results support the important roles of the putative exosite in snake venom TLE activities. This information is helpful for future protein engineering.

  11. African Aesthetics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abiodun, Rowland

    2001-01-01

    No single traditional discipline can adequately supply answers to the many unresolved questions in African art history. Because of the aesthetic, cultural, historical, and, not infrequently, political biases, already built into the conception and development of Western art history, the discipline of art history as defined and practiced in the West…

  12. "African Connection."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adelman, Cathy; And Others

    This interdisciplinary unit provides students in grades kindergarten through seventh grade an opportunity to understand diversity through a study of Africa as a diverse continent. The project is designed to provide all elementary students with cultural enrichment by exposing them to African music, art, storytelling, and movement. This project can…

  13. Viperatoxin-II: A novel viper venom protein as an effective bactericidal agent

    PubMed Central

    Samy, Ramar Perumal; Stiles, Bradley G.; Chinnathambi, Arunachalam; Zayed, M.E.; Alharbi, Sulaiman Ali; Franco, Octavio Luiz; Rowan, Edward G.; Kumar, Alan Prem; Lim, Lina H.K.; Sethi, Gautam

    2015-01-01

    Infections caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) have become a rising threat to public health. There is an urgent need for development of promising new therapeutic agents against drug resistant bacteria like S. aureus. This report discusses purification and characterization of proteins from Indian Russell’s viper snake venom. Novel 15-kDa proteins called “Viperatoxin” (VipTx-I and VipTx-II) were extracted from the whole venom and evaluated using in vitro antimicrobial experiments. The N-terminal amino acid sequence of “Viperatoxin” showed high sequence homology to daboiatoxin isolated from the same venom and also matched phospholipase A2 (PLA2) enzymes isolated from other snake venoms. In an in vitro plate assay, VipTx-II but not VipTx-I showed strong antimicrobial effects against S. aureus and Burkholderia pseudomallei (KHW & TES), Proteus vulgaris and P. mirabilis. The VipTx-II was further tested by a broth-dilution assay at 100–3.1 μg/ml concentrations. The most potent bactericidal effect was found at the lowest dilutions (MICs of 6.25 μg/ml) against B. pseudomallei, S. aureus and P. vulgaris (MICs of 12.25 μg/ml). Electron microscopic investigation revealed that the protein-induced bactericidal potency was closely associated with pore formation and membrane damage, even at the lowest concentrations (<20 μg/ml). The toxin caused a low level of cytotoxic effects as observed in human (THP-1) cells at higher concentrations. Molecular weight determinations of VipTx-II by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis showed one major, along with a few minor bands. The results indicate that VipTx-II plays a significant role in bactericidal and membrane damaging effects in vitro. Non-cytotoxic properties on human cells highlight it as a promising candidate for further evaluation of antimicrobial potential in vivo. PMID:26793432

  14. Combined snake venomics and venom gland transcriptomic analysis of the ocellated carpet viper, Echis ocellatus.

    PubMed

    Wagstaff, Simon C; Sanz, Libia; Juárez, Paula; Harrison, Robert A; Calvete, Juan J

    2009-01-30

    Snakebite in Africa causes thousands of deaths annually and considerable permanent physical disability. The saw-scaled viper, Echis ocellatus, represents the single most medically important snake species in West Africa. To provide a detailed compositional analysis of the venom of E. ocellatus for designing novel toxin-specific immunotherapy and to delineate sequence structure-function relationships of individual toxins, we characterised the venom proteome and the venom gland transcriptome. Whole E. ocellatus venom was fractionated by reverse-phase HPLC, followed by analysis of each chromatographic fraction using a combination of SDS-PAGE, N-terminal sequencing, MALDI-TOF mass fingerprinting, and CID-MS/MS of tryptic peptides. This analysis identified around 35 distinct proteins of molecular masses in the range of 5.5-110 kDa belonging to 8 different toxin families (disintegrin, DC-fragment, phospholipase A(2), cysteine-rich secretory protein, serine proteinase, C-type lectin, l-amino acid oxidase, and Zn(2+)-dependent metalloprotease). Comparison of the toxin composition of E. ocellatus venom determined using a proteomic approach, with the predicted proteome derived from assembly of 1000 EST sequences from a E. ocellatus venom gland cDNA library, shows some differences. Most notably, peptides derived from 26% of the venom proteins could not be ascribed an exact match in the transcriptome. Similarly, 64 (67%) out of the 95 putative toxin clusters reported in the transcriptome did not match to peptides detected in the venom proteome. These data suggest that the final composition of venom is influenced by transcriptional and post-translational mechanisms that may be more complex than previously appreciated. This, in turn, emphasises the value of combining proteomic and transcriptomic approaches to acquire a more complete understanding of the precise composition of snake venom, than would be gleaned from using one analysis alone. From a clinical perspective, the large

  15. The Results of All-Inside Meniscus Repair Using the Viper Repair System Simultaneously with Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Hong Je; Kim, Kwang Mee; Cho, Hang Hwan; Espinosa, Johnsel C.

    2015-01-01

    Background Meniscus tears are commonly associated with anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) ruptures. It is essential to repair meniscal tears as much as possible to prevent early osteoarthritis and to gain additional stability in the knee joint. We evaluated the results of arthroscopic all-inside repair using the Meniscal Viper Repair System (Arthrex) on meniscus tears simultaneously with ACL reconstruction. Methods Nineteen out of 22 patients who were treated with arthroscopic all-inside repair using the Meniscal Viper Repair System for meniscus tear associated with ACL rupture were evaluated. ACL reconstructions were performed at the same period. The mean follow-up period was 16.5 months (range, 12 to 24 months). The clinical results of the meniscus repair were evaluated by symptoms (such as catching or locking), tenderness, effusion, range of motion limitation, and the McMurray test. Clinical success was defined by negative results in all five categories. The Hospital for Special Surgery (HSS) score was evaluated. Objective results were evaluated with secondary look arthroscopy or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The MRI results were categorized as completely repaired, incompletely repaired, and failure by Henning's classification. The results of second-look arthroscopy were evaluated with the criteria of meniscal healing. Results The clinical success rate was 95.4% and the HSS scores were 93.9 ± 5.4 at the final follow-up. According to Henning's classification, 15 out of 18 cases showed complete healing (83.3%) and two cases (11.1%) showed incomplete healing. Seventeen out of 18 cases that underwent second-look arthroscopy showed complete healing (94.4%) according to the criteria of meniscal healing. Only one case showed failure and the failure was due to a re-rupture at the sutured area. Complications of ACL reconstruction or meniscus repair were not present. Conclusions The results demonstrate that arthroscopic all-inside repair using the Meniscal Viper Repair

  16. Obesity and African Americans

    MedlinePlus

    ... Data > Minority Population Profiles > Black/African American > Obesity Obesity and African Americans African American women have the ... ss6304.pdf [PDF | 3.38MB] HEALTH IMPACT OF OBESITY More than 80 percent of people with type ...

  17. Saw-scaled viper bites in Sri Lanka: is it a different subspecies? Clinical evidence from an authenticated case series.

    PubMed

    Gnanathasan, Ariaranee; Rodrigo, Chaturaka; Peranantharajah, Thambipillai; Coonghe, Anthonia

    2012-02-01

    The saw-scaled viper (SSV) (Echis carinatus) is considered to be a highly venomous snake in Sri Lanka despite any published clinical justification. Being a rarity, the clinical profile of SSV bites is not well established in Sri Lanka. We report a series of 48 (n-48) SSV bites from the Northern Province of Sri Lanka. The majority (65%) of victims had evidence of local envenoming at the site of the bite; however, 29% showed spontaneous bleeding and 71% had coagulopathy. There were no deaths in the series. The envenoming was mild in contrast to the mortality and significant morbidity associated with SSV bites in West Africa and some parts of India. These observations need to be further explored with laboratory studies to identify the venom components, study of morphological characteristics, and genetic profiling of the Sri Lankan SSV to see if it is different from the subspecies found elsewhere. PMID:22302858

  18. Vipericidins: a novel family of cathelicidin-related peptides from the venom gland of South American pit vipers.

    PubMed

    Falcao, C B; de La Torre, B G; Pérez-Peinado, C; Barron, A E; Andreu, D; Rádis-Baptista, G

    2014-11-01

    Cathelicidins are phylogenetically ancient, pleiotropic host defense peptides-also called antimicrobial peptides (AMPs)-expressed in numerous life forms for innate immunity. Since even the jawless hagfish expresses cathelicidins, these genetically encoded host defense peptides are at least 400 million years old. More recently, cathelicidins with varying antipathogenic activities and cytotoxicities were discovered in the venoms of poisonous snakes; for these creatures, cathelicidins may also serve as weapons against prey and predators, as well as for innate immunity. We report herein the expression of orthologous cathelicidin genes in the venoms of four different South American pit vipers (Bothrops atrox, Bothrops lutzi, Crotalus durissus terrificus, and Lachesis muta rhombeata)-distant relatives of Asian cobras and kraits, previously shown to express cathelicidins-and an elapid, Pseudonaja textilis. We identified six novel, genetically encoded peptides: four from pit vipers, collectively named vipericidins, and two from the elapid. These new venom-derived cathelicidins exhibited potent killing activity against a number of bacterial strains (S. pyogenes, A. baumannii, E. faecalis, S. aureus, E. coli, K. pneumoniae, and P. aeruginosa), mostly with relatively less potent hemolysis, indicating their possible usefulness as lead structures for the development of new anti-infective agents. It is worth noting that these South American snake venom peptides are comparable in cytotoxicity (e.g., hemolysis) to human cathelicidin LL-37, and much lower than other membrane-active peptides such as mastoparan 7 and melittin from bee venom. Overall, the excellent bactericidal profile of vipericidins suggests they are a promising template for the development of broad-spectrum peptide antibiotics.

  19. Vipericidins: a novel family of cathelicidin-related peptides from the venom gland of South American pit vipers.

    PubMed

    Falcao, C B; de La Torre, B G; Pérez-Peinado, C; Barron, A E; Andreu, D; Rádis-Baptista, G

    2014-11-01

    Cathelicidins are phylogenetically ancient, pleiotropic host defense peptides-also called antimicrobial peptides (AMPs)-expressed in numerous life forms for innate immunity. Since even the jawless hagfish expresses cathelicidins, these genetically encoded host defense peptides are at least 400 million years old. More recently, cathelicidins with varying antipathogenic activities and cytotoxicities were discovered in the venoms of poisonous snakes; for these creatures, cathelicidins may also serve as weapons against prey and predators, as well as for innate immunity. We report herein the expression of orthologous cathelicidin genes in the venoms of four different South American pit vipers (Bothrops atrox, Bothrops lutzi, Crotalus durissus terrificus, and Lachesis muta rhombeata)-distant relatives of Asian cobras and kraits, previously shown to express cathelicidins-and an elapid, Pseudonaja textilis. We identified six novel, genetically encoded peptides: four from pit vipers, collectively named vipericidins, and two from the elapid. These new venom-derived cathelicidins exhibited potent killing activity against a number of bacterial strains (S. pyogenes, A. baumannii, E. faecalis, S. aureus, E. coli, K. pneumoniae, and P. aeruginosa), mostly with relatively less potent hemolysis, indicating their possible usefulness as lead structures for the development of new anti-infective agents. It is worth noting that these South American snake venom peptides are comparable in cytotoxicity (e.g., hemolysis) to human cathelicidin LL-37, and much lower than other membrane-active peptides such as mastoparan 7 and melittin from bee venom. Overall, the excellent bactericidal profile of vipericidins suggests they are a promising template for the development of broad-spectrum peptide antibiotics. PMID:25100358

  20. Population Pharmacokinetics of an Indian F(ab')2 Snake Antivenom in Patients with Russell's Viper (Daboia russelii) Bites

    PubMed Central

    Isbister, Geoffrey K.; Maduwage, Kalana; Saiao, Ana; Buckley, Nicholas A.; Jayamanne, Shaluka F.; Seyed, Shahmy; Mohamed, Fahim; Chathuranga, Umesh; Mendes, Alexandre; Abeysinghe, Chandana; Karunathilake, Harindra; Gawarammana, Indika; Lalloo, David G.; de Silva, H. Janaka

    2015-01-01

    Background There is limited information on antivenom pharmacokinetics. This study aimed to investigate the pharmacokinetics of an Indian snake antivenom in humans with Russell’s viper bites. Methods/Principal Findings Patient data and serial blood samples were collected from patients with Russell’s viper (Daboia russelii) envenoming in Sri Lanka. All patients received Indian F(ab’)2 snake antivenom manufactured by VINS Bioproducts Ltd. Antivenom concentrations were measured with sandwich enzyme immunoassays. Timed antivenom concentrations were analysed using MONOLIXvs4.2. One, two and three compartment models with zero order input and first order elimination kinetics were assessed. Models were parameterized with clearance(CL), intercompartmental clearance(Q), central compartment volume(V) and peripheral compartment volume(VP). Between-subject-variability (BSV) on relative bioavailability (F) was included to account for dose variations. Covariates effects (age, sex, weight, antivenom batch, pre-antivenom concentrations) were explored by visual inspection and in model building. There were 75 patients, median age 57 years (40-70y) and 64 (85%) were male. 411 antivenom concentration data points were analysed. A two compartment model with zero order input, linear elimination kinetics and a combined error model best described the data. Inclusion of BSV on F and weight as a covariate on V improved the model. Inclusion of pre-antivenom concentrations or different batches on BSV of F did not. Final model parameter estimates were CL,0.078 Lh-1, V,2.2L, Q,0.178Lh-1 and VP,8.33L. The median half-life of distribution was 4.6h (10-90%iles:2.6-7.1h) and half-life of elimination, 140h (10th-90th percentilesx:95-223h). Conclusion Indian F(ab’)2 snake antivenom displayed biexponential disposition pharmacokinetics, with a rapid distribution half-life and more prolonged elimination half-life. PMID:26135318

  1. Isolation, purification and partial characterization of viper venom inhibiting factor from the root extract of the Indian medicinal plant sarsaparilla (Hemidesmus indicus R. Br.).

    PubMed

    Alam, M I; Auddy, B; Gomes, A

    1994-12-01

    An organic acid, isolated and purified from the root extract of an Indian medicinal plant sarsaparilla Hemidesmus indicus R. Br, possessed viper venom inhibitory activity. The compound (designated HI-RVIF) was isolated by solvent extraction, silica gel column chromatography and thin layer chromatography, and was homogeneous in nature. The white needle-shaped crystals were soluble in water, methanol and chloroform and had a melting point of 155-158 degrees C and lambda max 260 nm. Spectral analysis confirmed the presence of a benzene ring, methoxy group, and hydroxyl group; the mol. wt of the compound was 168. HI-RVIF significantly antagonized viper venom-induced lethal, haemorrhagic, coagulant and anticoagulant activity in experimental rodents.

  2. VIPERS: Unveiling the Combined Evolution of Galaxies and Large Scale Structure at 0.5≤z ≤1.2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iovino, A.; Vipers Team

    2016-10-01

    The VIMOS Public Extragalactic Redshift Survey (VIPERS) is the largest redshift survey ever conducted with the ESO telescopes. It has used the Very Large Telescope to collect nearly 100,000 redshifts from the general galaxy population at 0.5≤ z ≤1.2. With a combination of volume and sampling density that is unique for these redshifts, VIPERS allows statistical measurements of galaxy clustering and related cosmological quantities to be obtained on an equal footing with classic results from local redshift surveys. At the same time, the broad selection function and ancillary photometric data provide detailed information on the physical properties of the galaxy population and their relation to large-scale structure. This talk presents an overview of the results obtained so far, mostly based on the ˜ 55,000 galaxies forming the first public data release (PDR-1).

  3. Production of high titre antibody response against Russell's viper venom in mice immunized with ethanolic extract of fruits of Piper longum L. (Piperaceae) and piperine.

    PubMed

    Shenoy, P A; Nipate, S S; Sonpetkar, J M; Salvi, N C; Waghmare, A B; Chaudhari, P D

    2014-01-15

    Piper longum L. fruits have been traditionally used against snakebites in north-eastern and southern region of India. The aim of the study was to assess the production of antibody response against Russell's viper venom in mice after prophylactic immunization with ethanolic extract of fruits of Piper longum L. and piperine. The mice sera were tested for the presence of antibodies against Russell's viper venom by in vitro lethality neutralization assay and in vivo lethality neutralization assay. Polyvalent anti-snake venom serum (antivenom) manufactured by Haffkine Bio-Pharmaceutical Corporation Ltd. was used as standard. Further confirmation of presence of antibodies against the venom in sera of mice immunized with PLE and piperine was done using indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and double immunodiffusion test. Treatment with PLE-treated mice serum and piperine-treated mice serum was found to inhibit the lethal action of venom both in the in vitro lethality neutralization assay and in vivo lethality neutralization assay. ELISA testing indicated that there were significantly high (p<0.01) levels of cross reactions between the PLE and piperine treated mice serum and the venom antigens. In double immunodiffusion test, a white band was observed between the two wells of antigen and antibodies for both the PLE-treated and piperine-treated mice serum. Thus it can be concluded that immunization with ethanolic extract of fruits of Piper longum and piperine produced a high titre antibody response against Russell's viper venom in mice. The antibodies against PLE and piperine could be useful in antivenom therapy of Russell's viper bites. PLE and piperine may also have a potential interest in view of the development of antivenom formulations used as antidote against snake bites.

  4. Identification of cDNAs encoding viper venom hyaluronidases: cross-generic sequence conservation of full-length and unusually short variant transcripts.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Robert A; Ibison, Frances; Wilbraham, Davina; Wagstaff, Simon C

    2007-05-01

    The immobilisation of prey by snakes is most efficiently achieved by the rapid dissemination of venom from its site of injection into the blood stream. Hyaluronidase is a common component of snake venoms and has been termed the "venom spreading factor". In the absence of nucleotide or protein sequence data to confirm the functional identity of this venom component, we interrogated a venom gland EST database for the saw-scaled viper, Echis ocellatus (Nigeria), using the gene ontology (GO) term "carbohydrate metabolism". A single hyalurononglucosaminadase-activity matching sequence (EOC00242) was found and used to design PCR primers to acquire the full-length cDNA sequence. Although very different from the bee venom and mammalian hyaluronidase sequences, the E. ocellatus sequence retained all the catalytic, positional and structural residues that characterise this class of carbohydrate metabolising hydrolases. An extraordinarily high level of sequence identity (>95%) was observed in analogous venom gland cDNA sequences isolated (by PCR) from another saw-scaled viper species, E. pyramidum leakeyi (Kenya), and from the sahara horned viper, Cerastes cerastes cerastes (Egypt) and the puff adder, Bitis arietans (Nigeria). Smaller amplicons, lacking hyaluronidase catalytic residues because of 768 bp or 855 bp central deletions, appear to encode either truncated peptides without hyaluronidase activity, or are non-translated transcripts because they lack consensus translation initiating motifs. PMID:17210232

  5. Africans in America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hart, Ayanna; Spangler, Earl

    This book introduces African-American history and culture to children. The first Africans in America came from many different regions and cultures, but became united in this country by being black, African, and slaves. Once in America, Africans began a long struggle for freedom which still continues. Slavery, the Civil War, emancipation, and the…

  6. Therapy with African Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nwadiora, Emeka

    1996-01-01

    Informs helping professionals about the unique history and challenges of African families to guide them toward providing ethnically sensitive psychological services to African immigrant families in need. African families undergo great stress when faced with the alienation of being Black and African in a Euro-American culture. (SLD)

  7. African Outreach Workshop 1974.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Nancy J.

    This report discusses the 1974 African Outreach Workshop planned and coordinated by the African Studies Program at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. Its major aim was to assist teachers in developing curriculum units on African using materials available in their local community. A second aim was for the African Studies Program to…

  8. Identification and functional analysis of a novel bradykinin inhibitory peptide in the venoms of New World Crotalinae pit vipers

    SciTech Connect

    James Graham, Robert Leslie . E-mail: rl.graham@ulster.ac.uk; Graham, Ciaren; McClean, Stephen; Chen, Tianbao; O'Rourke, Martin; Hirst, David; Theakston, David; Shaw, Chris

    2005-12-23

    A novel undecapeptide has been isolated and structurally characterized from the venoms of three species of New World pit vipers from the subfamily, Crotalinae. These include the Mexican moccasin (Agkistrodon bilineatus), the prairie rattlesnake (Crotalus viridis viridis), and the South American bushmaster (Lachesis muta). The peptide was purified from all three venoms using a combination of gel permeation chromatography and reverse-phase HPLC. Automated Edman degradation sequencing and MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry established its peptide primary structure as: Thr-Pro-Pro-Ala-Gly-Pro-Asp-Val-Gly-Pro-Arg-OH, with a non-protonated molecular mass of 1063.18 Da. A synthetic replicate of the peptide was found to be an antagonist of bradykinin action at the rat vascular B2 receptor. This is the first bradykinin inhibitory peptide isolated from snake venom. Database searching revealed the peptide to be highly structurally related (10/11 residues) with a domain residing between the bradykinin-potentiating peptide and C-type natriuretic peptide domains of a recently cloned precursor from tropical rattlesnake (Crotalus durissus terrificus) venom gland. BIP thus represents a novel biological entity from snake venom.

  9. Fatal diffuse thrombotic microangiopathy after a bite by the "Fer-de-Lance" pit viper (Bothrops lanceolatus) of Martinique.

    PubMed

    Malbranque, Stéphane; Piercecchi-Marti, Marie Dominique; Thomas, Laurent; Barbey, Christophe; Courcier, Dominique; Bucher, Bernard; Ridarch, Alex; Smadja, Didier; Warrell, David A

    2008-06-01

    In Martinique, a man bitten two days earlier by a pit viper (Bothrops lanceolatus) was hospitalized with impaired consciousness and tetraplegia. Investigations confirmed cerebral and myocardial infarctions. Resolving thrombocytopenia was associated with virtually normal blood prothrombin time/activated partial thromboplastin time but increasing hyperfibrinogenemia. Despite specific antivenom treatment, he developed fatal left ventricular failure six days after the bite. At autopsy, multiple cerebral, myocardial and mesenteric infarctions were found. Rupture of mitral chordae tendinae was the likely cause of death. Histopathologic examination showed multi-focal thrombotic microangiopathy with intimal-medial dissection by thrombi extending from foci of endothelial damage in small cerebral, myocardial, pulmonary, mesenteric, and interlobular renal arteries and arterioles. These findings were the causes of infarctions. There was intense angiogenesis in organizing cerebral infarcts. Immunohistochemical analysis showed platelet aggregates and endothelial cells within microthrombi. Viperidae venoms contain vascular endothelial toxins, notably metalloproteinase hemorrhagins, but von Willebrand factor activators or vascular endothelial growth factor-type factors are more likely to have been implicated in this case. PMID:18541759

  10. Structural and functional characterization of complex formation between two Kunitz-type serine protease inhibitors from Russell's Viper venom.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Ashis K; Dutta, Sumita; Kalita, Bhargab; Jha, Deepak K; Deb, Pritam; Mackessy, Stephen P

    2016-01-01

    Snake venom Kunitz-type serine protease inhibitors (KSPIs) exhibit various biological functions including anticoagulant activity. This study elucidates the occurrence and subunit stoichiometry of a putative complex formed between two KSPIs (Rusvikunin and Rusvikunin-II) purified from the native Rusvikunin complex of Pakistan Russell's Viper (Daboia russelii russelii) venom (RVV). The protein components of the Rusvikunin complex were identified by LC-MS/MS analysis. The non-covalent interaction between two major components of the complex (Rusvikunin and Rusvikunin-II) at 1:2 stoichiometric ratio to form a stable complex was demonstrated by biophysical techniques such as spectrofluorometric, classical gel-filtration, equilibrium gel-filtration, circular dichroism (CD), dynamic light scattering (DLS), RP-HPLC and SDS-PAGE analyses. CD measurement showed that interaction between Rusvikunin and Rusvikunin-II did not change their overall secondary structure; however, the protein complex exhibited enhanced hydrodynamic diameter and anticoagulant activity as compared to the individual components of the complex. This study may lay the foundation for understanding the basis of protein complexes in snake venoms and their role in pathophysiology of snakebite.

  11. Structural and functional characterization of complex formation between two Kunitz-type serine protease inhibitors from Russell's Viper venom.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Ashis K; Dutta, Sumita; Kalita, Bhargab; Jha, Deepak K; Deb, Pritam; Mackessy, Stephen P

    2016-01-01

    Snake venom Kunitz-type serine protease inhibitors (KSPIs) exhibit various biological functions including anticoagulant activity. This study elucidates the occurrence and subunit stoichiometry of a putative complex formed between two KSPIs (Rusvikunin and Rusvikunin-II) purified from the native Rusvikunin complex of Pakistan Russell's Viper (Daboia russelii russelii) venom (RVV). The protein components of the Rusvikunin complex were identified by LC-MS/MS analysis. The non-covalent interaction between two major components of the complex (Rusvikunin and Rusvikunin-II) at 1:2 stoichiometric ratio to form a stable complex was demonstrated by biophysical techniques such as spectrofluorometric, classical gel-filtration, equilibrium gel-filtration, circular dichroism (CD), dynamic light scattering (DLS), RP-HPLC and SDS-PAGE analyses. CD measurement showed that interaction between Rusvikunin and Rusvikunin-II did not change their overall secondary structure; however, the protein complex exhibited enhanced hydrodynamic diameter and anticoagulant activity as compared to the individual components of the complex. This study may lay the foundation for understanding the basis of protein complexes in snake venoms and their role in pathophysiology of snakebite. PMID:27523780

  12. Complex longitudinal diversification across South China and Vietnam in Stejneger's pit viper, Viridovipera stejnegeri (Schmidt, 1925) (Reptilia: Serpentes: Viperidae).

    PubMed

    Guo, Peng; Liu, Qin; Zhu, Fei; Zhong, Guang H; Chen, Xin; Myers, Edward A; Che, Jing; Zhang, Liang; Ziegler, Thomas; Nguyen, Truong Q; Burbrink, Frank T

    2016-06-01

    Viridovipera stejnegeri is one of the most common pit vipers in Asia, with a wide distribution in southern China and Vietnam. We investigated historical demography and explored how the environment and climatic factors have shaped genetic diversity and the evolutionary history of this venomous snake. A total of 171 samples from 47 localities were sequenced and analysed for two mitochondrial gene fragments and three nuclear genes. Gene trees reveal the existence of two well-supported clades (Southwest China and Southeast China) with seven distinct and strongly supported, geographically structured subclades within V. stejnegeri. Estimation of divergence time and ancestral area suggests that V. stejnegeri originated at ~6.0 Ma in the late Miocene on the Yunnan-Guizhou Plateau. The estimated date of origin and divergence of the island populations of Taiwan and Hainan closely matches the geological origin of the both islands. The mtDNA gene tree reveals the presence of west-east diversification in V. stejnegeri populations. Complex orogenesis and heterogeneous habitats, as well as climate-mediated habitat differentiation including glacial cycles, all have influenced population structure and the distribution of this taxon. The validity of V. stejnegeri chenbihuii is questionable, and this subspecies most probably represents an invalid taxon. PMID:27094901

  13. Pharmacological and biochemical studies on the venom of a clinically important viper snake (Echis carinatus) of Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Savanur, Arifa; Ali, Syed Abid; Munir, Iqra; Abbasi, Atiya; Alam, Mehtab; Shaikh, Hilal Ahmed

    2014-03-01

    Echis carinatus (saw-scaled viper) has been the major culprit responsible for serious envenomation casualties throughout the subcontinent. The present study describes the electrophoretic and zymographic characterization of E. carinatus venom and its effect on mammalian smooth muscle. Crude venom showed the presence of disintegrin, PLA2, C-type lectin/lectin-like components, CRISP, Serine protease, l-amino acid oxidase and very high concentrations of SVMPs. E. carinatus venom (1, 10, 30, 50, 100 μg/ml) inhibited the active tension/force of muscle contraction in a time and concentration dependent manner. The observed effects abolished when the venom was heated at 100 °C for 5 min. However, a decrease in bath temperature from 37 °C to 26 °C or an increase in CaCl2 concentration to 5 mM did not prevent the inhibition of contractile activity. The contractile response elicited by exogenous application of 50 mM KCl and 1 μM acetylcholine (ACh) was also significantly inhibited by all venom concentrations. Prior administration of commercially available polyvalent anti-venom partially neutralized and prevented the effect of E. carinatus venom whereas addition of anti-venom at t50 failed to reverse the inhibitory effect. Studies on isolated intestinal muscle indicate involvement of myotoxic and apoptotic components in E. carinatus venom for irreversible damage to muscle tissue. PMID:24462660

  14. Crystal structure of echicetin from Echis carinatus (Indian saw-scaled viper) at 2.4A resolution.

    PubMed

    Jasti, Jayasankar; Paramasivam, M; Srinivasan, A; Singh, T P

    2004-01-01

    Echicetin is a heterodimeric protein from the venom of the Indian saw-scaled viper, Echis carinatus. It binds to platelet glycoprotein Ib (GPIb) and thus inhibits platelet aggregation. It has two subunits, alpha and beta, consisting of 131 and 123 amino acid residues, respectively. The two chains are linked with a disulphide bond. The level of amino acid sequence homology between two subunits is 50%. The protein was purified from the venom of E.carinatus and crystallized using ammonium sulphate as a precipitant. The crystal structure has been determined at 2.4A resolution and refined to an R-factor of 0.187. Overall dimensions of the heterodimer are approximately 80Ax35Ax35A. The backbone folds of the two subunits are similar. The central portions of the polypeptide chains of alpha and beta-subunits move into each other to form a tight dimeric association. The remaining portions of the chains of both subunits fold in a manner similar to those observed in the carbohydrate-binding domains of C-type lectins. In echicetin, the Ca(2+)-binding sites are not present, despite being topologically equivalent to other similar Ca(2+)-binding proteins of the superfamily. The residues Ser41, Glu43 and Glu47 in the calcium-binding proteins of the related family are conserved but the residues Glu126/120 are replaced by lysine at the corresponding sites in the alpha and beta-subunits. PMID:14659748

  15. Structure and characterization of the glycan moiety of L-amino-acid oxidase from the Malayan pit viper Calloselasma rhodostoma.

    PubMed

    Geyer, A; Fitzpatrick, T B; Pawelek, P D; Kitzing, K; Vrielink, A; Ghisla, S; Macheroux, P

    2001-07-01

    Ophidian L-amino-acid oxidase (L-amino-acid oxygen:oxidoreductase, deaminating, EC 1.4.3.2) is found in the venom of many poisonous snakes (crotalids, elapids and viperids). This FAD-dependent glycoprotein has been studied from several snake species (e.g. Crotalus adamanteus, Crotalus atrox and Calloselasma rhodostoma) in detail with regard to the biochemical and enzymatic properties. The nature of glycosylation, however, as well as the chemical structure(s) of the attached oligosaccharide(s) are unknown. In view of the putative involvement of the glycan moiety in the biological effects of ophidian L-amino-acid oxidase, notably the apoptotic activity of the enzyme, structural knowledge is needed to evaluate its exact function. In this study we report on the glycosylation of L-amino-acid oxidase from the venom of the Malayan pit viper (Calloselasma rhodostoma). Its glycosylation is remarkably homogeneous with the major oligosaccharide accounting for approximately 90% of the total sugar content. Based on detailed analysis of the isolated oligosaccharide by 2D NMR spectroscopies and MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry the glycan is identified as a bis-sialylated, biantennary, core-fucosylated dodecasaccharide. The biological significance of this finding is discussed in light of the biological activities of the enzyme. PMID:11453999

  16. The African Connection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oguntoyinbo, Lekan

    2012-01-01

    From student and faculty exchanges to joint research projects, U.S. universities maintain a broad spectrum of collaborative relationships with African universities. It's unclear how many U.S. colleges and universities have partnerships with African universities. The African Studies Association, an organization of scholars, doesn't keep that kind…

  17. Linguistic Imperialism: African Perspectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillipson, Robert

    1996-01-01

    Responds to an article on aspects of African language policy and discusses the following issues: multilingualism and monolingualism, proposed changes in language policy from the Organization for African Unity and South African initiatives, the language of literature, bilingual education, and whose interests English-language teaching is serving.…

  18. Albocollagenase, a novel recombinant P-III snake venom metalloproteinase from green pit viper (Cryptelytrops albolabris), digests collagen and inhibits platelet aggregation.

    PubMed

    Pinyachat, Anuwat; Rojnuckarin, Ponlapat; Muanpasitporn, Chuanchom; Singhamatr, Pon; Nuchprayoon, Surang

    2011-04-01

    Molecular cloning and functional characterization of P-III snake venom metalloproteinases (SVMPs) will give us deeper insights in the pathogenesis of viper bites. This may lead to novel therapy for venom-induced local tissue damages, the complication refractory to current antivenom. The aim of this study was to elucidate the in vitro activities of a new SVMP from the green pit viper (GPV) using recombinant DNA technology. We report, here, a new cDNA clone from GPV (Cryptelytrops albolabris) venom glands encoding 614 amino acid residues P-III SVMP, termed albocollagenase. The conceptually translated protein comprised a signal peptide and prodomain, followed by a metalloproteinase domain containing a zinc-binding motifs, HEXGHXXGXXH-CIM and 9 cysteine residues. The disintegrin-like and cysteine-rich domains possessed 24 cysteines and a DCD (Asp-Cys-Asp) motif. The albocollagenase deduced amino acid sequence alignments showed approximately 70% identity with other P-III SVMPs. Notably, the prodomain was highly conserved, while the metalloproteinase, disintegrin-like and cysteine-rich domains contained several differences. Albocollagenase without the signal peptide and prodomain was expressed in Pichia pastoris with an N-terminal six-histidine tag. After affinity purification from the supernatant of methanol-induced media, SDS-PAGE and Western blot analysis in both reducing and non-reducing conditions showed a protein band of approximately 62 kDa. The recombinant albocollagenase could digest human type IV collagen from human placenta basement membrane within 1 min. After 10-min incubation, it also inhibited collagen-induced platelet aggregation with 50% inhibitory concentration (IC₅₀) of 70 nM. This is the first report of the active recombinant SVMP enzymes expressed in P. pastoris. The results suggest the significant roles of P-III SVMP in local and systemic pathology of envenomated patients. Inhibitors of this SVMP will be investigated in further studies to find a

  19. Cloning, characterization and mutagenesis of Russell's viper venom L-amino acid oxidase: Insights into its catalytic mechanism.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hong-Sen; Wang, Ying-Ming; Huang, Wan-Ting; Huang, Kai-Fa; Tsai, Inn-Ho

    2012-02-01

    To investigate the structure-function relationships and geographic variations of L-amino acid oxidase (LAAO) from Daboia venoms, a single LAAO (designated as DrLAO) was purified from eastern Indian Daboia russelii venom and characterized. The purified DrLAO showed subunit molecular mass of 60-64kDa; its N-terminal sequence (1-20) was identical to those of several true viper LAAOs. Its preferred substrates were hydrophobic l-amino acids and the kinetic specificities were ordered as follows: Phe, Tyr, Met, Leu, and Trp. Enzyme assay and Western blotting showed that the venom LAAO contents of D. russelii were higher than those of Daboia siamensis. DrLAO dose-dependently inhibited ADP- and collagen-induced platelet aggregation with IC(50) values of 0.27 and 0.82μM, respectively. Apparently, DrLAO may synergize with other venom components to prolong and enhance bleeding symptoms after Daboia envenoming. The full sequence of DrLAO was deduced from its cDNA sequence and then confirmed by peptide mass fingerprinting. Molecular phylogenetic analysis revealed that SV-LAAO family members could be differentiated not only by snake taxonomy but also by the variations at position 223, and they divided into H223, S223, N223, and D223 subclasses. We have further prepared recombinant DrLAO and mutants by the Pichia expression system. Mutagenic analyses of DrLAO His223 revealed that this residue bound substrates instead of serving as an essential base in the catalytic steps. Our results suggest a direct hydride transfer from substrate to FAD as the mechanism for SV-LAAOs. PMID:21802487

  20. Crystal structure of the disintegrin heterodimer from saw-scaled viper (Echis carinatus) at 1.9 A resolution.

    PubMed

    Bilgrami, Sameeta; Yadav, Savita; Kaur, Punit; Sharma, Sujata; Perbandt, Markus; Betzel, Christian; Singh, Tej P

    2005-08-23

    Disintegrins constitute a family of potent polypeptide inhibitors of integrins. Integrins are transmembrane heterodimeric molecules involved in cell-cell and cell-extracellular matrix interactions. They are involved in many diseases such as cancer and thrombosis. Thus, disintegrins have a great potential as anticancer and antithrombotic agents. A novel heterodimeric disintegrin was isolated from the venom of saw-scaled viper (Echis carinatus) and was crystallized. The crystals diffracted to 1.9 A resolution and belonged to space group P4(3)2(1)2. The data indicated the presence of a pseudosymmetry. The structure was solved by applying origin shifts to the disintegrin homodimer schistatin solved in space group I4(1)22 with similar cell dimensions. The structure refined to the final R(cryst)/R(free) factors of 0.213/0.253. The notable differences are observed between the loops, (Gln39-Asp48) containing the important Arg42-Gly43-Asp44, of the present heterodimer and schistatin. These differences are presumably due to the presence of two glycines at positions 43 and 46 that allow the molecule to adopt variable conformations. A comparative analysis of the surface-charge distributions of various disintegrins showed that the charge distribution on monomeric disintegrins occurred uniformly over the whole surface of the molecule, while in the dimeric disintegrins, the charge is distributed only on one face. Such a feature may be important in the binding of two integrins to a single dimeric disintegrin. The phylogenetic analysis developed on the basis of amino acid sequence and three-dimensional structures indicates that the protein diversification and evolution presumably took place from the medium disintegrins and both the dimeric and short disintegrins evolved from them. PMID:16101289

  1. The galaxy-halo connection from a joint lensing, clustering and abundance analysis in the CFHTLenS/VIPERS field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coupon, J.; Arnouts, S.; van Waerbeke, L.; Moutard, T.; Ilbert, O.; van Uitert, E.; Erben, T.; Garilli, B.; Guzzo, L.; Heymans, C.; Hildebrandt, H.; Hoekstra, H.; Kilbinger, M.; Kitching, T.; Mellier, Y.; Miller, L.; Scodeggio, M.; Bonnett, C.; Branchini, E.; Davidzon, I.; De Lucia, G.; Fritz, A.; Fu, L.; Hudelot, P.; Hudson, M. J.; Kuijken, K.; Leauthaud, A.; Le Fèvre, O.; McCracken, H. J.; Moscardini, L.; Rowe, B. T. P.; Schrabback, T.; Semboloni, E.; Velander, M.

