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Sample records for african ironman triathlon

  1. [Ironman Triathlon].

    PubMed

    Knechtle, Beat; Nikolaidis, Pantelis T; Rosemann, Thomas; Rüst, Christoph A

    2016-06-22

    Every year, thousands of triathletes try to qualify for the «Ironman Hawaii» (3,8 km swimming, 180 km cycling and 42,195 km running), the World Championship of long-distance triathletes. In this overview, we present the recent findings in literature with the most important variables with an influence on Ironman triathlon performance. The most important performance-influencing factors for a fast Ironman race time for both women and men are a large training volume and a high intensity in training, a large volume being more important than a high intensity, a low percentage of body fat, an ideal age of 30–35 years, a fast personal best in the Olympic distance triathlon (1,5 km swimming, 40 km cycling and 10 km running), a fast personal best in marathon running and origin from the United States of America. PMID:27329709

  2. [Ironman Triathlon].

    PubMed

    Knechtle, Beat; Nikolaidis, Pantelis T; Rosemann, Thomas; Rüst, Christoph A

    2016-06-22

    Every year, thousands of triathletes try to qualify for the «Ironman Hawaii» (3,8 km swimming, 180 km cycling and 42,195 km running), the World Championship of long-distance triathletes. In this overview, we present the recent findings in literature with the most important variables with an influence on Ironman triathlon performance. The most important performance-influencing factors for a fast Ironman race time for both women and men are a large training volume and a high intensity in training, a large volume being more important than a high intensity, a low percentage of body fat, an ideal age of 30–35 years, a fast personal best in the Olympic distance triathlon (1,5 km swimming, 40 km cycling and 10 km running), a fast personal best in marathon running and origin from the United States of America.

  3. Weight changes, medical complications, and performance during an Ironman triathlon

    PubMed Central

    Sharwood, K; Collins, M; Goedecke, J; Wilson, G; Noakes, T

    2004-01-01

    Background: Subjects exercising without fluid ingestion in desert heat terminated exercise when the total loss in body weight exceeded 7%. It is not known if athletes competing in cooler conditions with free access to fluid terminate exercise at similar levels of weight loss. Objectives: To determine any associations between percentage weight losses during a 224 km Ironman triathlon, serum sodium concentrations and rectal temperatures after the race, and prevalence of medical diagnoses. Methods: Athletes competing in the 2000 and 2001 South African Ironman triathlon were weighed on the day of registration and again immediately before and immediately after the race. Blood pressure and serum sodium concentrations were measured at registration and immediately after the race. Rectal temperatures were also measured after the race, at which time all athletes were medically examined. Athletes were assigned to one of three groups according to percentage weight loss during the race. Results: Body weight was significantly (p<0.0001) reduced after the race in all three groups. Serum sodium concentrations were significantly (p<0.001) higher in athletes with the greatest percentage weight loss. Rectal temperatures were the same in all groups, with only a weak inverse association between temperature and percentage weight loss. There were no significant differences in diagnostic indices of high weight loss or incidence of medical diagnoses between groups. Conclusions: Large changes in body weight during a triathlon were not associated with a greater prevalence of medical complications or higher rectal temperatures but were associated with higher serum sodium concentrations. PMID:15562165

  4. 76 FR 53829 - Safety Zone; ESI Ironman 70.3 Augusta Triathlon, Savannah River, Augusta, GA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-30

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; ESI Ironman 70.3 Augusta Triathlon... during the ESI Ironman 70.3 Augusta Triathlon on Sunday, September 25, 2011. The temporary safety zone is... Guard did not receive necessary information regarding the ESI Ironman 70.3 Augusta Triathlon until...

  5. The medical perspective of the Kona Ironman Triathlon.

    PubMed

    Laird, Robert H; Johnson, Don

    2012-12-01

    The Kona Ironman Triathlon is one of the most difficult endurance races in the world. The medical director of this race has summarized his experience in managing the injuries that these triathletes suffer. The heat, strong winds, and overall length of the event present unique injuries in swimming, cycling, and running. These injuries and their management have evolved over the years, and the change in their treatment is discussed.

  6. The best triathletes are older in longer race distances - a comparison between Olympic, Half-Ironman and Ironman distance triathlon.

