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Sample records for african green revolution

  1. African Green Revolution needn't be a mirage.

    PubMed

    Ejeta, Gebisa

    2010-02-12

    Africa missed out on the scientific breakthroughs that revolutionized agriculture in Asia. However, with locally developed and locally relevant technologies, a built-up human and institutional capacity, and supportive national policy and leadership, an African Green Revolution can be a reality.

  2. The Green Revolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huke, Robert E.

    1985-01-01

    Modern agriculture's green revolution refers to a complex package that includes improved seeds and a wide range of efficient management practices. The genetic history of and technological developments that led to the green revolution are described, and its impact discussed. (RM)

  3. Global market integration increases likelihood that a future African Green Revolution could increase crop land use and CO2 emissions.

    PubMed

    Hertel, Thomas W; Ramankutty, Navin; Baldos, Uris Lantz C

    2014-09-23

    There has been a resurgence of interest in the impacts of agricultural productivity on land use and the environment. At the center of this debate is the assertion that agricultural innovation is land sparing. However, numerous case studies and global empirical studies have found little evidence of higher yields being accompanied by reduced area. We find that these studies overlook two crucial factors: estimation of a true counterfactual scenario and a tendency to adopt a regional, rather than a global, perspective. This paper introduces a general framework for analyzing the impacts of regional and global innovation on long run crop output, prices, land rents, land use, and associated CO2 emissions. In so doing, it facilitates a reconciliation of the apparently conflicting views of the impacts of agricultural productivity growth on global land use and environmental quality. Our historical analysis demonstrates that the Green Revolution in Asia, Latin America, and the Middle East was unambiguously land and emissions sparing, compared with a counterfactual world without these innovations. In contrast, we find that the environmental impacts of a prospective African Green Revolution are potentially ambiguous. We trace these divergent outcomes to relative differences between the innovating region and the rest of the world in yields, emissions efficiencies, cropland supply response, and intensification potential. Globalization of agriculture raises the potential for adverse environmental consequences. However, if sustained for several decades, an African Green Revolution will eventually become land sparing.

  4. Global market integration increases likelihood that a future African Green Revolution could increase crop land use and CO2 emissions

    PubMed Central

    Hertel, Thomas W.; Ramankutty, Navin; Baldos, Uris Lantz C.

    2014-01-01

    There has been a resurgence of interest in the impacts of agricultural productivity on land use and the environment. At the center of this debate is the assertion that agricultural innovation is land sparing. However, numerous case studies and global empirical studies have found little evidence of higher yields being accompanied by reduced area. We find that these studies overlook two crucial factors: estimation of a true counterfactual scenario and a tendency to adopt a regional, rather than a global, perspective. This paper introduces a general framework for analyzing the impacts of regional and global innovation on long run crop output, prices, land rents, land use, and associated CO2 emissions. In so doing, it facilitates a reconciliation of the apparently conflicting views of the impacts of agricultural productivity growth on global land use and environmental quality. Our historical analysis demonstrates that the Green Revolution in Asia, Latin America, and the Middle East was unambiguously land and emissions sparing, compared with a counterfactual world without these innovations. In contrast, we find that the environmental impacts of a prospective African Green Revolution are potentially ambiguous. We trace these divergent outcomes to relative differences between the innovating region and the rest of the world in yields, emissions efficiencies, cropland supply response, and intensification potential. Globalization of agriculture raises the potential for adverse environmental consequences. However, if sustained for several decades, an African Green Revolution will eventually become land sparing. PMID:25201962

  5. India and the Green Revolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilden, Clark G.

    In the 1960s it was predicted that famine would strike India because the country lacked the necessary resources to feed its rapidly growing population. Yet, in the 1970s and 1980s new agricultural developments occured that have helped abate the crisis. These developments comprise what is now called the Green Revolution. India's food/population…

  6. The effects of the African Green Revolution on nitrogen losses from two contrasting soil types in sub-Saharan Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tully, K. L.; Russo, T.; Hickman, J. E.; Palm, C.

    2013-12-01

    Nearly 80% of countries in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) face problems of nitrogen (N) scarcity, which together with poverty causes food insecurity and malnutrition. The Alliance for a Green Revolution in Africa has set a goal of increasing fertilizer use in the region six-fold by 2015. While there is substantial evidence that greater N fertilizer use will improve crop yields, it could lead to increased N leaching and elevated nitrate (NO3-) concentrations in surface water and groundwater reservoirs. However, it is unclear what the magnitude of impacts will be in SSA given historically low nutrient additions (of less than 5 kg N/ha/yr), highly degraded soils (due to years of nutrient and soil organic matter depletion), and a wide range of soil types on which increased fertilizer use is occurring. Current estimates of N dynamics and balances in SSA agriculture now rely on data from other regions with different soil types, soil fertility, and land management practices. To understand the influence of increased fertilizer use on water quality requires data from representative areas in SSA. Experimental maize plots were established in a randomized complete block design in both western Kenya (clayey soil) and mid-western Tanzania (sandy soil). Plots were amended with 0, 50, 75, and 200 kg N/ha/yr as mineral fertilizer. Tension lysimeters were installed at three depths in each treatment, and water was collected throughout the maize growing season. Soil water solutions were analyzed for NO3--N. Flow through the soil column at each soil depth, was modeled using VS2DT, a variably saturated flow and solute transport model, and water flux values were multiplied by measured NO3--N concentrations to estimate seasonal N leaching flux. Soil texture was a major driver of N losses, altering both the pathways and magnitude of losses. Clayey soils in western Kenya show an enormous potential for loss of NO3--N immediately following the onset of rains as they trigger high rates of N

  7. France: Africans and the French Revolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fatunde, Tunde

    1989-01-01

    The French Revolution had profound and long-term effects for Africans, both in Africa and throughout the Western hemisphere. Revolutionary leaders not only opposed the emancipation of slaves in French territories but supported an intensified slave trade, sparking numerous rebellions. French exploitation of Africans extended well into the twentieth…

  8. France: Africans and the French Revolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fatunde, Tunde

    1989-01-01

    The French Revolution had profound and long-term effects for Africans, both in Africa and throughout the Western hemisphere. Revolutionary leaders not only opposed the emancipation of slaves in French territories but supported an intensified slave trade, sparking numerous rebellions. French exploitation of Africans extended well into the twentieth…

  9. India and the Green Revolution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sarabhai, Vikram

    1972-01-01

    The introduction of new grain varieties has had profound social effects in addition to increasing food supply. If political power is sensitive to the needs of the underprivileged...advanced technology in agriculture, as in (nuclear) power generation, is indeed going to create a social revolution.'' (Author/AL)

  10. The dual Green Revolutions in South Korea: reforestation and agricultural revolution under the authoritarian regime.

    PubMed

    Moon, Manyong

    2012-01-01

    In South Korea, the Green Revolution has been commonly understood as the development and dissemination of new rice varieties ('Tongil' rice) and the rapid increase of rice yield in the 1970s. However, revolutionary success in agriculture was not the only green revolution South Korea experienced; another green revolution lay in the success of reforestation projects. In the 1970s, South Korea's forest greening was closely related to its agricultural revolution in several ways. Therefore, South Korea's Green Revolution was an intrinsically linked double feature of agriculture and forestry. This two-pronged revolution was initiated by scientific research - yet accomplished by the strong administrative mobilization of President Park Chung Hee's regime. The process of setting goals and meeting them through a military-like strategy in a short time was made possible under the authoritarian regime, known as 'Yushin', though the administration failed to fully acknowledge scientific expertise in the process of pushing to achieve goals.

  11. Plant Biology. Hormones and the green revolution.

    PubMed

    Salamini, Francesco

    2003-10-03

    The success of the green revolution largely resulted from the creation of dwarf cultivars of wheat and rice, which had much higher yields than conventional crops. Characterization of these dwarf cultivars showed that the mutant genes were involved in either the synthesis or signaling of gibberellin, a plant growth hormone. In his Perspective, Salamini highlights new work (Multani et al.) that identifies the cause of dwarfism in agronomically important varieties of maize and sorghum. In these cases, dwarfism is caused by defective transport of another growth hormone called auxin.

  12. Green Revolution: Impacts, limits, and the path ahead

    PubMed Central

    Pingali, Prabhu L.

    2012-01-01

    A detailed retrospective of the Green Revolution, its achievement and limits in terms of agricultural productivity improvement, and its broader impact at social, environmental, and economic levels is provided. Lessons learned and the strategic insights are reviewed as the world is preparing a “redux” version of the Green Revolution with more integrative environmental and social impact combined with agricultural and economic development. Core policy directions for Green Revolution 2.0 that enhance the spread and sustainable adoption of productivity enhancing technologies are specified. PMID:22826253

  13. Green revolution: impacts, limits, and the path ahead.

    PubMed

    Pingali, Prabhu L

    2012-07-31

    A detailed retrospective of the Green Revolution, its achievement and limits in terms of agricultural productivity improvement, and its broader impact at social, environmental, and economic levels is provided. Lessons learned and the strategic insights are reviewed as the world is preparing a "redux" version of the Green Revolution with more integrative environmental and social impact combined with agricultural and economic development. Core policy directions for Green Revolution 2.0 that enhance the spread and sustainable adoption of productivity enhancing technologies are specified.

  14. Green Revolution (I): A Just Technology, Often Unjust in Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wade, Nicholas

    1974-01-01

    Discusses the social and economic impact of the Green Revolution and the resulting problems such as benefiting rich farmers more than poor farmers, displacing labor and increasing rural unemployment. (BR)

  15. Building an alliance for a green revolution in Africa.

    PubMed

    Toenniessen, Gary; Adesina, Akinwumi; DeVries, Joseph

    2008-01-01

    Most of Africa's people live in rural areas and depend on agriculture for their livelihoods. These predominantly small-scale farmers face many challenges, including food insecurity, rising poverty, and natural resource degradation. To increase the productivity, profitability, and sustainability of their farms, they need greater access to affordable yield-enhancing inputs, including well-adapted seeds and new methods for integrated soil fertility management, as well as to output markets where they can convert surplus production into cash. To address these needs, the Rockefeller Foundation and the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation established the Alliance for a Green Revolution in Africa (AGRA). AGRA is now African led and is working within the context of the comprehensive agricultural development program established by Africa's leaders. From offices in Nairobi, Kenya, and Accra, Ghana, AGRA will support work across all key aspects of the African agricultural value chain to help millions of small-scale farmers and their families lift themselves out of poverty and hunger.

  16. How Can Agricultural and Extension Educators Contribute to a Successful New Green Revolution?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Navarro, Maria

    2006-01-01

    In the middle of the 20th century, many in the world were predicting catastrophic starvation that was halted by the Green Revolution. To address continued population growth and the unsolved problems of the Green Revolution, many hope for a new and different Green Revolution. Supporters of a biotechnology-based revolution claim that it could…

  17. How Can Agricultural and Extension Educators Contribute to a Successful New Green Revolution?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Navarro, Maria

    2006-01-01

    In the middle of the 20th century, many in the world were predicting catastrophic starvation that was halted by the Green Revolution. To address continued population growth and the unsolved problems of the Green Revolution, many hope for a new and different Green Revolution. Supporters of a biotechnology-based revolution claim that it could…

  18. Impacts of an African Green Revolution on Greenhouse Gases and Pollution Precursors: Nonlinear Trace N Gas Emission Responses to Incremental Increases in Fertilizer Inputs in a Western Kenyan Maize Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hickman, J. E.; Palm, C.

    2011-12-01

    Over the last several decades, agricultural soils in many parts of sub-Saharan Africa have become depleted of nitrogen (N) and other nutrients, creating challenges to achieving food security in many countries. At only 7 kg N ha-1 yr-1, average fertilizer application rates in the region are an order of magnitude lower than typical rates in the United States, and well below optimal levels. Increased use of nutrient inputs is a centerpiece of most African Green Revolution strategies, making it important to quantify the impacts of this change in practices as farmers begin moving towards 50-80 kg N ha-1 yr-1. Increased N inputs are invariably accompanied by losses of trace N gases to the atmosphere, including the greenhouse gas nitrous oxide (N2O), and nitric oxide (NO), a precursor to tropospheric ozone pollution. Several investigations of greenhouse gas emissions and one investigation of NO emissions from sub-Saharan agricultural systems have been conducted over the last 20 years, but they are few in number and were not designed to identify potentially important thresholds in the response of trace gas emissions to fertilization rate. Here we examine the response function of NO and N2O emissions to 6 different levels of inorganic fertilizer additions in a maize field in Yala, Kenya during the 2011 long rainy season. We used a randomized complete block design incorporating inorganic fertilizer treatments of 0, 50, 75, 100, 150, and 200 kg N ha-1 in 4 blocks. After each of 2 fertilizer applications, we measured trace gas fluxes daily, and conducted weekly measurements until trace gas emissions subsided to control levels. We fit the data to linear and exponential models relating N gas emissions to N input levels, and conducted a model comparison using AIC. Preliminary analysis suggests that NO emissions do respond in a non-linear fashion over the course of 67 days, as has been found in several commercial agroecosystems for N2O. Although N2O emissions responded linearly

  19. Green revolution: preparing for the 21st century.

    PubMed

    Khush, G S

    1999-08-01

    In the 1960s there were large-scale concerns about the world's ability to feed itself. However, widespread adoption of "green revolution" technology led to major increases in food-grain production. Between 1966 and 1990, the population of the densely populated low-income countries grew by 80%, but food production more than doubled. The technological advance that led to the dramatic achievements in world food production over the last 30 years was the development of high-yielding varieties of wheat and rice. These varieties are responsive to fertilizer inputs, are lodging resistant, and their yield potential is 2-3 times that of varieties available prior to the green revolution. In addition, these varieties have multiple resistance to diseases and insects and thus have yield stability. The development of irrigation facilities, the availability of inorganic fertilizers, and benign government policies have all facilitated the adoption of green-revolution technology. In the 1990s, the rate of growth in food-grain production has been lower than the rate of growth in population. If this trend is not reversed, serious food shortages will occur in the next century. To meet the challenge of feeding 8 billion people by 2020, we have to prepare now and develop the technology for raising farm productivity. We have to develop cereal cultivars with higher yield potential and greater yield stability. We must also develop strategies for integrated nutrient management, integrated pest management, and efficient utilization of water and soil resources.

  20. Domestication and Crop Physiology: Roots of Green-Revolution Wheat

    PubMed Central

    Waines, J. Giles; Ehdaie, Bahman

    2007-01-01

    Background and Aims Most plant scientists, in contrast to animal scientists, study only half the organism, namely above-ground stems, leaves, flowers and fruits, and neglect below-ground roots. Yet all acknowledge roots are important for anchorage, water and nutrient uptake, and presumably components of yield. This paper investigates the relationship between domestication, and the root systems of landraces, and the parents of early, mid- and late green-revolution bread wheat cultivars. It compares the root system of bread wheat and ‘Veery’-type wheat containing the 1RS translocation from rye. Methods Wheat germplasm was grown in large pots in sand culture in replicated experiments. This allowed roots to be washed free to study root characters. Key Results The three bread wheat parents of early green-revolution wheats have root biomass less than two-thirds the mean of some landrace wheats. Crossing early green-revolution wheat to an F2 of ‘Norin 10’ and ‘Brevor’, further reduced root biomass in mid-generation semi-dwarf and dwarf wheats. Later-generation semi-dwarf wheats show genetic variation for root biomass, but some exhibit further reduction in root size. This is so for some California and UK wheats. The wheat–rye translocation in ‘Kavkaz’ for the short arm of chromosome 1 (1RS) increased root biomass and branching in cultivars that contained it. Conclusions Root size of modern cultivars is small compared with that of landraces. Their root system may be too small for optimum uptake of water and nutrients and maximum grain yield. Optimum root size for grain yield has not been investigated in wheat or most crop plants. Use of 1RS and similar alien translocations may increase root biomass and grain yield significantly in irrigated and rain-fed conditions. Root characters may be integrated into components of yield analysis in wheat. Plant breeders may need to select directly for root characters. PMID:17940075

  1. Trends in crop water productivity: Why the new green revolution must be blue-green

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In the latter half of the 20th century, world population more than doubled to 6 billion; staple food prices in constant dollars decreased dramatically; and the nutritional status of the world's population improved. The Green Revolution is cited as accounting for this paradox; but often ignored is th...

  2. Need for multidisciplinary research towards a second green revolution.

    PubMed

    Wollenweber, Bernd; Porter, John R; Lübberstedt, Thomas

    2005-06-01

    Despite recent achievements in conventional plant breeding and genomics, the rate of increase of crop yields is declining and thus there is a need for a second green revolution. Advances within single disciplines, alone, cannot solve the challenges of increasing yield. As scientific disciplines have become increasingly diversified, a more complete understanding of the mechanisms by which genetic and environmental variation modify grain yield and composition is needed, so that specific quantitative and quality targets can be identified. To achieve this aim, the expertise of plant genomics, physiology and agronomy, as well as recently developed plant modelling techniques, must be combined. There has been recent progress in these individual disciplines, but multidisciplinary approaches must be implemented to tackle drought stress and salinity as major constraints to achieving sufficient grain yield in the future.

  3. Social Justice and South African University Student Enrolment Data by "Race", 1998-2012: From "Skewed Revolution" to "Stalled Revolution"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, David

    2015-01-01

    The paper looks closely at student enrolment trends through a case study of South African "race" enrolment data, including some hypotheses about how student social class has influenced these trends. First, data on 1988-1998 enrolments showing a "skewed revolution" in student africanisation are summarised. Then, using 2000-2012…

  4. Social Justice and South African University Student Enrolment Data by "Race", 1998-2012: From "Skewed Revolution" to "Stalled Revolution"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, David

    2015-01-01

    The paper looks closely at student enrolment trends through a case study of South African "race" enrolment data, including some hypotheses about how student social class has influenced these trends. First, data on 1988-1998 enrolments showing a "skewed revolution" in student africanisation are summarised. Then, using 2000-2012…

  5. 'Green revolution' genes encode mutant gibberellin response modulators.

    PubMed

    Peng, J; Richards, D E; Hartley, N M; Murphy, G P; Devos, K M; Flintham, J E; Beales, J; Fish, L J; Worland, A J; Pelica, F; Sudhakar, D; Christou, P; Snape, J W; Gale, M D; Harberd, N P

    1999-07-15

    World wheat grain yields increased substantially in the 1960s and 1970s because farmers rapidly adopted the new varieties and cultivation methods of the so-called 'green revolution'. The new varieties are shorter, increase grain yield at the expense of straw biomass, and are more resistant to damage by wind and rain. These wheats are short because they respond abnormally to the plant growth hormone gibberellin. This reduced response to gibberellin is conferred by mutant dwarfing alleles at one of two Reduced height-1 (Rht-B1 and Rht-D1) loci. Here we show that Rht-B1/Rht-D1 and maize dwarf-8 (d8) are orthologues of the Arabidopsis Gibberellin Insensitive (GAI) gene. These genes encode proteins that resemble nuclear transcription factors and contain an SH2-like domain, indicating that phosphotyrosine may participate in gibberellin signalling. Six different orthologous dwarfing mutant alleles encode proteins that are altered in a conserved amino-terminal gibberellin signalling domain. Transgenic rice plants containing a mutant GAI allele give reduced responses to gibberellin and are dwarfed, indicating that mutant GAI orthologues could be used to increase yield in a wide range of crop species.

  6. Beyond the Green Revolution: singin' the population blues.

    PubMed

    Baron, L

    1992-09-01

    The "green revolution" was desirable because of increased crop yields, but 25 years later after the results of land degradation, groundwater contamination, and environmentally harmful practices were revealed, there is a return to sustainable agriculture. The aim is to minimize agriculture's harmful effects on the environment and to maintain water ad soil resources. Present and future food production depends on suitable land, water, climate, and finances. Unfortunately, the timing is wrong. Population growth is putting pressure on farmers to increase yields. The current conditions are the 11% of the earth's vegetative land surface has diminished productivity due to human activity. There is loss of biodiversity and genetic material. CAttle grazing is inefficient and adds to desertification; animal waste contributes to pollution. Pesticides and fertilizers are the largest US water pollutants. Sustainable agriculture means new tilling methods, reducing pesticide use, and crop rotation. The National Research Council in 1989 reported on alternative agriculture: 1) making the most of natural biological processes; 2) reducing or eliminating pesticides and other chemicals; 3) conserving soil, water, and energy; and 4) matching crops with land to ensure sustainable production levels. Reeducation is needed. Operation SAVE (Sustainable Agriculture that's Voluntary and Economical) produces an annual directory and guide for farmers adopting new methods. Land trusts and conservation easements are being established to preserve farmland. Reclamation of degraded land is being promoted by distribution of tree seedlings to developing countries. Community supported agriculture groups share in the cost of raising crops and receive organic, fresh produce. There are fears about economic feasibility. Conventional farmers argue for pesticide use to increase yields, but a Cornell University study refutes this for organically grown corn. High technology research is not likely to yield a new

  7. Revolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrahy, Dennis J.

    One of a series of social studies units designed to develop the reading and writing skills of low achievers, this student activity book focuses on the theme of revolution. The unit can be used for high school classes, individual study in alternative and continuing high schools, and adult education classes. Following an introduction, material is…

  8. Revolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrahy, Dennis J.

    One of a series of social studies units designed to develop the reading and writing skills of low achievers, this student activity book focuses on the theme of revolution. The unit can be used for high school classes, individual study in alternative and continuing high schools, and adult education classes. Following an introduction, material is…

  9. Beyond the Green Revolution: New Approaches for Third World Agriculture. Worldwatch Paper 73.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolf, Edward C.

    After 20 years, the "green revolution" is generally referred to as a milestone in the international agricultural movement. The introduction of new varieties of wheat and rice, along with fertilizers, pesticides, and mechanized farm equipment has produced a dramatic increase in world food production. This paper assesses the successes of…

  10. Guatemala's green revolution: synthetic fertilizer, public health, and economic autonomy in the Mayan highland.

    PubMed

    Carey, David

    2009-01-01

    Despite extensive literature both supporting and critiquing the Green Revolution, surprisingly little attention has been paid to synthetic fertilizers' health and environmental effects or indigenous farmers' perspectives. The introduction of agrochemicals in the mid-twentieth century was a watershed event for many Mayan farmers in Guatemala. While some Maya hailed synthetic fertilizers' immediate effectiveness as a relief from famines and migrant labor, other lamented the long-term deterioration of their public health, soil quality, and economic autonomy. Since the rising cost of agrochemicals compelled Maya to return to plantation labor in the 1970s, synthetic fertilizers simply shifted, rather than alleviated, Mayan dependency on the cash economy. By highlighting Mayan farmers' historical narratives and delineating the relationship between agricultural science and postwar geopolitics, the constraints on agriculturists' agency become clear. In the end, politics, more than technology or agricultural performance, influenced guatemala's shift toward the Green Revolution.

  11. Artificial selection for a green revolution gene during japonica rice domestication

    PubMed Central

    Asano, Kenji; Yamasaki, Masanori; Takuno, Shohei; Miura, Kotaro; Katagiri, Satoshi; Ito, Tomoko; Doi, Kazuyuki; Wu, Jianzhong; Ebana, Kaworu; Matsumoto, Takashi; Innan, Hideki; Kitano, Hidemi; Ashikari, Motoyuki; Matsuoka, Makoto

    2011-01-01

    The semidwarf phenotype has been extensively selected during modern crop breeding as an agronomically important trait. Introduction of the semidwarf gene, semi-dwarf1 (sd1), which encodes a gibberellin biosynthesis enzyme, made significant contributions to the “green revolution” in rice (Oryza sativa L.). Here we report that SD1 was involved not only in modern breeding including the green revolution, but also in early steps of rice domestication. We identified two SNPs in O. sativa subspecies (ssp.) japonica SD1 as functional nucleotide polymorphisms (FNPs) responsible for shorter culm length and low gibberellin biosynthetic activity. Genetic diversity analysis among O. sativa ssp. japonica and indica, along with their wild ancestor O. rufipogon Griff, revealed that these FNPs clearly differentiate the japonica landrace and O. rufipogon. We also found a dramatic reduction in nucleotide diversity around SD1 only in the japonica landrace, not in the indica landrace or O. rufipogon. These findings indicate that SD1 has been subjected to artificial selection in rice evolution and that the FNPs participated in japonica domestication, suggesting that ancient humans already used the green revolution gene. PMID:21646530

  12. Application of GM crops in Sub-Saharan Africa: lessons learned from Green Revolution.

    PubMed

    Bazuin, Sjoerd; Azadi, Hossein; Witlox, Frank

    2011-01-01

    While the Green Revolution has been successful in some regions like South and East Asia, it could hardly address any achievement in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). This paper tries to draw a picture on lessons learned from the failures of this revolution that should be taken into account before implementing the so-called Gene Revolution in the SSA region. After scrutinizing the failures and the pros and cons of GM crops in the region, the paper introduces some potentials for improving the malnutrition situation in SSA through launching a successful GM technology. However, it remains doubtful whether this technology can improve the situation of small-scale farmers as long as they receive no financial support from their national governments. Therefore, before any intervention, the socio-economic and environmental impacts of GM technology need to be carefully addressed in the framework of a series of risk assessment studies. Besides, some sort of multi-stakeholder dialog (from small-scale farmers to consumers) involving public-private sector and non-governmental organizations should be heated up at both national and regional levels with regard to the myths and truths of this technology. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Transformation of a Dwarf "Arabidopsis" Mutant Illustrates Gibberellin Hormone Physiology and the Function of a Green Revolution Gene

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molina, Isabel; Weber, Katrin; Alves Cursino dos Santos, Deborah Y.; Ohlrogge, John

    2009-01-01

    The introduction of dwarfing traits into crops was a major factor in increased grain yields during the "Green Revolution." In most cases those traits were the consequence of altered synthesis or response to the gibberellin (GA) plant hormones. Our current understanding of GA synthesis and physiology has been facilitated by the characterization of…

  14. Transformation of a Dwarf "Arabidopsis" Mutant Illustrates Gibberellin Hormone Physiology and the Function of a Green Revolution Gene

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molina, Isabel; Weber, Katrin; Alves Cursino dos Santos, Deborah Y.; Ohlrogge, John

    2009-01-01

    The introduction of dwarfing traits into crops was a major factor in increased grain yields during the "Green Revolution." In most cases those traits were the consequence of altered synthesis or response to the gibberellin (GA) plant hormones. Our current understanding of GA synthesis and physiology has been facilitated by the characterization of…

  15. Association of dwarfism and floral induction with a grape 'green revolution' mutation.

    PubMed

    Boss, Paul K; Thomas, Mark R

    2002-04-25

    The transition from vegetative to reproductive growth is an essential process in the life cycle of plants. Plant floral induction pathways respond to both environmental and endogenous cues and much has been learnt about these genetic pathways by studying mutants of Arabidopsis. Gibberellins (GAs) are plant growth regulators important in many aspects of plant growth and in Arabidopsis they promote flowering. Here we provide genetic evidence that GAs inhibit flowering in grapevine. A grapevine dwarf mutant derived from the L1 cell layer of the champagne cultivar Pinot Meunier produces inflorescences along the length of the shoot where tendrils are normally formed. The mutated gene associated with the phenotype is a homologue of the wheat 'green revolution' gene Reduced height-1 (ref. 6) and the Arabidopsis gene GA insensitive (GAI). The conversion of tendrils to inflorescences in the mutant demonstrates that the grapevine tendril is a modified inflorescence inhibited from completing floral development by GAs.

  16. Clarence Sumner Greene, Sr.: the first African-American neurosurgeon.

    PubMed

    McClelland, Shearwood; Harris, Kimbra S

    2006-12-01

    Largely because of the advances of the Civil Rights movement in the mid-20th century, an increasing number of African-Americans have had the opportunity to become physicians and enter the distinguished field of neurosurgery. Many have made the most of this opportunity, becoming prominent in both academics and private practice. Unfortunately, the details regarding the first African-American neurosurgeon, Clarence Sumner Greene, Sr., have remained in relative obscurity. Born on December 26, 1901 in Washington, D.C., Dr. Greene received his M.D. from the Howard University College of Medicine with distinction in 1936. After 7 years of general surgery residency and 4 years as a professor of surgery at Howard University, he was granted the opportunity by the legendary Wilder G. Penfield to train in neurosurgery at the world-renowned Montreal Neurological Institute from 1947 to 1949. Receiving high praise from Dr. Penfield, Dr. Greene became the first African-American certified by the American Board of Neurological Surgery on October 22, 1953. Subsequently, he was appointed as chair of neurosurgery at Howard University, where he successfully treated intracranial aneurysms, brain tumors, and herniated intervertebral discs until his tragic death in 1957. The diligence and perseverance of Clarence Sumner Greene, Sr., M.D., D.D.S., F.A.C.S. enabled him to overcome incredible odds to become the first African-American neurosurgeon, trained by Dr. Penfield at the Montreal Neurological Institute. A true pioneer, his achievements have opened the door for subsequent African-Americans to enhance the field of neurosurgery.

  17. Pathology of Inhalational Anthrax Infection in the African Green Monkey

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-01-01

    Comparison of the immunogenicity and efficacy of a replication-defective vaccinia virus expressing antigens of human parainfluenza virus type 3 (HPIV3...pathology in 12 African green monkeys (AGMs) that succumbed to inhalational anthrax after exposure to a low dose (presented dose 200–2 3 104colony...forming units [cfu]) or a high dose (presented dose 2 3 104–1 3 107 cfu) of Bacillus anthracis (Ames strain) spores. Frequent gross lesions noted in the AGM

  18. Peasant friendly plant breeding and the early years of the green revolution in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Harwood, Jonathan

    2009-01-01

    Despite their success in boosting cereals production overall, the Green Revolution programs of the 1950s and 1960s were often criticized for failing to achieve their declared aim of alleviating world hunger. Most critics argued that the programs had produced a technology unsuited to the needs of small peasant farmers. This paper explores why such inappropriate technology might have been developed, focusing on the early years of the Rockefeller Foundation's Mexican Agricultural Program (MAP). It shows that some foundation officers as well as agricultural advisors had prior experience of the problems faced by small farmers in the United States and elsewhere. Moreover, the foundation's expressed concern for rural poverty does not appear to have been mere posturing by an organization anxious to be seen as an agent of philanthropy. Furthermore, the program's early work in maize-breeding was well tailored to the conditions of Mexican agriculture. Once the MAP was up and running, however, it became apparent that the task of getting new varieties and cultivation practices to small farmers was going to be difficult. Needing to make some kind of impact quickly, MAP staff chose to concentrate upon projects that were likely to find a rapid uptake. This meant setting aside the needs of peasant farmers to develop high-yielding varieties suited to large commercial farms.

  19. Is genetically modified crop the answer for the next green revolution?

    PubMed

    Basu, Saikat Kumar; Dutta, Madhuleema; Goyal, Aakash; Bhowmik, Pankaj Kumar; Kumar, Jitendra; Nandy, Sanjib; Scagliusi, Sandra Mansun; Prasad, Rajib

    2010-01-01

    Post-green revolution advances made in biotechnology paved the way of cultivating the high-yielding, stress and disease resistant genetically modified (GM) varieties of wheat, rice, maize cotton and several other crops. The recent rapid commercialization of the genetically modified crops in Asia, Americas and Australia indicates the potentiality of this new technology. GM crops give higher yields and are rich in nutritional values containing vitamins and minerals and can thus can help to alleviate hunger and malnutrition of the growing population in the under developed and developing countries. It could also be possible to develop more biotic and abiotic stress resistant genotypes in these crops where it was difficult to develop due to the unavailability of genes of resistance in the crossing germplasms. However, further research and investigations are needed to popularize the cultivation of these crops in different parts of the world. This review provides an insight of the impact of GM crops on contemporary agriculture across the past few decades, traces its' history across time, highlights new achievements and breakthroughs and discusses the future implication of this powerful technology in the coming few decades.

  20. A Belated Green Revolution for Cannabis: Virtual Genetic Resources to Fast-Track Cultivar Development

    PubMed Central

    Welling, Matthew T.; Shapter, Tim; Rose, Terry J.; Liu, Lei; Stanger, Rhia; King, Graham J.

    2016-01-01

    Cannabis is a predominantly diecious phenotypically diverse domesticated genus with few if any extant natural populations. International narcotics conventions and associated legislation have constrained the establishment, characterization, and use of Cannabis genetic resource collections. This has resulted in the underutilization of genepool variability in cultivar development and has limited the inclusion of secondary genepools associated with genetic improvement strategies of the Green Revolution. The structured screening of ex situ germplasm and the exploitation of locally-adapted intraspecific traits is expected to facilitate the genetic improvement of Cannabis. However, limited attempts have been made to establish the full extent of genetic resources available for pre-breeding. We present a thorough critical review of Cannabis ex situ genetic resources, and discuss recommendations for conservation, pre-breeding characterization, and genetic analysis that will underpin future cultivar development. We consider East Asian germplasm to be a priority for conservation based on the prolonged historical cultivation of Cannabis in this region over a range of latitudes, along with the apparent high levels of genetic diversity and relatively low representation in published genetic resource collections. Seed cryopreservation could improve conservation by reducing hybridization and genetic drift that may occur during Cannabis germplasm regeneration. Given the unique legal status of Cannabis, we propose the establishment of a global virtual core collection based on the collation of consistent and comprehensive provenance meta-data and the adoption of high-throughput DNA sequencing technologies. This would enable representative core collections to be used for systematic phenotyping, and so underpin breeding strategies for the genetic improvement of Cannabis. PMID:27524992

  1. A Belated Green Revolution for Cannabis: Virtual Genetic Resources to Fast-Track Cultivar Development.

    PubMed

    Welling, Matthew T; Shapter, Tim; Rose, Terry J; Liu, Lei; Stanger, Rhia; King, Graham J

    2016-01-01

    Cannabis is a predominantly diecious phenotypically diverse domesticated genus with few if any extant natural populations. International narcotics conventions and associated legislation have constrained the establishment, characterization, and use of Cannabis genetic resource collections. This has resulted in the underutilization of genepool variability in cultivar development and has limited the inclusion of secondary genepools associated with genetic improvement strategies of the Green Revolution. The structured screening of ex situ germplasm and the exploitation of locally-adapted intraspecific traits is expected to facilitate the genetic improvement of Cannabis. However, limited attempts have been made to establish the full extent of genetic resources available for pre-breeding. We present a thorough critical review of Cannabis ex situ genetic resources, and discuss recommendations for conservation, pre-breeding characterization, and genetic analysis that will underpin future cultivar development. We consider East Asian germplasm to be a priority for conservation based on the prolonged historical cultivation of Cannabis in this region over a range of latitudes, along with the apparent high levels of genetic diversity and relatively low representation in published genetic resource collections. Seed cryopreservation could improve conservation by reducing hybridization and genetic drift that may occur during Cannabis germplasm regeneration. Given the unique legal status of Cannabis, we propose the establishment of a global virtual core collection based on the collation of consistent and comprehensive provenance meta-data and the adoption of high-throughput DNA sequencing technologies. This would enable representative core collections to be used for systematic phenotyping, and so underpin breeding strategies for the genetic improvement of Cannabis.

  2. Agricultural green revolution as a driver of increasing atmospheric CO2 seasonal amplitude

    SciTech Connect

    Zeng, Ning; Zhao, Fang; Collatz, George; Kalnay, Eugenia; Salawitch, Ross J.; West, Tristram O.; Guanter, Luis

    2014-11-20

    The atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) record displays a prominent seasonal cycle that arises mainly from changes in vegetation growth and the corresponding CO2 uptake during the boreal spring and summer growing seasons and CO2 release during the autumn and winter seasons. The CO2 seasonal amplitude has increased over the past five decades, suggesting an increase in Northern Hemisphere biospheric activity. It has been proposed that vegetation growth may have been stimulated by higher concentrations of CO2 as well as by warming in recent decades, but such mechanisms have been unable to explain the full range and magnitude of the observed increase in CO2 seasonal amplitude. Here we suggest that the intensification of agriculture (the Green Revolution, in which much greater crop yield per unit area was achieved by hybridization, irrigation and fertilization) during the past five decades is a driver of changes in the seasonal characteristics of the global carbon cycle. Our analysis of CO2 data and atmospheric inversions shows a robust 15 per cent long-term increase in CO2 seasonal amplitude from 1961 to 2010, punctuated by large decadal and interannual variations. Using a terrestrial carbon cycle model that takes into account high-yield cultivars, fertilizer use and irrigation, we find that the long-term increase in CO2 seasonal amplitude arises from two major regions: the mid-latitude cropland between 256N and 606N and the high-latitude natural vegetation between 506N and 706 N. The long-term trend of seasonal amplitude increase is 0.311 ± 0.027 percent per year, of which sensitivity experiments attribute 45, 29 and 26 per cent to land-use change, climate variability and change, and increased productivity due to CO2 fertilization, respectively. Vegetation growth was earlier by one to two weeks, as measured by the mid-point of vegetation carbon uptake, and took up 0.5 petagrams more carbon in July, the height of the growing season, during 2001–2010 than in 1961–1970

  3. Agricultural Green Revolution as a driver of increasing atmospheric CO2 seasonal amplitude.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Ning; Zhao, Fang; Collatz, George J; Kalnay, Eugenia; Salawitch, Ross J; West, Tristram O; Guanter, Luis

    2014-11-20

    The atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) record displays a prominent seasonal cycle that arises mainly from changes in vegetation growth and the corresponding CO2 uptake during the boreal spring and summer growing seasons and CO2 release during the autumn and winter seasons. The CO2 seasonal amplitude has increased over the past five decades, suggesting an increase in Northern Hemisphere biospheric activity. It has been proposed that vegetation growth may have been stimulated by higher concentrations of CO2 as well as by warming in recent decades, but such mechanisms have been unable to explain the full range and magnitude of the observed increase in CO2 seasonal amplitude. Here we suggest that the intensification of agriculture (the Green Revolution, in which much greater crop yield per unit area was achieved by hybridization, irrigation and fertilization) during the past five decades is a driver of changes in the seasonal characteristics of the global carbon cycle. Our analysis of CO2 data and atmospheric inversions shows a robust 15 per cent long-term increase in CO2 seasonal amplitude from 1961 to 2010, punctuated by large decadal and interannual variations. Using a terrestrial carbon cycle model that takes into account high-yield cultivars, fertilizer use and irrigation, we find that the long-term increase in CO2 seasonal amplitude arises from two major regions: the mid-latitude cropland between 25° N and 60° N and the high-latitude natural vegetation between 50° N and 70° N. The long-term trend of seasonal amplitude increase is 0.311 ± 0.027 per cent per year, of which sensitivity experiments attribute 45, 29 and 26 per cent to land-use change, climate variability and change, and increased productivity due to CO2 fertilization, respectively. Vegetation growth was earlier by one to two weeks, as measured by the mid-point of vegetation carbon uptake, and took up 0.5 petagrams more carbon in July, the height of the growing season, during 2001-2010 than in

  4. The quadruple squeeze: defining the safe operating space for freshwater use to achieve a triply green revolution in the anthropocene.

    PubMed

    Rockström, Johan; Karlberg, Louise

    2010-05-01

    Humanity has entered a new phase of sustainability challenges, the Anthropocene, in which human development has reached a scale where it affects vital planetary processes. Under the pressure from a quadruple squeeze-from population and development pressures, the anthropogenic climate crisis, the anthropogenic ecosystem crisis, and the risk of deleterious tipping points in the Earth system-the degrees of freedom for sustainable human exploitation of planet Earth are severely restrained. It is in this reality that a new green revolution in world food production needs to occur, to attain food security and human development over the coming decades. Global freshwater resources are, and will increasingly be, a fundamental limiting factor in feeding the world. Current water vulnerabilities in the regions in most need of large agricultural productivity improvements are projected to increase under the pressure from global environmental change. The sustainability challenge for world agriculture has to be set within the new global sustainability context. We present new proposed sustainability criteria for world agriculture, where world food production systems are transformed in order to allow humanity to stay within the safe operating space of planetary boundaries. In order to secure global resilience and thereby raise the chances of planet Earth to remain in the current desired state, conducive for human development on the long-term, these planetary boundaries need to be respected. This calls for a triply green revolution, which not only more than doubles food production in many regions of the world, but which also is environmentally sustainable, and invests in the untapped opportunities to use green water in rainfed agriculture as a key source of future productivity enhancement. To achieve such a global transformation of agriculture, there is a need for more innovative options for water interventions at the landscape scale, accounting for both green and blue water, as well

  5. Human polyomavirus related to African green monkey lymphotropic polyomavirus.

    PubMed

    Sauvage, Virginie; Foulongne, Vincent; Cheval, Justine; Ar Gouilh, Meriadeg; Pariente, Kevin; Dereure, Olivier; Manuguerra, Jean Claude; Richardson, Jennifer; Lecuit, Marc; Burguière, Ana; Caro, Valérie; Eloit, Marc

    2011-08-01

    While studying the virome of the skin surface of a patient with a Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) by using unbiased, high-throughput sequencing, we identified a human polyomavirus nearly identical to human polyomavirus 9, a virus recently reported in blood and urine of renal transplantion patients and closely related to the African green monkey lymphotropic polyomavirus. Specific PCR analysis further identified this virus in 2/8 patients with MCC but in only 1/111 controls without MCC. This virus was shed for ≥20 months by the MCC index patient and was on the skin of the spouse of the index patient. These results provide information on the viral ecology of human skin and raise new questions regarding the pathology of virus-associated skin disorders.

  6. The Demographic and Adaptive History of the African Green Monkey.

    PubMed

    Pfeifer, Susanne P

    2017-05-01

    Relatively little is known about the evolutionary history of the African green monkey (genus Chlorocebus) due to the lack of sampled polymorphism data from wild populations. Yet, this characterization of genetic diversity is not only critical for a better understanding of their own history, but also for human biomedical research given that they are one of the most widely used primate models. Here, I analyze the demographic and selective history of the African green monkey, utilizing one of the most comprehensive catalogs of wild genetic diversity to date, consisting of 1,795,643 autosomal single nucleotide polymorphisms in 25 individuals, representing all five major populations: C. a. aethiops, C. a. cynosurus, C. a. pygerythrus, C. a. sabaeus, and C. a tantalus. Assuming a mutation rate of 5.9 × 10-9 per base pair per generation and a generation time of 8.5 years, divergence time estimates range from 523 to 621 kya for the basal split of C. a. aethiops from the other four populations. Importantly, the resulting tree characterizing the relationship and split-times between these populations differs significantly from that presented in the original genome paper, owing to their neglect of within-population variation when calculating between population-divergence. In addition, I find that the demographic history of all five populations is well explained by a model of population fragmentation and isolation, rather than novel colonization events. Finally, utilizing these demographic models as a null, I investigate the selective history of the populations, identifying candidate regions potentially related to adaptation in response to pathogen exposure. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Nathanael Greene’s Implementation of Compound Warfare during the Southern Campaign of the American Revolution

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-06-01

    Samuel Adams American involvement in Iraq over the last few years has spurred a renaissance of interest in insurgencies and how to combat...with distinction at the battles of Harlem Heights, Trenton, and Princeton. Greene, who by this time of the war had become one of Washington’s most

  8. Levofloxacin Cures Experimental Pneumonic Plague in African Green Monkeys

    PubMed Central

    McDonald, Jacob D.; Brasel, Trevor L.; Barr, Edward B.; Gigliotti, Andrew P.; Koster, Frederick

    2011-01-01

    Background Yersinia pestis, the agent of plague, is considered a potential bioweapon due to rapid lethality when delivered as an aerosol. Levofloxacin was tested for primary pneumonic plague treatment in a nonhuman primate model mimicking human disease. Methods and Results Twenty-four African Green monkeys (AGMs, Chlorocebus aethiops) were challenged via head-only aerosol inhalation with 3–145 (mean = 65) 50% lethal (LD50) doses of Y. pestis strain CO92. Telemetered body temperature >39°C initiated intravenous infusions to seven 5% dextrose controls or 17 levofloxacin treated animals. Levofloxacin was administered as a “humanized” dose regimen of alternating 8 mg/kg and 2 mg/kg 30-min infusions every 24-h, continuing until animal death or 20 total infusions, followed by 14 days of observation. Fever appeared at 53–165 h and radiographs found multilobar pneumonia in all exposed animals. All control animals died of severe pneumonic plague within five days of aerosol exposure. All 16 animals infused with levofloxacin for 10 days survived. Levofloxacin treatment abolished bacteremia within 24 h in animals with confirmed pre-infusion bacteremia, and reduced tachypnea and leukocytosis but not fever during the first 2 days of infusions. Conclusion Levofloxacin cures established pneumonic plague when treatment is initiated after the onset of fever in the lethal aerosol-challenged AGM nonhuman primate model, and can be considered for treatment of other forms of plague. Levofloxacin may also be considered for primary presumptive-use, multi-agent antibiotic in bioterrorism events prior to identification of the pathogen. PMID:21347450

  9. Nature's green revolution: the remarkable evolutionary rise of C4 plants

    PubMed Central

    Osborne, Colin P; Beerling, David J

    2005-01-01

    Plants with the C4 photosynthetic pathway dominate today's tropical savannahs and grasslands, and account for some 30% of global terrestrial carbon fixation. Their success stems from a physiological CO2-concentrating pump, which leads to high photosynthetic efficiency in warm climates and low atmospheric CO2 concentrations. Remarkably, their dominance of tropical environments was achieved in only the past 10 million years (Myr), less than 3% of the time that terrestrial plants have existed on Earth. We critically review the proposal that declining atmospheric CO2 triggered this tropical revolution via its effects on the photosynthetic efficiency of leaves. Our synthesis of the latest geological evidence from South Asia and North America suggests that this emphasis is misplaced. Instead, we find important roles for regional climate change and fire in South Asia, but no obvious environmental trigger for C4 success in North America. CO2-starvation is implicated in the origins of C4 plants 25–32 Myr ago, raising the possibility that the pathway evolved under more extreme atmospheric conditions experienced 10 times earlier. However, our geochemical analyses provide no evidence of the C4 mechanism at this time, although possible ancestral components of the C4 pathway are identified in ancient plant lineages. We suggest that future research must redress the substantial imbalance between experimental investigations and analyses of the geological record. PMID:16553316

  10. Genetic diversity and genomic resources available for the small millet crops to accelerate a New Green Revolution

    PubMed Central

    Goron, Travis L.; Raizada, Manish N.

    2015-01-01

    Small millets are nutrient-rich food sources traditionally grown and consumed by subsistence farmers in Asia and Africa. They include finger millet (Eleusine coracana), foxtail millet (Setaria italica), kodo millet (Paspalum scrobiculatum), proso millet (Panicum miliaceum), barnyard millet (Echinochloa spp.), and little millet (Panicum sumatrense). Local farmers value the small millets for their nutritional and health benefits, tolerance to extreme stress including drought, and ability to grow under low nutrient input conditions, ideal in an era of climate change and steadily depleting natural resources. Little scientific attention has been paid to these crops, hence they have been termed “orphan cereals.” Despite this challenge, an advantageous quality of the small millets is that they continue to be grown in remote regions of the world which has preserved their biodiversity, providing breeders with unique alleles for crop improvement. The purpose of this review, first, is to highlight the diverse traits of each small millet species that are valued by farmers and consumers which hold potential for selection, improvement or mechanistic study. For each species, the germplasm, genetic and genomic resources available will then be described as potential tools to exploit this biodiversity. The review will conclude with noting current trends and gaps in the literature and make recommendations on how to better preserve and utilize diversity within these species to accelerate a New Green Revolution for subsistence farmers in Asia and Africa. PMID:25852710

  11. Positional cloning of rice semidwarfing gene, sd-1: rice "green revolution gene" encodes a mutant enzyme involved in gibberellin synthesis.

    PubMed

    Monna, Lisa; Kitazawa, Noriyuki; Yoshino, Rika; Suzuki, Junko; Masuda, Haruka; Maehara, Yumiko; Tanji, Masao; Sato, Mizuho; Nasu, Shinobu; Minobe, Yuzo

    2002-02-28

    A rice semidwarfing gene, sd-1, known as the "green revolution gene," was isolated by positional cloning and revealed to encode gibberellin 20-oxidase, the key enzyme in the gibberellin biosynthesis pathway. Analysis of 3477 segregants using several PCR-based marker technologies, including cleaved amplified polymorphic sequence, derived-CAPS, and single nucleotide polymorphisms revealed 1 ORF in a 6-kb candidate interval. Normal-type rice cultivars have an identical sequence in this region, consisting of 3 exons (558, 318, and 291 bp) and 2 introns (105 and 1471 bp). Dee-Geo-Woo-Gen-type sd-1 mutants have a 383-bp deletion from the genome (278-bp deletion from the expressed sequence), from the middle of exon 1 to upstream of exon 2, including a 105-bp intron, resulting in a frame-shift that produces a termination codon after the deletion site. The radiation-induced sd-1 mutant Calrose 76 has a 1-bp substitution in exon 2, causing an amino acid substitution (Leu [CTC] to Phe [TTC]). Expression analysis suggests the existence of at least one more locus of gibberellin 20-oxidase which may prevent severe dwarfism from developing in sd-1 mutants.

  12. Genetic diversity and genomic resources available for the small millet crops to accelerate a New Green Revolution.

    PubMed

    Goron, Travis L; Raizada, Manish N

    2015-01-01

    Small millets are nutrient-rich food sources traditionally grown and consumed by subsistence farmers in Asia and Africa. They include finger millet (Eleusine coracana), foxtail millet (Setaria italica), kodo millet (Paspalum scrobiculatum), proso millet (Panicum miliaceum), barnyard millet (Echinochloa spp.), and little millet (Panicum sumatrense). Local farmers value the small millets for their nutritional and health benefits, tolerance to extreme stress including drought, and ability to grow under low nutrient input conditions, ideal in an era of climate change and steadily depleting natural resources. Little scientific attention has been paid to these crops, hence they have been termed "orphan cereals." Despite this challenge, an advantageous quality of the small millets is that they continue to be grown in remote regions of the world which has preserved their biodiversity, providing breeders with unique alleles for crop improvement. The purpose of this review, first, is to highlight the diverse traits of each small millet species that are valued by farmers and consumers which hold potential for selection, improvement or mechanistic study. For each species, the germplasm, genetic and genomic resources available will then be described as potential tools to exploit this biodiversity. The review will conclude with noting current trends and gaps in the literature and make recommendations on how to better preserve and utilize diversity within these species to accelerate a New Green Revolution for subsistence farmers in Asia and Africa.