    2015-05-01

    We present new constraints on the relationship between galaxies and their host dark matter haloes, measured from the location of the peak of the stellar-to-halo mass ratio (SHMR), up to the most massive galaxy clusters at redshift z ˜ 0.8 and over a volume of nearly 0.1 Gpc3. We use a unique combination of deep observations in the CFHTLenS/VIPERS field from the near-UV to the near-IR, supplemented by ˜60 000 secure spectroscopic redshifts, analysing galaxy clustering, galaxy-galaxy lensing and the stellar mass function. We interpret our measurements within the halo occupation distribution (HOD) framework, separating the contributions from central and satellite galaxies. We find that the SHMR for the central galaxies peaks at M_{h, peak} = 1.9^{+0.2}_{-0.1}× 10^{12} M_{⊙} with an amplitude of 0.025, which decreases to ˜0.001 for massive haloes ({{{M}_h}}> 10^{14} M_{⊙}). Compared to central galaxies only, the total SHMR (including satellites) is boosted by a factor of 10 in the high-mass regime (cluster-size haloes), a result consistent with cluster analyses from the literature based on fully independent methods. After properly accounting for differences in modelling, we have compared our results with a large number of results from the literature up to z = 1: we find good general agreement, independently of the method used, within the typical stellar-mass systematic errors at low to intermediate mass (M_{star}<10^{11} M_{⊙}) and the statistical errors above. We have also compared our SHMR results to semi-analytic simulations and found that the SHMR is tilted compared to our measurements in such a way that they over- (under-) predict star formation efficiency in central (satellite) galaxies.

  2. In Vitro and In Vivo Evaluation of Polyherbal Formulation against Russell's Viper and Cobra Venom and Screening of Bioactive Components by Docking Studies

    PubMed Central

    Sakthivel, G.; Dey, Amitabha; Nongalleima, Kh.; Chavali, Murthy; Rimal Isaac, R. S.; Singh, N. Surjit; Deb, Lokesh

    2013-01-01

    The present study emphasizes to reveal the antivenom activity of Aristolochia bracteolata Lam., Tylophora indica (Burm.f.) Merrill, and Leucas aspera S. which were evaluated against venoms of Daboia russelli russelli (Russell's viper) and Naja naja (Indian cobra). The aqueous extracts of leaves and roots of the above-mentioned plants and their polyherbal (1 : 1 : 1) formulation at a dose of 200 mg/kg showed protection against envenomed mice with LD50 doses of 0.44 mg/kg and 0.28 mg/kg against Russell's viper and cobra venom, respectively. In in vitro antioxidant activities sample extracts showed free radical scavenging effects in dose dependent manner. Computational drug design and docking studies were carried out to predict the neutralizing principles of type I phospholipase A2 (PLA2) from Indian common krait venom. This confirmed that aristolochic acid and leucasin can neutralize type I PLA2 enzyme. Results suggest that these plants could serve as a source of natural antioxidants and common antidote for snake bite. However, further studies are needed to identify the lead molecule responsible for antidote activity. PMID:23533518

  3. Molecular cloning, expression and characterization of albolamin: a type P-IIa snake venom metalloproteinase from green pit viper (Cryptelytrops albolabris).

    PubMed

    Jangprasert, Panchalee; Rojnuckarin, Ponlapat

    2014-03-01

    Snake venom metalloproteinases (SVMPs) can damage vessel wall, degrade clotting factors, inhibit integrins and block platelet functions. Studying them not only gives us deeper insights in pathogenesis of snakebites, but also potentially yields novel therapeutic agents. Here, we discovered a clone of an RGD-containing SVMP from the green pit viper (Cryptelytrops albolabris) venom gland cDNA library. Sequence analysis revealed that it belonged to the P-IIa subclass of SVMP comprising signal peptide, prodomain, metalloproteinase and disintegrin. Compared with other P-II SVMPs, it contained 2 additional conserved cysteines that were predicted to prevent the release of disintegrin from the metalloproteinase domain in the mature protein. The N-terminal histidine-tagged construct of metalloproteinase and disintegrin domains of albolamin was inserted into the pPICZαA vector and expressed in Pichia pastoris. The recombinant protein molecular weight was approximately 35 kDa on Western blot probed with anti-polyhistidine antibody. The recombinant albolamin could digest human type IV collagen starting within 15 min after incubation. In addition, it dose-dependently inhibited collagen-induced platelet aggregation with the IC50 of 1.8 μM. However, there was no effect on ADP-induced platelet aggregation. Therefore, the inhibition mechanism is probably through blocking collagen receptor(s). Albolamin activities probably contributed to pathology of green pit viper bites. Its disintegrin domain deserves further studies for the potential to be a useful agent affecting platelet functions. PMID:24380672

  4. The VIMOS Public Extragalactic Redshift Survey (VIPERS). An unprecedented view of galaxies and large-scale structure at 0.5 < z < 1.2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guzzo, L.; Scodeggio, M.; Garilli, B.; Granett, B. R.; Fritz, A.; Abbas, U.; Adami, C.; Arnouts, S.; Bel, J.; Bolzonella, M.; Bottini, D.; Branchini, E.; Cappi, A.; Coupon, J.; Cucciati, O.; Davidzon, I.; De Lucia, G.; de la Torre, S.; Franzetti, P.; Fumana, M.; Hudelot, P.; Ilbert, O.; Iovino, A.; Krywult, J.; Le Brun, V.; Le Fèvre, O.; Maccagni, D.; Małek, K.; Marulli, F.; McCracken, H. J.; Paioro, L.; Peacock, J. A.; Polletta, M.; Pollo, A.; Schlagenhaufer, H.; Tasca, L. A. M.; Tojeiro, R.; Vergani, D.; Zamorani, G.; Zanichelli, A.; Burden, A.; Di Porto, C.; Marchetti, A.; Marinoni, C.; Mellier, Y.; Moscardini, L.; Nichol, R. C.; Percival, W. J.; Phleps, S.; Wolk, M.

    2014-06-01

    We describe the construction and general features of VIPERS, the VIMOS Public Extragalactic Redshift Survey. This ESO Large Programme is using the Very Large Telescope with the aim of building a spectroscopic sample of ~ 100 000 galaxies with iAB< 22.5 and 0.5 VIPERS is designed to address a broad range of problems in large-scale structure and galaxy evolution, thanks to a unique combination of volume (~ 5 × 107h-3 Mpc3) and sampling rate (~ 40%), comparable to state-of-the-art surveys of the local Universe, together with extensive multi-band optical and near-infrared photometry. Here we present the survey design, the selection of the source catalogue and the development of the spectroscopic observations. We discuss in detail the overall selection function that results from the combination of the different constituents of the project. This includes the masks arising from the parent photometric sample and the spectroscopic instrumental footprint, together with the weights needed to account for the sampling and the success rates of the observations. Using the catalogue of 53 608 galaxy redshifts composing the forthcoming VIPERS Public Data Release 1 (PDR-1), we provide a first assessment of the quality of the spectroscopic data. The stellar contamination is found to be only 3.2%, endorsing the quality of the star-galaxy separation process and fully confirming the original estimates based on the VVDS data, which also indicate a galaxy incompleteness from this process of only 1.4%. Using a set of 1215 repeated observations, we estimate an rms redshift error σz/ (1 + z) = 4.7 × 10-4 and calibrate the internal spectral quality grading. Benefiting from the combination of size and detailed sampling of this dataset, we conclude by presenting a map showing in unprecedented detail the large-scale distribution of galaxies between 5 and 8 billion years ago. Based on observations

  5. The African superswell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nyblade, Andrew A.; Robinson, Scott W.

    1994-01-01

    Maps of residual bathymetry in the ocean basins around the African continent reveal a broad bathymetric swell in the southeastern Atlantic Ocean with an amplitude of about 500 m. We propose that this region of anomalously shallow bathymetry, together with the contiguous eastern and southern African plateaus, form a superswell which we refer to as the African superswell. The origin of the African superswell is uncertain. However, rifting and volcanism in eastern Africa, as well as heat flow measurements in southern Africa and the southeastern Atlantic Ocean, suggest that the superswell may be attributed, at least in part, to heating of the lithosphere.

  6. The VIPERS Multi-Lambda Survey. II. Diving with massive galaxies in 22 square degrees since z = 1.5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moutard, T.; Arnouts, S.; Ilbert, O.; Coupon, J.; Davidzon, I.; Guzzo, L.; Hudelot, P.; McCracken, H. J.; Van Werbaeke, L.; Morrison, G. E.; Le Fèvre, O.; Comte, V.; Bolzonella, M.; Fritz, A.; Garilli, B.; Scodeggio, M.

    2016-05-01

    We investigate the evolution of the galaxy stellar mass function and stellar mass density from redshift z = 0.2 to z = 1.5 of a Ks < 22-selected sample with highly reliable photometric redshifts and over an unprecedentedly large area. Our study is based on near-infrared observations carried out with the WIRCam instrument at CFHT over the footprint of the VIPERS spectroscopic survey and benefits from the high-quality optical photometry from the CFHTLS and ultraviolet observations with the GALEX satellite. The accuracy of our photometric redshifts is σΔz/ (1 + z) < 0.03 and 0.05 for the bright (iAB< 22.5) and faint (iAB > 22.5) samples, respectively. The galaxy stellar mass function is measured with ~760 000 galaxies down to Ks ~ 22 and over an effective area of ~22.4 deg2, the latter of which drastically reduces the statistical uncertainties (i.e. Poissonian error and cosmic variance). We point out the importance of carefully controlling the photometric calibration, whose effect becomes quickly dominant when statistical uncertainties are reduced, which will be a major issue for future cosmological surveys with EUCLID or LSST, for instance. By exploring the rest-frame (NUV-r) vs. (r-Ks) colour-colour diagram with which we separated star-forming and quiescent galaxies, (1) we find that the density of very massive log (M∗/M⊙) > 11.5 galaxies is largely dominated by quiescent galaxies and increases by a factor 2 from z ~ 1 to z ~ 0.2, which allows for additional mass assembly through dry mergers. (2) We also confirm the scenario in which star formation activity is impeded above a stellar mass log(ℳ*SF/M⊙) = 10.64±0.01. This value is found to be very stable at 0.2

  7. 16 Extraordinary African Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lobb, Nancy

    This collection for children tells the stories of 16 African Americans who helped make America what it is today. African Americans can take pride in the heritage of these contributors to society. Biographies are given for the following: (1) Sojourner Truth, preacher and abolitionist; (2) Frederick Douglass, abolitionist; (3) Harriet Tubman, leader…

  8. African Studies Computer Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuntz, Patricia S.

    African studies computer resources that are readily available in the United States with linkages to Africa are described, highlighting those most directly corresponding to African content. Africanists can use the following four fundamental computer systems: (1) Internet/Bitnet; (2) Fidonet; (3) Usenet; and (4) dial-up bulletin board services. The…

  9. Understanding African American Males

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Edward Earl

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the socialization skills, self-esteem, and academic readiness of African American males in a school environment. Discussions with students and the School Perceptions Questionnaire provided data for this investigation. The intended targets for this investigation were African American students; however, there…

  10. Africans Away from Home.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarke, John Henrik

    Africans who were brought across the Atlantic as slaves never fully adjusted to slavery or accepted its inevitability. Resistance began on board the slave ships, where many jumped overboard or committed suicide. African slaves in South America led the first revolts against tyranny in the New World. The first slave revolt in the Caribbean occurred…

  11. Keeping African Masks Real

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waddington, Susan

    2012-01-01

    Art is a good place to learn about our multicultural planet, and African masks are prized throughout the world as powerfully expressive artistic images. Unfortunately, multicultural education, especially for young children, can perpetuate stereotypes. Masks taken out of context lose their meaning and the term "African masks" suggests that there is…

  12. Educating African American Males

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Edward E.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Schools across America spend money, invest in programs, and sponsor workshops, offer teacher incentives, raise accountability standards, and even evoke the name of Obama in efforts to raise the academic achievement of African American males. Incarceration and college retention rates point to a dismal plight for many African American…

  13. African horse sickness and African carnivores.

    PubMed

    Alexander, K A; Kat, P W; House, J; House, C; O'Brien, S J; Laurenson, M K; McNutt, J W; Osburn, B I

    1995-11-01

    African horse sickness (AHS) is a disease that affects equids, and is principally transmitted by Culicoides spp. that are biological vectors of AHS viruses (AHSV). The repeated spread of AHSV from sub-Saharan Africa to the Middle East, northern Africa and the Iberian peninsula indicate that a better understanding of AHS epizootiology is needed. African horse sickness has long been known to infect and cause mortality among domestic dogs that ingest virus contaminated meat, but it is uncertain what role carnivores play in transmission of the virus. We present evidence of widespread natural AHS infection among a diversity of African carnivore species. We hypothesize that such infection resulted from ingestion of meat and organs from AHS-infected prey species. The effect of AHS on the carnivores is unknown, as is their role in the maintenance cycle of the disease.

  14. Diabetes in African Americans

    PubMed Central

    Marshall, M

    2005-01-01

    African Americans have a high risk for type 2 diabetes. Genetic traits, the prevalence of obesity, and insulin resistance all contribute to the risk of diabetes in the African American community. African Americans have a high rate of diabetic complications, because of poor glycaemic control and racial disparities in health care in the USA. African Americans with diabetes may have an atypical presentation that simulates type 1 diabetes, but then their subsequent clinical course is typical of type 2 diabetes. Culturally sensitive strategies, structured disease management protocols, and the assistance of nurses, diabetic educators, and other health care professionals are effective in improving the outcome of diabetes in the African American community. PMID:16344294

  15. African bees to control African elephants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vollrath, Fritz; Douglas-Hamilton, Iain

    2002-11-01

    Numbers of elephants have declined in Africa and Asia over the past 30 years while numbers of humans have increased, both substantially. Friction between these two keystone species is reaching levels which are worryingly high from an ecological as well as a political viewpoint. Ways and means must be found to keep the two apart, at least in areas sensitive to each species' survival. The aggressive African bee might be one such method. Here we demonstrate that African bees deter elephants from damaging the vegetation and trees which house their hives. We argue that bees can be employed profitably to protect not only selected trees, but also selected areas, from elephant damage.

  16. Discovery of toxin-encoding genes from the false viper Macropisthodon rudis, a rear-fanged snake, by transcriptome analysis of venom gland.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhixiao; Zhang, Xi; Hu, Tingsong; Zhou, Weiguo; Cui, Qinghua; Tian, Jing; Zheng, Ying; Fan, Quanshui

    2015-11-01

    Although rear-fanged snakes are often considered as non-threatening to humans, some species are lethal or medically hazardous. The toxin components and bioactivities of front-fanged snakes have been extensively studied; however, only limited research has explored the venoms of rear-fanged snakes. The false viper, Macropisthodon rudis, is widespread in southern China, but little is known about the toxins that this snake produces. Here, we analyzed the transcriptome of the venom gland of M. rudis using high-throughput sequencing with an illumina HiSeq 2000. The raw data were assembled and annotated using public databases. The Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathways and gene ontology (GO) were analyzed. Using sequence comparisons, snake venom metalloproteinases (SVMPs) and a phosphodiesterase (PDE) were discovered in the venom gland of M. rudis.

  17. The VIMOS Public Extragalactic Redshift Survey (VIPERS) . Luminosity and stellar mass dependence of galaxy clustering at 0.5 < z < 1.1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marulli, F.; Bolzonella, M.; Branchini, E.; Davidzon, I.; de la Torre, S.; Granett, B. R.; Guzzo, L.; Iovino, A.; Moscardini, L.; Pollo, A.; Abbas, U.; Adami, C.; Arnouts, S.; Bel, J.; Bottini, D.; Cappi, A.; Coupon, J.; Cucciati, O.; De Lucia, G.; Fritz, A.; Franzetti, P.; Fumana, M.; Garilli, B.; Ilbert, O.; Krywult, J.; Le Brun, V.; Le Fèvre, O.; Maccagni, D.; Małek, K.; McCracken, H. J.; Paioro, L.; Polletta, M.; Schlagenhaufer, H.; Scodeggio, M.; Tasca, L. A. M.; Tojeiro, R.; Vergani, D.; Zanichelli, A.; Burden, A.; Di Porto, C.; Marchetti, A.; Marinoni, C.; Mellier, Y.; Nichol, R. C.; Peacock, J. A.; Percival, W. J.; Phleps, S.; Wolk, M.; Zamorani, G.

    2013-09-01

    Aims: We investigate the dependence of galaxy clustering on luminosity and stellar mass in the redshift range 0.5 < z < 1.1, using the first ~ 55 000 redshifts from the VIMOS Public Extragalactic Redshift Survey (VIPERS). Methods: We measured the redshift-space two-point correlation functions (2PCF), ξ(s) and ξ(rp,π) , and the projected correlation function, wp(rp), in samples covering different ranges of B-band absolute magnitudes and stellar masses. We considered both threshold and binned galaxy samples, with median B-band absolute magnitudes - 21.6 ≲ MB - 5log (h) ≲ - 19.5 and median stellar masses 9.8 ≲ log (M⋆ [h-2 M⊙]) ≲ 10.7. We assessed the real-space clustering in the data from the projected correlation function, which we model as a power law in the range 0.2 < rp [h-1 Mpc ] < 20. Finally, we estimated the galaxy bias as a function of luminosity, stellar mass, and redshift, assuming a flat Λ cold dark matter model to derive the dark matter 2PCF. Results: We provide the best-fit parameters of the power-law model assumed for the real-space 2PCF - the correlation length, r0, and the slope, γ - as well as the linear bias parameter, as a function of the B-band absolute magnitude, stellar mass, and redshift. We confirm and provide the tightest constraints on the dependence of clustering on luminosity at 0.5 < z < 1.1. We prove the complexity of comparing the clustering dependence on stellar mass from samples that are originally flux-limited and discuss the possible origin of the observed discrepancies. Overall, our measurements provide stronger constraints on galaxy formation models, which are now required to match, in addition to local observations, the clustering evolution measured by VIPERS galaxies between z = 0.5 and z = 1.1 for a broad range of luminosities and stellar masses. Based on observations collected at the European Southern Observatory, Paranal, Chile, under programmes 182.A-0886 (LP) at the Very Large Telescope, and also based on

  18. Purification of a basic phospholipase A2 from Indian saw-scaled viper (Echis carinatus) venom: characterization of antigenic, catalytic and pharmacological properties.

    PubMed

    Kemparaju, K; Prasad, B N; Gowda, V T

    1994-10-01

    A major basic phospholipase A2 was purified from the Indian saw-scaled viper (Echis carinatus) venom by the combination of column chromatography and electrophoresis. The purified phospholipase A2 (EC-IV-PLA2) has a mol. wt of 14,000 by SDS-PAGE. It is a basic protein with a pI value between 7.2 and 7.6, and has a fluorescence emission maxima at 340 nm. It induces neurotoxicity and oedema in mice with an i.p. LD50 of 5 mg/kg body weight. It is devoid of direct haemolytic, myotoxic, cytotoxic and anticoagulant activities. Rabbit polyclonal antibodies prepared against EC-IV-PLA2 inhibited the in vitro enzymatic activity dose dependently, but did not neutralize the toxic effects of EC-IV-PLA2 in experimental animals. PMID:7846689

  19. Purification and characterization of a platelet aggregation inhibitor acidic phospholipase A2 from Indian saw-scaled viper (Echis carinatus) venom.

    PubMed

    Kemparaju, K; Krishnakanth, T P; Veerabasappa Gowda, T

    1999-12-01

    An acidic phospholipase A2 (EC-I-PLA2) has been purified from the Indian saw-scaled viper (Echis carinatus) venom through a combination of column chromatography and electrophoresis. EC-I-PLA2 has a molecular weight of 16000 by SDS-PAGE. It was focussed between pH 4.2 and 4.8 by isoelectro focussing. EC-I-PLA2 was non-lethal to mice and devoid of neurotoxicity, myotoxicity, anticoagulant activity and cytotoxicity. It induced mild oedema in the foot pads of mice. The purified PLA2 inhibited ADP, collagen and epinephrine induced human platelet aggregation and the inhibition was both dose and time dependent. PMID:10519645

  20. Astronomy for African development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Govender, Kevindran

    2011-06-01

    In recent years there have been a number of efforts across Africa to develop the field of astronomy as well as to reap benefit from astronomy for African people. This presentation will discuss the case of the SALT (Southern African Large Telescope) Collateral Benefits Programme (SCBP) which was set up to ensure societal benefit from astronomy. With African society as the target, the SCBP has embarked on various projects from school level education to public understanding of science to socio-economic development, the latter mainly being felt in the rural communities surrounding the South African Astronomical Observatory (home to SALT). A development plan for ``Astronomy in Africa'' will also be discussed. This plan has been drawn up with input from all over Africa and themed ``Astronomy for Education''. The Africa case stands as a good example for the IYA cornerstone project ``Developing Astronomy Globally'' which focuses on developing regions.

  1. African American Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... specific health concerns. Differences in the health of groups can result from Genetics Environmental factors Access to care Cultural factors On this page, you'll find links to health issues that affect African Americans.

  2. African American Suicide

    MedlinePlus

    ... accounted for 83.8% of Caucasian elderly suicides. • Firearms were the predominant method of suicide among African ... per 100,000 annually. Source: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. National Vital Statistics System. Mortality Data. ...

  3. Visual PEF Reader - VIPER

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luo, Victor; Khanampornpan, Teerapat; Boehmer, Rudy A.; Kim, Rachel Y.

    2011-01-01

    This software graphically displays all pertinent information from a Predicted Events File (PEF) using the Java Swing framework, which allows for multi-platform support. The PEF is hard to weed through when looking for specific information and it is a desire for the MRO (Mars Reconn aissance Orbiter) Mission Planning & Sequencing Team (MPST) to have a different way to visualize the data. This tool will provide the team with a visual way of reviewing and error-checking the sequence product. The front end of the tool contains much of the aesthetically appealing material for viewing. The time stamp is displayed in the top left corner, and highlighted details are displayed in the bottom left corner. The time bar stretches along the top of the window, and the rest of the space is allotted for blocks and step functions. A preferences window is used to control the layout of the sections along with the ability to choose color and size of the blocks. Double-clicking on a block will show information contained within the block. Zooming into a certain level will graphically display that information as an overlay on the block itself. Other functions include using hotkeys to navigate, an option to jump to a specific time, enabling a vertical line, and double-clicking to zoom in/out. The back end involves a configuration file that allows a more experienced user to pre-define the structure of a block, a single event, or a step function. The individual will have to determine what information is important within each block and what actually defines the beginning and end of a block. This gives the user much more flexibility in terms of what the tool is searching for. In addition to the configurability, all the settings in the preferences window are saved in the configuration file as well

  4. Design project: Viper

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haithcock, Stephen; Koncak, Kyle; Neufang, Rich; Paufler, David; Snow, Russ; Wlad, Frank

    1992-01-01

    The design specification of the primary flight trainer are: must conform to F.A.R. 23, including the crashworthiness standards; is limited to two to four occupants; engine must be FAA certified; must comply with FAA standards for VFR and allow for upgrade to IFR flights; must be at least utility category with good spin recovery characteristics; must have a structural lifetime of at least 10,000 flight hours; capable of either of two training missions: climb to 5,000 ft., cruise 500 Nm. plus reserve, land, or climb to 1,000 ft. and descend ten cycles for landing practice, climb to 3,000 ft., maneuver at two g's for 15 minutes, cruise 100 Nm. and land; must have a cruise speed of at least 120 knots; must take-off or land on a runway no longer than 3,000 ft; and has a cost goal of $50,000, not including avionics, for production of 1,000 airplanes over a five year period.

  5. African-Americans and Alzheimer's

    MedlinePlus

    ... Share Plus on Google Plus African-Americans and Alzheimer's alz.org | IHaveAlz Introduction 10 Warning Signs Brain ... African-Americans are at a higher risk for Alzheimer's disease. Many Americans dismiss the warning signs of ...

  6. English as an African Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Desai, Gaurav

    1993-01-01

    Discusses the role of the English language in postcolonial African literature, focusing on the politics of language, "Africanized" English, and the social languages used in Chinua Achebe's novels and concludes that English today is as much an African language as a British or American one. (Contains 37 references.) (MDM)

  7. The Struggles over African Languages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maseko, Pam; Vale, Peter

    2016-01-01

    In this interview, African Language expert Pam Maseko speaks of her own background and her first encounter with culture outside of her mother tongue, isiXhosa. A statistical breakdown of South African languages is provided as background. She discusses Western (originally missionary) codification of African languages and suggests that this approach…

  8. The Genetic Structure and History of Africans and African Americans

    PubMed Central

    Tishkoff, Sarah A.; Reed, Floyd A.; Friedlaender, Françoise R.; Ehret, Christopher; Ranciaro, Alessia; Froment, Alain; Hirbo, Jibril B.; Awomoyi, Agnes A.; Bodo, Jean-Marie; Doumbo, Ogobara; Ibrahim, Muntaser; Juma, Abdalla T.; Kotze, Maritha J.; Lema, Godfrey; Moore, Jason H.; Mortensen, Holly; Nyambo, Thomas B.; Omar, Sabah A.; Powell, Kweli; Pretorius, Gideon S.; Smith, Michael W.; Thera, Mahamadou A.; Wambebe, Charles; Weber, James L.; Williams, Scott M.

    2010-01-01

    Africa is the source of all modern humans, but characterization of genetic variation and of relationships among populations across the continent has been enigmatic. We studied 121 African populations, four African American populations, and 60 non-African populations for patterns of variation at 1327 nuclear microsatellite and insertion/deletion markers. We identified 14 ancestral population clusters in Africa that correlate with self-described ethnicity and shared cultural and/or linguistic properties. We observed high levels of mixed ancestry in most populations, reflecting historical migration events across the continent. Our data also provide evidence for shared ancestry among geographically diverse hunter-gatherer populations (Khoesan speakers and Pygmies). The ancestry of African Americans is predominantly from Niger-Kordofanian (~71%), European (~13%), and other African (~8%) populations, although admixture levels varied considerably among individuals. This study helps tease apart the complex evolutionary history of Africans and African Americans, aiding both anthropological and genetic epidemiologic studies. PMID:19407144

  9. The Other African Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matory, J. Lorand

    Black North America is ethnically and culturally diverse. It contains many groups who do not call themselves or have not always called themselves "Negro,""Black,""African-American," and so forth, such as Louisiana Creoles of color and many of the Indian tribes east of the Mississippi. There are also numerous North American ethnic groups of African…

  10. African Oral Tradition Literacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Doris

    1985-01-01

    Presents the basic principles of two systems for notating African music and dance: Labanotation (created to record and analyze movements) and Greenotation (created to notate musical instruments of Africa and to parallel Labanotation whereby both music and dance are incorporated into one integrated score). (KH)

  11. Elective: African Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenkins, Kenneth V.

    The make-up of a course in African literature for high school students is discussed. It is pointed out that the course can be constructed on already familiar lines. High school students will be able to describe clearly, for example, the relationship between environment and character or the dilemma of characters caught between traditional values…

  12. Comparative study of anticoagulant and procoagulant properties of 28 snake venoms from families Elapidae, Viperidae, and purified Russell's viper venom-factor X activator (RVV-X).

    PubMed

    Suntravat, Montamas; Nuchprayoon, Issarang; Pérez, John C

    2010-09-15

    Snake venoms consist of numerous molecules with diverse biological functions used for capturing prey. Each component of venom has a specific target, and alters the biological function of its target. Once these molecules are identified, characterized, and cloned; they could have medical applications. The activated clotting time (ACT) and clot rate were used for screening procoagulant and anticoagulant properties of 28 snake venoms. Crude venoms from Daboia russellii siamensis, Bothrops asper, Bothrops moojeni, and one Crotalus oreganus helleri from Wrightwood, CA, had procoagulant activity. These venoms induced a significant shortening of the ACT and showed a significant increase in the clot rate when compared to the negative control. Factor X activator activity was also measured in 28 venoms, and D. r. siamensis venom was 5-6 times higher than those of B. asper, B. moojeni, and C. o. helleri from Wrightwood County. Russell's viper venom-factor X activator (RVV-X) was purified from D. r. siamensis venom, and then procoagulant activity was evaluated by the ACT and clot rate. Other venoms, Crotalus atrox and two Naja pallida, had anticoagulant activity. A significant increase in the ACT and a significant decrease in the clot rate were observed after the addition of these venoms; therefore, the venoms were considered to have anticoagulant activity. Venoms from the same species did not always have the same ACT and clot rate profiles, but the profiles were an excellent way to identify procoagulant and anticoagulant activities in snake venoms. PMID:20677373

  13. Purification, crystallization and preliminary crystallographic analysis of a natural complex of phospholipase A2 from Echis carinatus (saw-scaled viper).

    PubMed

    Nagpal, A; Chandra, V; Kaur, P; Singh, T P

    1999-06-01

    A novel complex of phospholipase A2 complexed with another venom protein has been isolated and purified from saw-scaled viper (Echis carinatus) venom. The molecular weights of the two components are 16 and 14 kDa, respectively. The complex was purified using an Affigel blue column and an anion-exchange (DEAE Sephacel) column. Long diamond-shaped crystals were obtained by hanging-drop vapour diffusion. The protein complex was dissolved at a concentration of 10 mg ml-1 in 20 mM sodium cacodylate, 1 mM CaCl2 and 2% dioxane at pH 6.0. The reservoir contained the same buffer with 7%(w/v) PEG 4000. Crystals appeared within 2-3 weeks. Native data to 2.9 A resolution have been obtained at 291 K. The crystals belong to the monoclinic space group P21 with unit-cell parameters a = 74.47, b = 47.87, c = 106.39 A, beta = 104.5 degrees and contain two molecules per asymmetric unit. Structure determination by molecular replacement is in progress. PMID:10329797

  14. Cytotoxic activities of [Ser⁴⁹]phospholipase A₂ from the venom of the saw-scaled vipers Echis ocellatus, Echis pyramidum leakeyi, Echis carinatus sochureki, and Echis coloratus.

    PubMed

    Conlon, J Michael; Attoub, Samir; Arafat, Hama; Mechkarska, Milena; Casewell, Nicholas R; Harrison, Robert A; Calvete, Juan J

    2013-09-01

    Fractionation by reversed-phase HPLC of venom from four species of saw-scaled viper: Echis ocellatus, Echis pyramidum leakeyi, Echis carinatus sochureki, and Echis coloratus led to identification in each sample of an abundant protein with cytotoxic activity against human non-small cell lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells. The active component in each case was identified by MALDI-TOF mass fingerprinting of tryptic digests as [Ser⁴⁹]phospholipase A₂ ([Ser⁴⁹]PLA₂). An isoform of [Ser⁴⁹]PLA₂ containing the single Ala¹⁸→ Val substitution and a partially characterized [Asp⁴⁹]PLA₂ were also present in the E. coloratus venom. LC₅₀ values against A549 cells for the purified [Ser⁴⁹]PLA₂ proteins from the four species are in the range 2.9-8.5 μM. This range is not significantly different from the range of LC₅₀ values against human umbilical vein endothelial HUVEC cells (2.5-12.2 μM) indicating that the [Ser⁴⁹]PLA₂ proteins show no differential anti-tumor activity. The LC₅₀ value for [Ser⁴⁹]PLA₂ from E. ocellatus against human erythrocytes is >100 μM and the MIC values against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus are >100 μM. It is suggested that the [Ser⁴⁹]PLA₂ proteins play a major role in producing local tissue necrosis and hemorrhage at the site of envenomation. PMID:23747272

  15. Structure of an acidic phospholipase A2 from Indian saw-scaled viper (Echis carinatus) at 2.6 A resolution reveals a novel intermolecular interaction.

    PubMed

    Jasti, Jayasankar; Paramasivam, M; Srinivasan, A; Singh, T P

    2004-01-01

    The crystal structure of an acidic phospholipase A(2) from the venom of Echis carinatus (saw-scaled viper; scPLA(2)) has been determined at 2.6 A resolution and refined to a crystallographic R factor of 0.192. Although the overall structure of scPLA(2) is essentially similar to those of other group II acidic PLA(2)s from different species, it shows unique features in several parts. Particularly noteworthy is the C-terminal part, which folds differently to those of other group II PLA(2)s. This part is considered to be responsible for inhibition of the platelet-aggregation activity. The calcium-binding loop is tightly organized with sevenfold coordination. Another striking feature of scPLA(2) is the involvement of Asn79 O(delta1) of a symmetry-related molecule in a coordination linkage with Ca(2+) of the calcium-binding loop. This is the first observation of an internal metal ion participating in an intermolecular interaction. The beta-wing of a molecule is deeply inserted into the hydrophobic channel of another molecule and forms several intermolecular interactions. This results in the formation of an infinite chain of molecules. These chains are stacked in an antiparallel arrangement in the crystals. PMID:14684894

  16. Understanding traditional African healing

    PubMed Central

    MOKGOBI, M.G.

    2015-01-01

    Traditional African healing has been in existence for many centuries yet many people still seem not to understand how it relates to God and religion/spirituality. Some people seem to believe that traditional healers worship the ancestors and not God. It is therefore the aim of this paper to clarify this relationship by discussing a chain of communication between the worshipers and the Almighty God. Other aspects of traditional healing namely types of traditional healers, training of traditional healers as well as the role of traditional healers in their communities are discussed. In conclusion, the services of traditional healers go far beyond the uses of herbs for physical illnesses. Traditional healers serve many roles which include but not limited to custodians of the traditional African religion and customs, educators about culture, counselors, social workers and psychologists. PMID:26594664

  17. Human African trypanosomiasis.

    PubMed

    Lejon, Veerle; Bentivoglio, Marina; Franco, José Ramon

    2013-01-01

    Human African trypanosomiasis or sleeping sickness is a neglected tropical disease that affects populations in sub-Saharan Africa. The disease is caused by infection with the gambiense and rhodesiense subspecies of the extracellular parasite Trypanosoma brucei, and is transmitted to humans by bites of infected tsetse flies. The disease evolves in two stages, the hemolymphatic and meningoencephalitic stages, the latter being defined by central nervous system infection after trypanosomal traversal of the blood-brain barrier. African trypanosomiasis, which leads to severe neuroinflammation, is fatal without treatment, but the available drugs are toxic and complicated to administer. The choice of medication is determined by the infecting parasite subspecies and disease stage. Clinical features include a constellation of nonspecific symptoms and signs with evolving neurological and psychiatric alterations and characteristic sleep-wake disturbances. Because of the clinical profile variability and insidiously progressive central nervous system involvement, disease staging is currently based on cerebrospinal fluid examination, which is usually performed after the finding of trypanosomes in blood or other body fluids. No vaccine being available, control of human African trypanosomiasis relies on diagnosis and treatment of infected patients, assisted by vector control. Better diagnostic tools and safer, easy to use drugs are needed to facilitate elimination of the disease.

  18. Diversity among African Pygmies

    PubMed Central

    Ramírez Rozzi, Fernando V.; Sardi, Marina L.

    2010-01-01

    Although dissimilarities in cranial and post-cranial morphology among African pygmies groups have been recognized, comparative studies on skull morphology usually pull all pygmies together assuming that morphological characters are similar among them and different with respect to other populations. The main aim of this study is to compare cranial morphology between African pygmies and non-pygmies populations from Equatorial Africa derived from both the Eastern and the Western regions in order to test if the greatest morphological difference is obtained in the comparison between pygmies and non-pygmies. Thirty three-dimensional (3D) landmarks registered with Microscribe in four cranial samples (Western and Eastern pygmies and non-pygmies) were obtained. Multivariate analysis (generalized Procrustes analysis, Mahalanobis distances, multivariate regression) and complementary dimensions of size were evaluated with ANOVA and post hoc LSD. Results suggest that important cranial shape differentiation does occur between pygmies and non-pygmies but also between Eastern and Western populations and that size changes and allometries do not affect similarly Eastern and Western pygmies. Therefore, our findings raise serious doubt about the fact to consider African pygmies as a homogenous group in studies on skull morphology. Differences in cranial morphology among pygmies would suggest differentiation after divergence. Although not directly related to skull differentiation, the diversity among pygmies would probably suggest that the process responsible for reduced stature occurred after the split of the ancestors of modern Eastern and Western pygmies. PMID:21049030

  19. African horse sickness.

    PubMed

    Zientara, S; Weyer, C T; Lecollinet, S

    2015-08-01

    African horse sickness (AHS) is a devastating disease of equids caused by an arthropod-borne virus belonging to the Reoviridae family, genus Orbivirus. It is considered a major health threat for horses in endemic areas in sub-Saharan Africa. African horse sickness virus (AHSV) repeatedly caused large epizootics in the Mediterranean region (North Africa and southern Europe in particular) as a result of trade in infected equids. The unexpected emergence of a closely related virus, the bluetongue virus, in northern Europe in 2006 has raised fears about AHSV introduction into Europe, and more specifically into AHSV-free regions that have reported the presence of AHSV vectors, e.g. Culicoides midges. North African and European countries should be prepared to face AHSV incursions in the future, especially since two AHSV serotypes (serotypes 2 and 7) have recently spread northwards to western (e.g. Senegal, Nigeria, Gambia) and eastern Africa (Ethiopia), where historically only serotype 9 had been isolated. The authors review key elements of AHS epidemiology, surveillance and prophylaxis. PMID:26601437

  20. East African Rift Valley, Kenya

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    This rare, cloud free view of the East African Rift Valley, Kenya (1.5N, 35.5E) shows a clear view of the Turkwell River Valley, an offshoot of the African REift System. The East African Rift is part of a vast plate fracture which extends from southern Turkey, through the Red Sea, East Africa and into Mozambique. Dark green patches of forests are seen along the rift margin and tea plantations occupy the cooler higher ground.

  1. Developmental stages of Hepatozoon seurati (Laveran and Pettit 1911) comb. nov., a parasite of the corned viper Cerastes cerastes and the mosquito Culex pipiens from Egypt.