    PubMed

    Knechtle, Raphael; Rüst, Christoph Alexander; Rosemann, Thomas; Knechtle, Beat

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was (i) to determine the age of peak triathlon performance for world class athletes competing in Olympic, Half-Ironman and Ironman distance races and (ii) to investigate a potential change in the age of the annual fastest athletes across years. Data of ages and race times of all finishers in the international top races over the three distances between 2003 and 2013 were collected and the annual top ten women and men were analysed using linear, non-linear and hierarchical multivariate regression analyses. The age of peak male performance was 27.1 ± 4.9 years in the Olympic, 28.0 ± 3.8 years in the Half-Ironman and 35.1 ± 3.6 years in the Ironman distance and the age of peak male performance was higher in the Ironman compared to the Olympic (p < 0.05) and the Half-Ironman distance (p < 0.05) triathlon. The age of peak female performance was 26.6 ± 4.4 years in the Olympic, 31.6 ± 3.4 years in the Half-Ironman and 34.4 ± 4.4 years in the Ironman distance and the age of peak female performance was lower in the Olympic compared to the Half-Ironman (p < 0.05) and Ironman distance (p < 0.05) triathlon. The age of the annual top ten women and men remained unchanged over the last decade in the Half-Ironman and the Ironman distance. In the Olympic distance, however, the age of the annual top ten men decreased slightly. To summarize, the age of peak triathlon performance was higher in the longer triathlon race distances (i.e. Ironman) and the age of the annual top triathletes remained mainly stable over the last decade. With these findings top athletes competing at world class level can plan their career more precisely as they are able to determine the right time in life to switch from the shorter (i.e. Olympic distance) to the longer triathlon race distances (i.e. Half-Ironman and Ironman) in order to continuously compete in triathlon races at world class level.

  7. What predicts performance in ultra-triathlon races? – a comparison between Ironman distance triathlon and ultra-triathlon

    PubMed Central

    Knechtle, Beat; Zingg, Matthias Alexander; Rosemann, Thomas; Stiefel, Michael; Rüst, Christoph Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Objective This narrative review summarizes recent intentions to find potential predictor variables for ultra-triathlon race performance (ie, triathlon races longer than the Ironman distance covering 3.8 km swimming, 180 km cycling, and 42.195 km running). Results from studies on ultra-triathletes were compared to results on studies on Ironman triathletes. Methods A literature search was performed in PubMed using the terms “ultra”, “triathlon”, and “performance” for the aspects of “ultra-triathlon”, and “Ironman”, “triathlon”, and “performance” for the aspects of “Ironman triathlon”. All resulting papers were searched for related citations. Results for ultra-triathlons were compared to results for Ironman-distance triathlons to find potential differences. Results Athletes competing in Ironman and ultra-triathlon differed in anthropometric and training characteristics, where both Ironmen and ultra-triathletes profited from low body fat, but ultra-triathletes relied more on training volume, whereas speed during training was related to Ironman race time. The most important predictive variables for a fast race time in an ultra-triathlon from Double Iron (ie, 7.6 km swimming, 360 km cycling, and 84.4 km running) and longer were male sex, low body fat, age of 35–40 years, extensive previous experience, a fast time in cycling and running but not in swimming, and origins in Central Europe. Conclusion Any athlete intending to compete in an ultra-triathlon should be aware that low body fat and high training volumes are highly predictive for overall race time. Little is known about the physiological characteristics of these athletes and about female ultra-triathletes. Future studies need to investigate anthropometric and training characteristics of female ultra-triathletes and what motivates women to compete in these races. Future studies need to correlate physiological characteristics such as maximum oxygen uptake (VO2max) with ultra-triathlon

  8. Variables that influence Ironman triathlon performance – what changed in the last 35 years?

    PubMed Central

    Knechtle, Beat; Knechtle, Raphael; Stiefel, Michael; Zingg, Matthias Alexander; Rosemann, Thomas; Rüst, Christoph Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Objective This narrative review summarizes findings for Ironman triathlon performance and intends to determine potential predictor variables for Ironman race performance in female and male triathletes. Methods A literature search was performed in PubMed using the terms “Ironman”, “triathlon”, and “performance”. All resulting articles were searched for related citations. Results Age, previous experience, sex, training, origin, anthropometric and physiological characteristics, pacing, and performance in split disciplines were predictive. Differences exist between the sexes for anthropometric characteristics. The most important predictive variables for a fast Ironman race time were age of 30–35 years (women and men), a fast personal best time in Olympic distance triathlon (women and men), a fast personal best time in marathon (women and men), high volume and high speed in training where high volume was more important than high speed (women and men), low body fat, low skin-fold thicknesses and low circumference of upper arm (only men), and origin from the United States of America (women and men). Conclusion These findings may help athletes and coaches to plan an Ironman triathlon career. Age and previous experience are important to find the right point in the life of a triathlete to switch from the shorter triathlon distances to the Ironman distance. Future studies need to correlate physiological characteristics such as maximum oxygen uptake with Ironman race time to investigate their potential predictive value and to investigate socio-economic aspects in Ironman triathlon. PMID:26346992