  13. Assessing the water challenge of a new green revolution in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Rockström, Johan; Lannerstad, Mats; Falkenmark, Malin

    2007-04-10

    This article analyzes the water implications in 92 developing countries of first attaining the 2015 hunger target of the United Nations Millennium Development Goals and then feeding a growing population on an acceptable standard diet. The water requirements in terms of vapor flows are quantified, potential water sources are identified, and impacts on agricultural land expansion and water tradeoffs with ecosystems are analyzed. This article quantifies the relative contribution from infiltrated rainwater/green water in rain-fed agriculture, and liquid water/blue water from irrigation, and how far water productivity (WP) gains can go in reducing the pressure on freshwater resources. Under current WP levels, another 2,200 km(3).yr(-1) of vapor flow is deemed necessary to halve hunger by 2015 and 5,200 km(3).yr(-1) in 2050 to alleviate hunger. A nonlinear relationship between vapor flow and yield growth, particularly in low-yielding savanna agro-ecosystems, indicates a high potential for WP increase. Such WP gains may reduce additional water needs in agriculture, with 16% in 2015 and 45% by 2050. Despite an optimistic outlook on irrigation development, most of the additional water will originate from rain-fed production. Yield growth, increasing consumptive use on existing rain-fed cropland, and fodder from grazing lands may reduce the additional rain-fed water use further by 43-47% until 2030. To meet remaining water needs, a cropland expansion of approximately 0.8% yr(-1), i.e., a similar rate as over the past 50 years (approximately 0.65% yr(-1)), seems unavoidable if food production is to occur in proximity to local markets.

  14. Assessing the water challenge of a new green revolution in developing countries

    PubMed Central

    Rockström, Johan; Lannerstad, Mats; Falkenmark, Malin

    2007-01-01

    This article analyzes the water implications in 92 developing countries of first attaining the 2015 hunger target of the United Nations Millennium Development Goals and then feeding a growing population on an acceptable standard diet. The water requirements in terms of vapor flows are quantified, potential water sources are identified, and impacts on agricultural land expansion and water tradeoffs with ecosystems are analyzed. This article quantifies the relative contribution from infiltrated rainwater/green water in rain-fed agriculture, and liquid water/blue water from irrigation, and how far water productivity (WP) gains can go in reducing the pressure on freshwater resources. Under current WP levels, another 2,200 km3·yr−1 of vapor flow is deemed necessary to halve hunger by 2015 and 5,200 km3·yr−1 in 2050 to alleviate hunger. A nonlinear relationship between vapor flow and yield growth, particularly in low-yielding savanna agro-ecosystems, indicates a high potential for WP increase. Such WP gains may reduce additional water needs in agriculture, with 16% in 2015 and 45% by 2050. Despite an optimistic outlook on irrigation development, most of the additional water will originate from rain-fed production. Yield growth, increasing consumptive use on existing rain-fed cropland, and fodder from grazing lands may reduce the additional rain-fed water use further by 43–47% until 2030. To meet remaining water needs, a cropland expansion of ≈0.8% yr−1, i.e., a similar rate as over the past 50 years (≈0.65% yr−1), seems unavoidable if food production is to occur in proximity to local markets. PMID:17404216

  15. Evidence of North Africa's green revolution preserved in sedimentary organic matter deposited in three coastal lagoons.

    PubMed

    Oczkowski, Autumn J; Flower, Roger J; Thompson, Julian R; Ayache, Fethi; Ahmed, Mahmoud H; Ramdani, Mohamed; Turner, Simon

    2011-07-01

    Because of longer residence times and limited mixing in coastal lagoons, the impacts of anthropogenic nutrient loading to lagoon food webs are often more pronounced than in other coastal ecosystems. For these reasons, many lagoons also provide an excellent environment for the deposition and accumulation of organic matter (OM). Sediment cores were retrieved from three North African lagoons to provide records of recent environmental changes. We measured percentage nitrogen (%N), nitrogen stable isotope values (delta15N), and percentage organic matter (%OM), and we used radiometric dating techniques (210Pb, 137Cs) to examine the evidence for the intensification of upstream agricultural practices in sediment cores from Lake Manzala (Egypt), Ghar El Melh Lagoon (Tunisia), and Lagune de Nador (Morocco). With the exception of one core collected near a sewage outfall, sediments from Lake Manzala clearly reflected the impact of agricultural intensification following completion of the Aswan High Dam and delta barrages in the mid-1960s to early 1970s. Both %N and %OM more than doubled in three Manzala sediment cores, and delta15N values declined from 5 per thousand to < 1 per thousand. These changes reflect the increasing use of synthetic fertilizers (delta15N approximately 0 per thousand) from the 1960s to the present. Sediments from Ghar El Melh show a similar trend, with %N more than tripling, %OM increasing by 50%, and delta15N declining from 6 per thousand to 2 per thousand since 1965. These changes are consistent with the increasing use of water from a nearby river for crop irrigation and agricultural fertilizer use. Lagune de Nador receives relatively little agricultural drainage water, and core data did not show the same trends as Manzala and Ghar El Melh. Overall, the sediment core data from these systems reflect environmental shifts in the quantity, quality, and isotope signature of the deposited organic matter and confirm the concerns of local scientists and

  16. Green Revolution research saved an estimated 18 to 27 million hectares from being brought into agricultural production

    PubMed Central

    Stevenson, James R.; Villoria, Nelson; Byerlee, Derek; Kelley, Timothy; Maredia, Mywish

    2013-01-01

    New estimates of the impacts of germplasm improvement in the major staple crops between 1965 and 2004 on global land-cover change are presented, based on simulations carried out using a global economic model (Global Trade Analysis Project Agro-Ecological Zone), a multicommodity, multiregional computable general equilibrium model linked to a global spatially explicit database on land use. We estimate the impact of removing the gains in cereal productivity attributed to the widespread adoption of improved varieties in developing countries. Here, several different effects—higher yields, lower prices, higher land rents, and trade effects—have been incorporated in a single model of the impact of Green Revolution research (and subsequent advances in yields from crop germplasm improvement) on land-cover change. Our results generally support the Borlaug hypothesis that increases in cereal yields as a result of widespread adoption of improved crop germplasm have saved natural ecosystems from being converted to agriculture. However, this relationship is complex, and the net effect is of a much smaller magnitude than Borlaug proposed. We estimate that the total crop area in 2004 would have been between 17.9 and 26.7 million hectares larger in a world that had not benefited from crop germplasm improvement since 1965. Of these hectares, 12.0–17.7 million would have been in developing countries, displacing pastures and resulting in an estimated 2 million hectares of additional deforestation. However, the negative impacts of higher food prices on poverty and hunger under this scenario would likely have dwarfed the welfare effects of agricultural expansion. PMID:23671086

  17. Green Revolution research saved an estimated 18 to 27 million hectares from being brought into agricultural production.

    PubMed

    Stevenson, James R; Villoria, Nelson; Byerlee, Derek; Kelley, Timothy; Maredia, Mywish

    2013-05-21

    New estimates of the impacts of germplasm improvement in the major staple crops between 1965 and 2004 on global land-cover change are presented, based on simulations carried out using a global economic model (Global Trade Analysis Project Agro-Ecological Zone), a multicommodity, multiregional computable general equilibrium model linked to a global spatially explicit database on land use. We estimate the impact of removing the gains in cereal productivity attributed to the widespread adoption of improved varieties in developing countries. Here, several different effects--higher yields, lower prices, higher land rents, and trade effects--have been incorporated in a single model of the impact of Green Revolution research (and subsequent advances in yields from crop germplasm improvement) on land-cover change. Our results generally support the Borlaug hypothesis that increases in cereal yields as a result of widespread adoption of improved crop germplasm have saved natural ecosystems from being converted to agriculture. However, this relationship is complex, and the net effect is of a much smaller magnitude than Borlaug proposed. We estimate that the total crop area in 2004 would have been between 17.9 and 26.7 million hectares larger in a world that had not benefited from crop germplasm improvement since 1965. Of these hectares, 12.0-17.7 million would have been in developing countries, displacing pastures and resulting in an estimated 2 million hectares of additional deforestation. However, the negative impacts of higher food prices on poverty and hunger under this scenario would likely have dwarfed the welfare effects of agricultural expansion.

  18. Mitochondrial Diversity and Distribution of African Green Monkeys (Chlorocebus Gray, 1870)

    PubMed Central

    Haus, Tanja; Akom, Emmanuel; Agwanda, Bernard; Hofreiter, Michael; Roos, Christian; Zinner, Dietmar

    2013-01-01

    African green monkeys (Chlorocebus) represent a widely distributed and morphologically diverse primate genus in sub-Saharan Africa. Little attention has been paid to their genetic diversity and phylogeny. Based on morphological data, six species are currently recognized, but their taxonomy remains disputed. Here, we aim to characterize the mitochondrial (mt) DNA diversity, biogeography and phylogeny of African green monkeys. We analyzed the complete mitochondrial cytochrome b gene of 126 samples using feces from wild individuals and material from zoo and museum specimens with clear geographical provenance, including several type specimens. We found evidence for nine major mtDNA clades that reflect geographic distributions rather than taxa, implying that the mtDNA diversity of African green monkeys does not conform to existing taxonomic classifications. Phylogenetic relationships among clades could not be resolved suggesting a rapid early divergence of lineages. Several discordances between mtDNA and phenotype indicate that hybridization may have occurred in contact zones among species, including the threatened Bale monkey (Chlorocebus djamdjamensis). Our results provide both valuable data on African green monkeys’ genetic diversity and evolution and a basis for further molecular studies on this genus. Am. J. Primatol. 75:350-360, 2013. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:23307319

  19. The Toxicity of Soman in the African Green Monkey (Chlorocebus aethiops)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-01-01

    same subfamily as baboons and macaques. African green K. E. Despain et al. monkeys are similar to rhesus in anatomy , physiology, hematology, blood...1M (40,000 units/kg peni - cillin G benzathine) and an analgesic 1M (buprenor- phine, 0.01 mg/kg) postoperatively. Approximately 4 to 6 weeks passed

  20. Green education: Where are African American elementary school students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sawyer, Debra T.

    Problems resulting from pollution and the destruction of Earth's natural environments have prompted initiatives to educate individuals on the importance of participating in environmental education related activities. These activities are generally constructed to help individuals become aware of how their activity, or the lack thereof, could affect the state of the natural environment in the near and distant futures. This knowledge and activity are especially critical for the nation's youth - as they are the future caretakers of Earth. Present efforts, however, depict that, even though there are visible efforts that cater to children, there is little presence of African American elementary school students. Some have assumed that the lack of role models was a contributing factor, while others have asserted that African Americans were too consumed with problems of everyday survival and have little time to be concerned with environmental issues. There was little research and evidence, though, to substantiate those suppositions. This study utilized qualitative case study interviews to gather authentic data from parents of African American elementary school-aged children (ages 6-10) regarding their views about the natural environment and participation in environmentally related activities. Results of this study helped to support and alleviate some assumptions and laid a foundation for further studies on the topic.

  1. Three genetic systems controlling growth, development and productivity of rice (Oryza sativa L.): a reevaluation of the 'Green Revolution'.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Fan; Jiang, Yun-Zhu; Yu, Si-Bin; Ali, J; Paterson, A H; Khush, G S; Xu, Jian-Long; Gao, Yong-Ming; Fu, Bin-Ying; Lafitte, R; Li, Zhi-Kang

    2013-04-01

    The Green Revolution (GR-I) included worldwide adoption of semi-dwarf rice cultivars (SRCs) with mutant alleles at GA20ox2 or SD1 encoding gibberellin 20-oxidase. Two series of experiments were conducted to characterize the pleiotropic effects of SD1 and its relationships with large numbers of QTLs affecting rice growth, development and productivity. The pleiotropic effects of SD1 in the IR64 genetic background for increased height, root length/mass and grain weight, and for reduced spikelet fertility and delayed heading were first demonstrated using large populations derived from near isogenic IR64 lines of SD1. In the second set of experiments, QTLs controlling nine growth and yield traits were characterized using a new molecular quantitative genetics model and the phenotypic data of the well-known IR64/Azucena DH population evaluated across 11 environments, which revealed three genetic systems: the SD1-mediated, SD1-repressed and SD1-independent pathways that control rice growth, development and productivity. The SD1-mediated system comprised 43 functional genetic units (FGUs) controlled by GA. The SD1-repressed system was the alternative one comprising 38 FGUs that were only expressed in the mutant sd1 backgrounds. The SD1-independent one comprised 64 FGUs that were independent of SD1. GR-I resulted from the overall differences between the former two systems in the three aspects: (1) trait/environment-specific contributions; (2) distribution of favorable alleles for increased productivity in the parents; and (3) different responses to (fertilizer) inputs. Our results suggest that at 71.4 % of the detected loci, a QTL resulted from the difference between a functional allele and a loss-of-function mutant, whereas at the remaining 28.6 % of loci, from two functional alleles with differentiated effects. Our results suggest two general strategies to achieve GR-II (1) by further exploiting the genetic potential of the SD1-repressed and SD1-independent pathways and (2

  2. The Green Schools Revolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sturgeon, Julie

    2001-01-01

    Discusses why the construction movement towards energy efficient and ecologically friendly educational facilities in higher education is stalling and how education can turn things around. Evergreen State College's (Washington) commitment to environmental advocacy through the design of its Seminar II building is highlighted. (GR)

  3. CXCR4 homologues of gibbon ape, African green monkey, squirrel monkey, and cotton-top marmoset.

    PubMed

    Zubair, S; Metzenberg, S

    2000-08-10

    CXCR4 gene homologues were isolated from an ape (gibbon), an Old World monkey (African green monkey), and two New World monkeys (squirrel monkey and cotton-top marmoset), and their DNA sequences determined. The squirrel monkey and cotton-top marmoset CXCR4 sequences more closely resemble homologues from apes than Old World monkeys, a pattern not seen for the related chemokine receptor CCR5. The African green monkey CXCR4 gene is similar to its homologue in baboon, a pattern that has also been seen among CCR5 homologues. The gibbon CXCR4 contains the first polymorphisms recognized in ape homologues, the human and chimpanzee CXCR4 proteins being identical, and two of these three differences are also observed in one or more Old World monkey homologues. While 18 positions within CXCR4 are now known to be polymorphic in primates, 7 of these polymorphisms have been observed in multiple examples and 11 have been observed only once.

  4. Ependymal cyst in the cerebrum of an African green monkey (Chlorocebus aethiops).

    PubMed

    Chang, K-S; Lee, S-R; Kim, S-W; Cho, Z-H; Son, H-Y; Kim, D; Chang, K-T

    2011-01-01

    A focal lesion was detected by magnetic resonance imaging in the right caudal occipital lobe of the cerebrum in an African green monkey (Chlorocebus aethiops). Neurological signs were not observed in this animal. At necropsy examination, an 8mm wedge-shaped intracranial cavity was found, which apparently did not communicate with the ventricles. Microscopically, the inner surface of the cavity was lined by ciliated cuboidal epithelium with positive immunoreactivity for S100 protein, glial fibrillary acidic protein and cytokeratin. Based on the gross, microscopical and immunohistochemical findings the lesion was classified as an ependymal cyst. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of an ependymal cyst in an African green monkey. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Characterization of angiotensin II binding sites in African Green monkey uterus

    SciTech Connect

    Petersen, E.P.; Wright, J.W.; Harding, J.W.

    1985-01-14

    The observation that there are significant differences in the concentration, affinity, and specificity of both central nervous system (CNS) and peripheral angiotensin receptors among several different mammalian species, including the African Green monkey, led to the detailed analysis of /sup 125/I-angiotensin II binding in the uterus of the African Green monkey. The B/sub max/ for angiotensin receptors in uterine tissue from this species is 56.6 +/- 8.7 fmole per mg protein. The K/sub d/ for angiotensin II is .601 +/- .108 mM. The specificity of the receptor is similar to that reported for the uterus of the rat and dog. These results indicate that the angiotensin II receptors, although nearly absent from the CNS of the African Green monkey, are found in the uterus and are very similar to uterine receptors previously characterized in the rat and dog and support the use of these species as appropriate models for studying the biochemistry of angiotensin binding in the uterus. 25 references, 1 figure, 2 tables.

  6. Detailed analysis of the African green monkey model of Nipah virus disease.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Sara C; Briese, Thomas; Bell, Todd M; Pratt, William D; Shamblin, Joshua D; Esham, Heather L; Donnelly, Ginger C; Johnson, Joshua C; Hensley, Lisa E; Lipkin, W Ian; Honko, Anna N

    2015-01-01

    Henipaviruses are implicated in severe and frequently fatal pneumonia and encephalitis in humans. There are no approved vaccines or treatments available for human use, and testing of candidates requires the use of well-characterized animal models that mimic human disease. We performed a comprehensive and statistically-powered evaluation of the African green monkey model to define parameters critical to disease progression and the extent to which they correlate with human disease. African green monkeys were inoculated by the intratracheal route with 2.5 × 10(4) plaque forming units of the Malaysia strain of Nipah virus. Physiological data captured using telemetry implants and assessed in conjunction with clinical pathology were consistent with shock, and histopathology confirmed widespread tissue involvement associated with systemic vasculitis in animals that succumbed to acute disease. In addition, relapse encephalitis was identified in 100% of animals that survived beyond the acute disease phase. Our data suggest that disease progression in the African green monkey is comparable to the variable outcome of Nipah virus infection in humans.

  7. Detailed Analysis of the African Green Monkey Model of Nipah Virus Disease

    PubMed Central

    Johnston, Sara C.; Briese, Thomas; Bell, Todd M.; Pratt, William D.; Shamblin, Joshua D.; Esham, Heather L.; Donnelly, Ginger C.; Johnson, Joshua C.; Hensley, Lisa E.; Lipkin, W. Ian; Honko, Anna N.

    2015-01-01

    Henipaviruses are implicated in severe and frequently fatal pneumonia and encephalitis in humans. There are no approved vaccines or treatments available for human use, and testing of candidates requires the use of well-characterized animal models that mimic human disease. We performed a comprehensive and statistically-powered evaluation of the African green monkey model to define parameters critical to disease progression and the extent to which they correlate with human disease. African green monkeys were inoculated by the intratracheal route with 2.5×104 plaque forming units of the Malaysia strain of Nipah virus. Physiological data captured using telemetry implants and assessed in conjunction with clinical pathology were consistent with shock, and histopathology confirmed widespread tissue involvement associated with systemic vasculitis in animals that succumbed to acute disease. In addition, relapse encephalitis was identified in 100% of animals that survived beyond the acute disease phase. Our data suggest that disease progression in the African green monkey is comparable to the variable outcome of Nipah virus infection in humans. PMID:25706617

  8. The ever-increasing CO2 seasonal cycle amplitude: contributions from high latitude warming, CO2 fertilization, and the agricultural Green Revolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, N.; Martin, C.; Zhao, F.; Collatz, G. J.; Kalnay, E.; Salawitch, R. J.; West, T. O.; Guanter, L.

    2014-12-01

    Human activities has tranformed the Earth's surface in complex ways. Here we show that not only land cover change, but also the management intensity, namely the intensification of agriculture through the Green Revolution has had a profound impact on the carbon cycle. A long-standing puzzle in the global carbon cycle is the increase in the amplitude of the seasonal cycle of atmospheric CO2. This increase likely reflects enhanced biological activity in the Northern Hemisphere (NH). It has been hypothesized that vegetation growth may have been stimulated by higher concentrations of CO2 as well as warming in recent decades, but the role of such specific mechanisms has not been quantified and they have been unable to explain the full range and magnitude of observations. Here we suggest another potential driver of the increased seasonal amplitude: the intensification of agriculture from the Green Revolution to feed a rising population, that led to a 3-fold increase in world crop production over the last 5 decades. Our analysis of CO2 data and atmospheric inversions shows a robust 15% long-term increase in CO2 seasonal amplitude from 1961 to 2010 that is punctuated by large decadal and interannual variations. The three pillars of the Green Revolution, consisting of high yield cultivars, fertilizer use, and irrigation, are represented in a terrestrial carbon cycle model. The results reveal that the long-term increase in CO2 seasonal amplitude arises from two major regions in the NH: the mid-latitude cropland between 25N-60N that encompasses the world's major agriculture zones in Asia, Europe and North America, and the high-latitude natural vegetation between 50N-70N that includes much of the Northern boreal forests, tundra and some deciduous forests. The long-term trend of seasonal amplitude is 0.3% per year, of which sensitivity experiments attribute 43% to land use change, 31% to climate variability and change, and 26% to CO2 fertilization. Our results suggest that human

  9. The Skills Revolution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pring, Richard

    2004-01-01

    The government, through several White and Green Papers, has promoted the 'Skills Revolution'. This requires central direction and coordination of a wide range of policies, practices and partnerships. But there are several difficulties: the impossibility of micromanaging the complex social and economic system; the dominance of the rather limited…

  10. A novel human polyomavirus closely related to the african green monkey-derived lymphotropic polyomavirus.

    PubMed

    Scuda, Nelly; Hofmann, Jörg; Calvignac-Spencer, Sébastien; Ruprecht, Klemens; Liman, Peter; Kühn, Joachim; Hengel, Hartmut; Ehlers, Bernhard

    2011-05-01

    We identified a novel human polyomavirus from a kidney transplant patient under immunosuppressive treatment, by use of a generic PCR. The genome of the virus was completely amplified and sequenced. In phylogenetic analyses, it appeared as the closest relative to the African green monkey-derived lymphotropic polyomavirus (LPV). Further investigation of clinical samples from immunocompromised patients with specific nested PCR revealed additional positive samples, indicating that the virus naturally infects humans. The virus was tentatively named human polyomavirus 9 (HPyV9). The previously observed seroreactivity to LPV in human populations might find a partial explanation in the circulation of HPyV9.

  11. Tropical storm activity enhanced by Sahara greening and reduced dust emissions during the African Humid Period

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pausata, Francesco S. R.; Emanuel, Kerry; Chiacchio, Marc; Diro, Gulilat T.; Zhang, Qiong; Sushama, Laxmi; Stager, J. Curt; Donnelly, Jeffrey P.

    2017-04-01

    Tropical cyclones (TCs) have devastating socioeconomic impacts and understanding the nature and causes of their natural variability is of paramount importance for society. However, historical records of TCs are too short to fully characterize such changes and paleo-sediment archives of Holocene TC activity are still very few both temporally and geographically. Here we investigate global TC activity during a warm climate state (mid-Holocene, 6,000 yr BP) characterized by increased boreal summer insolation, vegetated Sahara, and reduced dust emissions. We analyze a set of sensitivity experiments in which not only solar insolation changes are varied but also prescribed vegetation and dust concentrations. Our results show that the greening of the Sahara and reduced dust lead to more favorable conditions for tropical storm development compared to the orbital forcing alone. In particular, the strengthening of the West African Monsoon induced by the greening of the Sahara triggers a change in atmospheric circulation that embraces the entire tropics. Furthermore, while stronger boreal summer insolation and hence warmer sea surface temperature may actually lower TC activity in the Northern Hemisphere as shown in previous studies, accounting for the Sahara greening and its associated reduction in dust emissions leads instead to an increase of TC activity in both hemispheres, particularly over the Caribbean basin and east coast of North America. Our study highlights the importance of regional changes in land cover and dust concentrations in affecting the potential intensity and genesis of TCs, and suggests the roles they might play in a future warmer climate.

  12. An outbreak of Yersinia enterocolitica in a captive colony of African green monkeys (Chlorocebus aethiops sabaeus) in the Caribbean

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Yersinia enterocolitica is a zoonotic gram-negative pathogen that causes mesenteric lymphadenitis, terminal ileitis, acute gastroenteritis, and septicemia in domestic animals and primates. In 2012, 46 captive African green monkeys (Chlorocebus aethiops sabaeus) died during an outbreak of acutely fat...

  13. Early cytoplasmic vacuolization of African green monkey kidney cells by SV40.

    PubMed

    Miyamura, T; Kitahara, T

    1975-01-01

    As early as 3--4 hours after infection with SV40 at a high input multiplicity, African green monkey (Cercopithecus aethiops) kidney (AGMK) cells developed cytoplasmic vacuolization. At 10--20 hours after infection, the vacuolization reached its maximal level, then disappeared and SV40 specific cytopathic change followed. This vacuolization developed before the synthesis of the specific T and V antigens. This early cytoplasmic vacuolization (ECV) was prevented by preincubating the virus with specific antiserum, or by heating the virus with MgCl2. The ECV could be induced by UV-irradiated SV40. Addition of metabolic inhibitors had no effect on the induction of the ECV. These results suggest that the capacity to induce the ECV resides in a structural component(s) of SV40 virion and the vacuolization is not associated with the replication of SV40.

  14. Nucleosome arrangement in alpha-satellite chromatin of African green monkey cells.

    PubMed Central

    Smith, M R; Lieberman, M W

    1984-01-01

    By analyzing the accessibility of restriction endonuclease sites in African green monkey alpha-satellite chromatin, we demonstrate the absence of a unique phase relationship between nucleosomes and alpha-satellite DNA. The data indicate a minimum of three different positions for nucleosome cores relative to the alpha-satellite sequence and suggest a random distribution in at least some regions. In addition, while we confirm published reports that staphylococcal nuclease cuts the alpha-satellite sequence in chromatin at a highly preferred site, two-dimensional gel electrophoresis of nuclear digests demonstrates that this site is preferentially cut by staphylococcal nuclease even when it is within the nucleosome core. These data indicate that staphylococcal nuclease is not useful for determining nucleosome positions on alpha-satellite DNA, and perhaps on other specific DNA sequences as well. Images PMID:6089117

  15. Arabidopsis semidwarfs evolved from independent mutations in GA20ox1, ortholog to green revolution dwarf alleles in rice and barley

    PubMed Central

    Barboza, Luis; Effgen, Sigi; Alonso-Blanco, Carlos; Kooke, Rik; Keurentjes, Joost J. B.; Koornneef, Maarten; Alcázar, Rubén

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the genetic bases of natural variation for developmental and stress-related traits is a major goal of current plant biology. Variation in plant hormone levels and signaling might underlie such phenotypic variation occurring even within the same species. Here we report the genetic and molecular basis of semidwarf individuals found in natural Arabidopsis thaliana populations. Allelism tests demonstrate that independent loss-of-function mutations at GA locus 5 (GA5), which encodes gibberellin 20-oxidase 1 (GA20ox1) involved in the last steps of gibberellin biosynthesis, are found in different populations from southern, western, and northern Europe; central Asia; and Japan. Sequencing of GA5 identified 21 different loss-of-function alleles causing semidwarfness without any obvious general tradeoff affecting plant performance traits. GA5 shows signatures of purifying selection, whereas GA5 loss-of-function alleles can also exhibit patterns of positive selection in specific populations as shown by Fay and Wu’s H statistics. These results suggest that antagonistic pleiotropy might underlie the occurrence of GA5 loss-of-function mutations in nature. Furthermore, because GA5 is the ortholog of rice SD1 and barley Sdw1/Denso green revolution genes, this study illustrates the occurrence of conserved adaptive evolution between wild A.thaliana and domesticated plants. PMID:24023067

  16. Induced Variations in Brassinosteroid Genes Define Barley Height and Sturdiness, and Expand the Green Revolution Genetic Toolkit1[C][W][OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Dockter, Christoph; Gruszka, Damian; Braumann, Ilka; Druka, Arnis; Druka, Ilze; Franckowiak, Jerome; Gough, Simon P.; Janeczko, Anna; Kurowska, Marzena; Lundqvist, Joakim; Lundqvist, Udda; Marzec, Marek; Matyszczak, Izabela; Müller, André H.; Oklestkova, Jana; Schulz, Burkhard; Zakhrabekova, Shakhira; Hansson, Mats

    2014-01-01

    Reduced plant height and culm robustness are quantitative characteristics important for assuring cereal crop yield and quality under adverse weather conditions. A very limited number of short-culm mutant alleles were introduced into commercial crop cultivars during the Green Revolution. We identified phenotypic traits, including sturdy culm, specific for deficiencies in brassinosteroid biosynthesis and signaling in semidwarf mutants of barley (Hordeum vulgare). This set of characteristic traits was explored to perform a phenotypic screen of near-isogenic short-culm mutant lines from the brachytic, breviaristatum, dense spike, erectoides, semibrachytic, semidwarf, and slender dwarf mutant groups. In silico mapping of brassinosteroid-related genes in the barley genome in combination with sequencing of barley mutant lines assigned more than 20 historic mutants to three brassinosteroid-biosynthesis genes (BRASSINOSTEROID-6-OXIDASE, CONSTITUTIVE PHOTOMORPHOGENIC DWARF, and DIMINUTO) and one brassinosteroid-signaling gene (BRASSINOSTEROID-INSENSITIVE1 [HvBRI1]). Analyses of F2 and M2 populations, allelic crosses, and modeling of nonsynonymous amino acid exchanges in protein crystal structures gave a further understanding of the control of barley plant architecture and sturdiness by brassinosteroid-related genes. Alternatives to the widely used but highly temperature-sensitive uzu1.a allele of HvBRI1 represent potential genetic building blocks for breeding strategies with sturdy and climate-tolerant barley cultivars. PMID:25332507

  17. Using microbial community interactions within plant microbiomes to advance an evergreen agricultural revolution

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Innovative plant breeding and technology transfer fostered the Green Revolution, which transformed agriculture worldwide by increasing grain yields in developing countries. The Green Revolution temporarily alleviated world hunger, but also reduced biodiversity, nutrient cycling, and carbon sequestr...

  18. Tropical cyclone activity enhanced by Sahara greening and reduced dust emissions during the African Humid Period

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pausata, Francesco S. R.; Emanuel, Kerry A.; Chiacchio, Marc; Diro, Gulilat T.; Zhang, Qiong; Sushama, Laxmi; Stager, J. Curt; Donnelly, Jeffrey P.

    2017-06-01

    Tropical cyclones (TCs) can have devastating socioeconomic impacts. Understanding the nature and causes of their variability is of paramount importance for society. However, historical records of TCs are too short to fully characterize such changes and paleo-sediment archives of Holocene TC activity are temporally and geographically sparse. Thus, it is of interest to apply physical modeling to understanding TC variability under different climate conditions. Here we investigate global TC activity during a warm climate state (mid-Holocene, 6,000 yBP) characterized by increased boreal summer insolation, a vegetated Sahara, and reduced dust emissions. We analyze a set of sensitivity experiments in which not only solar insolation changes are varied but also vegetation and dust concentrations. Our results show that the greening of the Sahara and reduced dust loadings lead to more favorable conditions for tropical cyclone development compared with the orbital forcing alone. In particular, the strengthening of the West African Monsoon induced by the Sahara greening triggers a change in atmospheric circulation that affects the entire tropics. Furthermore, whereas previous studies suggest lower TC activity despite stronger summer insolation and warmer sea surface temperature in the Northern Hemisphere, accounting for the Sahara greening and reduced dust concentrations leads instead to an increase of TC activity in both hemispheres, particularly over the Caribbean basin and East Coast of North America. Our study highlights the importance of regional changes in land cover and dust concentrations in affecting the potential intensity and genesis of past TCs and suggests that both factors may have appreciable influence on TC activity in a future warmer climate.

  19. Tropical cyclone activity enhanced by Sahara greening and reduced dust emissions during the African Humid Period.

    PubMed

    Pausata, Francesco S R; Emanuel, Kerry A; Chiacchio, Marc; Diro, Gulilat T; Zhang, Qiong; Sushama, Laxmi; Stager, J Curt; Donnelly, Jeffrey P

    2017-06-13

    Tropical cyclones (TCs) can have devastating socioeconomic impacts. Understanding the nature and causes of their variability is of paramount importance for society. However, historical records of TCs are too short to fully characterize such changes and paleo-sediment archives of Holocene TC activity are temporally and geographically sparse. Thus, it is of interest to apply physical modeling to understanding TC variability under different climate conditions. Here we investigate global TC activity during a warm climate state (mid-Holocene, 6,000 yBP) characterized by increased boreal summer insolation, a vegetated Sahara, and reduced dust emissions. We analyze a set of sensitivity experiments in which not only solar insolation changes are varied but also vegetation and dust concentrations. Our results show that the greening of the Sahara and reduced dust loadings lead to more favorable conditions for tropical cyclone development compared with the orbital forcing alone. In particular, the strengthening of the West African Monsoon induced by the Sahara greening triggers a change in atmospheric circulation that affects the entire tropics. Furthermore, whereas previous studies suggest lower TC activity despite stronger summer insolation and warmer sea surface temperature in the Northern Hemisphere, accounting for the Sahara greening and reduced dust concentrations leads instead to an increase of TC activity in both hemispheres, particularly over the Caribbean basin and East Coast of North America. Our study highlights the importance of regional changes in land cover and dust concentrations in affecting the potential intensity and genesis of past TCs and suggests that both factors may have appreciable influence on TC activity in a future warmer climate.

  20. Seroprevalence of Zika Virus in Wild African Green Monkeys and Baboons.

    PubMed

    Buechler, Connor R; Bailey, Adam L; Weiler, Andrea M; Barry, Gabrielle L; Breitbach, Meghan E; Stewart, Laurel M; Jasinska, Anna J; Freimer, Nelson B; Apetrei, Cristian; Phillips-Conroy, Jane E; Jolly, Clifford J; Rogers, Jeffrey; Friedrich, Thomas C; O'Connor, David H

    2017-01-01

    Zika virus (ZIKV) has recently spread through the Americas and has been associated with a range of health effects, including birth defects in children born to women infected during pregnancy. Although the natural reservoir of ZIKV remains poorly defined, the virus was first identified in a captive "sentinel" macaque monkey in Africa in 1947. However, the virus has not been reported in humans or nonhuman primates (NHPs) in Africa outside Gabon in over a decade. Here, we examine ZIKV infection in 239 wild baboons and African green monkeys from South Africa, the Gambia, Tanzania, and Zambia using combinations of unbiased deep sequencing, quantitative reverse transcription-PCR (qRT-PCR), and an antibody capture assay that we optimized using serum collected from captive macaque monkeys exposed to ZIKV, dengue virus, and yellow fever virus. While we did not find evidence of active ZIKV infection in wild NHPs in Africa, we found variable ZIKV seropositivity of up to 16% in some of the NHP populations sampled. We anticipate that these results and the methodology described within will help in continued efforts to determine the prevalence, natural reservoir, and transmission dynamics of ZIKV in Africa and elsewhere. IMPORTANCE Zika virus (ZIKV) is a mosquito-borne virus originally discovered in a captive monkey living in the Zika Forest of Uganda, Africa, in 1947. Recently, an outbreak in South America has shown that ZIKV infection can cause myriad health effects, including birth defects in the children of women infected during pregnancy. Here, we sought to investigate ZIKV infection in wild African primates to better understand its emergence and spread, looking for evidence of active or prior infection. Our results suggest that up to 16% of some populations of nonhuman primate were, at some point, exposed to ZIKV. We anticipate that this study will be useful for future studies that examine the spread of infections from wild animals to humans in general and those studying

  1. Multispecies Epidemiologic Surveillance Study after an Outbreak of Yersiniosis at an African Green Monkey Research Facility.

    PubMed

    Soto, Esteban; Loftis, Amanda; Boruta, Daniel; Rostad, Sara; Beierschmitt, Amy; McCoy, Matthew; Francis, Stewart; Berezowski, John; Illanes, Oscar; Recinos, Diego; Arauz, Maziel; Spencer, Dustine; Fraites, Trellor; Palmour, Roberta

    2015-12-01

    After an outbreak of Yersinia enterocolitica at a NHP research facility, we performed a multispecies investigation of the prevalence of Yersinia spp. in various mammals that resided or foraged on the grounds of the facility, to better understand the epizootiology of yersiniosis. Blood samples and fecal and rectal swabs were obtained from 105 captive African green monkeys (AGM), 12 feral cats, 2 dogs, 20 mice, 12 rats, and 3 mongooses. Total DNA extracted from swab suspensions served as template for the detection of Y. enterocolitica DNA by real-time PCR. Neither Y. enterocolitica organisms nor their DNA were detected from any of these samples. However, Western blotting revealed the presence of Yersinia antibodies in plasma. The AGM samples revealed a seroprevalence of 91% for Yersinia spp. and of 61% for Y. enterocolitica specifically. The AGM that were housed in cages where at least one fatality occurred during the outbreak (clinical group) had similar seroprevalence to that of AGM housed in unaffected cages (nonclinical group). However, the nonclinical group was older than the clinical group. In addition, 25%, 100%, 33%, 10%, and 10% of the sampled local cats, dogs, mongooses, rats, and mice, respectively, were seropositive. The high seroprevalence after this outbreak suggests that Y. enterocolitica was transmitted effectively through the captive AGM population and that age was an important risk factor for disease. Knowledge regarding local environmental sources of Y. enterocolitica and the possible role of wildlife in the maintenance of yersiniosis is necessary to prevent and manage this disease.

  2. Translation of adenovirus 2 late mRNAs microinjected into cultured African green monkey kidney cells

    SciTech Connect

    Richardson, W.D.; Anderson, C.W.

    1984-08-01

    Adenovirus 2-infected monkey cells fail to synthesize fiber, a 62,000 M/sub r/ virion polypeptide expressed at late times in productively infected cells. Yet these cells contain fiber mRNA that, after isolation, can be translated in vitro. The reason for the failure of monkey cells to translate fiber mRNA has been approached by microinjecting adenovirus mRNA into the cytoplasm of cultured monkey cells. Late adenovirus 2 mRNA, isolated from infected HeLa cells, was efficiently expressed when microinjected into the African green monkey kidney cell line CV-C. Expressed viral proteins identified by immunoprecipitation included the adenovirus fiber polypeptide. This result demonstrates that the monkey cell translational apparatus is capable of recognizing and expressing functional adenovirus mRNA. Microinjection of late virus mRNA into cells previously infected with wild-type adenovirus 2 failed to increase significantly the yield of infectious virus. 26 references, 2 figures, 1 table.

  3. Serum Biomarkers Reveal Long-term Cardiac Injury in Isoproterenol-treated African Green Monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yashu; Parman, Toufan; Schneider, Bridget; Song, Benben; Galande, Amit; Anderson, Dave; Mirsalis, Jon

    2013-01-01

    The assessment of cardiac toxicity is a major challenge in both drug development and clinical trials, and numerous marketed pharmaceuticals have been removed from the market due to unpredicted cardiac effects. Serum troponins are widely-used indicators of cardiac injury; however, they are short-lived, and have not been validated in preclinical animal models. In this study, we have used filter-aided sample preparation (FASP) and tandem mass tag (TMT) labeling to investigate serum protein alterations in isoproterenol-treated African green monkeys. Our results showed that the combination of FASP and TMT labeling provided highly reproducible and efficient sample preparation, which enables us to identify and quantify serum proteins with high confidence. We focused on the proteins that exhibit long-term alteration upon isoproterenol injection and discovered nine proteins exhibiting significant changes at 48 and 72 hr post-dosing. We further chose three proteins, serum amyloid A (SAA), frutose biphosphate aldolase A (FBAA), and fetuin A, for validation using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The serum concentration of SAA showed a ~50 fold increase, while concentration of FBAA and fetuin A exhibited a significant decrease accompanying isoproterenol-induced cardiotoxicity. This work provides valuable insights for multi-marker evaluation of long-term cardiac injury. PMID:23473367

  4. Efficiency of isolation of human rotavirus in primary African green monkey kidney cells.

    PubMed

    Aboudy, Y; Shif, I; Silberstein, I; Gotlieb-Stematsky, T

    1989-09-01

    Out of 212 human rotavirus (HRV) containing fecal specimens, 173 (81.6%) yielded virus on first passage in primary African Green monkey kidney cells (AGMK), while additional 34 specimens, did not yield virus on first passage. However, following blind passages, 18 of the 34 yielded virus in passage levels 2-8, thus raising the overall isolation rate to 90.1%. The isolation rate of HRV strains obtained in embryonic Rhesus monkey kidney cell line (MA-104), was only 41.4%. ELISA tests performed on fluids from infected cell cultures proved to be an efficient tool to measure virus replication. No differences were encountered in the isolation rates between subgroup I and II strains, while viruses lacking the antigenic determinants of both subgroups did not grow at all. However, one of those unusual group A strains was isolated and grew well in AGMK cells. Primary AGMK and MA-104 cells supported the growth of tissue culture adapted virus most efficiently when compared with six human and primate cell types.

  5. Determination of threshold adverse effect doses of percutaneous VX exposure in African green monkeys.

    PubMed

    Genovese, Raymond F; Benton, Bernard J; Oubre, John L; Byers, Christopher E; Jakubowski, E Michael; Mioduszewski, Robert J; Settle, Timothy J; Steinbach, Thomas J

    2011-01-11

    Percutaneous exposure to the chemical warfare nerve agent VX was evaluated in African green monkeys (n=9). Doses of VX (7.5-100 μg/kg) were applied to the skin for 60 min and residual agent was quantified (before decontamination) to estimate the absorbed dose. Monkeys were evaluated for the presence or absence of clinical signs of toxicity and blood was sampled periodically (30 min--12 weeks) following exposure to measure the degree of circulating acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibition. Monkeys were also evaluated for behavioral changes from VX exposure using a serial probe recognition (SPR) task. The lowest observable adverse effect level (LOAEL) for the production of major clinical signs was determined to be 42.22 μg/kg (absorbed dose estimate=17.36 μg/kg) and the LOAEL for AChE inhibition was 13.33 μg/kg (absorbed dose estimate=6.53 μg/kg). Behavioral performance was unaffected at doses that, while producing substantial AChE inhibition, did not produce clinical signs. VX represents a substantial threat as a contact hazard and these results complement previous studies using the percutaneous route of exposure with VX and extend the findings to a non-human primate species.

  6. Whole-body Plethysmography in African Green Monkeys (Chlorocebus aethiops) with and without Jackets

    PubMed Central

    Foster, Chad D; Hunter, Ty C; Gibbs, Paul H; Leffel, Elizabeth K

    2008-01-01

    Indwelling central venous catheters are often used to facilitate frequent phlebotomy while minimizing stress and anesthetic effects on animals. However, nonhuman primates with central venous catheters must wear protective jackets. Jackets routinely are removed for aerosol exposure to agents and respiratory measurements by whole-body plethysmography (WBP) because of the potentially confounding effects of jackets on these procedures. However, removing the jacket may dislodge the catheter, making it unusable. Using each animal as its own control, we tested 12 African green monkeys to determine whether minute volume, tidal volume, respiratory rate, or accumulated volume measurements by WBP differed depending on whether the animal wore a protective jacket or not. We found no statistical differences in any measured respiratory parameter and concluded that the jackets could be left in place on the animal while undergoing plethysmography without compromising the calculations for determining the inhaled dose of aerosolized agent. In addition, this study revealed no obvious contraindications to leaving the jacket in place in other nonhuman primate species, provided that the jacket fits appropriately and that plethysmography is performed correctly. PMID:18947172

  7. Aerosolized Rift Valley Fever Virus Causes Fatal Encephalitis in African Green Monkeys and Common Marmosets

    PubMed Central

    Hartman, Amy L.; Powell, Diana S.; Bethel, Laura M.; Caroline, Amy L.; Schmid, Richard J.; Oury, Tim

    2013-01-01

    Rift Valley fever (RVF) is a veterinary and human disease in Africa and the Middle East. The causative agent, RVF virus (RVFV), can be naturally transmitted by mosquito, direct contact, or aerosol. We sought to develop a nonhuman primate (NHP) model of severe RVF in humans to better understand the pathogenesis of RVF and to use for evaluation of medical countermeasures. NHP from four different species were exposed to aerosols containing RVFV. Both cynomolgus and rhesus macaques developed mild fevers after inhalation of RVFV, but no other clinical signs were noted and no macaque succumbed to RVFV infection. In contrast, both marmosets and African green monkeys (AGM) proved susceptible to aerosolized RVF virus. Fever onset was earlier with the marmosets and had a biphasic pattern similar to what has been reported in humans. Beginning around day 8 to day 10 postexposure, clinical signs consistent with encephalitis were noted in both AGM and marmosets; animals of both species succumbed between days 9 and 11 postexposure. Marmosets were susceptible to lower doses of RVFV than AGM. Histological examination confirmed viral meningoencephalitis in both species. Hematological analyses indicated a drop in platelet counts in both AGM and marmosets suggestive of thrombosis, as well as leukocytosis that consisted mostly of granulocytes. Both AGM and marmosets would serve as useful models of aerosol infection with RVFV. PMID:24335307

  8. Sequence specific cleavage of African green monkey alpha-satellite DNA by micrococcal nuclease.

    PubMed

    Hörz, W; Fittler, F; Zachau, H G

    1983-07-11

    The sequence specificity of micrococcal nuclease complicates its use in experiments addressed to the still controversial issue of nucleosome phasing. In the case of alpha-satellite DNA containing chromatin from African green monkey (AGM) cells cleavage by micrococcal nuclease in the nucleus was reported to occur predominantly at only one location around position 126 of the satellite repeat unit (Musich et al. (1982) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 79, 118-122). DNA control experiments conducted in the same study indicated the presence of many preferential cleavage sites for micrococcal nuclease on the 172 bp long alpha-satellite repeat unit. This difference was taken as evidence for a direct and simple phase relationship between the alpha-satellite DNA sequence and the position of the nucleosomes on the DNA. We have quantitatively analyzed the digestion products of the protein-free satellite monomer with micrococcal nuclease and found that 50% of all cuts occur at positions 123 and 132, 5% at position 79, and to a level of 1-3% at about 20 other positions. We also digested high molecular weight alpha-satellite DNA from AGM nuclei with micrococcal nuclease. Again cleavage occurred mostly at positions 123 and 132 of the satellite repeat unit. Thus digestion of free DNA yields results very similar to those reported by Musich et al. for the digestion of chromatin. Therefore no conclusions on a possible phase relationship can be drawn from the chromatin digestion experiments.

  9. Extensive genetic variability of simian immunodeficiency virus from African green monkeys.

    PubMed Central

    Li, Y; Naidu, Y M; Daniel, M D; Desrosiers, R C

    1989-01-01

    Serological surveys have revealed that 30 to 50% of wild-caught African green monkeys have antibodies reactive to simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV), a retrovirus related to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Although the nucleotide sequence of one SIVagm isolate, Tyo1, was recently reported, the extent of genetic variability among SIVagm isolates remains to be determined. Restriction endonuclease mapping of infectious molecular clones of two SIVagm isolates (266 and 385), described in this note, revealed conservation of only 4 of 39 sites across the genome. Partial sequence analysis of the molecular clones revealed only 80% amino acid sequence conservation in the pol gene. Although the three Kenyan SIVagm isolates, Tyo1, 385, and 266, are more closely related to each other than to other primate lentiviruses, genetic variation among these three isolates is much greater than that observed previously among individual HIV type 1 (HIV-1), HIV-2, or SIVmac isolates. Less variability among HIV-1 and HIV-2 isolates could be explained by recent entry into the human population. The extensive genetic variation in these Kenyan SIVagm isolates should prompt continued examination of SIVagm variability from dispersed geographic regions; SIVagm strains much more closely related to HIV-1, HIV-2, or SIVmac which would be reasonable candidates for recent cross-species transmission may be found. PMID:2467010

  10. A Hendra Virus G Glycoprotein Subunit Vaccine Protects African Green Monkeys from Nipah Virus Challenge

    PubMed Central

    Bossart, Katharine N.; Rockx, Barry; Feldmann, Friederike; Brining, Doug; Scott, Dana; LaCasse, Rachel; Geisbert, Joan B.; Feng, Yan-Ru; Chan, Yee-Peng; Hickey, Andrew C.; Broder, Christopher C.; Feldmann, Heinz; Geisbert, Thomas W.

    2012-01-01

    In the 1990s, Hendra virus and Nipah virus (NiV), two closely related and previously unrecognized paramyxoviruses that cause severe disease and death in humans and a variety of animals, were discovered in Australia and Malaysia, respectively. Outbreaks of disease have occurred nearly every year since NiV was first discovered, with case fatality ranging from 10 to 100%. In the African green monkey (AGM), NiV causes a severe lethal respiratory and/or neurological disease that essentially mirrors fatal human disease. Thus, the AGM represents a reliable disease model for vaccine and therapeutic efficacy testing. We show that vaccination of AGMs with a recombinant subunit vaccine based on the henipavirus attachment G glycoprotein affords complete protection against subsequent NiV infection with no evidence of clinical disease, virus replication, or pathology observed in any challenged subjects. Success of the recombinant subunit vaccine in nonhuman primates provides crucial data in supporting its further preclinical development for potential human use. PMID:22875827

  11. Natural History of Inhalation Melioidosis in Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta) and African Green Monkeys (Chlorocebus aethiops)

    PubMed Central

    Facemire, Paul; Dabisch, Paul A.; Robinson, Camenzind G.; Nyakiti, David; Beck, Katie; Baker, Reese; Pitt, M. Louise M.