    PubMed

    Morsy, Kareem; Bashtar, Abdel Rahman; Ghaffar, Fathy Abdel; Al Quraishy, Saleh; Al Hashimi, Salam; Al Ghamdi, Ali; Shazly, Mohammed

    2013-07-01

    Developmental stages of Hepatozoon seurati (Laveran and Pettit 1911) comb. nov. are described from the tissues of the corned viper Cerastes cerastes, and from the vector Culex pipiens. The parasite described in the present study is firstly recorded as Haemogregarina seurati (Laveran and Pettit 1911) in the same host. After demonstration of the sporogonous development in the mosquito vector (C. pipiens) which showed all characteristics of the genus Hepatozoon (large oocysts containing many sporocysts producing numerous sporozoites), the parasite should be transferred into the genus Hepatozoon. The infected erythrocytes measured 20 ± 0.95 × 7.3 ± 0.85 μm; while uninfected cells measured 13.3 ± 1.04 × 7.5 ± 0.16 μm. Hypertrophy and faintly stained cytoplasm are mostly occurred in infected erythrocytes. Blood stages of the parasite were found exclusively in the erythrocytes in two forms: (1) small trophozoites (10.0 ± 0.52 × 3.0 ± 0.4 μm) and (2) long (mature) sausage-shaped (16.5 ± 1.5 × 3.5 ± 0.4 μm). Merogony occurred in the endothelial cells of the blood capillaries of lung, liver, and spleen. Mature meronts was 27.6 ± 0.7 × 17.5 ± 0.5 μm in diameter and contained 20-35 merozoites (averaged in 26). These merozoites measured 16.5 ± 1.5 × 3.5 ± 0.4 μm. Syzygy and gamogony occurred in the mosquito myxocoel till the 5th day post-infection (p.i.) while sporogony took place after 15 days p.i. On the third day p.i., a large spherical macrogamete of 29.0 ± 0.8 × 20.5 ± 0.6 μm containing a distinct nucleus in association with a single microgamete were observed. The microgamete was pyriform measured 8 ± 02 μm in length. It had a prominent nucleus and a long flagellum of at least 20.4 ± 1.3 μm in length. Fertilization occurred on the 3rd to the 4th days p.i. and the formed zygote developed into an oocyst in which repeated mitotic divisions with centripetal invaginations occurred producing sporoblasts. After sporulation, each

  2. Inhibition of secretary PLA₂--VRV-PL-VIIIa of Russell's viper venom by standard aqueous stem bark extract of Mangifera indica L.

    PubMed

    Dhananjaya, B L; Sudarshan, S

    2015-03-01

    The aqueous extract of Mangifera indica is known to possess anti-snake venom activities. However, its inhibitory potency and mechanism of action on multi-toxic phospholipases A2s, which are the most toxic and lethal component of snake venom is still unknown. Therefore, this study was carried out to evaluate the modulatory effect of standard aqueous bark extract of M. indica on VRV-PL-VIIIa of Indian Russells viper venom. Mangifera indica extract dose dependently inhibited the GIIB sPLA2 (VRV-PL-VIIIa) activity with an IC50 value of 6.8±0.3 μg/ml. M. indica extract effectively inhibited the indirect hemolytic activity up to 96% at ~40 μg/ml concentration. Further, M. indica extract at different concentrations (0-50 μg/ml) inhibited the edema formed in a dose dependent manner. It was found that there was no relieve of inhibitory effect of the extract when examined as a function of increased substrate and calcium concentration. The inhibition was irreversible as evident from binding studies. The in vitro inhibition is well correlated with in situ and in vivo edema inducing activities. As the inhibition is independent of substrate, calcium concentration and was irreversible, it can be concluded that M. indica extracts mode of inhibition could be due to direct interaction of components present in the extract with PLA2 enzyme. In conclusion, the aqueous extract of M. indica effectively inhibits svPLA2 (Snake venom phospholipase A2) enzymatic and its associated toxic activities, which substantiate its anti-snake venom properties. Further in-depth studies are interesting to known on the role and mechanism of the principal inhibitory constituents present in the extract, so as to develop them into potent anti-snake venom and as an anti-inflammatory agent. PMID:25801252

  3. Inhibition of secretary PLA₂--VRV-PL-VIIIa of Russell's viper venom by standard aqueous stem bark extract of Mangifera indica L.

    PubMed

    Dhananjaya, B L; Sudarshan, S

    2015-03-01

    The aqueous extract of Mangifera indica is known to possess anti-snake venom activities. However, its inhibitory potency and mechanism of action on multi-toxic phospholipases A2s, which are the most toxic and lethal component of snake venom is still unknown. Therefore, this study was carried out to evaluate the modulatory effect of standard aqueous bark extract of M. indica on VRV-PL-VIIIa of Indian Russells viper venom. Mangifera indica extract dose dependently inhibited the GIIB sPLA2 (VRV-PL-VIIIa) activity with an IC50 value of 6.8±0.3 μg/ml. M. indica extract effectively inhibited the indirect hemolytic activity up to 96% at ~40 μg/ml concentration. Further, M. indica extract at different concentrations (0-50 μg/ml) inhibited the edema formed in a dose dependent manner. It was found that there was no relieve of inhibitory effect of the extract when examined as a function of increased substrate and calcium concentration. The inhibition was irreversible as evident from binding studies. The in vitro inhibition is well correlated with in situ and in vivo edema inducing activities. As the inhibition is independent of substrate, calcium concentration and was irreversible, it can be concluded that M. indica extracts mode of inhibition could be due to direct interaction of components present in the extract with PLA2 enzyme. In conclusion, the aqueous extract of M. indica effectively inhibits svPLA2 (Snake venom phospholipase A2) enzymatic and its associated toxic activities, which substantiate its anti-snake venom properties. Further in-depth studies are interesting to known on the role and mechanism of the principal inhibitory constituents present in the extract, so as to develop them into potent anti-snake venom and as an anti-inflammatory agent.

  4. Detection of Trichomonas vaginalis DNA by use of self-obtained vaginal swabs with the BD ProbeTec Qx assay on the BD Viper system.

    PubMed

    Van Der Pol, Barbara; Williams, James A; Taylor, Stephanie N; Cammarata, Catherine L; Rivers, Charles A; Body, Barbara A; Nye, Melinda; Fuller, Deanna; Schwebke, Jane R; Barnes, Mathilda; Gaydos, Charlotte A

    2014-03-01

    Trichomonas vaginalis is the most prevalent nonviral sexually transmitted infection worldwide, and improved diagnostic methods are critical for controlling this pathogen. Diagnostic assays that can be used in conjunction with routine chlamydia/gonorrhea nucleic acid-based screening are likely to have the most impact on disease control. Here we describe the performance of the new BD T. vaginalis Qx (TVQ) amplified DNA assay, which can be performed on the automated BD Viper system. We focus on data from vaginal swab samples, since this is the specimen type routinely used for traditional trichomonas testing and the recommended specimen type for chlamydia/gonorrhea screening. Vaginal swabs were obtained from women attending sexually transmitted disease or family planning clinics at 7 sites. Patient-collected vaginal swabs were tested by the TVQ assay, and the Aptima T. vaginalis (ATV) assay was performed using clinician-collected vaginal swabs. Additional clinician-collected vaginal swabs were used for the wet mount and culture methods. Analyses included comparisons versus the patient infection status (PIS) defined by positive results with the wet mount method or culture, direct comparisons assessed with κ scores, and latent class analysis (LCA) as an unbiased estimator of test accuracy. Data from 838 women, 116 of whom were infected with T. vaginalis, were analyzed. The TVQ assay sensitivity and specificity estimates based on the PIS were 98.3% and 99.0%, respectively. The TVQ assay was similar to the ATV assay (κ=0.938) in direct analysis. LCA estimated the TVQ sensitivity and specificity as 98.3 and 99.6%, respectively. The TVQ assay performed well using self-collected vaginal swabs, the optimal sample type, as recommended by the CDC for chlamydia/gonorrhea screening among women. PMID:24391200

  5. Venom lethality and diet: differential responses of natural prey and model organisms to the venom of the saw-scaled vipers (Echis).

    PubMed

    Richards, D P; Barlow, A; Wüster, W

    2012-01-01

    The composition of snake venoms shows a high degree of variation at all taxonomic levels, and natural selection for diet has been implicated as a potential cause. Saw-scaled vipers (Echis) provide a good model for studying this phenomenon. The venoms of arthropod feeding species of Echis are significantly more toxic to natural scorpion prey than those of species which feed predominantly upon vertebrate prey. Although testing venom activity on natural prey is important for our understanding of the evolution of venom, natural prey species are often difficult to obtain in sufficient numbers for toxinological work. In order to test the viability of using cheaper and more easily available model organisms for toxicity assessments in evolutionary research, and the extent to which toxicity of arthropod-eating Echis venoms is increased to arthropods in general or targeted to certain groups, we conducted median lethal dosage (LD(50)) and time to death trials using the desert locust (Schistocerca gregaria) as a model arthropod, rarely consumed by wild Echis. The venoms of arthropod specialist Echis were found to be significantly more toxic to locusts than the venom of a vertebrate feeding outgroup (Bitis arietans), and one arthropod specialist venom was found to be more toxic than those species which feed upon arthropods infrequently or not at all. The venoms of arthropod specialists were also found to cause death and incapacitation faster than the vertebrate feeding outgroup. Despite some similarity of trends, there are considerable differences between the response of natural prey (scorpions) and a model arthropod (locust) to the venoms of Echis species. This suggests that when possible, natural prey rather than convenient model organisms should be used to gain an understanding of the functional significance of variation in venom composition in snakes. PMID:22079297

  6. A Teacher's Guide to African Narratives. Studies in African Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Brien, Sara Talis

    This guide is designed to help secondary school teachers include African literature in their classes. It furnishes English and social studies teachers with a foundation for teaching African literature by offering critical commentary on the texts themselves. A synthesis of anthropological and historical material is presented to help both teachers…

  7. African American Administrators and Staff

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Dianne; Taylor, Janice D.; Burrell, Charlotte; Stewart, Gregory

    2006-01-01

    This article explores the issues of African American participation in the administrative ranks of the academy. The authors find that African Americans tend to hold positions that are marginal in academic organizations, lacking power and influence, and that not much has changed over recent decades. Forces influencing this condition are explored,…

  8. African-American Children's Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kline, Lucinda

    This paper examines the history of African American children's literature, the present-day status of it, and ventures predictions about its future. The paper also considers the historic and social factors of the debate about whether an author who is not African American can write a book that will/should be accepted in this category of children's…

  9. African-American Sacred Music.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, A. Peter

    1991-01-01

    The history of African-American sacred music is traced from the time of slavery to the present interest in gospel music. The religious music of African Americans is geared toward liberation themes. It is important that this music does not dilute its power through cross-over with other music forms. (SLD)

  10. Africanization in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Pinto, M. Alice; Rubink, William L.; Patton, John C.; Coulson, Robert N.; Johnston, J. Spencer

    2005-01-01

    The expansion of Africanized honeybees from South America to the southwestern United States in <50 years is considered one of the most spectacular biological invasions yet documented. In the American tropics, it has been shown that during their expansion Africanized honeybees have low levels of introgressed alleles from resident European populations. In the United States, it has been speculated, but not shown, that Africanized honeybees would hybridize extensively with European honeybees. Here we report a continuous 11-year study investigating temporal changes in the genetic structure of a feral population from the southern United States undergoing Africanization. Our microsatellite data showed that (1) the process of Africanization involved both maternal and paternal bidirectional gene flow between European and Africanized honeybees and (2) the panmitic European population was replaced by panmitic mixtures of A. m. scutellata and European genes within 5 years after Africanization. The post-Africanization gene pool (1998–2001) was composed of a diverse array of recombinant classes with a substantial European genetic contribution (mean 25–37%). Therefore, the resulting feral honeybee population of south Texas was best viewed as a hybrid swarm. PMID:15937139

  11. Phylogeny and diversification of mountain vipers (Montivipera, Nilson et al., 2001) triggered by multiple Plio-Pleistocene refugia and high-mountain topography in the Near and Middle East.

    PubMed

    Stümpel, Nikolaus; Rajabizadeh, Mehdi; Avcı, Aziz; Wüster, Wolfgang; Joger, Ulrich

    2016-08-01

    The Near and Middle East is a hotspot of biodiversity, but the region remains underexplored at the level of genetic biodiversity. Here, we present an extensive molecular phylogeny of the viperid snake genus Montivipera, including all known taxa. Based on nuclear and mitochondrial data, we present novel insights into the phylogeny of the genus and review the status of its constituent species. Maximum likelihood methods revealed a montane origin of Montivipera at 12.3Mya. We then analyzed factors of mountain viper diversity. Our data support substantial changes in effective population size through Plio-Pleistocene periods. We conclude that climatic oscillations were drivers of allopatric speciation, and that mountain systems of the Near and Middle East have strongly influenced the evolution and survival of taxa, because climatic and topographical heterogeneities induced by mountains have played a crucial role as filters for dispersal and as multiple refugia. The wide diversity of montane microhabitats enabled mountain vipers to retain their ecological niche during climatic pessima. In consequence the varied geological and topographical conditions between refugia favoured genetic isolation and created patterns of species richness resulting in the formation of neoendemic taxa. Our data support high concordance between geographic distributions of Montivipera haplotypes with putative plant refugia.

  12. The history of African trypanosomiasis

    PubMed Central

    Steverding, Dietmar

    2008-01-01

    The prehistory of African trypanosomiasis indicates that the disease may have been an important selective factor in the evolution of hominids. Ancient history and medieval history reveal that African trypanosomiasis affected the lives of people living in sub-Saharan African at all times. Modern history of African trypanosomiasis revolves around the identification of the causative agents and the mode of transmission of the infection, and the development of drugs for treatment and methods for control of the disease. From the recent history of sleeping sickness we can learn that the disease can be controlled but probably not be eradicated. Current history of human African trypanosomiasis has shown that the production of anti-sleeping sickness drugs is not always guaranteed, and therefore, new, better and cheaper drugs are urgently required. PMID:18275594

  13. Cancer statistics for African Americans.

    PubMed

    Ghafoor, Asma; Jemal, Ahmedin; Cokkinides, Vilma; Cardinez, Cheryll; Murray, Taylor; Samuels, Alicia; Thun, Michael J

    2002-01-01

    The American Cancer Society provides estimates on the number of new cancer cases and deaths, and compiles health statistics on African Americans in a biennial publication, Cancer Facts and Figures for African Americans. The compiled statistics include cancer incidence, mortality, survival, and lifestyle behaviors using the most recent data on incidence and survival from the National Cancer Institute's (NCI) Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) program, mortality data from the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS), and behavioral information from the Behavior Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS), Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS), and National Health Interview Survey (NHIS). It is estimated that 132,700 new cases of cancer and 63,100 deaths will occur among African Americans in the year 2003. Although African Americans have experienced higher incidence and mortality rates of cancer than whites for many years, incidence rates have declined by 2.7 percent per year in African-American males since 1992, while stabilizing in African-American females. During the same period, death rates declined by 2.1 percent and 0.4 percent per year among African-American males and females, respectively. The decrease in both incidence and death rates from cancer among African-American males was the largest of any racial or ethnic group. Nonetheless, African Americans still carry the highest cancer burden among US racial and ethnic groups. Most cancers detectable by screening are diagnosed at a later stage and survival rates are lower within each stage of disease in African Americans than in whites. The extent to which these disparities reflect unequal access to health care versus other factors is an active area of research.

  14. Bioenergy and African transformation.

    PubMed

    Lynd, Lee R; Sow, Mariam; Chimphango, Annie Fa; Cortez, Luis Ab; Brito Cruz, Carlos H; Elmissiry, Mosad; Laser, Mark; Mayaki, Ibrahim A; Moraes, Marcia Afd; Nogueira, Luiz Ah; Wolfaardt, Gideon M; Woods, Jeremy; van Zyl, Willem H

    2015-01-01

    Among the world's continents, Africa has the highest incidence of food insecurity and poverty and the highest rates of population growth. Yet Africa also has the most arable land, the lowest crop yields, and by far the most plentiful land resources relative to energy demand. It is thus of interest to examine the potential of expanded modern bioenergy production in Africa. Here we consider bioenergy as an enabler for development, and provide an overview of modern bioenergy technologies with a comment on application in an Africa context. Experience with bioenergy in Africa offers evidence of social benefits and also some important lessons. In Brazil, social development, agricultural development and food security, and bioenergy development have been synergistic rather than antagonistic. Realizing similar success in African countries will require clear vision, good governance, and adaptation of technologies, knowledge, and business models to myriad local circumstances. Strategies for integrated production of food crops, livestock, and bioenergy are potentially attractive and offer an alternative to an agricultural model featuring specialized land use. If done thoughtfully, there is considerable evidence that food security and economic development in Africa can be addressed more effectively with modern bioenergy than without it. Modern bioenergy can be an agent of African transformation, with potential social benefits accruing to multiple sectors and extending well beyond energy supply per se. Potential negative impacts also cut across sectors. Thus, institutionally inclusive multi-sector legislative structures will be more effective at maximizing the social benefits of bioenergy compared to institutionally exclusive, single-sector structures. PMID:25709714

  15. African oil plays

    SciTech Connect

    Clifford, A.J. )

    1989-09-01

    The vast continent of Africa hosts over eight sedimentary basins, covering approximately half its total area. Of these basins, only 82% have entered a mature exploration phase, 9% have had little or no exploration at all. Since oil was first discovered in Africa during the mid-1950s, old play concepts continue to bear fruit, for example in Egypt and Nigeria, while new play concepts promise to become more important, such as in Algeria, Angola, Chad, Egypt, Gabon, and Sudan. The most exciting developments of recent years in African oil exploration are: (1) the Gamba/Dentale play, onshore Gabon; (2) the Pinda play, offshore Angola; (3) the Lucula/Toca play, offshore Cabinda; (4) the Metlaoui play, offshore Libya/Tunisia; (5) the mid-Cretaceous sand play, Chad/Sudan; and (6) the TAG-I/F6 play, onshore Algeria. Examples of these plays are illustrated along with some of the more traditional oil plays. Where are the future oil plays likely to develop No doubt, the Saharan basins of Algeria and Libya will feature strongly, also the presalt of Equatorial West Africa, the Central African Rift System and, more speculatively, offshore Ethiopia and Namibia, and onshore Madagascar, Mozambique, and Tanzania.

  16. Bioenergy and African transformation.

    PubMed

    Lynd, Lee R; Sow, Mariam; Chimphango, Annie Fa; Cortez, Luis Ab; Brito Cruz, Carlos H; Elmissiry, Mosad; Laser, Mark; Mayaki, Ibrahim A; Moraes, Marcia Afd; Nogueira, Luiz Ah; Wolfaardt, Gideon M; Woods, Jeremy; van Zyl, Willem H

    2015-01-01

    Among the world's continents, Africa has the highest incidence of food insecurity and poverty and the highest rates of population growth. Yet Africa also has the most arable land, the lowest crop yields, and by far the most plentiful land resources relative to energy demand. It is thus of interest to examine the potential of expanded modern bioenergy production in Africa. Here we consider bioenergy as an enabler for development, and provide an overview of modern bioenergy technologies with a comment on application in an Africa context. Experience with bioenergy in Africa offers evidence of social benefits and also some important lessons. In Brazil, social development, agricultural development and food security, and bioenergy development have been synergistic rather than antagonistic. Realizing similar success in African countries will require clear vision, good governance, and adaptation of technologies, knowledge, and business models to myriad local circumstances. Strategies for integrated production of food crops, livestock, and bioenergy are potentially attractive and offer an alternative to an agricultural model featuring specialized land use. If done thoughtfully, there is considerable evidence that food security and economic development in Africa can be addressed more effectively with modern bioenergy than without it. Modern bioenergy can be an agent of African transformation, with potential social benefits accruing to multiple sectors and extending well beyond energy supply per se. Potential negative impacts also cut across sectors. Thus, institutionally inclusive multi-sector legislative structures will be more effective at maximizing the social benefits of bioenergy compared to institutionally exclusive, single-sector structures.

  17. Clinical safety of a polyvalent F(ab')2 equine antivenom in 223 African snake envenomations: a field trial in Cameroon. VAO (Venin Afrique de l'Ouest) Investigators.

    PubMed

    Chippaux, J P; Lang, J; Eddine, S A; Fagot, P; Rage, V; Peyrieux, J C; Le Mener, V

    1998-01-01

    A large-scale clinical trials was conducted, according to World Health Organization Good Clinical Practice guidelines, in 7 centres in north Cameroon to determine the safety and efficacy of a polyvalent antivenom composed of purified F(ab')2. This study included 223 patients presenting clinically with obvious snake bite, predominantly due to Echis ocellatus (viper), the most abundant species in this savannah region. Clinical surveillance was maintained for 5 d in all patients and until the twenty-sixth day in 74% of cases. Two 10 mL ampoules of polyvalent F(ab')2 equine antivenom (Ipser Africa) were administered to each patient by intravenous infusion. If necessary, treatment was repeated 1 h after the end of the first infusion, and then with a frequency determined by the patient's clinical condition. Before initiation of antivenom treatment, the main clinical disorders observed on admission were oedema (93.7%) and haemorrhage (48.9%), with a clotting time longer than 30 min in 65.4% of patients. Clinical cure was obtained in 213 patients (96.8%). No amputation was necessary, and the case fatality rate was only 1.3%. On average, 4.6 (+/- 3.7) ampoules were administered per patient; 43% of subjects recovered after only a single infusion of 2 ampoules. Early adverse reactions, of varying degrees of severity, were observed in 6.3% of patients. A severe early reaction, anaphylactic shock, was observed in only one patient (0.4%). Serum sickness was observed in another patient. Polyvalent F(ab')2 equine antivenom given by repeated 20 mL intravenous infusions is a safe and effective treatment for envenomation caused by African vipers. PMID:10326114

  18. Successfully Educating Our African-American Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moncree-Moffett, Kareem

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this empirical study was to explore the lived experiences of African American retired female teachers who have prior experience with educating urban African American students in public schools. Also explored are the experiences of active African American female teachers of urban African American students and comparisons are…

  19. Negro, Black, Black African, African Caribbean, African American or what? Labelling African origin populations in the health arena in the 21st century

    PubMed Central

    Agyemang, C.; Bhopal, R.; Bruijnzeels, M.

    2005-01-01

    Broad terms such as Black, African, or Black African are entrenched in scientific writings although there is considerable diversity within African descent populations and such terms may be both offensive and inaccurate. This paper outlines the heterogeneity within African populations, and discusses the strengths and limitations of the term Black and related labels from epidemiological and public health perspectives in Europe and the USA. This paper calls for debate on appropriate terminologies for African descent populations and concludes with the proposals that (1) describing the population under consideration is of paramount importance (2) the word African origin or simply African is an appropriate and necessary prefix for an ethnic label, for example, African Caribbean or African Kenyan or African Surinamese (3) documents should define the ethnic labels (4) the label Black should be phased out except when used in political contexts. PMID:16286485

  20. Negro, Black, Black African, African Caribbean, African American or what? Labelling African origin populations in the health arena in the 21st century.

    PubMed

    Agyemang, Charles; Bhopal, Raj; Bruijnzeels, Marc

    2005-12-01

    Broad terms such as Black, African, or Black African are entrenched in scientific writings although there is considerable diversity within African descent populations and such terms may be both offensive and inaccurate. This paper outlines the heterogeneity within African populations, and discusses the strengths and limitations of the term Black and related labels from epidemiological and public health perspectives in Europe and the USA. This paper calls for debate on appropriate terminologies for African descent populations and concludes with the proposals that (1) describing the population under consideration is of paramount importance (2) the word African origin or simply African is an appropriate and necessary prefix for an ethnic label, for example, African Caribbean or African Kenyan or African Surinamese (3) documents should define the ethnic labels (4) the label Black should be phased out except when used in political contexts. PMID:16286485

  1. African and African Caribbean users' perceptions of inpatient services.

    PubMed

    Secker, J; Harding, C

    2002-04-01

    It has been suggested that well-documented differences in African and African Caribbean people's contact with mental health services may stem from the organization, processes and practices of services themselves. This article presents the findings of a qualitative study which explored the inpatient experiences of a sample of African and African Caribbean people. Although some positive experiences were described, in the main, participants' accounts revolved around a sense of loss of control and around experiences of overt and implicit racism. Underpinning these experiences were relationships with staff that were perceived to be unhelpful. On the basis of both the positive and negative experiences described, we draw conclusions about the changes required to ensure that inpatient services more effectively meet the needs of this group.

  2. The African Millennium Villages

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez, Pedro; Palm, Cheryl; Sachs, Jeffrey; Denning, Glenn; Flor, Rafael; Harawa, Rebbie; Jama, Bashir; Kiflemariam, Tsegazeab; Konecky, Bronwen; Kozar, Raffaela; Lelerai, Eliud; Malik, Alia; Modi, Vijay; Mutuo, Patrick; Niang, Amadou; Okoth, Herine; Place, Frank; Sachs, Sonia Ehrlich; Said, Amir; Siriri, David; Teklehaimanot, Awash; Wang, Karen; Wangila, Justine; Zamba, Colleen

    2007-01-01

    We describe the concept, strategy, and initial results of the Millennium Villages Project and implications regarding sustainability and scalability. Our underlying hypothesis is that the interacting crises of agriculture, health, and infrastructure in rural Africa can be overcome through targeted public-sector investments to raise rural productivity and, thereby, to increased private-sector saving and investments. This is carried out by empowering impoverished communities with science-based interventions. Seventy-eight Millennium Villages have been initiated in 12 sites in 10 African countries, each representing a major agroecological zone. In early results, the research villages in Kenya, Ethiopia, and Malawi have reduced malaria prevalence, met caloric requirements, generated crop surpluses, enabled school feeding programs, and provided cash earnings for farm families. PMID:17942701

  3. Central African Republic.

    PubMed

    1989-11-01

    The Central African Republic contains 242,000 square miles, which rolling terrain almost 2000 feet above sea level. The climate is tropical, and it has a population of 2.8 million people with a 2.5% growth rate. There are more than 80 ethnic groups including Baya 34%, Banda 28%, Sara 10%, Mandja 9%, Mboum 9%, and M'Baka 7%. The religions are traditional African 35%, protestant 25%, Roman Catholic 25%, and Muslim 15%, and the languages are French and Sangho. The infant mortality rate is 143/1000, with expectancy at 49 years and a 40% literacy rate. The work force of 1 million is 70% agricultural, industry 6% and commerce and service 6% and government 3%. The government consists of a president assisted by cabinet ministers and a single party. Natural resources include diamonds, uranium, timber, gold, and oil, and major industries are beverages, textiles, and soap. Agricultural products feature coffee, cotton, peanuts, tobacco, food crops and livestock. Most of the population live in rural areas and most of the 80 ethnic groups have their own language. This is one of the world's least developed countries, with a per capita income of $375/year. The main problems with development are the poor transportation infrastructure, and the weak internal and international marketing systems. The US and various international organizations have aided in agriculture development, health programs, and family planning. US investment is mainly in diamond and gold mining, and although oil drilling has been successful it is not economically feasible at current prices.

  4. Early African Hominids: Pedagogic Patterns.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, James L.

    1984-01-01

    By studying early African hominids, students can learn about the interactive testing and creative aspects of scientific thinking and sharpen their geographical skills. It is impossible to study this topic without giving prominence to space and time. (RM)

  5. Hepatitis C in African Americans.

    PubMed

    Saab, Sammy; Jackson, Christian; Nieto, Jose; Francois, Fritz

    2014-10-01

    The care of hepatitis C virus (HCV) in African Americans represents an opportunity to address a major health disparity in medicine. In all facets of HCV infection, African Americans are inexplicably affected, including in the prevalence of the virus, which is higher among them compared with most of the racial and ethnic groups. Ironically, although fibrosis rates may be slow, hepatocellular carcinoma and mortality rates appear to be higher among African Americans. Sustained viral response (SVR) rates have historically significantly trailed behind Caucasians. The reasons for this gap in SVR are related to both viral and host factors. Moreover, low enrollment rates in clinical trials hamper the study of the efficacy of anti-viral therapy. Nevertheless, the gap in SVR between African Americans and Caucasians may be narrowing with the use of direct-acting agents. Gastroenterologists, hepatologists, primary care physicians, and other health-care providers need to address modifiable risk factors that affect the natural history, as well as treatment outcomes, for HCV among African Americans. Efforts need to be made to improve awareness among health-care providers to address the differences in screening and referral patterns for African Americans.

  6. The African Pediatric Fellowship Program: Training in Africa for Africans.

    PubMed

    Wilmshurst, Jo M; Morrow, Brenda; du Preez, Avril; Githanga, David; Kennedy, Neil; Zar, Heather J

    2016-01-01

    Africa has a significant burden of childhood disease, with relatively few skilled health care professionals. The African Paediatric Fellowship Programme was developed by the Department of Pediatrics and Child Health at the University of Cape Town to provide relevant training for African child health professionals, by Africans, within Africa. Trainees identified by partner academic institutions spend 6 months to 2 years training in the Department of Pediatrics and allied disciplines. They then return to their home institution to build practice, training, research, and advocacy. From 2008 to 2015, 73 physicians have completed or are completing training in general pediatrics or a pediatric subspecialty. At 1 year posttraining, 98% to 100% are practicing back in their home institution. The impact of the returning fellows is evident from their practice interventions, research collaborations, and positions as stakeholders who can change health care policies. Thirty-three centers in 13 African countries are partners with the program, and the program template is now followed by other partner sites in Africa. Increasing and retaining the skills pool of African child health specialists is building a network of motivated, highly skilled clinicians who are equipped to advance child health in Africa. PMID:26659458

  7. The African Pediatric Fellowship Program: Training in Africa for Africans.

    PubMed

    Wilmshurst, Jo M; Morrow, Brenda; du Preez, Avril; Githanga, David; Kennedy, Neil; Zar, Heather J

    2016-01-01

    Africa has a significant burden of childhood disease, with relatively few skilled health care professionals. The African Paediatric Fellowship Programme was developed by the Department of Pediatrics and Child Health at the University of Cape Town to provide relevant training for African child health professionals, by Africans, within Africa. Trainees identified by partner academic institutions spend 6 months to 2 years training in the Department of Pediatrics and allied disciplines. They then return to their home institution to build practice, training, research, and advocacy. From 2008 to 2015, 73 physicians have completed or are completing training in general pediatrics or a pediatric subspecialty. At 1 year posttraining, 98% to 100% are practicing back in their home institution. The impact of the returning fellows is evident from their practice interventions, research collaborations, and positions as stakeholders who can change health care policies. Thirty-three centers in 13 African countries are partners with the program, and the program template is now followed by other partner sites in Africa. Increasing and retaining the skills pool of African child health specialists is building a network of motivated, highly skilled clinicians who are equipped to advance child health in Africa.

  8. East African Rift

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    Places where the earth's crust has formed deep fissures and the plates have begun to move apart develop rift structures in which elongate blocks have subsided relative to the blocks on either side. The East African Rift is a world-famous example of such rifting. It is characterized by 1) topographic deep valleys in the rift zone, 2) sheer escarpments along the faulted walls of the rift zone, 3) a chain of lakes within the rift, most of the lakes highly saline due to evaporation in the hot temperatures characteristic of climates near the equator, 4) voluminous amounts of volcanic rocks that have flowed from faults along the sides of the rift, and 5) volcanic cones where magma flow was most intense. This example in Kenya displays most of these features near Lake Begoria.

    The image was acquired December 18, 2002, covers an area of 40.5 x 32 km, and is located at 0.1 degrees north latitude, 36.1 degrees east longitude.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  9. An African ethic for nursing?

    PubMed

    Haegert, S

    2000-11-01

    This article derives from a doctoral thesis in which a particular discourse was used as a 'paradigm case'. From this discourse an ethic set within a South African culture arose. Using many cultural 'voices' to aid the understanding of this narrative, the ethic shows that one can build on both a 'justice' and a 'care' ethic. With further development based on African culture one can take the ethic of care deeper and reveal 'layers of understanding'. Care, together with compassion, forms the foundation of morality. Nursing ethics has followed particular western moral philosophers. Often nursing ethics has been taught along the lines of Kohlberg's theory of morality, with its emphasis on rules, rights, duties and general obligations. These principles were universalistic, masculine and noncontextual. However, there is a new ethical movement among Thomist philosophers along the lines to be expounded in this article. Nurses such as Benner, Bevis, Dunlop, Fry and Gadow--to name but a few--have welcomed the concept of an 'ethic of care'. Gilligan's work gave a feminist view and situated ethics in the everyday aspects of responsiveness, responsibility, context and concern. Shutte's search for a 'philosophy for Africa' has resulted in finding similarities in Setiloane and in Senghor with those of Thomist philosophers. Using this African philosophy and a research participant's narrative, an African ethic evolves out of the African proverb: 'A person is a person through other persons', or its alternative rendering: 'I am because we are: we are because I am.' This hermeneutic narrative reveals 'the way affect imbues activity with ethical meaning' within the context of a black nursing sister in a rural South African hospital. It expands upon the above proverb and incorporates the South African constitutional idea of 'Ubuntu' (compassion and justice or humanness).

  10. African American Males. A Critical Link in the African American Family.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Dionne J., Ed.

    African Americans are experiencing extreme stress in the United States, and African-American males appear to suffer the most. The chapters in this volume examine some of the issues confronting African-American men today. They include: (1) "Introduction" (Dionne J. Jones); (2) "Reaffirming Young African American Males: Mentoring and Community…

  11. African American Preschoolers' Language, Emergent Literacy Skills, and Use of African American English: A Complex Relation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connor, Carol McDonald; Craig, Holly K.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined the relation between African American preschoolers' use of African American English (AAE) and their language and emergent literacy skills in an effort to better understand the perplexing and persistent difficulties many African American children experience learning to read proficiently. Method: African American…

  12. African horse sickness.

    PubMed

    Mellor, Philip Scott; Hamblin, Christopher

    2004-01-01

    African horse sickness virus (AHSV) causes a non-contagious, infectious insect-borne disease of equids and is endemic in many areas of sub-Saharan Africa and possibly Yemen in the Arabian Peninsula. However, periodically the virus makes excursions beyond its endemic areas and has at times extended as far as India and Pakistan in the east and Spain and Portugal in the west. The vectors are certain species of Culicoides biting midge the most important of which is the Afro-Asiatic species C. imicola. This paper describes the effects that AHSV has on its equid hosts, aspects of its epidemiology, and present and future prospects for control. The distribution of AHSV seems to be governed by a number of factors including the efficiency of control measures, the presence or absence of a long term vertebrate reservoir and, most importantly, the prevalence and seasonal incidence of the major vector which is controlled by climate. However, with the advent of climate-change the major vector, C. imicola, has now significantly extended its range northwards to include much of Portugal, Spain, Italy and Greece and has even been recorded from southern Switzerland. Furthermore, in many of these new locations the insect is present and active throughout the entire year. With the related bluetongue virus, which utilises the same vector species of Culicoides this has, since 1998, precipitated the worst outbreaks of bluetongue disease ever recorded with the virus extending further north in Europe than ever before and apparently becoming endemic in that continent. The prospects for similar changes in the epidemiology and distribution of AHSV are discussed.

  13. African N Assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bekunda, M.; Galford, G. L.; Hickman, J. E.; Palm, C.

    2011-12-01

    Africa's smallholder agricultural systems face unique challenges in planning for reducing poverty, concurrent with adaptation and mitigation to climate change. At continental level, policy seeks to promote a uniquely African Green Revolution to increase crop yields and food production, and improve local livelihoods. However, the consequences on the environment and climate are not clear; these pro-economic development measures should be linked to climate change adaptation and mitigation measures, and research is required to help achieve these policy proposals by identifying options, and testing impacts. In particular, increased nitrogen (N) inputs are essential for increasing food production in Africa, but are accompanied by inevitable increases in losses to the environment. These losses appear to be low at input levels promoted in agricultural development programs, while the increased N inputs both increase current food production and appear to reduce the vulnerability of food production to changes in climate. We present field and remote sensing evidence from Malawi that subsidizing improved seed and fertilizers increases resilience to drought without adding excess N to the environment. In Kenya, field research identified thresholds in N2O losses, where emissions are very low at fertilization rates of less than 200 kg ha-1. Village-scale models have identified potential inefficiencies in the food production process where the largest losses of reactive N occur, and which could be targeted to reduce the amount of N released to the environment. We further review some on-going research activities and progress in Africa that compare different methods of managing resources that target resilience in food production and adaptation to climate change, using nutrient N as an indicator, while evaluating the effects of these resource management practices on ecosystems and the environment.

  14. African Perceptions of Female Attractiveness

    PubMed Central

    Coetzee, Vinet; Faerber, Stella J.; Greeff, Jaco M.; Lefevre, Carmen E.; Re, Daniel E.; Perrett, David I.

    2012-01-01

    Little is known about mate choice preferences outside Western, educated, industrialised, rich and democratic societies, even though these Western populations may be particularly unrepresentative of human populations. To our knowledge, this is the first study to test which facial cues contribute to African perceptions of African female attractiveness and also the first study to test the combined role of facial adiposity, skin colour (lightness, yellowness and redness), skin homogeneity and youthfulness in the facial attractiveness preferences of any population. Results show that youthfulness, skin colour, skin homogeneity and facial adiposity significantly and independently predict attractiveness in female African faces. Younger, thinner women with a lighter, yellower skin colour and a more homogenous skin tone are considered more attractive. These findings provide a more global perspective on human mate choice and point to a universal role for these four facial cues in female facial attractiveness. PMID:23144734

  15. Plio-pleistocene African climate

    SciTech Connect

    deMenocal, P.B.

    1995-10-06

    Marine records of African climate variability document a shift toward more arid conditions after 2.8 million years ago (Ma), evidently resulting from remote forcing by cold North Atlantic sea-surface temperatures associated with the onset of Northern Hemisphere glacial cycles. African climate before 2.8 Ma was regulated by low-latitude insolation forcing of monsoonal climate due to Earth orbital precession. Major steps in the evolution of African hominids and other vertebrates are coincident with shifts to more arid, open conditions near 2.8 Ma, 1.7 Ma, and 1.0 Ma, suggesting that some Pliocene (Plio)-Pleistocene speciation events may have been climatically mediated. 65 refs., 6 figs.

  16. Plio-Pleistocene African Climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demenocal, Peter B.

    1995-10-01

    Marine records of African climate variability document a shift toward more arid conditions after 2.8 million years ago (Ma), evidently resulting from remote forcing by cold North Atlantic sea-surface temperatures associated with the onset of Northern Hemisphere glacial cycles. African climate before 2.8 Ma was regulated by low-latitude insolation forcing of monsoonal climate due to Earth orbital precession. Major steps in the evolution of African hominids and other vertebrates are coincident with shifts to more arid, open conditions near 2.8 Ma, 1.7 Ma, and 1.0 Ma, suggesting that some Pliocene (Plio)-Pleistocene speciation events may have been climatically mediated.

  17. West African crude production diversifies

    SciTech Connect

    Aalund, L.