  9. The age of peak performance in Ironman triathlon: a cross-sectional and longitudinal data analysis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The aims of the present study were, firstly, to investigate in a cross-sectional analysis the age of peak Ironman performance within one calendar year in all qualifiers for Ironman Hawaii and Ironman Hawaii; secondly, to determine in a longitudinal analysis on a qualifier for Ironman Hawaii whether the age of peak Ironman performance and Ironman performance itself change across years; and thirdly, to determine the gender difference in performance. Methods In a cross-sectional analysis, the age of the top ten finishers for all qualifier races for Ironman Hawaii and Ironman Hawaii was determined in 2010. For a longitudinal analysis, the age and the performance of the annual top ten female and male finishers in a qualifier for Ironman Hawaii was determined in Ironman Switzerland between 1995 and 2010. Results In 19 of the 20 analyzed triathlons held in 2010, there was no difference in the age of peak Ironman performance between women and men (p > 0.05). The only difference in the age of peak Ironman performance between genders was in ‘Ironman Canada’ where men were older than women (p = 0.023). For all 20 races, the age of peak Ironman performance was 32.2 ± 1.5 years for men and 33.0 ± 1.6 years for women (p > 0.05). In Ironman Switzerland, there was no difference in the age of peak Ironman performance between genders for top ten women and men from 1995 to 2010 (F = 0.06, p = 0.8). The mean age of top ten women and men was 31.4 ± 1.7 and 31.5 ± 1.7 years (Cohen's d = 0.06), respectively. The gender difference in performance in the three disciplines and for overall race time decreased significantly across years. Men and women improved overall race times by approximately 1.2 and 4.2 min/year, respectively. Conclusions Women and men peak at a similar age of 32–33 years in an Ironman triathlon with no gender difference. In a qualifier for Ironman Hawaii, the age of peak Ironman performance remained unchanged across years. In contrast, gender

  10. "Personal best times in an olympic distance triathlon and a marathon predict an ironman race time for recreational female triathletes".

    PubMed

    Rüst, Christoph Alexander; Knechtle, Beat; Wirth, Andrea; Knechtle, Patrizia; Ellenrieder, Birte; Rosemann, Thomas; Lepers, Romuald

    2012-06-30

    "The aim of this study was to investigate whether the characteristics of anthropometry, training or previous performance were related to an Ironman race time in recreational female Ironman triathletes. These characteristics were correlated to an Ironman race time for 53 recreational female triathletes in order to determine the predictor variables, and so be able to predict an Ironman race time for future novice triathletes. In the bi-variate analysis, no anthropometric characteristic was related to race time. The weekly cycling kilometers (r = -0.35) and hours (r = -0.32), as well as the personal best time in an Olympic distance triathlon (r = 0.49) and in a marathon (r = 0.74) were related to an Ironman race time (< 0.05). Stepwise multiple regressions showed that both the personal best time in an Olympic distance triathlon ( P = 0.0453) and in a marathon (P = 0.0030) were the best predictors for the Ironman race time (n = 28, r² = 0.53). The race time in an Ironman triathlon might be partially predicted by the following equation (r² = 0.53, n = 28): Race time (min) = 186.3 + 1.595 × (personal best time in an Olympic distance triathlon, min) + 1.318 × (personal best time in a marathon, min) for recreational female Ironman triathletes."

  11. Infodemiological data of Ironman Triathlon in the study period 2004-2013.

    PubMed

    Mnadla, Sofiane; Bragazzi, Nicola Luigi; Rouissi, Mehdi; Chaalali, Anis; Siri, Anna; Padulo, Johnny; Ardigò, Luca Paolo; Brigo, Francesco; Chamari, Karim; Knechtle, Beat

    2016-12-01

    This article reports data concerning the Internet-related activities and interest for Ironman Triathlon competition. Google Trends (GT) was used and mined from 2004 onwards. The interest for Ironman Triathlon was found to be cyclic over time. The Triathlon-related Internet activities negatively correlated with the number of finishers per year (Pearson׳s correlation r=-0.690, p-value<0.05), while an increasing participation of female athletes who were less likely to surf the Internet could be noticed (r=-0.811, p-value<0.05). Further, younger athletes, who were more likely to access the web, were underrepresented in the Ironman Triathlon event. Moreover, there was a correlation between the biking time and the Internet query volumes (r=0.590, p-value<0.05), and, in particular, for the male athletes (r=0.664, p-value<0.05). Finally, the countries which most contributed to the Internet query volumes were those with the highest number of medals. PMID:27642618

  12. Infodemiological data of Ironman Triathlon in the study period 2004-2013.

    PubMed

    Mnadla, Sofiane; Bragazzi, Nicola Luigi; Rouissi, Mehdi; Chaalali, Anis; Siri, Anna; Padulo, Johnny; Ardigò, Luca Paolo; Brigo, Francesco; Chamari, Karim; Knechtle, Beat

    2016-12-01

    This article reports data concerning the Internet-related activities and interest for Ironman Triathlon competition. Google Trends (GT) was used and mined from 2004 onwards. The interest for Ironman Triathlon was found to be cyclic over time. The Triathlon-related Internet activities negatively correlated with the number of finishers per year (Pearson׳s correlation r=-0.690, p-value<0.05), while an increasing participation of female athletes who were less likely to surf the Internet could be noticed (r=-0.811, p-value<0.05). Further, younger athletes, who were more likely to access the web, were underrepresented in the Ironman Triathlon event. Moreover, there was a correlation between the biking time and the Internet query volumes (r=0.590, p-value<0.05), and, in particular, for the male athletes (r=0.664, p-value<0.05). Finally, the countries which most contributed to the Internet query volumes were those with the highest number of medals.