    2012-01-01

    Burkholderia pseudomallei, the causative agent of melioidosis, is recognized as a serious health threat due to its involvement in septic and pulmonary infections in areas of endemicity and is recognized by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention as a category B biothreat agent. An animal model is desirable to evaluate the pathogenesis of melioidosis and medical countermeasures. A model system that represents human melioidosis infections is essential in this process. A group of 10 rhesus macaques (RMs) and 10 African green monkeys (AGMs) was exposed to aerosolized B. pseudomallei 1026b. The first clinical signs were fever developing 24 to 40 h postexposure followed by leukocytosis resulting from a high percentage of neutrophils. Dyspnea manifested 2 to 4 days postexposure. In the AGMs, an increase in interleukin 1β (IL-1β), IL-6, IL-8, gamma interferon (IFN-γ), and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) was observed. In the RMs, IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α increased. All the RMs and AGMs had various degrees of bronchopneumonia, with inflammation consisting of numerous neutrophils and a moderate number of macrophages. Both the RMs and the AGMs appear to develop a melioidosis infection that closely resembles that seen in acute human melioidosis. However, for an evaluation of medical countermeasures, AGMs appear to be a more appropriate model. PMID:22778104

  12. Multispecies Epidemiologic Surveillance Study after an Outbreak of Yersiniosis at an African Green Monkey Research Facility

    PubMed Central

    Soto, Esteban; Loftis, Amanda; Boruta, Daniel; Rostad, Sara; Beierschmitt, Amy; McCoy, Matthew; Francis, Stewart; Berezowski, John; Illanes, Oscar; Recinos, Diego; Arauz, Maziel; Spencer, Dustine; Fraites, Trellor; Palmour, Roberta

    2015-01-01

    After an outbreak of Yersinia enterocolitica at a NHP research facility, we performed a multispecies investigation of the prevalence of Yersinia spp. in various mammals that resided or foraged on the grounds of the facility, to better understand the epizootiology of yersiniosis. Blood samples and fecal and rectal swabs were obtained from 105 captive African green monkeys (AGM), 12 feral cats, 2 dogs, 20 mice, 12 rats, and 3 mongooses. Total DNA extracted from swab suspensions served as template for the detection of Y. enterocolitica DNA by real-time PCR. Neither Y. enterocolitica organisms nor their DNA were detected from any of these samples. However, Western blotting revealed the presence of Yersinia antibodies in plasma. The AGM samples revealed a seroprevalence of 91% for Yersinia spp. and of 61% for Y. enterocolitica specifically. The AGM that were housed in cages where at least one fatality occurred during the outbreak (clinical group) had similar seroprevalence to that of AGM housed in unaffected cages (nonclinical group). However, the nonclinical group was older than the clinical group. In addition, 25%, 100%, 33%, 10%, and 10% of the sampled local cats, dogs, mongooses, rats, and mice, respectively, were seropositive. The high seroprevalence after this outbreak suggests that Y. enterocolitica was transmitted effectively through the captive AGM population and that age was an important risk factor for disease. Knowledge regarding local environmental sources of Y. enterocolitica and the possible role of wildlife in the maintenance of yersiniosis is necessary to prevent and manage this disease. PMID:26678370

  13. On Revolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lutz, William, Ed.; Brent, Harry, Ed.

    By bringing together many substantive yet disparate views on revolution, this book attempts to treat this rather emotional subject in a serious and objective manner. It attempts to bring history to bear on the modern radical scene by presenting the ideas of Marx, Lenin, Trotsky, Stalin, Mao Tse-tung, and others, along with those of modern…

  14. On Revolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lutz, William, Ed.; Brent, Harry, Ed.

    By bringing together many substantive yet disparate views on revolution, this book attempts to treat this rather emotional subject in a serious and objective manner. It attempts to bring history to bear on the modern radical scene by presenting the ideas of Marx, Lenin, Trotsky, Stalin, Mao Tse-tung, and others, along with those of modern…

  15. Salient beliefs about eating and buying dark green vegetables as told by Mid-western African-American women.

    PubMed

    Sheats, Jylana L; Middlestadt, Susan E

    2013-06-01

    Vegetables in the dark green group are the most nutritious, yet intake is low. Studies suggest that an increase in fruit and vegetables may improve diet-related health outcomes of African Americans. The aim of this exploratory study was to use the Reasoned Action Approach (RAA) to qualitatively assess salient, top-of-the-mind, beliefs (consequences, circumstances and referents) about eating and buying more dark green leafy vegetables each week over the next 3months. Adult (n=30), Midwestern African-American women, who buy and prepare food for their household participated in a face-to-face salient belief elicitation. A content analysis of verbatim text and a descriptive analysis were conducted. Findings suggest that the RAA can be used to identify salient consequences, circumstances and referents about eating and buying more dark green leafy vegetables. The use of the RAA allowed for the extraction of specific beliefs that may aid in the development of nutrition education programs that consider the varying priorities, motivators and barriers that subgroups within the population have in regard to buying and consuming dark green leafy vegetables. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Remedial Measures for Counterbalancing the After Effects of Green Revolution on the Georesources of Groundwater, Land and Soil in Haryana, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, A.; Lunkad, S. K.

    2008-05-01

    In Haryana, one of the wheat granaries of India where water resources have depleted to a critical level (1050 m3 /year/person), groundwater alone has 53% share in the irrigation, the remaining 47% comes from canal system of glacier-fed rivers, viz., Yamuna and Satluj originating from Himalayas. The Green Revolution (1971-1990, intensive phase) enabled this small state to become an agro-economic state in northern alluvial plains of India. Though occupying 1.3 % geographical area and containing 2% of the population of India, it produces country's 13% wheat and about 3% quality rice besides other cereals, oil seeds, sugarcane and cotton. However, Haryana paid a heavy price for the impressive agricultural development- one-third of the irrigated land is salinity affected, water level declined by 3-12 m in twelve of its nineteen districts and excessive nitrate levels in the groundwater (114-1800 mg/l) have rendered the groundwater non-potable in many areas. Groundwater in the arid western Haryana is mostly saline (TDS > 4000 mg/l) and irrational canal irrigation has paradoxically raised the water-table by 3-9m in seven districts causing waterlogging over 2346 km2 land of which 251 km2 is fully waterlogged. In the land use pattern 131,000 ha prime cultivable land (about 3% of the total) has been lost to urbanization jeopardizing the FOOD SECURITY. One possible way to arrest the degradation of groundwater and soil, is to switch to dryland farming. This would involve change in the irrigation method as well as proper selection and rotation of food crops like barley, sorghum, maize, different types of beans (pulses) and oil seeds like groundnut, sunflower, mustard, etc. and restricted use of chemical fertilizers and pesticides. Dryland farming could go hand in hand with the plantation of fruit trees, grasses and medicinal plants suitable to this agro-climatic zone, and animal husbandry. The same considerations also hold good to the adjoining eastern Rajasthan.

  17. Seroprevalence of Zika Virus in Wild African Green Monkeys and Baboons

    PubMed Central

    Buechler, Connor R.; Bailey, Adam L.; Weiler, Andrea M.; Barry, Gabrielle L.; Breitbach, Meghan E.; Stewart, Laurel M.; Jasinska, Anna J.; Freimer, Nelson B.; Apetrei, Cristian; Phillips-Conroy, Jane E.; Jolly, Clifford J.; Rogers, Jeffrey; Friedrich, Thomas C.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Zika virus (ZIKV) has recently spread through the Americas and has been associated with a range of health effects, including birth defects in children born to women infected during pregnancy. Although the natural reservoir of ZIKV remains poorly defined, the virus was first identified in a captive “sentinel” macaque monkey in Africa in 1947. However, the virus has not been reported in humans or nonhuman primates (NHPs) in Africa outside Gabon in over a decade. Here, we examine ZIKV infection in 239 wild baboons and African green monkeys from South Africa, the Gambia, Tanzania, and Zambia using combinations of unbiased deep sequencing, quantitative reverse transcription-PCR (qRT-PCR), and an antibody capture assay that we optimized using serum collected from captive macaque monkeys exposed to ZIKV, dengue virus, and yellow fever virus. While we did not find evidence of active ZIKV infection in wild NHPs in Africa, we found variable ZIKV seropositivity of up to 16% in some of the NHP populations sampled. We anticipate that these results and the methodology described within will help in continued efforts to determine the prevalence, natural reservoir, and transmission dynamics of ZIKV in Africa and elsewhere. IMPORTANCE Zika virus (ZIKV) is a mosquito-borne virus originally discovered in a captive monkey living in the Zika Forest of Uganda, Africa, in 1947. Recently, an outbreak in South America has shown that ZIKV infection can cause myriad health effects, including birth defects in the children of women infected during pregnancy. Here, we sought to investigate ZIKV infection in wild African primates to better understand its emergence and spread, looking for evidence of active or prior infection. Our results suggest that up to 16% of some populations of nonhuman primate were, at some point, exposed to ZIKV. We anticipate that this study will be useful for future studies that examine the spread of infections from wild animals to humans in general and

  18. Green Revolution in the Making.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Curtis

    1995-01-01

    This article contrasts innovations in environmental technology in Germany with a lack of invention in the United States. Policies that lead to development of markets for environmental technologies in Germany are compared to U.S. economic and environmental policies. (LZ)

  19. Green Revolution in the Making.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Curtis

    1995-01-01

    This article contrasts innovations in environmental technology in Germany with a lack of invention in the United States. Policies that lead to development of markets for environmental technologies in Germany are compared to U.S. economic and environmental policies. (LZ)

  20. Pharmacokinetics of OpdA, an organophosphorus hydrolase, in the African Green Monkey

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, Colin J; Scott, Colin; Carville, Angela; Mansfield, Keith; Ollis, David L.

    2010-01-01

    Organophosphorus (OP) pesticides are a broad class of acetylcholinesterase inhibitors that are responsible for tremendous morbidity and mortality worldwide, contributing to an estimated 300,000 deaths annually. Current pharmacotherapy for acute OP poisoning includes the use of atropine, an oxime, and benzodiazepines. However, even with such therapy, the mortality from these agents are as high as 40%. Enzymatic hydrolysis of OPs is an attractive new potential therapy for acute OP poisoning. A number of bacterial OP hydrolases have been isolated. A promising OP hydrolase is an enzyme isolated from Agrobacterium radiobacter, named OpdA. OpdA has been shown to decrease lethality in rodent models of parathion and dichlorvos poisoning. However, pharmacokinetic data have not been obtained. In this study, we examined the pharmacokinetics of OpdA in an African Green Monkey model. At a dose of 1.2 mg/kg the half-life of OpdA was approximately 40 minutes, with a mean residence time of 57 minutes. As expected, the half-life did not change with the dose of OpdA given: at doses of 0.15 and 0.45 mg/kg, the half-life of OpdA was 43.1 and 38.9 minutes, respectively. In animals subjected to 5 daily doses of OpdA, the residual activity that was measured 24 hours after each OpdA dose increased 5-fold for the 0.45 mg/kg dose and 11-fold for the 1.2 mg/kg dose. OpdA exhibits pharmacokinetics favorable for the further development as a therapy for acute OP poisoning, particularly for hydrophilic OP pesticides. Future work to increase the half-life of OpdA may be beneficial. PMID:20599794

  1. Plasmid-Chromosome Recombination of Irradiated Shuttle Vector DNA in African Green Monkey Kidney Cells.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mudgett, John Stuart

    1987-09-01

    An autonomously replicating shuttle vector was used to investigate the enhancement of plasmid-chromosome recombination in mammalian host cells by ultraviolet light and gamma radiation. Sequences homologous to the shuttle vector were stably inserted into the genome of African Green Monkey kidney cells to act as the target substrate for these recombination events. The SV40- and pBR322-derived plasmid DNA was irradiated with various doses of radiation before transfection into the transformed mammalian host cells. The successful homologous transfer of the bacterial ampicillin resistance (amp^{rm r}) gene from the inserted sequences to replace a mutant amp^->=ne on the shuttle vector was identified by plasmid extraction and transformation into E. coli host cells. Ultraviolet light (UV) was found not to induce homologous plasmid-chromosome recombination, while gamma radiation increased the frequency of recombinant plasmids detected. The introduction of specific double -strand breaks in the plasmid or prolonging the time of plasmid residence in the mammalian host cells also enhanced plasmid-chromosome recombination. In contrast, plasmid mutagenesis was found to be increased by plasmid UV irradiation, but not to change with time. Plasmid survival, recombination, and mutagenesis were not affected by treating the mammalian host cells with UV light prior to plasmid transfection. The amp^{rm r} recombinant plasmid molecules analyzed were found to be mostly the result of nonconservative exchanges which appeared to involve both homologous and possibly nonhomologous interactions with the host chromosome. The observation that these recombinant structures were obtained from all of the plasmid alterations investigated suggests a common mechanistic origin for plasmid -chromosome recombination in these mammalian cells.

  2. A neutralizing human monoclonal antibody protects African Green monkeys from Hendra virus challenge

    PubMed Central

    Bossart, Katharine N.; Geisbert, Thomas W.; Feldmann, Heinz; Zhu, Zhongyu; Feldmann, Friederike; Geisbert, Joan B.; Yan, Lianying; Feng, Yan-Ru; Brining, Doug; Scott, Dana; Wang, Yanping; Dimitrov, Antony S.; Callison, Julie; Chan, Yee-Peng; Hickey, Andrew C.; Dimitrov, Dimiter S.; Broder, Christopher C.; Rockx, Barry

    2012-01-01

    Hendra virus (HeV) is a recently emerged zoonotic paramyxovirus that can cause a severe and often fatal disease in horses and humans. HeV is categorized as a biosafety level 4 agent, which has made the development of animal models and testing of potential therapeutics and vaccines challenging. Infection of African Green monkeys (AGMs) with HeV was recently demonstrated and disease mirrored fatal HeV infection in humans, manifesting as a multisystemic vasculitis with widespread virus replication in vascular tissues and severe pathologic manifestations in the lung, spleen and brain. Here, we demonstrate that m102.4, a potent HeV neutralizing human monoclonal antibody (hmAb), can protect AGMs from disease post infection (p.i.) with HeV. Fourteen AGMs were challenged intratracheally with a lethal dose of HeV and twelve subjects were infused twice with a 100 mg dose of m102.4 beginning at either 10 hr, 24 hr or 72 hr p.i. and again approximately 48 hrs later. The presence of viral RNA, infectious virus and HeV-specific immune responses demonstrated that all subjects were infected following challenge. All twelve AGMs that received m102.4 survived infection; whereas the untreated control subjects succumbed to disease on day 8 p.i.. Animals in the 72 hr treatment group exhibited neurological signs of disease but all animals started to recover by day 16 p.i.. These results represent successful post-exposure in vivo efficacy by an investigational drug against HeV and highlight the potential impact a hmAb can have on human disease. PMID:22013123

  3. Mechanism of host restriction of adenovirus-associated virus replication in African green monkey kidney cells.

    PubMed

    Buller, R M; Straus, S E; Rose, J A

    1979-06-01

    Human adenovirus (Ad) serotypes provide an early factor(s) that is necessary for adenovirus-associated virus (AAV) multiplication in human cell lines. However, little, if any, AAV production occurs in primary African green monkey kidney (AGMK) cells co-infected with AAV and a helper human Ad (non-permissive infection), unless cells are additionally infected with SV40 (permissive infection). To determine the basis of the host restriction of AAV replication in AGMK cells, AAV DNA, RNA and protein synthesis were analyzed under various conditions of infection. Hybridization reactions revealed no detectable AAV-specific DNA or RNA in infections with AAV alone or in combination with SV40. In co-infections with AAV and Ad5 or Ad7, the synthesis of both AAV- and Ad-specific DNA and RNA occurred without a significant rise in titre of either virus. During non-permissive infection, however, AAV DNA synthesis was abnormal in that an expected accumulation of single-stranded progeny molecules was not observed. Finally, although intact 20S AAV transcripts were present in the cytoplasm of AGMK cells during non-permissive infection (in amounts ranging from 50 to 80% of that found during permissive infection), AAV-specific polypeptides were not demonstrable by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Taken together, these experiments indicate that the host restriction of AAV replication in AGMK cells is exerted at the level of translation of the single AAV messenger RNA. In addition, it appears that one or more of the AAV polypeptides specified by this message is required for the production of single-stranded AAV progeny DNA.

  4. Pair Housing of Vervets/African Green Monkeys for Biomedical Research

    PubMed Central

    Jorgensen, Matthew J.; Lambert, Kelsey R.; Breaux, Sarah D.; Baker, Kate C.; Snively, Beverly M.; Weed, James L.

    2016-01-01

    Vervets, also known as African green monkeys, are a nonhuman primate species widely used in biomedical research. However, there are currently few references available describing techniques and rates of success for pair-housing this species. We present data from four cohorts of vervets from three different facilities: (i) the Wake Forest Vervet Research Colony (VRC; n = 72 female pairs, n = 52 male pairs), (ii) the University of Louisiana at Lafayette—New Iberia Research Center (UL-NIRC; n = 57 female pairs, n = 54 male pairs), (iii) the Tulane National Primate Research Center (TNRPC; n = 18 male pairs), and (iv) a cohort of imported males (n = 18 pairs) at Wake Forest. Compatibility was measured at 14, 30, and 60 days following introduction. Success rates for pair-housing at14 days ranged from 96% to 98% for females and 96% to 100% for males at the VRC and UL-NIRC but were lower in the smaller imported male cohorts (TNPRC: 50%; WF: 28%). Among the UL-NIRC cohort and VRC male cohort, most of the pair separations after 14 days were due to reasons unrelated to social incompatibility. In contrast, a large proportion of TNPRC and imported male pairs successful at 14 days required separation within 60 days due to incompatibility. Multiple logistic regressions were performed using cohort, mean age of pair and weight difference between pair-mates as potential predictors of compatibility at 14 days. All three predicted the 14-day outcome in males but not females. A separate analysis in the VRC cohort found no evidence that prior familiarity in a group setting influenced outcomes. Variations in success rates across cohorts may have been influenced by introduction methodology. Behavioral differences between vervets and macaques, coupled with our findings, lead us to theorize that the gradual introduction techniques commonly implemented to pair house macaques may not be beneficial or suitable for this species. PMID:26539878

  5. Determination of miosis threshold from whole-body vapor exposure to sarin in African green monkeys.

    PubMed

    Genovese, Raymond F; Benton, Bernard J; Oubre, John L; Fleming, Patrick J; Jakubowski, E Michael; Mioduszewski, Robert J

    2008-02-28

    We determined the threshold concentration of sarin vapor exposure producing miosis in African green monkeys (Chlorocebus aethiops). Monkeys (n=8) were exposed to a single concentration of sarin (0.069-0.701mg/m3) for 10min. Changes in pupil size were measured from photographs taken before and after the exposure. Sarin EC50 values for miosis were determined to be 0.166mg/m3 when miosis was defined as a 50% reduction in pupil area and 0.469mg/m3 when miosis was defined as a 50% reduction in pupil diameter. Monkeys were also evaluated for behavioral changes from sarin exposure using a serial probe recognition test and performance remained essentially unchanged for all monkeys. None of the concentrations of sarin produced specific clinical signs of toxicity other than miosis. Sarin was regenerated from blood sampled following exposure in a concentration-dependent fashion. Consistent with a predominant inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE), more sarin was consistently found in RBC fractions than in plasma fractions. Further, elimination of regenerated sarin from RBC fractions was slower than from plasma fractions. Blood samples following exposure also showed concentration-dependent inhibition of AChE activity and, to a lesser extent, butyrylcholinesterase activity. At the largest exposure concentration, AChE inhibition was substantial, reducing activity to approximately 40% of baseline. The results characterize sarin exposure concentrations that produce miosis in a large primate species in the absence of other overt signs of toxicity. Further, these results extend previous studies indicating that miosis is a valid early indicator for the detection of sarin vapor exposure.

  6. Mapping of a Cellulose-Deficient Mutant Named dwarf1-1 in Sorghum bicolor to the Green Revolution Gene gibberellin20-oxidase Reveals a Positive Regulatory Association between Gibberellin and Cellulose Biosynthesis1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Petti, Carloalberto; Hirano, Ko; Stork, Jozsef; DeBolt, Seth

    2015-01-01

    Here, we show a mechanism for expansion regulation through mutations in the green revolution gene gibberellin20 (GA20)-oxidase and show that GAs control biosynthesis of the plants main structural polymer cellulose. Within a 12,000 mutagenized Sorghum bicolor plant population, we identified a single cellulose-deficient and male gametophyte-dysfunctional mutant named dwarf1-1 (dwf1-1). Through the Sorghum propinquum male/dwf1-1 female F2 population, we mapped dwf1-1 to a frameshift in GA20-oxidase. Assessment of GAs in dwf1-1 revealed ablation of GA. GA ablation was antagonistic to the expression of three specific cellulose synthase genes resulting in cellulose deficiency and growth dwarfism, which were complemented by exogenous bioactive gibberellic acid application. Using quantitative polymerase chain reaction, we found that GA was positively regulating the expression of a subset of specific cellulose synthase genes. To cross reference data from our mapped Sorghum sp. allele with another monocotyledonous plant, a series of rice (Oryza sativa) mutants involved in GA biosynthesis and signaling were isolated, and these too displayed cellulose deficit. Taken together, data support a model whereby suppressed expansion in green revolution GA genes involves regulation of cellulose biosynthesis. PMID:26198258

  7. Pair housing of Vervets/African Green Monkeys for biomedical research.

    PubMed

    Jorgensen, Matthew J; Lambert, Kelsey R; Breaux, Sarah D; Baker, Kate C; Snively, Beverly M; Weed, James L

    2017-01-01

    Vervets, also known as African green monkeys, are a nonhuman primate species widely used in biomedical research. However, there are currently few references available describing techniques and rates of success for pair-housing this species. We present data from four cohorts of vervets from three different facilities: (i) the Wake Forest Vervet Research Colony (VRC; n = 72 female pairs, n= 52 male pairs), (ii) the University of Louisiana at Lafayette-New Iberia Research Center (UL-NIRC; n = 57 female pairs, n = 54 male pairs), (iii) the Tulane National Primate Research Center (TNRPC; n = 18 male pairs), and (iv) a cohort of imported males (n = 18 pairs) at Wake Forest. Compatibility was measured at 14, 30, and 60 days following introduction. Success rates for pair-housing at 14 days ranged from 96% to 98% for females and 96% to 100% for males at the VRC and UL-NIRC but were lower in the smaller imported male cohorts (TNPRC: 50%; WF: 28%). Among the UL-NIRC cohort and VRC male cohort, most of the pair separations after 14 days were due to reasons unrelated to social incompatibility. In contrast, a large proportion of TNPRC and imported male pairs successful at 14 days required separation within 60 days due to incompatibility. Multiple logistic regressions were performed using cohort, mean age of pair and weight difference between pair-mates as potential predictors of compatibility at 14 days. All three predicted the 14-day outcome in males but not females. A separate analysis in the VRC cohort found no evidence that prior familiarity in a group setting influenced outcomes. Variations in success rates across cohorts may have been influenced by introduction methodology. Behavioral differences between vervets and macaques, coupled with our findings, lead us to theorize that the gradual introduction techniques commonly implemented to pair house macaques may not be beneficial or suitable for this species. Am. J. Primatol. 79:e22501, 2017. © 2015

  8. Impacts of dust reduction on the northward expansion of the African monsoon during the Green Sahara period

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pausata, Francesco S. R.; Messori, Gabriele; Zhang, Qiong

    2016-01-01

    The West African Monsoon (WAM) is crucial for the socio-economic stability of millions of people living in the Sahel. Severe droughts have ravaged the region in the last three decades of the 20th century, highlighting the need for a better understanding of the WAM dynamics. One of the most dramatic changes in the West African Monsoon (WAM) occurred between 15000-5000 yr BP, when increased summer rainfall led to the so-called "Green Sahara" and to a reduction in dust emissions from the region. However, model experiments are unable to fully reproduce the intensification and geographical expansion of the WAM during this period, even when vegetation over the Sahara is considered. Here, we use a fully coupled simulation for 6000 yr BP (Mid-Holocene) in which prescribed Saharan vegetation and dust concentrations are changed in turn. A closer agreement with proxy records is obtained only when both the Saharan vegetation changes and dust decrease are taken into account. The dust reduction strengthens the vegetation-albedo feedback, extending the monsoon's northern limit approximately 500 km further than the vegetation-change case only. We therefore conclude that accounting for changes in Saharan dust loadings is essential for improving model simulations of the WAM during the Mid-Holocene.

  9. Characterization of Simian Immunodeficiency Virus Variants Anatomically Compartmentalized in Plasma and Milk in Chronically Infected African Green Monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Himes, Jonathon E.; Ho, Carrie; Nguyen, Quang N.; Amos, Joshua D.; Xu, Haolin; Chan, Cliburn; Chow, Shein-Chung; Ochsenbauer, Christina; Kaidarova, Zhanna; Keating, Sheila M.; Fouda, Genevieve G.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Unlike human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-infected humans, African-origin, natural simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) hosts, such as African green monkeys (AGMs), sustain nonpathogenic SIV infections and rarely vertically transmit SIV to their infants. Interestingly, chronically SIV-infected AGMs have anatomically compartmentalized SIV variants in plasma and milk, whereas humans and SIV-infected rhesus monkeys (RMs), Asian-origin nonnatural SIV hosts, do not exhibit this compartmentalization. Thus, it is possible that AGM SIV populations in milk have unique phenotypic features that contribute to the low postnatal transmission rates observed in this natural host species. In this study, we explored this possibility by characterizing the infectivity, tropism, and neutralization susceptibility of plasma and milk SIVsab env variants isolated from chronically SIVsab92018ivTF-infected AGMs. AGM plasma and milk SIVsab env pseudovirus variants exhibited similar infectivities, neutralization susceptibilities to autologous and heterologous plasma, and chemokine coreceptor usages for cell entry, suggesting similar abilities to initiate infection in a new host. We also assessed the cytokine milieu in SIV-infected AGM milk and compared it to that of SIV-infected RMs. MIP-1β, granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF), interleukin-12/23 (IL-12/23), and IL-13 trended significantly higher in SIV-infected AGM milk than in that of RMs, while IL-18 and IL-6 trended significantly higher in SIV-infected RM milk than in that of AGMs. Taken together, our findings imply that nonviral maternal factors, such as the cytokine milieu, rather than unique characteristics of SIV populations in the milk contribute to the low postnatal transmission rates observed in AGMs. IMPORTANCE Due to the ongoing global incidence of pediatric HIV-1 infections, including many that occur via breastfeeding, development of effective vaccine strategies capable of preventing vertical HIV

  10. Characterization of Simian Immunodeficiency Virus Variants Anatomically Compartmentalized in Plasma and Milk in Chronically Infected African Green Monkeys.

    PubMed

    Himes, Jonathon E; Ho, Carrie; Nguyen, Quang N; Amos, Joshua D; Xu, Haolin; Chan, Cliburn; Chow, Shein-Chung; Ochsenbauer, Christina; Kaidarova, Zhanna; Keating, Sheila M; Fouda, Genevieve G; Permar, Sallie R

    2016-10-01

    Unlike human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-infected humans, African-origin, natural simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) hosts, such as African green monkeys (AGMs), sustain nonpathogenic SIV infections and rarely vertically transmit SIV to their infants. Interestingly, chronically SIV-infected AGMs have anatomically compartmentalized SIV variants in plasma and milk, whereas humans and SIV-infected rhesus monkeys (RMs), Asian-origin nonnatural SIV hosts, do not exhibit this compartmentalization. Thus, it is possible that AGM SIV populations in milk have unique phenotypic features that contribute to the low postnatal transmission rates observed in this natural host species. In this study, we explored this possibility by characterizing the infectivity, tropism, and neutralization susceptibility of plasma and milk SIVsab env variants isolated from chronically SIVsab92018ivTF-infected AGMs. AGM plasma and milk SIVsab env pseudovirus variants exhibited similar infectivities, neutralization susceptibilities to autologous and heterologous plasma, and chemokine coreceptor usages for cell entry, suggesting similar abilities to initiate infection in a new host. We also assessed the cytokine milieu in SIV-infected AGM milk and compared it to that of SIV-infected RMs. MIP-1β, granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF), interleukin-12/23 (IL-12/23), and IL-13 trended significantly higher in SIV-infected AGM milk than in that of RMs, while IL-18 and IL-6 trended significantly higher in SIV-infected RM milk than in that of AGMs. Taken together, our findings imply that nonviral maternal factors, such as the cytokine milieu, rather than unique characteristics of SIV populations in the milk contribute to the low postnatal transmission rates observed in AGMs. Due to the ongoing global incidence of pediatric HIV-1 infections, including many that occur via breastfeeding, development of effective vaccine strategies capable of preventing vertical HIV transmission through

  11. Simulating Quaternary African Environments and the Green Sahara through dynamic coupling of Land Surface and Atmospheric models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farrow, Aidan; Singarayer, Joy; Valdes, Paul

    2010-05-01

    Paleoclimate records from Late Quaternary Africa imply rapid and spatially complex shifts between wet and dry conditions. There is abundant evidence that during numerous incursions in the past the extent of deserts, lakes and rivers is not static. In this work we use an asynchronously coupled atmosphere and vegetation model to investigate our current ability to model Quaternary Africa. We iterate the vegetation scheme BIOME with the Hadley Centre model and explore the changing relationship between African vegetation and climate over the last deglaciation. During the last deglaciation large amplitude perturbations of the African climate occurred, linked to orbitally forced changes in monsoon strength. Beginning and ending abruptly 7000 and 4000 years BP, a widespread greening of the Sahara is recorded in numerous paleoclimate archives. This greening represents the largest anomaly in the atmosphere-biosphere system in the last 12,000 years. Atmospheric models alone have failed to reproduce the extent of humidity change. Work by Claussen (1994) and Claussen and Gayler (1997) made large leaps forward by incorporating a dynamic vegetation model into simulations of the African Quaternary. Their work suggests that under some conditions multiple equilibria may exist in the atmosphere-biosphere system, providing a mechanism for rapid change. In this work we apply a similar method to an extensive suite of time slices from the last glacial maximum to the present. We investigate how the role of surface feedbacks in the climate system change through time by employing the Hadley Centre's atmosphere-only model HadAM3 with the BIOME model of Prentice et al (1992) and consider surface hydrology feedbacks using the surface water scheme HYDRA (Coe 1998). Equilibrium time slices across the deglacation are run for pre-industrial, 3, 6, 9, 12, 15, 18, 21 and 24 kyr B.P. climates. Simulations are started with standard vegetation distributions and repeated with rainforest and desert

  12. Enhanced tropical storm activity during the African Humid Period induced by Sahara greening and reduced dust emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pausata, F. S. R.; Emanuel, K.; Zhang, Q.; Chiacchio, M.; Diro, G. T.; Sushama, L.; Stager, J. C.; Donnelly, J. P.

    2016-12-01

    Given the devastating socioeconomics impact of tropical cyclones (TCs), understanding the amplitude of natural variability is of paramount importance for society. Historical records of TCs are too short to be able to capture such changes and TC paleo-sedimentary archives, spanning several millennia are still very few and patchy. Here we use a fully coupled ocean-atmosphere model to simulate the climate during the African Humid Period (AHP, 10,000 - 5,000 years BP) and investigate potential changes in TC activities compared to pre-industrial (PI) climate. We prescribe the mid-Holocene (MH, 6,000 years BP) orbital forcing as well as more extensive vegetation and reduced airborne dust concentrations relative to PI due to wetter climatic condition in the Sahara. Using a downscaling technique for simulating large numbers of TCs, we analyze a set of sensitivity experiments in which prescribed vegetation and dust concentrations are changed in turn. The changes in solar insolation during the MH (MHPMIP simulation) lead to a westward shift in the Western Pacific tropical storm activity, with an increase in TCs in the South China Sea (Fig. 1a). In the MHPMIP simulation, the TC activity is also increased in the Southern Hemisphere. While stronger boreal summer insolation during the MH does not lead to sizeable changes in the tropical Atlantic cyclones, the Sahara greening and especially the reduced dust largely enhance the storm activity in that region (Fig. 1c), in particular in the Caribbean Sea. The greening of the Sahara and reduced dust alter the thermodynamic state, leading to more favorable conditions for tropical storm development. In particular, the strengthening of the West African Monsoon induced by the Sahara greening triggers a change in the atmospheric circulation that embraces the entire boreal tropical regions with a net reduction in wind shear during summer. The dust reduction further increases the warming of the ocean surface up to over a 1°C in the North

  13. Complex patterns of divergence among green-sensitive (RH2a) African cichlid opsins revealed by Clade model analyses

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Gene duplications play an important role in the evolution of functional protein diversity. Some models of duplicate gene evolution predict complex forms of paralog divergence; orthologous proteins may diverge as well, further complicating patterns of divergence among and within gene families. Consequently, studying the link between protein sequence evolution and duplication requires the use of flexible substitution models that can accommodate multiple shifts in selection across a phylogeny. Here, we employed a variety of codon substitution models, primarily Clade models, to explore how selective constraint evolved following the duplication of a green-sensitive (RH2a) visual pigment protein (opsin) in African cichlids. Past studies have linked opsin divergence to ecological and sexual divergence within the African cichlid adaptive radiation. Furthermore, biochemical and regulatory differences between the RH2aα and RH2aβ paralogs have been documented. It thus seems likely that selection varies in complex ways throughout this gene family. Results Clade model analysis of African cichlid RH2a opsins revealed a large increase in the nonsynonymous-to-synonymous substitution rate ratio (ω) following the duplication, as well as an even larger increase, one consistent with positive selection, for Lake Tanganyikan cichlid RH2aβ opsins. Analysis using the popular Branch-site models, by contrast, revealed no such alteration of constraint. Several amino acid sites known to influence spectral and non-spectral aspects of opsin biochemistry were found to be evolving divergently, suggesting that orthologous RH2a opsins may vary in terms of spectral sensitivity and response kinetics. Divergence appears to be occurring despite intronic gene conversion among the tandemly-arranged duplicates. Conclusions Our findings indicate that variation in selective constraint is associated with both gene duplication and divergence among orthologs in African cichlid RH2a opsins. At

  14. Complex patterns of divergence among green-sensitive (RH2a) African cichlid opsins revealed by Clade model analyses.

    PubMed

    Weadick, Cameron J; Chang, Belinda S W

    2012-10-18

    Gene duplications play an important role in the evolution of functional protein diversity. Some models of duplicate gene evolution predict complex forms of paralog divergence; orthologous proteins may diverge as well, further complicating patterns of divergence among and within gene families. Consequently, studying the link between protein sequence evolution and duplication requires the use of flexible substitution models that can accommodate multiple shifts in selection across a phylogeny. Here, we employed a variety of codon substitution models, primarily Clade models, to explore how selective constraint evolved following the duplication of a green-sensitive (RH2a) visual pigment protein (opsin) in African cichlids. Past studies have linked opsin divergence to ecological and sexual divergence within the African cichlid adaptive radiation. Furthermore, biochemical and regulatory differences between the RH2aα and RH2aβ paralogs have been documented. It thus seems likely that selection varies in complex ways throughout this gene family. Clade model analysis of African cichlid RH2a opsins revealed a large increase in the nonsynonymous-to-synonymous substitution rate ratio (ω) following the duplication, as well as an even larger increase, one consistent with positive selection, for Lake Tanganyikan cichlid RH2aβ opsins. Analysis using the popular Branch-site models, by contrast, revealed no such alteration of constraint. Several amino acid sites known to influence spectral and non-spectral aspects of opsin biochemistry were found to be evolving divergently, suggesting that orthologous RH2a opsins may vary in terms of spectral sensitivity and response kinetics. Divergence appears to be occurring despite intronic gene conversion among the tandemly-arranged duplicates. Our findings indicate that variation in selective constraint is associated with both gene duplication and divergence among orthologs in African cichlid RH2a opsins. At least some of this variation may

  15. Revolution in the Library.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Himmelfarb, Gertrude

    1999-01-01

    There is an electronic revolution in the library which may prove to be a revolution in the humanities and in the nature of learning and education. The humanities are an essentially human enterprise of which the record reposes in books in libraries. The central role of libraries in preserving these ideas must survive the electronic revolution.…

  16. The French Revolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baltimore City Public Schools, MD.

    This outline on the French Revolution is designed to illustrate how this period of French history influenced various aspects of contemporary culture. Four main sections are treated: (1) ideas that led to the Revolution, (2) the reigns of the Bourbon kings, (3) the Revolution, and (4) the rise of Napoleon as a reaction to chaos. A list of 16mm…

  17. The Computer Revolution and Adult Education. Growth Prospects in Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oduaran, Akpovire

    Most African countries are presently overburdened by their debts, declining economies, and quality of living as well as abiding struggles for the restoration of democracy. However, they have noted the global revolution in the development and application of computers. Most Africans believe that computers and intensive and relevant education for all…

  18. African Green Monkeys Recapitulate the Clinical Experience with Replication of Live Attenuated Pandemic Influenza Virus Vaccine Candidates

    PubMed Central

    Matsuoka, Yumiko; Suguitan, Amorsolo; Orandle, Marlene; Paskel, Myeisha; Boonnak, Kobporn; Gardner, Donald J.; Feldmann, Friederike; Feldmann, Heinz; Marino, Michael; Jin, Hong; Kemble, George

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Live attenuated cold-adapted (ca) H5N1, H7N3, H6N1, and H9N2 influenza vaccine viruses replicated in the respiratory tract of mice and ferrets, and 2 doses of vaccines were immunogenic and protected these animals from challenge infection with homologous and heterologous wild-type (wt) viruses of the corresponding subtypes. However, when these vaccine candidates were evaluated in phase I clinical trials, there were inconsistencies between the observations in animal models and in humans. The vaccine viruses did not replicate well and immune responses were variable in humans, even though the study subjects were seronegative with respect to the vaccine viruses before vaccination. Therefore, we sought a model that would better reflect the findings in humans and evaluated African green monkeys (AGMs) as a nonhuman primate model. The distribution of sialic acid (SA) receptors in the respiratory tract of AGMs was similar to that in humans. We evaluated the replication of wt and ca viruses of avian influenza (AI) virus subtypes H5N1, H6N1, H7N3, and H9N2 in the respiratory tract of AGMs. All of the wt viruses replicated efficiently, while replication of the ca vaccine viruses was restricted to the upper respiratory tract. Interestingly, the patterns and sites of virus replication differed among the different subtypes. We also evaluated the immunogenicity and protective efficacy of H5N1, H6N1, H7N3, and H9N2 ca vaccines. Protection from wt virus challenge correlated well with the level of serum neutralizing antibodies. Immune responses were slightly better when vaccine was delivered by both intranasal and intratracheal delivery than when it was delivered intranasally by sprayer. We conclude that live attenuated pandemic influenza virus vaccines replicate similarly in AGMs and human subjects and that AGMs may be a useful model to evaluate the replication of ca vaccine candidates. IMPORTANCE Ferrets and mice are commonly used for preclinical evaluation of influenza

  19. The effect of harp music on heart rate, mean blood pressure, respiratory rate, and body temperature in the African green monkey.

    PubMed

    Hinds, Sarah Bro; Raimond, Susan; Purcell, Bret K

    2007-04-01

    The effectiveness of recorded harp music as a tool for relaxation for non-human primates is explored in this study. Konigsberg Instruments Model T27F-1B cardiovascular telemetry devices were implanted into nine African green monkeys (Chlorocebus aethiops). After post-surgical recovery, animals were exposed to recorded harp music. Telemetry data were collected on heart rate, mean blood pressure, respiratory rate, and body temperature for a 30-minute baseline period before music exposure; a 90-minute period of music exposure; and a 90-minute post-exposure period, where no music was played. No statistical differences were noted in heart rate, mean blood pressure, respiratory rate, and body temperature between pre-exposure, exposure, and post-exposure periods. The lack of response in these African green monkeys may be attributable to their generally calm demeanor in captivity; experiments with a more excitable species such as the rhesus macaque might demonstrate a significant relaxation response to music.

  20. Use of a low-concentration heparin solution to extend the life of central venous catheters in African green monkeys (Chlorocebus aethiops).

    PubMed

    Gamble, Christopher S; Jacobsen, Kenneth O; Leffel, Elizabeth K; Pitt, M Louise M

    2007-05-01

    Normal hematologic values for African green monkeys have been reported, but these results are confounded by the effect of chemical restraint (for example, ketamine), physical restraint, and capture stress. The dual-lumen central venous catheter, jacket, and tether combination we describe here allows intravenous fluid administration and repeated blood sampling without the use of anesthesia or inducing capture-related stress. The use of a low-concentration heparin solution for catheter maintenance significantly increased the mean patency time, compared with a saline-only catheter flush solution. Adding a low-concentration heparin solution creates a suitable system for serial blood collection in the African green monkey for as long as 25 d.

  1. The Effect of Harp Music on Heart Rate, Mean Blood Pressure, Respiratory Rate, and Body Temperature in the African Green Monkey

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-01-01

    harp music on heart rate, mean blood pressure, respiratory rate, and body temperature in the African green monkey. Journal of Medical Primatology 36:95...13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT Background: The effectiveness of recorded harp music as a tool for relaxation for nonhuman primates (NHP) is...Chlorocebus aethiops). After post-surgical recovery, animals were exposed to recorded harp music . Telemetry data were collected on heart rate, mean

  2. Meaning attribution in the West African green monkey: influence of call type and context.

    PubMed

    Price, Tabitha; Fischer, Julia

    2014-03-01

    The search for the evolutionary roots of human language has fuelled much research into the cognitive mechanisms underlying communication in nonhuman animals. One core issue has been whether the context-specific calls of nonhuman animals are meaningful, with call meaning inferred from recipients' responses in the absence of supporting contextual cues. This direct inference may well offer an oversimplified view of how vocalisations are perceived, however, as responses under natural conditions are likely guided by contextual cues as well as by the signal. In this study, we investigate how the anti-predator responses of green monkeys, Chlorocebus sabaeus, are affected by alarm call structure and by context. We first simulated the presence of leopards and snakes to elicit alarm vocalisations and to identify predator-typical response behaviours. In both contexts, the monkeys produced chirp calls that revealed only graded variation in relation to predator type. We then carried out playback experiments to explore whether green monkeys would respond with predator-typical behaviour to leopard and snake chirps, and whether contextual cues, in the form of pre-exposure to a leopard or snake model, would modify these responses. Irrespective of context, subjects were more likely to respond to leopard chirps with a leopard-typical response. Predator priming did not have a significant effect on the type of response, but, together with call type, did affect response duration. This suggests that the immediate attribution of meaning was influenced by acoustic cues, whilst receiver's prior knowledge was incorporated to guide subsequent behaviour.

  3. An outbreak of Yersinia enterocolitica in a captive colony of African green monkeys (Chlorocebus aethiops sabaeus) in the Caribbean.

    PubMed

    Soto, Esteban; Griffin, Matt; Verma, Ashutosh; Castillo-Alcala, Fernanda; Beierschmitt, Amy; Beeler-Marfisi, Janet; Arauz, Maziel; Illanes, Oscar

    2013-10-01

    Yersinia enterocolitica is a zoonotic gram-negative pathogen that causes mesenteric lymphadenitis, terminal ileitis, acute gastroenteritis, and septicemia in domestic animals and primates. In 2012, 46 captive African green monkeys (Chlorocebus aethiops sabaeus) died during an outbreak of acutely fatal enteric disease over a period of 1 mo on the island of St Kitts. The affected monkeys presented with a history of mucohemorrhagic diarrhea, marked dehydration, and depression. Fifteen bacterial isolates were recovered from the spleen, liver, and lungs of affected monkeys. All isolates were identified as Y. enterocolitica by biochemical analysis and sequence comparison of the 16S rRNA gene. Phenotypic and genotypic analysis of the recovered isolates revealed homogeneity among the recovered bacteria, and all isolates gave a random amplified polymorphic DNA pattern resembling that given by genotype D under serotypes O:7,8. This outbreak represents the first isolation and characterization of Y. enterocolitica as the causative agent of fatal enteric disease in primates in the Caribbean.

  4. An Outbreak of Yersinia enterocolitica in a Captive Colony of African Green Monkeys (Chlorocebus aethiops sabaeus) in the Caribbean

    PubMed Central

    Soto, Esteban; Griffin, Matt; Verma, Ashutosh; Castillo-Alcala, Fernanda; Beierschmitt, Amy; Beeler-Marfisi, Janet; Arauz, Maziel; Illanes, Oscar

    2013-01-01

    Yersinia enterocolitica is a zoonotic gram-negative pathogen that causes mesenteric lymphadenitis, terminal ileitis, acute gastroenteritis, and septicemia in domestic animals and primates. In 2012, 46 captive African green monkeys (Chlorocebus aethiops sabaeus) died during an outbreak of acutely fatal enteric disease over a period of 1 mo on the island of St Kitts. The affected monkeys presented with a history of mucohemorrhagic diarrhea, marked dehydration, and depression. Fifteen bacterial isolates were recovered from the spleen, liver, and lungs of affected monkeys. All isolates were identified as Y. enterocolitica by biochemical analysis and sequence comparison of the 16S rRNA gene. Phenotypic and genotypic analysis of the recovered isolates revealed homogeneity among the recovered bacteria, and all isolates gave a random amplified polymorphic DNA pattern resembling that given by genotype D under serotypes O:7,8. This outbreak represents the first isolation and characterization of Y. enterocolitica as the causative agent of fatal enteric disease in primates in the Caribbean. PMID:24210021

  5. Multiply spliced env and nef transcripts of simian immunodeficiency virus from West African green monkey (SIVagm-sab).

    PubMed

    Bibollet-Ruche, F; Cuny, G; Pourrut, X; Brengues, C; Galat-Luong, A; Galat, G; Delaporte, E

    1998-04-10

    We have characterized the spliced transcripts of nef and envelope genes of SIVagm from African green monkey of the sabaeus subspecies. Most of the transcripts we have studied, representing the most abundant mRNA species in our assay, have undergone a specific splicing event that removes a part of the trans-activation response (TAR) element. This region is predicted to form a stable secondary structure (four stem-loop elements in SIVagm-sab) that affects the trans-activation of viral gene expression by Tat and the translation of the viral transcripts. Contrary to what is observed in other viruses, in which this R-region splicing has also been described (e.g., HIV-2), the LTR splicing in SIVagm-sab removes part of the first stem-loop and the following ones, nearly completely disrupting the TAR element secondary structure. Because LTR splicing seems to be a conserved feature among the strains we have characterized, these results suggest that this phenomenon could have important consequences for virus replication, pathogenicity, and latency.

  6. Effects of temperature, density and food quality on larval growth and metamorphosis in the north African green frog Pelophylax saharicus.

    PubMed

    Bellakhal, Meher; Neveu, André; Fartouna-Bellakhal, Mouna; Missaoui, Hechmi; Aleya, Lotfi

    2014-10-01

    The ectodermic status of Amphibians explains their heavy dependence at ambient temperatures and thus their sensitivity to global warming. Temperature is likely the main factor regulating their physiology by acting on the endocrine system, with consequences on development, growth and size at metamorphosis. All these parameters control survival in the wild and performances in raniculture. This study is, to our knowledge, the first report on the effects of temperature, density and protein level in food on the rearing of the North African green Frog Pelophylax saharicus. Results show that a temperature of 26 °C is optimal for maximum weight gain. The maximum metamorphosis rate is obtained between 24 and 26 °C. The highest yields occur at low densities from 1 to 10 tadpolesl(-1). The best survival rate and accelerated metamorphosis are obtained at a level of 35% protein in food whose impact on food intake and weight gain is low. The maximum weight attained by tadpoles at metamorphosis, however, is obtained with a level of 40% protein. These results justify examination of this species in the light of climate change and suggest new techniques for aquaculture. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Potential contribution of African green leafy vegetables and maize porridge composite meals to iron and zinc nutrition.

    PubMed

    Kruger, Johanita; Mongwaketse, Tiyapo; Faber, Mieke; van der Hoeven, Marinka; Smuts, Cornelius M

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the mineral nutritive value of different traditional African green leafy vegetable (GLV) dishes and their composite meals with fortified and unfortified maize porridge. The mineral (iron, zinc, and calcium) and antinutrient (phytate, total phenolics, and tannins) contents and in vitro bioaccessibility of iron and zinc were analyzed. The iron and zinc contents and bioaccessibilities were used to calculate contribution these dishes and meals could make toward the recommended daily requirements and absolute requirements of vulnerable populations. It was found that the GLV dishes contained average amounts of zinc (2.8-3.2 mg/100 g, dry base [db]), but were high in both iron (12.5-23.4 mg/100 g, db) and antinutrients (phytate 1420-2089 mg/100 g, db; condensed tannins 105-203 mg/100 g, db). The iron bioaccessibility and amount of bioaccessible iron ranged between 6.7% and 45.2% and 0.9 and 5.11 mg/100 g, db, respectively. The zinc bioaccessibility and amount of bioaccessible zinc ranged between 6.4% and 12.7% and 0.63 and 1.63 mg/100 g, db, respectively. Importantly, although compositing the GLV dishes with fortified maize porridges decreases the iron and zinc contents, because of the low antinutrient content of the maize meal, the amount of bioaccessible iron and zinc in the meal increases. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Two Distinct Gamma-2 Herpesviruses in African Green Monkeys: a Second Gamma-2 Herpesvirus Lineage among Old World Primates?

    PubMed Central

    Greensill, Julie; Sheldon, Julie A.; Renwick, Neil M.; Beer, Brigitte E.; Norley, Steve; Goudsmit, Jaap; Schulz, Thomas F.

    2000-01-01

    Primate gamma-2 herpesviruses (rhadinoviruses) have so far been found in humans (Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus [KSHV], also called human herpesvirus 8), macaques (Macaca spp.) (rhesus rhadinovirus [RRV] and retroperitoneal fibromatosis herpesvirus [RFHV]), squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus) (herpesvirus saimiri), and spider monkeys (Ateles spp.) (herpesvirus ateles). Using serological screening and degenerate consensus primer PCR for the viral DNA polymerase gene, we have detected sequences from two distinct gamma-2 herpesviruses, termed Chlorocebus rhadinovirus 1 (ChRV1) and ChRV2, in African green monkeys. ChRV1 is more closely related to KSHV and RFHV, whereas ChRV2 is closest to RRV. Our findings suggest the existence of two distinct rhadinovirus lineages, represented by the KSHV/RFHV/ChRV1 group and the RRV/ChRV2 group, respectively, in at least two Old World monkey species. Antibodies to members of the RRV/ChRV2 lineage may cross-react in an immunofluorescence assay for early and late KSHV antigens. PMID:10627572

  9. Identification of a surface glycoprotein on African green monkey kidney cells as a receptor for hepatitis A virus.

    PubMed Central

    Kaplan, G; Totsuka, A; Thompson, P; Akatsuka, T; Moritsugu, Y; Feinstone, S M

    1996-01-01

    Very little is known about the mechanism of cell entry of hepatitis A virus (HAV), and the identification of cellular receptors for this picornavirus has been elusive. Here we describe the molecular cloning of a cellular receptor for HAV using protective monoclonal antibodies raised against susceptible African green monkey kidney (AGMK) cells as probes. Monoclonal antibodies 190/4, 235/4 and 263/6, which reacted against similar epitopes, specifically protected AGMK cells against HAV infection by blocking the binding of HAV. Expression cloning and nucleotide sequence analysis of the cDNA coding for epitope 190/4 revealed a novel mucin-like class I integral membrane glycoprotein of 451 amino acids, the HAV cellular receptor 1 (HAVcr-1). Immunofluorescence analysis indicated that mouse Ltk- cells transfected with HAVcr-1 cDNA gained limited susceptibility to HAV infection, which was blocked by treatment with monoclonal antibody 190/4. Our results demonstrate that the HAVcr-1 polypeptide is an attachment receptor for HAV and strongly suggest that it is also a functional receptor which mediates HAV infection. This report constitutes the first identification of a cellular receptor for HAV. Images PMID:8861957

  10. Identification of a surface glycoprotein on African green monkey kidney cells as a receptor for hepatitis A virus.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, G; Totsuka, A; Thompson, P; Akatsuka, T; Moritsugu, Y; Feinstone, S M

    1996-08-15

    Very little is known about the mechanism of cell entry of hepatitis A virus (HAV), and the identification of cellular receptors for this picornavirus has been elusive. Here we describe the molecular cloning of a cellular receptor for HAV using protective monoclonal antibodies raised against susceptible African green monkey kidney (AGMK) cells as probes. Monoclonal antibodies 190/4, 235/4 and 263/6, which reacted against similar epitopes, specifically protected AGMK cells against HAV infection by blocking the binding of HAV. Expression cloning and nucleotide sequence analysis of the cDNA coding for epitope 190/4 revealed a novel mucin-like class I integral membrane glycoprotein of 451 amino acids, the HAV cellular receptor 1 (HAVcr-1). Immunofluorescence analysis indicated that mouse Ltk- cells transfected with HAVcr-1 cDNA gained limited susceptibility to HAV infection, which was blocked by treatment with monoclonal antibody 190/4. Our results demonstrate that the HAVcr-1 polypeptide is an attachment receptor for HAV and strongly suggest that it is also a functional receptor which mediates HAV infection. This report constitutes the first identification of a cellular receptor for HAV.