    1983-06-01

    Nigeria, with its seven crude-oil export streams, dominated West African production and accounted for over 70% of the depressed 1.8 million b/d output from the region last year. However, during the 1970s a flurry of new producing fields, primarily off the African coast, diversified production among a number of countries and touched off a wave of oil activity. The Journal takes a close look at the quality of West African oil in this installment of assays on world export crudes. This issue covers, in alphabetical order, Bonny Light (Nigeria) to Espoir (Ivory Coast). A following issue will wrap up West Africa by presenting assays on crudes from Forcados Blend (Nigeria) to Zaire Crude (Zaire).

  18. The African Cultural Astronomy Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urama, Johnson O.; Holbrook, Jarita C.

    2011-06-01

    Indigenous, endogenous, traditional, or cultural astronomy focuses on the many ways that people and cultures interact with celestial bodies. In most parts of Africa, there is very little or no awareness about modern astronomy. However, like ancient people everywhere, Africans wondered at the sky and struggled to make sense of it. The African Cultural Astronomy Project aims to unearth the body of traditional knowledge of astronomy possessed by peoples of the different ethnic groups in Africa and to consider scientific interpretations when appropriate for cosmogonies and ancient astronomical practices. Regardless of scientific validity, every scientist can relate to the process of making observations and creating theoretical mechanisms for explaining what is observed. Through linking the traditional and the scientific, it is believed that this would be used to create awareness and interest in astronomy in most parts of Africa. This paper discusses the vision, challenges and prospects of the African Cultural Astronomy Project in her quest to popularize astronomy in Africa.

  19. The African American Image in American Cinema.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bourne, St. Clair

    1990-01-01

    Political conditions have influenced the screen images of U.S. cinema, and the images of African Americans have reflected prevailing social stereotypes. The history of African-American representation in films is traced, and it is noted that the tendency to portray African Americans stereotypically has not changed. (SLD)

  20. Towards a Norm in South African Englishes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Walt, Johann L.; van Rooy, Bertus

    2002-01-01

    Investigates the perception and application of the norm in South African English with specific reference to Black South African English. Hypothesizes that South African English is in the hibernation and expansion phase. Three sets of data are presented and analyzed. (Author/VWL)

  1. African Centered Knowledge: A British Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christian, Mark

    2001-01-01

    Considers the impact of African centered knowledge within the United Kingdom. Recent development of African Diaspora studies has forged links between various black Atlantic communities. The United Kingdom has experienced positive grassroots community response to the work of noted African centered scholars, yet within the British academy,…

  2. Freedom Road: Adult Education of African Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Elizabeth A., Ed.

    This book contains six chapters by various authors about the history of African Americans' contributions and participation in adult education. The book reports on how some African American leaders saw the connection between education and the eventual freedom or uplift of the African American people. Following a foreword (Phyllis M. Cunningham) and…

  3. An Introduction to West African Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taiwo, Oladele

    Intended to provide help for those interested in studying West African literature, this book is divided into three parts. Part One provides background information: the various African oral traditions are discussed, related to the way of life of the people, and examined for the extent to which they form the basis of present West African literary…

  4. Engaging African Americans in Smoking Cessation Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallen, Jacqueline; Randolph, Suzanne; Carter-Pokras, Olivia; Feldman, Robert; Kanamori-Nishimura, Mariano

    2014-01-01

    Background: African Americans are disproportionately exposed to and targeted by prosmoking advertisements, particularly menthol cigarette ads. Though African Americans begin smoking later than whites, they are less likely to quit smoking than whites. Purpose: This study was designed to explore African American smoking cessation attitudes,…

  5. African American Teaching and the Matriarchal Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeffries, Rhonda Baynes

    This paper discusses the role of matriarchs in African-American culture, explaining that traditionally, African-American matriarchs arise from a combination of African norms and American social positions that naturally forces them to assume leadership conditions. The roles these women assume are a response to the desire to survive in a society…

  6. The Economic Question and the African Novel.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okonkwo, J. I.

    1989-01-01

    Presents examples of how African novelists express their ideas on the restructuring of African economic orders and the social and political implications that emanate from them. Discusses the present state of the African economy reflected in the visions of these writers, and their visions of future socio-economic health of Africa. (JS)

  7. Content-based Instruction for African Languages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moshi, Lioba

    2001-01-01

    Examines content-based instruction for African languages and considers Schleicher's (2000) expatiation of goal-based instruction for African languages. Focuses on the parameters for content-based instruction, the profile of a content-based instructional program, the nature of content-based instruction, the first steps for African languages, and…

  8. Complex Syntax Production of African American Preschoolers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Sandra C.; Roberts, Joanne E.

    2001-01-01

    This study examined changes in the complex syntax production of 85 African American preschoolers and the role of child (gender, age, African American English) and family (home environment) factors. Age, gender, and home environment effects were found for the amount of complex language used. African American English was not related to amount of…

  9. Heart failure in African Americans.

    PubMed

    Yancy, Clyde W

    2005-10-10

    The demographics of the United States are changing, and in the next few decades there will no longer be a racial/ethnic majority population. Increased awareness of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in special populations is warranted as these populations increase. Heart failure carries a substantial burden on those affected, particularly African Americans, who have a disproportionate burden of heart disease. Current treatments for heart failure include angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, beta-blockers, angiotensin II-receptor antagonists, and vasodilating agents. This review discusses the unique characteristics of CVD in African Americans and addresses the need for targeted treatments to reduce the excess burden found in this population.

  10. Classic African American Children's Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNair, Jonda C.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to assert that there are classic African American children's books and to identify a sampling of them. The author presents multiple definitions of the term classic based on the responses of children's literature experts and relevant scholarship. Next, the manner in which data were collected and analyzed in regard to…

  11. Wellness among African American Counselors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Day-Vines, Norma L.; Holcomb-McCoy, Cheryl

    2007-01-01

    Although there are various definitions of wellness, few conceptual definitions have addressed the contextual dimensions of wellness relative to African American counselors. The authors present an overview of generic models of wellness, discuss factors that both inhibit and promote wellness, offer some culture-specific models of wellness, and…

  12. Liberia: America's Closest African Ally.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Samuel; Mowell, Barry

    1997-01-01

    Profiles Liberia, the West African nation patterned after the United States and colonized with freed U.S. slaves in the early 19th century. Reviews the country's history and its eruption into civil strife in 1990, showing how tensions have often characterized relationships between Liberians of different ethnic identities. (MJP)

  13. Improvisation in West African Musics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Locke, David

    1980-01-01

    Discussed is music of the sub-Sahara. Vocal, instrumental, and dance drumming from the Sudan Desert, the North Coast, East Horn, Central and West Africa, and contrapuntal yodeling of Pygmies is described. For African musicians, the ability to improvise, and creativity, are gifts from God. Includes selected readings and recordings. (KC)

  14. African American Men in College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cuyjet, Michael J., Ed.

    2006-01-01

    This book is a much-needed resource that includes examples of real-world programs and activities to enhance academic success in the college environment for African American men. The examples are collected from a variety of institutions across the country. With contributions from leading practitioners and scholars in the field, this book explores…

  15. Developing anatomical terms in an African language.

    PubMed

    Madzimbamuto, Farai Daniel

    2012-03-01

    Clinical and technical information imparted in most African languages involves inexact terminology and code switching, so it lacks the explanatory power characterised by the English language. African languages are absent in the tertiary science education environment and forums where African scientists could present scientific material in the medium of African languages. This limits the development of African languages in the scientific domain. There has recently been a trend in several African languages to develop and intellectualise them, especially in the field of medical sciences. The ChiShona language is used to explore the ability of an African language to develop new terminology, to name the vertebral skeleton and describe it scientifically. It uses word compounding to demonstrate terminology development. ChiShona has similarities with several hundred other Bantu languages in East, Central and Southern Africa. Advancing this language can promote similar developments in others, making them more explanatory for the lay public and health professionals. PMID:22380900

  16. Coming of Age: African American Male Rites-of-Passage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Paul, Jr.

    An overview is provided of issues confronting the African American male, along with a strategy to nurture a new generation of African American males. Chapters 1 and 2 focus on the social status and new demographics of the African American male and the external threats that are devastating to the African American male and the African American…

  17. The UCAR Africa Initiative: Enabling African Solutions to African Needs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandya, R.; Bruintjes, R.; Foote, B.; Heck, S.; Hermann, S.; Hoswell, L.; Konate, M.; Kucera, P.; Laing, A.; Lamptey, B.; Moncrieff, M.; Ramamurthy, M.; Roberts, R.; Spangler, T.; Traoré, A.; Yoksas, T.; Warner, T.

    2007-12-01

    The University Corporation for Atmospheric Research (UCAR) Africa Initiative (AI) is a coordinated effort aimed at building sustainable partnerships between UCAR and African institutions in order to pursue research and applications for the benefit of the African people. The initiative is based on four fundamental operating principles, concisely summarized by the overall philosophy of enabling African solutions to African needs. The four principles are: • Collaborate with African institutions • Focus on institutional capacity building and research support • Explore science research themes critical to Africa and important for the world • Leverage the research infrastructure in UCAR to add value These principles are realized in a set of pilot activities, chosen for their high probability of short-term results and ability to set the stage for longer-term collaboration. The three pilot activities are listed below. 1. A modest radar network and data-distribution system in Mali and Burkina Faso, including a data-sharing MOU between the Mail and Burkina Faso Weather Services. 2. A partnership among UCAR, the Ghana Meteorological Agency, and the Ghana university community to develop an operational Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model for West Africa. The output is used by researchers and operational forecasters in Africa. Model output is also part of a demonstration project that aims to allow humanitarian agencies to share geo-referenced information in Africa via a web portal. 3. A workshop in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso from April 2-6, 2007, with the theme Improving Lives by Understanding Weather. The workshop, co-organized with Programme SAAGA and the Commité Permanent Inter-Etats de Lutte Contre la Sécheresse dans le Sahel (CILSS), included over 80 participants from 18 countries, and produced a set of recommendations for continued collaboration. Our presentation will provide an update of these pilot activities and point to future directions. Recognizing

  18. Schistosomes in South African penguins.

    PubMed

    Aldhoun, Jitka A; Horne, Elizabeth C

    2015-01-01

    During the years 2009-2012, faeces of African penguins (Spheniscus demersus L.) from South African rehabilitation centres were examined for helminths. In total, 46 out 555 samples (8.29 %), mostly belonging to adult birds, were found to contain oval schistosome eggs with a spine on one pole. Their dimensions were 153.21 ± 9.07 × 87.14 ± 8.67 μm. Selected DNA fragments (18S, 28S and ITS rDNA) were sequenced and compared to other schistosome isolates deposited in GenBank. The shape of the eggs suggests that they belong to the genus Gigantobilharzia; however, due to the insufficient stage of knowledge of the genus and limited number of species available for comparison, we were not able to assign the isolate unambiguously to this genus based on either the egg morphology or the results of molecular analysis. PMID:25339513

  19. Schistosomes in South African penguins.

    PubMed

    Aldhoun, Jitka A; Horne, Elizabeth C

    2015-01-01

    During the years 2009-2012, faeces of African penguins (Spheniscus demersus L.) from South African rehabilitation centres were examined for helminths. In total, 46 out 555 samples (8.29 %), mostly belonging to adult birds, were found to contain oval schistosome eggs with a spine on one pole. Their dimensions were 153.21 ± 9.07 × 87.14 ± 8.67 μm. Selected DNA fragments (18S, 28S and ITS rDNA) were sequenced and compared to other schistosome isolates deposited in GenBank. The shape of the eggs suggests that they belong to the genus Gigantobilharzia; however, due to the insufficient stage of knowledge of the genus and limited number of species available for comparison, we were not able to assign the isolate unambiguously to this genus based on either the egg morphology or the results of molecular analysis.

  20. Mental health concerns among African immigrants.

    PubMed

    Venters, Homer; Adekugbe, Olayinka; Massaquoi, Jacob; Nadeau, Cheryl; Saul, Jack; Gany, Francesca

    2011-08-01

    African immigrants represent a rapidly expanding group of immigrants in the United States. In New York City, Africans constitute the fastest growing segment of immigrants but the needs and practices of African immigrants in the U.S. remain poorly understood. A community based organization (CBO) serving African immigrants in Staten Island, NY began a health screening program in 2008 with the goal of promoting access to primary care. Over 18 months, 296 visits were recorded at African Refuge health screenings, representing a total of 87 people who averaged just over 3 visits per person. The screenings identified mental health among the top three medical problems of clients but referral to mental health services was rare. Dedicated services are required to better screen for mental health concerns and refer African immigrants to mental health care.

  1. Hair care practices in African American women.

    PubMed

    Quinn, Chemene R; Quinn, Timothy M; Kelly, A Paul

    2003-10-01

    Hair care in African American women is wrought with historical and cultural issues. Dermatologists need to improve their understanding of hair and scalp disorders in their African American patient population by being informed about the styling methods commonly used by and for these patients. The styling habits described in this article are intended to encompass the hairstyles adapted by a wide range of African American women with varying hair textures.

  2. African American Therapists Working with African American Families: An Exploration of the Strengths Perspective in Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell-Tolliver, Laverne; Burgess, Ruby; Brock, Linda J.

    2009-01-01

    With the exception of Hill's (1971, 1999) work, historically much of the literature on African American families has focused more on pathology than strengths. This study used interviews with 30 African American psychotherapists, self-identified as employing a strengths perspective with African American families, to investigate which strengths they…

  3. 75 FR 2844 - African Development Foundation, Board of Directors Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-19

    ...; ] AFRICAN DEVELOPMENT FOUNDATION African Development Foundation, Board of Directors Meeting Time: Tuesday, January 26, 2010, 8:30 a.m. to 1 p.m. Place: African Development Foundation, Conference Room, 1400...

  4. 75 FR 14418 - African Development Foundation, Board of Directors Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-25

    ...; ] AFRICAN DEVELOPMENT FOUNDATION African Development Foundation, Board of Directors Meeting Time: Tuesday, April 13, 2010, 9:30 a.m. to 1 p.m. Place: African Development Foundation, Conference Room, 1400...

  5. 75 FR 45600 - African Development Foundation, Board of Directors Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-03

    ...; ] AFRICAN DEVELOPMENT FOUNDATION African Development Foundation, Board of Directors Meeting Time: Tuesday, August 17, 2010, 8:30 a.m. to 1 p.m. Place: African Development Foundation, Conference Room, 1400...

  6. Gentle Africanized bees on an oceanic island

    PubMed Central

    Rivera-Marchand, Bert; Oskay, Devrim; Giray, Tugrul

    2012-01-01

    Oceanic islands have reduced resources and natural enemies and potentially affect life history traits of arriving organisms. Among the most spectacular invasions in the Western hemisphere is that of the Africanized honeybee. We hypothesized that in the oceanic island Puerto Rico, Africanized bees will exhibit differences from the mainland population such as for defensiveness and other linked traits. We evaluated the extent of Africanization through three typical Africanized traits: wing size, defensive behavior, and resistance to Varroa destructor mites. All sampled colonies were Africanized by maternal descent, with over 65% presence of European alleles at the S-3 nuclear locus. In two assays evaluating defense, Puerto Rican bees showed low defensiveness similar to European bees. In morphology and resistance to mites, Africanized bees from Puerto Rico are similar to other Africanized bees. In behavioral assays on mechanisms of resistance to Varroa, we directly observed that Puerto Rican Africanized bees groomed-off and bit the mites as been observed in other studies. In no other location, Africanized bees have reduced defensiveness while retaining typical traits such as wing size and mite resistance. This mosaic of traits that has resulted during the invasion of an oceanic island has implications for behavior, evolution, and agriculture. PMID:23144660

  7. Gentle Africanized bees on an oceanic island.

    PubMed

    Rivera-Marchand, Bert; Oskay, Devrim; Giray, Tugrul

    2012-11-01

    Oceanic islands have reduced resources and natural enemies and potentially affect life history traits of arriving organisms. Among the most spectacular invasions in the Western hemisphere is that of the Africanized honeybee. We hypothesized that in the oceanic island Puerto Rico, Africanized bees will exhibit differences from the mainland population such as for defensiveness and other linked traits. We evaluated the extent of Africanization through three typical Africanized traits: wing size, defensive behavior, and resistance to Varroa destructor mites. All sampled colonies were Africanized by maternal descent, with over 65% presence of European alleles at the S-3 nuclear locus. In two assays evaluating defense, Puerto Rican bees showed low defensiveness similar to European bees. In morphology and resistance to mites, Africanized bees from Puerto Rico are similar to other Africanized bees. In behavioral assays on mechanisms of resistance to Varroa, we directly observed that Puerto Rican Africanized bees groomed-off and bit the mites as been observed in other studies. In no other location, Africanized bees have reduced defensiveness while retaining typical traits such as wing size and mite resistance. This mosaic of traits that has resulted during the invasion of an oceanic island has implications for behavior, evolution, and agriculture.

  8. Race, health, and the African Diaspora.

    PubMed

    Spigner, Clarence

    Health inequalities exist throughout the African Diaspora and are viewed in this article as largely color-coded. In developed, developing, and undeveloped nations today, "racial" stratification is consistently reflected in an inability to provide adequate health regardless of national policy or ideology. For instance, African Americans experience less than adequate health care very similar to Blacks in Britain, in spite of each nations differing health systems. Latin America's Africana Negra communities experience poorer health similar to Blacks throughout the Caribbean. The African continent itself is arguably the poorest on earth. A common history of racism correlates with health disparities across the African Diaspora.

  9. Suicidal Behaviors in the African American Community

    PubMed Central

    Crosby, Alex; Molock, Sherry Davis

    2006-01-01

    This article reviews the risk and protective factors associated with suicidal thoughts and behaviors in the African American community. The authors provide a brief review of the history of suicide research in African American communities and critique some of the paradigms and underlying assumptions that have made it difficult to address the problem of suicidal behaviors in the African American community. The article also summarizes the articles that are presented in this special edition of the Journal of Black Psychology on suicidality in the African American community. PMID:17047727

  10. Expression of mRNAs coding for VAP1/crotastatin-like metalloproteases in the venom glands of three South American pit vipers assessed by quantitative real-time PCR.

    PubMed

    Tavares, N A C; Correia, J M; Guarnieri, M C; Lima-Filho, J L; Prieto-da-Silva, A R B; Rádis-Baptista, G

    2008-12-15

    Snake venom metalloproteases encompass a large family of toxins, with approximately 200 members already catalogued, which exhibit a diversity of structures and biological functions. From this relatively large number, only a dozen examples of apoptosis-inducing metalloproteases, like VAP1 and 2 from the venom of Crotalus atrox, are known. Since most VAP1-like toxins ever characterized were purified from the venom of Viperidae species inhabiting diverse places on earth, we investigate the expression of VAP-like metalloproteases in the venom gland of three representative pit vipers of the Brazilian territory. By molecular cloning and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, using as calibrator gene the Crotalus durissus terrificus homolog of VAP1, named crotastatin, it is reported here that VAP1/crotastatin-like homologues in the venom gland of Bothrops atrox, C. d. cascavella and Lachesis m. rhombeata are expressed at different levels. Hence, batroxstatins, the crotastatin-like precursors from B. atrox, are expressed 87 times more than crotastatin-1, from C. d. cascavella, and 7.5-fold that lachestatins, from L. m. rhombeata. Moreover, in silico structural analysis of amino acid sequences indicates that batroxstatin-2, crotastatins and lachestatin-1 and -2 which share the archetypal motifs and metal- binding sites of VAP1, are subgrouped in a branch that comprises some apoptosis-inducing toxins. PMID:18926840

  11. Inhibition of the hemorrhagic and proteolytic activities of Lansberg's hognose pit viper (Porthidium lansbergii hutmanni) venom by opossum (Didelphis marsupialis) serum: isolation of Didelphis marsupialis 0.15Dm fraction on DEAE-cellulose chromatography.

    PubMed

    Pineda, María E; Girón, María E; Estrella, Amalid; Sánchez, Elda E; Aguilar, Irma; Fernandez, Irma; Vargas, Alba M; Scannone, Héctor; Rodríguez-Acosta, Alexis

    2008-01-01

    Earlier studies have revealed the ability of sera from several mammals to neutralize the toxic effects of snake venom. The Venezuelan opossum (Didelphis marsupialis) is one that has been found to inhibit hemorrhagic and proteolytic activities of venoms from many species of snakes. In this article it is shown that the opossum sera and its 0.15DM fraction were able to completely neutralize both hemorrhagic and hydrolysis (proteolysis) of casein effects induced by venom of the Lansberg's hognose pit viper (Porthidium lansbergii hutmanni). We have used DEAE-cellulose ion exchange chromatography to collect protein fractions from D. marsupialis sera which were able to defend mice from the lethal effects of P.l. hutmanni venom. The fractions separated were homogeneous by conventional electrophoresis using SDS-PAGE. The protein bands obtained contained molecular weights of approximately 6 to 220 kDa. These results revealed the presence of proteases inhibitors in the opossum sera fractions and the inhibition of venom activity by opossum sera suggesting a reciprocal adaptation at the molecular level.

  12. Precolonial African History. AHA Pamphlets, 501.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curtin, Philip D.

    This pamphlet surveys western historiography of precolonial Africa. Prior to World War II, African history emphasized the European role in Africa, relegating African history before European colonization to minor importance. Only after the increase in university enrollments and funding in the 1960's did opportunities for innovative research and new…

  13. African Education and Globalization: Critical Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abdi, Ali A., Ed.; Puplampu, Korbla P., Ed.; Dei, George J. Sefa, Ed.

    2006-01-01

    Containing both theoretical discussions of globalization and specific case analyses of individual African countries, this collection of essays examines the intersections of African education and globalization with multiple analytical and geographical emphases and intentions. The 11 essays critically analyze the issues from historical, cultural,…

  14. Prostate cancer in men of African origin.

    PubMed

    McGinley, Kathleen F; Tay, Kae Jack; Moul, Judd W

    2016-02-01

    Men of African origin are disproportionately affected by prostate cancer: prostate cancer incidence is highest among men of African origin in the USA, prostate cancer mortality is highest among men of African origin in the Caribbean, and tumour stage and grade at diagnosis are highest among men in sub-Saharan Africa. Socioeconomic, educational, cultural, and genetic factors, as well as variations in care delivery and treatment selection, contribute to this cancer disparity. Emerging data on single-nucleotide-polymorphism patterns, epigenetic changes, and variations in fusion-gene products among men of African origin add to the understanding of genetic differences underlying this disease. On the diagnosis of prostate cancer, when all treatment options are available, men of African origin are more likely to choose radiation therapy or to receive no definitive treatment than white men. Among men of African origin undergoing surgery, increased rates of biochemical recurrence have been identified. Understanding differences in the cancer-survivorship experience and quality-of-life outcomes among men of African origin are critical to appropriately counsel patients and improve cultural sensitivity. Efforts to curtail prostate cancer screening will likely affect men of African origin disproportionately and widen the racial disparity of disease.

  15. Improving African American Achievement in Geometry Honors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mims, Adrian B.

    2010-01-01

    This case study evaluated the significance of implementing an enrichment mathematics course during the summer to rising African American ninth graders entitled, "Geometry Honors Preview." In the past, 60 to 70 percent of African American students in this school district had withdrawn from Geometry Honors by the second academic quarter. This study…

  16. African (Black) Psychology: Issues and Synthesis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baldwin, Joseph A.

    1986-01-01

    Reviews the recent attempts of Black psychologists and social scientists to formulate a conceptual-operational framework for the study of psychological phenomena as they bear on the cultural-survival conditions of Black-African people. Outlines issues and problems in the attempt to define African (Black) psychology and discusses its relation to…

  17. Kenya's Maligned African Press: A Reassessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scotton, James F.

    Kenya's dozen or more newspapers and 50 news sheets edited and published by Africans in the turbulent 1945-52 preindependence period were condemned as irresponsible, inflammatory, antiwhite, and seditious by the Kenya colonial government, and this characterization has been accepted by many scholars and journalists, including Africans. There is…

  18. Cancer and the African American Experience

    Cancer.gov

    The first plenary of the EPEC-O (Education in Palliative and End-of-Life Care for Oncology) Self-Study: Cultural Considerations When Caring for African Americans explores the many factors that lead to inequalities in cancer care outcomes for African Americans.

  19. African American Undergraduates and the Academic Library

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitmire, Ethelene

    2006-01-01

    This study examines the academic library experiences of African American undergraduates attending a research university in the Midwest. Data collection techniques included questionnaires and ethnographic observations. The results indicated that African American undergraduates are using the academic library primarily to read and to study with their…

  20. Children Ask Questions about West African Art.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abercrombie, Denice; Cochran, Mathilda; Mims, Margaret

    1997-01-01

    Presents a collection of questions that fifth-grade students asked about African artwork and answers provided by staff from the Museum of Fine Arts in Houston, Texas. Observes that students' interest in important visual aspects of the art creates lead-ins to more detailed discussions of West African art and culture. (DSK)

  1. Genetics Home Reference: African iron overload

    MedlinePlus

    ... of a genetic condition? Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center Frequency African iron overload is common in rural areas of central and ... more about the gene associated with African iron overload SLC40A1 Related Information What is a gene? What is a gene ...

  2. An African Perspective on Human Rights.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shiman, David

    1992-01-01

    Presents a series of classroom activities comparing differing views of human rights in the United Nations Universal Declaration of Human Rights and the African Charter on Human and People's Rights. Includes excerpts from the African Charter on Human and People's Rights and the full text of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. (CFR)

  3. Smoking Cessation in African-Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahluwalia, Jasjit S.

    1996-01-01

    Because the smoking behavior of African Americans differs considerably from that of other groups, researchers examined differences between African Americans who did and did not use the nicotine patch as an adjunct to counseling and education for smoking cessation. Results indicated the nicotine patch significantly improved six-month cessation…

  4. New data on African health professionals abroad

    PubMed Central

    Clemens, Michael A; Pettersson, Gunilla

    2008-01-01

    Background The migration of doctors and nurses from Africa to developed countries has raised fears of an African medical brain drain. But empirical research on the causes and effects of the phenomenon has been hampered by a lack of systematic data on the extent of African health workers' international movements. Methods We use destination-country census data to estimate the number of African-born doctors and professional nurses working abroad in a developed country circa 2000, and compare this to the stocks of these workers in each country of origin. Results Approximately 65,000 African-born physicians and 70,000 African-born professional nurses were working overseas in a developed country in the year 2000. This represents about one fifth of African-born physicians in the world, and about one tenth of African-born professional nurses. The fraction of health professionals abroad varies enormously across African countries, from 1% to over 70% according to the occupation and country. Conclusion These numbers are the first standardized, systematic, occupation-specific measure of skilled professionals working in developed countries and born in a large number of developing countries. PMID:18186916

  5. The African American Woman. Runta (Truth).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Monica L.; Watson, Betty Collier, Ed.

    1989-01-01

    The African American woman has commanded widespread public attention, but popular misconceptions of her socioeconomic role and status differ sharply from her actual situation. The following basic characteristics of the contemporary African American woman, drawn from census figures, are outlined: (1) demographically, females comprise a majority of…

  6. A Mirror Image African American Student Reflections

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cannon Dawson, Candice

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation is a narrative inquiry research project that focuses on the collegiate experiences of African American students at both historically black colleges and universities (HBCUs) and predominantly white institutions (PWIs). I look at how African American college students who engage in race or culturally specific activities, the degree…

  7. African Higher Education: An International Reference Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teferra, Damtew, Ed.; Altbach, Philip G., Ed.

    This book is a comprehensive survey of all aspects and dimensions of higher education in Africa. It includes a historical overview of higher education, descriptions of the higher education systems in each African country, and analyses of current and timely topics in higher education. Part 1, "Themes," contains 13 essays on trends in African higher…

  8. African American Art: A Los Angeles Legacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Harriet

    This curriculum unit focuses on the importance of Los Angeles (California) as a center for African American art and shows how African American artists have developed their own styles and how critics and collectors have encouraged them. The unit consists of four lessons, each of which can stand alone or be used in conjunction with the others. It…

  9. British African Caribbean Women and Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adkison-Bradley, Carla; Maynard, Donna; Johnson, Phillip; Carter, Stephaney

    2009-01-01

    Depression is a common condition among women in the United Kingdom. However, little is known about the context of depression among British African Caribbean women. This article offers a preliminary discussion regarding issues and information pertaining to depression among British African Caribbean women. Characteristics and symptoms of depression…

  10. Heart Truth for African American Women

    MedlinePlus

    THE HEART TRUTH ® FOR AFRICAN AMERICAN WOMEN: AN ACTION PLAN When you hear the term “heart disease,” what’s your first reaction? Like many women, you may ... in four women dies of heart disease. For African American women, the risk of heart disease is especially ...

  11. Kunta Kinte's Struggle to be African

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Courlander, Harold

    1986-01-01

    This article reveals the differences between the character Kunta Kinte and the historical record concerning African males in the preslavery period. Kunta's non-African behaviors include displays of blind anger and rage, prudishness, and actions unknown in his Mandinka culture. These represent the many misrepresentations and ambiguities in Alex…

  12. The African Diaspora: A Literary Overview.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duodu, Mark W.

    1988-01-01

    Identifies historical factors crucial to the evolution of Black literature in America and the Caribbean, including the triangular trade that displaced and destroyed many Africans, the literary movements of Negritude and the Harlem Renaissance, and the literary collaboration between American and African writers. (DMM)

  13. Computer Networks and African Studies Centers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuntz, Patricia S.

    The use of electronic communication in the 12 Title VI African Studies Centers is discussed, and the networks available for their use are reviewed. It is argued that the African Studies Centers should be on the cutting edge of contemporary electronic communication and that computer networks should be a fundamental aspect of their programs. An…

  14. Hidden Education among African Americans during Slavery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gundaker, Grey

    2007-01-01

    Background/Context: Historical studies examine aspects of African American education in and out of school in detail (Woodson 1915, 1933, Bullock 1970, Anderson 1988, Morris 1982, Rachal 1986, Rose 1964, Webber 1978, Williams 2005). Scholars of African American literacy have noted ways that education intersects other arenas such as religion and…

  15. Traditional African Religion: A Resource Unit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garland, William E.

    This resource unit is based on research conducted by Lynn Mitchell and Ernest Valenzuela, experienced classroom teachers of African history and culture. The unit consists of an introduction by Mr. Garland and two major parts. Part I is an annotated bibliography of selected sources on various aspects of traditional African Religion useful in…

  16. South African Education Program: An Evaluation Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ladd, Florence C.

    Consequences of participation in the South African Education Program, which enabled 290 South Africans to study in the United States between 1979 and 1985, were evaluated. Attention was directed to outcomes of participation and the educational experience and intellectual and social growth experienced by the students and alumni, who were Black…

  17. African American Teachers and Culturally Relevant Pedagogy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Michele

    An overview is presented of research on African American teachers, addressing the large body of literature written by policy analysts, first-person narratives, and the sociological and anthropological literature. Policy research has identified the small number of African American teachers and has studied some reasons for this shortage and some of…

  18. Reading Comprehension among African American Graduate Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Onwuegbuzie, Anthony J.; Mayes, Eric; Arthur, Leslie; Johnson, Joseph; Robinson, Veronica; Ashe, Shante; Elbedour, Salman; Collins, Kathleen M. T.

    2004-01-01

    A study was conducted to examine the reading comprehension performance of African American graduate students. The result showed that though the African American sample attained statistically significantly higher levels of reading comprehension than a normative sample of undergraduate students, they achieved lower levels of reading comprehension…

  19. The TG/HDL-C ratio does not predict insulin resistance in overweight women of African descent: a study of South African, African American and West African women.

    PubMed

    Knight, Michael G; Goedecke, Julia H; Ricks, Madia; Evans, Juliet; Levitt, Naomi S; Tulloch-Reid, Marshall K; Sumner, Anne E

    2011-01-01

    Women of African descent have a high prevalence of diseases caused by insulin resistance. To positively impact cardiometabolic health in Black women, effective screening tests for insulin resistance must be identified. Recently, the TG/HDL-C ratio has been recommended as a tool to predict insulin resistance in overweight people. While the ratio predicts insulin resistance in White women, it is ineffective in African American women. As there are no data for African women, we tested the ability of the TG/HDL-C ratio to predict insulin resistance in Black women from South Africa, West Africa and the United States. For comparison, the ratio was also tested in White women from South Africa. Participants were 801 women (157 Black South African, 382 African American, 119 West African, 143 White South African, age 36 +/- 9y [mean +/- SD]). Standardized scores were created from log-transformed homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance values from each population. Participants in the upper third of their population distribution were classified as insulin-resistant. To predict insulin resistance by the TC/HDL-C ratio, area under the receiver operating characteristic (AUC-ROC) curve was used and criteria were: 0.50 for no discrimination and > or = 0.70 for acceptable. Seventy-one percent of the Black women were overweight vs 51% of White women (P<.01). In overweight White women, AUC-ROC curve for prediction of insulin resistance by TG/HDL-C was 0.76 +/- 0.06, but below the 0.70 threshold in each group of overweight Black women (Black South African: 0.64 +/- 0.06, African American: 0.66 +/- 0.03, and West African: 0.63 +/- 0.07). Therefore, TG/HDL-C does not predict insulin resistance in overweight African American women and this investigation extends that finding to overweight Black South African and West African women. Resources to identify effective markers of insulin resistance are needed to improve cardiometabolic health in women of African descent.

  20. African Americans and the medical establishment.

    PubMed

    Smith, C

    1999-09-01

    The African American community's response to the AIDS epidemic has reflected the profound mistrust of the medical establishment which many African Americans feel. Among African Americans, the belief that the epidemic originated in a genocidal plot is widespread. It is thought that organized medicine has been significantly involved in this plot. If we look at African Americans' historical relationship to the medical establishment from the era of slavery to the recent past, the suspicious attitudes which make such beliefs possible can be seen as an intelligible response to a new disease which disproportionately affects African Americans. Successful medical and public health responses to the epidemic have depended and will continue to depend upon overcoming the historical legacy of suspicion and gaining the trust of the community.

  1. Relationships among obesity, inflammation, and insulin resistance in African Americans and West Africans.

    PubMed

    Doumatey, Ayo P; Lashley, Kerrie S; Huang, Hanxia; Zhou, Jie; Chen, Guanjie; Amoah, Albert; Agyenim-Boateng, Kofi; Oli, Johnnie; Fasanmade, Olufemi; Adebamowo, Clement A; Adeyemo, Adebowale A; Rotimi, Charles N

    2010-03-01

    Several research studies in different populations indicate that inflammation may be the link between obesity and insulin resistance (IR). However, this relationship has not been adequately explored among African Americans, an ethnic group with disproportionately high rates of obesity and IR. In this study, we conducted a comparative study of the relationship among adiposity, inflammation, and IR in African Americans and West Africans, the ancestral source population for African Americans. The associations between obesity markers (BMI and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR)), inflammatory markers (high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), haptoglobin, interleukin (IL)-6, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha), and IR (homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA(IR))) were evaluated in 247 West Africans and 315 African Americans. In average, African Americans were heavier than the West Africans (by an average of 1.6 BMI units for women and 3 BMI units for men). Plasma hsCRP, haptoglobin, and IL-6 (but not TNF-alpha level) were higher in African Americans than in West Africans. In both populations, BMI was associated with markers of inflammation and with HOMA(IR), and these associations remained significant after adjusting for sex and age. However, the pattern of associations between measured inflammatory markers and IR was different between the two groups. In West Africans, hsCRP was the only inflammatory marker associated with IR. In contrast, hsCRP, haptoglobin, and IL-6 were all associated with IR in African Americans. Interestingly, none of the associations between markers of inflammation and IR remained significant after adjusting for BMI. This finding suggests that in African Americans, the relationship between inflammatory markers and IR is mediated by adiposity.

  2. The Call for an African University: A Critical Reflection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Wyk, Berte; Higgs, Philip

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we draw on philosophy (particularly African philosophy) to analyse the call for an African university. The call for an African university may be viewed as a call that insists that all critical and transformative educators in Africa embrace an indigenous African worldview and root their nation's educational paradigms in an indigenous…

  3. Fatigue Severity among African Americans: Gender and Age Interactions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Song, Sharon; Jason, Leonard A.; Taylor, Renee R.; Torres-Harding, Susan R.; Helgerson, Jena; Witter, Elizabeth

    2002-01-01

    Investigated the relationship between fatigue, age, and gender among African Americans, Caucasians, and Latinos. Survey results found significant age and gender interactions among African Americans and Caucasians. African American women and older African American men had the highest fatigue rates. There was no significant difference in levels of…

  4. The African-American History of Martha's Vineyard.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weintraub, Elaine

    1993-01-01

    Reports on research into African American history and experiences in Martha's Vineyard (Massachusetts). Examines primary sources and oral traditions of African American cultural and social history from 1703 to the present. Discusses African American sailors, race relations, and contributions by African American individuals to the community. (CFR)

  5. Racism: perceptions of distress among African Americans.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Vetta L Sanders

    2002-04-01

    Some scholars have suggested that stressful living conditions are a major source of mental disorder among African Americans (Krieger, 1999; Neighbors, 1990; Kessler & Neighbors, 1986). There has, however, been debate as to whether this higher level of distress is due to racism or the fact that African Americans are more often of lower socioeconomic status. Stressors that play a significant role in mental disorder might be expected to occur more frequently among African Americans than the general population. This paper attempts to provide empirical support for the notion that racism is a separate and unique source of stress for African Americans. Specifically, it was hypothesized that African Americans would report more experiences of (1) daily stress and (2) racism than other groups and (3) the impact of racial stress would be greater among African Americans. One hundred and fifty six participants completed the Daily Stress Inventory and the Experience of Discrimination questionnaire. Multivariate analysis of variance indicated that African Americans reported higher impact of discrimination scores than European Americans. There were no gender or ethnicity differences in daily stress or the number of racial incidents reported. The implications of the data are discussed.