  13. Sex difference in top performers from Ironman to double deca iron ultra-triathlon.

    PubMed

    Knechtle, Beat; Zingg, Matthias A; Rosemann, Thomas; Rüst, Christoph A

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated changes in performance and sex difference in top performers for ultra-triathlon races held between 1978 and 2013 from Ironman (3.8 km swim, 180 km cycle, and 42 km run) to double deca iron ultra-triathlon distance (76 km swim, 3,600 km cycle, and 844 km run). The fastest men ever were faster than the fastest women ever for split and overall race times, with the exception of the swimming split in the quintuple iron ultra-triathlon (19 km swim, 900 km cycle, and 210.1 km run). Correlation analyses showed an increase in sex difference with increasing length of race distance for swimming (r (2)=0.67, P=0.023), running (r (2)=0.77, P=0.009), and overall race time (r (2)=0.77, P=0.0087), but not for cycling (r (2)=0.26, P=0.23). For the annual top performers, split and overall race times decreased across years nonlinearly in female and male Ironman triathletes. For longer distances, cycling split times decreased linearly in male triple iron ultra-triathletes, and running split times decreased linearly in male double iron ultra-triathletes but increased linearly in female triple and quintuple iron ultra-triathletes. Overall race times increased nonlinearly in female triple and male quintuple iron ultra-triathletes. The sex difference decreased nonlinearly in swimming, running, and overall race time in Ironman triathletes but increased linearly in cycling and running and nonlinearly in overall race time in triple iron ultra-triathletes. These findings suggest that women reduced the sex difference nonlinearly in shorter ultra-triathlon distances (ie, Ironman), but for longer distances than the Ironman, the sex difference increased or remained unchanged across years. It seems very unlikely that female top performers will ever outrun male top performers in ultratriathlons. The nonlinear change in speed and sex difference in Ironman triathlon suggests that female and male Ironman triathletes have reached their limits in performance.

  14. Sex difference in top performers from Ironman to double deca iron ultra-triathlon

    PubMed Central

    Knechtle, Beat; Zingg, Matthias A; Rosemann, Thomas; Rüst, Christoph A

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated changes in performance and sex difference in top performers for ultra-triathlon races held between 1978 and 2013 from Ironman (3.8 km swim, 180 km cycle, and 42 km run) to double deca iron ultra-triathlon distance (76 km swim, 3,600 km cycle, and 844 km run). The fastest men ever were faster than the fastest women ever for split and overall race times, with the exception of the swimming split in the quintuple iron ultra-triathlon (19 km swim, 900 km cycle, and 210.1 km run). Correlation analyses showed an increase in sex difference with increasing length of race distance for swimming (r2=0.67, P=0.023), running (r2=0.77, P=0.009), and overall race time (r2=0.77, P=0.0087), but not for cycling (r2=0.26, P=0.23). For the annual top performers, split and overall race times decreased across years nonlinearly in female and male Ironman triathletes. For longer distances, cycling split times decreased linearly in male triple iron ultra-triathletes, and running split times decreased linearly in male double iron ultra-triathletes but increased linearly in female triple and quintuple iron ultra-triathletes. Overall race times increased nonlinearly in female triple and male quintuple iron ultra-triathletes. The sex difference decreased nonlinearly in swimming, running, and overall race time in Ironman triathletes but increased linearly in cycling and running and nonlinearly in overall race time in triple iron ultra-triathletes. These findings suggest that women reduced the sex difference nonlinearly in shorter ultra-triathlon distances (ie, Ironman), but for longer distances than the Ironman, the sex difference increased or remained unchanged across years. It seems very unlikely that female top performers will ever outrun male top performers in ultratriathlons. The nonlinear change in speed and sex difference in Ironman triathlon suggests that female and male Ironman triathletes have reached their limits in performance. PMID:25114605