  11. Propagation of human hepatitis A virus in African green monkey kidney cell culture: primary isolation and serial passage.

    PubMed Central

    Daemer, R J; Feinstone, S M; Gust, I D; Purcell, R H

    1981-01-01

    Human hepatitis A virus (HAV) was propagated in primary African Green Monkey (Cercopithecus aethiops) kidney (AGMK) cell cultures. Three strains of HAV were used: MS-1, SD-11, and HM-175. Cells were inoculated with marmoset-passaged material or human clinical specimens and were stained by direct immunofluorescence to establish the identity of the virus. Both clinical samples and marmoset-passaged material produced immunofluorescence. HAV antigen was found scattered throughout the cytoplasm of inoculated cultures. The HM-175 strain produced the most intense immunofluorescence. This strain of HAV had been serially passaged in cell culture seven times. Blocking experiments with paired human sera from naturally acquired HAV infections and hyperimmune chimpanzee serum from an experimentally infected animal established that the immunofluorescence was specific. The viral antigen was found to be exclusively intracellular. The interval to maximum HAV antigen expression was decreased by serial passage. The HAV strain described herein, which was recovered directly from the stool specimen of a patient with HAV in primary AGMK cell culture, may prove useful as a source of antigen for serological tests and as a candidate vaccine strain. Images PMID:6260685

  12. Propagation of human hepatitis A virus in African green monkey kidney cell culture: primary isolation and serial passage.

    PubMed

    Daemer, R J; Feinstone, S M; Gust, I D; Purcell, R H

    1981-04-01

    Human hepatitis A virus (HAV) was propagated in primary African Green Monkey (Cercopithecus aethiops) kidney (AGMK) cell cultures. Three strains of HAV were used: MS-1, SD-11, and HM-175. Cells were inoculated with marmoset-passaged material or human clinical specimens and were stained by direct immunofluorescence to establish the identity of the virus. Both clinical samples and marmoset-passaged material produced immunofluorescence. HAV antigen was found scattered throughout the cytoplasm of inoculated cultures. The HM-175 strain produced the most intense immunofluorescence. This strain of HAV had been serially passaged in cell culture seven times. Blocking experiments with paired human sera from naturally acquired HAV infections and hyperimmune chimpanzee serum from an experimentally infected animal established that the immunofluorescence was specific. The viral antigen was found to be exclusively intracellular. The interval to maximum HAV antigen expression was decreased by serial passage. The HAV strain described herein, which was recovered directly from the stool specimen of a patient with HAV in primary AGMK cell culture, may prove useful as a source of antigen for serological tests and as a candidate vaccine strain.

  13. Large Scale Screening of Southern African Plant Extracts for the Green Synthesis of Gold Nanoparticles Using Microtitre-Plate Method.

    PubMed

    Elbagory, Abdulrahman M; Cupido, Christopher N; Meyer, Mervin; Hussein, Ahmed A

    2016-11-08

    The preparation of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) involves a variety of chemical and physical methods. These methods use toxic and environmentally harmful chemicals. Consequently, the synthesis of AuNPs using green chemistry has been under investigation to develop eco-friendly nanoparticles. One approach to achieve this is the use of plant-derived phytochemicals that are capable of reducing gold ions to produce AuNPs. The aim of this study was to implement a facile microtitre-plate method to screen a large number of aqueous plant extracts to determine the optimum concentration (OC) for the bio-synthesis of the AuNPs. Several AuNPs of different sizes and shapes were successfully synthesized and characterized from 17 South African plants. The characterization was done using Ultra Violet-Visible Spectroscopy, Dynamic Light Scattering, High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy and Energy-Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy. We also studied the effects of temperature on the synthesis of the AuNPs and showed that changes in temperatures affect the size and dispersity of the generated AuNPs. We also evaluated the stability of the synthesized AuNPs and showed that some of them are stable in biological buffer solutions.

  14. Envelope-specific B-cell populations in African green monkeys chronically infected with simian immunodeficiency virus

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ruijun; Martinez, David R.; Nguyen, Quang N.; Pollara, Justin; Arifin, Trina; Stolarchuk, Christina; Foulger, Andrew; Amos, Josh D.; Parks, Robert; Himes, Jonathon E.; Wang, Minyue; Edwards, Regina W.; Trama, Ashley M.; Vandergrift, Nathan; Colvin, Lisa; Dewar, Ken; Juretic, Nikoleta; Wasserscheid, Jessica; Ferrari, Guido; Liao, Hua-Xin; Permar, Sallie R.

    2016-01-01

    African green monkeys (AGMs) are natural primate hosts of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV). Interestingly, features of the envelope-specific antibody responses in SIV-infected AGMs are distinct from that of HIV-infected humans and SIV-infected rhesus monkeys, including gp120-focused responses and rapid development of autologous neutralization. Yet, the lack of genetic tools to evaluate B-cell lineages hinders potential use of this unique non-human primate model for HIV vaccine development. Here we define features of the AGM Ig loci and compare the proportion of Env-specific memory B-cell populations to that of HIV-infected humans and SIV-infected rhesus monkeys. AGMs appear to have a higher proportion of Env-specific memory B cells that are mainly gp120 directed. Furthermore, AGM gp120-specific monoclonal antibodies display robust antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity and CD4-dependent virion capture activity. Our results support the use of AGMs to model induction of functional gp120-specific antibodies by HIV vaccine strategies. PMID:27381634

  15. Multisystemic abscesses in African green monkeys (Chlorocebus aethiops) with invasive Klebsiella pneumoniae--identification of the hypermucoviscosity phenotype.

    PubMed

    Twenhafel, N A; Whitehouse, C A; Stevens, E L; Hottel, H E; Foster, C D; Gamble, S; Abbott, S; Janda, J M; Kreiselmeier, N; Steele, K E

    2008-03-01

    Invasive Klebsiella pneumoniae is an emerging disease of humans characterized by abscesses in the liver or other sites involving bacteria with the unique hypermucoviscosity phenotype. Over several months, 7 African green monkeys in our research colony developed abscess formation in multiple locations and succumbed to disease. K. pneumoniae was identified by bacterial culture in 6 monkeys and immunohistochemistry in 1 additional monkey. All monkeys had been housed in, or had contact with monkeys housed in, 1 animal room in our facility. All affected monkeys had 1 or more abscesses, most notably in the abdomen, but also affecting the lungs, cerebellum, and skin. Abdominal abscesses and associated adhesions entrapped loops of bowel, forming palpable masses. Abdominal masses were located at the root of the mesentery, the ileocecocolic junction, or the pelvic inlet. In 1 case, culture, serotyping, and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis of the bacterial isolate identified K. pneumoniae expressing the hypermucoviscosity phenotype and capsular serotype K2 and determined that the K. pneumonia was genetically rmpA(+)/magA(-).

  16. The Neutralizing Capacity of Antibodies Elicited by Parainfluenza Virus Infection of African Green Monkeys is Dependent on Complement

    PubMed Central

    Mayer, Anne E.; Johnson, John B.; Parks, Griffith D.

    2014-01-01

    The African Green Monkey (AGM) model was used to analyze the role of complement in neutralization of parainfluenza virus. Parainfluenza virus 5 (PIV5) and human parainfluenza virus type 2 were effectively neutralized in vitro by naïve AGM sera, but neutralizing capacity was lost by heat-inactivation. The mechanism of neutralization involved formation of massive aggregates, with no evidence of virion lysis. Following inoculation of the respiratory tract with a PIV5 vector expressing HIV gp160, AGM produced high levels of serum and tracheal antibodies against gp120 and the viral F and HN proteins. However, in the absence of complement these anti-PIV5 antibodies had very poor neutralizing capacity. Virions showed extensive deposition of IgG and C1q with post- but not pre-immune sera. These results highlight the importance of complement in the initial antibody response to parainfluenza viruses, with implications for understanding infant immune responses and design of vaccine strategies for these pediatric pathogens. PMID:25010267

  17. Understanding African American women's decisions to buy and eat dark green leafy vegetables: an application of the reasoned action approach.

    PubMed

    Sheats, Jylana L; Middlestadt, Susan E; Ona, Fernando F; Juarez, Paul D; Kolbe, Lloyd J

    2013-01-01

    Examine intentions to buy and eat dark green leafy vegetables (DGLV). Cross-sectional survey assessing demographics, behavior, intention, and Reasoned Action Approach constructs (attitude, perceived norm, self-efficacy). Marion County, Indiana. African American women responsible for buying and preparing household food. Reasoned Action Approach constructs explaining intentions to buy and eat DGLV. Summary statistics, Pearson correlations, and multiple regression analyses. Among participants (n = 410, mean age = 43 y), 76% and 80%, respectively, reported buying and eating DGLV in the past week. Mean consumption was 1.5 cups in the past 3 days. Intentions to buy (r = 0.20, P < .001) and eat (r = 0.23, P < .001) DGLV were positively associated with consumption. Reasoned Action Approach constructs explained 71.2% of the variance in intention to buy, and 60.9% of the variance in intention to eat DGLV. Attitude (β = .63) and self-efficacy (β = .24) related to buying and attitude (β = .60) and self-efficacy (β = .23) related to eating DGLV explained significant amounts of variance in intentions to buy and eat more DGLV. Perceived norm was unrelated to either intention to buy or eat DGLV. Interventions designed for this population of women should aim to improve DGLV-related attitudes and self-efficacy. Copyright © 2013 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. SIVagm Infection in Wild African Green Monkeys from South Africa: Epidemiology, Natural History, and Evolutionary Considerations

    PubMed Central

    Kristoff, Jan; Grobler, J. Paul; Turner, Trudy; Jung, Yoon; Schmitt, Christopher; Raehtz, Kevin; Feyertag, Felix; Martinez Sosa, Natalie; Wijewardana, Viskam; Burke, Donald S.; Robertson, David L.; Tracy, Russell; Pandrea, Ivona; Freimer, Nelson; Apetrei, Cristian

    2013-01-01

    wild African natural hosts. PMID:23349627

  19. Reevaluating the French Revolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stromberg, Roland N.

    1986-01-01

    Analyzes previous interpretations concerning the French Revolution. Discusses several weaknesses of the Marxist views in light of recent philosophical and sociological thinking about social change. (RKM)

  20. Reevaluating the French Revolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stromberg, Roland N.

    1986-01-01

    Analyzes previous interpretations concerning the French Revolution. Discusses several weaknesses of the Marxist views in light of recent philosophical and sociological thinking about social change. (RKM)

  1. Attenuated Human Parainfluenza Virus Type 1 Expressing Ebola Virus Glycoprotein GP Administered Intranasally Is Immunogenic in African Green Monkeys.

    PubMed

    Lingemann, Matthias; Liu, Xueqiao; Surman, Sonja; Liang, Bo; Herbert, Richard; Hackenberg, Ashley D; Buchholz, Ursula J; Collins, Peter L; Munir, Shirin

    2017-05-15

    The recent 2014-2016 Ebola virus (EBOV) outbreak prompted increased efforts to develop vaccines against EBOV disease. We describe the development and preclinical evaluation of an attenuated recombinant human parainfluenza virus type 1 (rHPIV1) expressing the membrane-anchored form of EBOV glycoprotein GP, as an intranasal (i.n.) EBOV vaccine. GP was codon optimized and expressed either as a full-length protein or as an engineered chimeric form in which its transmembrane and cytoplasmic tail (TMCT) domains were replaced with those of the HPIV1 F protein in an effort to enhance packaging into the vector particle and immunogenicity. GP was inserted either preceding the N gene (pre-N) or between the N and P genes (N-P) of rHPIV1 bearing a stabilized attenuating mutation in the P/C gene (C(Δ170)). The constructs grew to high titers and efficiently and stably expressed GP. Viruses were attenuated, replicating at low titers over several days, in the respiratory tract of African green monkeys (AGMs). Two doses of candidates expressing GP from the pre-N position elicited higher GP neutralizing serum antibody titers than the N-P viruses, and unmodified GP induced higher levels than its TMCT counterpart. Unmodified EBOV GP was packaged into the HPIV1 particle, and the TMCT modification did not increase packaging or immunogenicity but rather reduced the stability of GP expression during in vivo replication. In conclusion, we identified an attenuated and immunogenic i.n. vaccine candidate expressing GP from the pre-N position. It is expected to be well tolerated in humans and is available for clinical evaluation.IMPORTANCE EBOV hemorrhagic fever is one of the most lethal viral infections and lacks a licensed vaccine. Contact of fluids from infected individuals, including droplets or aerosols, with mucosal surfaces is an important route of EBOV spread during a natural outbreak, and aerosols also might be exploited for intentional virus spread. Therefore, vaccines that protect

  2. Seroprevalence of human polyomavirus 9 and cross-reactivity to African green monkey-derived lymphotropic polyomavirus.

    PubMed

    Trusch, Franziska; Klein, Marcus; Finsterbusch, Tim; Kühn, Joachim; Hofmann, Jörg; Ehlers, Bernhard

    2012-04-01

    Human polyomavirus 9 (HPyV9) was discovered recently in immunocompromised patients and shown to be genetically closely related to B-lymphotropic polyomavirus (LPyV). No serological data are available for HPyV9, but human antibodies against LPyV have been reported previously. To investigate the seroepidemiology of HPyV9 and the sero-cross-reactivity between HPyV9 and LPyV, a capsomer-based IgG ELISA was established using the major capsid protein VP1 of HPyV9 and LPyV. VP1 of an avian polyomavirus was used as control. For HPyV9, a seroprevalence of 47 % was determined in healthy adults and adolescents (n = 328) and 20 % in a group of children (n =101). In both groups, the seroreactivities for LPyV were less frequent and the ELISA titres of LPyV were lower. Of the HPyV9-reactive sera, 47 % reacted also with LPyV, and the titres for both PyVs correlated. Sera from African green monkeys, the natural hosts of LPyV, reacted also with both HPyV9 and LPyV, but here the HPyV9 titres were lower. This potential sero-cross-reactivity between HPyV9 and LPyV was confirmed by competition assays, and it was hypothesized that the reactivity of human sera against LPyV may generally be due to cross-reactivity between HPyV9 and LPyV. The HPyV9 seroprevalence of liver transplant recipients and patients with neurological dysfunctions did not differ from that of age-matched controls, but a significantly higher seroprevalence was determined in renal and haematopoietic stem-cell transplant recipients, indicating that certain immunocompromised patient groups may be at a higher risk for primary infection with or for reactivation of HPyV9.

  3. Interleukin-2 Therapy Induces CD4 Downregulation, Which Decreases Circulating CD4 T Cell Counts, in African Green Monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Mudd, Joseph C.; Perkins, Molly R.; DiNapoli, Sarah R.; Hirsch, Vanessa M.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT African green monkeys (AGMs) are natural hosts of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIVAGM). Because these animals do not develop simian AIDS despite maintaining high viral loads, there is considerable interest in determining how these animals have evolved to avoid SIV disease progression. Unlike nonnatural hosts of SIV, adult AGMs maintain low levels of CD4+ T cells at steady states and also have a large population of virus-resistant CD8αα T cells that lack CD4 expression despite maintaining T helper cell functionalities. In recent work, we have shown that homeostatic cytokines can induce CD4 downregulation in AGM T cells in vitro. Through administering therapeutic doses of recombinant human interleukin-2 (IL-2) to AGMs, we show here that this mechanism is operative in vivo. IL-2 therapy induced transient yet robust proliferation in all major T cell subsets. Within the CD4+ T cell population, those that were induced into cycle by IL-2 exhibited characteristics of CD4-to-CD8αα conversion. In all animals receiving IL-2, circulating CD4+ T cell counts and proportions tended to be lower and CD4− CD8αα+ T cell counts tended to be higher. Despite reductions in circulating target cells, the viral load was unaffected over the course of study. IMPORTANCE The data in this study identify that homeostatic cytokines can downregulate CD4 in vivo and, when given therapeutically, can induce AGMs to sustain very low levels of circulating CD4+ T cells without showing signs of immunodeficiency. PMID:27053558

  4. Evaluation of cognitive and biochemical effects of low-level exposure to sarin in rhesus and African green monkeys.

    PubMed

    Genovese, Raymond F; Oubre, John L; Jakubowski, E Michael; Fleming, Patrick J; Saxena, Ashima; Rockwood, Gary A; Tipparaju, Prasanthi; Willmore, Catherine B

    2007-02-28

    We investigated the potential of low-level exposures to the chemical warfare nerve agent, sarin, to produce adverse effects. Rhesus (Macaca mulatta) and African green monkeys (Chlorocebus acthiops) were trained on a serial probe recognition (SPR) task before IM administration of a low-level concentration (5.87 microg/kg or 2.93 microg/kg) of sarin. Blood was sampled before agent administration and at various times following administration. Sarin administration did not disrupt performance on the SPR task in either species. Major dependent measures characterizing performance (accuracy, number of completed trials per session, average choice response time) were largely unaffected on the day sarin was administered as well as on subsequent testing sessions occurring over several weeks following administration. Analyses of red blood cell (RBC) and plasma samples revealed that sarin administration produced a substantial degree of inhibition of circulating acetylcholinesterase (AChE) in RBC fractions and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) in plasma fractions, which only slowly recovered. In this regard, AChE activity was inhibited to a greater extent than BChE activity. Blood samples were also evaluated for regenerated sarin, which was found in RBC and plasma fractions in both species and showed orderly elimination functions. More sarin was regenerated from RBC fractions than from plasma fractions. Elimination of regenerated sarin was much slower in RBC than plasma and exceeded the expected time of AChE aging, suggesting the presence of additional sarin binding sites. In general, effects were similar in both species. Taken together, our results show that while the concentrations of sarin administered were clearly biochemically active, they were below those that are required to produce a disruption of behavioral performance.

  5. The Information Revolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilder, George

    1993-01-01

    A technological revolution is erupting all about us. A millionfold rise in computation and communications cost effectiveness will transform all industries and bureaucracies. The information revolution is a decentralizing, microcosmic electronic force opposing the centralizing, controlling Industrial-Age mentality persisting in schools. Television…

  6. Firebrands of the Revolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pickett, Calder M.

    Prepared as commentary for a slide/tape presentation, this document briefly examines the role of the press in the American Revolution. It discusses propagandist activities led by such agitators as Samuel Adams, newspaper reports of the day that dealt with events of the revolution, and the work of incendiary writers and journalists, including…

  7. Firebrands of the Revolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pickett, Calder M.

    Prepared as commentary for a slide/tape presentation, this document briefly examines the role of the press in the American Revolution. It discusses propagandist activities led by such agitators as Samuel Adams, newspaper reports of the day that dealt with events of the revolution, and the work of incendiary writers and journalists, including…

  8. They Say They Want a Revolution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramaswami, Rama

    2008-01-01

    Even if one does not believe--and it is getting increasingly difficult not to--that the "green revolution" on college campuses is akin to the great movements for social change that rocked universities in the 1960s and '70s, there is no denying that it has taken root in such a way that no campus administrator can afford to ignore it. And unlike the…

  9. They Say They Want a Revolution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramaswami, Rama

    2008-01-01

    Even if one does not believe--and it is getting increasingly difficult not to--that the "green revolution" on college campuses is akin to the great movements for social change that rocked universities in the 1960s and '70s, there is no denying that it has taken root in such a way that no campus administrator can afford to ignore it. And unlike the…

  10. Transactivation of progestin- and estrogen-responsive promoters by 19-nor progestins in African Green Monkey Kidney CV1 cells.

    PubMed

    Pasapera, A M; Gutiérrez-Sagal, R; García-Becerra, R; Ulloa-Aguirre, A; Savouret, J F

    2001-12-01

    New and more potent progestins and antiprogestins suitable for reproductive therapy and contraception are currently the target of intensive research. The design of such drugs has been hampered by the complex technology required for screening these compounds at the molecular level. To solve this problem, we developed an in vitro cell system that allows detection of the progestagenic effects of a given compound using a PRE2-TATA-CAT reporter vector transiently introduced in a cell line stably transfected with the rabbit progesterone receptor (PR). The African Green Monkey Kidney CV1 (AGMK-CV1) cell line was chosen because these cells do not express endogenous steroid receptors; the selected clone stably expressing the rabbit PR has been maintained in our laboratory for more than 2 yr without detectable losses in PR content and progestagenic response. The presence and function of the PR were assessed by immunohistochemical and saturation analyses as well as by monitoring transactivation of the PRE2-TATA-CAT reporter gene. In this cell line, the PR is expressed at a concentration of 0.170 fmol/mg of protein, and the receptor is localized within the cell nucleus in either the presence or absence of the potent synthetic progestin R5020. This PR-expressing cell system allowed study of the in vitro progestational activity of several 19-nor progestins. The antiprogestin RU486 inhibited CAT activity induced by R5020; norethisterone (NET), levonorgestrel (LNG), and gestodene (GSD) induced PRE2-TATA-CAT activity at concentrations similar to those of R5020, whereas NET A-ring-reduced metabolites induced CAT activity at an extent lower than (5alpha-NET) or similar (3beta,5alpha-NET) to that of the precursor compound. The PRE2-TATA-CAT induction by 17beta-estradiol was also analyzed and no crossreactivity was detected. However, when the ERE-VitA2-TK-CAT (estrogen-responsive element-vitellogenin A2-thymidine kinase promoter-CAT) reporter vector and the estradiol receptor alpha or

  11. Effects on plasma lipoproteins of monounsaturated, saturated, and polyunsaturated fatty acids in the diet of African green monkeys.

    PubMed

    Rudel, L L; Haines, J L; Sawyer, J K

    1990-10-01

    Work by other investigators has shown that an increase in dietary content of monounsaturated fatty acids can result in a decreased plasma low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol concentration. This observation, combined with the epidemiologic evidence that monounsaturated fat-rich diets are associated with decreased rates of death from coronary heart disease, suggests that inclusion of increased amounts of mono-unsaturated fat in the diet may be beneficial. The present study was carried out in a primate model, the African green monkey, to evaluate the effects of dietary monounsaturated fat on plasma lipoprotein cholesterol endpoints. Two study periods were carried out in which the fatty acid compositions of the experimental diets were varied. All diets contained 35% of calories as fat. In the first experimental period, a mixture of fats was used to set the dietary fatty acid composition to be approximately 50-60% of the desired fatty acid, either saturated, monounsaturated, or polyunsaturated (n-6). In the second experimental period, pure fats were used (palm oil, oleic acid-rich safflower oil, and linoleic acid-rich safflower oil) to maximize the difference in fatty acid composition. The effects of the more exaggerated dietary fatty acid differences of period 2 were similar to those that have been reported in humans. For the group fed the diet enriched in monounsaturated fat compared to saturated fat, whole plasma and LDL cholesterol concentrations were significantly lower while high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol concentrations were not affected. For the group fed the diet enriched in polyunsaturated fat compared to saturated fat, both LDL and HDL cholesterol concentrations were significantly lower than in the group fed saturated fat. LDL cholesterol concentrations were comparable in the monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fat groups and the percentage of cholesterol in LDL was lowest in the monounsaturated fat fed group. Trends were similar for the

  12. The October Revolution Revisited.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rabinowitch, Alexander

    1981-01-01

    Presents an historical analysis of the socialist revolution of 1917 which brought Lenin and the Bolsheviks to power in the Soviet Union and led to the establishment in Russia of a communist government. (DB)

  13. Cae I: an endonuclease isolated from the African green monkey with properties indicating site-specific cleavage of homologous and heterologous mammalian DNA.

    PubMed Central

    Brown, F L; Musich, P R; Maio, J J

    1978-01-01

    Component alpha DNA is a highly repetitive sequence that comprises nearly a quarter of the African green monkey (Cercopithecus aethiops) genome. A previous microbial restriction enzyme analysis showed that the repeat structure of component alpha DNA is based upon a monomeric unit of 176 +/- 4 base-pairs. An endonuclease, provisionally termed Case I, has been isolated from African green monkey testes that cleaves component alpha DNA into multimeric segments based upon the same repeat periodicity as that revealed by microbial restriction enzymes. The primary sites of Cae I cleavage in the component alpha sequence appear to be 120 +/- 6 base-pairs distant from the Hind III sites and 73 +/- 6 base-pairs distant from the Eco RI* sites. Cae I has been partially characterized with special reference to the effects of ATP and S-adenosylmethionine on the cleavage of component alpha DNA. Cae I may be a member of a class of similar site-specific nucleases present in mammalian cells. Cae I also cleaves mouse satellite DNA into a multimeric series of discrete segments: the periodicity of this series is shorter than that revealed by Eco RII retriction analysis of mouse satellite DNA. Images PMID:206873

  14. Homeostatic Cytokines Induce CD4 Downregulation in African Green Monkeys Independently of Antigen Exposure To Generate Simian Immunodeficiency Virus-Resistant CD8αα T Cells

    PubMed Central

    Perkins, Molly R.; Briant, Judith A.; Calantone, Nina; Whitted, Sonya; Vinton, Carol L.; Klatt, Nichole R.; Ourmanov, Ilnour; Ortiz, Alexandra M.; Hirsch, Vanessa M.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT African green monkeys (AGMs; genus Chlorocebus) are a natural host of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIVAGM). As they do not develop simian AIDS, there is great interest in understanding how this species has evolved to avoid immunodeficiency. Adult African green monkeys naturally have low numbers of CD4 T cells and a large population of major histocompatibility complex class II-restricted CD8αdim T cells that are generated through CD4 downregulation in CD4+ T cells. Mechanisms that drive this process of CD4 downregulation are unknown. Here, we show that juvenile AGMs accelerate CD4-to-CD8αα conversion upon SIV infection and avoid progression to AIDS. The CD4 downregulation induced by SIV infection is not limited to SIV-specific T cells, and vaccination of an adult AGM who had a negligible number of CD4 T cells demonstrated that CD4 downregulation can occur without antigenic exposure. Finally, we show that the T cell homeostatic cytokines interleukin-2 (IL-2), IL-7, and IL-15 can induce CD4 downregulation in vitro. These data identify a mechanism that allows AGMs to generate a large, diverse population of T cells that perform CD4 T cell functions but are resistant to SIV infection. A better understanding of this mechanism may allow the development of treatments to induce protective CD4 downregulation in humans. IMPORTANCE Many African primate species are naturally infected with SIV. African green monkeys, one natural host species, avoid simian AIDS by creating a population of T cells that lack CD4, the human immunodeficiency virus/SIV receptor; therefore, they are resistant to infection. However, these T cells maintain properties of CD4+ T cells even after receptor downregulation and preserve immune function. Here, we show that juvenile AGMs, who have not undergone extensive CD4 downregulation, accelerate this process upon SIV infection. Furthermore, we show that in vivo, CD4 downregulation does not occur exclusively in antigen-experienced T cells

  15. Four Traditions: Women of New York During the American Revolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Pauw, Linda Grant

    The role of New York women in the American Revolution is discussed in a survey of four cultural traditions in 17th and 18th century New York--Iroquois, African, Dutch, and English. The purpose is to provide a historical record on the subject of women's history. Women from the four cultural traditions were bound by different conventions which…

  16. Empowering African genomics for infectious disease control.

    PubMed

    Folarin, Onikepe A; Happi, Anise N; Happi, Christian T

    2014-11-07

    At present, African scientists can only participate minimally in the genomics revolution that is transforming the understanding, surveillance and clinical treatment of infectious diseases. We discuss new initiatives to equip African scientists with knowledge of cutting-edge genomics tools, and build a sustainable critical mass of well-trained African infectious diseases genomics scientists.

  17. The Unfinished Revolution: Einstein's revenge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beichler, James

    2007-04-01

    Thomas Kuhn defined the characteristics of scientific revolutions based upon his knowledge of the first and second Scientific Revolutions. He concluded that such revolutions are the result of crises in science. However, he missed some important clues of how revolutions develop. Instead of looking at crises, we should look at the major trends in scientific and human thought prior to the revolutions and then we could gain a better understanding of how scientific revolutions emerge from the normal course of scientific evolution. Instead of defining revolutions by the crises that precede them, revolutions actually emerge from the successes of previous science while each revolution contains the seeds for the next revolution that follows. These seeds eventually grow into the crises that trigger revolutions. Under these circumstances, it can be shown that the space-time revolution of relativity theory was never completed, thus laying the foundations for the next revolution in science. Knowing this, we can determine if we have we already entered the pre-revolutionary period of the Third Scientific Revolution.

  18. Simian immunodeficiency virus SIVagm.sab infection of Caribbean African green monkeys: a new model for the study of SIV pathogenesis in natural hosts.

    PubMed

    Pandrea, Ivona; Apetrei, Cristian; Dufour, Jason; Dillon, Nora; Barbercheck, Joseph; Metzger, Michael; Jacquelin, Béatrice; Bohm, Rudolf; Marx, Preston A; Barre-Sinoussi, Françoise; Hirsch, Vanessa M; Müller-Trutwin, Michaela C; Lackner, Andrew A; Veazey, Ronald S

    2006-05-01

    Caribbean-born African green monkeys (AGMs) were classified as Chlorocebus sabaeus by cytochrome b sequencing. Guided by these phylogenetic analyses, we developed a new model for the study of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infection in natural hosts by inoculating Caribbean AGMs with their species-specific SIVagm.sab. SIVagm.sab replicated efficiently in Caribbean AGM peripheral blood mononuclear cells in vitro. During SIVagm.sab primary infection of six Caribbean AGMs, the virus replicated at high levels, with peak viral loads (VLs) of 10(7) to 10(8) copies/ml occurring by day 8 to 10 postinfection (p.i.). Set-point values of up to 2 x 10(5) copies/ml were reached by day 42 p.i. and maintained throughout follow-up (through day 450 p.i.). CD4(+) T-cell counts in the blood showed a transient depletion at the peak of VL, and then returned to near preinfection values by day 28 p.i. and remained relatively stable during the chronic infection. Preservation of CD4 T cells was also found in lymph nodes (LNs) of chronic SIVagm.sab-infected Caribbean AGMs. No activation of CD4(+) T cells was detected in the periphery in SIV-infected Caribbean AGMs. These virological and immunological profiles from peripheral blood and LNs were identical to those previously reported in African-born AGMs infected with the same viral strain (SIVagm.sab92018). Due to these similarities, we conclude that Caribbean AGMs are a useful alternative to AGMs of African origin as a model for the study of SIV infection in natural African hosts.

  19. Simian Immunodeficiency Virus SIVagm.sab Infection of Caribbean African Green Monkeys: a New Model for the Study of SIV Pathogenesis in Natural Hosts

    PubMed Central

    Pandrea, Ivona; Apetrei, Cristian; Dufour, Jason; Dillon, Nora; Barbercheck, Joseph; Metzger, Michael; Jacquelin, Béatrice; Bohm, Rudolf; Marx, Preston A.; Barre-Sinoussi, Françoise; Hirsch, Vanessa M.; Müller-Trutwin, Michaela C.; Lackner, Andrew A.; Veazey, Ronald S.

    2006-01-01

    Caribbean-born African green monkeys (AGMs) were classified as Chlorocebus sabaeus by cytochrome b sequencing. Guided by these phylogenetic analyses, we developed a new model for the study of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infection in natural hosts by inoculating Caribbean AGMs with their species-specific SIVagm.sab. SIVagm.sab replicated efficiently in Caribbean AGM peripheral blood mononuclear cells in vitro. During SIVagm.sab primary infection of six Caribbean AGMs, the virus replicated at high levels, with peak viral loads (VLs) of 107 to 108 copies/ml occurring by day 8 to 10 postinfection (p.i.). Set-point values of up to 2 × 105 copies/ml were reached by day 42 p.i. and maintained throughout follow-up (through day 450 p.i.). CD4+ T-cell counts in the blood showed a transient depletion at the peak of VL, and then returned to near preinfection values by day 28 p.i. and remained relatively stable during the chronic infection. Preservation of CD4 T cells was also found in lymph nodes (LNs) of chronic SIVagm.sab-infected Caribbean AGMs. No activation of CD4+ T cells was detected in the periphery in SIV-infected Caribbean AGMs. These virological and immunological profiles from peripheral blood and LNs were identical to those previously reported in African-born AGMs infected with the same viral strain (SIVagm.sab92018). Due to these similarities, we conclude that Caribbean AGMs are a useful alternative to AGMs of African origin as a model for the study of SIV infection in natural African hosts. PMID:16641277

  20. Toilet revolution in China.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Shikun; Li, Zifu; Uddin, Sayed Mohammad Nazim; Mang, Heinz-Peter; Zhou, Xiaoqin; Zhang, Jian; Zheng, Lei; Zhang, Lingling

    2017-09-20

    The wide-spread prevalence of unimproved sanitation technologies has been a major cause of concern for the environment and public health, and China is no exception to this. Towards the sanitation issue, toilet revolution has become a buzzword in China recently. This paper elaborates the backgrounds, connotations, and actions of the toilet revolution in China. The toilet revolution aims to create sanitation infrastructure and public services that work for everyone and that turn waste into value. Opportunities for implementing the toilet revolution include: fulfilling Millennium Development Goals and new Sustainable Development Goals; government support at all levels for popularizing sanitary toilet; environmental protection to alleviate wastewater pollution; resource recovery from human waste and disease prevention for health and wellbeing improvement. Meanwhile, the challenges faced are: insufficient funding and policy support, regional imbalance and lagging approval processes, weak sanitary awareness and low acceptance of new toilets, lack of R&D and service system. The toilet revolution requires a concerted effort from many governmental departments. It needs to address not only technology implementation, but also social acceptance, economic affordability, maintenance issues and, increasingly, gender considerations. Aligned with the ecological sanitation principles, it calls for understanding issues across the entire sanitation service chain. Public-private partnership is also recommended to absorb private capital to make up the lack of funds, as well as arouse the enthusiasm of the public. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  1. The Chemical Revolution revisited.

    PubMed

    Chang, Hasok

    2015-02-01

    I respond to the critical comments by Martin Kusch and Ursula Klein on my account of the Chemical Revolution. I comment along three different lines: descriptive, explanatory, and normative. (1) I agree with Klein that Lavoisier did not introduce drastic changes in chemical ontology, but maintain that there was methodological incommensurability in the Chemical Revolution; in response to Kusch's view, I maintain that Lavoisier's victory was slow and incomplete. (2) Admitting that there were many causes shaping the outcome of the Chemical Revolution, including the convenience of Lavoisier's theoretical scheme and various complicated social factors, I still think that the general rise of compositionism was an important factor. (3) I defend my normative pluralist view on the Chemical Revolution, denying Kusch's argument that chemists had overwhelmingly good reasons to trust Lavoisier and his allies over the phlogistonists. Overall, I agree with Kusch that it would be desirable to have a good descriptive-normative sociological account of the Chemical Revolution, but I also think that it should be an account that allows for divergence in individuals' and sub-communities' self-determination. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Modulation of Type I Interferon-Associated Viral Sensing during Acute Simian Immunodeficiency Virus Infection in African Green Monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Jochems, Simon P.; Petitjean, Gaël; Kunkel, Désirée; Liovat, Anne-Sophie; Ploquin, Mickaël J.; Barré-Sinoussi, Françoise; Lebon, Pierre; Jacquelin, Béatrice

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Natural hosts of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV), such as African green monkeys (AGMs), do not progress to AIDS when infected with SIV. This is associated with an absence of a chronic type I interferon (IFN-I) signature. It is unclear how the IFN-I response is downmodulated in AGMs. We longitudinally assessed the capacity of AGM blood cells to produce IFN-I in response to SIV and herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection. Phenotypes and functions of plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) and other mononuclear blood cells were assessed by flow cytometry, and expression of viral sensors was measured by reverse transcription-PCR. pDCs displayed low BDCA-2, CD40, and HLA-DR expression levels during AGM acute SIV (SIVagm) infection. BDCA-2 was required for sensing of SIV, but not of HSV, by pDCs. In acute infection, AGM peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) produced less IFN-I upon SIV stimulation. In the chronic phase, the production was normal, confirming that the lack of chronic inflammation is not due to a sensing defect of pDCs. In contrast to stimulation by SIV, more IFN-I was produced upon HSV stimulation of PBMCs isolated during acute infection, while the frequency of AGM pDCs producing IFN-I upon in vitro stimulation with HSV was diminished. Indeed, other cells started producing IFN-I. This increased viral sensing by non-pDCs was associated with an upregulation of Toll-like receptor 3 and IFN-γ-inducible protein 16 caused by IFN-I in acute SIVagm infection. Our results suggest that, as in pathogenic SIVmac infection, SIVagm infection mobilizes bone marrow precursor pDCs. Moreover, we show that SIV infection modifies the capacity of viral sensing in cells other than pDCs, which could drive IFN-I production in specific settings. IMPORTANCE The effects of HIV/SIV infections on the capacity of plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) to produce IFN-I in vivo are still incompletely defined. As IFN-I can restrict viral replication, contribute to inflammation

  3. Revolution in Detection Affairs

    SciTech Connect

    Stern W.

    2013-11-02

    The detection of nuclear or radioactive materials for homeland or national security purposes is inherently difficult. This is one reason detection efforts must be seen as just one part of an overall nuclear defense strategy which includes, inter alia, material security, detection, interdiction, consequence management and recovery. Nevertheless, one could argue that there has been a revolution in detection affairs in the past several decades as the innovative application of new technology has changed the character and conduct of detection operations. This revolution will likely be most effectively reinforced in the coming decades with the networking of detectors and innovative application of anomaly detection algorithms.

  4. Architecture and the Information Revolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Driscoll, Porter; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Traces how technological changes affect the architecture of the workplace. Traces these effects from the industrial revolution up through the computer revolution. Offers suggested designs for the computerized office of today and tomorrow. (JM)

  5. Architecture and the Information Revolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Driscoll, Porter; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Traces how technological changes affect the architecture of the workplace. Traces these effects from the industrial revolution up through the computer revolution. Offers suggested designs for the computerized office of today and tomorrow. (JM)

  6. Post-Messinian evolutionary relationships across the Sicilian channel: Mitochondrial and nuclear markers link a new green toad from Sicily to African relatives

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Background Little attention has been paid to the consequences of the last landbridge between Africa and Sicily on Mediterranean biogeography. Previous paleontological and scarce molecular data suggest possible faunal exchange later than the well-documented landbridge in the Messinian (5.3 My); however, a possible African origin of recent terrestrial Sicilian fauna has not been thoroughly tested with molecular methods. To gain insight into the phylogeography of the region, we examine two mitochondrial and two nuclear markers (one is a newly adapted intron marker) in green toads (Bufo viridis subgroup) across that sea barrier, the Strait of Sicily. Results Extensive sampling throughout the western Mediterranean and North Africa revealed a deep sister relationship between Sicilian (Bufo siculus n.sp.) and African green toads (B. boulengeri) on the mitochondrial and nuclear level. Divergence times estimated under a Bayesian-coalescence framework (mtDNA control region and 16S rRNA) range from the Middle Pliocene (3.6 My) to Pleistocene (0.16 My) with an average (1.83 to 2.0 My) around the Pliocene/Pleistocene boundary, suggesting possible land connections younger than the Messinian (5.3 My). We describe green toads from Sicily and some surrounding islands as a new endemic species (Bufo siculus). Bufo balearicus occurs on some western Mediterranean islands (Corsica, Sardinia, Mallorca, and Menorca) and the Apennine Peninsula, and is well differentiated on the mitochondrial and nuclear level from B. siculus as well as from B. viridis (Laurenti), whose haplotype group reaches northeastern Italy, north of the Po River. Detection of Calabrian B. balearicus haplotypes in northeastern Sicily suggests recent invasion. Our data agree with paleogeographic and fossil data, which suggest long Plio-Pleistocene isolation of Sicily and episodic Pleistocene faunal exchange across the Strait of Messina. It remains unknown whether both species (B. balearicus, B. siculus) occur in

  7. Post-Messinian evolutionary relationships across the Sicilian channel: mitochondrial and nuclear markers link a new green toad from Sicily to African relatives.

    PubMed

    Stöck, Matthias; Sicilia, Alessandra; Belfiore, Natalia M; Buckley, David; Lo Brutto, Sabrina; Lo Valvo, Mario; Arculeo, Marco

    2008-02-23

    Little attention has been paid to the consequences of the last landbridge between Africa and Sicily on Mediterranean biogeography. Previous paleontological and scarce molecular data suggest possible faunal exchange later than the well-documented landbridge in the Messinian (5.3 My); however, a possible African origin of recent terrestrial Sicilian fauna has not been thoroughly tested with molecular methods. To gain insight into the phylogeography of the region, we examine two mitochondrial and two nuclear markers (one is a newly adapted intron marker) in green toads (Bufo viridis subgroup) across that sea barrier, the Strait of Sicily. Extensive sampling throughout the western Mediterranean and North Africa revealed a deep sister relationship between Sicilian (Bufo siculus n.sp.) and African green toads (B. boulengeri) on the mitochondrial and nuclear level. Divergence times estimated under a Bayesian-coalescence framework (mtDNA control region and 16S rRNA) range from the Middle Pliocene (3.6 My) to Pleistocene (0.16 My) with an average (1.83 to 2.0 My) around the Pliocene/Pleistocene boundary, suggesting possible land connections younger than the Messinian (5.3 My). We describe green toads from Sicily and some surrounding islands as a new endemic species (Bufo siculus). Bufo balearicus occurs on some western Mediterranean islands (Corsica, Sardinia, Mallorca, and Menorca) and the Apennine Peninsula, and is well differentiated on the mitochondrial and nuclear level from B. siculus as well as from B. viridis (Laurenti), whose haplotype group reaches northeastern Italy, north of the Po River. Detection of Calabrian B. balearicus haplotypes in northeastern Sicily suggests recent invasion. Our data agree with paleogeographic and fossil data, which suggest long Plio-Pleistocene isolation of Sicily and episodic Pleistocene faunal exchange across the Strait of Messina. It remains unknown whether both species (B. balearicus, B. siculus) occur in sympatry in northern

  8. Genetic diversity of simian immunodeficiency viruses from West African green monkeys: evidence of multiple genotypes within populations from the same geographical locale.

    PubMed Central

    Bibollet-Ruche, F; Brengues, C; Galat-Luong, A; Galat, G; Pourrut, X; Vidal, N; Veas, F; Durand, J P; Cuny, G

    1997-01-01

    High simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) seroprevalence rates have been reported in the different African green monkey (AGM) subspecies. Genetic diversity of these viruses far exceeds the diversity observed in the other lentivirus-infected human and nonhuman primates and is thought to reflect ancient introduction of SIV in the AGM population. We investigate here genetic diversity of SIVagm in wild-living AGM populations from the same geographical locale (i.e., sympatric population) in Senegal. For 11 new strains, we PCR amplified and sequenced two regions of the genome spanning the first tat exon and part of the transmembrane glycoprotein. Phylogenetic analysis of these sequences shows that viruses found in sympatric populations cluster into distinct lineages, with at least two distinct genotypes in each troop. These data strongly suggest an ancient introduction of these divergent viruses in the AGM population. PMID:8985351

  9. Growth restriction of an experimental live attenuated human parainfluenza virus type 2 vaccine in human ciliated airway epithelium in vitro parallels attenuation in African green monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Schaap-Nutt, Anne; Scull, Margaret A.; Schmidt, Alexander C.; Murphy, Brian R.; Pickles, Raymond J.

    2010-01-01

    Human parainfluenza viruses (HPIVs) are common causes of severe pediatric respiratory viral disease. We characterized wild-type HPIV2 infection in an in vitro model of human airway epithelium (HAE) and found that the virus replicates to high titer, sheds apically, targets ciliated cells, and induces minimal cytopathology. Replication of an experimental, live attenuated HPIV2 vaccine strain, containing both temperature sensitive (ts) and non-ts attenuating mutations, was restricted >30-fold compared to rHPIV2-WT in HAE at 32°C and exhibited little productive replication at 37°C. This restriction paralleled attenuation in the upper and lower respiratory tract of African green monkeys, supporting the HAE model as an appropriate and convenient system for characterizing HPIV2 vaccine candidates. PMID:20139039

  10. The Brain Revolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sylwester, Robert

    1998-01-01

    A cognitive-science revolution, reminiscent of Dewey's Progressive Education Movement, will profoundly affect future educational policy and practice. A comprehensive brain theory will emerge out of Darwin's discoveries about natural selection as a scientific explanation for biodiversity, Einstein's theoretical reconceptualization of…

  11. Revolution Now 2016

    SciTech Connect

    Paul Donohoo-Vallett

    2016-09-01

    Revolution Now is an annually updated report produced by the Energy Department’s Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy that documents the accelerated deployment of five clean energy technologies thriving in the U.S. market – wind turbines, solar technologies for both utility-scale and distributed photovoltaic (PV), electric vehicles (EVs) and light-emitting diodes (LEDs).

  12. The Brain Revolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sylwester, Robert

    1998-01-01

    A cognitive-science revolution, reminiscent of Dewey's Progressive Education Movement, will profoundly affect future educational policy and practice. A comprehensive brain theory will emerge out of Darwin's discoveries about natural selection as a scientific explanation for biodiversity, Einstein's theoretical reconceptualization of…

  13. Medical revolution in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Ballarin, V L; Isoardi, R A

    2010-01-01

    The paper discusses the major Argentineans contributors, medical physicists and scientists, in medical imaging and the development of medical imaging in Argentina. The following are presented: history of medical imaging in Argentina: the pioneers; medical imaging and medical revolution; nuclear medicine imaging; ultrasound imaging; and mathematics, physics, and electronics in medical image research: a multidisciplinary endeavor.

  14. Revolution and the Library.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorniak-Kocikowska, Krystyna

    2001-01-01

    Considers the impact that the computer revolution has had on college and university libraries. Discusses the historical background of changes that resulted from the invention of the printing press; the development of national languages; knowledge acquisition; the historical role of religion; content control of libraries; and changes in students.…

  15. Revolution in the Library.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Himmelfarb, Gertrude

    1997-01-01

    Changes in library services due to advancing information technology constitute a revolution comparable to invention of the printing press. Democratization of access to knowledge is a positive development, but it should not be confused with democratization of knowledge. This is where any system of information networking may be misleading; in…

  16. Cyberinfrastructure: The Second Revolution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bement, Arden L.

    2007-01-01

    The engine of change for the next revolution is cyberinfrastructure, a comprehensive phenomenon that involves the creation, dissemination, preservation, and application of knowledge. It adds new dimensions that greatly increase transformational potential. Cyberinfrastructure combines complex elements to create a dynamic system. It eclipses its…

  17. The Next British Revolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray, Charles

    1995-01-01

    Explores whether England is developing an American-style underclass and argues that England faces transforming changes in the near term similar to that of the United States but faster and possibly more politically volatile. The author addresses the likely effects of the revolution on English society and comments on the political context in which…

  18. Teaching the French Revolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Thomas M.

    1989-01-01

    Reports on presentations made at a symposium sponsored by the Connecticut Humanities Council. Papers dealt with teaching the French Revolution by presenting European history in new relationships with the rest of the world and by examining the Declaration of the Rights of Man as it related to the role of women. (KO)

  19. The French Revolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scrofani, E. Robert; Johnston, Anne

    This 10-day unit on the French Revolution is designed to help high school students understand the interplay of economic, social, and political forces in the process of revolutionary change, and the development of modern democratic forms of government. Critical thinking and geographic skill activities are employed throughout the unit and include…

  20. The Unfinished Revolution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sedgmore, Lynne

    2011-01-01

    The 157 Group recently published "Adult further education--the unfinished revolution," a policy paper setting out proposals for a truly market-driven further education sector in which the choices of individuals and individual employers are central in determining the programmes that are offered. Their overall aim is to allow institutions…

  1. Helping Students Analyze Revolutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armstrong, Stephen; Desrosiers, Marian

    2012-01-01

    A visitor to a random sampling of Modern World History classes in the United States will find that the subject of "revolution" is a favorite for many students. Reading about and researching individuals and topics such as Tsar Nicholas II, Rasputin, Marie Antoinette and guillotines is never boring. Unfortunately, in too many classrooms,…

  2. Teaching the French Revolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Thomas M.

    1989-01-01

    Reports on presentations made at a symposium sponsored by the Connecticut Humanities Council. Papers dealt with teaching the French Revolution by presenting European history in new relationships with the rest of the world and by examining the Declaration of the Rights of Man as it related to the role of women. (KO)

  3. The French Revolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scrofani, E. Robert; Johnston, Anne

    This 10-day unit on the French Revolution is designed to help high school students understand the interplay of economic, social, and political forces in the process of revolutionary change, and the development of modern democratic forms of government. Critical thinking and geographic skill activities are employed throughout the unit and include…

  4. Cyberinfrastructure: The Second Revolution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bement, Arden L.

    2007-01-01

    The engine of change for the next revolution is cyberinfrastructure, a comprehensive phenomenon that involves the creation, dissemination, preservation, and application of knowledge. It adds new dimensions that greatly increase transformational potential. Cyberinfrastructure combines complex elements to create a dynamic system. It eclipses its…

  5. Revolution in the Library.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Himmelfarb, Gertrude

    1997-01-01

    Changes in library services due to advancing information technology constitute a revolution comparable to invention of the printing press. Democratization of access to knowledge is a positive development, but it should not be confused with democratization of knowledge. This is where any system of information networking may be misleading; in…

  6. Revolution and the Library.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorniak-Kocikowska, Krystyna

    2001-01-01

    Considers the impact that the computer revolution has had on college and university libraries. Discusses the historical background of changes that resulted from the invention of the printing press; the development of national languages; knowledge acquisition; the historical role of religion; content control of libraries; and changes in students.…

  7. Helping Students Analyze Revolutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armstrong, Stephen; Desrosiers, Marian

    2012-01-01

    A visitor to a random sampling of Modern World History classes in the United States will find that the subject of "revolution" is a favorite for many students. Reading about and researching individuals and topics such as Tsar Nicholas II, Rasputin, Marie Antoinette and guillotines is never boring. Unfortunately, in too many classrooms,…

  8. Genetic Identity and Biological Phenotype of a Transmitted/Founder Virus Representative of Nonpathogenic Simian Immunodeficiency Virus Infection in African Green Monkeys▿

    PubMed Central

    Gnanadurai, Clement Wesley; Pandrea, Ivona; Parrish, Nicholas F.; Kraus, Matthias H.; Learn, Gerald H.; Salazar, Maria G.; Sauermann, Ulrike; Töpfer, Katharina; Gautam, Rajeev; Münch, Jan; Stahl-Hennig, Christiane; Apetrei, Christian; Hahn, Beatrice H.; Kirchhoff, Frank

    2010-01-01

    Understanding the lack of disease progression in nonpathogenic simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infections is essential for deciphering the immunopathogenesis of human AIDS. Yet, in vivo studies have been hampered by a paucity of infectious molecular clones (IMCs) of SIV suitable to dissect the viral and host factors responsible for the nonpathogenic phenotype. Here, we describe the identification, cloning, and biological analysis of the first transmitted/founder (T/F) virus representing a nonpathogenic SIV infection. Blood was collected at peak viremia from an acutely infected sabaeus monkey (Chlorocebus sabaeus) inoculated intravenously with an African green monkey SIV (SIVagm) strain (Sab92018) that had never been propagated in vitro. To generate IMCs, we first used conventional (bulk) PCR to amplify full-length viral genomes from peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) DNA. Although this yielded two intact SIVagmSab genomes, biological characterization revealed that both were replication defective. We then performed single-genome amplification (SGA) to generate partially overlapping 5′ (n = 10) and 3′ (n = 13) half genomes from plasma viral RNA. Analysis of these amplicons revealed clusters of nearly identical viral sequences representing the progeny of T/F viruses. Synthesis of the consensus sequence of one of these generated an IMC (Sab92018ivTF) that produced infectious CCR5-tropic virions and replicated to high titers in Molt-4 clone 8 cells and African green monkey PBMCs. Sab92018ivTF also initiated productive infection in sabaeus monkeys and faithfully recapitulated the replication kinetics and nonpathogenic phenotype of the parental Sab92018 strain. These results thus extend the T/F virus concept to nonpathogenic SIV infections and provide an important new tool to define viral determinants of disease nonprogression. PMID:20881048

  9. Negritude et Revolution (Negritude and Revolution).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Easterling, Ilda-Marie

    In 1933 in Paris, a new literary movement was born: negritude, a black French-language movement. Its principal figures were Leopold Sedar Senghor, Aime Cesaire, and Leon Damas. The chief features of the movement included: (1) awareness of African cultural history; (2) acceptance of and pride in the black racial identity; (3) a style which combined…

  10. Negritude et Revolution (Negritude and Revolution).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Easterling, Ilda-Marie

    In 1933 in Paris, a new literary movement was born: negritude, a black French-language movement. Its principal figures were Leopold Sedar Senghor, Aime Cesaire, and Leon Damas. The chief features of the movement included: (1) awareness of African cultural history; (2) acceptance of and pride in the black racial identity; (3) a style which combined…

  11. Visualization of the African swine fever virus infection in living cells by incorporation into the virus particle of green fluorescent protein-p54 membrane protein chimera

    SciTech Connect

    Hernaez, Bruno . E-mail: hernaez@inia.es; Escribano, Jose M. . E-mail: escriban@inia.es; Alonso, Covadonga . E-mail: calonso@inia.es

    2006-06-20

    Many stages of African swine fever virus infection have not yet been studied in detail. To track the behavior of African swine fever virus (ASFV) in the infected cells in real time, we produced an infectious recombinant ASFV (B54GFP-2) that expresses and incorporates into the virus particle a chimera of the p54 envelope protein fused to the enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP). The incorporation of the fusion protein into the virus particle was confirmed immunologically and it was determined that p54-EGFP was fully functional by confirmation that the recombinant virus made normal-sized plaques and presented similar growth curves to the wild-type virus. The tagged virus was visualized as individual fluorescent particles during the first stages of infection and allowed to visualize the infection progression in living cells through the viral life cycle by confocal microscopy. In this work, diverse potential applications of B54GFP-2 to study different aspects of ASFV infection are shown. By using this recombinant virus it was possible to determine the trajectory and speed of intracellular virus movement. Additionally, we have been able to visualize for first time the ASFV factory formation dynamics and the cytophatic effect of the virus in live infected cells. Finally, we have analyzed virus progression along the infection cycle and infected cell death as time-lapse animations.