  6. Pre-clinical and preliminary dose-finding and safety studies to identify candidate antivenoms for treatment of envenoming by saw-scaled or carpet vipers (Echis ocellatus) in northern Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Abubakar, S B; Abubakar, I S; Habib, A G; Nasidi, A; Durfa, N; Yusuf, P O; Larnyang, S; Garnvwa, J; Sokomba, E; Salako, L; Laing, G D; Theakston, R D G; Juszczak, E; Alder, N; Warrell, D A

    2010-04-01

    The aim of this study was to identify candidate antivenoms with specific activity against the venom of the saw-scaled or carpet viper (Echis ocellatus) in northern Nigeria, where bites by this species cause great morbidity and mortality but where effective antivenoms have become scarce and unaffordable. Selected antivenoms were destined to be compared by randomised controlled clinical trials (RCTs). Standard pre-clinical neutralisation assays were carried out in rodents. We included two licensed antivenoms of established clinical efficacy and 6 candidate antivenoms. Although 6 of the tested antivenoms showed promising efficacy, all but 3 were excluded from further study because of inadequate pre-clinical efficacy or because they were unavailable or unaffordable for the anticipated RCTs. Median effective doses (ED(50)) of the remaining three candidate antivenoms suggested that the following doses might neutralise the maximum observed venom yield of 24.8 mg (dry weight) of venom milked from captive E. ocellatus: 10 ml of MicroPharm "EchiTAb G" (ET-G) antivenom; 30 ml of Instituto Clodomiro Picado "EchiTAb-Plus-ICP" (ET-Plus) antivenom; 50 ml of VacSera, Cairo "EgyVac" antivenom. A preliminary clinical dose-finding and safety study of these three antivenoms was carried out in 24 patients with incoagulable blood after E. ocellatus bites who were not severely envenomed. A 3+3 dose escalation design was employed. Initial doses of 10 ml ET-G and 30 ml ET-Plus restored blood coagulability in groups of 6 patients with early mild reactions (pruritus only) in not more than one third of them. EgyVac antivenom did not fulfil efficacy or safety criteria in 12 patients. On the basis of these results, ET-G and ET-Plus were selected for comparison in a RCT. PMID:19874841

  7. Constraining the African pole of rotation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asfaw, Laike M.

    1992-08-01

    In the absence of well defined transform faults in the East African rift system for constraining the plate kinematic reconstruction, the pole of relative motion for the African (Nubian) and Somalian plates has been determined from residual motion. If Africa and Somalia are to continue to drift apart along the East African rift system (which would then evolve into a series of ridges offset by transform faults) then incipient transform faults that may reflect the direction of relative motion should already be in place along the East African rift system. The incipient transforms along the East African rift system are characterized by shear zones, such as the Zambezi shear zone in the south and the Aswa and Hamer shear zones in the north. Some of these shear zones have been associated with recent strike-slip faulting in the NW-SE direction during periods of earthquakes. Provided that these, consistently NW-SE oriented, strike-slip movements in the shear zones give the direction of relative motion of the adjacent plates, then they can be used to constrain the position of the Africa-Somalia Euler pole. Due to the fact that identifying transform faults in the East African rift system is difficult and because the genesis of transform faults characterizing a plate boundary at an inception stage is not well known, the discussion here is limited to the northern segment of the East African rift system where shear zones are better characterized by the existing geophysical data. The characterizing features vary with latitude, indicating the complexity of the problem of the genesis of transform faults. I believe, however, that the relatively well defined intra-continental transform fault in the northern East African rift system, which is characterized by strike-slip faulting and earthquakes, constrains the pole of relative motion for the African and Somalian plates to a position near 1.5°S and 29.0°E.

  8. The Epworth Score in African American Populations

    PubMed Central

    Hayes, Amanda L.; Spilsbury, James C.; Patel, Sanjay R.

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: African Americans have elevated scores on the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) compared to whites. The reason for this difference is not clear. Methods: Responses to the ESS were assessed in 687 patients (52.3% African American) referred to a hospital-based sleep clinic. Differences in total ESS score and the scores on individual Epworth questions were compared in African Americans and whites. Findings were validated in an independent sleep apnea research cohort of 712 subjects (57.3% African Americans). Results: African Americans in the clinic-based population had a higher mean ESS score than whites (11.4 ± 0.3 vs. 9.8 ± 0.3, p < 0.0001). This difference persisted after adjusting for sleepiness risk factors. In adjusted analyses including responses to the other ESS questions, African Americans scored significantly greater on 3 of the 8 ESS component questions: questions 2-“Watching TV,” 6-“Sitting and talking to someone,” and 7-“Sitting quietly after lunch without alcohol.” In the validation cohort, African Americans also had a higher mean ESS score (9.1 ± 0.3, vs. 8.2 ± 0.3, p = 0.04). In addition they had significantly elevated scores on questions 6 and 7 (p = 0.0002, p = 0.012 respectively) even after adjusting for responses to the other Epworth questions. Conclusions: African Americans have greater sleepiness than whites as assessed by the ESS; this is independent of sleepiness risk factors. The difference appears due primarily to differences in responses to questions 6 and 7 of the ESS questions suggesting a difference in the interpretation of these 2 questions. Citation: Hayes AL; Spilsbury JC; Patel SR. The Epworth score in African American populations. J Clin Sleep Med 2009;5(4):344-348. PMID:19968012

  9. African American Women's Preparation for Childbirth From the Perspective of African American Health-Care Providers.

    PubMed

    Abbyad, Christine; Robertson, Trina Reed

    2011-01-01

    Preparation for birthing has focused primarily on Caucasian women. No studies have explored African American women's birth preparation. From the perceptions of 12 African American maternity health-care providers, this study elicited perceptions of the ways in which pregnant African American women prepare for childbirth. Focus group participants answered seven semistructured questions. Four themes emerged: connecting with nurturers, traversing an unresponsive system, the need to be strong, and childbirth classes not a priority. Recommendations for nurses and childbirth educators include: (a) self-awareness of attitudes toward African Americans, (b) empowering of clients for birthing, (c) recognition of the role that pregnant women's mothers play, (d) tailoring of childbirth classes for African American women, and (e) research on how racism influences pregnant African American women's preparation for birthing.

  10. Enslaved Africans and doctors in South Carolina.

    PubMed Central

    Goodson, Martia Graham

    2003-01-01

    This interpretation of the relationship between enslavement and American medicine in 19th century South Carolina reveals the intimacy that existed between Africans enslaved in that state and the doctors who practiced and taught there. Enslaved Africans were resourceful and reliable medical figures in the slave community. Their knowledge of medical botany permeated the slave quarters and plantation hospitals and was appropriated into southern medical knowledge. The trajectories of the careers of three South Carolina physicians are tied to their practice around and on the enslaved. The beginnings of gynecological surgery are linked to 1840s experimentation on enslaved African women performed by one of them. PMID:12749683

  11. Substance abuse in African American women.

    PubMed

    Wingo, L K

    2001-01-01

    Substance abuse is a serious problem from which, regardless of sex or race, no one is immune. Each racial and gender group has specific etiological factors relating to the use of illicit drugs. Data regarding substance abuse in African American women has only recently begun to emerge in the literature. Issues such as socio-economic, racism, and sexism, place African American women at particular risk for substance abuse. Limited availability to treatment, a lack of appropriate treatment and poor social supports impact recovery and places these women at risk for relapse. This article provides an overview of the current literature regarding substance abuse, treatment and recovery in African American women.

  12. Misconceptions of depression in african americans.

    PubMed

    Sohail, Zohaib; Bailey, Rahn Kennedy; Richie, William D

    2014-01-01

    Major depression is a very common disabling disorder. Although the relationship between race and depression is complex, depression affects all races, all ethnic and geographic locations as well as all age groups. The prevalence of depression in African Americans is controversial, due to the paucity of research. The deficit in the knowledge and skills in treating depression in African Americans have not been adequately addressed so far. Inadequate and insufficient data on African Americans contributes to the problems of under diagnoses, misdiagnosis, and under treatment of depression. This article will highlight the existing problem of depression in Afro American with a focus on diagnostic and treatment issues.

  13. Discussing Cancer: Communication with African Americans

    PubMed Central

    Caito, Nikki; Hood, Sula; Thompson, Vetta L. Sanders

    2015-01-01

    Regular screening for colorectal cancer (CRC) facilitates earlier detection, lowers mortality, and may reduce incidence through detection and removal of pre-cancerous polyps. Optimizing health professional delivery of CRC screening information and recommendations can assist in reducing CRC disparity in the African American community. This paper presents qualitative data on African Americans’ attitudes about health professional CRC communications based on the analysis of focus groups (N=79). Using a social-ecological framework, colorectal cancer and professional communication themes are examined to offer four general and nine cancer specific theoretically based and culturally appropriate strategies for improving health professional cancer communication with African Americans. PMID:25050658

  14. Assessing spirituality in mentally ill African Americans.

    PubMed

    Perdue, Bobbie; Johnson, Deanna; Singley, Doretha; Jackson, Cheylon

    2006-01-01

    The case scenario illustrates the advantage of using spirituality as a tool for recovery when working with mentally ill African American clients. Often spiritual and clinical perspectives are seen as contradictory. But for African Americans, these perspectives can be mutually reinforcing. Spirituality can serve as a resource of strength. It can provide emotional consolation, inspiration, guidance, and security. It can foster personal responsibility, identity, respect for ethical codes and community building. Mental Health professionals who use spirituality as a tool for recovery can expect to have better client outcomes when working with African Americans than those who do not.

  15. Competitive interactions between neotropical pollinators and africanized honey bees.

    PubMed

    Roubik, D W

    1978-09-15

    The Africanized honey bee, a hybrid of European and African honey bees, is thought to displace native pollinators. After experimental introduction of Africanized honey bee hives near flowers, stingless bees became less abundant or harvested-less resource as visitation by Africanized honey bees increased. Shifts in resource use caused by colonizing Africanized honey bees may lead to population decline of Neotropical pollinators. PMID:17743636

  16. Cognition and Health in African American Men

    PubMed Central

    Sims, Regina C.; Thorpe, Roland J.; Gamaldo, Alyssa A.; Aiken-Morgan, Adrienne T.; Hill, LaBarron K.; Allaire, Jason C.; Whitfield, Keith E.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Despite high rates of poor health outcomes, little attention has been focused on associations between prominent health factors and cognitive function in African American men, exclusively. The objective was to examine relationships between cardiovascular and pulmonary health, and cognitive function in African American men. Method Data from 257 men were pooled from two studies of African American aging. The mean age of participants was 58.15 and mean educational attainment was 11.78 years. Participants provided self-reported health and demographic information, completed cognitive measures, and had their blood pressure and peak expiratory flow assessed. Results After adjustment, significant relationships were found between average peak expiratory flow rate (APEFR) and cognitive performance measures. Discussion Results suggest that lung function is important to consider when examining cognitive function in African American men. Understanding the role of health in cognition and implications for quality of life in this population will be critical as life expectancies increase. PMID:25053802

  17. Health Conditions Common in African American Women

    MedlinePlus

    ... health. Return to top Health conditions common in African-American women Asthma Breast cancer Cancer Cervical cancer Diabetes Glaucoma and cataracts Heart disease High blood pressure High cholesterol HIV/AIDS Infant death Kidney disease Lupus Mental health ...

  18. African-Americans and Heart Disease, Stroke

    MedlinePlus

    ... more about African-Americans and stroke at our Power To End Stroke website This content was last reviewed July 2015. ... Attack • Heart Failure (HF) • Heart Valve Problems and Disease • High Blood ...

  19. Mellonee Burnim on African American Music.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Patricia Shehan

    1995-01-01

    Describes the role and influence of Mellonee Burnim on U.S. music education. Discusses the origins and impact of African American gospel music. Includes a list of selected resources and two lesson plans featuring gospel music. (CFR)

  20. What physicians should know about Africanized honeybees.

    PubMed

    Sherman, R A

    1995-12-01

    The Africanized honeybee, popularly known as the "killer bee," is already well established in Texas and has recently entered California and Arizona. As the Africanized honeybee spreads in North America, the medical community must become aware of the problems associated with this insect and ensure that sting emergencies can be handled quickly and appropriately. The major differences between Africanized and European honeybees are that the former are more irritable, they swarm more readily and frequently, they defend their hives more vehemently, and they sting more collectively. It is not the composition nor the volume of an individual bee's venom, but rather the cumulative dose of multiple stings that accounts for the morbidity and mortality associated with Africanized honeybee-sting incidents. Even nonallergic persons are susceptible to the toxic effects of these large combined venom loads. Africanized honeybee-sting victims are treated the same as victims of European honeybee stings. Authorities will prepare for the bees' arrival by expanding public awareness, teaching risk-avoidance behavior, providing for the removal of troublesome hives, and developing sting treatment protocols that can be initiated rapidly in the field or emergency departments. Health care professionals should participate in the educational efforts and in the development of needed emergency response protocols so that the effects of the Africanized honeybee will be merely a nuisance rather than a plague. PMID:8553637

  1. What physicians should know about Africanized honeybees.

    PubMed Central

    Sherman, R A

    1995-01-01

    The Africanized honeybee, popularly known as the "killer bee," is already well established in Texas and has recently entered California and Arizona. As the Africanized honeybee spreads in North America, the medical community must become aware of the problems associated with this insect and ensure that sting emergencies can be handled quickly and appropriately. The major differences between Africanized and European honeybees are that the former are more irritable, they swarm more readily and frequently, they defend their hives more vehemently, and they sting more collectively. It is not the composition nor the volume of an individual bee's venom, but rather the cumulative dose of multiple stings that accounts for the morbidity and mortality associated with Africanized honeybee-sting incidents. Even nonallergic persons are susceptible to the toxic effects of these large combined venom loads. Africanized honeybee-sting victims are treated the same as victims of European honeybee stings. Authorities will prepare for the bees' arrival by expanding public awareness, teaching risk-avoidance behavior, providing for the removal of troublesome hives, and developing sting treatment protocols that can be initiated rapidly in the field or emergency departments. Health care professionals should participate in the educational efforts and in the development of needed emergency response protocols so that the effects of the Africanized honeybee will be merely a nuisance rather than a plague. PMID:8553637

  2. Multiple sclerosis susceptibility alleles in African Americans

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Britt A.; Wang, Joanne; Taylor, Elise M.; Caillier, Stacy J.; Herbert, Joseph; Khan, Omar A.; Cross, Anne H.; De Jager, Philip L.; Gourraud, Pierre-Antoine F.; Cree, Bruce C.A.; Hauser, Stephen L.; Oksenberg, Jorge R.

    2009-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune demyelinating disease characterized by complex genetics and multifaceted gene-environment interactions. Compared to whites, African Americans have a lower risk for developing MS, but African Americans with MS have a greater risk of disability. These differences between African Americans and whites may represent differences in genetic susceptibility and/or environmental factors. SNPs from 12 candidate genes have recently been identified and validated with MS risk in white populations. We performed a replication study using 918 cases and 656 unrelated controls to test whether these candidate genes are also associated with MS risk in African Americans. CD6, CLEC16a, EVI5, GPC5, and TYK2 contained SNPs that are associated with MS risk in the African American dataset. EVI5 showed the strongest association outside the MHC (rs10735781, OR = 1.233, 95% CI = 1.06–1.43, P value = 0.006). In addition, RGS1 appears to affect age of onset whereas TNFRSF1A appears to be associated with disease progression. None of the tested variants showed results that were statistically in-consistent with the effects established in whites. The results are consistent with shared disease genetic mechanisms among individuals of European and African ancestry. PMID:19865102

  3. Teaching African American Youth: Learning from the Lives of Three African American Social Studies Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McBride, Chantee Earl

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the life histories of three African American social studies teachers, focusing on the evolution and changes in their identities, perspectives, and attitudes related to their profession and instructional practice. In addition, the study addresses the significance of the teachers' racialized experiences as African Americans and…

  4. "Women ... Mourn and Men Carry on": African Women Storying Mourning Practices--A South African Example

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kotze, Elmarie; Els, Lishje; Rajuili-Masilo, Ntsiki

    2012-01-01

    African mourning of loss of lives in South Africa has been shaped by discursive practices of both traditional African cultures and the sociopolitical developments under apartheid and in post-apartheid South Africa. This article reports on changes in mourning practices on the basis of a literature review and uses a collection of examples to…

  5. Crossing Cultures in Marriage: Implications for Counseling African American/African Couples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Durodoye, Beth A.; Coker, Angela D.

    2008-01-01

    A wealth of literature exists regarding intermarriage between White and ethnic minority couples. Noticeably lacking, however, is information considering within-group diversity amongst Black couples. This paper will focus on cultural dynamics that may operate with African American and African couples residing in the United States. Through an…

  6. Changing Fatherhood: An Exploratory Qualitative Study with African and African Caribbean Men in England

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Robert; Hewison, Alistair; Wildman, Stuart; Roskell, Carolyn

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents findings from a qualitative study undertaken with 46 African and African Caribbean men exploring their experiences of fatherhood. Data analysis was informed by Connell's theoretical work on changing gender relations. Findings indicate that fathers' lives were mediated by masculinities, racism, gender, migration and…

  7. Perceptions of African American and European American Teachers on the Education of African American Boys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bacon, Ellen; Banks, Joy; Young, Kathryn; Jackson, Francesina R.

    2007-01-01

    The authors interviewed 27 teachers (16 African American and 11 European American) on instructional factors contributing to overidentification of behavior problems in African American boys. Interviews focused on teachers' perspectives of effective teachers, teacher-student relationships, and communication styles. Analysis of the interviews showed…

  8. An Ambivalent Community: International African Students in Residence at a South African University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weber, Everard

    2016-01-01

    This is a qualitative case study of the experiences and perceptions of South African and especially international, African students living in university residences in South Africa. The concept, community, is used to interpret interview data. This community was characterised by ambivalent social relations: There was discrimination by South Africans…

  9. A SNP test to identify Africanized honeybees via proportion of 'African' ancestry.

    PubMed

    Chapman, Nadine C; Harpur, Brock A; Lim, Julianne; Rinderer, Thomas E; Allsopp, Michael H; Zayed, Amro; Oldroyd, Benjamin P

    2015-11-01

    The honeybee, Apis mellifera, is the world's most important pollinator and is ubiquitous in most agricultural ecosystems. Four major evolutionary lineages and at least 24 subspecies are recognized. Commercial populations are mainly derived from subspecies originating in Europe (75-95%). The Africanized honeybee is a New World hybrid of A. m. scutellata from Africa and European subspecies, with the African component making up 50-90% of the genome. Africanized honeybees are considered undesirable for bee-keeping in most countries, due to their extreme defensiveness and poor honey production. The international trade in honeybees is restricted, due in part to bans on the importation of queens (and semen) from countries where Africanized honeybees are extant. Some desirable strains from the United States of America that have been bred for traits such as resistance to the mite Varroa destructor are unfortunately excluded from export to countries such as Australia due to the presence of Africanized honeybees in the USA. This study shows that a panel of 95 single nucleotide polymorphisms, chosen to differentiate between the African, Eastern European and Western European lineages, can detect Africanized honeybees with a high degree of confidence via ancestry assignment. Our panel therefore offers a valuable tool to mitigate the risks of spreading Africanized honeybees across the globe and may enable the resumption of queen and bee semen imports from the Americas.

  10. African American Pastors' Beliefs and Actions Regarding Childhood Incest in the African American Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wells, Tesia Denis

    2012-01-01

    This quantitative study sought to explore African American pastors' beliefs and actions regarding childhood incest in the African American community and their decisions to inform the proper authorities. This exploratory study was developed in order to draw both public and academic attention to the understudied phenomenon of childhood incest…

  11. African swine fever virus serotype-specific proteins are significant protective antigens for African swine fever

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    African swine fever (ASF) is an emerging disease threat for the swine industry worldwide. No ASF vaccine is available and progress is hindered by lack of knowledge concerning the extent of African swine fever virus (ASFV) strain diversity and the viral antigens conferring type specific protective im...

  12. Research with African Americans: Lessons Learned about Recruiting African American Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coker, Angela D.; Huang, Hsin-Hsin; Kashubeck-West, Susan

    2009-01-01

    The authors briefly explore literature related to recruiting African American research participants, reflect on their experiences conducting body image research with a sample of African American college women in an earlier study (S. Kashubeck-West et al., 2008), and discuss some methodological and cultural challenges that they encountered during…

  13. African Games of Strategy: A Teaching Manual. African Outreach Series, No. 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crane, Louise

    Appreciation of African games has increased in this country; especially board games which have been popularized through commercial versions. African games are invaluable resources for studying subjects requiring mathematical concepts, as well as social studies, history, geography, and languages. This manual presents some of the better known…

  14. Trade in Educational Services: Reflections on the African and South African Higher Education System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sehoole, Chika Trevor

    2004-01-01

    This article discusses and analyses the emergence of globalisation and its impact on developments within the African continent. Africa's response at a regional level through the New Partnership for Africa's Development and at a subregional level through the Southern African Development Community's "Protocol on Education" come under scrutiny. These…

  15. Antigenic variation in African trypanosomes

    PubMed Central

    Horn, David

    2014-01-01

    Studies on Variant Surface Glycoproteins (VSGs) and antigenic variation in the African trypanosome, Trypanosoma brucei, have yielded a remarkable range of novel and important insights. The features first identified in T. brucei extend from unique to conserved-among-trypanosomatids to conserved-among-eukaryotes. Consequently, much of what we now know about trypanosomatid biology and much of the technology available has its origin in studies related to VSGs. T. brucei is now probably the most advanced early branched eukaryote in terms of experimental tractability and can be approached as a pathogen, as a model for studies on fundamental processes, as a model for studies on eukaryotic evolution or often all of the above. In terms of antigenic variation itself, substantial progress has been made in understanding the expression and switching of the VSG coat, while outstanding questions continue to stimulate innovative new approaches. There are large numbers of VSG genes in the genome but only one is expressed at a time, always immediately adjacent to a telomere. DNA repair processes allow a new VSG to be copied into the single transcribed locus. A coordinated transcriptional switch can also allow a new VSG gene to be activated without any detectable change in the DNA sequence, thereby maintaining singular expression, also known as allelic exclusion. I review the story behind VSGs; the genes, their expression and switching, their central role in T. brucei virulence, the discoveries that emerged along the way and the persistent questions relating to allelic exclusion in particular. PMID:24859277

  16. African female sexuality and the heterosexual form.

    PubMed

    Mcfadden, P

    1994-03-01

    All women find sexuality problematical, especially women living in countries that were colonized or colonized others. The stereotype of repressed sexuality in Victorian England found its antithesis in the stereotype of promiscuous African sexuality which had to be "civilized" and controlled through religion and repression. Colonizing nations have seen the discourse on sexuality move from the private to the public domain, while Africa maintains its silence on the subject. Sexuality is a difficult topic because it embraces the most intimate and individual of our human emotions, thus, it is difficult even to voice sexual preferences to a lifetime partner. In addition, especially in Africa, sexuality is a very gender-specific social construct. Africans foster heterosexuality through socialization from early childhood and discourage any sign of sexual stimulation in their children. After teaching that humans are "naturally" heterosexual, Africans teach their children that marriage is essential for the moral uprightness of society, although most Africans are, in fact, raised in many types of alternative families. Critique of the heterosexual form is literally nonexistent in African feminist genre because African sexuality is really male sexuality. When people assert that an African culture exists, they really mean that patriarchal constructs about maleness and femaleness pervade the continent. Women are not expected to experience sexual satisfaction, and, indeed, the practice of female genital mutilation assures that they will never experience sexual pleasure. This practice assures that female sexuality exists only through men. It represents a misogynist point of view about the female body and is equally repulsive whether it takes the form of "excision" of a part of the clitoris or removal of all of the external genitalia. This practice controls female sexuality by depriving women of the opportunity to masturbate or to engage in homosexual relations. The resulting option

  17. Genetic bottlenecks, perceived racism, and hypertension risk among African Americans and first-generation African immigrants.

    PubMed

    Poston, W S; Pavlik, V N; Hyman, D J; Ogbonnaya, K; Hanis, C L; Haddock, C K; Hyder, M L; Foreyt, J P

    2001-05-01

    The complexity of factors influencing the development of hypertension (HTN) in African Americans has given rise to theories suggesting that genetic changes occurred due to selection pressures/genetic bottleneck effects (ie, constriction of existing genetic variability) over the course of the slave trade. Ninety-nine US-born and 86 African-born health professionals were compared in a cross-sectional survey examining genetic and psychosocial predictors of HTN. We examined the distributions of three genetic loci (G-protein, AGT-235, and ACE I/D) that have been associated with increased HTN risk. There were no significant differences between US-born African Americans and African-born immigrants in the studied genetic loci or biological variables (eg, plasma renin and angiotensin converting enzyme activity), except that the AGT-235 homozygous T genotype was somewhat more frequent among African-born participants than US-born African Americans. Only age, body mass index, and birthplace consistently demonstrated associations with HTN status. Thus, there was no evidence of a genetic bottleneck in the loci studied, ie, that US-born African Americans have different genotype distributions that increase their risk for HTN. In fact, some of the genotypic distributions evidenced lower frequencies of HTN-related alleles among US-born African Americans, providing evidence of European admixture. The consistent finding that birthplace (ie, US vs Africa) was associated with HTN, even though it was not always significant, suggests potential and unmeasured cultural, lifestyle, and environmental differences between African immigrants and US-born African Americans that are protective against HTN.

  18. Vitrectomy with or without encircling band for pseudophakic retinal detachment: a multi-centre, three-arm, randomised clinical trial. VIPER Study Report No. 1—design and enrolment

    PubMed Central

    Mazinani, B; Baumgarten, S; Schiller, P; Agostini, H; Helbig, H; Limburg, E; Hellmich, M; Walter, P

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Scleral buckling is currently used in addition to vitrectomy for the treatment of pseudophakic retinal detachment (PRD) to better support the vitreous base and better visualisation of the periphery. Aims The aims of this study are to evaluate (1) whether the combination of 20 G vitrectomy and scleral buckling is superior to 20 G vitrectomy alone (control) (confirmatory), and (2) whether transconjunctival 23/25 G vitrectomy is non-inferior to 20 G vitrectomy (both without scleral buckling) regarding operation success (exploratory). Methods The VIPER (Vitrectomy Plus Encircling Band Vs. Vitrectomy Alone For The Treatment Of Pseudophakic Retinal Detachment) study is an unmasked, multi-centre, three-arm randomised trial. Patients with PRD were eligible, excluding complicated retinal detachment or otherwise severe ophthalmologic impairment. Patients were randomised to one of three interventions: 20 G vitrectomy alone (control C), combination of 20 G vitrectomy and circumferential scleral buckling (experimental treatment E1) or 23/25 G vitrectomy alone (experimental treatment E2). The primary endpoint is the absence of any indication for a retina re-attaching procedure during 6 months of follow-up. Secondary endpoints include best corrected visual acuity, retina re-attaching procedures, complications and adverse events. Results From June 2011 to August 2013, 257 patients were enrolled in the study. The internet randomisation service assigned 100 patients each to the treatment arms C and E1, and 57 patients to treatment E2. The imbalance is due to the fact that several retinal surgeons did not qualify for performing E2. The random assignment was stratified and balanced (ie, 1:1 or 1:1:1 ratio) by surgeon. Conclusions The described study represents a methodologically rigorous protocol evaluating the benefits of three different vitrectomy approaches to PRD. The projected results will help to establish their overall efficacy and will permit

  19. Africans and Black Americans in the United States: Social Distance and Differential Acculturation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emoungu, Paul-Albert

    1992-01-01

    Presents an exploratory examination of the causes of social distance characterizing the association between Africans and African Americans. African American's perceptions about Africa and Africans are assessed through anecdotes and impressions, and thoughts and criticisms of Africans about African Americans are considered. A social science…

  20. Men of African Descent and Carcinoma of the Prostate Consortium

    Cancer.gov

    The Men of African Descent and Carcinoma of the Prostate Consortium collaborates on epidemiologic studies to address the high burden of prostate cancer and to understand the causes of etiology and outcomes among men of African ancestry.

  1. Afro-Americans and Early Pan-Africanism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Contee, Clarence G.

    1970-01-01

    History of the Pan-African movement, the roles of W.E.B.Du Bois and Marcus Garvey in the movement activities, and the shift to African based leadership of the movement in the 1940's are discussed. (KG)

  2. What about African Americans and High Blood Pressure?

    MedlinePlus

    ANSWERS by heart Lifestyle + Risk Reduction High Blood Pressure What About African Americans and High Blood Pressure? The prevalence of high blood pressure in African Americans is among the highest in ...

  3. The Communicative Orientation of First-Year African language Textbooks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schleicher, Antonia Folarin; Gleisner, Karin

    2001-01-01

    Examines how well first-year African language textbooks convey communicative competency issues to African language learners and provides a suitable guide for the selection of communicatively-oriented first-year textbooks. (Author/VWL)

  4. Lift every voice: voices of African-American lesbian elders.

    PubMed

    Woody, Imani

    2015-01-01

    Old lesbians of African descent have experienced racism, heterosexism, homophobia, and ageism. This article explores the topics of aging, ageism, heterosexism, and minority stress among older African-American lesbians. The narratives and subsequent analysis offer significant contributions to the dialogue regarding Black aging lesbians in the aging and lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) communities generally and in the African-American and African-American lesbian communities specifically.

  5. Heart failure in African Americans: disparities can be overcome.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Alok; Colvin-Adams, Monica; Yancy, Clyde W

    2014-05-01

    African Americans are disproportionately affected by heart failure, with a high prevalence at an early age. Hypertension, diabetes, obesity, and chronic kidney disease are all common in African Americans and all predispose to heart failure. Neurohormonal imbalances, endothelial dysfunction, genetic polymorphisms, and socioeconomic factors also contribute. In general, the same evidence-based treatment guidelines that apply to white patients with heart failure also apply to African Americans. However, the combination of hydralazine and isosorbide dinitrate is advised specifically for African Americans.

  6. KSC kicks off African-American History Month

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Clothed in her traditional African garb, Michelle Amos, mistress of ceremonies, welcomes the audience on Feb. 3 at the kick-off of African-American History Month. The theme for this year's observation is 'Heritage and Horizons: The African-American Legacy and the Challenges of the 21st Century.' February is designated each year as a time to celebrate the achievements and contributions of African Americans to Kennedy Space Center, NASA and the nation.

  7. The decade of the African child.

    PubMed

    Schuftan, C

    1995-11-01

    The Organization of African States and UNICEF in 1992 jointly proposed that 1994-2003 be designated the Decade of the African Child. Although Africa would like to solve its children's problems on its own, especially in health and nutrition, it cannot do so alone. This paper identifies nine challenges and windows of opportunity on which consensus exists in Africa, and where donors can collaborate with moral, technical, and financial support to improve every African child's quality of life. Sections discuss the empowerment factor; health and nutrition policies; breaking out of poverty; women and child care; the right to know; linking people, primary health care, and nutrition; the need for early warning systems; restructuring the economy; and the changing face of the 1990s. The author stresses that neither governments, nongovernmental organizations, nor donors can afford to be passive observers of the pressing problems of the 1990s. Concerted efforts are needed now more than ever to fight important problems head-on.

  8. Intimate Partner Violence among West African Immigrants

    PubMed Central

    AKINSULURE-SMITH, ADEYINKA M.; CHU, TRACY; KEATLEY, EVA; RASMUSSEN, ANDREW

    2013-01-01

    Although the number of African immigrants arriving to the United States has increased significantly, there has been little investigation regarding their experiences of intimate partner violence or coping strategies. This study used focus groups and individual interviews to explore intimate partner violence among 32 heterosexual West African immigrants. Results suggest that although cultural expectations influence their coping strategies, West African–born men and women face different realities, with women reporting multiple instances of abuse and a sense of frustration with the existing options for assistance. Although participants discussed multilevel support structures within the immediate West African community to address intimate partner violence, all of these options maintained a gender hierarchy, leaving women dissatisfied. Challenges and barriers to partner violence resolution and coping strategies are identified. Results are examined in terms of their implications for addressing the needs of this underserved population. Implications for future research and services are discussed and highlighted. PMID:23730146

  9. Gastrointestinal Symptoms among African Americans Undergoing Hemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Daniels, Glenda; Robinson, Janie R; Walker, Charles; Pennings, Jacquelyn S; Anderson, Staci T

    2015-01-01

    The incidence of end stage renal disease is more than three times higher in African Americans. Treatment regimens contribute to gastrointestinal (GI) complaints. This study's purpose was to examine the incidence of GI symptoms in African-American patients undergoing hemodialysis. Younger participants were more likely to report mild indigestion, while older participants reported severe indigestion or none at all. Females were more likely to report gastrointestinal symptoms. Commonly reported co-morbidities included hypertension, diabetes, and heart disease. Time on hemodialysis ranged from 1 to 279 months. Those who had been on hemodialysis the longest were more likely to report acid reflux, stomach rumbling and mild diarrhea. This study provides a foundation for early identification of GI symptoms in African-Americans patients undergoing hemodialysis.

  10. Rabies and African wild dogs in Kenya.

    PubMed

    Kat, P W; Alexander, K A; Smith, J S; Munson, L

    1995-11-22

    Three packs of African wild dogs (Lycaon pictus) ranging to the north of the Masai Mara National Reserve in southwestern Kenya were monitored from 1988 to 1990. During a six week period (August 2-September 14, 1989), 21 of 23 members of one of these packs died. Histological examination of two brain samples revealed eosinophilic intracytoplasmic inclusions (Negri bodies), supporting a diagnosis of rabies viral encephalitis. An additional brain sample tested positive for rabies with a fluorescent antibody test. Nucleotide sequence of the rabies viral N and G genes from isolates of four African wild dogs (including an individual from Tanzania) indicated that infection was with a viral variant common among domestic dogs in Kenya and Tanzania. A hypothesis linking African wild dog rabies deaths to researcher handling is evaluated and considered implausible.

  11. The management of hypertension in African Americans.

    PubMed

    Ferdinand, Keith C; Armani, Annemarie M

    2007-06-01

    The prevalence of hypertension in blacks in the United States is among the highest in the world. Compared with whites, blacks develop hypertension at an earlier age, their average blood pressures are much higher and they experience worse disease severity. Consequently, blacks have a 1.3 times greater rate of nonfatal stroke, 1.8 times greater rate of fatal stroke, 1.5 times greater rate of heart disease death, 4.2 times greater rate of end-stage kidney disease, and a 50% higher frequency of heart failure; overall, mortality due to hypertension and its consequences is 4 to 5 times more likely in African Americans than in whites. The increased prevalence of hypertension and excessive target organ damage is due to a combination of genetic and, most likely, environmental factors. There are no clinical trial data at present to suggest that lower-than-usual BP targets should be set for high-risk demographic groups such as African Americans. The primary means of prevention and early treatment of hypertension in African Americans will be the appropriate use of lifestyle modification. The International Society of Hypertension in Blacks guidelines realize that most patients will require combination therapy, many of them first-line, to reach appropriate BP goals. Although certain classes and combinations of antihypertensive agents have been well-established to be effective, the choice of drugs for combination therapy in African American patients may be different. Within the African American group, the responsiveness to monotherapy with ACE inhibitors, angiotensin receptor blockers, and beta blockers may be less than the responsiveness to diuretics and calcium channel blockers, but these differences are corrected when diuretics are added to the neurohormonal antagonists. Of note, African American patients with systolic BP >15 mm Hg or a diastolic BP >10 mm Hg above goal should be treated with first-line combination therapy.

  12. Cancer statistics for African Americans, 2013.

    PubMed

    DeSantis, Carol; Naishadham, Deepa; Jemal, Ahmedin

    2013-05-01

    In this article, the American Cancer Society estimates the number of new cancer cases and deaths for African Americans and compiles the most recent data on cancer incidence, mortality, survival, and screening prevalence based upon incidence data from the National Cancer Institute, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and the North American Association of Central Cancer Registries and mortality data from the National Center for Health Statistics. It is estimated that 176,620 new cases of cancer and 64,880 deaths will occur among African Americans in 2013. From 2000 to 2009, the overall cancer death rate among males declined faster among African Americans than whites (2.4% vs 1.7% per year), but among females, the rate of decline was similar (1.5% vs 1.4% per year, respectively). The decrease in cancer death rates among African American males was the largest of any racial or ethnic group. The reduction in overall cancer death rates since 1990 in men and 1991 in women translates to the avoidance of nearly 200,000 deaths from cancer among African Americans. Five-year relative survival is lower for African Americans than whites for most cancers at each stage of diagnosis. The extent to which these disparities reflect unequal access to health care versus other factors remains an active area of research. Overall, progress in reducing cancer death rates has been made, although more can and should be done to accelerate this progress through ensuring equitable access to cancer prevention, early detection, and state-of-the-art treatments.

  13. Assessing the contributions of East African and West Pacific warming to the 2014 boreal spring East African drought

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Funk, Christopher C.; Shukla, Shraddhanand; Hoell, Andrew; Livneh, Ben

    2015-01-01

    Anthropogenic warming contributed to the 2014 East African drought by increasing East African and west Pacific temperatures, and increasing the gradient between standardized western and central Pacific SST causing reduced rainfall, evapotranspiration, and soil moisture.

  14. Race, Culture, and the Education of African Americans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynn, Marvin

    2006-01-01

    In this essay, Marvin Lynn explores a range of perspectives on African American education, with particular focus on three works: "Black American Students in an Affluent Suburb: A Study of Academic Disengagement," by social anthropologist John Ogbu; "African-Centered Pedagogy: Developing Schools of Achievement for African American Children," by…

  15. Conducting Children's Health Insurance Outreach in African American Communities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patterson, Jacqueline

    In 1998, 19.7 percent of African American children were uninsured. Since a majority of African American children live in families with incomes below 200 percent of the federal poverty line, they are eligible for free or low-cost insurance coverage. This report presents strategies for facilitating the recruitment and enrollment of African American…

  16. Requests in a South African Variety of English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kasanga, Luanga A.

    2006-01-01

    The main assumption in this article is that the pragmatics of the variety of South African English commonly referred to as black South African English (BSAE) have been shaped, over time, by educated bilinguals, through a transfer of features from African languages. Transfer of syntactic forms, now firmly established in the variety, is evidenced…

  17. Effective Coping Strategies Employed in African-American Relationships.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington, Novella Channell

    Living in a society that is quick to label and condemn, has been, and continues to be a source of pain for African-Americans. However, society's microscope has for sometime had a one dimensional lens, particularly when examining the coping styles of African-American male-female relationships within the African-American family. There exists a great…

  18. Some Growth Points in African Child Development Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Serpell, Robert; Marfo, Kofi

    2014-01-01

    We reflect on ways in which research presented in earlier chapters responds to challenges of generating an African child development field and identify additional issues calling for the field's attention. The chapters collectively display a variety of African contexts and reflexive evidence of the authors' African cultural roots.…

  19. Contrastive Studies - African Languages and English. Specialised Bibliography C9.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    British Council, London (England). English-Teaching Information Centre.

    This selective bibliography lists 8 books and 19 journal articles dealing with contrastive studies of African languages and English. The entries range in date from 1953 to 1972 with the majority published since 1965. The books cited are African and British publications and the articles appeared in well-known African, European or American…

  20. An Investigation into the Achievement of African-Caribbean Pupils.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Gloria

    1996-01-01

    The case study of an African Caribbean boy in a British preschool class illustrates the ways in which African Caribbean students are caught between a devalued culture and a culture with which they do not identify. Approaches to promote cultural sensitivity toward African Caribbean children are discussed. (SLD)

  1. Student-Centered Designs of Pan-African Literature Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    M'Baye, Babacar

    2010-01-01

    A student-centered teaching methodology is an essential ingredient of a successful Pan-African literary course. In this article, the author defines Pan-Africanism and how to go about designing a Pan-African literature course. The author combines reading assignments with journals, film presentations, and lectures in a productive learning…

  2. Teaching African Politics at American Colleges and Universities: A Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenski, Henry C.; Kenski, Margaret C.