  15. Age and gender differences in half-Ironman triathlon performances – the Ironman 70.3 Switzerland from 2007 to 2010

    PubMed Central

    Knechtle, Beat; Rüst, Christoph Alexander; Rosemann, Thomas; Lepers, Romuald

    2012-01-01

    Background To date, the age-related decline and gender differences in performance have been investigated for both Olympic and Ironman distance triathlons, but not for the intermediate distance (ie, the half-Ironman distance triathlon covering 1.9 km swimming, 90 km cycling and 21.1 km running, Ironman 70.3®). We determined the age-related differences in performance and the gender differences for female and male half-Ironman triathletes of 6303 finishers (1115 women and 5188 men) at the Ironman 70.3 Switzerland in Rapperswil, Switzerland, from 2007 to 2010. Methods Analyses of variance were used to examine performance trends and differences between the genders. Results Gender differences in total event time were affected by age (F = 4.2; P < 0.001). Women achieved their best performance between 25 and 39 years whereas men attained their fastest race times between 18 and 39 years. The gender difference for ages 18–24 years was significantly (P < 0.01) greater compared to older age groups (25–29 years and 40–44 years), and the gender difference for age groups 45–49 years and 50–54 years was significantly (P < 0.01) greater than for those between the ages of 35–39 years. Conclusion The present data suggest that the fastest race time in a half-Ironman triathlon was achieved between the age of 25 and 39 years for women and between 18 and 39 years for men. Further studies considering the influences on endurance performance are required to better understand the age and gender interactions in half-Ironman triathlon performances, and these studies may provide valuable information to delineate the difference in performance between female and male half-Ironman triathletes. PMID:24198588

  16. Sodium supplementation is not required to maintain serum sodium concentrations during an Ironman triathlon

    PubMed Central

    Hew‐Butler, T D; Sharwood, K; Collins, M; Speedy, D; Noakes, T

    2006-01-01

    Context Critical assessment of recommendations that athletes consume additional sodium during athletic events. Objective To evaluate if sodium supplementation is necessary to maintain serum sodium concentrations during prolonged endurance activity and prevent the development of hyponatraemia. Design Prospective randomised trial of athletes receiving sodium (620 mg table salt), placebo (596 mg starch), or no supplementation during a triathlon. The sodium and placebo tablets were taken ad libitum, with the suggested range of 1–4 per hour. Setting The 2001 Cape Town Ironman triathlon (3.8 km swim, 180 km cycle, 42.2 km run). Subjects A total of 413 triathletes completing the Ironman race. Main outcome measures Sodium supplementation was not necessary to maintain serum sodium concentrations in athletes completing an Ironman triathlon nor required to prevent hyponatraemia from occurring in athletes who did not ingest supplemental sodium during the race. Results Subjects in the sodium supplementation group ingested an additional 3.6 (2.0) g (156 (88) mmol) sodium during the race (all values are mean (SD)). There were no significant differences between the sodium, placebo, and no supplementation groups with regard to age, finishing time, serum sodium concentration before and after the race, weight before the race, weight change during the race, and rectal temperature, systolic and diastolic blood pressure after the race. The sodium supplementation group consumed 14.7 (8.3) tablets, and the placebo group took 15.8 (10.1) tablets (p  =  0.55; NS). Conclusions Ad libitum sodium supplementation was not necessary to preserve serum sodium concentrations in athletes competing for about 12 hours in an Ironman triathlon. The Institute of Medicine's recommended daily adequate intake of sodium (1.5 g/65 mmol) seems sufficient for a healthy person without further need to supplement during athletic activity. PMID:16505084

  17. A variant within the AQP1 3'-untranslated region is associated with running performance, but not weight changes, during an Ironman Triathlon.

    PubMed

    Saunders, Colleen J; Posthumus, Michael; O'Connell, Kevin; September, Alison V; Collins, Malcolm

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to test the association of the rs1049305 (G > C) variant within the 3'-untranslated region of the aquaporin 1 gene, AQP1, with changes in body weight, post-race serum sodium concentration and performance in Ironman triathletes. Five hundred and four male Ironman triathletes were genotyped for the rs1049305 variant within the AQP1 gene. Change in pre- and post-race body weight was calculated for 470 triathletes and used as a proxy for changes in body fluid during the race, as well as to divide triathletes into biologically relevant weight-loss groups (0-3%, 3-5% and >5%). There were no rs1049305 genotype effects on post-race serum sodium concentrations (P = 0.647), pre-race weight (P = 0.610) nor relative weight change during the Ironman Triathlons (P = 0.705). In addition, there were no significant differences in genotype (P = 0.640) nor allele (P = 0.643) distributions between the weight loss groups. However, triathletes who carry a C-allele were found to complete the 42.2-km run stage faster (mean 286, s = 49 min) than triathletes with a GG genotype (mean 296, s = 47 min; P = 0.032). The AQP1 rs1049305 variant is associated with running performance, but not relative body weight change, during the 2000, 2001 and 2006 South African Ironman Triathlons.

  18. Performance and sex difference in ultra-triathlon performance from Ironman to Double Deca Iron ultra-triathlon between 1978 and 2013.