  12. The neosexual revolution.

    PubMed

    Sigusch, V

    1998-08-01

    The affluent societies of the Western world have witnessed a tremendous cultural and social transformation of sexuality during the 1980s and 1990s, a process I refer to as the neosexual revolution. Up to now, this recoding and reassessment of sexuality has proceeded rather slowly and quietly. Yet both its real and its symbolic effects may indeed be more consequential than those brought about in the course of the rapid, noisy sexual revolution of the 1960s and 1970s. The neosexual revolution is dismantling the old patterns of sexuality and reassembling them anew. In the process, dimensions, intimate relationships, preferences, and sexual fragments emerge, many of which had been submerged, were unnamed, or simply did not exist before. In general, sexuality has lost much of its symbolic meaning as a cultural phenomenon. Sexuality is no longer the great metaphor for pleasure and happiness, nor is it so greatly overestimated as it was during the sexual revolution. It is now widely taken for granted, much like egotism or motility. Whereas sex was once mystified in a positive sense--as ecstasy and transgression, it has now taken on a negative mystification characterized by abuse, violence, and deadly infection. While the old sexuality was based primarily upon sexual instinct, orgasm, and the heterosexual couple, neosexualities revolve predominantly around gender difference, thrills, self-gratification, and prosthetic substitution. From the vast number of interrelated processes from which neosexualities emerge, three empirically observable phenomena have been selected for discussion here: the dissociation of the sexual sphere, the dispersion of sexual fragments, and the diversification of intimate relationships. These processes go hand in hand with the commercialization and banalization of sexuality. They are looked upon as being controlled individually through the mechanisms of a fundamentally egotistical consensus morality. In conformity with the general principles at

  13. Potential use of green macroalgae Ulva lactuca as a feed supplement in diets on growth performance, feed utilization and body composition of the African catfish, Clarias gariepinus

    PubMed Central

    Abdel-Warith, Abdel-Wahab A.; Younis, El-Sayed M.I.; Al-Asgah, Nasser A.

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effects of diet containing the green macroalgae, Ulva lactuca, on the growth performance, feed utilization and body composition of African catfish Clarias gariepinus. Four experimental diets were formulated: D1 as a control group and D2, D3 and D4 which included 10%, 20% and 30% U. lactuca meal, respectively. 180 African catfish, weighing 9.59 ± 0.43 g, and with an average length of 11.26 ± 0.21, (mean ± SE) were divided into four groups corresponding to the different feeding regimes. The final body weight of the fish showed insignificant differences (P > 0.05) between the control and fish fed D2, whereas, there was a significant difference (P < 0.05) between these two diets compared with D3 and D4, with weights of 70.52, 60.92, 40.57 and 35.66 g recorded for D1, D2, D3 and D4, respectively. In the same trend significant differences were also evident in weight gain, specific growth rate and feed utilization. Fish fed with a diet containing 20% or 30% U. lactuca meal had poorer growth performance and feed utilization. Protein productive value, protein efficiency ratio, daily dry feed intake and total feed intake were also significantly lower in fish fed with D3 and D4 than in the control D1 and D2. Overall, the results of the experiment revealed that African catfish fed a diet with U. lactuca included at 20% and 30% levels showed poorer growth and feed utilization than the control group and fish fed diets containing 10% of U. lactuca. PMID:27081367

  14. Drug discovery for human African trypanosomiasis: identification of novel scaffolds by the newly developed HTS SYBR Green assay for Trypanosoma brucei.

    PubMed

    Faria, Joana; Moraes, Carolina B; Song, Rita; Pascoalino, Bruno S; Lee, Nakyung; Siqueira-Neto, Jair L; Cruz, Deu John M; Parkinson, Tanya; Ioset, Jean-Robert; Cordeiro-da-Silva, Anabela; Freitas-Junior, Lucio H

    2015-01-01

    Human African trypanosomiasis (HAT) is a vector-transmitted tropical disease caused by the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma brucei. High-throughput screening (HTS) of small-molecule libraries in whole-cell assays is one of the most frequently used approaches in drug discovery for infectious diseases. To aid in drug discovery efforts for HAT, the SYBR Green assay was developed for T. brucei in a 384-well format. This semi-automated assay is cost- and time-effective, robust, and reproducible. The SYBR Green assay was compared to the resazurin assay by screening a library of 4000 putative kinase inhibitors, revealing a superior performance in terms of assay time, sensitivity, simplicity, and reproducibility, and resulting in a higher hit confirmation rate. Although the resazurin assay allows for comparatively improved detection of slow-killing compounds, it also has higher false-positive rates that are likely to arise from the assay experimental conditions. The compounds with the most potent antitrypanosomal activity were selected in both screens and grouped into 13 structural clusters, with 11 new scaffolds as antitrypanosomal agents. Several of the identified compounds had IC50 <1 µM coupled with high selectivity toward the parasite. The core structures of the scaffolds are shown, providing promising new starting points for drug discovery for HAT.

  15. Evaluation of minerals, phytochemical compounds and antioxidant activity of Mexican, Central American, and African green leafy vegetables

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The green leafy vegetables Cnidoscolus aconitifolius and Crotalaria longirostrata are native to Mexico and Central America, while Solanum scabrum and Gynandropsis gynandra are native to Africa. They are consumed in both rural and urban areas in those places as a main food, food ingredient or traditi...

  16. Habitual Diets Rich in Dark-Green Vegetables Are Associated with an Increased Response to ω-3 Fatty Acid Supplementation in Americans of African Ancestry123

    PubMed Central

    O’Sullivan, Aifric; Armstrong, Patrice; Schuster, Gertrud U.; Pedersen, Theresa L.; Allayee, Hooman; Stephensen, Charles B.; Newman, John W.

    2014-01-01

    Although substantial variation exists in individual responses to omega-3 (ω-3) (n–3) fatty acid supplementation, the causes for differences in response are largely unknown. Here we investigated the associations between the efficacy of ω-3 fatty acid supplementation and a broad range of nutritional and clinical factors collected during a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial in participants of African ancestry, randomly assigned to receive either 2 g eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) + 1 g docosahexaenoic acid (n = 41) or corn/soybean oil placebo (n = 42) supplements for 6 wk. Food-frequency questionnaires were administered, and changes in erythrocyte lipids, lipoproteins, and monocyte 5-lipoxygenase–dependent metabolism were measured before and after supplementation. Mixed-mode linear regression modeling identified high (n = 28) and low (n = 13) ω-3 fatty acid response groups on the basis of changes in erythrocyte EPA abundance (P < 0.001). Compliance was equivalent (∼88%), whereas decreases in plasma triglycerides and VLDL particle sizes and reductions in stimulated monocyte leukotriene B4 production were larger in the high-response group. Although total diet quality scores were similar, the low-response group showed lower estimated 2005 Healthy Eating Index subscores for dark-green and orange vegetables and legumes (P = 0.01) and a lower intake of vegetables (P = 0.02), particularly dark-green vegetables (P = 0.002). Because the findings reported here are associative in nature, prospective studies are needed to determine if dietary dark-green vegetables or nutrients contained in these foods can enhance the efficacy of ω-3 fatty acid supplements. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00536185. PMID:24259553

  17. Hybrid Warfare: A Military Revolution or Revolution in Military Affairs?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-12-14

    4MacGregor Knox and Williamson Murray, eds., The Dynamics of Military Revolution 1300-2050 (Cambridge: Cambridge... Dynamics of Military Revolution 1300-2050.12 A case study helps compare the extrapolation of the analysis and synthesis of their writings on MR to...affairs as defined by Knox and Murray in their book The Dynamics of Military Revolution, 1300-2050. 37 Professors Knox and Murray, provide a conceptual

  18. Evaluation of Minerals, Phytochemical Compounds and Antioxidant Activity of Mexican, Central American, and African Green Leafy Vegetables.

    PubMed

    Jiménez-Aguilar, Dulce M; Grusak, Michael A

    2015-12-01

    The green leafy vegetables Cnidoscolus aconitifolius and Crotalaria longirostrata are native to Mexico and Central America, while Solanum scabrum and Gynandropsis gynandra are native to Africa. They are consumed in both rural and urban areas in those places as a main food, food ingredient or traditional medicine. Currently, there is limited information about their nutritional and phytochemical composition. Therefore, mineral, vitamin C, phenolic and flavonoid concentration, and antioxidant activity were evaluated in multiple accessions of these leafy vegetables, and their mineral and vitamin C contribution per serving was calculated. The concentrations of Ca, K, Mg and P in these leafy vegetables were 0.82-2.32, 1.61-7.29, 0.61-1.48 and 0.27-1.44 mg/g fresh weight (FW), respectively. The flavonoid concentration in S. scabrum accessions was up to 1413 μg catechin equivalents/g FW, while the highest antioxidant activities were obtained in C. longirostrata accessions (52-60 μmol Trolox equivalents/g FW). According to guidelines established by the US Food and Drug Administration, a serving size (30 g FW) of C. longirostrata would be considered an excellent source of Mo (20 % or more of the daily value), and a serving of any of these green leafy vegetables would be an excellent source of vitamin C. Considering the importance of the minerals, phytochemicals and antioxidants in human health and their presence in these indigenous green leafy vegetables, efforts to promote their consumption should be implemented.

  19. Going beyond the green: senesced vegetation material predicts basal area and biomass in remote sensing of tree cover conditions in an African tropical dry forest (miombo woodland) landscape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayes, Marc; Mustard, John; Melillo, Jerry; Neill, Christopher; Nyadzi, Gerson

    2017-08-01

    In sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), tropical dry forests and savannas cover over 2.5 million km2 and support livelihoods for millions in fast-growing nations. Intensifying land use pressures have driven rapid changes in tree cover structure (basal area, biomass) that remain poorly characterized at regional scales. Here, we posed the hypothesis that tree cover structure related strongly to senesced and non-photosynthetic (NPV) vegetation features in a SSA tropical dry forest landscape, offering improved means for satellite remote sensing of tree cover structure compared to vegetation greenness-based methods. Across regrowth miombo woodland sites in Tanzania, we analyzed relationships among field data on tree structure, land cover, and satellite indices of green and NPV features based on spectral mixture analyses and normalized difference vegetation index calculated from Landsat 8 data. From satellite-field data relationships, we mapped regional basal area and biomass using NPV and greenness-based metrics, and compared map performances at landscape scales. Total canopy cover related significantly to stem basal area (r 2 = 0.815, p < 0.01) and biomass (r 2 = 0.635, p < 0.01), and NPV dominated ground cover (> 60%) at all sites. From these two conditions emerged a key inverse relationship: skyward exposure of NPV ground cover was high at sites with low tree basal area and biomass, and decreased with increasing stem basal area and biomass. This pattern scaled to Landsat NPV metrics, which showed strong inverse correlations to basal area (Pearson r = -0.85, p < 0.01) and biomass (r = -0.86, p < 0.01). Biomass estimates from Landsat NPV-based maps matched field data, and significantly differentiated landscape gradients in woody biomass that greenness metrics failed to track. The results suggest senesced vegetation metrics at Landsat scales are a promising means for improved monitoring of tree structure across disturbance and ecological gradients

  20. Representing revolution: icons of industrialization.

    PubMed

    Fara, Patricia

    2006-03-01

    Appreciating pictures entails a consideration not only of the people, objects and landscape that their artists have chosen to portray, but also an imagining of what has been excluded. The term 'Industrial Revolution' has been given multiple meanings, and this article (part of the Science in the Industrial Revolution series) explores some of these by exposing the messages concealed inside some of the most enduring images of the Revolution.

  1. Thermoregulation in African Green Pigeons (Treron calvus) and a re-analysis of insular effects on basal metabolic rate and heterothermy in columbid birds.

    PubMed

    Noakes, Matthew J; Smit, Ben; Wolf, Blair O; McKechnie, Andrew E

    2013-10-01

    Columbid birds represent a useful model taxon for examining adaptation in metabolic and thermal traits, including the effects of insularity. To test predictions concerning the role of insularity and low predation risk as factors selecting for the use of torpor, and the evolution of low basal metabolic rate in island species, we examined thermoregulation under laboratory and semi-natural conditions in a mainland species, the African Green Pigeon (Treron calvus). Under laboratory conditions, rest-phase body temperature (T b) was significantly and positively correlated with air temperature (T a) between 0 and 35 °C, and the relationship between resting metabolic rate (RMR) and T a differed from typical endothermic patterns. The minimum RMR, which we interpret as basal metabolic rate (BMR), was 0.825 ± 0.090 W. Green pigeons responded to food restriction by significantly decreasing rest-phase T b, but the reductions were small (at most ~5 °C below normothermic values), with a minimum T b of 33.1 °C recorded in a food-deprived bird. We found no evidence of the large reductions in T b and metabolic rate and the lethargic state characteristic of torpor. The absence of torpor in T. calvus lends support to the idea that species restricted to islands that are free of predators are more likely to use torpor than mainland species that face the risk of predation during the rest-phase. We also analysed interspecific variation in columbid BMR in a phylogenetically informed framework and verified the conclusions of an earlier study which found that BMR is significantly lower in island species compared to those that occur on mainlands.

  2. Comparison of Saliva Collection Methods for the Determination of Salivary Cortisol Levels in Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta), Cynomolgus Macaques (Macaca fascicularis), and African Green Monkeys (Chlorocebus aethiops).

    PubMed

    Rapp-Santos, Kamala J; Altamura, Louis A; Norris, Sarah L; Lugo-Roman, Luis A; Rico, Pedro J; Hofer, Christian C

    2017-03-01

    The ability to quickly and accurately determine cortisol as a biomarker for stress is a valuable tool in assessing the wellbeing of NHP. In this study, 2 methods of collecting saliva (a commercial collection device and passive drool) and the resulting free salivary cortisol levels were compared with total serum cortisol concentration in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta), cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis) and African green monkeys (Chlorocebus aethiops) at 2 collection time points. Serum and salivary cortisol levels were determined using a competitive quantitative ELISA. In addition, both saliva collection methods were evaluated for volume collected and ease of use. Compared with passive drool, the experimental collection device was more reliable in collecting sufficient volumes of saliva, and the resulting salivary cortisol values demonstrated stronger correlation with serum cortisol concentration in all species and collection days except cynomolgus macaques on day 1. This saliva collection device allows quick and reliable sample collection for the determination of salivary cortisol levels. In addition, the results might provide a useful tool for evaluating hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity or the physiologic stress reaction in NHP as well as a biomarker of psychologic stress states in a variety of situations.

  3. Living in biological soil crust communities of African deserts—Physiological traits of green algal Klebsormidium species (Streptophyta) to cope with desiccation, light and temperature gradients

    PubMed Central

    Karsten, Ulf; Herburger, Klaus; Holzinger, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Green algae of the genus Klebsormidium (Klebsormidiales, Streptophyta) are typical members of biological soil crusts (BSCs) worldwide. The phylogeny and ecophysiology of Klebsormidium has been intensively studied in recent years, and a new lineage called superclade G, which was isolated from BSCs in arid southern Africa and comprising undescribed species, was reported. Three different African strains, that have previously been isolated from hot-desert BSCs and molecular-taxonomically characterized, were comparatively investigated. In addition, Klebsormidium subtilissimum from a cold-desert habitat (Alaska, USA, superclade E) was included in the study as well. Photosynthetic performance was measured under different controlled abiotic conditions, including dehydration and rehydration, as well as under a light and temperature gradient. All Klebsormidium strains exhibited optimum photosynthetic oxygen production at low photon fluence rates, but with no indication of photoinhibition under high light conditions pointing to flexible acclimation mechanisms of the photosynthetic apparatus. Respiration under lower temperatures was generally much less effective than photosynthesis, while the opposite was true for higher temperatures. The Klebsormidium strains tested showed a decrease and inhibition of the effective quantum yield during desiccation, however with different kinetics. While the single celled and small filamentous strains exhibited relatively fast inhibition, the uniserate filament forming isolates desiccated slower. Except one, all other strains fully recovered effective quantum yield after rehydration. The presented data provide an explanation for the regular occurrence of Klebsormidium strains or species in hot and cold deserts, which are characterized by low water availability and other stressful conditions. PMID:26422081

  4. Resistance of African Green Monkey Kidney Cell Lines to Actinomycin D: Drug Uptake in 37 RC Cells After Persistent Inhibition of Transcription

    PubMed Central

    Benedetto, Arrigo; Cassone, Antonio; Delfini, Carlo

    1979-01-01

    37 RC cells, a cultured line derived from African green monkey kidneys, survived long treatments with actinomycin D (AMD; 0.1 to 0.5 μg/ml) under strong inhibition of ribonucleic acid synthesis and blocking of cell division. One aspect of the complex cellular response to this treatment was a progressive lowering of the influx rate of AMD and, consequently, of its endocellular concentration, leading to a late resurgence of transcription. Overall protein synthesis decreased in AMD-treated cells, but more of the residual protein was exported to the cell surface, a fact associated with the development of numerous strands of endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi bodies in the cytoplasm. The lowering of AMD influx during the treatment was not simply due to the decay of protein synthesis, and there was no evidence for a carrier-mediated transport of the drug. It was paralleled by, but seemingly not related to, modifications in cellular microtubules and microfilaments. The rate of AMD influx was restored to levels comparable to those of untreated cells by short exposure to ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid and trypsin. It is concluded that the changes in plasma membrane of 37 RC cells, creating an obstacle to the influx of AMD after long treatment with this drug, probably consist of an accumulation and/or a different distribution of glycoproteins or other surface components on the cell surface. Images PMID:106777

  5. A second gene for the African green monkey poliovirus receptor that has no putative N-glycosylation site in the functional N-terminal immunoglobulin-like domain.

    PubMed Central

    Koike, S; Ise, I; Sato, Y; Yonekawa, H; Gotoh, O; Nomoto, A

    1992-01-01

    Using cDNA of the human poliovirus receptor (PVR) as a probe, two types of cDNA clones of the monkey homologs were isolated from a cDNA library prepared from an African green monkey kidney cell line. Either type of cDNA clone rendered mouse L cells permissive for poliovirus infection. Homologies of the amino acid sequences deduced from these cDNA sequences with that of human PVR were 90.2 and 86.4%, respectively. These two monkey PVRs were found to be encoded in two different loci of the genome. Evolutionary analysis suggested that duplication of the PVR gene in the monkey genome had occurred after the species differentiation between humans and monkeys. The NH2-terminal immunoglobulin-like domain, domain 1, of the second monkey PVR, which lacks a putative N-glycosylation site, mediated poliovirus infection. In addition, a human PVR mutant without N-glycosylation sites in domain 1 also promoted viral infection. These results suggest that domain 1 of the monkey receptor also harbors the binding site for poliovirus and that sugar moieties possibly attached to this domain of human PVR are dispensable for the virus-receptor interaction. Images PMID:1331508

  6. Hematology and Clinical Chemistry Measures During and After Pregnancy and Age- and Sex-Specific Reference Intervals in African Green Monkeys (Chlorocebus aethiops sabaeus).

    PubMed

    Chichester, Lee; Gee, Melaney K; Jorgensen, Matthew J; Kaplan, Jay R

    2015-07-01

    Clinical decisions and experimental analyses often involve the assessment of hematology and clinical chemistry. Using clinical pathology to assess the health status of NHP in breeding colonies or data from studies than involve pregnancy can often be complicated by pregnancy status. This study had 2 objectives regarding the hematology and clinical chemistry of African green monkeys (AGM, Chlorocebus aethiops sabaeus): 1) to compare pregnant or recently postpartum animals with nonpregnant, nonlactating animals and 2) to create age- and sex-specific reference intervals. Subjects in this study were 491 AGM from the Vervet Research Colony of the Wake Forest University Primate Center. Results indicated that changes in BUN, serum total protein, albumin, ALP, GGT, calcium, phosphorus, sodium, potassium, cholesterol, total CO2, globulins, lipase, amylase, WBC, neutrophils, lymphocytes, platelets, RBC, Hgb, and Hct occur during pregnancy and the postpartum period. Age- and sex-specific reference intervals consistent with guidelines from the American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology were established and further expand the understanding of how to define health in AGM on the basis of clinical pathology. The combination of understanding the changes that occur in pregnancy and postpartum and expansive reference intervals will help guide clinical and experimental decisions.

  7. Hematology and Clinical Chemistry Measures During and After Pregnancy and Age- and Sex-Specific Reference Intervals in African Green Monkeys (Chlorocebus aethiops sabaeus)

    PubMed Central

    Chichester, Lee; Gee, Melaney K; Jorgensen, Matthew J; Kaplan, Jay R

    2015-01-01

    Clinical decisions and experimental analyses often involve the assessment of hematology and clinical chemistry. Using clinical pathology to assess the health status of NHP in breeding colonies or data from studies than involve pregnancy can often be complicated by pregnancy status. This study had 2 objectives regarding the hematology and clinical chemistry of African green monkeys (AGM, Chlorocebus aethiops sabaeus): 1) to compare pregnant or recently postpartum animals with nonpregnant, nonlactating animals and 2) to create age- and sex-specific reference intervals. Subjects in this study were 491 AGM from the Vervet Research Colony of the Wake Forest University Primate Center. Results indicated that changes in BUN, serum total protein, albumin, ALP, GGT, calcium, phosphorus, sodium, potassium, cholesterol, total CO2, globulins, lipase, amylase, WBC, neutrophils, lymphocytes, platelets, RBC, Hgb, and Hct occur during pregnancy and the postpartum period. Age- and sex-specific reference intervals consistent with guidelines from the American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology were established and further expand the understanding of how to define health in AGM on the basis of clinical pathology. The combination of understanding the changes that occur in pregnancy and postpartum and expansive reference intervals will help guide clinical and experimental decisions. PMID:26224434

  8. Understanding African American Women’s Decisions to Buy and Eat Dark Green Leafy Vegetables: An Application of the Reasoned Action Approach

    PubMed Central

    Sheats, Jylana L.; Middlestadt, Susan E.; Ona, Fernando F.; Juarez, Paul D.; Kolbe, Lloyd J.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Examine intentions to buy and eat dark green leafy vegetables (DGLV). Design Cross-sectional survey assessing demographics, behavior, intention, and Reasoned Action Approach constructs (attitude, perceived norm, self-efficacy). Setting Marion County, Indiana. Participants African American women responsible for buying and preparing household food. Main Outcome Measure(s) Reasoned Action Approach constructs explaining intentions to buy and eat DGLV. Analysis Summary statistics, Pearson correlations, and multiple regression analyses. Results Among participants (n = 410, mean age = 43 y), 76% and 80%, respectively, reported buying and eating DGLV in the past week. Mean consumption was 1.5 cups in the past 3 days. Intentions to buy (r = 0.20, P < .001) and eat (r = 0.23, P < .001) DGLV were positively associated with consumption. Reasoned Action Approach constructs explained 71.2% of the variance in intention to buy, and 60.9% of the variance in intention to eat DGLV. Attitude (β = .63) and self-efficacy (β = .24) related to buying and attitude (β = .60) and self-efficacy (β = .23) related to eating DGLV explained significant amounts of variance in intentions to buy and eat more DGLV. Perceived norm was unrelated to either intention to buy or eat DGLV. Conclusions and Implications Interventions designed for this population of women should aim to improve DGLV-related attitudes and self-efficacy. PMID:24021457

  9. Louis Pasteur surgical revolution.

    PubMed

    Toledo-Pereyra, Luis H

    2009-01-01

    Louis Pasteur (1822-1895) is considered the most notable medical scientist of his time and perhaps one of the most distinguished of all times in the history of medicine. From Dole in France to Paris, from a student of crystals to "living ferments," and from chemistry to biology and medicine, Pasteur changed the world for the benefit of humanity. The genius of Pasteur dealt with the most pressing issues of his time, basing the germ theory on the effects that microorganisms had on fermentation and putrefaction of organic matter, which gave birth to the science of bacteriology. Many other difficult problems in medicine and biology were tackled by Pasteur, culminating in the spectacular results seen with the treatment of rabies. Surgery was no exception to the scientific conquests of Pasteur. The transformation of the surgical world arose from the antiseptic concepts of Lister that were based on the germ theory of the disease, which had been derived from the germ theory of fermentation and putrefaction discovered by Pasteur. The acceptance of these principles represented the surgical revolution brought on by the science of Pasteur, a revolution that is now accepted in our daily care of surgical patients.

  10. Women and the American Revolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Jan

    1994-01-01

    Contends that anyone teaching the history of the American Revolution today faces the challenge of including the role of women. Asserts that historians continue to debate whether the changes in women's role and status were necessary or incidental outcomes of the Revolution. (CFR)

  11. Tracking a Global Academic Revolution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Altbach, Philip G.; Reisberg, Liz; Rumbley, Laura E.

    2010-01-01

    A global revolution has been taking place in higher education during the past half-century. In the educators' view, four fundamental and interrelated forces have impelled the current academic revolution: the "massification" of higher education, globalization, the advent of the knowledge society and the importance of research universities…

  12. Tracking a Global Academic Revolution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Altbach, Philip G.; Reisberg, Liz; Rumbley, Laura E.

    2010-01-01

    A global revolution has been taking place in higher education during the past half-century. In the educators' view, four fundamental and interrelated forces have impelled the current academic revolution: the "massification" of higher education, globalization, the advent of the knowledge society and the importance of research universities…

  13. The Industrial Revolution: A Misnomer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cameron, Rondo

    1982-01-01

    Argues that the British industrial revolution was in no sense inevitable and scarcely deserves the term "revolution." Examined are the characteristics which the British shared with other Europeans and ways in which they were distinctive that enabled them to become the first industrial nation. (RM)

  14. Women and the American Revolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Jan

    1994-01-01

    Contends that anyone teaching the history of the American Revolution today faces the challenge of including the role of women. Asserts that historians continue to debate whether the changes in women's role and status were necessary or incidental outcomes of the Revolution. (CFR)

  15. OPACs and the Mobile Revolution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liston, Samuel

    2009-01-01

    Since the turn of the century, one of the hottest topics in the IT world has been the coming mobile revolution. While there's been some arguing over the details, the fundamental tenet of the mobile revolution is that lots and lots of people will start accessing web content from handheld portable devices instead of using a traditional laptop or…

  16. The French Revolution and "Revisionism."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langlois, Claude

    1990-01-01

    Outlines revisionist interpretations of the French Revolution that challenged the dominant historiographical tradition during the 1950s and 1960s. Distinguishes four central characteristics of revisionist works. Identifies a key split in current French Revolution historiography between reflection on nineteenth-century…

  17. The French Revolution and "Revisionism."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langlois, Claude

    1990-01-01

    Outlines revisionist interpretations of the French Revolution that challenged the dominant historiographical tradition during the 1950s and 1960s. Distinguishes four central characteristics of revisionist works. Identifies a key split in current French Revolution historiography between reflection on nineteenth-century…

  18. OPACs and the Mobile Revolution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liston, Samuel

    2009-01-01

    Since the turn of the century, one of the hottest topics in the IT world has been the coming mobile revolution. While there's been some arguing over the details, the fundamental tenet of the mobile revolution is that lots and lots of people will start accessing web content from handheld portable devices instead of using a traditional laptop or…

  19. The Industrial Revolution: A Misnomer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cameron, Rondo

    1982-01-01

    Argues that the British industrial revolution was in no sense inevitable and scarcely deserves the term "revolution." Examined are the characteristics which the British shared with other Europeans and ways in which they were distinctive that enabled them to become the first industrial nation. (RM)

  20. Three Steps to a Revolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gosling, W.

    1980-01-01

    Reviews the uses of television in education and considers the future in relationship to the microelectronics revolution. New microelectronic technology, cheap information storage, and cheap transmission of information are discussed as major components of a revolution in educational television use. (Author/BK)

  1. Revolutions in the earth sciences

    PubMed Central

    Allègre, C.

    1999-01-01

    The 20th century has been a century of scientific revolutions for many disciplines: quantum mechanics in physics, the atomic approach in chemistry, the nonlinear revolution in mathematics, the introduction of statistical physics. The major breakthroughs in these disciplines had all occurred by about 1930. In contrast, the revolutions in the so-called natural sciences, that is in the earth sciences and in biology, waited until the last half of the century. These revolutions were indeed late, but they were no less deep and drastic, and they occurred quite suddenly. Actually, one can say that not one but three revolutions occurred in the earth sciences: in plate tectonics, planetology and the environment. They occurred essentially independently from each other, but as time passed, their effects developed, amplified and started interacting. These effects continue strongly to this day.

  2. African N Assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bekunda, M.; Galford, G. L.; Hickman, J. E.; Palm, C.

    2011-12-01

    Africa's smallholder agricultural systems face unique challenges in planning for reducing poverty, concurrent with adaptation and mitigation to climate change. At continental level, policy seeks to promote a uniquely African Green Revolution to increase crop yields and food production, and improve local livelihoods. However, the consequences on the environment and climate are not clear; these pro-economic development measures should be linked to climate change adaptation and mitigation measures, and research is required to help achieve these policy proposals by identifying options, and testing impacts. In particular, increased nitrogen (N) inputs are essential for increasing food production in Africa, but are accompanied by inevitable increases in losses to the environment. These losses appear to be low at input levels promoted in agricultural development programs, while the increased N inputs both increase current food production and appear to reduce the vulnerability of food production to changes in climate. We present field and remote sensing evidence from Malawi that subsidizing improved seed and fertilizers increases resilience to drought without adding excess N to the environment. In Kenya, field research identified thresholds in N2O losses, where emissions are very low at fertilization rates of less than 200 kg ha-1. Village-scale models have identified potential inefficiencies in the food production process where the largest losses of reactive N occur, and which could be targeted to reduce the amount of N released to the environment. We further review some on-going research activities and progress in Africa that compare different methods of managing resources that target resilience in food production and adaptation to climate change, using nutrient N as an indicator, while evaluating the effects of these resource management practices on ecosystems and the environment.

  3. "Revolution in Understanding"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galuszka, Peter

    2011-01-01

    This article presents an interview with Dr. Edward Ayers, a recognized expert on Southern history and president of the University of Richmond. According to Dr. Ayers, 2011 marks the start of the sesquicentennial of the Civil War and the emancipation of African-Americans. It is an important distinction based on the evolution of Civil War…

  4. The social media revolution.

    PubMed

    Dubose, Cheryl

    2011-01-01

    The growing popularity and use of social media tools such as Facebook, YouTube, Twitter, blogging, and wikis have led to a social media revolution. Given this widespread influence, it is important for educators, administrators, and technologists to understand the risks of using social media in the classroom and workplace. To investigate popular social media sites and their effect on radiologic technology education and business practices. A comprehensive search of literature was performed to examine social media and its applications in education, health care, and business. Social media use is on the rise, affecting all aspects of mainstream society. Leaders in the radiologic sciences should be familiar with social media and cognizant of its risks. Future studies regarding social media use in the radiologic sciences are necessary to determine its effect on the radiologic science community. ©2011 by the American Society of Radiologic Technologists.

  5. Embracing a Revolution - Telemedicine.

    PubMed

    Dheer, Ajay; Chaturvedi, R K

    2005-01-01

    The recent advances in information and communication technologies offer real and practical opportunities to health professionals to share expertise and resources in health care over distances. For a country like India with pockets of medical excellence surrounded by a vast number of badly equipped hospitals with limited specialists, telemedicine could revolutionize health care. The potential of telemedicine seem to be vital in avoiding the frame of travel, in timely getting specialist advise to remote areas, minimizing the cost and of course an opportunity to learn from each other. In developed countries the technological advancement and research aims primarily to satiate the needs of their armed forces and to ensure tactical and technical supremacy. The medical community in the Indian Armed Forces should harness the technologies and embrace this revolution of the information age to provide world class combat casualty care.

  6. Scrutinizing the epigenetics revolution.

    PubMed

    Meloni, Maurizio; Testa, Giuseppe

    2014-11-01

    Epigenetics is one of the most rapidly expanding fields in the life sciences. Its rise is frequently framed as a revolutionary turn that heralds a new epoch both for gene-based epistemology and for the wider discourse on life that pervades knowledge-intensive societies of the molecular age. The fundamentals of this revolution remain however to be scrutinized, and indeed the very contours of what counts as 'epigenetic' are often blurred. This is reflected also in the mounting discourse on the societal implications of epigenetics, in which vast expectations coexist with significant uncertainty about what aspects of this science are most relevant for politics or policy alike. This is therefore a suitable time to reflect on the directions that social theory could most productively take in the scrutiny of this revolution. Here we take this opportunity in both its scholarly and normative dimension, that is, proposing a roadmap for social theorizing on epigenetics that does not shy away from, and indeed hopefully guides, the framing of its most socially relevant outputs. To this end, we start with an epistemological reappraisal of epigenetic discourse that valorizes the blurring of meanings as a critical asset for the field and privileged analytical entry point. We then propose three paths of investigation. The first looks at the structuring elements of controversies and visions around epigenetics. The second probes the mutual constitution between the epigenetic reordering of living phenomena and the normative settlements that orient individual and collective responsibilities. The third highlights the material import of epigenetics and the molecularization of culture that it mediates. We suggest that these complementary strands provide both an epistemically and socially self-reflective framework to advance the study of epigenetics as a molecular juncture between nature and nurture and thus as the new critical frontier in the social studies of the life sciences.

  7. Scrutinizing the epigenetics revolution

    PubMed Central

    Meloni, Maurizio; Testa, Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    Epigenetics is one of the most rapidly expanding fields in the life sciences. Its rise is frequently framed as a revolutionary turn that heralds a new epoch both for gene-based epistemology and for the wider discourse on life that pervades knowledge-intensive societies of the molecular age. The fundamentals of this revolution remain however to be scrutinized, and indeed the very contours of what counts as ‘epigenetic' are often blurred. This is reflected also in the mounting discourse on the societal implications of epigenetics, in which vast expectations coexist with significant uncertainty about what aspects of this science are most relevant for politics or policy alike. This is therefore a suitable time to reflect on the directions that social theory could most productively take in the scrutiny of this revolution. Here we take this opportunity in both its scholarly and normative dimension, that is, proposing a roadmap for social theorizing on epigenetics that does not shy away from, and indeed hopefully guides, the framing of its most socially relevant outputs. To this end, we start with an epistemological reappraisal of epigenetic discourse that valorizes the blurring of meanings as a critical asset for the field and privileged analytical entry point. We then propose three paths of investigation. The first looks at the structuring elements of controversies and visions around epigenetics. The second probes the mutual constitution between the epigenetic reordering of living phenomena and the normative settlements that orient individual and collective responsibilities. The third highlights the material import of epigenetics and the molecularization of culture that it mediates. We suggest that these complementary strands provide both an epistemically and socially self-reflective framework to advance the study of epigenetics as a molecular juncture between nature and nurture and thus as the new critical frontier in the social studies of the life sciences. PMID

  8. Rapid Development of gp120-Focused Neutralizing B Cell Responses during Acute Simian Immunodeficiency Virus Infection of African Green Monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Amos, Joshua D.; Himes, Jonathon E.; Armand, Lawrence; Gurley, Thaddeus C.; Martinez, David R.; Colvin, Lisa; Beck, Krista; Overman, R. Glenn; Liao, Hua-Xin; Moody, M. Anthony

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The initial phases of acute human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection may be critical for development of effective envelope (Env)-specific antibodies capable of impeding the establishment of the latent pool of HIV-1-infected CD4+ T cells, preventing virus-induced immune hyperactivation to limit disease progression and blocking vertical virus transmission. However, the initial systemic HIV-1 Env-specific antibody response targets gp41 epitopes and fails to control acute-phase viremia. African-origin, natural simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) hosts do not typically progress to AIDS and rarely postnatally transmit virus to their infants, despite high milk viral loads. Conversely, SIV-infected rhesus macaques (RMs), Asian-origin nonnatural SIV hosts, sustain pathogenic SIV infections and exhibit higher rates of postnatal virus transmission. In this study, of acute SIV infection, we compared the initial systemic Env-specific B cell responses of AGMs and RMs in order to probe potential factors influencing the lack of disease progression observed in AGMs. AGMs developed higher-magnitude plasma gp120-specific IgA and IgG responses than RMs, whereas RMs developed more robust gp140-directed IgG responses. These gp120-focused antibody responses were accompanied by rapid autologous neutralizing responses during acute SIV infection in AGMs compared to RMs. Moreover, acute SIV infection elicited a higher number of circulating Env-specific memory B cells in peripheral blood of AGMs than in the blood of RMs. These findings indicate that AGMs have initial systemic Env-specific B cell responses to SIV infection distinct from those of a nonnatural SIV host, resulting in more functional SIV-specific humoral responses, which may be involved in impairing pathogenic disease progression and minimizing postnatal transmission. IMPORTANCE Due to the worldwide prevalence of HIV-1 infections, development of a vaccine to prevent infection or limit the viral reservoir

  9. Simian Immunodeficiency Virus SIVagm Efficiently Utilizes Non-CCR5 Entry Pathways in African Green Monkey Lymphocytes: Potential Role for GPR15 and CXCR6 as Viral Coreceptors

    PubMed Central

    Riddick, Nadeene E.; Wu, Fan; Matsuda, Kenta; Whitted, Sonya; Ourmanov, Ilnour; Goldstein, Simoy; Goeken, Robert M.; Plishka, Ronald J.; Buckler-White, Alicia; Brenchley, Jason M.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT African green monkeys (AGM) are natural hosts of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV), and infection in these animals is generally nonpathogenic, whereas infection of nonnatural hosts, such as rhesus macaques (RM), is commonly pathogenic. CCR5 has been described as the primary entry coreceptor for SIV in vivo, while human-derived CXCR6 and GPR15 also appear to be used in vitro. However, sooty mangabeys that are genetically deficient in CCR5 due to an out-of-frame deletion are infectible with SIVsmm, indicating that SIVsmm can use alternative coreceptors in vivo. In this study, we examined the CCR5 dependence of SIV strains derived from vervet AGM (SIVagmVer) and the ability of AGM-derived GPR15 and CXCR6 to serve as potential entry coreceptors. We found that SIVagmVer replicated efficiently in AGM and RM peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) in the presence of the CCR5 antagonist maraviroc, despite the fact that maraviroc was capable of blocking the CCR5-tropic strains SIVmac239, SIVsmE543-3, and simian-human immunodeficiency virus SHIV-AD8 in RM PBMC. We also found that AGM CXCR6 and AGM GPR15, to a lesser extent, supported entry of pseudotype viruses bearing SIVagm envelopes, including SIVagm transmitted/founder envelopes. Lastly, we found that CCR5, GPR15, and CXCR6 mRNAs were detected in AGM and RM memory CD4+ T cells. These results suggest that GPR15 and CXCR6 are expressed on AGM CD4+ T cells and are potential alternative coreceptors for SIVagm use in vivo. These data suggest that the use of non-CCR5 entry pathways may be a common feature of SIV replication in natural host species, with the potential to contribute to nonpathogenicity in these animals. IMPORTANCE African green monkeys (AGM) are natural hosts of SIV, and infection in these animals generally does not cause AIDS, whereas SIV-infected rhesus macaques (RM) typically develop AIDS. Although it has been reported that SIV generally uses CD4 and CCR5 to enter target cells in vivo, other

  10. Living in biological soil crust communities of African deserts-Physiological traits of green algal Klebsormidium species (Streptophyta) to cope with desiccation, light and temperature gradients.

    PubMed

    Karsten, Ulf; Herburger, Klaus; Holzinger, Andreas

    2016-05-01

    Green algae of the genus Klebsormidium (Klebsormidiales, Streptophyta) are typical members of biological soil crusts (BSCs) worldwide. The phylogeny and ecophysiology of Klebsormidium has been intensively studied in recent years, and a new lineage called superclade G, which was isolated from BSCs in arid southern Africa and comprising undescribed species, was reported. Three different African strains, that have previously been isolated from hot-desert BSCs and molecular-taxonomically characterized, were comparatively investigated. In addition, Klebsormidium subtilissimum from a cold-desert habitat (Alaska, USA, superclade E) was included in the study as well. Photosynthetic performance was measured under different controlled abiotic conditions, including dehydration and rehydration, as well as under a light and temperature gradient. All Klebsormidium strains exhibited optimum photosynthetic oxygen production at low photon fluence rates, but with no indication of photoinhibition under high light conditions pointing to flexible acclimation mechanisms of the photosynthetic apparatus. Respiration under lower temperatures was generally much less effective than photosynthesis, while the opposite was true for higher temperatures. The Klebsormidium strains tested showed a decrease and inhibition of the effective quantum yield during desiccation, however with different kinetics. While the single celled and small filamentous strains exhibited relatively fast inhibition, the uniserate filament forming isolates desiccated slower. Except one, all other strains fully recovered effective quantum yield after rehydration. The presented data provide an explanation for the regular occurrence of Klebsormidium strains or species in hot and cold deserts, which are characterized by low water availability and other stressful conditions. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier GmbH.. All rights reserved.

  11. [Age-related changes in bone mineral density, mean width and area of the lumbar vertebrae in male African green monkeys (Cercopithecus aethiops)].

    PubMed

    Hiyaoka, A; Yoshida, T; Cho, F; Yoshikawa, Y

    1994-04-01

    We were able to measure bone mineral density (BMD), mean bone width and the area of the lumbar vertebrae in male African green monkeys with a dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DPX-alpha, Lunar, USA). For analysis of spinal bone mass, mean width and area of the bone, we scanned lumbar vertebrae L3-L5 using a pediatric analysis program. We used restraining bed made of formed polystyrol to support the animal in a supine position. The precision of the measuring technique was calculated by averaging the coefficients of variance of the 5 scans obtained in 5 animals aged from 5 to 7 years. The precision values for BMD, bone width and area were 1.9%, 0.9% and 2.6%, respectively. Furthermore, age-related changes in bone measurements were demonstrated using laboratory-bred males (n = 45) and, additionally, wild-originated males (n = 7, estimated ages over 15 years old). The values of B M D, bone width and area at 6 months old were about 0.3 g/cm2, 1.2cm and 4.5 cm2 respectively. These values increased with aging to about 0.7 g/cm2, 1.5 cm and 11cm2 at 5 years old, respectively, and were judged to reach plateau. However, animals over 10 years old and wild-originated animals which had been kept over 10 years in our breeding colony showed rather smaller BMD and area values than the animals aged 5 to 10 years. The animals aged between 5 and 10 years seemed to have retained a peak bone mass in this primate species.

  12. Use of OpdA, an Organophosphorus (OP) Hydrolase, Prevents Lethality in an African Green Monkey Model of Acute OP Poisoning

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, Colin J; Carville, Angela; Ward, Jeanine; Mansfield, Keith; Ollis, David L.; Khurana, Tejvir; Bird, Steven B.

    2014-01-01

    Organophosphorus (OP) pesticides are a diverse class of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitors that are responsible for tremendous morbidity and mortality worldwide, killing approximately 300,000 people annually. Enzymatic hydrolysis of OPs is a potential therapy for acute poisoning. OpdA, an OP hydrolase isolated from Agrobacterium radiobacter, has been shown to decrease lethality in rodent models of OP poisoning. This study investigated the effects of OpdA on AChE activity, plasma concentrations of OP, and signs of toxicity after administration of dichlorvos to nonhuman primates. A dose of 75 mg/kg dichlorvos given orally caused apnea within 10 minutes with a progressive decrease in heart rate. Blood AChE activity decreased to zero within ten minutes. Respirations and AChE activity did not recover. The mean dichlorvos concentration rose to a peak of 0.66 μg/ml. Treated monkeys received 1.2 mg/kg OpdA iv immediately after poisoning with dichlorvos. In Opda-treated animals, heart and respiratory rates were unchanged from baseline over a 240-minute observation period. AChE activity slowly declined, but remained above 25% of baseline for the entire duration. Dichlorvos concentrations reached a mean peak of 0.19 μg/ml at 40 minutes after poisoning and decreased to a mean of 0.05 μg/ml at 240 minutes. These results show that OpdA hydrolyzes dichlorvos in an African Green Monkey model of lethal poisoning, delays AChE inhibition, and prevents lethality. PMID:24447378

  13. Feudalism and the French Revolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaiser, Thomas E.

    1979-01-01

    Reviews and questions the traditional established interpretation that the French Revolution was about feudalism. Concludes that revisionist historians have cast doubt upon the orthodox theory but that they have not supplied an alternative explanation. (Author/DB)

  14. Feudalism and the French Revolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaiser, Thomas E.

    1979-01-01

    Reviews and questions the traditional established interpretation that the French Revolution was about feudalism. Concludes that revisionist historians have cast doubt upon the orthodox theory but that they have not supplied an alternative explanation. (Author/DB)

  15. Revolutions in Neuroscience: Tool Development

    PubMed Central

    Bickle, John

    2016-01-01

    Thomas Kuhn’s famous model of the components and dynamics of scientific revolutions is still dominant to this day across science, philosophy, and history. The guiding philosophical theme of this article is that, concerning actual revolutions in neuroscience over the past 60 years, Kuhn’s account is wrong. There have been revolutions, and new ones are brewing, but they do not turn on competing paradigms, anomalies, or the like. Instead, they turn exclusively on the development of new experimental tools. I adopt a metascientific approach and examine in detail the development of two recent neuroscience revolutions: the impact of engineered genetically mutated mammals in the search for causal mechanisms of “higher” cognitive functions; and the more recent impact of optogenetics and designer receptors exclusively activated by designer drugs (DREADDs). The two key metascientific concepts, I derive from these case studies are a revolutionary new tool’s motivating problem, and its initial and second-phase hook experiments. These concepts hardly exhaust a detailed metascience of tool development experiments in neuroscience, but they get that project off to a useful start and distinguish the subsequent account of neuroscience revolutions clearly from Kuhn’s famous model. I close with a brief remark about the general importance of molecular biology for a current philosophical understanding of science, as comparable to the place physics occupied when Kuhn formulated his famous theory of scientific revolutions. PMID:27013992

  16. The Copernican Revolution Revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gingerich, O.

    1999-12-01

    The rapid pace of modern astronomy seems driven by technological advances: larger telescopes, new detectors, a wider spectral range, more powerful computers. In contrast, the revolution in astronomy initiated by Nicolaus Copernicus' De revolutionibus seems slow and unrelated to any new observations; it was an idea ``pleasing to the mind." On aesthetic grounds but without empirical proof Copernicus argued for 1) the perfection of the circle, and 2) the elegance of the heliocentric plan. This prize lecture will argue that in fact the slow acceptance of Copernicus' radical heliocentric cosmology resulted primarily because Copernicus was far in advance of the technological developments needed to test his hypotheses. Tycho Brahe's precision instruments (and his failed campaign to find the parallax of Mars) produced the observational base for Kepler's physical astronomy, while in Galileo's hands the telescope provided evidence from the phases of Venus that disproved the Ptolemaic arrangement. Once the new instrumentation opened the way for observational tests, Copernicus' insistence on the uniform, circular motion fell by the wayside, but his other grand aesthetic vision, the heliocentric cosmology, found relatively rapid adoption. The lecture will include vignettes from our three-decades-long search for annotated copies of Copernicus' book, leading to the census of 270 copies of the first edition (Nuremberg, 1543) and nearly 320 copies of the second edition (Basel, 1566).