    Political scientists who teach African politics courses at U.S. colleges and universities were surveyed in 1973 to (1) discover successful teaching techniques, approaches, and texts; (2) determine the popularity of courses in African politics; and (3) collect data on the status of African politics as a research area. A questionnaire was mailed to…

  3. Problems of Transition for African Students in an American University.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adelegan, Francis O.; Parks, David J.

    1985-01-01

    Surveyed Black East African, Black West African and Arabic North African students (N=33) enrolled in an American university to identify their problems and personal attributes and environmental conditions influencing their experience. Discusses social, transportation, food, loneliness, and other problems. (MCF)

  4. Exposure of African-American Youth to Alcohol Advertising.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2003

    The marketing of alcohol products in African-American communities has, on occasion, stirred national controversy and met with fierce resistance from African Americans and others. Despite occasional media and community spotlights on the marketing of alcohol products in the African-American community, there has been no systematic review of the…

  5. Seeing African Americans as Competent Parents: Implications for Family Counselors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adkison-Bradley, Carla

    2011-01-01

    One of the primary roles of parents is to guide and socialize children to make meaningful life choices. African American parents, in particular, have the additional tasks of preparing their children to thrive in an environment that has historically been hostile toward African Americans. Yet, many African American parents are often depicted as…

  6. African American Educational Leadership in the School Superintendency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Eva C.

    2013-01-01

    African American educational leadership has long been part of American education and African American activism to resist oppression. However, the field of educational leadership has rarely included the contributions of African American leaders, particularly women leaders, into mainstream leadership theory and practices. This omission is difficult…

  7. Persistence among African American Males in the Honors College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson Goins, Johnell Roxann

    2014-01-01

    Retaining African American students, specifically African American males, is an issue that plagues the American higher education system. Research shows that African American male students are the lowest represented group in the gifted studies programs (Ford, 2010). Lockie and Burke (1999); Chen and DeJardins (2010) and Bell (2010a) found that…

  8. An Exploration of African American Students' Attitudes toward Online Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okwumabua, Theresa M.; Walker, Kristin M.; Hu, Xiangen; Watson, Andrea

    2011-01-01

    The current work presents exploratory research findings concerning African American students' attitudes toward online learning. The Online Tutoring Attitudes Scale (OTAS; Graff, 2003) was administered to 124 African American students in a positive youth development program. Findings suggest that African American students' attitudes toward…

  9. African-American Artists in Context: The Philadelphia Art Museum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verdino-Sullivan, Carla Maria

    1992-01-01

    Reviews two exhibits of visual art at the Philadelphia (Pennsylvania) Art Museum, "Works by African-Americans," which showcases the contributions of nineteenth- and twentieth-century African-American artists; and "Pertaining to Philadelphia," acquisitions from the collection of Julius Bloch, an artist and mentor to many African American artists in…

  10. African American Acculturation and Black Racial Identity: A Preliminary Investigation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pope-Davis, Donald B.; Liu, William M.; Ledesma-Jones, Shannon; Nevitt, Jonathan

    2000-01-01

    Examines the relationship between acculturation and racial identity among African Americans. One hundred eighty-seven African American students completed the Black Racial Identity Attitude Scale and the African American Acculturation Scale (AAAS). Acculturation was associated with three of the five AAAS subscales: Dissonance, Immersion, and…

  11. African American Males in Counseling: Who's Pulling the Trigger Now?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bethea-Whitfield, Patricia

    African American males face numerous challenges to their physical and psychological well-being. This project is a survey of the literature and trends relative to African American males from 1987 to the present. In reviewing the fifteen years since Parham and McDavis published their now famous article on African American men as an endangered…

  12. Engaging Youth through African-Derived Dance and Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franklin, Kikora

    2013-01-01

    This article provides a brief history of African and African-derived dance and culture and highlights the physical health, dance education, historical, and cultural benefits of a school-based program that incorporates African dance as its core component. The article also includes the phases of the programming and brings attention to potential…

  13. Registers in the Academic Writing of African American College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Syrquin, Anna F.

    2006-01-01

    The study examines the development of the registers of academic writing by African American college-level students through style and grammar: indirection inherent in the oral culture of the African American community and the paratactic functions of "because." Discourse analysis of 74 samples of academic writing by 20 African American undergraduate…

  14. Representing African American Women in U.S. History Textbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schocker, Jessica B.; Woyshner, Christine

    2013-01-01

    This article addresses the dearth of African American women in high school U.S. history textbooks. The authors conducted a content analysis of the images in an African American history textbook and found that black women are underrepresented. Women are found in less than 15 percent of the images in the African American history text, while they…

  15. Perceptions of Domestic Violence: A Dialogue with African American Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bent-Goodley, Tricia B.

    2004-01-01

    Although empirical research has accumulated over the past 20 years regarding African Americans and domestic violence, many questions remain about African American perceptions of domestic violence. This article explores African American women's perceptions about domestic violence through three focus groups held at a New York social services agency.…

  16. From Crisis to Empowerment: African American Women in Community Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bates, Marcie Ann

    2012-01-01

    Social challenges tear at the fabric of the African American family, revealing complexities that identify a de facto leader, the African American woman. She exists in a chasm of overt circumstances which heavily influences her successes. The purpose of this study is to identify factors that motivated seven female African American community college…

  17. Help-Seeking Attitudes among African American College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    So, Dominicus W.; Gilbert, Stefanie; Romero, Sergio

    2005-01-01

    Traditionally, African American students display a low-rate of seeking mental health treatment. Issues such as mistrust of White therapists, attitudes toward mental health problems, and African American spirituality affect their help-seeking behavior. The present study examined a sample of 134 African American students at a Historically Black…

  18. African American Studies in the 21st Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gates, Henry Louis, Jr.

    1992-01-01

    Explores the future of African-American studies. African-American studies should be the home of free inquiry into the complexity of being of African descent in the world, rather than a closed-shop or a resurrected version of thought police. A true proliferation of ideologies and methodologies is required. (SLD)

  19. Going to School: The African-American Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lomotey, Kofi, Ed.

    This volume presents the views of a range of African-American educators on questions related to African-American academic achievement. The concern in this volume is with the persistent, pervasive, and disproportionate underachievement of African-American students. The book is divided into four parts. Part 1, "Problem Identification," comprises the…

  20. Perceived Attractiveness, Facial Features, and African Self-Consciousness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chambers, John W., Jr.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Investigated relationships between perceived attractiveness, facial features, and African self-consciousness (ASC) among 149 African American college students. As predicted, high ASC subjects used more positive adjectives in descriptions of strong African facial features than did medium or low ASC subjects. Results are discussed in the context of…

  1. Parent Support and African American Adolescents' Career Self-Efficacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliman-Brissett, Annette E.; Turner, Sherri L.; Skovholt, Thomas M.

    2004-01-01

    Research has shown that African American adolescents are not being prepared to enter the workforce at the same rates as adolescents from other ethnic groups. While educational and career options were unavailable to African Americans in previous eras, today educational and career opportunities abound, yet many young African Americans are not in a…

  2. Oral Cancer in African Americans: Addressing Health Disparities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dodd, Virginia J.; Watson, Jennifer M.; Choi, Youjin; Tomar, Scott L.; Logan, Henrietta L.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: To explore factors underlying African Americans' perceptions of oral cancer and the oral cancer exam. Study findings were used to guide development of oral cancer messages designed to increase oral cancer exams among African Americans. Methods: Focus groups were conducted to understand African Americans' attitudes and expectations…

  3. Perceptions of Discrimination and Achievement in African American Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowley, Stephanie Johnson

    This study explored the processes that lead to relatively lower academic performance among African American students. It has been suggested that African American students perceive that, because of discrimination, education is less useful as a tool for upward mobility for African Americans than it is for members of other ethnic groups. The nature…

  4. Gender Differences in African American Attitudes toward Gay Males.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Battle, Juan; Lemelle, Anthony J., Jr.

    2002-01-01

    Used data from the 1993 National Black Politics Study to examine the way gender worked in explaining African American attitudes toward gay men. Results indicated that African American females expressed more positive attitudes toward homosexual men than did African American males, and of the variables examined (including age, church attendance,…

  5. Dialect Leveling and /ai/ Monopthongization among African American Detroiters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Bridget L.

    2002-01-01

    Presents evidence that Detroit African Americans are participating in a recent sound change that is typically associated with some White but not African American varieties in the American South. Reports a leveling pattern in which /ai/ monothongization has expanded to the salient pre-voiceless context in Detroit African American English (AAE).…

  6. Hepatocellular carcinoma and African iron overload.

    PubMed Central

    Gangaidzo, I T; Gordeuk, V R

    1995-01-01

    Both hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and iron overload are important health problems in Africa. Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is recognised as a major risk factor for HCC, but iron overload in Africans has not been considered in pathogenesis. Up to half the patients with HCC in Africa do not have any recognised risk factors such as preceding chronic HBV infection, and other risk factors remain unidentified. HCC is an important complication of HLA-linked haemochromatosis, an iron loading disorder found in Europeans. It is proposed that African iron overload might also be a risk factor for HCC. PMID:8549953

  7. Cryptosporidium and cryptosporidiosis: the African perspective.

    PubMed

    Aldeyarbi, Hebatalla M; Abu El-Ezz, Nadia M T; Karanis, Panagiotis

    2016-07-01

    The present overview discusses the findings of cryptosporidiosis research conducted in Africa and highlights the currently available information on Cryptosporidium epidemiology, genetic diversity, and distribution on the African continent, particularly among vulnerable populations, including children. It also emphasizes the burden of cryptosporidiosis, which is underestimated due to the presence of many silent asymptomatic carriers.Cryptosporidiosis is recognized as one of the leading causes of childhood diarrhea in African countries. It has dramatic adverse effects on child growth and development and causes increased mortality on a continent where HIV, poverty, and lack of sanitation and infrastructure increase the risk of cryptosporidial waterborne infection. PMID:27126869

  8. Health parties for African American study recruitment.

    PubMed

    Sadler, Georgia Robins; York, Crystal; Madlensky, Lisa; Gibson, Kathi; Wasserman, Linda; Rosenthal, Eric; Barbier, Leslie; Newman, Vicky A; Tso, Cindy

    2006-01-01

    Innovative strategies are needed to increase minorities' research participation. Using existing social networks within the African American community, "home health parties" were tested as a way to recruit African American women to a breast cancer control study. Parties included social, educational, and recruitment components. All women attending health parties consented, completed a survey, and received the study's preliminary breast cancer risk assessment. There were no differences in rates of participation for subsequent study components between women recruited via parties versus other methods. Health parties are viable recruitment strategies, reduce barriers to participation, provide a supportive environment, and are relatively inexpensive. PMID:17020516

  9. Pliocene northeast African vegetation change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liddy, H.; Sieracki, A.; Feakins, S. J.

    2012-12-01

    Plant leaf wax molecular fossils have yielded key insights into forest-grassland transitions in northeast Africa. The stable carbon isotopic composition (δ13C) of sedimentary leaf waxes (including n-alkanoic acids) records variations in the proportions of plants using the C3 (Calvin-Benson) pathway including trees, most shrubs and cool-season grasses versus the C4 (Hatch-Slack) pathway including warm-season grasses and sedges. Here we apply this technique to marine sediments from the Gulf of Aden to characterize northeast African environmental variability during the Pliocene. We sample DSDP Site 231 integrating 3kyr intervals to generate a high-resolution reconstruction spanning 3.7-5.3Ma. The δ13C compositions of downcore C30 n-alkanoic acid analyses average -27.5‰ (σ=1.2, n=177), ranging between -30.2 to -24.3‰ with repeated oscillations in the proportions of C4 biomass, presumably corresponding to the eccentricity and precessional modulation of insolation acting on monsoonal precipitation. Although δ13C values cannot be uniquely translated to C4 biomass given the spread in the C3 'endmember', we find complimentary evidence for proportions of C4 biomass from the isotopic spread of the n-alkanoic homologues (n-C28 to n-C32). Comparison to pollen data indicates that at times of low δ13C values, complete forest cover remains unlikely given the presence of grass pollen - taken together these records indicate the presence of C3 grasses. By evaluating our longer record from this site, as well as the terrestrial soil carbonate record, we find the Pliocene has low C4 proportions in comparison to higher proportions in Pleistocene and even late Miocene times. Intriguingly this drop in C4 plant biomass may correspond to a period of elevated atmospheric pCO2. Our ongoing reconstructions are of interest both for constraining environments of hominin evolution and tropical climate variability prior to the onset of Northern Hemisphere Glaciation, in particular during

  10. African Easterly Waves and Superparameterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCrary, Rachel; Randall, David; Stan, Cristiana

    2013-04-01

    This study examines the dynamics of African easterly wave (AEW) in the Superparameterized Community Climate System Model (SP-CCSM). Conventional general circulation models (GCMs) have difficulty representing AEW dynamics over West Africa. One reason is that the coarse resolution of these models limits their ability to represent the multi-scale interactions between the large-scale dynamics and individual convective systems, which are important for the origin and development of AEWs. The SP-CCSM has been designed to better simulate the interactions between small-scale circulations and large-scale dynamics, by replacing the conventional parameterizations with a 2D cloud resolving model embedded within each GCM grid column. With this approach we are able to capture the interactions between clouds and the global circulation of the atmosphere. The goal of our work is to improve our understanding of the multi-scale interactions that occur between AEWs and convection over West Africa. The implementation of the superparameterization into the CCSM improves the overall representation of monsoon precipitation over West Africa. Most notably, the region of maximum precipitation is shifted from the Gulf of Guinea in CCSM (not realistic), to over the continent in SP-CCSM. The biases found in precipitation for both models are thought to be linked to anomalously warm sea surface temperatures in the Gulf of Guinea and a misrepresentation of the equatorial Atlantic cold tongue (a common problem for coupled GCMs). AEWs and their relationship with convection are also improved in the SP-CCSM. In the standard model, little to no easterly wave activity is found over West Africa, and the relationship with convection is tenuous at best. SP-CCSM on the other hand produces strong AEWs over the region that exhibit similar horizontal and vertical structures to observations. The simulated waves are also shown to be strongly coupled to convection, and results suggest that barotropic and baroclinic

  11. Epidemiology of human African trypanosomiasis

    PubMed Central

    Franco, Jose R; Simarro, Pere P; Diarra, Abdoulaye; Jannin, Jean G

    2014-01-01

    Human African trypanosomiasis (HAT), or sleeping sickness, is caused by Trypanosoma brucei gambiense, which is a chronic form of the disease present in western and central Africa, and by Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense, which is an acute disease located in eastern and southern Africa. The rhodesiense form is a zoonosis, with the occasional infection of humans, but in the gambiense form, the human being is regarded as the main reservoir that plays a key role in the transmission cycle of the disease. The gambiense form currently assumes that 98% of the cases are declared; the Democratic Republic of the Congo is the most affected country, with more than 75% of the gambiense cases declared. The epidemiology of the disease is mediated by the interaction of the parasite (trypanosome) with the vectors (tsetse flies), as well as with the human and animal hosts within a particular environment. Related to these interactions, the disease is confined in spatially limited areas called “foci”, which are located in Sub-Saharan Africa, mainly in remote rural areas. The risk of contracting HAT is, therefore, determined by the possibility of contact of a human being with an infected tsetse fly. Epidemics of HAT were described at the beginning of the 20th century; intensive activities have been set up to confront the disease, and it was under control in the 1960s, with fewer than 5,000 cases reported in the whole continent. The disease resurged at the end of the 1990s, but renewed efforts from endemic countries, cooperation agencies, and nongovernmental organizations led by the World Health Organization succeeded to raise awareness and resources, while reinforcing national programs, reversing the trend of the cases reported, and bringing the disease under control again. In this context, sustainable elimination of the gambiense HAT, defined as the interruption of the transmission of the disease, was considered as a feasible target for 2030. Since rhodesiense HAT is a zoonosis

  12. The African VLBI network project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loots, Anita

    2015-01-01

    larger teams in science, engineering and technology issues and collaborate with the broader global science community to develop new African radio astronomy science communities.

  13. "Brothers Gonna Work It Out:" Understanding the Pedagogic Performance of African American Male Teachers Working with African American Male Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Anthony L.

    2009-01-01

    Drawing from ethnographic data, this paper explores how African American male teachers working with African American male students performed their pedagogy. This paper highlights how teachers' understanding of African American males social and educational needs shaped their pedagogical performance. Interestingly however, teachers' performance was…

  14. Predicting Non-African American Lesbian and Heterosexual Preadoptive Couples' Openness to Adopting an African American Child

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldberg, Abbie E.; Smith, JuliAnna Z.

    2009-01-01

    Despite increases in transracial adoption, African American children remain the least likely to be adopted. No research has examined the factors that predict prospective adopters' willingness to adopt an African American child. This study used multilevel modeling to examine predictors of willingness to adopt an African American child in a sample…

  15. A Call to Action to Raise Achievement for African American Students. Student Achievement Policy Brief #1: African American Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kober, Nancy

    2010-01-01

    One out of every six public school students in the U.S. is African American. The achievement of African American students as a group will have a significant impact on the nation's economic strength and social well-being. This brief looks at the performance of African American students on state reading and mathematics tests and considers the policy…

  16. "Now the African reigns supreme": the rise of African boxing on the Witwatersrand, 1924-1959.

    PubMed

    Fleming, Tyler

    2011-01-01

    This essay explores the growth of boxing among the African populations on the Witwatersrand region of South Africa between 1924 and 1959. It details how the sport's jump in popularity with Africans paralleled migration to Johannesburg. Africans increasingly saw boxing as an activity and skill conducive with survival in this new environment, and thus the sport grew in popularity, stature, and skill-level amongst this emergent urban population. The essay further explores the various ways that the sport was disseminated and popularized during the era, thus detailing how the sport reached both the African masses and petit-bourgeois educated elite. As their presence in Johannesburg became more and more permanent, boxing came to encompass various meanings and ideals, such as notions of discipline, independence and civility, to these urban populations.

  17. Sleep paralysis in African Americans with panic disorder.

    PubMed

    Paradis, Cheryl M; Friedman, Steven

    2005-03-01

    Studies have reported a wide range in lifetime prevalence of sleep paralysis (SP). This variation may stem from cultural factors, stressful life events and genetic differences in studied populations. We found that recurrent SP was more common among African-American participants, especially those with panic disorder. Recurrent SP was reported by 59% of African Americans with panic disorder, 7% of whites with panic disorder, 23% of African-American community volunteers and 6% of white community volunteers. Significantly more early life stressors were reported by African Americans than whites. Higher levels of psychosocial stressors, including poverty, racism and acculturation, may contribute to the higher rates of SP experienced by African Americans.

  18. Tuberculosis Detection by Giant African Pouched Rats

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poling, Alan; Weetjens, Bart; Cox, Christophe; Beyene, Negussie; Durgin, Amy; Mahoney, Amanda

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, operant discrimination training procedures have been used to teach giant African pouched rats to detect tuberculosis (TB) in human sputum samples. This article summarizes how the rats are trained and used operationally, as well as their performance in studies published to date. Available data suggest that pouched rats, which can…

  19. Charting the Ancestry of African Americans

    PubMed Central

    Salas, Antonio; Carracedo, Ángel; Richards, Martin; Macaulay, Vincent

    2005-01-01

    The Atlantic slave trade promoted by West European empires (15th–19th centuries) forcibly moved at least 11 million people from Africa, including about one-third from west-central Africa, to European and American destinations. The mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) genome has retained an imprint of this process, but previous analyses lacked west-central African data. Here, we make use of an African database of 4,860 mtDNAs, which include 948 mtDNA sequences from west-central Africa and a further 154 from the southwest, and compare these for the first time with a publicly available database of 1,148 African Americans from the United States that contains 1,053 mtDNAs of sub-Saharan ancestry. We show that >55% of the U.S. lineages have a West African ancestry, with <41% coming from west-central or southwestern Africa. These results are remarkably similar to the most up-to-date analyses of the historical record. PMID:16175514

  20. African American Biographies: A Collection Development Challenge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woody, Donna

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the lack of African American biographies for elementary school libraries and reports the results of a study that surveyed publishers from the Children's Book Council. Examines book reviews, discusses the number of sports figures included, and considers problems with a lack of appropriate materials to support the curriculum. (LRW)

  1. A pan-African Flood Forecasting System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thiemig, V.; Bisselink, B.; Pappenberger, F.; Thielen, J.

    2014-05-01

    The African Flood Forecasting System (AFFS) is a probabilistic flood forecast system for medium- to large-scale African river basins, with lead times of up to 15 days. The key components are the hydrological model LISFLOOD, the African GIS database, the meteorological ensemble predictions of the ECMWF and critical hydrological thresholds. In this paper the predictive capability is investigated in a hindcast mode, by reproducing hydrological predictions for the year 2003 where important floods were observed. Results were verified with ground measurements of 36 subcatchments as well as with reports of various flood archives. Results showed that AFFS detected around 70% of the reported flood events correctly. In particular, the system showed good performance in predicting riverine flood events of long duration (>1 week) and large affected areas (>10 000 km2) well in advance, whereas AFFS showed limitations for small-scale and short duration flood events. The case study for "Save flooding" illustrated the good performance of AFFS in forecasting timing and severity of the floods, gave an example of the clear and concise output products, and showed that the system is capable of producing flood warnings even in ungauged river basins. Hence, from a technical perspective, AFFS shows a large potential as an operational pan-African flood forecasting system, although issues related to the practical implication will still need to be investigated.

  2. Chikungunya Outbreaks Caused by African Genotype, India

    PubMed Central

    Yergolkar, Prasanna N.; Tandale, Babasaheb V.; Arankalle, Vidya A.; Sathe, Padmakar S.; Gandhe, Swati S.; Gokhle, Mangesh D.; Jacob, George P.; Hundekar, Supriya L.

    2006-01-01

    Chikungunya fever is reported in India after 32 years. Immunoglobulin M antibodies and virus isolation confirmed the cause. Phylogenic analysis based on partial sequences of NS4 and E1 genes showed that all earlier isolates (1963–1973) were Asian genotype, whereas the current and Yawat (2000) isolates were African genotype. PMID:17176577

  3. Dissecting the genetic diversity in African rice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    African cultivated rice, Oryza glaberrima, and its progenitor, O. barthii are excellent sources of important genes for rice improvement because they exhibit tolerance to several abiotic and biotic stresses. Development of advance backcross (ABC) populations between an unadapted donor parent and ada...

  4. Paranoid Ideation among Elderly African American Persons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bazargan, Mohsen; Bazargan, Shahrzad; King, Lewis

    2001-01-01

    A cross sectional study involving 998 independently living elderly African Americans used the Brief Symptom Inventory to measure paranoid ideation and 14 independent variables including demographic characteristics, cognitive deficit, and depression. Paranoid ideation was found in 10% of the sample. Regression analysis revealed 6 of 14 independent…

  5. African American English: A Linguistic Introduction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Lisa J.

    This introduction to African American English (AAE) looks at the grammar as a whole, describing patterns in sentence structure, sound system, word formation, and word use in AAE. The book uses linguistic description and data from conversation to explain that AAE is not a compilation of random deviations from mainstream English but rather a…

  6. The African Mythology: Old and New.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, E. Jefferson

    Myths about Africa are an inevitable outgrowth of a fundamental set of cultural assumptions about race and civilization that have been building in Western culture for at least four hundred years. The old African mythology, which consisted of crude, uncomplimentary stereotypes has been replaced by a new mythology which is much more insidious and…

  7. French-African Cultures: A Resource Unit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forbes, Barbara

    This resource unit concerns French-African cultures and their influence on other cultures. The materials may be incorporated into Levels 3, 4, and 5 French classes. Topics in the outline include environmental aspects; historical background; and cultural differences expressed in Senegal, Guinee, Mali, Cote d'Ivoire, Haute Volta, Togo, Dahomey,…

  8. African rainforests: past, present and future

    PubMed Central

    Malhi, Yadvinder; Adu-Bredu, Stephen; Asare, Rebecca A.; Lewis, Simon L.; Mayaux, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    The rainforests are the great green heart of Africa, and present a unique combination of ecological, climatic and human interactions. In this synthesis paper, we review the past and present state processes of change in African rainforests, and explore the challenges and opportunities for maintaining a viable future for these biomes. We draw in particular on the insights and new analyses emerging from the Theme Issue on ‘African rainforests: past, present and future’ of Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B. A combination of features characterize the African rainforest biome, including a history of climate variation; forest expansion and retreat; a long history of human interaction with the biome; a relatively low plant species diversity but large tree biomass; a historically exceptionally high animal biomass that is now being severely hunted down; the dominance of selective logging; small-scale farming and bushmeat hunting as the major forms of direct human pressure; and, in Central Africa, the particular context of mineral- and oil-driven economies that have resulted in unusually low rates of deforestation and agricultural activity. We conclude by discussing how this combination of factors influences the prospects for African forests in the twenty-first century. PMID:23878339

  9. West African Folktales [and] Instructor's Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gale, Steven H.

    Traditionally, an important function of folktales in West Africa has been to educate, as the older generation imparts knowledge to younger members of the family, tribe, societal unit, or ethnic group both informally in everyday life and more formally within the context of the bush schools. This anthology of West African folk literature offers more…

  10. The landscape of recombination in African Americans

    PubMed Central

    Hinch, Anjali G.; Tandon, Arti; Patterson, Nick; Song, Yunli; Rohland, Nadin; Palmer, Cameron D.; Chen, Gary K.; Wang, Kai; Buxbaum, Sarah G.; Akylbekova, Meggie; Aldrich, Melinda C.; Ambrosone, Christine B.; Amos, Christopher; Bandera, Elisa V.; Berndt, Sonja I.; Bernstein, Leslie; Blot, William J.; Bock, Cathryn H.; Boerwinkle, Eric; Cai, Qiuyin; Caporaso, Neil; Casey, Graham; Cupples, L. Adrienne; Deming, Sandra L.; Diver, W. Ryan; Divers, Jasmin; Fornage, Myriam; Gillanders, Elizabeth M.; Glessner, Joseph; Harris, Curtis C.; Hu, Jennifer J.; Ingles, Sue A.; Isaacs, Williams; John, Esther M.; Kao, W. H. Linda; Keating, Brendan; Kittles, Rick A.; Kolonel, Laurence N.; Larkin, Emma; Le Marchand, Loic; McNeill, Lorna H.; Millikan, Robert C.; Murphy, Adam; Musani, Solomon; Neslund-Dudas, Christine; Nyante, Sarah; Papanicolaou, George J.; Press, Michael F.; Psaty, Bruce M.; Reiner, Alex P.; Rich, Stephen S.; Rodriguez-Gil, Jorge L.; Rotter, Jerome I.; Rybicki, Benjamin A.; Schwartz, Ann G.; Signorello, Lisa B.; Spitz, Margaret; Strom, Sara S.; Thun, Michael J.; Tucker, Margaret A.; Wang, Zhaoming; Wiencke, John K.; Witte, John S.; Wrensch, Margaret; Wu, Xifeng; Yamamura, Yuko; Zanetti, Krista A.; Zheng, Wei; Ziegler, Regina G.; Zhu, Xiaofeng; Redline, Susan; Hirschhorn, Joel N.; Henderson, Brian E.; Taylor, Herman A.; Price, Alkes L.; Hakonarson, Hakon; Chanock, Stephen J.; Haiman, Christopher A.; Wilson, James G.; Reich, David; Myers, Simon R.

    2011-01-01

    Recombination, together with mutation, is the ultimate source of genetic variation in populations. We leverage the recent mixture of people of African and European ancestry in the Americas to build a genetic map measuring the probability of crossing-over at each position in the genome, based on about 2.1 million crossovers in 30,000 unrelated African Americans. At intervals of more than three megabases it is nearly identical to a map built in Europeans. At finer scales it differs significantly, and we identify about 2,500 recombination hotspots that are active in people of West African ancestry but nearly inactive in Europeans. The probability of a crossover at these hotspots is almost fully controlled by the alleles an individual carries at PRDM9 (P<10−245). We identify a 17 base pair DNA sequence motif that is enriched in these hotspots, and is an excellent match to the predicted binding target of African-enriched alleles of PRDM9. PMID:21775986

  11. African American Students' Attitudes toward Entrepreneurship Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ede, Fred O.; Panigrahi, Bhagaban; Calcich, Stephen E.

    1998-01-01

    A survey of 171 African-American students found that 72% came from nonentrepreneurial family backgrounds; only 24.5% intended to start their own businesses, there were no gender differences in entrepreneurship attitudes, and seniors and those from entrepreneurial backgrounds were more favorable toward entrepreneurship. (SK)

  12. Adult Illiteracy: The Root of African Underdevelopment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jogwu, C. N. O.

    2010-01-01

    All African Nations belong to the category of third world underdeveloped countries of the world. UNDP Human Development Index uses factors like per capita income, health of the people, and educational attainment to classify countries. Adult literacy and gross enrolment ratios are indicators of education status. This paper uses Nigeria, a typical…

  13. Sun protection behaviors among African Americans.

    PubMed

    Hall, H I; Rogers, J D

    1999-01-01

    The anatomic distribution of some skin cancers suggests that sun exposure may be an etiologic factor for skin cancer among African Americans. Yet little is known about sun protection behaviors among African Americans. We analyzed data from the 1992 National Health Interview Survey (N = 1,583) to determine the prevalence of sun protection behaviors and sun sensitivity. About 6% of African Americans reported being extremely sensitive to the sun and severe sunburning, and 9% reported mild burns. Overall, 53% of respondents (47% of men and 57% of women) reported that they were very likely to wear protective clothing, seek shade, or use sunscreen lotion. Women were more likely than men to report seeking shade and using sunscreen. Sun protection behaviors were more frequently reported by those who sunburn more easily and were positively associated with age. Use of sunscreen was positively associated with income and education. Education about sun protection and early detection may help reduce the morbidity and mortality of skin cancer among African Americans.

  14. Wages and Labor Management in African Manufacturing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fafchamps, Marcel; Soderbom, Mans

    2006-01-01

    Using matched employer-employee data from ten African countries, we examine the relationship between wages, worker supervision, and labor productivity in manufacturing. Wages increase with firm size for both production workers and supervisors. We develop a two-tier model of supervision that can account for this stylized fact and we fit the…

  15. Intertextuality in EAP: An African Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmes, John

    2004-01-01

    This paper focuses on the development of EAP methodology within an African EAP context. I describe the setting up and implementation of an EAP study skills programme at the University of Asmara, Eritrea, over the period 1994-1998 and its subsequent development up to 2002. The unique social and political context of the EAP programme served as a…

  16. African American Women Counselors, Wellness, and Spirituality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knowles, Debora; Bryant, Rhonda M.

    2011-01-01

    Given their tremendous professional responsibilities, professional counselors face daunting challenges to remaining healthy and avoiding role stress and overload. This article explores the intersection of race, gender, wellness, and spirituality in the self-care of African American women counselors. The authors give particular attention to…

  17. African-American Males: Education or Incarceration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Robert L.

    This paper analyzes the relationship between levels of educational attainment and outcomes for African American males, in particular the likelihood of conflict with the criminal justice system. The analysis begins with a look at society's belief system and political and economic forces, and argues that these have combined to promote failure among…

  18. African Theatre and the University of Leeds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banham, Martin; Plastow, Jane

    2006-01-01

    This paper discusses the impact that teaching and research on African theatre in the Workshop Theatre of the University of Leeds' School of English may have had in Africa and elsewhere. After surveying the productivity and influence of the Workshop Theatre to the present, the authors ask if they have contributed meaningfully to the development,…

  19. African and Pacific Literature: A Comparative Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Kristine L.

    Literary writing in Africa and the Pacific addresses themes that reflect colonial experience and the struggles of newly independent nations to cope with change and conflicts between traditional and modern existence. The novels of Chinua Achebe of Nigeria and Ngugi Wa Thiong'o of Kenya illustrate many dominant themes of African literature. Achebe…

  20. Caring School Leadership: A South African Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Vyver, Cornelius P.; van der Westhuizen, Philip C.; Meyer, L. W.

    2014-01-01

    The research pivoted on the question whether South African school principals fulfilled their caring role towards teachers. The aims of the study were threefold. First, to determine how principals rated their care-giving, secondly to determine whether significant discrepancies existed between principals' rating of their care-giving and…

  1. African American Female Superintendents: Resilient School Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Bernadeia H.

    2012-01-01

    Six African American female superintendents who had served as superintendents in at least 2 school districts were interviewed to understand ways in which they responded to barriers and adversity in their roles, with a particular emphasis on issues related to sexism and racism. Study participants shared that they work to engage the community and…

  2. Educational Resilience in African American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cunningham, Michael; Swanson, Dena Phillips

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this article was to examine factors within the school context that facilitates educational resilience among African American high school students. The authors expected academic self-esteem to be positively associated with future expectations (academic and general). They expected perceptions of school-based social support to have…

  3. Cataloging the Pan-African Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayes, Dianne

    2012-01-01

    Of all the honors and accolades bibliophile and noted authority on the Underground Railroad Charles Blockson has received, being bequeathed recently with some of Harriet Tubman's personal items by her great-niece is one of the most significant experiences of his life. A longtime collector of books and rare items by and about African-Americans,…

  4. Legacy of a Pioneer African American Educator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cazers, Gunars; Curtner-Smith, Matthew

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose was to reconstruct the historical and legendary contribution of one exemplary African American physical education teacher educator who lived and worked in the Deep South prior to and immediately following the 1954 Brown v. Board of Education court case. The following questions guided data collection and analysis: To what…

  5. African Traditional Pedagogy in a Modern Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Milton N.; Coulibaly, Medjomo

    1985-01-01

    This study identified pedagogical principles of African traditional education and then tested for their use today in schools located in rural villages of the Ivory Coast. Results showed that the 10 major principles identified are employed today in teaching and learning in that country. (RM)

  6. The African Heritage in Spanish Caribbean Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smart, Ian I.

    1981-01-01

    Uses Fanon's concept of the Manichean colonial situation and his Dialectical Theory of Identification to explore images of African heritage in the works of two mulatto Cuban poets, Gabriel de la Concepcion Valdez (1809-1844) and Nicolas Guillen (born 1902). (GC)

  7. Liberty in African and Western Thought.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mudimbe, V. Y.

    The theoretical African mode of thinking about liberty seems to stand in contrast to the view of liberty that has dominated Western philosophy. Western philosophy accepts as its starting point the notion of an unconstrained and uncontextualized "I" that is defined in relation to the self and its inner being. Greek, Cartesian, and classical…

  8. African American's Perceptions of Psychotherapy and Psychotherapists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Vetta L. Sanders; Akbar, Maysa D.; Bazile, Anita

    The attitudes and beliefs about utilization of mental health services of 201 African Americans, 18 years and older, are explored. One hundred and thirty-four females and 66 males participated in mixed sex focus groups conducted in an urban, Midwestern city. Discussion probes addressed participant perceptions of psychotherapists and psychotherapy,…

  9. City Children in African Children's Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuntz, Patricia S.

    A descriptive study identified titles and features of children's books set in an African city. Data were collected from various reviews of children's literature for titles published since 1980. In addition, the Cooperative Children's Book Center's log list of acquired titles for Africa from 1990 to 1996 was reviewed. Results showed that authors…

  10. Violent Behaviors among African-American Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrett, Darhyl

    1995-01-01

    Explores the development of behaviors by using Erik Erikson's psychosocial developmental theory, with emphasis on adolescents. Examines factors, such as identity versus identity diffusion, that may be contributing to increasing acts of violence by African American adolescents. Other factors are examined that may contribute to increased violence.…

  11. African rainforests: past, present and future.

    PubMed

    Malhi, Yadvinder; Adu-Bredu, Stephen; Asare, Rebecca A; Lewis, Simon L; Mayaux, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    The rainforests are the great green heart of Africa, and present a unique combination of ecological, climatic and human interactions. In this synthesis paper, we review the past and present state processes of change in African rainforests, and explore the challenges and opportunities for maintaining a viable future for these biomes. We draw in particular on the insights and new analyses emerging from the Theme Issue on 'African rainforests: past, present and future' of Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B. A combination of features characterize the African rainforest biome, including a history of climate variation; forest expansion and retreat; a long history of human interaction with the biome; a relatively low plant species diversity but large tree biomass; a historically exceptionally high animal biomass that is now being severely hunted down; the dominance of selective logging; small-scale farming and bushmeat hunting as the major forms of direct human pressure; and, in Central Africa, the particular context of mineral- and oil-driven economies that have resulted in unusually low rates of deforestation and agricultural activity. We conclude by discussing how this combination of factors influences the prospects for African forests in the twenty-first century. PMID:23878339

  12. 2000 African American History Month Celebration Luncheon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    In the Early Space Exploration Conference Center at the KSC Visitor Complex, Dr. Julian M. Earls (left), deputy director for Operations, Glenn Research Center, receives a plaque from astronaut Joan Higginbotham (right) during the 2000 African American History Month Celebration Luncheon. Dr. Earls was guest speaker at the luncheon.

  13. African American Homeschooling Practices: Empirical Evidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazama, Ama

    2016-01-01

    Despite a significant increase in scholarly interest for homeschooling, some of its most critical aspects, such as instructional daily practices, remain grossly understudied. This essay thus seeks to fill that void by presenting empirical evidence regarding the homeschooling practices of a specific group, African Americans. Most specifically, the…

  14. 2000 African American History Month Celebration Luncheon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    In the Early Space Exploration Conference Center at the KSC Visitor Complex, the planning committee for the 2000 African American History Month Celebration Luncheon gather in the lobby. At the far left is Mack McKinney, chief, Programs Resources Management, who was chairperson for the event.

  15. 2000 African American History Month Celebration Luncheon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Mack McKinney (left), chief, Programs Resources Management, and Delores Abraham (right), with the Astronaut office, flank one of the posters decorating the Early Space Exploration Conference Center at the KSC Visitor Complex for the 2000 African American History Month Celebration Luncheon. McKinney is chairperson for the event.