    PubMed

    Rüst, Christoph A; Rosemann, Thomas; Knechtle, Beat

    2014-01-01

    It was assumed that women would be able to outperform men in ultra-marathon running. The present study investigated the sex difference in performance for all ultra-triathlon distances from the Ironman distance (i.e. 3.8 km swimming, 180 km cycling and 42 km running) in the 'Ironman Hawaii' to the Double Deca Iron ultra-triathlon distance (i.e. 76 km swimming, 3,600 km cycling and 840 km running) between 1978 and 2013. The changes in performance and in the sex difference in performance for the annual three fastest finishers were analysed using linear, non-linear and multi-variate regression analyses from 46,123 athletes (i.e. 9,802 women and 46,123 men). Women accounted for 11.9 ± 5.8% of the total field and their percentage was highest in 'Ironman Hawaii' (22.1%) and lowest in Deca Iron ultra-triathlon (6.5%). In 'Ironman Hawaii', the sex difference decreased non-linearly in swimming, cycling, running and overall race time. In Double Iron ultra-triathlon, the sex difference increased non-linearly in overall race time. In Triple Iron ultra-triathlon, the sex difference increased non-linearly in cycling and overall race time but linearly in running. For the three fastest finishers ever, the sex difference in performance showed no change with increasing race distance with the exception for the swimming split where the sex difference increased with increasing race distance (r(2) = 0.93, P = 0.001). The sex differences for the three fastest finishers ever for swimming, cycling, running and overall race times for all distances from Ironman to Deca Iron ultra-triathlon were 27.0 ± 17.8%, 24.3 ± 9.9%, 24.5 ± 11.0%, and 24.0 ± 6.7%, respectively. To summarize, these findings showed that women reduced the sex difference in the shorter ultra-triathlon distances (i.e. Ironman distance) but extended the sex difference in longer distances (i.e. Double and Triple Iron ultra-triathlon). It seems very unlikely that women will ever outperform

  19. Relationship between physiological parameters and performance during a half-ironman triathlon in the heat.

    PubMed

    Del Coso, Juan; González, Cristina; Abian-Vicen, Javier; Salinero Martín, Juan José; Soriano, Lidon; Areces, Francisco; Ruiz, Diana; Gallo, Cesar; Lara, Beatriz; Calleja-González, Julio

    2014-01-01

    Triathlon is a popular outdoor endurance sport performed under a variety of environmental conditions. The aim of this study was to assess physiological variables before and after a half-ironman triathlon in the heat and to analyse their relationship with performance. Thirty-four well-trained triathletes completed a half-ironman triathlon in a mean dry temperature of 29 ± 3ºC. Before and within 1 min after the end of the race, body mass, core temperature, maximal jump height and venous blood samples were obtained. Mean race time was 315 ± 40 min, with swimming (11 ± 1%), cycling (49 ± 2%) and running (40 ± 3%) representing different amounts of the total race time. At the end of the competition, body mass changed by -3.8 ± 1.6% and the change in body mass correlated positively with race time (r = 0.64; P < 0.001). Core temperature increased from 37.5 ± 0.6ºC to 38.8 ± 0.7ºC (P < 0.001) and post-race core temperature correlated negatively with race time (r = -0.47; P = 0.007). Race time correlated positively with the decrease in jump height (r = 0.38; P = 0.043), post-race serum creatine kinase (r = 0.55; P = 0.001) and myoglobin concentrations (r = 0.39; P = 0.022). In a half-ironman triathlon in the heat, greater reductions in body mass and higher post-competition core temperatures were present in faster triathletes. In contrast, slower triathletes presented higher levels of muscle damage and decreased muscle performance.

  20. Changes in Serum Free Amino Acids and Muscle Fatigue Experienced during a Half-Ironman Triathlon.

    PubMed

    Areces, Francisco; González-Millán, Cristina; Salinero, Juan José; Abian-Vicen, Javier; Lara, Beatriz; Gallo-Salazar, Cesar; Ruiz-Vicente, Diana; Del Coso, Juan

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between changes in serum free amino acids, muscle fatigue and exercise-induced muscle damage during a half-ironman triathlon. Twenty-six experienced triathletes (age = 37.0 ± 6.8 yr; experience = 7.4 ± 3.0 yr) competed in a real half-ironman triathlon in which sector times and total race time were measured by means of chip timing. Before and after the race, a countermovement jump and a maximal isometric force test were performed, and blood samples were withdrawn to measure serum free amino acids concentrations, and serum creatine kinase levels as a blood marker of muscle damage. Total race time was 320 ± 37 min and jump height (-16.3 ± 15.2%, P < 0.001) and isometric force (-14.9 ± 9.8%; P = 0.007) were significantly reduced after the race in all participants. After the race, the serum concentration of creatine kinase increased by 368 ± 187% (P < 0.001). In contrast, the serum concentrations of essential (-27.1 ± 13.0%; P < 0.001) and non-essential amino acids (-24.4 ± 13.1%; P < 0.001) were significantly reduced after the race. The tryptophan/BCAA ratio increased by 42.7 ± 12.7% after the race. Pre-to-post changes in serum free amino acids did not correlate with muscle performance variables or post-race creatine kinase concentration. In summary, during a half-ironman triathlon, serum amino acids concentrations were reduced by > 20%. However, neither the changes in serum free amino acids nor the tryptophan/BCAA ratio were related muscle fatigue or muscle damage during the race.