  17. China's revolution in health.

    PubMed

    Miller, N N; Strickler, J C

    1980-01-01

    Since the revolution and the overthrow of the Gang of Four, China has embarked upon a program of modernization, internationalization, and technological development. The sloganeering campaign for general health as espoused by Chairman Mao is as follows: 1) prevention, including immunizations and early illness detection; 2) serve the workers, peasants, and soldiers; 3) medical work integrated into all other modernization efforts; and 4) combine traditional and Western medicine. The mass campaign aims to involve individuals in improving their health care facilities at the same time they are involved in production of goods and services. Rural workers are mobilized in mass cleanup and prevention campaigns. Of the 8.7 million health workers, nearly 2 million are barefoot doctors, or other types of doctors serving at the lowest rung of paramedical service. Basic services are widely available. Costs are low, access is easy. For about 95% of illnesses the system works very well. Patients with illnesses requiring high technology care, e.g., organ transplant, cannot survive. Chairman Mao codified traditional medicine as a curriculum component for education; it is based on ancient West-Central Chinese practices, mostly from the Han people. The 4 main components are theory, diagnosis and prescription, herbal medicine, and accupuncture.

  18. Nanosciences: Evolution or revolution?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pautrat, Jean-Louis

    2011-09-01

    In miniaturized objects fabricated by modern technology the smallest linear size may be of a few nanometers. In the field of microelectronics, the advantages of such a miniaturization are huge (increased complexity and reliability, reduced costs). The technology is now approaching the limits where further size reduction will be impossible, except for very novel techniques such as molecular electronics. Miniaturization research has also led to the discovery of nanometric objects such as carbon nanotubes, which turn out to be particularly appropriate for inventing new materials. Miniaturization techniques have been progressively applied in other fields, with the hope of obtaining improvements similar to those encountered in microelectronics. Examples are biochips, which concentrate on a few cm 2 the recognition of ADN sequences, or 'lab-on-a-chip' devices, each of which constitutes a whole laboratory of chemical analysis, or MEMs (Micro Electro Mechanical Systems). New therapies will use miniaturized objects with multiple functions: For instance a nanoparticle can both recognize the target organ thanks to an appropriate protein, and deliver the therapeutic molecule to this target. These results have only been possible through new observation instruments, able to observe and manipulate nano objects. Is the observed evolution really a revolution of science and techniques? This is a point discussed in the conclusion, which also deals with risks associated to nanotechnologies, while the need for a social regulation is stressed.

  19. Telemedicine: the slow revolution.

    PubMed

    Moncrief, Jack W

    2014-01-01

    The use of interactive video has been recognized as a means of delivering medical support to isolated areas since the 1950s. The Department of Defense recognized early the capacity of telemedicine to deliver medical care and support to front-line military personnel. In 1989, the Texas Telemedicine Project received grants and support from the then American Telephone and Telegraph Company (now AT&T) and the Meadows Foundation of Dallas, Texas, to establish and evaluate telemedicine delivery in central Texas. That project had 6 connected telemedicine sites: 3 in Austin, Texas, and 3 in Giddings, Texas (a small community 55 miles to the southeast of Austin). The sites in Giddings included a chronic outpatient dialysis facility, an inpatient psychiatric hospital, and the emergency department at Giddings Hospital. Patient contact began in April 1991 and continued through March 1993. During that period, data on the 1500 patient contacts made were recorded. After termination of the Texas Telemedicine Project, AT&T continued to provide the transmission lines, and between 1993 and 1996, another 12,000 patient contacts were made. Approximately 80% were dialysis evaluations and 20% were non-dialysis primary care contacts. The original cost of materials and equipment in the Texas Telemedicine Project exceeded $50,000 per site. Today, a secure Internet connection with full-motion video and wireless data transfer to almost any location in the world is achievable with an iPad. Multiple inexpensive applications with connections for electrocardiogram, otoscope, and stethoscope, among others, make this technology extremely inexpensive and user-friendly. The revolution now is rapidly moving forward, with Medicare reimbursing telemedicine contacts in medically underserved areas. Multiple bills are before Congress to expand Medicare and therefore private insurance payment for this service.

  20. Thailand's reproductive revolution.

    PubMed

    Knodel, J

    1987-01-01

    Thailand has achieved a remarkable population revolution in the past 15 years, resulting in a fertility decline of 44%, the 3rd greatest decline of the major developing countries. Thailand is quite distinct from either China or South Korea, the leaders in fertility decline. It has neither China's authoritarian power system to enforce population control nor the highly developed, Westernized outlook of South Korea. Instead it achieved its astounding fertility drop through a noncoercive family planning program operating within a context of rapid social change and a cultural setting. Thailand's drop in population growth has touched almost all segments of Thai society. The preferred number of children among couples married less than 5 years has dropped in both rural and urban families at almost exactly the same rate, from about 3.2 in 1969 to 2.3 in 1984. Religious groups represent the only substantial difference in family size preference; Moslem women married less than 5 years stated a desired average of 3.1 children versus 2.3 for Buddhist women. The direct case of the fertility drop is a national increase in contraceptive use. In 1984, 65% of Thai women reported using contraception. The Thai population, however, was ripe for using contraception when it became available due to 1) mass media creating a desire for consumer goods, 2) the increased costs of education to parents, 3) the willingness of parents to trade off "parent repayment" from many children for a few quality children, 4) couples' autonomy in fertility decision making, 5) the high status of women in Thailand, and 6) the fact that Buddhism poses no barriers to contraception. Current trends show no immediate sign of change.

  1. It Isn't Easy Being Green, or Is It?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stone, James R., III

    2010-01-01

    In the midst of an economic recession, double digit unemployment rates, and financial bailouts lies a promise of economic recovery through investments and training for a green economy and green collar occupations. This article discusses the impact of the green revolution on job creation and on career and technical education (CTE). The green…

  2. A host-range restricted parainfluenza virus type 3 (PIV3) expressing the human metapneumovirus (hMPV) fusion protein elicits protective immunity in African green monkeys.

    PubMed

    Tang, Roderick S; Mahmood, Kutubuddin; Macphail, Mia; Guzzetta, Jeanne M; Haller, Aurelia A; Liu, Hui; Kaur, Jasmine; Lawlor, Heather A; Stillman, Elizabeth A; Schickli, Jeanne H; Fouchier, Ron A M; Osterhaus, Albert D M E; Spaete, Richard R

    2005-02-25

    Human metapneumovirus (hMPV) infection causes respiratory tract disease similar to that observed during human respiratory syncytial virus infection (hRSV). hMPV infections have been reported across the entire age spectrum although the most severe disease occurs in young children. No vaccines, chemotherapeutics or antibodies are presently available for preventing or treating hMPV infections. In this study, a bovine/human chimeric parainfluenza virus type 3 (b/h PIV3) expressing the human parainfluenza type 3 (hPIV3) fusion (F) and hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) proteins was engineered to express hMPV fusion (F) protein from the second genome position (b/h PIV3/hMPV F2) with the goal of generating a novel hMPV vaccine. b/h PIV3/hMPV F2 was previously shown to protect hamsters from challenge with wt hMPV (Tang RS, Schickli JH, Macphail M, Fernandes F, Bicha L, Spaete J, et al. Effects of human metapneumovirus and respiratory syncytial virus antigen insertion in two 3' proximal genome positions of bovine/human parainfluenza virus type 3 on virus replication and immunogenicity. J Virol 2003;77:10819-28) and is here further evaluated for efficacy and immunogenicity in African green monkeys (AGMs). AGMs immunized intranasally and intratracheally with b/h PIV3/hMPV F2 generated hMPV- and hPIV3-specific humoral and cellular immune responses and were protected from wt hMPV infection. In a separate study, the host-range restriction of b/h PIV3/hMPV F2 replication relative to wt hPIV3 was performed in rhesus monkeys to demonstrate attenuation. These studies showed that b/h PIV3/hMPV F2 was immunogenic, protective and attenuated in non-human primates and warrants further evaluation in humans as a vaccine candidate for prevention of hMPV-associated respiratory tract diseases.

  3. Revolution in nuclear detection affairs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stern, Warren M.

    2014-05-01

    The detection of nuclear or radioactive materials for homeland or national security purposes is inherently difficult. This is one reason detection efforts must be seen as just one part of an overall nuclear defense strategy which includes, inter alia, material security, detection, interdiction, consequence management and recovery. Nevertheless, one could argue that there has been a revolution in detection affairs in the past several decades as the innovative application of new technology has changed the character and conduct of detection operations. This revolution will likely be most effectively reinforced in the coming decades with the networking of detectors and innovative application of anomaly detection algorithms.

  4. Revolution in nuclear detection affairs

    SciTech Connect

    Stern, Warren M.

    2014-05-09

    The detection of nuclear or radioactive materials for homeland or national security purposes is inherently difficult. This is one reason detection efforts must be seen as just one part of an overall nuclear defense strategy which includes, inter alia, material security, detection, interdiction, consequence management and recovery. Nevertheless, one could argue that there has been a revolution in detection affairs in the past several decades as the innovative application of new technology has changed the character and conduct of detection operations. This revolution will likely be most effectively reinforced in the coming decades with the networking of detectors and innovative application of anomaly detection algorithms.

  5. Information Technology and the Third Industrial Revolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzsimmons, Joe

    1994-01-01

    Discusses the so-called third industrial revolution, or the information revolution. Topics addressed include the progression of the revolution in the U.S. economy, in Europe, and in Third World countries; the empowering technologies, including digital switches, optical fiber, semiconductors, CD-ROM, networks, and combining technologies; and future…

  6. The French Revolution: A Simulation Game

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiernan, James Patrick

    1978-01-01

    Describes a college-level simulation game about the French Revolution. Based on George Lefebvre's "The Coming of the French Revolution," the role-play focuses on social and economic causes of the revolution and allows students to understand citizens' grievances against the French government. (AV)

  7. The French Revolution: A Simulation Game

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiernan, James Patrick

    1978-01-01

    Describes a college-level simulation game about the French Revolution. Based on George Lefebvre's "The Coming of the French Revolution," the role-play focuses on social and economic causes of the revolution and allows students to understand citizens' grievances against the French government. (AV)

  8. Information Technology and the Third Industrial Revolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzsimmons, Joe

    1994-01-01

    Discusses the so-called third industrial revolution, or the information revolution. Topics addressed include the progression of the revolution in the U.S. economy, in Europe, and in Third World countries; the empowering technologies, including digital switches, optical fiber, semiconductors, CD-ROM, networks, and combining technologies; and future…

  9. East African Rift Valley, Kenya

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    This rare, cloud free view of the East African Rift Valley, Kenya (1.5N, 35.5E) shows a clear view of the Turkwell River Valley, an offshoot of the African REift System. The East African Rift is part of a vast plate fracture which extends from southern Turkey, through the Red Sea, East Africa and into Mozambique. Dark green patches of forests are seen along the rift margin and tea plantations occupy the cooler higher ground.

  10. East African Rift Valley, Kenya

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    This rare, cloud free view of the East African Rift Valley, Kenya (1.5N, 35.5E) shows a clear view of the Turkwell River Valley, an offshoot of the African REift System. The East African Rift is part of a vast plate fracture which extends from southern Turkey, through the Red Sea, East Africa and into Mozambique. Dark green patches of forests are seen along the rift margin and tea plantations occupy the cooler higher ground.

  11. Automation; The New Industrial Revolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnstein, George E.

    Automation is a word that describes the workings of computers and the innovations of automatic transfer machines in the factory. As the hallmark of the new industrial revolution, computers displace workers and create a need for new skills and retraining programs. With improved communication between industry and the educational community to…

  12. Cuba: Background to a Revolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De La Fuente, Alejandro

    2000-01-01

    Provides historical information on Cuba. Addresses early colonization, the advent of plantation agriculture, the role and presence of the United States in the Caribbean and Cuba, and the social and economic developments in Cuba after the revolution in 1959 led by Fidel Castro. (CMK)

  13. The Quality Revolution in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonstingl, John Jay

    1992-01-01

    Whether viewed through Deming's 14 points, Juran's Trilogy, or Kaoru Ishikawa's Thought Revolution, Total Quality Management embodies 4 fundamental tenets: primary focus on customers and suppliers, universal commitment to continuous improvement, a systems approach, and top management responsibility. Educational organizations are recreating their…

  14. Humanities II: Man and Revolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanton School District, Wilmington, DE.

    "Man and Revolution," the second syllabus in a sequential program, provides 11th grade students with a humanities course that deals heavily in political theory. The rationale, objectives, guidelines, methods, and arrangement are the same as those described in SO 004 030. The introductory unit, followed by further units, helps students define and…

  15. Ruin and Revolution in ``Hamlet."

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Usher, P. D.

    1999-05-01

    In the cosmic allegorical interpretation of Shakespeare's "Hamlet" (BAAS 28, 859 & 1305, 1996; Mercury 26:1, 20, 1997; RPS 18:3, 6, 1997; Giornale di Astronomia 24:3, 27, 1998), the usurper King Claudius, namesake of Ptolemy, personifies geocentricity. Textual support for this reading is found in 1.2 where Hamlet is associated with the Sun, as befits a rightful heir, while Claudius is associated with the Earth. In 3.3 Claudius fears Hamlet's antics. Rosencrantz states that the lives of many depend on the well-being of the King. He warns that if the King were to be imperiled, his subjects, those "ten thousand lesser things", would fall in a "boisterous ruin" along with "each small annexment" and "petty consequence." These 10,000 lesser lights are the naked eye stars (mv ~ 6.5) which would collapse with the demise of the pre-Diggesian firmament, along with ancient planets and their geometrical contrivances. In 5.1 Shakespeare puns on "De revolutionibus" when he refers to "fine revolution." The double meaning of "revolution" (alteration, orbital motion) was in use long before 1600. Since "revolution" is used in the context of digging, it may refer as much to the Diggesian as the Copernican Revolution. Shakespeare's prescience is revealed by his anticipation of change, as encapsulated geocentricity is transformed to stellar boundlessness, while his presence is suggested by fatherly concerns and ghost-like direction.

  16. The Futurist Revolution in Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cornish, Edward S.

    1981-01-01

    U.S. society needs to become oriented toward the future if it is to cope with rapid social and technological change; a future-oriented society is necessarily a research-oriented society. Priorities for research are in national and world economies, the communications revolution, and the future of the family. (MSE)

  17. NASA Facts, Orbits and Revolutions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC.

    This pamphlet is intended for senior high physics students. It contains information on the sidereal and synodic periods of revolution of an orbiting satellite, including their calculation. This pamphlet is one of the NASA Facts Science Series (each of which consists of four pages) and is designed to fit in the standard size three-ring notebook.…

  18. The Geophysical Revolution in Geology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Peter J.

    1980-01-01

    Discussed is the physicists' impact on the revolution in the earth sciences particularly involving the overthrow of the fixist notions in geology. Topics discussed include the mobile earth, the route to plate tectonics, radiometric dating, the earth's magnetic field, ocean floor spreading plate boundaries, infiltration of physics into geology and…

  19. Flowing through the American Revolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moon, Kathy

    1992-01-01

    Describes a two-day lesson plan for teaching U.S. history at the fifth-grade level. Focuses on the cause and effect relationship between historical events of 1763-76 and how they led to the American Revolution. Includes a flow chart to be used as a test question and a basis for class discussion. (DK)

  20. Electronic Revolution on Main Street.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Gail Garfield

    1986-01-01

    The electronics revolution is changing way work is done and description of available jobs, shifting some jobs from office to home, and offering new communication services. Technology's impact on central business districts (CBDs) will depend on broad economic forces, but its effects on CBDs as business locations will be conditioned by local real…

  1. Cuba: Background to a Revolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De La Fuente, Alejandro

    2000-01-01

    Provides historical information on Cuba. Addresses early colonization, the advent of plantation agriculture, the role and presence of the United States in the Caribbean and Cuba, and the social and economic developments in Cuba after the revolution in 1959 led by Fidel Castro. (CMK)

  2. Humanities II: Man and Revolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanton School District, Wilmington, DE.

    "Man and Revolution," the second syllabus in a sequential program, provides 11th grade students with a humanities course that deals heavily in political theory. The rationale, objectives, guidelines, methods, and arrangement are the same as those described in SO 004 030. The introductory unit, followed by further units, helps students define and…

  3. Extreme Programming: A Kuhnian Revolution?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Northover, Mandy; Northover, Alan; Gruner, Stefan; Kourie, Gerrick G.; Boake, Andrew

    This paper critically assesses the extent to which the Agile Software community's use of Thomas Kuhn's theory of revolutionary scientific change is justified. It will be argued that Kuhn's concepts of "scientific revolution" and "paradigm shift" cannot adequately explain the change from one type of software methodology to another.

  4. Electronic Revolution on Main Street.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Gail Garfield

    1986-01-01

    The electronics revolution is changing way work is done and description of available jobs, shifting some jobs from office to home, and offering new communication services. Technology's impact on central business districts (CBDs) will depend on broad economic forces, but its effects on CBDs as business locations will be conditioned by local real…

  5. The Quality Revolution in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonstingl, John Jay

    1992-01-01

    Whether viewed through Deming's 14 points, Juran's Trilogy, or Kaoru Ishikawa's Thought Revolution, Total Quality Management embodies 4 fundamental tenets: primary focus on customers and suppliers, universal commitment to continuous improvement, a systems approach, and top management responsibility. Educational organizations are recreating their…

  6. The Information Revolution in Geography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tikunov, Vladimir S.

    1996-01-01

    Describes a number of topics in geography that are effected by the multimedia information revolution. These include research in political geography, finance, and the geography of tourism and medicine. Considers new technologies assisting spatial modeling and visualization of data and their effects on these fields. (MJP)

  7. The Geophysical Revolution in Geology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Peter J.

    1980-01-01

    Discussed is the physicists' impact on the revolution in the earth sciences particularly involving the overthrow of the fixist notions in geology. Topics discussed include the mobile earth, the route to plate tectonics, radiometric dating, the earth's magnetic field, ocean floor spreading plate boundaries, infiltration of physics into geology and…

  8. The Declaration of Independence: To What Extent Did It Have Meaning for African Americans. Lesson Plan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pyne, John; Sesso, Gloria

    1995-01-01

    Presents a high school history lesson based on the National Standards for United States History. Considers the effect of the American Revolution and the Declaration of Independence on free and enslaved African Americans. (CFR)

  9. The Declaration of Independence: To What Extent Did It Have Meaning for African Americans. Lesson Plan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pyne, John; Sesso, Gloria

    1995-01-01

    Presents a high school history lesson based on the National Standards for United States History. Considers the effect of the American Revolution and the Declaration of Independence on free and enslaved African Americans. (CFR)

  10. Revolution and progress in medicine.

    PubMed

    Goodwin, William

    2015-02-01

    This paper adapts Kuhn's conceptual framework to developmental episodes in the theory and practice of medicine. Previous attempts to understand the reception of Ignaz Semmelweis's work on puerperal fever in Kuhnian terms are used as a starting point. The author identifies some limitations of these attempts and proposes a new way of understanding the core Kuhnian notions of "paradigm," "progress," and "revolution" in the context of a socially embedded technoscience such as medicine.

  11. Building beyond the Evaluation Of Environmental Education and Sustainable Development in African Schools and Communities: The Women Global Green Action Network (WGGAN) Africa Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Enie, Rosemary Olive Mbone

    2006-01-01

    This article describes the Community Health Education and School Sanitation (CHESS) Project, an initiative by the Women Global Green Action Network International to support community-based environmental projects in Africa. The CHESS Project uses women, children and youth to develop more sustainable health and sanitation systems in urban and rural…

  12. Microbial proteomics: the quiet revolution

    SciTech Connect

    Seraphin, Bertrand; Hettich, Robert {Bob} L

    2012-01-01

    Technological developments in DNA sequencing and their application to study thousands of microbial genomes or even microbial ecosystems still today often make the headlines of general newspapers and scientific journals. These revolutionary changes are hiding another revolution that is unfolding more quietly in the background: the development of microbial proteomics to study genome expression products. It is important to recognize that while DNA sequencing reveals extensive details about the genomic potential of an organism or community, proteomic measurements reveal the functional gene products that are present and operational under specific environmental conditions, and thus perhaps better characterize the critical biomolecules that execute the life processes (enzymes, signaling, structural factors, etc.).

  13. Improving photosynthesis for algal biofuels: toward a green revolution.

    PubMed

    Stephenson, Patrick G; Moore, C Mark; Terry, Matthew J; Zubkov, Mikhail V; Bibby, Thomas S

    2011-12-01

    Biofuels derived from marine algae are a potential source of sustainable energy that can contribute to future global demands. The realisation of this potential will require manipulation of the fundamental biology of algal physiology to increase the efficiency with which solar energy is ultimately converted into usable biomass. This 'photosynthetic solar energy conversion efficiency' sets an upper limit on the potential of algal-derived biofuels. In this review, we outline photosynthetic molecular targets that could be manipulated to increase the efficiency and yield of algal biofuel production. We also highlight modern 'omic' and high-throughput technologies that might enable identification, selection and improvement of algal cell lines on timescales relevant for achieving significant contributions to future energy solutions.

  14. The Green Revolution in Transportation. Resource Recovery. Technology Learning Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Technology Teacher, 1991

    1991-01-01

    These two learning activities provide context, objectives, list of materials, student activity, and evaluation criteria. The first involves an automotive class in developing a model alternative fueled vehicle, and the second involves the design of a useful recyclable product. (JOW)

  15. The Green Revolution: botanical contributions to forensics and drug enforcement.

    PubMed

    Miller Coyle, H; Ladd, C; Palmbach, T; Lee, H C

    2001-06-01

    Forensic botany encompasses many sub-disciplines, including plant anatomy, plant ecology, plant systematics, plant molecular biology, palynology, and limnology. Although the field of forensic botany has been recognized since the mid-1900's, the use of trace plant material as physical evidence in criminal casework is still novel. A review of published forensic casework that used plant evidence is presented here. Cases include the analysis of wood evidence in the Charles Lindbergh baby kidnapping, the use of pollen in establishing the location of a sexual assault, and pollen analysis to determine the time of year for burial in a mass grave. Additional cases discuss the use of plant growth rates to determine the time of a body deposit in a field, the use of diatoms to link individuals to a crime scene, and plant DNA typing to match seedpods to a tree under which a body was discovered. New DNA methods in development for plant species identification and individualization for forensic applications are also discussed. These DNA methods may be useful for linking an individual to a crime scene or physical evidence to a geographic location, or tracking marijuana distribution patterns.

  16. The new Green Revolution: Sustainable intensification of agriculture by intercropping.

    PubMed

    Martin-Guay, Marc-Olivier; Paquette, Alain; Dupras, Jérôme; Rivest, David

    2017-10-06

    Satisfying the nutritional needs of a growing population whilst limiting environmental repercussions will require sustainable intensification of agriculture. We argue that intercropping, which is the simultaneous production of multiple crops on the same area of land, could play an essential role in this intensification. We carried out the first global meta-analysis on the multifaceted benefits of intercropping. The objective of this study was to determine the benefits of intercropping in terms of energetic, economic and land-sparing potential through the framework of the stress-gradient hypothesis. We expected more intercropping benefits under stressful abiotic conditions. From 126 studies that were retrieved from the scientific literature, 939 intercropping observations were considered. When compared to the same area of land that was managed in monoculture, intercrops produced 38% more gross energy (mean relative land output of 1.38) and 33% more gross incomes (mean relative land output of 1.33) on average, whilst using 23% less land (mean land equivalent ratio of 1.30). Irrigation and the aridity index in non-irrigated intercrops did not affect land equivalent ratio, thereby indicating that intercropping remains beneficial, both under stressful and non-stressful contexts concerning moisture availability. Fertilisation and intercropping patterns (rows and strips vs. mixed) did not affect land equivalent ratio. Although intercropping offers a great opportunity for intensification of existing agricultural lands, many challenges need to be tackled by experts from multiple disciplines to ensure its feasible implementation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. The Coming Primary Care Revolution.

    PubMed

    Ellner, Andrew L; Phillips, Russell S

    2017-04-01

    The United States has the most expensive, technologically advanced, and sub-specialized healthcare system in the world, yet it has worse population health status than any other high-income country. Rising healthcare costs, high rates of waste, the continued trend towards chronic non-communicable disease, and the growth of new market entrants that compete with primary care services have set the stage for fundamental change in all of healthcare, driven by a revolution in primary care. We believe that the coming primary care revolution ought to be guided by the following design principles: 1) Payment must adequately support primary care and reward value, including non-visit-based care. 2) Relationships will serve as the bedrock of value in primary care, and will increasingly be fostered by teams, improved clinical operations, and technology, with patients and non-physicians assuming an ever-increasing role in most aspects of healthcare. 3) Generalist physicians will increasingly focus on high-acuity and high-complexity presentations, and primary care teams will increasingly manage conditions that specialists managed in the past. 4) Primary care will refocus on whole-person care, and address health behaviors as well as vision, hearing, dental, and social services. Design based on these principles should lead to higher-value healthcare, but will require new approaches to workforce training.

  18. No sire, it's a revolution.

    PubMed

    Moccia, P

    1990-09-01

    In much the way 18th century France was ripe for a revolution, so are the two social systems within which we live and work: health care and higher education. In health care, too many are suffering so that a few might live lives of luxury. Higher education is structured so as to reproduce a social order of class privilege and patriarchal values. For a complex set of reasons, (some known to us, many more beyond our consciousness) we have chosen higher education and nursing education as our arena--as the place where we might contribute to the world order, to our society, to individuals and communities who are striving to be healthy. Our project, then, is to enable others so that they might enable still others: to teach and learn with our students who are our colleagues in creating a future; to teach and learn in caring ways that will serve as prototypes for caring communities. To those who would dismiss the curriculum revolution as a fad and those involved it as aging malcontents, I refer them to the diaries of Governor Morris, an American guest of Marie Antoinette who was at Versailles during the months before the fall of the Bastille on July 14, 1789: Yesterday, it was the Fashion at Versailles not to believe that there had been any disturbances at Paris. I presume this Day's Transactions will induce a Conviction that all is not perfectly quiet (Pernoud, 1960, p. 45).

  19. Enlarging Our Perspectives on Two American Revolutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Branson, Margaret Stimmann

    1976-01-01

    Examines ways in which social studies teachers can help students identify and evaluate significant changes in the past and present and enlarge their perspectives on change. Information on the roles of women in the first American Revolution and insights on the present revolution are provided. (Author/DB)

  20. Teaching Brinton's Model for Analyzing Revolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benoit, Bob; Braun, Joseph A., Jr.

    1988-01-01

    Describes a model for studying and identifying revolution condensed from Crane Brinton's "Anatomy of Revolution." Explains how the characteristics of the model can be applied to hypothetical, historical, and contemporary situations. Outlines the teaching sequence, illustrating how students are taught a historical model and how to apply…

  1. The Cultural Revolution and Contemporary Chinese Art

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Guey-Meei; Suchan, Tom

    2009-01-01

    Using this instructional resource, teachers can explore the impact of the Cultural Revolution (1966-1976) on contemporary art in mainland China with their students. The three artists Luo Zhongli (b. 1948), Xu Bing (b. 1955), and Wang Guangyi (b. 1957) came of age during the Cultural Revolution and are representative of a much larger number of…

  2. The Press and the Bolivian National Revolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knudson, Jerry W.

    1973-01-01

    Social revolutions, which frequently use the press as a propaganda weapon, have been rare in Latin America despite the striking social inequalities of the region. Only three classic socioeconomic revolutions have unfolded in the hemisphere--in Mexico in 1910, in Bolivia in 1952, and in Cuba in 1959. Bolivia attempted to effect radical reforms…

  3. Enlarging Our Perspectives on Two American Revolutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Branson, Margaret Stimmann

    1976-01-01

    Examines ways in which social studies teachers can help students identify and evaluate significant changes in the past and present and enlarge their perspectives on change. Information on the roles of women in the first American Revolution and insights on the present revolution are provided. (Author/DB)

  4. Extending the Computer Revolution into Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deutsch, Leslie J.

    1999-01-01

    The computer revolution is far from over on Earth. It is just beginning in space. We can look forward to an era of enhanced scientific exploration of the solar system and even other start systems. We can look forward to the benefits of this space revolution to commercial uses on and around Earth.

  5. The Information "Revolution": Information, Communications and Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ostry, Bernard

    Today's communications systems and technology facilitate the erosion of cultural differences, threatening cultural sovereignty. In the fifteenth century, the first information revolution created the concept of the nation-state with its unique cultural identity. The technology of the second information revolution, which has advanced video…

  6. The Nature of the Darwinian Revolution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayr, Ernst

    1972-01-01

    Analysis of the writings of anti-evolutionists contemporary with Darwin reveals that there were many objections that had to be overcome and that the Darwinian revolution" does not conform to the simple model of a scientific revolution as outlined by T. S. Kuhn. (AL)

  7. The Cultural Revolution and Contemporary Chinese Art

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Guey-Meei; Suchan, Tom

    2009-01-01

    Using this instructional resource, teachers can explore the impact of the Cultural Revolution (1966-1976) on contemporary art in mainland China with their students. The three artists Luo Zhongli (b. 1948), Xu Bing (b. 1955), and Wang Guangyi (b. 1957) came of age during the Cultural Revolution and are representative of a much larger number of…

  8. Economic Motives Behind the 2011 Egyptian Revolution

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-01

    pdf. 119 Ibid. 120 Andrey V. Korotayev and Julia V. Zinkina, “Egyptian Revolution: A Demographic Structural Analysis,” Entelequia. Revista ...Structural Analysis,” Entelequia. Revista Interdisciplinar 13 (2011). Lesch, Ann M. “Egypt’s Spring: Causes of the Revolution.” Middle East Policy

  9. The Nature of the Darwinian Revolution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayr, Ernst

    1972-01-01

    Analysis of the writings of anti-evolutionists contemporary with Darwin reveals that there were many objections that had to be overcome and that the Darwinian revolution" does not conform to the simple model of a scientific revolution as outlined by T. S. Kuhn. (AL)

  10. COUNTER-REVOLUTION IN FOREIGN LANGUAGE TEACHING.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    HOCKING, ELTON

    THE AUTHOR STATES THAT THE AUDIOLINGUAL REVOLUTION IS BEING SUBJECTED TO A COUNTER-REVOLUTION IS APPARENT IN SUCH RECENT DEVELOPMENTS AS THE 1966 NORTHEAST CONFERENCE, WHEN CARROLL, FERGUSON, AND CHOMSKY DENIED THAT PSYCHOLOGY AND LINGUISTICS PROVIDE DIRECT SUPPORT FOR AUDIOLINGUAL TEACHING, THE WRITINGS OF RIVERS, HAYES, BELASCO, AND VALDMAN WHO…

  11. Chilean medicine under social revolution.

    PubMed

    Medina, E; Cruz-Coke, R

    1976-07-22

    During the last decade Chile has experienced a series of social changes under Christian Socialist (1964-1970), Marxist Socialist (1970-1973) and military (1973-1975) governments. These changes grossly affected the evolution of medicine and public health in Chile. Nevertheless, vital statistics show an overall improvement in health indexes, with a short interruption during the Marxist government. During this period medical standards and the quality of medical services declined when revolutionaries disrupted the organization of traditional socialized Chilean medicine founded 50 years ago. The vital statistics of 1974 suggest an overall recovery, but physical and human resources for health, eroded by revolution and the present acute economic crisis, have not yet begun to improve. Nevertheless, Chilean medicine has reasumed the technical character that should never have been abandoned.

  12. Intelligent hearing aids: the next revolution.

    PubMed

    Tao Zhang; Mustiere, Fred; Micheyl, Christophe

    2016-08-01

    The first revolution in hearing aids came from nonlinear amplification, which allows better compensation for both soft and loud sounds. The second revolution stemmed from the introduction of digital signal processing, which allows better programmability and more sophisticated algorithms. The third revolution in hearing aids is wireless, which allows seamless connectivity between a pair of hearing aids and with more and more external devices. Each revolution has fundamentally transformed hearing aids and pushed the entire industry forward significantly. Machine learning has received significant attention in recent years and has been applied in many other industries, e.g., robotics, speech recognition, genetics, and crowdsourcing. We argue that the next revolution in hearing aids is machine intelligence. In fact, this revolution is already quietly happening. We will review the development in at least three major areas: applications of machine learning in speech enhancement; applications of machine learning in individualization and customization of signal processing algorithms; applications of machine learning in improving the efficiency and effectiveness of clinical tests. With the advent of the internet of things, the above developments will accelerate. This revolution will bring patient satisfactions to a new level that has never been seen before.

  13. The five generations of American medical revolutions.

    PubMed

    Garrison, R L

    1995-03-01

    Current medical authors frequently use the term "revolution," yet American medicine is resisting change rather than embracing it. The last completed American medical revolutionary movement was the specialist-technologist movement of the late 19th and early 20th centuries. This paper describes a five-generational model of revolution. First-generation persons foment revolution; second-generation persons shape it into workable form and precipitate conflict; third-generation persons join the fight only when it appears to be all but won; fourth-generation persons enjoy the fruits of revolution; and fifth-generation persons, having risen to domination in the mature system, resist all attempts at reform by the next round of revolutionaries. In political revolutions, severe reactionary activity by the ruling party is often an indicator of an imminent overthrow by revolution. In scientific revolutions, the opposition of an established (specialist-technologist) paradigm to an emerging alternative (generalist) paradigm increases in intensity as the old order declines in strength; the opposition becomes most fierce just before the collapse of the old order. American specialist-technologist medicine, declining into its senescent fifth generation, will resist all but incremental change whenever possible, and accept major change only by force.

  14. Quantum technology: the second quantum revolution.

    PubMed

    Dowling, Jonathan P; Milburn, Gerard J

    2003-08-15

    We are currently in the midst of a second quantum revolution. The first quantum revolution gave us new rules that govern physical reality. The second quantum revolution will take these rules and use them to develop new technologies. In this review we discuss the principles upon which quantum technology is based and the tools required to develop it. We discuss a number of examples of research programs that could deliver quantum technologies in coming decades including: quantum information technology, quantum electromechanical systems, coherent quantum electronics, quantum optics and coherent matter technology.

  15. Making Room for Revolution in Social Studies Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sears, Alan

    2009-01-01

    Revolutions of all kinds are a mainstay of social studies and history classes across Canada. While revolution as subject matter is prevalent in Canadian social studies classrooms, it is unclear the degree to which what Howard Gardner calls the "cognitive revolution" has found its way into those same classrooms. This is the revolution in…

  16. The French Revolution after 200 Years: Is It Finally Over?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shorrock, William I.

    1990-01-01

    Maintains that the effects of the French Revolution continue today. Presents scholarly views on the significance of the revolution. Challenges the view that the French Revolution led to the violent totalitarian regimes of the twentieth century. Traces the history of the revolution and outlines its legacy. (RW)

  17. Making Room for Revolution in Social Studies Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sears, Alan

    2009-01-01

    Revolutions of all kinds are a mainstay of social studies and history classes across Canada. While revolution as subject matter is prevalent in Canadian social studies classrooms, it is unclear the degree to which what Howard Gardner calls the "cognitive revolution" has found its way into those same classrooms. This is the revolution in…

  18. The French Revolution after 200 Years: Is It Finally Over?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shorrock, William I.

    1990-01-01

    Maintains that the effects of the French Revolution continue today. Presents scholarly views on the significance of the revolution. Challenges the view that the French Revolution led to the violent totalitarian regimes of the twentieth century. Traces the history of the revolution and outlines its legacy. (RW)

  19. Development of Eimeria bovis in vitro: suitability of several bovine, human and porcine endothelial cell lines, bovine fetal gastrointestinal, Madin-Darby bovine kidney (MDBK) and African green monkey kidney (VERO) cells.

    PubMed

    Hermosilla, C; Barbisch, B; Heise, A; Kowalik, S; Zahner, H

    2002-04-01

    Several bovine, human and porcine endothelial cell lines, bovine fetal gastrointestinal cells (BFGC), Madin-Darby bovine kidney (MDBK) and African green monkey kidney (VERO) cells were exposed in vitro to sporozoites of Eimeria bovis. Parasites invaded all cells used and changed their shape to more stumpy forms within 12 h. Sporozoites left their host cells and invaded new ones frequently within the first 12 h post-infection. Further development took place only in bovine cells, although parasites survived in the other cells for at least 3 weeks. Within the non-bovine cells, conspicuously enlarged parasitophorous vacuoles developed in VERO cells and reached a diameter of 15-20 microm. The best development to first generation schizonts with regard both to time required to mature, to schizont size and to merozoite yields was observed in BFGC, followed by bovine umbilical vein and bovine spleen lymphatic endothelial cells. MDBK cells were less suitable. The life cycle was completed (development of oocysts) only occasionally in BFGC. Results are considered under several aspects. Thus, infected VERO cells may represent a suitable tool for studying the parasitophorous vacuole, while infected endothelial cells represent a system quite narrow to the in vivo situation and should allow basic studies on parasite/host cell interactions and BFGC can be used for the mass production of E. bovis first generation merozoites.

  20. EDITORIAL: Permanent revolution - or evolution?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobson, Ken

    1998-03-01

    Honorary Editor It was that temporary Bolshevik Leon Trotsky who developed the principle of `permanent revolution', a principle that perhaps characterizes the recent history of education in (south) Britain more than does, say, principles traditionally associated with the Conservative or Labour parties. As this editorial is being written, changes are being made to primary school education, and the long-awaited details of the post-Dearing reorganizing of post-16 education are yet to hit the overful bookshelves and filing cabinets of school heads and examination board officials. But something unique has happened recently which might have surprised even Trotsky. The Secretary of State for Education has set up targets for primary school pupils' attainment and threatened (or promised) to resign if they are not met within the lifetime of our newly elected parliament. Of course, if Mr Blunkett is still in a position to resign at that stage he will have been the longest serving Secretary of State since time immemorial. But we should not carp: this is truly a revolutionary idea. Not the promise to resign - although this idea is not so fashionable now as it once was. The revolutionary idea is that a major change to an educational process is actually being made that carries with it a predicted and testable outcome. By contrast, when school physics was refreshed a generation ago by the introduction of Nuffield courses at both pre- and post-16 stages, no `targets' were set. I and many other physics teachers certainly preferred teaching these to teaching their predecessor syllabuses, and might even dare to assert that the pupils liked them too. But we still don't really know whether or not they learned more - or even better - physics. Very little happened as far as the outside world was concerned: the usual fraction of students gave up physics at the usual ages, and those who were examined didn't really get a better reward for their more up-to-date and more enjoyably learned

  1. The American Revolution: A Bicentennial Booklist

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bellon, Elner

    1976-01-01

    Both fiction and nonfiction citations are included in this booklist of children's literature pertaining to the American Revolution, and grade levels are assigned to each of the nearly 500 citations. (JC)

  2. High School Textbooks and the American Revolution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seller, Maxine; Trusz, Andrew

    1976-01-01

    In terms of teaching about the American Revolution, this article surveys strengths and weaknesses of representative, frequently used high school history books. It suggests how the most common weaknesses can be corrected. (Author/AV)

  3. Must We Have a Cultural Revolution?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kampf, Louis

    1970-01-01

    Argues that a cultural revolution must precede anything approaching substantial, meaningful curriculum change; a speech given at annual meeting of Conference on College Composition and Communication, National Council of Teachers of English (Seattle, Washington, March 19, 1970). (Editor/RD)

  4. High School Textbooks and the American Revolution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seller, Maxine; Trusz, Andrew

    1976-01-01

    In terms of teaching about the American Revolution, this article surveys strengths and weaknesses of representative, frequently used high school history books. It suggests how the most common weaknesses can be corrected. (Author/AV)

  5. The American Revolution; A Bibliography of Multimedia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fultz, Norma J.

    1975-01-01

    This bibliography lists several types of multimedia instructional materials useful in teaching the American Revolution for elementary and secondary students. The following types of media are included: audiotapes, films, filmstrips, kits, phonodiscs, pictures, realia, simulations, slides, and transparencies. (JR)

  6. The American Revolution: A Bicentennial Booklist

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bellon, Elner

    1976-01-01

    Both fiction and nonfiction citations are included in this booklist of children's literature pertaining to the American Revolution, and grade levels are assigned to each of the nearly 500 citations. (JC)

  7. The American Revolution; A Bibliography of Multimedia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fultz, Norma J.

    1975-01-01

    This bibliography lists several types of multimedia instructional materials useful in teaching the American Revolution for elementary and secondary students. The following types of media are included: audiotapes, films, filmstrips, kits, phonodiscs, pictures, realia, simulations, slides, and transparencies. (JR)

  8. The Patterns and Dynamics of Revolution: Insights into Iraq

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-03-18

    replicated the patterns and dynamics of classic revolutions as presented by Crane Brinton in his seminal work, Anatomy of a Revolution. By using the patterns...government as presented by Crane Brinton in his seminal work, Anatomy of a Revolution? Next, it will demonstrate that these patterns can be seen in the...REVOLUTION In the 1965 revision of his work, The Anatomy of Revolution, Crane Brinton outlines a number of ’uniformities’ that he associates with socio

  9. Epilepsy genetics: the ongoing revolution.

    PubMed

    Lesca, G; Depienne, C

    2015-01-01

    Epilepsies have long remained refractory to gene identification due to several obstacles, including a highly variable inter- and intrafamilial expressivity of the phenotypes, a high frequency of phenocopies, and a huge genetic heterogeneity. Recent technological breakthroughs, such as array comparative genomic hybridization and next generation sequencing, have been leading, in the past few years, to the identification of an increasing number of genomic regions and genes in which mutations or copy-number variations cause various epileptic disorders, revealing an enormous diversity of pathophysiological mechanisms. The field that has undergone the most striking revolution is that of epileptic encephalopathies, for which most of causing genes have been discovered since the year 2012. Some examples are the continuous spike-and-waves during slow-wave sleep and Landau-Kleffner syndromes for which the recent discovery of the role of GRIN2A mutations has finally confirmed the genetic bases. These new technologies begin to be used for diagnostic applications, and the main challenge now resides in the interpretation of the huge mass of variants detected by these methods. The identification of causative mutations in epilepsies provides definitive confirmation of the clinical diagnosis, allows accurate genetic counselling, and sometimes permits the development of new appropriate and specific antiepileptic therapies. Future challenges include the identification of the genetic or environmental factors that modify the epileptic phenotypes caused by mutations in a given gene and the understanding of the role of somatic mutations in sporadic epilepsies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Laparoscopic revolution in bariatric surgery

    PubMed Central

    Sundbom, Magnus

    2014-01-01

    The history of bariatric surgery is investigational. Dedicated surgeons have continuously sought for an ideal procedure to relieve morbidly obese patients from their burden of comorbid conditions, reduced life expectancy and low quality of life. The ideal procedure must have low complication risk, both in short- and long term, as well as minimal impact on daily life. The revolution of laparoscopic techniques in bariatric surgery is described in this summary. Advances in minimal invasive techniques have contributed to reduced operative time, length of stay, and complications. The development in bariatric surgery has been exceptional, resulting in a dramatic increase of the number of procedures performed world wide during the last decades. Although, a complex bariatric procedure can be performed with operative mortality no greater than cholecystectomy, specific procedure-related complications and other drawbacks must be taken into account. The evolution of laparoscopy will be the legacy of the 21st century and at present, day-care surgery and further reduction of the operative trauma is in focus. The impressive effects on comorbid conditions have prompted the adoption of minimal invasive bariatric procedures into the field of metabolic surgery. PMID:25386062

  11. Tactical cockpits: the coming revolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adam, Eugene C.

    1997-07-01

    A cockpit revolution is in the making. Many of the much ballyhooed, much promised, but little delivered technologies of the 70's and 80's will finally come of age in the 90's just in time to complement the data explosion coming from sensor and processor advances. Technologies such as helmet systems, large flat panel displays, speech recognition, color graphics, decision aiding and stereopsis, are simultaneously reaching technology maturities that promise big payoffs for the third generation cockpit and beyond. The first generation cockpit used round dials to help the pilot keep the airplane flying right side up. The second generation cockpits used multifunction displays and the HUD to interface the pilot with sensors and weapons. What might the third generation cockpit look like. How might it integrate many of these technologies to simplify the pilots life and most of all: what is the payoff. This paper will examine tactical cockpit problems, the technologies needed to solve them and recommend three generations of solutions.

  12. Tactical cockpits: the coming revolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adam, Eugene C.

    1992-07-01

    A cockpit revolution is in the making. Many of the much ballyhooed, much promised, but little delivered technologies of the 70s and 80s will finally come of age in the 90s, just in time to complement the data explosion coming from sensor and processing advances. Technologies such as helmet systems, large flat panel displays, speech recognition, color graphics, decision aiding, and stereopsis are simultaneously reaching technology maturities that promise big payoffs for the third generation cockpit and beyond. The first generation cockpit used round dials to help the pilot keep the airplane flying right side up. The second generation cockpits used multifunction displays and the HUD to interface the pilot with sensors and weapons. What might the third generation cockpit look like? How might it integrate many of these technologies to simplify the pilot's life and most of all: what is the payoff? This paper examines tactical cockpit problems, the technologies needed to solve them, and recommends three generations of solutions.

  13. Tactical cockpits: the coming revolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adam, Eugene C.

    1992-07-01

    A cockpit revolution is in the making. Many of the much ballyhooed, much promised, but little delivered technologies of the 70''s and 80''s will finally come of age in the 90''s just in time to complement the data explosion coming from sensor and processing advances. Technologies such as helmet systems, large flat panel displays, speech recognition, color graphics, decision aiding and stereopsis, are simultaneously reaching technology maturities that promise big payoffs for the third generation cockpit and beyond. The first generation cockpit used round dials to help the pilot keep the airplane flying right side up. The second generation cockpit used Multifunction Displays and the HUD to interface the pilot with sensors and weapons. What might the third generation cockpit look like? How might it integrate many of these technologies to simplify the pilots life and most of all: what is the payoff? This paper will examine tactical cockpit problems, the technologies needed to solve them and recommend three generations of solutions.

  14. Tactical cockpits: the coming revolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adam, Eugene C.

    1995-05-01

    A cockpit revolution is in the making. Many of the much ballyhooed, much promised, but little delivered technologies of the 70's and 80's will finally come of age in the 90's just in time to complement the data explosion coming from sensor and processing advances. Technologies such as helmet systems, large flat panel displays, speech recognition, color graphics, decision aiding and stereopsis, are simultaneously reaching technology maturities that promise big payoffs for the third generation cockpit and beyond. The first generation cockpit used round dials to help the pilot keep the airplane flying right side up. The second generation cockpits used Multifunction Displays and the HUD to interface the pilot with sensors and weapons. What might the third generation cockpit look like? How might it integrated many of these technologies to simplify the pilots life and most of all: what is the payoff? This paper will examine tactical cockpit problems, the technologies needed to solve them and recommend three generations of solutions.

  15. The digital revolution in phenotyping

    PubMed Central

    Oellrich, Anika; Collier, Nigel; Groza, Tudor; Rebholz-Schuhmann, Dietrich; Shah, Nigam; Bodenreider, Olivier; Boland, Mary Regina; Georgiev, Ivo; Liu, Hongfang; Livingston, Kevin; Luna, Augustin; Mallon, Ann-Marie; Manda, Prashanti; Robinson, Peter N.; Rustici, Gabriella; Simon, Michelle; Wang, Liqin; Winnenburg, Rainer; Dumontier, Michel

    2016-01-01

    Phenotypes have gained increased notoriety in the clinical and biological domain owing to their application in numerous areas such as the discovery of disease genes and drug targets, phylogenetics and pharmacogenomics. Phenotypes, defined as observable characteristics of organisms, can be seen as one of the bridges that lead to a translation of experimental findings into clinical applications and thereby support ‘bench to bedside’ efforts. However, to build this translational bridge, a common and universal understanding of phenotypes is required that goes beyond domain-specific definitions. To achieve this ambitious goal, a digital revolution is ongoing that enables the encoding of data in computer-readable formats and the data storage in specialized repositories, ready for integration, enabling translational research. While phenome research is an ongoing endeavor, the true potential hidden in the currently available data still needs to be unlocked, offering exciting opportunities for the forthcoming years. Here, we provide insights into the state-of-the-art in digital phenotyping, by means of representing, acquiring and analyzing phenotype data. In addition, we provide visions of this field for future research work that could enable better applications of phenotype data. PMID:26420780

  16. X-rays surgical revolution.

    PubMed

    Toledo-Pereyra, Luis H

    2009-01-01

    Wilhelm Roentgen (1845-1923) created a surgical revolution with the discovery of the X-rays in late 1895 and the subsequent introduction of this technique for the management of surgical patients. No other physician or scientist had ever imagined such a powerful and worthwhile discovery. Other scientists paved the way for Roentgen to approach the use of these new X-rays for medical purposes. In this way, initially, and prior to Roentgen, Thompson, Hertz, and Lenard applied themselves to the early developments of this technology. They made good advances but never reached the clearly defined understanding brought about by Roentgen. The use of a Crookes tube, a barium platinocyanide screen, with fluorescent light and the generation of energy to propagate the cathode rays were the necessary elements for the conception of an X-ray picture. On November 8, 1895, Roentgen began his experiments on X-ray technology when he found that some kind of rays were being produced by the glass of the tube opposite to the cathode. The development of a photograph successfully completed this early imaging process. After six intense weeks of research, on December 22, he obtained a photograph of the hand of his wife, the first X-ray ever made. This would be a major contribution to the world of medicine and surgery.

  17. Brooklyn Green, North Green, South Green, & West Green, parts ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Brooklyn Green, North Green, South Green, & West Green, parts of Brown Road, Canterbury Road (Route 169), Hartford Road (Route 6), Hyde Road, Pomfret Road (Route 169), Prince Hill Road, Providence Road (Route 6), Wauregan Road (Routes 169 & 205), & Wolf Den Road, Brooklyn, Windham County, CT

  18. Revolution and the Re-Birth of Inequality: The Bolivian National Revolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelley, Jonathan; Klein, Herbert S.