  16. Colorectal Cancer in African Americans: An Update

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Renee; White, Pascale; Nieto, Jose; Vieira, Dorice; Francois, Fritz; Hamilton, Frank

    2016-01-01

    This review is an update to the American College of Gastroenterology (ACG) Committee on Minority Affairs and Cultural Diversity's paper on colorectal cancer (CRC) in African Americans published in 2005. Over the past 10 years, the incidence and mortality rates of CRC in the United States has steadily declined. However, reductions have been strikingly much slower among African Americans who continue to have the highest rate of mortality and lowest survival when compared with all other racial groups. The reasons for the health disparities are multifactorial and encompass physician and patient barriers. Patient factors that contribute to disparities include poor knowledge of benefits of CRC screening, limited access to health care, insurance status along with fear and anxiety. Physician factors include lack of knowledge of screening guidelines along with disparate recommendations for screening. Earlier screening has been recommended as an effective strategy to decrease observed disparities; currently the ACG and American Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopists recommend CRC screening in African Americans to begin at age 45. Despite the decline in CRC deaths in all racial and ethnic groups, there still exists a significant burden of CRC in African Americans, thus other strategies including educational outreach for health care providers and patients and the utilization of patient navigation systems emphasizing the importance of screening are necessary. These strategies have been piloted in both local communities and Statewide resulting in notable significant decreases in observed disparities. PMID:27467183

  17. Marginality Theory and the African American Student.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grant, G. Kathleen; Breese, Jeffrey R.

    1997-01-01

    Reports on a study of African-American college students at a state university in the Midwest. The study examined the effects of marginality on their college experience and performance. Identifies six reactions to marginality and provides case study examples of each. Includes extensive references and verbatim comments from the students. (MJP)

  18. Prevalence of Stuttering in African American Preschoolers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Proctor, Adele; Yairi, Ehud; Duff, Melissa C.; Zhang, Jie

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: In this study, the authors sought to determine the prevalence of stuttering in African American (AA) 2- to 5-year-olds as compared with same-age European Americans (EAs). Method: A total of 3,164 children participated: 2,223 AAs and 941 EAs. Data were collected using a 3-pronged approach that included investigators' individual…

  19. Meningococcal carriage in the African meningitis belt.

    PubMed

    2013-08-01

    A meningococcal serogroup A polysaccharide/tetanus toxoid conjugate vaccine (PsA-TT) (MenAfriVac(™) ) is being deployed in countries of the African meningitis belt. Experience with other polysaccharide/protein conjugate vaccines has shown that an important part of their success has been their ability to prevent the acquisition of pharyngeal carriage and hence to stop transmission and induce herd immunity. If PsA-TT is to achieve the goal of preventing epidemics, it must be able to prevent the acquisition of pharyngeal carriage as well as invasive meningococcal disease and whether PsA-TT can prevent pharyngeal carriage needs to be determined. To address this issue, a consortium (the African Meningococcal Carriage (MenAfriCar) consortium) was established in 2009 to investigate the pattern of meningococcal carriage in countries of the African meningitis belt prior to and after the introduction of PsA-TT. This article describes how the consortium was established, its objectives and the standardised field and laboratory methods that were used to achieve these objectives. The experience of the MenAfriCar consortium will help in planning future studies on the epidemiology of meningococcal carriage in countries of the African meningitis belt and elsewhere.

  20. An Exploration of African Students in Malaysia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lian, Irene Tan Ai

    2011-01-01

    The exploratory study is an attempt to understand the reasons that prompted African students to study in Malaysia, the challenges encountered and the coping strategies used. The research on such topics among international students is well documented, but studies on international students in Malaysia are scarce. The sample included 155 African…

  1. AFRICAN ADULT EDUCATION--A BIBLIOGRAPHY.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BOWN, LALAGE

    THIS BIBLIOGRAPHY, A TENTATIVE LISTING OF MATERIALS ON AFRICAN ADULT EDUCATION PREPARED WITHOUT FULL BIBLIOGRAPHIC DETAIL IS LIMITED TO SOURCES IN ENGLISH AND FRENCH. THE ENGLISH SOURCES DO NOT INCLUDE MANY FROM AMERICA. IT IS AN EXTENSION AND REVISION OF THE PRELIMINARY BIBLIOGRAPHY DRAWN UP AT THE UNIVERSITY OF IBADAN IN 1965. THE FIRST SECTION…

  2. Depressive Symptoms in African-American Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, Michael K.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Examined the prevalence of depressive symptoms in an African American female college student sample (n=78) using the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI2) and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). MMPI-2 was a more conservative scale than BDI in identifying depressive symptom levels. Discusses stress inoculation methods to assist…

  3. Cultural Considerations When Caring for African Americans

    Cancer.gov

    The EPEC-O (Education in Palliative and End-of-Life Care for Oncology) Self-Study: Cultural Considerations When Caring for African Americans is a free comprehensive multimedia curricula for health professionals caring for persons with cancer and their families.

  4. Biological evaluation of Trans-African highways

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adamatzky, Andrew; Kayem, Anne V. D. M.

    2013-01-01

    The Trans-African highway network is a unique concept of integrated development of transport corridors spanning all African countries and providing landlocked countries access to seaports. The planned road system is still maturing and just partially complete, thus giving us a chance to play with different scenarios of its growth and to consider potential alternative transport networks. We study the evolving transport network in the African continent with a groundbreaking technique of imitating growing transport networks with slime mould Physarum polycephalum. We represent the major urban areas of Africa with a source of nutrients, inoculate a piece of the slime mould in Cairo and allow the mould to span all urban areas with its network of protoplasmic tubes. We then compare the slime mould networks with existing and planned highway corridors. We found that slime mould provides a good approximation of the Trans-African highway network, with some roads of Eastern Africa delineated by P. polycephalum in a larger number of laboratory experiments. We demonstrate direct matches between protoplasmic tubes and Trans-Sahelian as well as Lagos-Mombasa corridors. Finally we analyse the bio-logic of transport network development in families of generalised Physarum graphs.

  5. In Pursuit of African Scholarship: Unpacking Engagement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Brien, Frances

    2009-01-01

    Engagement between higher education and other societal sectors is a key theme in higher education discourse in South Africa, as it is in other countries. In South Africa, however, engagement has gained additional status as an appropriate strategy for pursuing African Scholarship. On the ground, however, inequitable power relationships and erratic…

  6. Dictionaries of African Sign Languages: An Overview

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmaling, Constanze H.

    2012-01-01

    This article gives an overview of dictionaries of African sign languages that have been published to date most of which have not been widely distributed. After an introduction into the field of sign language lexicography and a discussion of some of the obstacles that authors of sign language dictionaries face in general, I will show problems…

  7. African Universities Tackle the Continent's Agricultural Crisis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindow, Megan

    2009-01-01

    Pests, population growth, and depleted soil have wreaked havoc on agriculture in Africa, so universities across the continent are rethinking how they teach the topic. Some African universities have been building their own networks and pooling their limited resources to train more agricultural scientists and improve their responsiveness to the…

  8. Promotive Parenting Practices among African American Mothers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams-Wheeler, Meeshay

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine communication/reasoning, behavioral control, and trust as predictors of resourcefulness among African American children during middle childhood (6-12 years of age). Mothers who practice promotive socialization strategies are more likely to rear children who are socially competent and well adjusted. Multiple…

  9. African Socialism and Educational Practice. Draft.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Draisma, Tom

    The relationship between the secondary education system and wider political, economic, and sociocultural developments in Africa is examined. Special emphasis is given to the problems of political ideology and education in Zambia; but as Zambian socialist ideology and educational history show similarities to other African nations, the author's…

  10. African American College Women's Suicide Buffers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marion, Michelle S.; Range, Lillian M.

    2003-01-01

    To examine the relationships buffers may have with suicide ideation, 300 African American female college students completed measures of suicide ideation and buffers. Three variables accounted for a significant and unique portion of the variance in suicide ideation: family support, a view that suicide is unacceptable, and a collaborative religious…

  11. Gout and African Americans: Reducing disparities.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Bharat; Lenert, Petar

    2016-09-01

    African Americans are more likely to suffer from gout and are less likely to receive optimal treatment for it. Physicians should be aware of risk factors for gout and professional guidelines for treating acute attacks and high uric acid levels, and should help develop strategies to reduce disparities in healthcare delivery. PMID:27618355

  12. African Drum and Steel Pan Ensembles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sunkett, Mark E.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses how to develop both African drum and steel pan ensembles providing information on teacher preparation, instrument choice, beginning the ensemble, and lesson planning. Includes additional information for the drum ensembles. Lists references and instructional materials, sources of drums and pans, and common note layout/range for steel pan…

  13. Colorectal Cancer in African Americans: An Update.

    PubMed

    Williams, Renee; White, Pascale; Nieto, Jose; Vieira, Dorice; Francois, Fritz; Hamilton, Frank

    2016-01-01

    This review is an update to the American College of Gastroenterology (ACG) Committee on Minority Affairs and Cultural Diversity's paper on colorectal cancer (CRC) in African Americans published in 2005. Over the past 10 years, the incidence and mortality rates of CRC in the United States has steadily declined. However, reductions have been strikingly much slower among African Americans who continue to have the highest rate of mortality and lowest survival when compared with all other racial groups. The reasons for the health disparities are multifactorial and encompass physician and patient barriers. Patient factors that contribute to disparities include poor knowledge of benefits of CRC screening, limited access to health care, insurance status along with fear and anxiety. Physician factors include lack of knowledge of screening guidelines along with disparate recommendations for screening. Earlier screening has been recommended as an effective strategy to decrease observed disparities; currently the ACG and American Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopists recommend CRC screening in African Americans to begin at age 45. Despite the decline in CRC deaths in all racial and ethnic groups, there still exists a significant burden of CRC in African Americans, thus other strategies including educational outreach for health care providers and patients and the utilization of patient navigation systems emphasizing the importance of screening are necessary. These strategies have been piloted in both local communities and Statewide resulting in notable significant decreases in observed disparities. PMID:27467183

  14. Careers of African Americans in Academic Astronomy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fikes, Robert Jr.

    2000-01-01

    Though traditionally the field of academic astronomy has belonged almost exclusively to whites, today several black scholars are beginning to make their mark in this scientific discipline. Profiles a group of contemporary African American scholars who are astronomers and astrophysicists, noting that there are at least four black graduate students…

  15. African Americans in Television: An Afrocentric Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tait, Alice A.; Perry, Robert L.

    1994-01-01

    Proposes that, historically and contemporarily, African Americans were and are severely underrepresented in the Eurocentric press, portrayed stereotypically, depicted in low-status occupational roles, and denied news or public affairs programs to adequately serve their informational needs. Theories on mass media's impact on society and individuals…

  16. The landscape of recombination in African Americans.

    PubMed

    Hinch, Anjali G; Tandon, Arti; Patterson, Nick; Song, Yunli; Rohland, Nadin; Palmer, Cameron D; Chen, Gary K; Wang, Kai; Buxbaum, Sarah G; Akylbekova, Ermeg L; Aldrich, Melinda C; Ambrosone, Christine B; Amos, Christopher; Bandera, Elisa V; Berndt, Sonja I; Bernstein, Leslie; Blot, William J; Bock, Cathryn H; Boerwinkle, Eric; Cai, Qiuyin; Caporaso, Neil; Casey, Graham; Cupples, L Adrienne; Deming, Sandra L; Diver, W Ryan; Divers, Jasmin; Fornage, Myriam; Gillanders, Elizabeth M; Glessner, Joseph; Harris, Curtis C; Hu, Jennifer J; Ingles, Sue A; Isaacs, William; John, Esther M; Kao, W H Linda; Keating, Brendan; Kittles, Rick A; Kolonel, Laurence N; Larkin, Emma; Le Marchand, Loic; McNeill, Lorna H; Millikan, Robert C; Murphy, Adam; Musani, Solomon; Neslund-Dudas, Christine; Nyante, Sarah; Papanicolaou, George J; Press, Michael F; Psaty, Bruce M; Reiner, Alex P; Rich, Stephen S; Rodriguez-Gil, Jorge L; Rotter, Jerome I; Rybicki, Benjamin A; Schwartz, Ann G; Signorello, Lisa B; Spitz, Margaret; Strom, Sara S; Thun, Michael J; Tucker, Margaret A; Wang, Zhaoming; Wiencke, John K; Witte, John S; Wrensch, Margaret; Wu, Xifeng; Yamamura, Yuko; Zanetti, Krista A; Zheng, Wei; Ziegler, Regina G; Zhu, Xiaofeng; Redline, Susan; Hirschhorn, Joel N; Henderson, Brian E; Taylor, Herman A; Price, Alkes L; Hakonarson, Hakon; Chanock, Stephen J; Haiman, Christopher A; Wilson, James G; Reich, David; Myers, Simon R

    2011-07-20

    Recombination, together with mutation, gives rise to genetic variation in populations. Here we leverage the recent mixture of people of African and European ancestry in the Americas to build a genetic map measuring the probability of crossing over at each position in the genome, based on about 2.1 million crossovers in 30,000 unrelated African Americans. At intervals of more than three megabases it is nearly identical to a map built in Europeans. At finer scales it differs significantly, and we identify about 2,500 recombination hotspots that are active in people of West African ancestry but nearly inactive in Europeans. The probability of a crossover at these hotspots is almost fully controlled by the alleles an individual carries at PRDM9 (P value < 10(-245)). We identify a 17-base-pair DNA sequence motif that is enriched in these hotspots, and is an excellent match to the predicted binding target of PRDM9 alleles common in West Africans and rare in Europeans. Sites of this motif are predicted to be risk loci for disease-causing genomic rearrangements in individuals carrying these alleles. More generally, this map provides a resource for research in human genetic variation and evolution.

  17. Art exhibit focuses on African astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2012-07-01

    Connections between Africans and astronomy are the focus of a new exhibition in the National Museum of African Art in Washington, D. C. "African Cosmos: Stellar Arts," which includes artwork, cultural items, and scientific displays from ancient to contemporary times, is the first major exhibit "that brings together arts and science focused on Africa's contribution to keen observations of the heavens over time," curator Christine Mullen Kreamer said at a 20 June news briefing. Among the exhibit's nearly 100 objects are an ancient Egyptian mummy board that includes a representation of the sky goddess Nut, sculptures by the Dogon people of Mali depicting figures in relation to the cosmos, a video that uses data from two square degrees of the Hubble Space Telescope Cosmic Evolution Survey, and a nearly floor-to-ceiling "Rainbow Serpent" constructed of plastic containers by Benin artist Hazoume. An untitled acrylic painting (Figure 1) by South African Gavin Jantjes evokes a myth of the Khoi San people of southern Africa, as it portrays a girl throwing evening fire embers into the night sky, where they remained as the Milky Way.

  18. Contemporary Sexism in the South African Navy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Wijk, Charles H.

    2011-01-01

    The military traditionally embraces highly sexist attitudes. Over the past decade, the South African Navy (SAN) has been exposed to an increasingly progressive political environment. This study investigated contemporary expressions of sexism in the SAN. A representative sample of 476 sailors completed the Ambivalent Sexism Inventory, Modern Sexism…

  19. RHD allele distribution in Africans of Mali

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, Franz F; Moulds, Joann M; Tounkara, Anatole; Kouriba, Bourema; Flegel, Willy A

    2003-01-01

    Background Aberrant and non-functional RHD alleles are much more frequent in Africans than in Europeans. The DAU cluster of RHD alleles exemplifies that the alleles frequent in Africans have evaded recognition until recently. A comprehensive survey of RHD alleles in any African population was lacking. Results We surveyed the molecular structure and frequency of RHD alleles in Mali (West Africa) by evaluating 116 haplotypes. Only 69% could be attributed to standard RHD (55%) or the RHD deletion (14%). The aberrant RHD allele DAU-0 was predicted for 19%, RHDΨ for 7% and Ccdes for 4% of all haplotypes. DAU-3 and the new RHD allele RHD(L207F), dubbed DMA, were found in one haplotype each. A PCR-RFLP for the detection of the hybrid Rhesus box diagnostic for the RHD deletion in Europeans was false positive in 9 individuals, including all carriers of RHDΨ . Including two silent mutations and the RHD deletion, a total of 9 alleles could be differentiated. Conclusion Besides standard RHD and the RHD deletion, DAU-0, RHDΨ and Ccdes are major alleles in Mali. Our survey proved that the most frequent alleles of West Africans have been recognized allowing to devise reliable genotyping and phenotyping strategies. PMID:14505497

  20. African Trypanosomes Find a Fat Haven

    PubMed Central

    Beverley, Stephen M.

    2016-01-01

    The African trypanosome was thought to primarily develop in the bloodstream and interstitial spaces of its mammalian host. In this issue of Cell Host & Microbe, Trindade et al. (2016) report the surprising finding that during ongoing persistent infections in mice, a major fraction of the parasites reside within fatty tissues. PMID:27281564

  1. Allocation of Students in North African Universities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Marie Thourson

    1981-01-01

    Student bodies at public universities in Morocco, Algeria, and Tunisia have grown rapidly, outside the direct control of university authorities. How the three North African nations differ in their policies regulating which students may study which subjects, and the implications of these policies for the goals of higher education are discussed.…

  2. Two African Saints in Medieval Germany.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grimm, Reinhold

    1992-01-01

    The origin and development of two African saints are discussed: Saint Maurice, patron saint of the eastern empire of Otto I; and Caspar, the youngest of the three Magi. Their representation in German art is described and illustrated. (Author/LB)

  3. Myths in African Concept of Reality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaja, Jones M.

    2014-01-01

    Myths are accounts of the origin of societies and institutions not subject to rationalization but often used by historians and philosophers in their quest to study African history; for it is only thus that we can comprehend the various aspects of the continent's history and culture. This paper examines the critical understanding of African…

  4. Language and the African American Child

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Lisa J.

    2011-01-01

    How do children acquire African American English? How do they develop the specific language patterns of their communities? Drawing on spontaneous speech samples and data from structured elicitation tasks, this book explains the developmental trends in the children's language. It examines topics such as the development of tense/aspect marking,…

  5. Fat, fibre and cancer risk in African Americans and rural Africans.

    PubMed

    O'Keefe, Stephen J D; Li, Jia V; Lahti, Leo; Ou, Junhai; Carbonero, Franck; Mohammed, Khaled; Posma, Joram M; Kinross, James; Wahl, Elaine; Ruder, Elizabeth; Vipperla, Kishore; Naidoo, Vasudevan; Mtshali, Lungile; Tims, Sebastian; Puylaert, Philippe G B; DeLany, James; Krasinskas, Alyssa; Benefiel, Ann C; Kaseb, Hatem O; Newton, Keith; Nicholson, Jeremy K; de Vos, Willem M; Gaskins, H Rex; Zoetendal, Erwin G

    2015-04-28

    Rates of colon cancer are much higher in African Americans (65:100,000) than in rural South Africans (<5:100,000). The higher rates are associated with higher animal protein and fat, and lower fibre consumption, higher colonic secondary bile acids, lower colonic short-chain fatty acid quantities and higher mucosal proliferative biomarkers of cancer risk in otherwise healthy middle-aged volunteers. Here we investigate further the role of fat and fibre in this association. We performed 2-week food exchanges in subjects from the same populations, where African Americans were fed a high-fibre, low-fat African-style diet and rural Africans a high-fat, low-fibre western-style diet, under close supervision. In comparison with their usual diets, the food changes resulted in remarkable reciprocal changes in mucosal biomarkers of cancer risk and in aspects of the microbiota and metabolome known to affect cancer risk, best illustrated by increased saccharolytic fermentation and butyrogenesis, and suppressed secondary bile acid synthesis in the African Americans.

  6. Fat, Fiber and Cancer Risk in African Americans and Rural Africans

    PubMed Central

    O'Keefe, Stephen J.D.; Li, Jia V.; Lahti, Leo; Ou, Junhai; Carbonero, Franck; Mohammed, Khaled; Posma, Joram M; Kinross, James; Wahl, Elaine; Ruder, Elizabeth; Vipperla, Kishore; Naidoo, Vasudevan; Mtshali, Lungile; Tims, Sebastian; Puylaert, Philippe G.B.; DeLany, James; Krasinskas, Alyssa; Benefiel, Ann C.; Kaseb, Hatem O.; Newton, Keith; Nicholson, Jeremy K.; de Vos, Willem M.; Gaskins, H. Rex; Zoetendal, Erwin G.

    2015-01-01

    Rates of colon cancer are much higher in African Americans (65:100,000) than in rural South Africans (<5:100,000). The higher rates are associated with higher animal protein and fat and lower fiber consumption, higher colonic secondary bile acids, lower colonic short chain fatty acid quantities and higher mucosal proliferative biomarkers of cancer risk in otherwise healthy middle aged volunteers. Here we investigate further the role of fat and fiber in this association. We performed two-week food exchanges in subjects from the same populations, where African Americans were fed a high-fiber, lowfat African-style diet, and rural Africans a high-fat low-fiber western-style diet under close supervision. In comparison to their usual diets, the food changes resulted in remarkable reciprocal changes in mucosal biomarkers of cancer risk and in aspects of the microbiota and metabolome known to affect cancer risk, best illustrated by increased saccharolytic fermentation and butyrogenesis and suppressed secondary bile acid synthesis in the African Americans. PMID:25919227

  7. An African-American family with dystonia.

    PubMed

    Puschmann, Andreas; Xiao, Jianfeng; Bastian, Robert W; Searcy, Jill A; LeDoux, Mark S; Wszolek, Zbigniew K

    2011-08-01

    The genetic cause of late-onset focal and segmental dystonia remains unknown in most individuals. Recently, mutations in Thanatos-associated protein domain containing, apoptosis associated protein 1 (THAP1) have been described in DYT6 dystonia and associated with some cases of familial and sporadic late-onset dystonia in Caucasians. We are not aware of any previous descriptions of familial dystonia in African-Americans or reports of THAP1 mutations in African-Americans. Herein, we characterize an African-American (AA) kindred with late-onset primary dystonia, clinically and genetically. The clinical phenotype included cervical, laryngeal and hand-forearm dystonia. Symptoms were severe and disabling for several family members, whereas others only displayed mild signs. There were no accompanying motor or cognitive signs. In this kindred, age of onset ranged from 45 to 50 years and onset was frequently sudden, with symptoms developing within weeks or months. DYT1 was excluded as the cause of dystonia in this kindred. The entire genomic region of THAP1, including non-coding regions, was sequenced. We identified 13 sequence variants in THAP1, although none co-segregated with dystonia. A novel THAP1 variant (c.-237-3G>T/A) was found in 3/84 AA dystonia patient alleles and 3/212 AA control alleles, but not in 5870 Caucasian alleles. In summary, although previously unreported, familial primary dystonia does occur in African-Americans. Genetic analysis of the entire genomic region of THAP1 revealed a novel variant that was specific for African-Americans. Therefore, genetic testing for dystonia and future studies of candidate genes must take genetic background into consideration. PMID:21601506

  8. An African-American Family with Dystonia

    PubMed Central

    Puschmann, Andreas; Xiao, Jianfeng; Bastian, Robert W.; Searcy, Jill A.; LeDoux, Mark S.; Wszolek, Zbigniew K.

    2011-01-01

    The genetic cause of late-onset focal and segmental dystonia remains unknown in most individuals. Recently, mutations in Thanatos-associated protein domain containing, apoptosis associated protein 1 (THAP1) have been described in DYT6 dystonia and associated with some cases of familial and sporadic late-onset dystonia in Caucasians. We are not aware of any previous descriptions of familial dystonia in African Americans or reports of THAP1 mutations in African Americans. Herein, we characterize an African-American (AA) kindred with late-onset primary dystonia, clinically and genetically. The clinical phenotype included cervical, laryngeal and hand-forearm dystonia. Symptoms were severe and disabling for several family members, whereas others only displayed mild signs. There were no accompanying motor or cognitive signs. In this kindred, age of onset ranged from 45 to 50 years and onset was frequently sudden, with symptoms developing within weeks or months. DYT1 was excluded as the cause of dystonia in this kindred. The entire genomic region of THAP1, including non-coding regions, was sequenced. We identified 13 sequence variants in THAP1, although none co-segregated with dystonia. A novel THAP1 variant (c.-237-3G>T/A) was found in 3/84 AA dystonia patient alleles and 3/212 AA control alleles, but not in 5,870 Caucasian alleles. In summary, although previously unreported, familial primary dystonia does occur in African Americans. Genetic analysis of the entire genomic region of THAP1 revealed a novel variant that was specific for African Americans. Therefore, genetic testing for dystonia and future studies of candidate genes must take genetic background into consideration. PMID:21601506

  9. Informing cancer prevention strategies for African Americans: the relationship of African American acculturation to fruit, vegetable, and fat intake.

    PubMed

    Ard, Jamy D; Skinner, Celette Sugg; Chen, Chuhe; Aickin, Mikel; Svetkey, Laura P

    2005-06-01

    Acculturation has been associated with health-related behaviors in African Americans. We sought to determine if there is a relationship between acculturation and dietary intake in African Americans. African Americans in the PREMIER trial completed the African American Acculturation Scale (AAAS) and 2 nonconsecutive 24-h dietary recalls (n = 238). Analysis of variance (ANOVA) and canonical correlation were used to assess relationships between acculturation and dietary intakes. Canonical correlation (p = 0.05) showed that traditional African Americans had lower intakes of fruits/vegetables and milk/dairy with higher intakes of fats, meat, and nuts. This pattern was supported by differences in the ANOVA. African American acculturation is related to dietary intake. These findings have implications for the design of cancer-related public health messages targeted to African Americans. PMID:16015458

  10. Population affinities of African Colombians to Sub-Saharan Africans based on dental morphology.

    PubMed

    Delgado-Burbano, M E

    2007-01-01

    The Atlantic slave trade moved more than 13 million Africans to American lands between the 15th and 19th centuries. Previous historical, linguistic, and social-cultural studies suggested a Western-Central Bantu African origin for the Colombian slaves; however, their precise provenance remains unclear. The present study investigates the variation of the epigenetic dental traits in the deciduous and permanent dentition and phenotypic affinities of a contemporary Afro-Colombian community (n=178) in an attempt to identify their possible African ancestors. The results of a multivariate analysis of principal components show that Afro-descendents from Guapi have strong phenotypic relationships with several Bantu-speakers groups of Western and Western-Central Africa (Sub-Saharan region), specifically from Gabon, Congo, Pygmies, Nigeria, Cameroon, Togo and Benin. In concordance with recent mtDNA studies, this research suggests a distant but important relationship between Afro-Colombians and Eastern and South-Eastern African populations. This analysis also shows a marked dental divergence with North African samples. The dental information is not very different from the cultural, linguistic and historic data; however, it is more in agreement with studies based on molecular variation. In addition, this study reveals that African-Americans from North America, Central America-Caribbean and South America have high biological variation essentially identical to their several Sub-Saharan sources. Although a microevolutionary model, based on differential rates of gene flow with Native American and European-American groups and little selective pressures influence, better explains the phenotypic variation observed, more African-American dental samples must be analyzed from a regional perspective.

  11. Ectomycorrhizal symbiosis of tropical African trees.

    PubMed

    Bâ, Amadou M; Duponnois, Robin; Moyersoen, Bernard; Diédhiou, Abdala G

    2012-01-01

    The diversity, ecology and function of ectomycorrhizal (EM) fungi and ectomycorrhizas (ECMs) on tropical African tree species are reviewed here. While ECMs are the most frequent mycorrhizal type in temperate and boreal forests, they concern an economically and ecologically important minority of plants in African tropical forests. In these African tropical forests, ECMs are found mainly on caesalpionioid legumes, Sarcolaenaceae, Dipterocarpaceae, Asterpeiaceae, Phyllantaceae, Sapotaceae, Papilionoideae, Gnetaceae and Proteaceae, and distributed in open, gallery and rainforests of the Guineo-Congolian basin, Zambezian Miombo woodlands of East and South-Central Africa and Sudanian savannah woodlands of the sub-sahara. Overall, EM status was confirmed in 93 (26%) among 354 tree species belonging to EM genera. In addition, 195 fungal taxa were identified using morphological descriptions and sequencing of the ML5/ML6 fragment of sporocarps and ECMs from West Africa. Analyses of the belowground EM fungal communities mostly based on fungal internal transcribed spacer sequences of ECMs from Continental Africa, Madagascar and the Seychelles also revealed more than 350 putative species of EM fungi belonging mainly to 18 phylogenetic lineages. As in temperate forests, the /russula-lactarius and /tomentella-thelephora lineages dominated EM fungal flora in tropical Africa. A low level of host preference and dominance of multi-host fungal taxa on different African adult tree species and their seedlings were revealed, suggesting a potential for the formation of common ectomycorrhizal networks. Moreover, the EM inoculum potential in terms of types and density of propagules (spores, sclerotia, EM root fragments and fragments of mycelia strands) in the soil allowed opportunistic root colonisation as well as long-term survival in the soil during the dry season. These are important characteristics when choosing an EM fungus for field application. In this respect, Thelephoroid fungal sp

  12. A plea to better feed African soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stroosnijder, Leo

    2014-05-01

    Most African cropping system are rainfed. Rain is distributed at the soil surface over infiltration and runoff. The infiltrated water is stored in the rootable soil layer and the excess drains below that layer into the groundwater. The stored water is partly lost as evaporation to the atmosphere and partly used as transpiration for plant growth. In African cropping system the green water use efficiency (GWUE: fraction transpiration over rainfall) is as low as 15%. This low value is due to the often poor soil quality (physical, chemical and biological) of African soils. The poor physical state causes a weak soil structure resulting in crust formation with low infiltration and high runoff as consequences. The water holding capacity of the rootable soil layer is also poor, causing quite some water lost into deeper layers. African soils are poor due to long time soil mining. Soil life depends on soil organic matter (SOM) which is decreasing everywhere at an average rate of 2% per year. It is common sense that an improved soil quality is essential for improved food security. The key that triggers a sustainable improvement in soil quality is a system's approach that focus on the management of organic resources. Soil is a living organism, and it feeds on SOM. This feed is continuously consumed but a living soil makes new SOM out of fresh organic matter. In order to keep our soils alive we need cropping systems that feed our soils with fresh organic matter in the form of crop residues in the right mix of quality and quantity. The tendency to breed crops with a high harvest index (hence low straw) and the many other uses of crop residues (competing claims) with it recent use for bio-ethanol fabrication is disastrous for our living soils. If we continue to allow SOM to decrease, soil crusting and hard setting will increase with less end less water available for the production of green biomass. Lower available water will trigger a negative spiral with lower food security and

  13. Range and Frequency of Africanized Honey Bees in California (USA)

    PubMed Central

    Kono, Yoshiaki; Kohn, Joshua R.

    2015-01-01

    Africanized honey bees entered California in 1994 but few accounts of their northward expansion or their frequency relative to European honey bees have been published. We used mitochondrial markers and morphometric analyses to determine the prevalence of Africanized honeybees in San Diego County and their current northward progress in California west of the Sierra Nevada crest. The northernmost African mitotypes detected were approximately 40 km south of Sacramento in California’s central valley. In San Diego County, 65% of foraging honey bee workers carry African mitochondria and the estimated percentage of Africanized workers using morphological measurements is similar (61%). There was no correlation between mitotype and morphology in San Diego County suggesting Africanized bees result from bidirectional hybridization. Seventy percent of feral hives, but only 13% of managed hives, sampled in San Diego County carried the African mitotype indicating that a large fraction of foraging workers in both urban and rural San Diego County are feral. We also found a single nucleotide polymorphism at the DNA barcode locus COI that distinguishes European and African mitotypes. The utility of this marker was confirmed using 401 georeferenced honey bee sequences from the worldwide Barcode of Life Database. Future censuses can determine whether the current range of the Africanized form is stable, patterns of introgression at nuclear loci, and the environmental factors that may limit the northern range of the Africanized honey bee. PMID:26361047

  14. In vitro permeation of platinum through African and Caucasian skin.

    PubMed

    Franken, A; Eloff, F C; du Plessis, J; Badenhorst, C J; Du Plessis, J L

    2015-02-01

    The majority of the South African workforce are Africans, therefore potential racial differences should be considered in risk and exposure assessments in the workplace. Literature suggests African skin to be a superior barrier against permeation and irritants. Previous in vitro studies on metals only included skin from Caucasian donors, whereas this study compared the permeation of platinum through African and Caucasian skin. A donor solution of 0.3 mg/ml of potassium tetrachloroplatinate (K₂PtCl₄) dissolved in synthetic sweat was applied to the vertical Franz diffusion cells with full thickness abdominal skin. Skin from three female African and three female Caucasian donors were included (n=21). The receptor solution was removed at various intervals during the 24 h experiment, and analysed with high resolution inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Skin was digested and analysed by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). Significantly higher permeation of platinum through intact African skin (p=0.044), as well as a significantly higher mass of platinum retention in African skin in comparison with Caucasian skin (p=0.002) occurred. Significant inter-donor variation was found in both racial groups (p<0.02). Results indicate that African workers have increased risk of dermal permeation and therefore possible sensitisation caused by dermal exposure to platinum salts. These results are contradictory to limited literature suggesting a superior barrier in African skin and further investigation is necessary to explain the higher permeation through African skin.

  15. Range and Frequency of Africanized Honey Bees in California (USA).

    PubMed

    Kono, Yoshiaki; Kohn, Joshua R

    2015-01-01

    Africanized honey bees entered California in 1994 but few accounts of their northward expansion or their frequency relative to European honey bees have been published. We used mitochondrial markers and morphometric analyses to determine the prevalence of Africanized honeybees in San Diego County and their current northward progress in California west of the Sierra Nevada crest. The northernmost African mitotypes detected were approximately 40 km south of Sacramento in California's central valley. In San Diego County, 65% of foraging honey bee workers carry African mitochondria and the estimated percentage of Africanized workers using morphological measurements is similar (61%). There was no correlation between mitotype and morphology in San Diego County suggesting Africanized bees result from bidirectional hybridization. Seventy percent of feral hives, but only 13% of managed hives, sampled in San Diego County carried the African mitotype indicating that a large fraction of foraging workers in both urban and rural San Diego County are feral. We also found a single nucleotide polymorphism at the DNA barcode locus COI that distinguishes European and African mitotypes. The utility of this marker was confirmed using 401 georeferenced honey bee sequences from the worldwide Barcode of Life Database. Future censuses can determine whether the current range of the Africanized form is stable, patterns of introgression at nuclear loci, and the environmental factors that may limit the northern range of the Africanized honey bee.

  16. Range and Frequency of Africanized Honey Bees in California (USA).

    PubMed

    Kono, Yoshiaki; Kohn, Joshua R

    2015-01-01

    Africanized honey bees entered California in 1994 but few accounts of their northward expansion or their frequency relative to European honey bees have been published. We used mitochondrial markers and morphometric analyses to determine the prevalence of Africanized honeybees in San Diego County and their current northward progress in California west of the Sierra Nevada crest. The northernmost African mitotypes detected were approximately 40 km south of Sacramento in California's central valley. In San Diego County, 65% of foraging honey bee workers carry African mitochondria and the estimated percentage of Africanized workers using morphological measurements is similar (61%). There was no correlation between mitotype and morphology in San Diego County suggesting Africanized bees result from bidirectional hybridization. Seventy percent of feral hives, but only 13% of managed hives, sampled in San Diego County carried the African mitotype indicating that a large fraction of foraging workers in both urban and rural San Diego County are feral. We also found a single nucleotide polymorphism at the DNA barcode locus COI that distinguishes European and African mitotypes. The utility of this marker was confirmed using 401 georeferenced honey bee sequences from the worldwide Barcode of Life Database. Future censuses can determine whether the current range of the Africanized form is stable, patterns of introgression at nuclear loci, and the environmental factors that may limit the northern range of the Africanized honey bee. PMID:26361047

  17. Lessons Learned from Pit Viper System Deployment

    SciTech Connect

    Catalan, Michael A.; Alzheimer, James M.; Valdez, Patrick LJ; Bailey, Sharon A.; Baker, Carl P.

    2002-04-11

    Tele-operated and robotic systems operated in unstructured field environments pose unique challenges for tool design. Since field tasks are not always well defined and the robot work area usually cannot be designed for ease of operation, the tools must be versatile. It's important to carefully consider the orientation of the grip the robot takes on the tool, as it's not easily changed in the field. The stiffness of the robot and the possibility of robot positioning errors encourages the use of non-contact or minimal-contact tooling. While normal hand tools can usually be modified for use by the robot, this is not always the most effective approach. It's desirable to have tooling that is relatively independent of the robot; in this case, the robot places the tool near the desired work location and the tool performs its task relatively independently. Here we consider the adaptation of a number of tools for cleanup of a radioactively contaminated piping junction and valve pit. The tasks to be considered are debris removal (small nuts and bolts and pipe up to 100 mm in diameter), size reduction, surface cleaning, and support of past practice crane-based methods for working in the pits.

  18. Hematopoietic SCT for the Black African and non-Black African variants of sickle cell anemia.

    PubMed

    Lucarelli, G; Isgrò, A; Sodani, P; Marziali, M; Gaziev, J; Paciaroni, K; Gallucci, C; Cardarelli, L; Ribersani, M; Alfieri, C; De Angelis, G; Armiento, D; Andreani, M; Testi, M; Amato, A; Akinyanju, O O; Wakama, T T

    2014-11-01

    Sickle cell anemia (SCA) remains associated with high risks of morbidity and early death. Allogeneic hematopoietic SCT (HSCT) is the only curative treatment for SCA. We report our experience with transplantation in a group of patients with the non-Black African variant and the Black African variant of SCA. This study included 40 consecutive SCA patients (13 patients with the non-Black African variant and 27 with the Black African variant) who underwent BM transplantation from HLA-identical sibling donors between June 2004 and May 2013, following a myeloablative-conditioning regimen. All patients obtained sustained engraftment. One patient (non-Black African variant) became a stable mixed chimera with 25% donor cells more than 6 years after transplantation. The probabilities of survival, SCA-free survival and TRM at 5 years after transplant were 91%, 91% and 9%, respectively. All surviving patients remained free of any SCA-related events after transplantation. Our results confirm that it is possible to offer a greater than 90% chance of cure to children with SCA. HSCT should be considered the standard of care for who have an HLA-identical donor, before complications result from the sickling of RBC.

  19. Heat flow from the West African shield

    SciTech Connect

    Brigaud, F.; Lucazeau, F.; Ly, S.; Sauvage, J.F.

    1985-09-01

    The heat flow over Precambrian shields is generally lower than over other continental provinces. Previous observations at 9 sites of the West African shield have shown that heat flow ranges from 20 mW m/sup -2/ in Niger to 38-42 mW m/sup -2/ in Liberia, Ghana and Nigeria. Since some of these values are lower than expected for Precambrian shields, it is important to find out whether or not they are representative of the entire shield before trying to derive its thermal structure. In this paper, we present new heat flow determinations from seven sites of the West African shield. These indicate that the surface heat flow is comparable with that of other Precambrian shields in the world.