  1. Changes in Serum Free Amino Acids and Muscle Fatigue Experienced during a Half-Ironman Triathlon

    PubMed Central

    Areces, Francisco; González-Millán, Cristina; Salinero, Juan José; Abian-Vicen, Javier; Lara, Beatriz; Gallo-Salazar, Cesar; Ruiz-Vicente, Diana; Del Coso, Juan

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between changes in serum free amino acids, muscle fatigue and exercise-induced muscle damage during a half-ironman triathlon. Twenty-six experienced triathletes (age = 37.0 ± 6.8 yr; experience = 7.4 ± 3.0 yr) competed in a real half-ironman triathlon in which sector times and total race time were measured by means of chip timing. Before and after the race, a countermovement jump and a maximal isometric force test were performed, and blood samples were withdrawn to measure serum free amino acids concentrations, and serum creatine kinase levels as a blood marker of muscle damage. Total race time was 320 ± 37 min and jump height (-16.3 ± 15.2%, P < 0.001) and isometric force (-14.9 ± 9.8%; P = 0.007) were significantly reduced after the race in all participants. After the race, the serum concentration of creatine kinase increased by 368 ± 187% (P < 0.001). In contrast, the serum concentrations of essential (-27.1 ± 13.0%; P < 0.001) and non-essential amino acids (-24.4 ± 13.1%; P < 0.001) were significantly reduced after the race. The tryptophan/BCAA ratio increased by 42.7 ± 12.7% after the race. Pre-to-post changes in serum free amino acids did not correlate with muscle performance variables or post-race creatine kinase concentration. In summary, during a half-ironman triathlon, serum amino acids concentrations were reduced by > 20%. However, neither the changes in serum free amino acids nor the tryptophan/BCAA ratio were related muscle fatigue or muscle damage during the race. PMID:26372162

  2. Personal best times in an Olympic distance triathlon and in a marathon predict Ironman race time in recreational male triathletes

    PubMed Central

    Rüst, Christoph Alexander; Knechtle, Beat; Knechtle, Patrizia; Rosemann, Thomas; Lepers, Romuald

    2011-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to define predictor variables for recreational male Ironman triathletes, using age and basic measurements of anthropometry, training, and previous performance to establish an equation for the prediction of an Ironman race time for future recreational male Ironman triathletes. Methods Age and anthropometry, training, and previous experience variables were related to Ironman race time using bivariate and multivariate analysis. Results A total of 184 recreational male triathletes, of mean age 40.9 ± 8.4 years, height 1.80 ± 0.06 m, and weight 76.3 ± 8.4 kg completed the Ironman within 691 ± 83 minutes. They spent 13.9 ± 5.0 hours per week in training, covering 6.3 ± 3.1 km of swimming, 194.4 ± 76.6 km of cycling, and 45.0 ± 15.9 km of running. In total, 149 triathletes had completed at least one marathon, and 150 athletes had finished at least one Olympic distance triathlon. They had a personal best time of 130.4 ± 44.2 minutes in an Olympic distance triathlon and of 193.9 ± 31.9 minutes in marathon running. In total, 126 finishers had completed both an Olympic distance triathlon and a marathon. After multivariate analysis, both a personal best time in a marathon (P < 0.0001) and in an Olympic distance triathlon (P < 0.0001) were the best variables related to Ironman race time. Ironman race time (minutes) might be partially predicted by the following equation: (r2 = 0.65, standard error of estimate = 56.8) = 152.1 + 1.332 × (personal best time in a marathon, minutes) + 1.964 × (personal best time in an Olympic distance triathlon, minutes). Conclusion These results suggest that, in contrast with anthropometric and training characteristics, both the personal best time in an Olympic distance triathlon and in a marathon predict Ironman race time in recreational male Ironman triathletes. PMID:24198578

  3. Master triathletes have not reached limits in their Ironman triathlon performance.

    PubMed

    Stiefel, M; Knechtle, B; Lepers, R

    2014-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the participation and performance trends of male triathletes in the "Ironman Switzerland" from 1995 to 2010. Participation trends of all finishers aged between 18 and 64 years were analyzed over the 16-year period by considering four 4-year periods 1995-1998, 1999-2002, 2003-2006, and 2007-2010, respectively. The 3.8-km swimming, 180-km cycling, 42-km running times, and total race times were analyzed for the top 10 triathletes in each age group from 18 to 64 years. The participation of master triathletes (≥40 years old) increased over the years, representing on average 23%, 28%, 37%, and 48% of total male finishers during the four 4-year periods, respectively. Over the 1995-2010 period, triathletes older than 40 years significantly improved their performance in swimming, cycling, running, and in the total time taken to complete the race. The question whether master Ironman triathletes have yet reached limits in their performance during Ironman triathlon should be raised. Further studies investigating training regimes, competition experience, or socio-demographic factors are needed to gain better insights into the phenomenon of the relative improvement in ultra-endurance performance with advancing age.