    This study of Bolivia's National Revolution of 1952 illustrates the effects of a peasant revolution on inequality and status inheritance. It was hypothesized that when an exploited peasantry revolts and overthrows the traditonal elite, peasants would be better off because inequality and status inheritance would decline as a result of the…

  19. Peace Revolution's Online Social Platform: From Inner Revolution to Global Evolution of Ethical Media Production

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardy, Samantha; Dhanissaro, Phra John Paramai; Thangsurbkul, Worakate

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes a project called Peace Revolution [http://peacerevolution.net], which provides an opportunity for young people from around the world to learn and share positive messages and activities relating to peace. The Peace Revolution project aims to empower young people via a unique process related to youth development, helping young…

  20. The mammalian Cretaceous cochlear revolution.

    PubMed

    Manley, Geoffrey A

    2016-12-19

    The hearing organs of amniote vertebrates show large differences in their size and structure between the species' groups. In spite of this, their performance in terms of hearing sensitivity and the frequency selectivity of auditory-nerve units shows unexpectedly small differences. The only substantial difference is that therian, defined as live-bearing, mammalian groups are able to hear ultrasonic frequencies (above 15-20 kHz), whereas in contrast monotreme (egg laying) mammals and all non-mammalian amniotes cannot. This review compares the structure and physiology of the cochleae of the main groups and asks the question as to why the many structural differences seen in therian mammals arose, yet did not result in greater differences in physiology. The likely answers to this question are found in the history of the mammals during the Cretaceous period that ended 65 million years ago. During that period, the therian cochlea lost its lagenar macula, leading to a fall in endolymph calcium levels. This likely resulted in a small revolution and an auditory crisis that was compensated for by a subsequent series of structural and physiological adaptations. The end result was a system of equivalent performance to that independently evolved in other amniotes but with the additional - and of course "unforeseen" - advantage that ultrasonic-frequency responses became an available option. That option was not always availed of, but in most groups of therian mammals it did evolve and is used for communication and orientation based on improved sound localization, with micro-bats and toothed whales relying on it for prey capture.

  1. Polymorphisms of the Hepatitis A Virus Cellular Receptor 1 in African Green Monkey Kidney Cells Result in Antigenic Variants That Do Not React with Protective Monoclonal Antibody 190/4

    PubMed Central

    Feigelstock, Dino; Thompson, Peter; Mattoo, Pravina; Kaplan, Gerardo G.

    1998-01-01

    Monoclonal antibody (MAb) 190/4 blocks binding of hepatitis A virus (HAV) to the HAV cellular receptor 1 (havcr-1) and protects African green monkey kidney (AGMK) clone GL37 cells (GL37 cells) against HAV infection. BS-C-1 and CV-1 cells, two widely used AGMK cell lines, did not react with MAb 190/4 but expressed havcr-1, as judged by Western blot analysis. The cDNA coding for havcr-1 was amplified from BS-C-1 and CV-1 total cellular RNA by reverse transcription-PCR. Alignment of the amino acid sequences inferred from the cDNA nucleotide sequences showed that BS-C-1 and CV-1 havcr-1 differed from GL37 havcr-1 by having two substitutions in the Cys-rich region, N48H and K108Q, and 10 to 11 additional substitutions plus the insertion of 18 to 22 amino acids in the mucin-like region. Studies with chimeras of GL37 havcr-1 and BS-C-1 havcr-1 showed that the K108Q substitution was responsible for the lack of reaction of MAb 190/4 with BS-C-1 and CV-1 cells. Binding studies indicated that HAV bound to dog cell transfectants expressing the BS-C-1 havcr-1 as well as the GL37/BS-C-1 havcr-1 chimeras. These results indicate that antigenic variants of havcr-1 are expressed in AGMK cells and that binding of HAV to these havcr-1 variants tolerates changes in protective epitope 190/4. PMID:9621093

  2. Polymorphisms of the hepatitis A virus cellular receptor 1 in African green monkey kidney cells result in antigenic variants that do not react with protective monoclonal antibody 190/4.

    PubMed

    Feigelstock, D; Thompson, P; Mattoo, P; Kaplan, G G

    1998-07-01

    Monoclonal antibody (MAb) 190/4 blocks binding of hepatitis A virus (HAV) to the HAV cellular receptor 1 (havcr-1) and protects African green monkey kidney (AGMK) clone GL37 cells (GL37 cells) against HAV infection. BS-C-1 and CV-1 cells, two widely used AGMK cell lines, did not react with MAb 190/4 but expressed havcr-1, as judged by Western blot analysis. The cDNA coding for havcr-1 was amplified from BS-C-1 and CV-1 total cellular RNA by reverse transcription-PCR. Alignment of the amino acid sequences inferred from the cDNA nucleotide sequences showed that BS-C-1 and CV-1 havcr-1 differed from GL37 havcr-1 by having two substitutions in the Cys-rich region, N48H and K108Q, and 10 to 11 additional substitutions plus the insertion of 18 to 22 amino acids in the mucin-like region. Studies with chimeras of GL37 havcr-1 and BS-C-1 havcr-1 showed that the K108Q substitution was responsible for the lack of reaction of MAb 190/4 with BS-C-1 and CV-1 cells. Binding studies indicated that HAV bound to dog cell transfectants expressing the BS-C-1 havcr-1 as well as the GL37/BS-C-1 havcr-1 chimeras. These results indicate that antigenic variants of havcr-1 are expressed in AGMK cells and that binding of HAV to these havcr-1 variants tolerates changes in protective epitope 190/4.

  3. CXCR6-Mediated Simian Immunodeficiency Virus SIVagmSab Entry into Sabaeus African Green Monkey Lymphocytes Implicates Widespread Use of Non-CCR5 Pathways in Natural Host Infections.

    PubMed

    Wetzel, Katherine S; Yi, Yanjie; Elliott, Sarah T C; Romero, Dino; Jacquelin, Beatrice; Hahn, Beatrice H; Muller-Trutwin, Michaela; Apetrei, Cristian; Pandrea, Ivona; Collman, Ronald G

    2017-02-15

    African green monkeys (AGM) and sooty mangabeys (SM) are well-studied natural hosts of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) that do not progress to AIDS when infected with their species-specific viruses. Natural hosts of SIV express very low levels of the canonical entry coreceptor CCR5, and recent studies have shown that CCR5 is dispensable for SIV infection of SM in vivo and that blocking of CCR5 does not prevent ex vivo infection of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from SM or vervet AGM. In both hosts, CXCR6 is an efficient entry pathway in vitro Here we investigated the use of species-matched CXCR6 and other alternative coreceptors by SIVagmSab, which infects sabaeus AGM. We cloned sabaeus CD4 and 10 candidate coreceptors. Species-matched CXCR6, CCR5, and GPR15 mediated robust entry into transfected cells by pseudotypes carrying SIVagmSab92018ivTF Env, with lower-level entry through GPR1 and APJ. We cloned genetically divergent env genes from the plasma of two wild-infected sabaeus AGM and found similar patterns of coreceptor use. Titration experiments showed that CXCR6 and CCR5 were more efficient than other coreceptors when tested at limiting CD4/coreceptor levels. Finally, blocking of CXCR6 with its ligand CXCL16 significantly inhibited SIVagmSab replication in sabaeus PBMC and had a greater impact than did the CCR5 blocker maraviroc, confirming the use of CXCR6 in primary lymphocyte infection. These data suggest a new paradigm for SIV infection of natural host species, whereby a shared outcome of virus-host coevolution is the use of CXCR6 or other alternative coreceptors for entry, which may direct SIV toward CD4(+) T cell subsets and anatomical sites that support viral replication without disrupting immune homeostasis and function.

  4. Loss in lung volume and changes in the immune response demonstrate disease progression in African green monkeys infected by small-particle aerosol and intratracheal exposure to Nipah virus

    PubMed Central

    Cong, Yu; Lentz, Margaret R.; Lara, Abigail; Alexander, Isis; Bartos, Christopher; Bohannon, J. Kyle; Hammoud, Dima; Huzella, Louis; Jahrling, Peter B.; Janosko, Krisztina; Jett, Catherine; Kollins, Erin; Lackemeyer, Matthew; Mollura, Daniel; Ragland, Dan; Rojas, Oscar; Solomon, Jeffrey; Xu, Ziyue; Munster, Vincent

    2017-01-01

    Nipah virus (NiV) is a paramyxovirus (genus Henipavirus) that emerged in the late 1990s in Malaysia and has since been identified as the cause of sporadic outbreaks of severe febrile disease in Bangladesh and India. NiV infection is frequently associated with severe respiratory or neurological disease in infected humans with transmission to humans through inhalation, contact or consumption of NiV contaminated foods. In the work presented here, the development of disease was investigated in the African Green Monkey (AGM) model following intratracheal (IT) and, for the first time, small-particle aerosol administration of NiV. This study utilized computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to temporally assess disease progression. The host immune response and changes in immune cell populations over the course of disease were also evaluated. This study found that IT and small-particle administration of NiV caused similar disease progression, but that IT inoculation induced significant congestion in the lungs while disease following small-particle aerosol inoculation was largely confined to the lower respiratory tract. Quantitative assessment of changes in lung volume found up to a 45% loss in IT inoculated animals. None of the subjects in this study developed overt neurological disease, a finding that was supported by MRI analysis. The development of neutralizing antibodies was not apparent over the 8–10 day course of disease, but changes in cytokine response in all animals and activated CD8+ T cell numbers suggest the onset of cell-mediated immunity. These studies demonstrate that IT and small-particle aerosol infection with NiV in the AGM model leads to a severe respiratory disease devoid of neurological indications. This work also suggests that extending the disease course or minimizing the impact of the respiratory component is critical to developing a model that has a neurological component and more accurately reflects the human condition. PMID

  5. EDITORIAL: The next photonic revolution The next photonic revolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheludev, Nikolay I.

    2009-11-01

    This special section on Nanophotonics and Metamaterials is a follow-up to the second European Topical Meeting of the NANOMETA series of meetings (see www.nanometa.org) which took place on 5-8 January 2009, in Seefeld, Austria. The main idea of the first NANOMETA meeting held in 2007 was to bring together the mature community of microwave electrical engineers with the emerging community of photonics researchers interested in the physics of light coupled to nanostructures. In recent years the research landscape has shifted dramatically. A wider proliferation of nanofabrication techniques such as electron beam lithography, nanoimprint and focused ion beam milling, diagnostics techniques such as near-field scanning imaging, cathodoluminescence with nanoscale resolution and micro-spectrometry, and the availability of affordable broadband and ultrafast optical sources, have moved the research focus of the NANOMETA community to the optical domain. Quite naturally the ideas of the nonlinearity of materials and the coherency of light in the nanoscale realm have been widely discussed. Driven by the dream of untapped device and material functionality, nonlinear and switchable nanophotonic devices and photonic metamaterials, along with the concept of tailoring the electromagnetic space with metamaterials, appear to be the main avenues along which the subject will develop in the coming years. Indeed, in the last 20 years photonics has played a key role in creating the world as we know it, with enormous beneficial social impact worldwide. It is impossible to imagine modern society without the globe-spanning broadband internet and mobile telephony made possible by the implementation of optical fibre core networks, optical disc data storage (underpinned by the development of compact semiconductor lasers), modern image display technologies and laser-assisted manufacturing. We now anticipate that the next photonic revolution will continue to grow, explosively fuelled by a new

  6. Hacking the quantum revolution: 1925-1975

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schweber, Silvan S.

    2015-01-01

    I argue that the quantum revolution should be seen as an Ian Hacking type of scientific revolution: a profound, longue durée, multidisciplinary process of transforming our understanding of physical nature, with deep-rooted social components from the start. The "revolution" exhibits a characteristic style of reasoning - the hierarchization of physical nature - and developed and uses a specific language - quantum field theory (QFT). It is by virtue of that language that the quantum theory has achieved some of its deepest insights into the description of the dynamics of the physical world. However, the meaning of what a quantum field theory is and what it describes has deeply altered, and one now speaks of "effective" quantum field theories. Interpreting all present day quantum field theories as but "effective" field theories sheds additional light on Phillip Anderson's assertion that "More is different". This important element is addressed in the last part of the paper.

  7. Energy and the English Industrial Revolution.

    PubMed

    Wrigley, E A

    2013-03-13

    Societies before the Industrial Revolution were dependent on the annual cycle of plant photosynthesis for both heat and mechanical energy. The quantity of energy available each year was therefore limited, and economic growth was necessarily constrained. In the Industrial Revolution, energy usage increased massively and output rose accordingly. The energy source continued to be plant photosynthesis, but accumulated over a geological age in the form of coal. This poses a problem for the future. Fossil fuels are a depleting stock, whereas in pre-industrial time the energy source, though limited, was renewed each year.

  8. Report calls for Earth science education "revolution"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    With just 7% of U.S. high school students taking classes in Earth and space science, in contrast to 88% studying biology, a new report calls for a "revolution" in Earth science education in the nation's schools, from kindergarten through 12th grade.The June 2002 report, "Blueprint for Change, notes that an increased emphasis on the Earth as a system and the expanded use of Internet resources is causing Earth and space science education to undergo "a revolution that is reshaping the nature and content of what is taught."

  9. Manifesto for a new (computational) cognitive revolution.

    PubMed

    Griffiths, Thomas L

    2015-02-01

    The cognitive revolution offered an alternative to merely analyzing human behavior, using the notion of computation to rigorously express hypotheses about the mind. Computation also gives us new tools for testing these hypotheses - large behavioral databases generated by human interactions with computers and with one another. This kind of data is typically analyzed by computer scientists, who focus on predicting people's behavior based on their history. A new cognitive revolution is needed, demonstrating the value of minds as intervening variables in these analyses and using the results to evaluate models of human cognition. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. So What About History and the American Revolution?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Edmund S.

    1974-01-01

    A short introduction to the study of the American Revolution coordinates photographs and pertinent questions to gain a perspective on history as a discipline in general and the history of the revolution in particular. (KM)

  11. So What About History and the American Revolution?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Edmund S.

    1974-01-01

    A short introduction to the study of the American Revolution coordinates photographs and pertinent questions to gain a perspective on history as a discipline in general and the history of the revolution in particular. (KM)

  12. Walking through the Revolution: A Spatial Reading of Literary Echoes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Queiroz, Ana Isabel; Alves, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an embryo of a literary guide on the Carnation Revolution to be explored for educational historical excursions other than leisure and tourism. We propose a historical trail through the centre of Lisbon, city of the Carnation Revolution, called "Walk through the Revolution." The trail aims to reinforce collective…

  13. The Great Drama: Germany and the French Revolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kurz, Gerhard

    Revolution did not spread to Germany from France at the end of the 18th century, yet the German and other European states were forced to come to terms with the principles of the French Revolution such as political and legal freedoms and national unity. Germany was affected by the French Revolution particularly by the reactions of German…

  14. The Industrial Revolution: An ERIC/ChESS Sample.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinhey, Laura A.

    2000-01-01

    Provides a list, from the ERIC database, of teaching materials and background information on the Industrial Revolution. Specific topics include life in Lowell (Massachusetts), the global impact of the Industrial Revolution, and England's Industrial Revolution. Offers directions for obtaining the full text of these materials. (CMK)

  15. The Great Drama: Germany and the French Revolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kurz, Gerhard

    Revolution did not spread to Germany from France at the end of the 18th century, yet the German and other European states were forced to come to terms with the principles of the French Revolution such as political and legal freedoms and national unity. Germany was affected by the French Revolution particularly by the reactions of German…

  16. Using the Microcomputer to Study the Anatomy of Revolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothman, Mark

    1982-01-01

    Describes computer program designed to enable students to analyze process of political revolution by generating graphs for comparisons of such factors as violence, economic instability, and political instability. Student activities, abilities, and reactions, and teacher involvement are noted. Sources concerning revolution, the French Revolution,…

  17. Using the Microcomputer to Study the Anatomy of Revolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothman, Mark

    1982-01-01

    Describes computer program designed to enable students to analyze process of political revolution by generating graphs for comparisons of such factors as violence, economic instability, and political instability. Student activities, abilities, and reactions, and teacher involvement are noted. Sources concerning revolution, the French Revolution,…

  18. The Industrial Revolution: An ERIC/ChESS Sample.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinhey, Laura A.

    2000-01-01

    Provides a list, from the ERIC database, of teaching materials and background information on the Industrial Revolution. Specific topics include life in Lowell (Massachusetts), the global impact of the Industrial Revolution, and England's Industrial Revolution. Offers directions for obtaining the full text of these materials. (CMK)

  19. The Mexican Revolution and health care or the health of the Mexican Revolution.

    PubMed

    Horn, J J

    1985-01-01

    Despite a victorious social revolution, a self-proclaimed "revolutionary" government, and a significant post-war economic growth, Mexico has not achieved a just or equitable social system. The Mexican Revolution led to the emergence of a new bureaucratic class whose "trickle-down" development strategy sacrificed social welfare to capital accumulation. Mexican morbidity and mortality patterns resemble those of more impoverished developing nations without revolutionary experience. The patterns of health care in Mexico reflect inequities and contradictions in the society and economy at large and flow from the erosion of the egalitarian aims of the revolution concomitant with the expansion of capitalism and the concentration of the benefits of "modernization" in the hands of privileged elites. Mexico's health problems are symptomatic of a general socio-economic malaise which questions the legitimacy of the Revolution.

  20. The American Revolution: Causes. [Lesson Plan].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carmichael, Gary

    Based on an 18th century poem (actually, a song originally) about the Boston Tea Party, this lesson plan presents activities designed to help students understand that taxation of the American colonists by the British led to the American Revolution; all eras have protest poetry or songs; and students can perform and analyze old literature. The main…

  1. "ZEAL": An Aesthetic Revolution for Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Barbara A.; French, James Joss

    2012-01-01

    Educators are hesitant to venture into the unknown landscape within a child's heart and mind because they have throughout their education experienced the same non-compassionate teachers. This research proposes an awakening, making a wave for a new revolution of compassionate teachers that institutes aesthetic methodology to address relevant…

  2. The Microarray Revolution: Perspectives from Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brewster, Jay L.; Beason, K. Beth; Eckdahl, Todd T.; Evans, Irene M.

    2004-01-01

    In recent years, microarray analysis has become a key experimental tool, enabling the analysis of genome-wide patterns of gene expression. This review approaches the microarray revolution with a focus upon four topics: 1) the early development of this technology and its application to cancer diagnostics; 2) a primer of microarray research,…

  3. Quantitative Studies and the American Revolution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stout, Harry S.

    1976-01-01

    Author states that "...quantitative studies have demonstrated the impossibility of understanding the American Revolution without understanding the society in which it emerged. Combining the quantitative studies of early American social structure with the exploration of popular ideology or culture should...make possible a sense of how revolutionary…

  4. Propagandist of the Revolution: Samuel Adams.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scanlon, Thomas M.

    This paper explores Samuel Adam's role as perhaps the most important propagandist of the American Revolution and his efforts to exploit Great Britain's mistakes and to engender in the American colonists a love of liberty and a fear that Great Britain, if not resisted, would replace that liberty with tyranny. Suggesting that the Revolutionary War…

  5. The Information Highway as Revolution or Evolution?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Esrock, Stuart L.

    1997-01-01

    Suggests that society is more likely in the midst of an information evolution, rather than a revolution. Uses new media technology and forecasting literatures as a framework to evaluate current technology developments and public discussion about the information highway. Compares the hopeful rhetoric that surrounds the information highway to…

  6. "Which Communications Revolution Is It, Anyway?"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephens, Mitchell

    1998-01-01

    Belongs to a series of papers from a panel discussion on "The Future of the Internet: A Historical Perspective" examining how scholars understand and explain the Internet. Draws four lessons from two earlier "communication revolutions" (writing and the printing press) and applies them to our age of television, computers, and the Internet. (SR)

  7. The Management of the Knowledge Revolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Athanassiades, John C.

    This essay on the management of information presents areas of agreement and disagreement about the "knowledge revolution", its general effect on the world population, and its particular effect on libraries and other information systems, as well as on those who are charged with its management. The myth of Adam and Eve is used to symbolize the…

  8. The New Technological Revolution and Adult Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liao, Yuangeng

    1990-01-01

    Considers the impact of the technological revolution, especially in information and production, on Chinese economy and society. Foresees new disciplines emerging that will profoundly influence traditional education. Advocates adult education programs in which on-the-job training becomes lifelong training. Recommends directions for Chinese adult…

  9. Educating Democracy: Conjunctures in the Long Revolution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ranson, Stewart

    2014-01-01

    Democratic comprehensive education has been the target of neo-liberal governments--Conservative and New Labour--for thirty years. The project of the present right wing regime Coalition is to complete the demolition. The question before the social democratic tradition is thus to ask whether Raymond Williams' historic "long revolution"…

  10. Nascent Revolution in Post USSR Russia

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-04-01

    to Revolution. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley, 1978. 23 Op Cit. (Goldstone) p. 3 24 Ibid. p. 56 25 Ibid. p. 56 26 Ibid. p. 81 27 Ibid. p. 4 28 Ritzer , George . Sociological Theory. New York: Alfred A. Knopf. 1988. p. 118. 29

  11. Quantitative Studies and the American Revolution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stout, Harry S.

    1976-01-01

    Author states that "...quantitative studies have demonstrated the impossibility of understanding the American Revolution without understanding the society in which it emerged. Combining the quantitative studies of early American social structure with the exploration of popular ideology or culture should...make possible a sense of how revolutionary…

  12. The American Revolution. An Eyewitness History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burg, David F.

    While the American Revolution officially began in Lexington, Massachusetts, in April 1775, the seeds of rebellion had been sown for decades. The struggle for representation in the British Parliament left many colonists eager to seek out independence. This book provides hundreds of firsthand accounts of the period from diary entries, letters,…

  13. Propagandist of the Revolution: Samuel Adams.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scanlon, Thomas M.

    This paper explores Samuel Adam's role as perhaps the most important propagandist of the American Revolution and his efforts to exploit Great Britain's mistakes and to engender in the American colonists a love of liberty and a fear that Great Britain, if not resisted, would replace that liberty with tyranny. Suggesting that the Revolutionary War…

  14. The Strengths Revolution: A Positive Psychology Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    Christopher Peterson received the Circle of Courage Award and made the following address in a symposium on "The Strength-Based Revolution" at Wayne State University in Detroit, Michigan (Peterson & Brendtro, 2008). Dr. Peterson shared personal reflections on the strengths movement, which is transforming youth development. His…

  15. The American Revolution. An Eyewitness History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burg, David F.

    While the American Revolution officially began in Lexington, Massachusetts, in April 1775, the seeds of rebellion had been sown for decades. The struggle for representation in the British Parliament left many colonists eager to seek out independence. This book provides hundreds of firsthand accounts of the period from diary entries, letters,…

  16. Beginnings of the Industrial Revolution in England.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scrofani, E. Robert, Ed.

    These teacher-developed materials are designed to help educators integrate economic concepts into the teaching of history. The materials include readings on the Industrial Revolution in England and a series of activities that require students to analyze the impact of industrialization first on English peasant farmers, and then on workers in early…

  17. Participative Education and the Inevitable Revolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wight, Albert R.

    Participative education could provide impetus and direction to the educational revolution that has been brewing for some time. This approach, based on student involvement and participation, would meet the needs of students and teachers, both of whom are searching for alternatives to traditional education. Emphasizing self-responsibility,…

  18. The Information Highway as Revolution or Evolution?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Esrock, Stuart L.

    1997-01-01

    Suggests that society is more likely in the midst of an information evolution, rather than a revolution. Uses new media technology and forecasting literatures as a framework to evaluate current technology developments and public discussion about the information highway. Compares the hopeful rhetoric that surrounds the information highway to…

  19. Black Heroes of the American Revolution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crisis, 1976

    1976-01-01

    Discusses seven black colonialists who fought the British in the American War of Independence: Caesar Tarrant, Deborah Gannett, Samuel Charlton, Austin Dabney, Henry Christophe (ultimately Emperor of Haiti), James Armistead, and James Robinson. Reprinted from "Black Heroes of the American Revolution, 1775-1783," an NAACP publication. (JM)

  20. The Start of a Tech Revolution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dyrli, Kurt O.

    2009-01-01

    We are at the start of a revolution in the use of computers, one that analysts predict will rival the development of the PC in its significance. Companies such as Google, HP, Amazon, Sun Microsystems, Sony, IBM, and Apple are orienting their entire business models toward this change, and software maker SAS has announced plans for a $70 million…

  1. The Bayesian Revolution Approaches Psychological Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shultz, Thomas R.

    2007-01-01

    This commentary reviews five articles that apply Bayesian ideas to psychological development, some with psychology experiments, some with computational modeling, and some with both experiments and modeling. The reviewed work extends the current Bayesian revolution into tasks often studied in children, such as causal learning and word learning, and…

  2. Scattering from inhomogeneous penetrable bodies of revolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Govind, S.; Wilton, D. R.; Glisson, A. W.

    1984-11-01

    A systematic procedure for studying scattering from inhomogeneous penetrable bodies in which the inhomogeneity is modeled by piecewise homogeneous layers, is presented. The procedure utilizes the block tridiagonal property of the system matrix to simplify the computations and is applied to examples of dielectric bodies of revolution. An extension of the technique permits the solution of a composite missile/plume scattering problem.

  3. Educating Democracy: Conjunctures in the Long Revolution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ranson, Stewart

    2014-01-01

    Democratic comprehensive education has been the target of neo-liberal governments--Conservative and New Labour--for thirty years. The project of the present right wing regime Coalition is to complete the demolition. The question before the social democratic tradition is thus to ask whether Raymond Williams' historic "long revolution"…

  4. Governing Education: Remaking the Long Revolution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ranson, Stewart

    2012-01-01

    Behind the thin veil of the Conservative regime's rationale of deficit reduction hides the final demolition of public comprehensive education and Raymond Williams's more expansive long revolution unfolding over a century of creating a democratic state that affords opportunity, voice and justice for all. Restoring the politics of a pre-war or…

  5. Kuhn's The Structure of Scientific Revolutions Revisited.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, John A.

    1980-01-01

    Focuses on the analysis of Thomas S. Kuhn's book, "The Structure of Scientific Revolutions." Science history is reviewed as it is viewed through the idea of a paradigm. The sequence in science or life cycle of a paradigm is explained. (SA)

  6. Tradition and Revolution in ESL Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raimes, Ann

    1983-01-01

    Explores the development of language teaching in light of Thomas Kuhn's theory of scientific revolution and briefly defines the positivist tradition in language teaching. Argues that the current emphasis on communication does not mark the emergence of a new paradigm, as it still operates in the positivist tradition, but rather a paradigm shift.…

  7. The Start of a Tech Revolution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dyrli, Kurt O.

    2009-01-01

    We are at the start of a revolution in the use of computers, one that analysts predict will rival the development of the PC in its significance. Companies such as Google, HP, Amazon, Sun Microsystems, Sony, IBM, and Apple are orienting their entire business models toward this change, and software maker SAS has announced plans for a $70 million…

  8. Tradition and Revolution in ESL Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raimes, Ann

    1983-01-01

    Explores the development of language teaching in light of Thomas Kuhn's theory of scientific revolution and briefly defines the positivist tradition in language teaching. Argues that the current emphasis on communication does not mark the emergence of a new paradigm, as it still operates in the positivist tradition, but rather a paradigm shift.…

  9. The Early Childhood Mathematics Education Revolution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hachey, Alyse C.

    2013-01-01

    Research Findings: We are in the midst of a revolution. Prior to the onset of the 21st century, mathematics education in the United States was deemphasized (Geary, 1996), and mathematics as an instructional subject has traditionally been considered above the preschool and kindergarten levels. However, the old regime--the knowledge and philosophies…

  10. The Bayesian Revolution Approaches Psychological Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shultz, Thomas R.

    2007-01-01

    This commentary reviews five articles that apply Bayesian ideas to psychological development, some with psychology experiments, some with computational modeling, and some with both experiments and modeling. The reviewed work extends the current Bayesian revolution into tasks often studied in children, such as causal learning and word learning, and…

  11. Kuhn's The Structure of Scientific Revolutions Revisited.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, John A.

    1980-01-01

    Focuses on the analysis of Thomas S. Kuhn's book, "The Structure of Scientific Revolutions." Science history is reviewed as it is viewed through the idea of a paradigm. The sequence in science or life cycle of a paradigm is explained. (SA)

  12. The Management of the Knowledge Revolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Athanassiades, John C.

    This essay on the management of information presents areas of agreement and disagreement about the "knowledge revolution", its general effect on the world population, and its particular effect on libraries and other information systems, as well as on those who are charged with its management. The myth of Adam and Eve is used to symbolize the…

  13. SPECIES DATABASES AND THE BIOINFORMATICS REVOLUTION.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Biological databases are having a growth spurt. Much of this results from research in genetics and biodiversity, coupled with fast-paced developments in information technology. The revolution in bioinformatics, defined by Sugden and Pennisi (2000) as the "tools and techniques for...

  14. The Early Childhood Mathematics Education Revolution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hachey, Alyse C.

    2013-01-01

    Research Findings: We are in the midst of a revolution. Prior to the onset of the 21st century, mathematics education in the United States was deemphasized (Geary, 1996), and mathematics as an instructional subject has traditionally been considered above the preschool and kindergarten levels. However, the old regime--the knowledge and philosophies…

  15. The Microarray Revolution: Perspectives from Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brewster, Jay L.; Beason, K. Beth; Eckdahl, Todd T.; Evans, Irene M.

    2004-01-01

    In recent years, microarray analysis has become a key experimental tool, enabling the analysis of genome-wide patterns of gene expression. This review approaches the microarray revolution with a focus upon four topics: 1) the early development of this technology and its application to cancer diagnostics; 2) a primer of microarray research,…

  16. Military Medical Revolution: Prehospital Combat Casualty Care

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-01-01

    Military medical revolution: Prehospital combat casualty care Lorne H. Blackbourne, MD, David G. Baer, PhD, Brian J. Eastridge, MD, Bijan Kheirabadi...sur- vival for patients with combat-related traumatic injuries. J Trauma. 2009;66(suppl 4):S69 S76. 33. Eastridge BJ, Hardin M, Cantrell J, Oetjen

  17. SPECIES DATABASES AND THE BIOINFORMATICS REVOLUTION.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Biological databases are having a growth spurt. Much of this results from research in genetics and biodiversity, coupled with fast-paced developments in information technology. The revolution in bioinformatics, defined by Sugden and Pennisi (2000) as the "tools and techniques for...

  18. "Which Communications Revolution Is It, Anyway?"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephens, Mitchell

    1998-01-01

    Belongs to a series of papers from a panel discussion on "The Future of the Internet: A Historical Perspective" examining how scholars understand and explain the Internet. Draws four lessons from two earlier "communication revolutions" (writing and the printing press) and applies them to our age of television, computers, and the Internet. (SR)

  19. Public Germplasm Collections and Revolutions in Biotechnology

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Public germplasm collections provided the biological material critical for launching the three most important revolutions in modern biotechnology: (i) An isolate of Penicillium chrysogenum, NRRL 1951, the basis for industrial production of penicillan, originated from the ARS Culture Collection in Pe...

  20. Successful Insurgent Revolutions in Latin America: Analysis of the Cuban and Nicaraguan Revolutions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-03-01

    The intention of this thesis is to explore the factors that led to the success of two Latin American revolutions in Cuba (1959) and the Sandinista...the post-World War II era, have taken power by overthrowing the incumbent regimes by force of arms. Understanding the most prominent factors that led...the four critical factors that contributed to the success of the Cuban and Nicaraguan revolutions are leadership (strategy), popular support (the

  1. Green Thunderstorms.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bohren, Craig F.; Fraser, Alistair B.

    1993-11-01

    Green thunderstorms are observed occasionally, yet with one exception they have received no scientific attention, experimental or theoretical. Fraser suggested that thunderstorms themselves are not green but that a thick thunderstorm provides a dark backdrop for green airlight near sundown. Greenness is a consequence of reddened sunlight illuminating selective scatterers along the observer's line of sight. Bohron's alternative explanation is that green thunderstorms may be a consequence of the intrinsic blueness of clouds because of selective absorption by pure water, liquid or solid. Most clouds are so thin that the light transmitted by them is not markedly colored because of selective absorption. Only the most massive clouds-large both vertically and horizontally-are thick enough to shift the color of incident sunlight upon transmission. If that incident light is sunlight reddened at sundown, the transmitted light can be perceptually green. These two explanations do not exclude one another but allow for multiple causes, including those not yet identified.

  2. Hypercars: The next industrial revolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lovins, Amory B.; Barnett, John W.; Lovins, L. Hunter

    1996-01-01

    The auto industry -- one-seventh of the GNP, and the highest expression of the Iron Age -- is about to trigger the biggest transformation in industrial structure since the microchip. Ultralight cars molded from net-shape advanced composites can be several-fold lighter than present steel cars, yet safer, sportier, and more comfortable, durable, and beautiful. Modern hybrid-electric drives boost efficiency approximately 1.3-1.5x in heavy steel cars, but approximately 5-20x in ultralight, very slippery plafforms. Synergistically combined into ultralight-hybrid 'hypercars,' these elements can yield state-of-the-shelf family cars that average 150-300+ mi/gal -- twice that with state-of-the-art technologies -- yet can also be superior in all other respects, probably including cost: carbon-fiber monocoques can actually be cheaper to mass-produce that steel unibodies. Designing cars more like aircraft and less like tanks requires not only an approximately 400-500 kg curb mass and very low air and road drag, but also an aerospace philosophy of engineering integration. Mass, cost, and complexity turn out to compound with heavy hybrids but to decompound with ultralight hybrids, owing partly to radical simplification. Excellent aerodynamics, preferable including advanced techniques for passive boundary-layer control, will be the key to successful design integration. Transforming automaking is a competitive and environmental imperative, could form the nucleus of a green industrial Renaissance, and would enhance national security by, among other things, saving as much oil as OPEC now extracts. However, this transformation faces serious cultural barriers. For example, hypercars will be more like computers with wheels than like cars with chips -- they'll have an order of magnitude more code than today's cars -- but Detroit is not a software culture. Just the transition from stamped and welded steel to integrated and adhesive-joined synthetics is difficult enough. Nonetheless

  3. Potential flow about elongated bodies of revolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaplan, Carl

    1936-01-01

    This report presents a method of solving the problem of axial and transverse potential flows around arbitrary elongated bodies of revolution. The solutions of Laplace's equation for the velocity potentials of the axial and transverse flows, the system of coordinates being an elliptic one in a meridian plane, are given. The theory is applied to a body of revolution obtained from a symmetrical Joukowsky profile, a shape resembling an airship hull. The pressure distribution and the transverse-force distribution are calculated and serve as examples of the procedure to be followed in the case of an actual airship. A section on the determination of inertia coefficients is also included in which the validity of some earlier work is questioned.

  4. Global health governance - the next political revolution.

    PubMed

    Kickbusch, I; Reddy, K S

    2015-07-01

    The recent Ebola crisis has re-opened the debate on global health governance and the role of the World Health Organization. In order to analyze what is at stake, we apply two conceptual approaches from the social sciences - the work on gridlock and the concept of cosmopolitan moments - to assess the ability of the multilateral governance system to reform. We find that gridlock can be broken open by a health crisis which in turn generates a political drive for change. We show that a set of cosmopolitan moments have led to the introduction of the imperative of health in a range of policy arenas and moved health into 'high politics' - this has been called a political revolution. We contend that this revolution has entered a second phase with increasing interest of heads of state in global health issues. Here lies the window of opportunity to reform global health governance.

  5. The Nineteenth-Century Revolution in Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batten, Alan Henry

    2015-08-01

    The term "revolution" in scientific contexts usually refers either to the beginnings of modern western science in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, or to the two great revolutions of early twentieth century physics. Comparison of what was known at the beginning of the nineteenth century with what was known at the end, however, shows that century to have been one of transformation in astronomy, and in the other sciences, that amounts to "revolution". Astronomers in 1800 knew neither the nature of the Sun nor the distances of the stars. Developments in instrumentation enabled the first determinations of stellar parallax in the 1830s, and later enabled the solar prominences to be studied outside the brief momemnts of total eclipses. The development of photography and of spectroscopy led to the birth of observational astrophysics, while the greater understanding of the nature of heat and the rise of thermodynamics made possible the first attempts to investigate the theory of stellar structure. Nothing was known in 1800 of extra-galactic objects apart from some tentative identifcations by William Herschel but, by the end of the century, the discovery of the spiral structure of some nebulae had led some to believe that these were the "island universes" about which Kant had speculated. Of course, astrophysics and cosmology would be much further developed in the twentieth century and those of us whose careers spanned the second half of that century look back on it as a "golden age" for astronomy; but the nineteenth century was undoubtedly a time of rapid transformation and can be reasonably described as as one of the periods of revolution in astronomy.

  6. Toward a microbial Neolithic revolution in buildings.

    PubMed

    Thaler, David S

    2016-03-29

    The Neolithic revolution--the transition of our species from hunter and gatherer to cultivator--began approximately 14,000 years ago and is essentially complete for macroscopic food. Humans remain largely pre-Neolithic in our relationship with microbes but starting with the gut we continue our hundred-year project of approaching the ability to assess and cultivate benign microbiomes in our bodies. Buildings are analogous to the body and it is time to ask what it means to cultivate benign microbiomes in our built environment. A critical distinction is that we have not found, or invented, niches in buildings where healthful microbial metabolism occurs and/or could be cultivated. Key events affecting the health and healthfulness of buildings such as a hurricane leading to a flood or a burst pipe occur only rarely and unpredictably. The cause may be transient but the effects can be long lasting and, e.g., for moisture damage, cumulative. Non-invasive "building tomography" could find moisture and "sentinel microbes" could record the integral of transient growth. "Seed" microbes are metabolically inert cells able to grow when conditions allow. All microbes and their residue present actinic molecules including immunological epitopes (molecular shapes). The fascinating hygiene and microbial biodiversity hypotheses propose that a healthy immune system requires exposure to a set of microbial epitopes that is rich in diversity. A particular conjecture is that measures of the richness of diversity derived from microbiome next-generation sequencing (NGS) can be mechanistically coupled to--rather than merely correlated with some measures of--human health. These hypotheses and conjectures inspire workers and funders but an alternative is also consequent to the first Neolithic revolution: That the genetic uniformity of contemporary foods may also decrease human exposure to molecular biodiversity in a heath-relevant manner. Understanding the consequences--including the unintended

  7. Plate tectonics: Scientific revolution or scientific program?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mareschal, Jean-Claude

    In The Structure of Scientific Revolutions, Thomas S. Kuhn suggested that science progresses discontinuously: As a scientific theory becomes obsolete, a period of crisis results, at the end of which the old theory is overthrown and replaced by a new, sounder, more complete theory [Kuhn, 1962]. After the scientific community has accepted the new [paradigm,] it undertakes only routine research until a new crisis occurs, usually as a result of an anomalous experiment that accidentally happens to be critical.

  8. Toward a Rethinking of the Relativity Revolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siegel, Daniel

    2014-03-01

    This journey in the history of physics is offered in celebration of David Cassidy's Pais Prize. The journey, undertaken in part with the community of historians of physics and in part not, starts from a conventional characterization of the relativity revolution as an abrupt transition, in 1905, from pre-Einsteinian darkness to Einsteinian light, and ends with an alternative perspective on the relativity revolution, seeing it as a process extending over 50 years, in two phases: first, the protorelativity phase, lasting from the early 1880s to 1905, and involving initial treatments of the length contraction, the mass increase, and invariance properties; second, the Einsteinian phase, beginning with his recasting of the basic theoretical framework--with the inclusion now of the time dilation and the E = mc2 relationship--and continuing with the ensuing competition between the protorelativistic and Einsteinian approaches, issuing in the final triumph of the Einsteinian approach only in the early 1930s. A proper appreciation of the character and importance of the protorelativity phase of the relativity revolution is relevant to a variety of contexts: for the teaching of relativity theory, it makes available a more concrete and pictorial approach to the relativistic effects--retaining greater (length contraction) or somewhat lesser (mass increase) validity to the present day; for the ongoing discourse on the nature of scientific revolutions, it provides a perspective on the intricacies and complexities of those occurrences, and on the elements of continuity and gradualism in even the most radical changes; and for our general understanding of historical process in the history of the sciences, it shows the importance of the broader scientific research community for even the most individual accomplishments.

  9. Greene Machine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavanagh, Sean

    2004-01-01

    The author of this article profiles the 37-year-old researcher Jay P. Greene and his controversial research studies on education. Most people learn early to trust the things they see first, but Greene adheres to a different creed. People are deceived by their own eyes. He believed that visual betrayal is as evident as it is in how people think…

  10. Biodiversity can support a greener revolution in Africa

    PubMed Central

    Snapp, Sieglinde S.; Blackie, Malcolm J.; Gilbert, Robert A.; Bezner-Kerr, Rachel; Kanyama-Phiri, George Y.

    2010-01-01

    The Asian green revolution trebled grain yields through agrochemical intensification of monocultures. Associated environmental costs have subsequently emerged. A rapidly changing world necessitates sustainability principles be developed to reinvent these technologies and test them at scale. The need is particularly urgent in Africa, where ecosystems are degrading and crop yields have stagnated. An unprecedented opportunity to reverse this trend is unfolding in Malawi, where a 90% subsidy has ensured access to fertilization and improved maize seed, with substantive gains in productivity for millions of farmers. To test if economic and ecological sustainability could be improved, we preformed manipulative experimentation with crop diversity in a countrywide trial (n = 991) and at adaptive, local scales through a decade of participatory research (n = 146). Spatial and temporal treatments compared monoculture maize with legume-diversified maize that included annual and semiperennial (SP) growth habits in temporal and spatial combinations, including rotation, SP rotation, intercrop, and SP intercrop systems. Modest fertilizer intensification doubled grain yield compared with monoculture maize. Biodiversity improved ecosystem function further: SP rotation systems at half-fertilizer rates produced equivalent quantities of grain, on a more stable basis (yield variability reduced from 22% to 13%) compared with monoculture. Across sites, profitability and farmer preference matched: SP rotations provided twofold superior returns, whereas diversification of maize with annual legumes provided more modest returns. In this study, we provide evidence that in Africa, crop diversification can be effective at a countrywide scale, and that shrubby, grain legumes can enhance environmental and food security. PMID:21098285

  11. Biodiversity can support a greener revolution in Africa.

    PubMed

    Snapp, Sieglinde S; Blackie, Malcolm J; Gilbert, Robert A; Bezner-Kerr, Rachel; Kanyama-Phiri, George Y

    2010-11-30

    The Asian green revolution trebled grain yields through agrochemical intensification of monocultures. Associated environmental costs have subsequently emerged. A rapidly changing world necessitates sustainability principles be developed to reinvent these technologies and test them at scale. The need is particularly urgent in Africa, where ecosystems are degrading and crop yields have stagnated. An unprecedented opportunity to reverse this trend is unfolding in Malawi, where a 90% subsidy has ensured access to fertilization and improved maize seed, with substantive gains in productivity for millions of farmers. To test if economic and ecological sustainability could be improved, we preformed manipulative experimentation with crop diversity in a countrywide trial (n = 991) and at adaptive, local scales through a decade of participatory research (n = 146). Spatial and temporal treatments compared monoculture maize with legume-diversified maize that included annual and semiperennial (SP) growth habits in temporal and spatial combinations, including rotation, SP rotation, intercrop, and SP intercrop systems. Modest fertilizer intensification doubled grain yield compared with monoculture maize. Biodiversity improved ecosystem function further: SP rotation systems at half-fertilizer rates produced equivalent quantities of grain, on a more stable basis (yield variability reduced from 22% to 13%) compared with monoculture. Across sites, profitability and farmer preference matched: SP rotations provided twofold superior returns, whereas diversification of maize with annual legumes provided more modest returns. In this study, we provide evidence that in Africa, crop diversification can be effective at a countrywide scale, and that shrubby, grain legumes can enhance environmental and food security.

  12. The Effects on Education of Scientific Revolutions (In the Sense of T. S. Kuhn).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Peter G.

    1981-01-01

    Examined are social factors that influence biological science knowledge content in terms of these paradigm shifts: the DNA revolution, the Continental Drift revolution, the Darwinian revolution, and the sociobiology revolution, with the term "revolution" being used in the sense of Thomas S. Kuhn's writings. (PB)

  13. The Effects on Education of Scientific Revolutions (In the Sense of T. S. Kuhn).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Peter G.

    1981-01-01

    Examined are social factors that influence biological science knowledge content in terms of these paradigm shifts: the DNA revolution, the Continental Drift revolution, the Darwinian revolution, and the sociobiology revolution, with the term "revolution" being used in the sense of Thomas S. Kuhn's writings. (PB)

  14. Public and Private Responsibility for Mental Health: Mental Health's Fourth Revolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dokecki, Paul R.

    Three revolutions in the history of mental health were identified by Nicholas Hobbs: the humane revolution, the scientific and therapeutic revolution, and the public health revolution. The shift of responsibilities for mental health and substance abuse services from the public to the private sector may constitute a fourth mental health revolution.…

  15. Einstein and Lorentz: The structure of a scientific revolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brouwer, W.

    1980-06-01

    In a course entitled ''Revolutions in Physics'' a number of episodes in the history of physics are examined, in order to test the theories of Kuhn, Popper, Lakatos, and others, with regard to any common structure exhibited by the various revolutions that physics has undergone. The conflict between Lorentz's Electron Theory and Einstein's Special Relativity becomes a major focal point in the second half of the course for the models of scientific revolutions that are studied.

  16. How Personal Is the Political? Democratic Revolution and Fertility Decline

    PubMed Central

    Bailey, Amy Kate

    2010-01-01

    Existing theory has identified the capacity of political revolutions to effect change in a variety of social institutions, although relationships between revolution and many institutions remain unexplored. Using historical data from 22 European and four diaspora countries, I examine the temporal relationship between timing of revolution and onset of fertility decline. I hypothesize that specific kinds of revolutionary events affect fertility by engendering ideological changes in popular understandings of the individual’s relationship to society, and ultimately the legitimacy of couples’ authority over their reproductive capacities. Results demonstrate that popular democratic revolution – but not institutionalized democratic structures – predict the timing of the onset of fertility decline. PMID:19999826

  17. How personal is the political? Democratic revolution and fertility decline.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Amy Kate

    2009-10-01

    Existing theory has identified the capacity of political revolutions to effect change in a variety of social institutions, although relationships between revolution and many institutions remain unexplored. Using historical data from twenty-two European and four diaspora countries, the author examines the temporal relationship between timing of revolution and onset of fertility decline. The author hypothesizes that specific kinds of revolutionary events affect fertility by engendering ideological changes in popular understandings of the individual's relationship to society and ultimately the legitimacy of couples' authority over their reproductive capacities. Results demonstrate that popular democratic revolutions -- but not institutionalized democratic structures -- predict the timing of the onset of fertility decline.

  18. Determinants of Human Capital Formation and Economic Growth of African Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oketch, Moses O.

    2006-01-01

    Rapid economic growth and improving living standards have benefited almost all regions of the world since the industrial revolution. Africa stands out as one regional exception. While several factors such as civil wars and rampant corruption have been associated with poor economic performance of the African region in the international community,…

  19. Determinants of Human Capital Formation and Economic Growth of African Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oketch, Moses O.

    2006-01-01

    Rapid economic growth and improving living standards have benefited almost all regions of the world since the industrial revolution. Africa stands out as one regional exception. While several factors such as civil wars and rampant corruption have been associated with poor economic performance of the African region in the international community,…

  20. Green Engineering

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Green Engineering is the design, commercialization and use of processes and products that are feasible and economical while reducing the generation of pollution at the source and minimizing the risk to human health and the environment.

  1. Green Infrastructure

    EPA Science Inventory

    Large paved surfaces keep rain from infiltrating the soil and recharging groundwater supplies. Alternatively, Green infrastructure uses natural processes to reduce and treat stormwater in place by soaking up and storing water. These systems provide many environmental, social, an...

  2. Green Tool

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Green Tool represents infiltration-based stormwater control practices. It allows modelers to select a BMP type, channel shape and BMP unit dimensions, outflow control devices, and infiltration method. The program generates an HSPF-formatted FTABLE.

  3. Green Giant.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polo, Marco

    2003-01-01

    Details the design of the Bahen Centre for Information Technology at the University of Toronto, particularly its emphasis on "green," or sustainable, design. Includes floor plans and photographs. (EV)

  4. Green Infrastructure

    EPA Science Inventory

    Large paved surfaces keep rain from infiltrating the soil and recharging groundwater supplies. Alternatively, Green infrastructure uses natural processes to reduce and treat stormwater in place by soaking up and storing water. These systems provide many environmental, social, an...

  5. Green Giant.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polo, Marco

    2003-01-01

    Details the design of the Bahen Centre for Information Technology at the University of Toronto, particularly its emphasis on "green," or sustainable, design. Includes floor plans and photographs. (EV)

  6. Code Green.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMinn, John

    2002-01-01

    Assesses the integrated approach to green design in the new Computer Science Building at Toronto's York University. The building design fulfills the university's demand to combine an energy efficient design with sustainability. Floor and site plans are included. (GR)

  7. Green Roofs

    SciTech Connect

    2004-08-01

    A New Technology Demonstration Publication Green roofs can improve the energy performance of federal buildings, help manage stormwater, reduce airborne emissions, and mitigate the effects of urban heat islands.

  8. Family medicine in the research revolution.

    PubMed

    Wender, Richard C

    2010-01-01

    National Institutes of Health (NIH) funding has contributed to improvements in the health of the nation, but the pace of progress, particularly in the war on cancer, has been frustratingly slow. Departments of family medicine receive less NIH funding than all other specialties. Although numerous factors contribute to low family medicine funding levels, persistent undervaluing of primary care plays a paramount role. Fueled by the harsh reality that our nation's health is unconscionably poor, we are entering a new era in our nation's research enterprise, a virtual research revolution. The 3 components of this revolution are the NIH roadmap, personalized medicine, and the Clinical and Translational Science Awards. Each of these elements will contribute to a growing emphasis on translational research. Translational research demands formation of innovative structures in academic health centers (AHCs) to enable them to address questions of vital relevance to improving public health. Service research, funded by the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and foundations, defines a new approach to research with high potential to improve the health of communities. To be a part of the research revolution, departments must rely on senior researchers to secure funding and provide mentorship for junior investigators. Junior investigators must relentlessly pursue answers to questions of direct relevance to improving health. Finally, department chairs have the obligation to identify research mentors, find ways to fund research gaps, and create a culture of scholarship and investigation. Advocating for AHCs to commit to improving the health of the regions they serve can have a substantial impact on the types of questions that centers choose to study and, ultimately, on the health of the communities they serve.

  9. Rotor Wake Development During the First Revolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McAlister, Kenneth W.