  20. Young Africans Tackle Their Continent's Environmental Issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olwoch, Jane Mukarugwiza

    2008-11-01

    Young African Scientists Session at the Fourth International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme Congress; Cape Town, South Africa, 7 May 2008; Africa is often described as a unique and diverse continent. This is reflected in its biodiversity, economic and social circumstances, and diversity in culture and environment. The Young African Scientists (YAS) session at the International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme Congress was one of the congress's highlights. Global environmental change research in Africa was presented to an audience that included visiting international and national scientists, policy makers, and a group of schoolchildren. From the uniqueness of Africa's paleoclimate to the diversity and complexity of current and future impacts of environmental change on Africa, the session not only provided an overview of current projects but also highlighted the problems that are intertwined with poverty. This session was sponsored by the Global Change System for Analysis, Research, and Training (START).

  1. Bushmeat hunting changes regeneration of African rainforests.

    PubMed

    Effiom, Edu O; Nuñez-Iturri, Gabriela; Smith, Henrik G; Ottosson, Ulf; Olsson, Ola

    2013-05-22

    To assess ecological consequences of bushmeat hunting in African lowland rainforests, we compared paired sites, with high and low hunting pressure, in three areas of southeastern Nigeria. In hunted sites, populations of important seed dispersers-both small and large primates (including the Cross River gorilla, Gorilla gorilla diehli)-were drastically reduced. Large rodents were more abundant in hunted sites, even though they are hunted. Hunted and protected sites had similar mature tree communities dominated by primate-dispersed species. In protected sites, seedling communities were similar in composition to the mature trees, but in hunted sites species with other dispersal modes dominated among seedlings. Seedlings emerging 1 year after clearing of all vegetation in experimental plots showed a similar pattern to the standing seedlings. This study thus verifies the transforming effects of bushmeat hunting on plant communities of tropical forests and is one of the first studies to do so for the African continent. PMID:23516245

  2. Bushmeat hunting changes regeneration of African rainforests.

    PubMed

    Effiom, Edu O; Nuñez-Iturri, Gabriela; Smith, Henrik G; Ottosson, Ulf; Olsson, Ola

    2013-05-22

    To assess ecological consequences of bushmeat hunting in African lowland rainforests, we compared paired sites, with high and low hunting pressure, in three areas of southeastern Nigeria. In hunted sites, populations of important seed dispersers-both small and large primates (including the Cross River gorilla, Gorilla gorilla diehli)-were drastically reduced. Large rodents were more abundant in hunted sites, even though they are hunted. Hunted and protected sites had similar mature tree communities dominated by primate-dispersed species. In protected sites, seedling communities were similar in composition to the mature trees, but in hunted sites species with other dispersal modes dominated among seedlings. Seedlings emerging 1 year after clearing of all vegetation in experimental plots showed a similar pattern to the standing seedlings. This study thus verifies the transforming effects of bushmeat hunting on plant communities of tropical forests and is one of the first studies to do so for the African continent.

  3. Appendicectomy prevalences in South African adolescents.

    PubMed

    Walker, A R; Walker, B F; Duvenhage, A; Jones, J; Ncongwane, J; Segal, I

    1982-01-01

    From questioning 16,939 South African pupils of 16-18 years, in 56 high schools, mean prevalences of appendicectomies in representative segments of ethnic groups were found to be: rural Blacks 0.6%; urban Blacks 0.7%; Indians, 2.9%; Coloureds (Eur-African-Malay), 1.7%; Whites, 10.5%. Percentages in the sexes were similar. Only those of Indian and Coloured pupils appear to be increasing. Blacks and Whites, respectively, have high and low intakes of fibre-containing foods, which are negatively correlated with appendicectomy prevalences. However, although intakes of fibre-containing foods are slightly higher in Indians and Coloureds than in Whites, the former's appendicectomy prevalences are lower than would be dietarily expected. PMID:6292030

  4. Engineering processes for the African VLBI network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thondikulam, Venkatasubramani L.; Loots, Anita; Gaylard, Michael

    2013-04-01

    The African VLBI Network (AVN) is an initiative by the SKA-SA and HartRAO, business units of the National Research Foundation (NRF), Department of Science and Technology (DST), South Africa. The aim is to fill the existing gap of Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI)-capable radio telescopes in the African continent by a combination of new build as well as conversion of large redundant telecommunication antennas through an Inter-Governmental collaborative programme in Science and Technology. The issue of human capital development in the Continent in the techniques of radio astronomy engineering and science is a strong force to drive the project and is expected to contribute significantly to the success of Square Kilometer Array (SKA) in the Continent.

  5. Towards the South African Underground Laboratory (SAUL)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wyngaardt, S. M.; Newman, R. T.; Lindsay, R.; Buffler, A.; de Meijer, R.; Maleka, P.; Bezuidenhout, J.; Nchodu, R.; van Rooyen, M.; Ndlovu, Z.

    Over the past two years there has been discussion among South African physicists about the possibility of establishing a deep underground physics laboratory to study, amongst others, double beta decay, geoneutrinos, reactor neutrinos and dark matter. As a step towards a full proposal for such a laboratory a number of smaller programmes are currently being performed to investigate feasibility of the Huguenot Tunnel in the Du Toitskloof Mountains near Paarl (Western Cape, South Africa) as a possible sight for the South African Underground Laboratory facility. The programme includes measurements of radon in air (using electret ion chambers and alpha spectroscopy), background gammaray measurements (inside/outside) the tunnel using scintillator (inorganic) detectors, cosmic ray measurements using organic scintillators and radiometric analyses of representative rock samples.

  6. [Hemiplegic forms of human African trypanosomiasis].

    PubMed

    Sonan, T; Giordano, C; Boa, F; Dumas, M

    1988-01-01

    Hemiplegic forms of human African trypanosomiasis are unusual. From 1963 to 1987, 14 cases have been reported in the literature. One may be mistakenly led to look for a space-occupying lesion when clinical features include hemiplegia, vascular shift from median line during arteriography, focal EEG anomalies and intracranial hypertension. The discussion on diagnosis also covers subacute or chronic meningo encephalitis (tuberculosis syphilis or fungal infection). CT scanner findings suggest the association of a massive demyelination of centrum semiovale, with cerebral oedema.

  7. African return migration: past, present, and future.

    PubMed

    Gregory, J W; Piche, V

    1983-01-01

    The various forms of return migration in Africa in the twentieth century are first examined, and the factors affecting them are discussed. The authors then consider the value of the household, rather than the individual, as the unit of analysis. Return migration is also analyzed in terms of the linking role it plays between Africa's capitalist and non-capitalist countries. Finally, alternative future trends in the circulatory flow of African labor are considered.

  8. The Offshore East African Rift System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franke, D.; Klimke, J.; Jokat, W.; Stollhofen, H.; Mahanjane, S.

    2014-12-01

    Numerous studies have addressed various aspects of the East African Rift system but surprisingly few on the offshore continuation of the south-eastern branch of the rift into the Mozambique Channel. The most prominent article has been published almost 30 years ago by Mougenot et al. (1986) and is based on vintage seismic data. Several studies investigating earthquakes and plate motions from GPS measurements reveal recent deformation along the offshore branch of the East African Rift system. Slip vectors from earthquakes data in Mozambique's offshore basins show a consistent NE direction. Fault plane solutions reveal ~ E-W extensional failure with focal depth clustering around 19 km and 40 km, respectively. Here, we present new evidence for neotectonic deformation derived from modern seismic reflection data and supported by additional geophysical data. The modern rift system obviously reactivates structures from the disintegration of eastern Gondwana. During the Jurassic/Cretaceous opening of the Somali and Mozambique Basins, Madagascar moved southwards along a major shear zone, to its present position. Since the Miocene, parts of the shear zone became reactivated and structurally overprinted by the East African rift system. The Kerimbas Graben offshore northern Mozambique is the most prominent manifestation of recent extensional deformation. Bathymetry data shows that it deepens northwards, with approximately 700 m downthrown on the eastern shoulder. The graben can be subdivided into four subbasins by crosscutting structural lineaments with a NW-SE trend. Together with the N-S striking graben-bounding faults, this resembles a conjugate fault system. In seismic reflection data normal faulting is distinct not only at the earthquake epicenters. The faults cut through the sedimentary successions and typically reach the seafloor, indicating ongoing recent deformation. Reference: Mougenot, D., Recq, M., Virlogeux, P., and Lepvrier, C., 1986, Seaward extension of the East

  9. Seasonal distribution of African savanna fires

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cahoon, Donald R., Jr.; Stocks, Brian J.; Levine, Joel S.; Cofer, Wesley R., III; O'Neill, Katherine P.

    1992-01-01

    The temporal and spatial distribution of savanna fires over the entire African continent, as determined from nighttime satellite imagery, is described. It is found that, contrary to expectations, most fires are left to burn uncontrolled, so that there is no strong diurnal cycle in the fire frequency. The knowledge gained from this study regarding the distribution and variability of fires is helpful in the monitoring of climatically important trace gases emitted from burning biomass.

  10. Africans in the American Labor Market.

    PubMed

    Elo, Irma T; Frankenberg, Elizabeth; Gansey, Romeo; Thomas, Duncan

    2015-10-01

    The number of migrants to the United States from Africa has grown exponentially since the 1930s. For the first time in America's history, migrants born in Africa are growing at a faster rate than migrants from any other continent. The composition of African-origin migrants has also changed dramatically: in the mid-twentieth century, the majority were white and came from only three countries; but today, about one-fifth are white, and African-origin migrants hail from across the entire continent. Little is known about the implications of these changes for their labor market outcomes in the United States. Using the 2000-2011 waves of the American Community Survey, we present a picture of enormous heterogeneity in labor market participation, sectoral choice, and hourly earnings of male and female migrants by country of birth, race, age at arrival in the United States, and human capital. For example, controlling a rich set of human capital and demographic characteristics, some migrants-such as those from South Africa/Zimbabwe and Cape Verde, who typically enter on employment visas-earn substantial premiums relative to other African-origin migrants. These premiums are especially large among males who arrived after age 18. In contrast, other migrants-such as those from Sudan/Somalia, who arrived more recently, mostly as refugees-earn substantially less than migrants from other African countries. Understanding the mechanisms generating the heterogeneity in these outcomes-including levels of socioeconomic development, language, culture, and quality of education in countries of origin, as well as selectivity of those who migrate-figures prominently among important unresolved research questions. PMID:26304845

  11. Africans in the American Labor Market.

    PubMed

    Elo, Irma T; Frankenberg, Elizabeth; Gansey, Romeo; Thomas, Duncan

    2015-10-01

    The number of migrants to the United States from Africa has grown exponentially since the 1930s. For the first time in America's history, migrants born in Africa are growing at a faster rate than migrants from any other continent. The composition of African-origin migrants has also changed dramatically: in the mid-twentieth century, the majority were white and came from only three countries; but today, about one-fifth are white, and African-origin migrants hail from across the entire continent. Little is known about the implications of these changes for their labor market outcomes in the United States. Using the 2000-2011 waves of the American Community Survey, we present a picture of enormous heterogeneity in labor market participation, sectoral choice, and hourly earnings of male and female migrants by country of birth, race, age at arrival in the United States, and human capital. For example, controlling a rich set of human capital and demographic characteristics, some migrants-such as those from South Africa/Zimbabwe and Cape Verde, who typically enter on employment visas-earn substantial premiums relative to other African-origin migrants. These premiums are especially large among males who arrived after age 18. In contrast, other migrants-such as those from Sudan/Somalia, who arrived more recently, mostly as refugees-earn substantially less than migrants from other African countries. Understanding the mechanisms generating the heterogeneity in these outcomes-including levels of socioeconomic development, language, culture, and quality of education in countries of origin, as well as selectivity of those who migrate-figures prominently among important unresolved research questions.

  12. Africans in the American Labor Market

    PubMed Central

    Elo, Irma T.; Frankenberg, Elizabeth; Gansey, Romeo; Thomas, Duncan

    2015-01-01

    The number of migrants to the United States from Africa has grown exponentially since the 1930s. For the first time in America’s history, migrants born in Africa are growing at a faster rate than migrants from any other continent. The composition of African-origin migrants has also changed dramatically: in the mid-twentieth century, the majority were white and came from only three countries; but today, about one-fifth are white, and African-origin migrants hail from across the entire continent. Little is known about the implications of these changes for their labor market outcomes in the United States. Using the 2000–2011 waves of the American Community Survey, we present a picture of enormous heterogeneity in labor market participation, sectoral choice, and hourly earnings of male and female migrants by country of birth, race, age at arrival in the United States, and human capital. For example, controlling a rich set of human capital and demographic characteristics, some migrants—such as those from South Africa/Zimbabwe and Cape Verde, who typically enter on employment visas—earn substantial premiums relative to other African-origin migrants. These premiums are especially large among males who arrived after age 18. In contrast, other migrants—such as those from Sudan/Somalia, who arrived more recently, mostly as refugees—earn substantially less than migrants from other African countries. Understanding the mechanisms generating the heterogeneity in these outcomes—including levels of socioeconomic development, language, culture, and quality of education in countries of origin, as well as selectivity of those who migrate—remain important unresolved research questions. PMID:26304845

  13. The topology of African exports: Emerging patterns on spanning trees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Araújo, Tanya; Ferreira, Manuel Ennes

    2016-11-01

    This paper is a contribution to interweaving two lines of research that have progressed in separate ways: network analysis of international trade and the literature on African trade and development. Gathering empirical data on African countries has important limitations and so does the space occupied by African countries in the analysis of trade networks. Here, these limitations are dealt with by the definition of two independent bipartite networks: a destination share network and a commodity share network. These networks-together with their corresponding minimal spanning trees-allow to uncover some ordering emerging from African exports in the broader context of international trade. The emerging patterns help to understand important characteristics of African exports and its binding relations to other economic, geographic and organizational concerns as the recent literature on African trade, development and growth has shown.

  14. Age, gender and health among African Americans.

    PubMed

    Fitzpatrick, T R; Thanh, V T

    1997-01-01

    Public policy and epidemiological studies have not adequately addressed age and gender differences on important health dimensions among African Americans. The purpose of this study was to examine gender and health among five age groups of African Americans. A sample of 1,174 respondents age 24 to 85 was selected from the 1986 Americans' Changing Lives (ACL) Study. Regression analysis was performed using a hierarchical model to examine age and gender on five dimensions of health: functional health, chronic conditions, satisfaction with health, self-ratings of health, and activities of daily living (ADL) limitations controlling for age, education, income, and marital status among five age groups of African Americans. Results revealed that in the 24-39 age group, men had fewer chronic conditions and less ADL limitations, yet rated their health poorer than their female counterparts. In the 75 and over age group men had better functional health yet were less satisfied with their health than women. Control variables were significantly related to objective and subjective dimensions of health especially among the younger age groups. Overall, gender differences persist mainly among the youngest and oldest age groups despite variations in the above demographic variables. Implications for social work practice and future research are discussed.

  15. Micropropagation of African violet (Saintpaulia ionantha Wendl.).

    PubMed

    Shukla, Mukund; Sullivan, J Alan; Jain, Shri Mohan; Murch, Susan J; Saxena, Praveen K

    2013-01-01

    Micropropagation is an important tool for rapid multiplication and the creation of genetic variability in African violets (Saintpaulia ionantha Wendl.). Successful in vitro propagation depends on the specific requirements and precise manipulation of various factors such as the type of explants used, physiological state of the mother plant, plant growth regulators in the culture medium, and growth conditions. Development of cost-effective protocols with a high rate of multiplication is a crucial requirement for commercial application of micropropagation. The current chapter describes an optimized protocol for micropropagation of African violets using leaf explants obtained from in vitro grown plants. In this process, plant regeneration occurs via both somatic embryogenesis and shoot organogenesis simultaneously in the explants induced with the growth regulator thidiazuron (TDZ; N-phenyl-N'-1,2,3-thidiazol-5-ylurea). The protocol is simple, rapid, and efficient for large-scale propagation of African violet and the dual routes of regeneration allow for multiple applications of the technology from simple clonal propagation to induction or selection of variants to the production of synthetic seeds.

  16. African American Culture and Hypertension Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Peters, Rosalind M.; Aroian, Karen J.; Flack, John M.

    2009-01-01

    A qualitative study was done to explore attitudes and beliefs of African Americans regarding hypertension-preventive self-care behaviors. Five focus groups, with 34 participants, were held using interview questions loosely based on the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB). Analysis revealed themes broadly consistent with the TPB, and also identified an overarching theme labeled “circle of culture.” The circle is a metaphor for ties that bind individuals within the larger African American community, and provides boundaries for culturally acceptable behaviors. Three sub-themes were identified: one describes how health behaviors are “passed from generation to generation,” another reflects a sense of being “accountable” to others within the culture; and the third reflects negative views taken toward people who are “acting different,” moving outside the circle of culture. Findings provide an expanded perspective of the TPB by demonstrating the influence of culture and collective identify on attitude formation and health-related behaviors among African Americans. PMID:17056776

  17. Micropropagation of African violet (Saintpaulia ionantha Wendl.).

    PubMed

    Shukla, Mukund; Sullivan, J Alan; Jain, Shri Mohan; Murch, Susan J; Saxena, Praveen K

    2013-01-01

    Micropropagation is an important tool for rapid multiplication and the creation of genetic variability in African violets (Saintpaulia ionantha Wendl.). Successful in vitro propagation depends on the specific requirements and precise manipulation of various factors such as the type of explants used, physiological state of the mother plant, plant growth regulators in the culture medium, and growth conditions. Development of cost-effective protocols with a high rate of multiplication is a crucial requirement for commercial application of micropropagation. The current chapter describes an optimized protocol for micropropagation of African violets using leaf explants obtained from in vitro grown plants. In this process, plant regeneration occurs via both somatic embryogenesis and shoot organogenesis simultaneously in the explants induced with the growth regulator thidiazuron (TDZ; N-phenyl-N'-1,2,3-thidiazol-5-ylurea). The protocol is simple, rapid, and efficient for large-scale propagation of African violet and the dual routes of regeneration allow for multiple applications of the technology from simple clonal propagation to induction or selection of variants to the production of synthetic seeds. PMID:23179707

  18. Seasonal Distribution of African Savanna Fires

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cahoon, Donald R.; Stocks, Brian J.; Levine, Joel S.; Cofer, Wesley R., III; O'Neill, Katherine P.

    1992-01-01

    Savannas consist of a continuous layer of grass interspersed with scattered trees or shrubs, and cover approx. 10 million square kilometers of tropical Africa. African savanna fires, almost all resulting from human activities, may produce as much as a third of the total global emissions from biomass burning. Little is known, however, about the frequency and location of these fires, and the area burned each year. Emissions from African savanna burning are known to be transported over the mid-Atlantic, south Pacific and Indian oceans; but to study fully the transport of regional savanna burning and the seasonality of the atmospheric circulation must be considered simultaneously. Here we describe the temporal and spatial distribution of savanna fires over the entire African continent, as determined from night-time satellite imagery. We find that, contrary to expectations, most fires are left to burn uncontrolled, so that there is no strong diurnal cycle in the fire frequency. The knowledge gained from this study regarding the distribution and variability of fires will aid monitoring of the climatically important trace gases emitted from burning biomass.

  19. Neuropsychological screening tests in African Americans.

    PubMed Central

    Lampley-Dallas, V. T.

    2001-01-01

    Neuropsychological tests are instruments used to diagnose a variety of cognitive conditions. This article will review a few of the brief scales commonly used in screening for dementia. It will also discuss the properties of and problems with some of the brief scales that are commonly used to screen African Americans for dementia, highlighting the various biases. The Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) is the most widely known and utilized cognitive impairment instrument in the United States. Whether or not it is biased to race after adjusting the scores for educational attainment remains controversial. The Blessed Information-Memory-Concentration Test (BIMC), Blessed Orientation-Memory-Concentration Test (BOMC), Short Portable Mental Status Questionnaire (SPMSQ), and Neurobehavioral Cognitive Status Examination (NCSE) are other screening tests used to diagnose dementia. Some of these tests have been found to misclassify many more African Americans as demented compared to the proportion of whites that are misclassified. The Cambridge Cognitive Examination (CAMCOG) is the only brief neuropsychological scale designed to actually diagnose early dementia, but it is not known if it is biased for African Americans. PMID:11560287

  20. Mayo's Older African Americans Normative Studies: WMS-R norms for African American elders.

    PubMed

    Lucas, John A; Ivnik, Robert J; Smith, Glenn E; Ferman, Tanis J; Willis, Floyd B; Petersen, Ronald C; Graff-Radford, Neill R

    2005-06-01

    Norms for African American elders on the Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised (WMS-R) were derived from a sample of 309 community-dwelling individuals participating in Mayo's Older African Americans Normative Studies (MOAANS). Normative estimates are provided for traditional WMS-R subtest scores and for supplemental procedures to evaluate forgetting rates and recognition memory. Tables are provided to convert raw WMS-R subtest and supplemental scores to age-corrected scaled scores. These may be further adjusted for years of education, if desired, by applying regression-based corrections. We anticipate that these data will enhance the diagnostic utility and clinical interpretation of WMS-R performance in older African Americans.

  1. Perspectives from the historic African American medical institutions.

    PubMed

    Epps, C H

    1999-05-01

    The historically African American medical schools have been at the center of medical education for African American physicians in the United States since the Howard University College of Medicine opened in 1868. Although there were more than a dozen African American medical schools established during the next few decades, as propriety or church affiliated schools, only two survived the Flexner Report in 1910. Howard University (1868) and Meharry (1876) survived and trained generations of African Americans. These two schools educated approximately 85% of all African American physicians whereas the majority medical schools educated 15% for more than half of the twentieth century. As the result of a series of lawsuits filed by the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, civil rights legislation and affirmative action programs, the numbers of the schools that now admitted African Americans increased and the total numbers of African American medical students increased when discrimination was prohibited in 1966. The percentage of African American medical students attending predominantly white institutions increased by 25% in 1948, by 47% in 1968, by 61% in 1983 and to 84% in 1990. Two additional predominantly African American medical schools were established: the Charles R. Drew Medical School, Los Angeles (affiliated with the University of California, Los Angeles) in 1966, and Morehouse Medical School, Atlanta, which admitted its first class in 1978. Recent court decisions prohibiting schools from considering race as factor in admission and the end of affirmative action programs have resulted in a drop in total minority enrollment. The historically African American medical schools, that admitted approximately 15% of the African American medical students during the era of affirmative action programs, will see this percentage decrease as the majority institutions admit fewer African American medical students and minority students. In the United States

  2. Y Chromosome Lineages in Men of West African Descent

    PubMed Central

    Keita, Shomarka O. Y.; Kittles, Rick A.

    2012-01-01

    The early African experience in the Americas is marked by the transatlantic slave trade from ∼1619 to 1850 and the rise of the plantation system. The origins of enslaved Africans were largely dependent on European preferences as well as the availability of potential laborers within Africa. Rice production was a key industry of many colonial South Carolina low country plantations. Accordingly, rice plantations owners within South Carolina often requested enslaved Africans from the so-called “Grain Coast” of western Africa (Senegal to Sierra Leone). Studies on the African origins of the enslaved within other regions of the Americas have been limited. To address the issue of origins of people of African descent within the Americas and understand more about the genetic heterogeneity present within Africa and the African Diaspora, we typed Y chromosome specific markers in 1,319 men consisting of 508 west and central Africans (from 12 populations), 188 Caribbeans (from 2 islands), 532 African Americans (AAs from Washington, DC and Columbia, SC), and 91 European Americans. Principal component and admixture analyses provide support for significant Grain Coast ancestry among African American men in South Carolina. AA men from DC and the Caribbean showed a closer affinity to populations from the Bight of Biafra. Furthermore, 30–40% of the paternal lineages in African descent populations in the Americas are of European ancestry. Diverse west African ancestries and sex-biased gene flow from EAs has contributed greatly to the genetic heterogeneity of African populations throughout the Americas and has significant implications for gene mapping efforts in these populations. PMID:22295064

  3. KSC kicks off African-American History Month

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Michelle Amos, mistress of ceremonies for the kick-off of African-American History Month, works with the audience to assist them in the pronunciation of a few token words in native Swahili. The theme for this year's observation is 'Heritage and Horizons: The African-American Legacy and the Challenges of the 21st Century.' February is designated each year as a time to celebrate the achievements and contributions of African Americans to Kennedy Space Center, NASA and the nation.

  4. African Genetic Ancestry is Associated with Sleep Depth in Older African Americans

    PubMed Central

    Halder, Indrani; Matthews, Karen A.; Buysse, Daniel J.; Strollo, Patrick J.; Causer, Victoria; Reis, Steven E.; Hall, Martica H.

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: The mechanisms that underlie differences in sleep characteristics between European Americans (EA) and African Americans (AA) are not fully known. Although social and psychological processes that differ by race are possible mediators, the substantial heritability of sleep characteristics also suggests genetic underpinnings of race differences. We hypothesized that racial differences in sleep phenotypes would show an association with objectively measured individual genetic ancestry in AAs. Design: Cross sectional. Setting: Community-based study. Participants: Seventy AA adults (mean age 59.5 ± 6.7 y; 62% female) and 101 EAs (mean age 60.5 ± 7 y, 39% female). Measurements and Results: Multivariate tests were used to compare the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and in-home polysomnographic measures of sleep duration, sleep efficiency, apnea-hypopnea index (AHI), and indices of sleep depth including percent visually scored slow wave sleep (SWS) and delta EEG power of EAs and AAs. Sleep duration, efficiency, and sleep depth differed significantly by race. Individual % African ancestry (%AF) was measured in AA subjects using a panel of 1698 ancestry informative genetic markers and ranged from 10% to 88% (mean 67%). Hierarchical linear regression showed that higher %AF was associated with lower percent SWS in AAs (β (standard error) = −4.6 (1.5); P = 0.002), and explained 11% of the variation in SWS after covariate adjustment. A similar association was observed for delta power. No association was observed for sleep duration and efficiency. Conclusion: African genetic ancestry is associated with indices of sleep depth in African Americans. Such an association suggests that part of the racial differences in slow-wave sleep may have genetic underpinnings. Citation: Halder I, Matthews KA, Buysse DJ, Strollo PJ, Causer V, Reis SE, Hall MH. African genetic ancestry is associated with sleep depth in older African Americans. SLEEP 2015;38(8):1185–1193

  5. Equatorial Electrojet Observations in the African Continent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yizengaw, E.; Moldwin, M. B.; Mebrahtu, A.; Damtie, B.; Pfaff, R.; Zesta, E.

    2008-12-01

    Although Satellite observations in the African sector show unique equatorial ionospheric structures that can severely impact navigation and communication systems, the study of ionospheric disturbances in this region is difficult due to the lack of ground-based instruments. This has created a gap in global understanding of the physics behind the evolution and formation of plasma irregularities in the equatorial region, which imposes limitations on ionospheric density modeling efforts. Therefore, in order to have a more complete global understanding of equatorial ionosphere motion, the international space science community has begun to develop an observational infrastructure in the African sector. This includes the deployment of a number of arrays of small instruments, including the AMBER magnetometer array, through the International Heliophysical Year (IHY) cooperative program with the United Nations Basic Space Science (UNBSS) program. Two AMBER magnetometers have been deployed successfully at Adigrat (~6°N magnetic) in Ethiopia and at Medea in Algeria (28°N magnetic), and became fully operational on 03 August 2008. The remaining two AMBER magnetometers will be deployed soon in Cameroon and Namibia. One of the prime scientific objectives of AMBER is to understand the processes governing electrodynamics of the equatorial ionosphere as a function of latitude, local time, magnetic activity, and season in the African region. The most credible driving mechanism of ionospheric plasma (E × B drift) can be estimated using two magnetometers, one right at the equator and the other about 6 off the equator. Therefore, using the AMBER magnetometer at Adigrat and the INTERMAGNET magnetometer located at Addis Ababa (0.9°N magnetic) in Ethiopia, the equatorial electrojet (E × B drift) activities in that longitudinal sector of the African continent is estimated. The paper also presents the comparison between the estimated vertical drift and the drift values obtained from the

  6. 76 FR 43649 - Board of Directors Meeting; African Development Foundation, Board of Directors Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-21

    ...; ] AFRICAN DEVELOPMENT FOUNDATION Board of Directors Meeting; African Development Foundation, Board of Directors Meeting Time: Tuesday, August 2, 2011, 9 a.m. to 12 p.m. Place: African Development...

  7. African American women and breastfeeding: an integrative literature review.

    PubMed

    Spencer, Becky S; Grassley, Jane S

    2013-07-01

    The purpose of this article is to present a review of literature regarding factors that influence breastfeeding intentions, initiation, and duration in the African American population. Research related to health disparities experienced by African Americans in the United States, as well as research regarding the protective benefits of breastfeeding for those specific health disparities, are also presented. Community and institutional interventions and promotional campaigns aimed at increasing initiation and duration of breastfeeding in the African American population are discussed. Future research regarding African American women's breastfeeding experiences using Black feminist thought as a theoretical foundation is recommended.

  8. The myth of meritocracy and African American health.

    PubMed

    Kwate, Naa Oyo A; Meyer, Ilan H

    2010-10-01

    Recent theoretical and empirical studies of the social determinants of health inequities have shown that economic deprivation, multiple levels of racism, and neighborhood context limit African American health chances and that African Americans' poor health status is predicated on unequal opportunity to achieve the American Dream. President Obama's election has been touted as a demonstration of American meritocracy-the belief that all may obtain the American Dream-and has instilled hope in African Americans. However, we argue that in the context of racism and other barriers to success, meritocratic ideology may act as a negative health determinant for African Americans.

  9. Critical social theory and the domination of African American Women.

    PubMed

    Davis, S P

    1995-01-01

    This historical reconstruction of the experiences of African American women in America from slavery to the present exposes the prevailing and enduring system of White male domination. From White men having control of their reproductive choices, to conspiracy to withhold the right to vote, African American women were victims of both sexism and racism. Later, as a result of the myth conceived by White sociologists of the super African American woman, further divisiveness became apparent in the African American home. As African American women took advantage of educational opportunities only to find that there was a dearth of similarly educated African American males to marry, increasing numbers of African American men were reported as parties to violent acts, drugs or illness. All of these variables are conjectured as impacting on the African American woman's experience. Lastly, data were presented depicting the increasing trend of African American women marrying White men, and the emergence of a more diverse workforce. It was concluded that economics serve as a catalyst for this change in human relations.

  10. Perspectives of African-American women on infant mortality.

    PubMed

    Barnes, Glenna L

    2008-01-01

    Twice as many African-American infants die each year when compared to White infants. This study explores the lived experiences of African-American women to identify factors related to this racial gap in infant mortality. Thirteen African-American women from two Virginia towns participated in either a focus group or in-depth interviews. Content and interpretive analysis revealed several themes. Participants indicated that the experiences of stress and racism are constant factors in African-American women's lives and are inseparable from their pregnancy experiences. Participants noted the importance of social support and the health care provider-client relationship for positive pregnancy outcomes.

  11. African American legislators' perceptions of firearm violence prevention legislation.

    PubMed

    Payton, Erica; Thompson, Amy; Price, James H; Sheu, Jiunn-Jye; Dake, Joseph A

    2015-06-01

    Firearm mortality is the leading cause of death for young African American males, however, few studies have focused on racial/ethnic minority populations and firearm violence. The National Black Caucus of State Legislators advocates for legislation that promotes the health of African Americans. Thus, the purpose of this study was to collect baseline data on African American legislators' perceptions regarding firearm violence in the African American community. A cross-sectional study of African American legislators (n = 612) was conducted to investigate the research questions. Of the 612 questionnaires mailed, 12 were not deliverable, and 170 were returned (28%). Utilizing a three wave mailing process, African American legislators were invited to participate in the study. The majority (88%) of respondents perceived firearm violence to be very serious among African Americans. Few (10%) legislators perceived that addressing legislative issues would be an effective strategy in reducing firearm violence among African Americans. The majority (72%) of legislators perceived the most effective strategy to reducing firearm violence in the African American community should focus on addressing societal issues (e.g. crime and poverty). After adjusting for the number of perceived barriers, the number of perceived benefits was a significant predictor of legislators' perceived effectiveness of firearm violence prevention legislation for 8 of the 24 potential firearm violence prevention legislative bills.

  12. Black and Blue: Depression and African American Men.

    PubMed

    Plowden, Keith O; Thompson Adams, Linda; Wiley, Dana

    2016-10-01

    Depression is a common mental disorder affecting individuals. Although many strides have been made in the area of depression, little is known about depression in special populations, especially African American men. African American men often differ in their presentation of depression and are often misdiagnosed. African American men are at greater risk for depression, but they are less likely to participate in mental health care. This article explores depression in African American by looking at environmental factors, sigma, role, and other unique to this populations, such as John Henryism. Interventions to encourage early screening and participation in care are also discussed.

  13. Novel recurrently mutated genes in African American colon cancers

    PubMed Central

    Guda, Kishore; Veigl, Martina L.; Varadan, Vinay; Nosrati, Arman; Ravi, Lakshmeswari; Lutterbaugh, James; Beard, Lydia; Willson, James K. V.; Sedwick, W. David; Wang, Zhenghe John; Molyneaux, Neil; Miron, Alexander; Adams, Mark D.; Elston, Robert C.; Markowitz, Sanford D.; Willis, Joseph E.

    2015-01-01

    We used whole-exome and targeted sequencing to characterize somatic mutations in 103 colorectal cancers (CRC) from African Americans, identifying 20 new genes as significantly mutated in CRC. Resequencing 129 Caucasian derived CRCs confirmed a 15-gene set as a preferential target for mutations in African American CRCs. Two predominant genes, ephrin type A receptor 6 (EPHA6) and folliculin (FLCN), with mutations exclusive to African American CRCs, are by genetic and biological criteria highly likely African American CRC driver genes. These previously unsuspected differences in the mutational landscapes of CRCs arising among individuals of different ethnicities have potential to impact on broader disparities in cancer behaviors. PMID:25583493

  14. Novel recurrently mutated genes in African American colon cancers.

    PubMed

    Guda, Kishore; Veigl, Martina L; Varadan, Vinay; Nosrati, Arman; Ravi, Lakshmeswari; Lutterbaugh, James; Beard, Lydia; Willson, James K V; Sedwick, W David; Wang, Zhenghe John; Molyneaux, Neil; Miron, Alexander; Adams, Mark D; Elston, Robert C; Markowitz, Sanford D; Willis, Joseph E

    2015-01-27

    We used whole-exome and targeted sequencing to characterize somatic mutations in 103 colorectal cancers (CRC) from African Americans, identifying 20 new genes as significantly mutated in CRC. Resequencing 129 Caucasian derived CRCs confirmed a 15-gene set as a preferential target for mutations in African American CRCs. Two predominant genes, ephrin type A receptor 6 (EPHA6) and folliculin (FLCN), with mutations exclusive to African American CRCs, are by genetic and biological criteria highly likely African American CRC driver genes. These previously unsuspected differences in the mutational landscapes of CRCs arising among individuals of different ethnicities have potential to impact on broader disparities in cancer behaviors. PMID:25583493

  15. Ending the epidemic of heterosexual HIV transmission among African Americans.

    PubMed

    Adimora, Adaora A; Schoenbach, Victor J; Floris-Moore, Michelle A

    2009-11-01

    This article examines factors responsible for the stark racial disparities in HIV infection in the U.S. and the now concentrated epidemic among African Americans. Sexual network patterns characterized by concurrency and mixing among different subpopulations, together with high rates of other sexually transmitted infections, facilitate dissemination of HIV among African Americans. The social and economic environment in which many African Americans live shapes sexual network patterns and increases personal infection risk almost independently of personal behavior. The African-American HIV epidemic constitutes a national crisis whose successful resolution will require modifying the social and economic systems, structures, and processes that facilitate HIV transmission in this population.

  16. Ending the Epidemic of Heterosexual HIV Transmission Among African Americans

    PubMed Central

    Adimora, Adaora A.; Schoenbach, Victor J.; Floris-Moore, Michelle A.

    2014-01-01

    This article examines factors responsible for the stark racial disparities in HIV infection in the U.S. and the now concentrated epidemic among African Americans. Sexual network patterns characterized by concurrency and mixing among different subpopulations, together with high rates of other sexually transmitted infections, facilitate dissemination of HIV among African Americans. The social and economic environment in which many African Americans live shapes sexual network patterns and increases personal infection risk almost independently of personal behavior. The African American HIV epidemic constitutes a national crisis whose successful resolution will require modifying the social and economic systems, structures, and processes that facilitate HIV transmission in this population. PMID:19840704

  17. HIV health crisis and African Americans: a cultural perspective.

    PubMed

    Plowden, K; Miller, J L; James, T

    2000-01-01

    While incidence of new HIV infections have decreased in the overall population, the numbers continue to rise in African-Americans creating a serious health emergency. Studies seem to imply that part of the rise is due to HIV beliefs and high risk behaviors among African Americans. Due to certain societal factors, African Americans appear to be at greater risk for contracting the virus. This article will examine these critical social factors and their impact on this current state of emergency in the African American community using Leininger's theory of Culture Care and Universality. Implications for health providers are also addressed. PMID:11760310

  18. The myth of meritocracy and African American health.

    PubMed

    Kwate, Naa Oyo A; Meyer, Ilan H

    2010-10-01

    Recent theoretical and empirical studies of the social determinants of health inequities have shown that economic deprivation, multiple levels of racism, and neighborhood context limit African American health chances and that African Americans' poor health status is predicated on unequal opportunity to achieve the American Dream. President Obama's election has been touted as a demonstration of American meritocracy-the belief that all may obtain the American Dream-and has instilled hope in African Americans. However, we argue that in the context of racism and other barriers to success, meritocratic ideology may act as a negative health determinant for African Americans. PMID:20724679

  19. African American Literature, 1989-94: An Annotated Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, R. Baxter; Butts, Tracy; Jones, Sharon

    1997-01-01

    Contains an annotated bibliography of African American literature (published between 1989 and 1994), including anthologies, fiction, poetry, drama, criticism, cultural studies, biography, interviews, and letters. (TB)

  20. The Myth of Meritocracy and African American Health

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, Ilan H.

    2010-01-01

    Recent theoretical and empirical studies of the social determinants of health inequities have shown that economic deprivation, multiple levels of racism, and neighborhood context limit African American health chances and that African Americans' poor health status is predicated on unequal opportunity to achieve the American Dream. President Obama's election has been touted as a demonstration of American meritocracy—the belief that all may obtain the American Dream—and has instilled hope in African Americans. However, we argue that in the context of racism and other barriers to success, meritocratic ideology may act as a negative health determinant for African Americans. PMID:20724679