    2003-01-01

    The wake behind a two-bladed model rotor in light climb was measured using particle image velocimetry, with particular emphasis on the development of the trailing vortex during the first revolution of the rotor. The distribution of vorticity was distinguished from the slightly elliptical swirl pattern. Peculiar dynamics within the void region may explain why the peak vorticity appeared to shift away from the center as the vortex aged, suggesting the onset of instability. The swirl and axial velocities (which reached 44 and 12 percent of the rotor-tip speed, respectively) were found to be asymmetric relative to the vortex center. In particular, the axial flow was composed of two concentrated zones moving in opposite directions. The radial distribution of the circulation rapidly increased in magnitude until reaching a point just beyond the core radius, after which the rate of growth decreased significantly. The core-radius circulation increased slightly with wake age, but the large-radius circulation appeared to remain relatively constant. The radial distributions of swirl velocity and vorticity exhibit self-similar behaviors, especially within the core. The diameter of the vortex core was initially about 10 percent of the rotor-blade chord, but more than doubled its size after one revolution of the rotor. According to vortex models that approximate the measured data, the core-radius circulation was about 79 percent of the large-radius circulation, and the large-radius circulation was about 67 percent of the maximum bound circulation on the rotor blade. On average, about 53 percent of the maximum bound circulation resides within the vortex core during the first revolution of the rotor.

  10. Perspective: the revolution is upon us.

    PubMed

    Sierles, Frederick S

    2010-05-01

    Profound socioeconomic pressures on medical student education have been catalogued extensively. These pressures include teaching patient shortages, teacher shortages, conflicting systems, and financial problems. Many of these problems have been caused by an unregulated free market affecting medicine overall, with market values sometimes overshadowing the academic values of education, research, and patient care. This has caused profound changes in the conduct of medical student education. Particularly important has been a reduction in the "gold standard" of teaching: direct student-teacher and supervised student-patient interaction, replaced by a potpourri of online and simulated modules. The aggregate of these changes constitutes a revolution that challenges whether medical schools, school buildings, classes, and dedicated faculty are even necessary. The author posits several recommendations in response to this revolution: (1) recognize the revolution as such, and carefully guide or abort it, lest its outcome be inadequate, inauthentic, or corrupt, (2) prioritize academic rather than business values, (3) ensure that funds allotted for education are used for education, (4) insist that medical schools, not industry, teach students, (5) value authentic education more than simulation, (6) adopt learner-centered teaching without misusing it, (7) maintain acceptable class attendance without requiring it, (8) provide, from the first school day, authentic, patient-centered medical education characterized by vertical integration, humanism, early patient exposure, biopsychosocial orientation, and physician role modeling, (9) ensure that third- and fourth-year students have rich patient-care responsibility, and 10) keep tenure. These actions would permit the preservation of an educational gold standard that justifies medical education's cost.

  11. Imagineering the astronomical revolution - Essay review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jardine, Nicholas.

    2006-11-01

    Concerning following Books: (I) Transmitting knowledge - words, images, and instruments in early modern Europe. Kusukawa and Maclean (eds.), OUP, Oxford, 2006; (II) Widmung, Welterklärung und Wissenschaftslegitimierung: Titelbilder und ihre Funktionen in der wissenschaftlichen Revolution. Remmert, Harrassowitz, Wiesbaden, 2005; (III) The power of images in early modern science. Lefevre, Renn and Schoepflin (eds.), Birkhäuser, Basel, 2003; (IV) Immagini per conoscere - dal Rinascimento alla rivoluzione scientifica. Meroi and Pogliano (eds.), Olschki, Florenz, 2001; (V) Erkenntnis Erfindung Konstruktion - Studien zur Bildgeschichte von Naturwissenschaften und Technik vom 16. bis zum 19. Jahrhundert. Holländer (ed.), Mann, Berlin, 2000.

  12. Revolution at the library service desk.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Beverly; Peterson, Richard A; Vines, Hattie; von Isenburg, Megan; Berney, Elizabeth; James, Robert; Rodriguez, Marcos; Thibodeau, Patricia

    2008-01-01

    This article will describe how a revolution in customer service provision beginning in 2002 has led to an evolution of library services. When the reference and circulation desks were merged to create a single service point, responsibilities were broadened, core competencies were developed, and staff members were cross trained. In 2005, an analysis of staffing and work patterns demonstrated a need to build upon the original model to better utilize staff and ensure coverage of the desk. Reference librarians were moved to "on call" status, technical services staff were added to the schedule, and core competencies and procedures were refined.

  13. The quiet revolution of numerical weather prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauer, Peter; Thorpe, Alan; Brunet, Gilbert

    2015-09-01

    Advances in numerical weather prediction represent a quiet revolution because they have resulted from a steady accumulation of scientific knowledge and technological advances over many years that, with only a few exceptions, have not been associated with the aura of fundamental physics breakthroughs. Nonetheless, the impact of numerical weather prediction is among the greatest of any area of physical science. As a computational problem, global weather prediction is comparable to the simulation of the human brain and of the evolution of the early Universe, and it is performed every day at major operational centres across the world.

  14. Hamiltonization of Solids of Revolution Through Reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balseiro, Paula

    2017-06-01

    In this paper, we study the relation between conserved quantities of nonholonomic systems and the hamiltonization problem employing the geometric methods of Balseiro (Arch Ration Mech Anal 214:453-501, 2014) and Balseiro and Garcia-Naranjo (Arch Ration Mech Anal 205(1):267-310, 2012). We illustrate the theory with classical examples describing the dynamics of solids of revolution rolling without sliding on a plane. In these cases, using the existence of two conserved quantities we obtain, by means of gauge transformations and symmetry reduction, genuine Poisson brackets describing the reduced dynamics.

  15. [Treatment of hepatitis C - an imminent revolution].

    PubMed

    Schärer, Verena; Bruggmann, Philip; Müllhaupt, Beat; Fehr, Jan

    2014-09-17

    Treatment of hepatitis C is approaching a revolution. During the last years, many agents have been developed that directly interfere with the viral replication cycle. Therapy of hepatitis C will no longer need Interferon in the future. The new therapies will be shorter, more efficient and with fewer side effects. For patients, the burden of treatment will drop substantially. Even patients are traditionally classified who as "difficult to treat", such as cirrhotic patients, HIV/hepatitis C coinfected patients and patients after liver transplantation will have better chances of cure. For more patients to benefit from the new therapies, identification of infected individuals and diagnostic investigations have to be improved.

  16. The quiet revolution of numerical weather prediction.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Peter; Thorpe, Alan; Brunet, Gilbert

    2015-09-03

    Advances in numerical weather prediction represent a quiet revolution because they have resulted from a steady accumulation of scientific knowledge and technological advances over many years that, with only a few exceptions, have not been associated with the aura of fundamental physics breakthroughs. Nonetheless, the impact of numerical weather prediction is among the greatest of any area of physical science. As a computational problem, global weather prediction is comparable to the simulation of the human brain and of the evolution of the early Universe, and it is performed every day at major operational centres across the world.

  17. Sound and heat revolutions in phononics.

    PubMed

    Maldovan, Martin

    2013-11-14

    The phonon is the physical particle representing mechanical vibration and is responsible for the transmission of everyday sound and heat. Understanding and controlling the phononic properties of materials provides opportunities to thermally insulate buildings, reduce environmental noise, transform waste heat into electricity and develop earthquake protection. Here I review recent progress and the development of new ideas and devices that make use of phononic properties to control both sound and heat. Advances in sonic and thermal diodes, optomechanical crystals, acoustic and thermal cloaking, hypersonic phononic crystals, thermoelectrics, and thermocrystals herald the next technological revolution in phononics.

  18. Why the Pre-Copernican Cosmological Revolution Was Not a Revolution?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pacholczyk, A. G.

    The 'scientific component' of the Copernican cosmological revolution followed a seemingly minor local structural change (consisting of the transposition of the Earth and the Sun), initially not affecting the global Platonic-Aristotelian spherical symmetry of the Universe and the general arrangement of astronomical bodies at sufficiently large distances from its center. Yet this change resulted in a rich 'ideological component' of the Copernican revolution in the Popperian sense; the importance of this ideological component is generally regarded as a consequence of the tensions arising from apparent contradictions between the new cosmos and several Scriptural passages (as if the previous Platonic-Aristotelian cosmos were in perfect agreement with the Scriptures, which certainly was not the case). The scientific component of the pre-Copernican cosmological revolution (replacing the plane-parallel scriptural cosmos with the spherically symmetric non-scriptural Universe of Plato and Aristotle), was a major global change in the large-scale structure of the Universe. This change took place at different times in different places in Christendom, and was by no means ideologically revolutionary: the pre-Copernican revolution had a very insignificant 'ideological component'. In this paper, after examining this transition in more detail, we shall ask the pertinent question: why did the pre-Copernican cosmological revolution not have any significant 'ideological component'? If the God-created Universe could be depicted in the opinion of the majority of Church Fathers and Schoolmen by the (non-scriptural) spherically symmetric Platonic or Aristotelian model as well as by the (scriptural) tabernacular Babylonian model, then why couldn't it be described just as well in the opinion of 17th century churchmen by the (also non-scriptural) Copernican model? The paper suggests that the tentative answers to these questions are provided by different anthropocentric ramifications of

  19. A Progress Report on the TeXas Earth and Space Science (TXESS) Revolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellins, K. K.; Snow, E.; Olson, H. C.; Odell, M. R.; Stocks, E.

    2009-12-01

    The TeXas Earth and Space Science (TXESS) Revolution is a five-year, NSF-sponsored professional development program for minority-serving 8th grade and high science school teachers who are preparing to teach a new senior capstone course in Earth and Space Science that is an option for the four years of science required for high school graduation in Texas. In this presentation (1) we will describe the sequence and content of the professional development academies and the summer institutes; (2) report on our effort to reach minority students; (3) review the preliminary results of the project evaluation on the effectiveness of the TXESS Revolution professional development program; and (4) describe enrichment opportunities for TXESS Revolution participants in connection with other projects, professional organizations and consortia (e.g., UNAVCO, IRIS, and the Consortium for Ocean Leadership). The program consists of eight professional development academies, each with a different contemporary content theme, during which teachers engage in rigorous, data-driven learning activities. Field trips, guest lectures, and other special programs are integrated into the professional development. Summer institutes are offered each year. The number of teachers participating in Cohorts A (spring 2008- summer 2009), B (fall 2008 - summer 2010) and C (fall 2009 - summer 2011) is 160. Cohort A and B teachers have directly impacted 9,494 K-12 students of which 67% are Hispanic, African American, Asian American or Native American, and 35% are Caucasian. Thirty-five Cohort A teachers have turned the training around and offered project-related professional development to 1,356 other teachers. The content of the TXESS Revolution worklshops is rigorous. Evaluation results reveal that many teachers felt overwhelmed at the start of the project. However, they soon became accustomed to the level of information presented and felt increased confidence in the core content. Participants appreciate how

  20. The microbiota revolution: Excitement and caution.

    PubMed

    Rescigno, Maria

    2017-09-01

    Scientific progress is characterized by important technological advances. Next-generation DNA sequencing has, in the past few years, led to a major scientific revolution: the microbiome revolution. It has become possible to generate a fingerprint of the whole microbiota of any given environment. As it becomes clear that the microbiota affects several aspects of our lives, each new scientific finding should ideally be analyzed in light of these communities. For instance, animal experimentation should consider animal sources and husbandry; human experimentation should include analysis of microenvironmental cues that might affect the microbiota, including diet, antibiotic, and drug use, genetics. When analyzing the activity of a drug, we should remember that, according to the microbiota of the host, different drug activities might be observed, either due to modification or degradation by the microbiota, or because the microbiota changes the immune system of the host in a way that makes that drug more or less effective. This minireview will not be a comprehensive review on the interaction between the host and microbiota, but it will aim at creating awareness on why we should not forget the contribution of the microbiota in any single aspect of biology. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Great revolutions in the history of life.

    PubMed

    Seilacher, A

    1997-03-25

    Evolution is a historical process. Like human history its course is unpredictable, because it results from the response of organisms and their biographies to changing outside conditions. Yet it makes perfect sense in retrospect, because every move was conditioned by the previous one. Another characteristic of historical changes is that they proceed gradually on the one hand, but are accentuated by events on the other. With regard to human history, one has always emphasized the events, such as wars and political revolutions; only recently historians got also interested in the more gradual changes in everyday life during the intervening periods. In evolutionary biology, emphasis was reversed. Darwinian theory focuses in gradual transformations, because this is what we can directly observe in natural and domesticated populations. Therefore the breaks that paleontologists noted in the fossil record were for a long time considered as preservational artifacts. Today we know that they reflect real evolutionary cascades induced by environmental perturbations of higher order. We are also becoming aware that the impact of our own species on the global environment could mark such a break which a few million years later will be taken as the end of the Cenozoic and the beginning of a new era, the "Anthropozoic". With such perspectives in mind we shall now study the patterns of the great revolutions in the history of life, back to the greatest of all, the "Cambrian Explosion".

  2. Science in History, Volume 2: The Scientific and Industrial Revolutions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernal, J. D.

    This volume, the second of four, includes parts four and five of the eight parts in the series. Part Four deals with what is called the Scientific Revolution from 1440-1690. This "revolution" is divided into three phases: Phase 1 (1440-1540) includes the Renaissance and the Reformation, during which the world-picture adopted from classical times…

  3. Science in History, Volume 2: The Scientific and Industrial Revolutions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernal, J. D.

    This volume, the second of four, includes parts four and five of the eight parts in the series. Part Four deals with what is called the Scientific Revolution from 1440-1690. This "revolution" is divided into three phases: Phase 1 (1440-1540) includes the Renaissance and the Reformation, during which the world-picture adopted from classical times…

  4. The On-Going Revolution: Rhetoric, Fantasy, and Vested Interest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heath, Robert L.

    The historical rhetoric, mythic heroes, and values of the American Revolution have become the justification for many other contemporary "revolutions." Collective movements advocating states' independence, the abolition of slavery, women's rights, civil rights, and so on, have manipulated the concept of heroic equality as it is embodied…

  5. Theological Higher Education in Cuba: Part 3--The Cuban Revolution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Esqueda, Octavio J.

    2007-01-01

    This article provides a summary of the Cuban Revolution and its implications and consequences for Christian higher education in Cuba. Christian institutions experienced the same oppression from the communist revolution as the rest of the evangelical denominations during the sixties and seventies. The worst period for Protestantism began in 1965…

  6. The Cognitive Revolution and the Computer. Version 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mueller, Richard J.; Mueller, Christine L.

    The cognitive revolution began in the 1950s as researchers began to move away from the study of knowledge acquisition and behaviorism to the study of information and the way it is processed. Four factors are discussed in chapter 1 as contributing to the increase in popularity of the "cognitive revolution" (increasing enthusiasm for the…

  7. Mexican Birthdays: Independence and Revolution, 1810 and 1910

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gutierrez, Jose Angel

    2010-01-01

    The latter decades of the eighteenth century and first decades of the nineteenth century were full or revolutions and births of new nations, particularly in the Americas. The period has been termed the Age of Revolution. In 2010, Mexico celebrated along with several other countries the two hundred-year celebration of their movement toward…

  8. Technology and Curriculum: Will the Promised Revolution Take Place?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mojkowski, Charles

    1987-01-01

    To take advantage of the emerging technological revolution, education must undertake its own revolution. Otherwise, technology will never be successfully integrated into the curriculum and may effect change without improvement. Primary focus must be on the future of curriculum and instruction, particularly discipline-specific process skills and…

  9. Modern Times: The Industrial Revolution and the Concept of Time.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doppen, Frans H.

    1999-01-01

    Discusses the role the Industrial Revolution had in changing humankind's perception of time and recommends using the flashback approach in order to encourage students to think about how the process of industrialization still affects their lives. Provides activities that address the concept of time caused by the Industrial Revolution. (CMK)

  10. The French Revolution on Film: American and French Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harison, Casey

    2005-01-01

    It is not hard to locate negative or condescending images of the French Revolution in aspects of popular American culture, including film. Despite a handful of instances where nuanced or ambiguous "messages" may be identified, the number of American film interpretations of the French Revolution that might be judged historically…

  11. Revolutions: Interdisciplinary Approaches to Teaching Printmaking and Latin American History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiddy, Elizabeth; Woodward, Kristen T.

    2013-01-01

    As part of a U.S. Department of Education grant to expand Latin American and Caribbean Studies at Albright College, the authors of this article, one a historian and one an artist, teamed up to teach a course called Revolutions: Art and Revolution in Latin America. In the class, they proposed to combine a studio art printmaking class with Latin…

  12. The Anglo Revolution in New Mexico: The Maxwell Land Grant.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simpson, Thomas K.

    1979-01-01

    Second in a 3-part series of case studies tracing the impact of the "Anglo revolution" on New Mexico, this article traces the effect of the "Anglo revolution" in the history of New Mexico's vast Maxwell Land Grant, which involves property ownership and property law. (Editor/NQ)

  13. Theological Higher Education in Cuba: Part 3--The Cuban Revolution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Esqueda, Octavio J.

    2007-01-01

    This article provides a summary of the Cuban Revolution and its implications and consequences for Christian higher education in Cuba. Christian institutions experienced the same oppression from the communist revolution as the rest of the evangelical denominations during the sixties and seventies. The worst period for Protestantism began in 1965…

  14. Navigating the Information Revolution: Choices for Laggard Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gatune, Julius

    2007-01-01

    The rapid diffusion of information and communication technologies (ICTs) during the last two decades has had a profound impact on all spheres of human endeavors, changes that are collectively referred to as the Information Revolution (IR). But the revolution has been uneven, with some countries being far ahead and others far behind in IR,…

  15. Why Are Your Students Sleeping through the French Revolution?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joseph, Brad

    2008-01-01

    The French Revolution can be a difficult subject to teach. Students often struggle to relate to events that happened more than two hundred years ago in France. In this article, the author suggests three key causes for the failure of the revolution that social studies teachers can focus on when teaching this topic. He also provides several stories…

  16. Why Are Your Students Sleeping through the French Revolution?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joseph, Brad

    2008-01-01

    The French Revolution can be a difficult subject to teach. Students often struggle to relate to events that happened more than two hundred years ago in France. In this article, the author suggests three key causes for the failure of the revolution that social studies teachers can focus on when teaching this topic. He also provides several stories…

  17. The On-Going Revolution: Rhetoric, Fantasy, and Vested Interest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heath, Robert L.

    The historical rhetoric, mythic heroes, and values of the American Revolution have become the justification for many other contemporary "revolutions." Collective movements advocating states' independence, the abolition of slavery, women's rights, civil rights, and so on, have manipulated the concept of heroic equality as it is embodied…

  18. Revolutions: Interdisciplinary Approaches to Teaching Printmaking and Latin American History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiddy, Elizabeth; Woodward, Kristen T.

    2013-01-01

    As part of a U.S. Department of Education grant to expand Latin American and Caribbean Studies at Albright College, the authors of this article, one a historian and one an artist, teamed up to teach a course called Revolutions: Art and Revolution in Latin America. In the class, they proposed to combine a studio art printmaking class with Latin…

  19. The French Revolution on Film: American and French Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harison, Casey

    2005-01-01

    It is not hard to locate negative or condescending images of the French Revolution in aspects of popular American culture, including film. Despite a handful of instances where nuanced or ambiguous "messages" may be identified, the number of American film interpretations of the French Revolution that might be judged historically…

  20. Modern Times: The Industrial Revolution and the Concept of Time.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doppen, Frans H.

    1999-01-01

    Discusses the role the Industrial Revolution had in changing humankind's perception of time and recommends using the flashback approach in order to encourage students to think about how the process of industrialization still affects their lives. Provides activities that address the concept of time caused by the Industrial Revolution. (CMK)

  1. Mexican Birthdays: Independence and Revolution, 1810 and 1910

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gutierrez, Jose Angel

    2010-01-01

    The latter decades of the eighteenth century and first decades of the nineteenth century were full or revolutions and births of new nations, particularly in the Americas. The period has been termed the Age of Revolution. In 2010, Mexico celebrated along with several other countries the two hundred-year celebration of their movement toward…

  2. Navigating the Information Revolution: Choices for Laggard Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gatune, Julius

    2007-01-01

    The rapid diffusion of information and communication technologies (ICTs) during the last two decades has had a profound impact on all spheres of human endeavors, changes that are collectively referred to as the Information Revolution (IR). But the revolution has been uneven, with some countries being far ahead and others far behind in IR,…

  3. African Aesthetics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abiodun, Rowland

    2001-01-01

    No single traditional discipline can adequately supply answers to the many unresolved questions in African art history. Because of the aesthetic, cultural, historical, and, not infrequently, political biases, already built into the conception and development of Western art history, the discipline of art history as defined and practiced in the West…

  4. African Pentecostalism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrard, David J.

    2009-01-01

    The diversity of African Pentecostalism, its early colonial and missionary history and its current characteristics are described and analysed. Reference is made to methods of training and forms of leadership, and suggestions are made about the reasons for its growth and persistence. (Contains 19 notes.)

  5. African Aesthetics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abiodun, Rowland

    2001-01-01

    No single traditional discipline can adequately supply answers to the many unresolved questions in African art history. Because of the aesthetic, cultural, historical, and, not infrequently, political biases, already built into the conception and development of Western art history, the discipline of art history as defined and practiced in the West…

  6. Green Power Partnership Videos

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Green Power Partnership develops videos on a regular basis that explore a variety of topics including, Green Power partnership, green power purchasing, Renewable energy certificates, among others.

  7. Educators must take the electronic revolution seriously.

    PubMed

    Chodorow, S

    1996-03-01

    The advanced fields in the physical sciences and quantitative social sciences began using computers years ago. But only recently has the electronic revolution reached the point where educators in both medicine and the humanities must take it seriously. This is because (1) computers have finally become powerful enough to permit the creation of teaching machines (called multimedia packages) that can manipulate the massive amounts of information involved in medicine and the humanities; and (2) the Internet is now fast enough and widely distributed enough to change teaching practices. Multimedia packages will drastically change traditional teaching and learning; the author reviews these and other likely impacts of these packages. For example, faculty members' effective contact with students will not be bound by time and place; students can learn at their own paces in their preferred modes; and the distinction between elementary and advanced learning will be virtually impossible to maintain. The Internet makes it possible to offer classes to students no matter where they or the teacher are located, to ignore strict constraints of time (a class discussion can go on for days), and to create "electronic communities" of students and faculty. The author reviews the great advantages of these capabilities, but states that this development of the virtual university could seriously undermine actual universities (e.g., difficulties of maintaining faculty competence in their disciplines; impossibility of deciding issues of department size and diversity; questions of the effectiveness of learning that does not take place face-to-face; problems of students' and teachers' time management, on which the traditional structures of curricula and teaching methods are built). Despite the fundamental adjustments that will be necessary, the author sees the electronic revolution in education as a necessary consequence of what is already taking place in research, where multimedia packages and

  8. African-American Biography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Ron

    1995-01-01

    Suggests sources of information for African American History Month for library media specialists who work with students in grades four through eight. Gale Research's "African-American Reference Library," which includes "African-America Biography,""African-American Chronology," and "African-American Almanac,"…

  9. Mass spectrometry: a revolution in clinical microbiology?

    PubMed

    Lavigne, Jean-Philippe; Espinal, Paula; Dunyach-Remy, Catherine; Messad, Nourredine; Pantel, Alix; Sotto, Albert

    2013-02-01

    Recently, different bacteriological laboratory interventions that decrease reporting time have been developed. These promising new broad-based techniques have merit, based on their ability to identify rapidly many bacteria, organisms difficult to grow or newly emerging strains, as well as their capacity to track disease transmission. The benefit of rapid reporting of identification and/or resistance of bacteria can greatly impact patient outcomes, with an improvement in the use of antibiotics, in the reduction of the emergence of multidrug resistant bacteria and in mortality rates. Different techniques revolve around mass spectrometry (MS) technology: matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS), PCR combined with electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (PCR/ESIMS), iPLEX MassArray system and other new evolutions combining different techniques. This report emphasizes the (r)evolution of these technologies in clinical microbiology.

  10. The astronomical revolution. Copernicus - Kepler - Borelli.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koyré, A.

    The work was originally published in 1961 under the title "La révolution astronomique" as part of the series, Histoire de la pensée. This book is an unabridged and unaltered republication of the English translation, by R. E. W. Maddison, originally published in 1973 (see 10.003.074). The author elucidates, precisely and in stages, the revolutionary ideas of Nicolaus Copernicus as well as the work of two other thinkers who made major contributions to the astronomical revolution: Johannes Kepler and Giovanni Borelli. He illuminates the exact contribution of each man, placing his work in its historical context and dispelling a host of misconceptions about it. In order to effectively recapture the ferment and flavor of the times, the author, whenever possible, has allowed Copernicus, Kepler and Borelli to speak for themselves by quoting key passages from their writings. Many of these passages were here translated for the first time.

  11. Who lost the health care revolution?

    PubMed

    Curry, W

    1990-01-01

    Just a year ago, in the March-April 1989 issue of Harvard Business Review, Professor Regina E. Herzlinger of the Harvard Business School took a long look at the U.S. health care system and declared the much touted revolution in the health care delivery system a failure. This article is a summary of the arguments that Professor Herzlinger marshaled for her treatise. In the following two articles, members of the College assess those arguments in terms of the medical management profession and in terms of the organizations, a hospital and a managed care company, for which they work. Finally, Professor Herzlinger returns to the subject with a response to these physician executives.

  12. Another Semiconductor Revolution: This Time It's Lighting!

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haitz, Roland

    A 40 year old semiconductor technology, Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs) has steadily improved performance and cost to a point where it will move from its home turf, signaling applications to the much larger market, general lighting. The white LEDs are building momentum at such a rapid rate that we predict a revolution in lighting comparable to blowing out the gaslights by Edison's incandescent lamp 100 years ago. One technology will compete for all applications from the smallest indicator lamp to the lighting system for sports stadiums. LEDs will provide superior performance and lower cost of ownership, at any point in this dynamic range of 11 orders of magnitude. A complete conversion to LED based lamps could reduce electricity consumption for lighting by up to 75% and reduce global coal production by approximately 600 Mtons/year. There is no single technology investment on the horizon with a better environmental benefits to cost ratio.

  13. Silicon: Child and Progenitor of Revolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cahn, R. W.

    Antoine Lavoisier, the pioneering French chemist who (together with Joseph Priestley in England) identified oxygen as an element and gave it its name, in 1789 concluded that quartz was probably a compound with an as-yet undiscovered but presumably extremely common element. That was also the year in which the French Revolution broke out. Five years later, the Jacobins accused Lavoisier of offences against the people and cut off his head, thereby nearly cutting off the new chemistry. It was not until 1824 that Jöns Berzelius in Sweden succeeded in confirming Lavoisier's speculation by isolating silicon. Argument at once broke out among the scientific elite as to whether the newly found element was a metal or an insulator. It took more than a century to settle that disagreement decisively: As so often, when all-or-nothing alternatives are fiercely argued, the truth turned out to be neither all nor nothing.

  14. [The bioresorbable coronary stent: a revolution].

    PubMed

    Koegler, Flora; De Benedetti, Edoardo

    2013-04-10

    Coronary angioplasty has undergone several technological revolutions: starting with balloon angioplasty, then with bare metal stent and finally with drug eluting stent (DES), this technique is now mature. However, once we thought the problem of instent restenosis solved with DES, new concerns arise with late and very late stent thrombosis. Should we therefore proscribe DES? How long should be the duration of dual antiplatelet therapy? And how should we manage the patients who need a surgery and are at high risk of bleeding? Are bioresorbable stents the final solution with their initial mechanical properties, then with their drug eluting effect against intra-stent restenosis, and finally with their complete resorption which leaves the artery free of any foreign material?

  15. Design of efficient stiffened shells of revolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Majumder, D. K.; Thornton, W. A.

    1976-01-01

    A method to produce efficient piecewise uniform stiffened shells of revolution is presented. The approach uses a first order differential equation formulation for the shell prebuckling and buckling analyses and the necessary conditions for an optimum design are derived by a variational approach. A variety of local yielding and buckling constraints and the general buckling constraint are included in the design process. The local constraints are treated by means of an interior penalty function and the general buckling load is treated by means of an exterior penalty function. This allows the general buckling constraint to be included in the design process only when it is violated. The self-adjoint nature of the prebuckling and buckling formulations is used to reduce the computational effort. Results for four conical shells and one spherical shell are given.

  16. Information revolution: William Chambers, the publishing pioneer.

    PubMed

    Fyfe, Aileen

    2006-12-01

    With the arrival of steam power and new machinery in the 19th century, the production of printed media was transformed for the first time since the emergence of the printing press more than 300 years earlier. Yet until the 1850s, most publishers remained content with traditional methods, which enabled them to make profits from a small but affluent circle of readers. This article (part of the Science in the Industrial Revolution series) will show how William Chambers (1800-1883) was one of the first to make full use of the new technologies. He was driven by a determination to reach readers of all social classes, to produce a genuinely cheap instructive publication and to overcome the challenges of reaching a national market from his base in Edinburgh.

  17. Green Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Mike

    2008-01-01

    More and more people are viewing the world through green-tinted glasses, and those ideas about making school and university facilities more environmentally friendly suddenly are appearing to be prudent and responsible. Among the groups that have been advocating for environmentally friendly school design for years are the Collaborative for High…

  18. Think green.

    PubMed

    Serb, Chris

    2008-08-01

    Hospitals typically don't come to mind when you think about cutting-edge environmental programs, but that's changing. Rising energy costs, the need to replace older facilities, and a growing environmental consciousness have spurred hospitals nationwide to embrace a green ideology. The executive suite is a vocal and active player in these efforts.

  19. Buying Green

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Layng, T. V. Joe

    2010-01-01

    In "Buying Green," Joe Layng recognizes that, like all choices we make, our decisions as consumers are more likely to be influenced by their short-term consequences for us as individuals (price, quality) than they are by their long-term consequences for society (environmental impact). He believes that the equation can be tilted in favor of greener…

  20. Green Power

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaffhauser, Dian

    2009-01-01

    In the world of higher education, even the most ambitious sustainability plans often begin with tiny steps taken by individual departments. Michael Crowley, a program manager for Environmental Health & Engineering (EH&E) and former assistant director of the Harvard (Massachusetts) Green Campus Initiative, explains that going for small wins through…

  1. Green Coffee

    MedlinePlus

    ... of IBS. Thinning bones (osteoporosis): Caffeine from green coffee and other sources can increase the amount of calcium that is flushed out in the urine. This might weaken bones. If you have osteoporosis, limit caffeine consumption to less than 300 mg per day (approximately ...

  2. Green pioneers.

    PubMed

    Trueland, Jennifer

    The government has set tough targets for the NHS in England to reduce its carbon footprint. In this article, nurses and managers at Nottinghamshire Healthcare NHS Trust explain how a programme of 'greening' initiatives - including a trial of electric cars for community staff - have slashed the trust's CO2 output.

  3. Green Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Mike

    2008-01-01

    More and more people are viewing the world through green-tinted glasses, and those ideas about making school and university facilities more environmentally friendly suddenly are appearing to be prudent and responsible. Among the groups that have been advocating for environmentally friendly school design for years are the Collaborative for High…

  4. Going Green

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Witkowsky, Kathy

    2009-01-01

    Going green saves money and can even make money. Sustainable practices promote better health, less absenteeism, and more productivity. They also attract students, who are paying increasing attention to schools' environmental policies. Beyond being the smart thing to do, administrators at the University of Washington say repeatedly, it's the right…

  5. Buying Green

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Layng, T. V. Joe

    2010-01-01

    In "Buying Green," Joe Layng recognizes that, like all choices we make, our decisions as consumers are more likely to be influenced by their short-term consequences for us as individuals (price, quality) than they are by their long-term consequences for society (environmental impact). He believes that the equation can be tilted in favor of greener…

  6. Going Green

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Witkowsky, Kathy

    2009-01-01

    Going green saves money and can even make money. Sustainable practices promote better health, less absenteeism, and more productivity. They also attract students, who are paying increasing attention to schools' environmental policies. Beyond being the smart thing to do, administrators at the University of Washington say repeatedly, it's the right…

  7. Green Power

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaffhauser, Dian

    2009-01-01

    In the world of higher education, even the most ambitious sustainability plans often begin with tiny steps taken by individual departments. Michael Crowley, a program manager for Environmental Health & Engineering (EH&E) and former assistant director of the Harvard (Massachusetts) Green Campus Initiative, explains that going for small wins through…

  8. Climate Change Projections for African Urban Areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simonis, Ingo; Engelbrecht, Francois; Bucchignani, Edoardo; Mercogliano, Paola; Naidoo, Mogesh

    2013-04-01

    Mainly driven by changes in the orbital characteristics of Earth around the sun, the planet's climate has been continuously changing over periods of tens of thousands of years. However, the warming that has been detected in the Earth's atmosphere over the last century is occurring at a rate that cannot be explained by any known natural cycle. Main-stream science has indeed reached consensus that the 'enhanced green house effect', caused by the interplay of incoming short-wave irradiation, outgoing long-wave radiation and the absorption of energy by enhanced levels of CO2 and water vapour in the troposphere, is the main forcing mechanism responsible for the phenomena of global warming. The enhanced greenhouse effect strengthens the 'natural green house effect' that results from the CO2 and water vapour occurring naturally in the atmosphere. The continuous burning of fossil fuels since the industrial revolution and the simultaneous degradation of large forests, are the main reasons for the increase in CO2 concentrations in the atmosphere. The availability of climate change projection data varies considerably for different areas on Earth. Whereas the data centres storing climate change projections for Europe and North America now store petabytes of data, regionally downscaled projections for Africa are rarely available. In the context of the research project CLUVA, (Assessing vulnerability of urban systems, populations and goods in relation to natural and man-made disasters in Africa, co-funded by the European Commission under grant agreement no: 265137), the Council for Industrial and Scientific Research (CSIR) in South Africa and the Centro Euro-Mediterraneo sui Cambiamenti Climatici (CMCC) in Italy have produced a large set of projections of climate change over Africa, covering the time period 1950 to 2100. Through the collaboration between CMCC and CSIR, a multi-model ensemble of eight high-resolution simulations of climate change over parts of West and East

  9. The Darwinian revolution: rethinking its meaning and significance.

    PubMed

    Ruse, Michael

    2009-06-16

    The Darwinian revolution is generally taken to be one of the key events in the history of Western science. In recent years, however, the very notion of a scientific revolution has come under attack, and in the specific case of Charles Darwin and his Origin of Species there are serious questions about the nature of the change (if there was such) and the specifically Darwinian input. This article considers these issues by addressing these questions: Was there a Darwinian revolution? That is, was there a revolution at all? Was there a Darwinian revolution? That is, what was the specific contribution of Charles Darwin? Was there a Darwinian revolution? That is, what was the conceptual nature of what occurred on and around the publication of the Origin? I argue that there was a major change, both scientifically and in a broader metaphysical sense; that Charles Darwin was the major player in the change, although one must qualify the nature and the extent of the change, looking particularly at things in a broader historical context than just as an immediate event; and that the revolution was complex and we need the insights of rather different philosophies of scientific change to capture the whole phenomenon. In some respects, indeed, the process of analysis is still ongoing and unresolved.

  10. The Darwinian revolution: Rethinking its meaning and significance

    PubMed Central

    Ruse, Michael

    2009-01-01

    The Darwinian revolution is generally taken to be one of the key events in the history of Western science. In recent years, however, the very notion of a scientific revolution has come under attack, and in the specific case of Charles Darwin and his Origin of Species there are serious questions about the nature of the change (if there was such) and the specifically Darwinian input. This article considers these issues by addressing these questions: Was there a Darwinian revolution? That is, was there a revolution at all? Was there a Darwinian revolution? That is, what was the specific contribution of Charles Darwin? Was there a Darwinian revolution? That is, what was the conceptual nature of what occurred on and around the publication of the Origin? I argue that there was a major change, both scientifically and in a broader metaphysical sense; that Charles Darwin was the major player in the change, although one must qualify the nature and the extent of the change, looking particularly at things in a broader historical context than just as an immediate event; and that the revolution was complex and we need the insights of rather different philosophies of scientific change to capture the whole phenomenon. In some respects, indeed, the process of analysis is still ongoing and unresolved. PMID:19528652

  11. Global Greening Is Firm, Drivers Are Mixed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kauppi, P.; Meyfroidt, P.; Ausubel, J. H.; Graven, H. D.; Birdsey, R.; Posch, M.; Wernick, I.; Myneni, R. B.; Stenberg, P.

    2015-12-01

    Evidence for global greening is converging, asserting an increase in CO2 uptake and biomass of the terrestrial biosphere. Global greening refers to global net increases in the area of green canopy, stocks of carbon, and the duration of the growing season. The growing seasons in general have prolonged while the stock of biomass carbon has increased and the rate of deforestation has decelerated, although these trends are mixed in the Tropics. Evidence for these trends comes from firm empirical data obtained through atmospheric CO2 observations, remote sensing, forest inventories and land use statistics. The drivers of global greening cannot be assessed based only on unambiguous empirical measurements. They include spatially and temporally heterogeneous combinations of changing land use and management - including green revolution and increasing yields, afforestation, forest protection and management, and abandonment of agricultural land -, changes in the global environment (increased CO2, warmer temperatures and longer growing seasons in the northern latitudes, acceleration of the global nitrogen cycle), and shifts in demand for forest and farm products. The global trade of biomass-derived commodities affects the link between consumption patterns and the land cover impact. Global greening confirms the immediacy of global change and may be associated with more or less biodiversity and diverse environmental and human consequences depending on local circumstances. Understanding causes, mechanisms, and implications of global greening requires integrated analyses spanning land use and management, demand for products of the terrestrial biosphere, and the atmosphere and climate. Understanding the pace and drivers of global greening matters crucially for assessing the future of the terrestrial C sink; ecological, economic, social, and cultural assessments of the bio-economy; and the preservation of ecosystems.

  12. Maine Company Awarded $100,000 for Project to Develop Green Ceiling Tiles

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    An Orono, ME business was awarded $100,000 from EPA for work developing green ceiling tiles. Revolution Research, Inc. was one of 13 businesses nationwide receiving a total of $1.3 million for technologies aimed at helping to solve environmental issues.

  13. Deconstructing "Green:" A Holistic Approach to Designing Sustainable Child Development Centers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Durrett, Charles; Torelli, Louis

    2009-01-01

    As care providers of young children, the early childhood profession is poised to be on the forefront of the green revolution. Sustainability, by definition, is the art and science of leaving for future generations, opportunities equal or better than those left us. There is no better place to employ this philosophy of sustainability than in child…

  14. Early Operational Art: Nathanael Green’s Carolina Campaign 1780-1781

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-05-13

    Bloomington, Indiana: Indiana University Press, 1973), p. 25. 56. Ibid. 57. John Dederer , Makina Bricks Without Straw;: Hthanael Greene’s Southern...in the Revolution 1763- IO-9, Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1957. Dederer , John Morgan. Making Straw Without Bricks: Nathanael

  15. The Challenge of Green in a Pesticide-Dominant IPM World

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Advances in pest management have supported dramatic Increases in agricultural production that began with the Green Revolution in 1961. Increased irrigation capacity and higher rates of fertilization that contributed to agricultural intensification created a more permissive agro-environment for pest...

  16. Deconstructing "Green:" A Holistic Approach to Designing Sustainable Child Development Centers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Durrett, Charles; Torelli, Louis

    2009-01-01

    As care providers of young children, the early childhood profession is poised to be on the forefront of the green revolution. Sustainability, by definition, is the art and science of leaving for future generations, opportunities equal or better than those left us. There is no better place to employ this philosophy of sustainability than in child…

  17. [Health and environment: the 2nd public health revolution.].

    PubMed

    Cicolella, André

    2010-01-01

    As of the mid-19th century, most infectious disease epidemics have been fought and slowed down by taking action on the environment (water, housing, waste) and education. This constitutes the 1st public health revolution paradigm. As we face the current epidemic of chronic diseases and the failure of the dominant biomedical model to stop them, a 2nd public health revolution is needed. The vision for this 2nd public health revolution requires a new paradigm built upon an eco-systemic definition of health and the recognition of the legitimacy for citizen participation based on the precautionary principle.

  18. Mechanical systems with closed orbits on manifolds of revolution

    SciTech Connect

    Kudryavtseva, E A; Fedoseev, D A

    2015-05-31

    We study natural mechanical systems describing the motion of a particle on a two-dimensional Riemannian manifold of revolution in the field of a central smooth potential. We obtain a classification of Riemannian manifolds of revolution and central potentials on them that have the strong Bertrand property: any nonsingular (that is, not contained in a meridian) orbit is closed. We also obtain a classification of manifolds of revolution and central potentials on them that have the 'stable' Bertrand property: every parallel is an 'almost stable' circular orbit, and any nonsingular bounded orbit is closed. Bibliography: 14 titles.

  19. The Revolution and the Bicentennial: A Conference (Yale University, May 2, 1975).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connecticut Council for the Social Studies.

    Nine essays, written by distinguished historians and scholars at Yale University, discuss both content and teaching techniques about the American Revolution and the Bicentennial. The essay titles include (1) What Not to Teach about the American Revolution, (2) The British Side of the Revolution, (3) Women and Revolution in the 18th Century, (4)…

  20. Green toxicology.

    PubMed

    Maertens, Alexandra; Anastas, Nicholas; Spencer, Pamela J; Stephens, Martin; Goldberg, Alan; Hartung, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Historically, early identification and characterization of adverse effects of industrial chemicals was difficult because conventional toxicological test methods did not meet R&D needs for rapid, relatively inexpensive methods amenable to small amounts of test material. The pharmaceutical industry now front-loads toxicity testing, using in silico, in vitro, and less demanding animal tests at earlier stages of product development to identify and anticipate undesirable toxicological effects and optimize product development. The Green Chemistry movement embraces similar ideas for development of less toxic products, safer processes, and less waste and exposure. Further, the concept of benign design suggests ways to consider possible toxicities before the actual synthesis and to apply some structure/activity rules (SAR) and in silico methods. This requires not only scientific development but also a change in corporate culture in which synthetic chemists work with toxicologists. An emerging discipline called Green Toxicology (Anastas, 2012) provides a framework for integrating the principles of toxicology into the enterprise of designing safer chemicals, thereby minimizing potential toxicity as early in production as possible. Green Toxicology`s novel utility lies in driving innovation by moving safety considerations to the earliest stage in a chemical`s lifecycle, i.e., to molecular design. In principle, this field is no different than other subdisciplines of toxicology that endeavor to focus on a specific area - for example, clinical, environmental or forensic toxicology. We use the same principles and tools to evaluate an existing substance or to design a new one. The unique emphasis is in using 21st century toxicology tools as a preventative strategy to "design out" undesired human health and environmental effects, thereby increasing the likelihood of launching a successful, sustainable product. Starting with the formation of a steering group and a series of workshops

  1. Teaching the American Revolution Through an Interdisciplinary Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coats, James A., Jr.

    1976-01-01

    Activities with specific examples of how social studies, art, music, and literature can be integrated into the elementary and junior high school classroom in teaching the American Revolution are provided. (Author/DE)

  2. The Sixth Technological Revolution Shaping Today's High School Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sion, Ronald T.

    1998-01-01

    The sixth technological revolution, electronic communications, challenges educators with the rapid pace of change, possible displacement of teachers, and the dangers of misapplication. Advantages include more active involvement of students in the learning process, flexibility, and variety. (SK)

  3. The Revolution in Science and Technology and Problems of Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turchenko, V. N.

    1974-01-01

    The article discusses the interrelated processes of science, education, and production and stresses the need for their simultaneous and harmonious development. The historical development of education which accompanies a scientific revolution is analyzed. (RM)

  4. Goblins, Morlocks, and Weasels: Classic Fantasy and the Industrial Revolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zanger, Jules

    1977-01-01

    Examines three fantasy classics written at the time of the Industrial Revolution to illustrate the effects of drastic social change on fantasy writing; suggests the possible impact of these fantasies on their readers. (GT)

  5. Current Debates in the Study of the Industrial Revolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beaudoin, Steven M.

    2000-01-01

    Provides an overview of the literature on the debates surrounding the industrial revolution using four categories: (1) definition and characteristics; (2) context and causation; (3) impacts and scope; and (4) industrialization as a worldwide phenomenon. (CMK)

  6. Goblins, Morlocks, and Weasels: Classic Fantasy and the Industrial Revolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zanger, Jules

    1977-01-01

    Examines three fantasy classics written at the time of the Industrial Revolution to illustrate the effects of drastic social change on fantasy writing; suggests the possible impact of these fantasies on their readers. (GT)

  7. Illiteracy in Devon During the Industrial Revolution, 1754-1844

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephens, W. B.

    1976-01-01

    Indicates the likelihood that the initial period of the Industrial Revolution was one of deteriorating educational standards in most areas, especially in those that were seats of displaced domestic textile industries. (Author)

  8. Teaching the American Revolution Through an Interdisciplinary Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coats, James A., Jr.

    1976-01-01

    Activities with specific examples of how social studies, art, music, and literature can be integrated into the elementary and junior high school classroom in teaching the American Revolution are provided. (Author/DE)

  9. Prelude to, and Nature of the Space Photometry Revolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilliland, Ronald L.

    2015-09-01

    It is now less than a decade since CoRoT initiated the space photometry revolution with breakthrough discoveries, and five years since Kepler started a series of similar advances. I'll set the context for this revolution noting the status of asteroseismology and exoplanet discovery as it was 15-25 years ago in order to give perspective on why it is not mere hyperbole to claim CoRoT and Kepler fostered a revolution in our sciences. Primary events setting up the revolution will be recounted. I'll continue with noting the major discoveries in hand, and how asteroseismology and exoplanet studies, and indeed our approach to doing science, have been forever changed thanks to these spectacular missions.

  10. Much Ado about Something: Naturalistic Inquiry and the Paradigm Revolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tierney, William J.

    1988-01-01

    Two recent books that confront the questions and assumptions of traditional and new paradigms for studying education are discussed: "Organizational Theory and Inquiry: The Paradigm Revolution" (Yvonna Lincoln, editor) and "Naturalistic Inquiry" (Y. Lincoln and Egon Guba). (MSE)

  11. Current Debates in the Study of the Industrial Revolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beaudoin, Steven M.

    2000-01-01

    Provides an overview of the literature on the debates surrounding the industrial revolution using four categories: (1) definition and characteristics; (2) context and causation; (3) impacts and scope; and (4) industrialization as a worldwide phenomenon. (CMK)

  12. Illiteracy in Devon During the Industrial Revolution, 1754-1844

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephens, W. B.

    1976-01-01

    Indicates the likelihood that the initial period of the Industrial Revolution was one of deteriorating educational standards in most areas, especially in those that were seats of displaced domestic textile industries. (Author)

  13. The 'Anglo' Revolution in New Mexico Part I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simpson, Thomas K.

    1978-01-01

    First in a three-part series of case studies tracing the impact of the "Anglo Revolution" on New Mexico, this article deals with copper mining in New Mexico, particularly the Santa Rita del Cobre copper mine. (NQ)

  14. Pay for performance and the revolution in American medical culture.

    PubMed

    Lexa, Frank J

    2008-03-01

    The recent implementation of pay for performance by CMS in radiology practices is not going to be an isolated event. Instead, it reflects an early manifestation of what will likely be a revolution in how we work and how we are paid in diagnostic imaging. Examining the factors that underly this revolution are critical for understanding the next waves of change that will drive our future.

  15. Elastoplastic deformation of shells of revolution under nonaxisymmetric loading (review)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merzlyakov, V. A.; Shevchenko, Yu. N.

    1999-05-01

    Problems of determination of the elastoplastic stress-strain state of shells of revolution under nonaxisymmetric force and heat loads are solved and the results are examined. The deformation characteristics of shells of revolution whose thickness varies in two directions are related using the theory of thin shells for plasticity problems. The mechanical effects are determined by the axial asymmetry of the loads, the thickness variability, and the functional dependence of stresses on deformation, temperature, and time.

  16. Strategic Insights: The Landpower Robot Revolution Is Coming

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-12-10

    to the upcoming Landpower robot revolution. There are likely to be other tactical, operational, strategic, organization, psychological, and ethical ...technological innovation came first, and revolution followed. Now this is happening again with military robots . Their potential is clear and stunning...particularly for America’s ground forces. Robots may help the Army resolve its most pressing strategic dilemmas: first, finding a way to have wide

  17. 1776 - A Critical Time in the American Revolution

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-04-03

    2011), 100. 5 Don Higginbotham , The War Of American Independence. (Boston, Ma: Northeastern Univ. Press, 1971), 2. 6 James C. Alpin, Major...Christopher Hibbert, Redcoats and Rebels: The American Revolution Through British Eyes. (New York: W.W. Norton and Company, 1990), 79. 20 Higginbotham , 63...Hibbert, Christopher. Redcoats and Rebels: The American Revolution Through British Eyes. New York: W.W. Norton and Company, 1990. Higginbotham

  18. Ignoring Authentic African Literature Means Ignoring Africans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romano, Carlin

    2005-01-01

    Africa produces imaginative and authentic literature whose texture makes it impossible to think of Africans as statistics. African writers, however have to struggle to get recognized in America due to their culture and other racial and social differences, hence suggesting that efforts should be made to give authentic African literature its due.

  19. 2. Historic American Buildings Survey, C.O. Greene, Photographer September, 1940 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Historic American Buildings Survey, C.O. Greene, Photographer September, 1940 SITE OF AFRICAN-AMERICAN BAPTIST CHURCH. - Silver Hill Plantation, Negro Baptist Church, Friendfield Estate, Georgetown, Georgetown County, SC

  20. [Pierre Bourdieu: sociology as a "symbolic revolution"].

    PubMed

    Suaud, Charles

    2014-03-01

    The article combines two objectives: understand the genesis and development of the sociology of Bourdieu in connection with his social and intellectual positioning. The sociology of Bourdieu is a theory of Action which reconciles the double requirement of objectification and taking account of the practical logic bound by social agents. From the character both objective and subjective of social space, he analyzes how different institutions (firstly School) are doing that mental structures match the objective structures of society. By making acceptable reality and registering it in the body, these instances contribute to reproduce social divisions and participate in the work of domination. Gradually, Bourdieu develops a general theory about Power, which leads to a sociology of State. But he refuses any sociological fatalism. Because he perceived homologies between the sociologist and the artist facing the social order, each in their own way, he devoted two researches to Flaubert and Manet, seized in the same enterprise of aesthetic subversion he described as a 'symbolic revolution'. In many aspects, the sociology of Bourdieu opens ways of looking for an objectification of caregivers and their practices.