  4. Raised troponin T and echocardiographic abnormalities after prolonged strenuous exercise—the Australian Ironman Triathlon

    PubMed Central

    Tulloh, L; Robinson, D; Patel, A; Ware, A; Prendergast, C; Sullivan, D; Pressley, L

    2006-01-01

    Background There is concern about whether cardiac damage occurs as a result of prolonged strenuous exercise. Objective To investigate whether competing in a triathlon is associated with cardiac damage based on a sustained increase in cardiac troponin T (cTnT), and whether such an increase correlates with echocardiographic changes Methods cTnT and echocardiographic measurements were made in 38 participants in the 2001 Australian ironman triathlon. cTnT was measured the day before, immediately after, and the day following the race. Echocardiography was done the day before, immediately after, and two to six weeks later for measurement of ejection fraction, stroke volume, cardiac output, wall motion analysis, and global left ventricular function (LVF). Results No subject had detectable cTnT in the pre‐race sample. Following the race, 32 subjects (86.5%) had detectable levels of cTnT (>0.01 ng/ml), with six (16.2%) having >0.10 ng/ml. The day after the race, nine subjects (23.7%) still had detectable cTnT, with two recording a level >0.10 ng/ml. Previously described echocardiographic changes of “cardiac fatigue” were observed in the whole cohort. There was a modest but significant correlation between change in ejection fraction and peak cTnT level (p = 0.02, r = 0.39). Athletes with a post‐race cTnT >0.10 ng/ml had a greater decrease in global LVF (p = 0.02) and a trend toward a greater fall in ejection fraction and stroke volume than athletes with cTnT levels <0.10 ng/ml. Cardiac output fell in the group with cTnT >0.10 ng/ml (p>0.05). Conclusions Participation in ironman triathlon often resulted in persistently raised cTnT levels, and the troponin rise was associated with echocardiographic evidence of abnormal left ventricular function. The clinical significance and long term sequelae of such damage remains to be determined. PMID:16611724

  5. Awareness and use of caffeine by athletes competing at the 2005 Ironman Triathlon World Championships.

    PubMed

    Desbrow, Ben; Leveritt, Michael

    2006-10-01

    This study assessed the knowledge, prevalence, and quantity of caffeine use by athletes competing at the 2005 Ironman Triathlon World Championships. Caffeine-related questionnaires were self-administered to 140 (105 male and 35 female, 40.3 +/- 10.7 y) athletes representing 16 countries. Fifty of these athletes further consented to immediate post-race blood samples for analysis of plasma caffeine and paraxanthine using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Seventy-two percent of 70 athletes correctly identified caffeine as being an unrestricted substance in triathlon. The majority of athletes [125 (89%)] were planning on using a caffeinated substance immediately prior to or throughout the race. Cola drinks (78%), caffeinated gels (42%), coffee (usually pre-race) (37%), energy drinks (13%), and NoDoz tablets (9%) were the most popular caffeinated choices. Mean +/- standard deviation (and range) post race plasma caffeine and paraxanthine levels were 22.3 +/- 20 micromol/L (1.7 to 98.4) and 9.4 +/- 6 micromol/L (1.8 to 28.9), respectively. Seven athletes (14%) finished with plasma caffeine levels > or = 40 micromol/L. Plasma values from elite athletes did not differ from age group competitors. Despite the prevalence of its consumption and the training experience of this athletic group, over one quarter of athletes remained either confused or uninformed about caffeine's legality. Levels of plasma caffeine taken immediately post race indicated that athletes typically finish with quantities of caffeine that have been shown to improve endurance performance (i.e., approximately 20 micromol/L or a dose of > or = 3 mg/kg body weight). PMID:17240785

  6. Awareness and use of caffeine by athletes competing at the 2005 Ironman Triathlon World Championships.

    PubMed

    Desbrow, Ben; Leveritt, Michael

    2006-10-01

    This study assessed the knowledge, prevalence, and quantity of caffeine use by athletes competing at the 2005 Ironman Triathlon World Championships. Caffeine-related questionnaires were self-administered to 140 (105 male and 35 female, 40.3 +/- 10.7 y) athletes representing 16 countries. Fifty of these athletes further consented to immediate post-race blood samples for analysis of plasma caffeine and paraxanthine using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Seventy-two percent of 70 athletes correctly identified caffeine as being an unrestricted substance in triathlon. The majority of athletes [125 (89%)] were planning on using a caffeinated substance immediately prior to or throughout the race. Cola drinks (78%), caffeinated gels (42%), coffee (usually pre-race) (37%), energy drinks (13%), and NoDoz tablets (9%) were the most popular caffeinated choices. Mean +/- standard deviation (and range) post race plasma caffeine and paraxanthine levels were 22.3 +/- 20 micromol/L (1.7 to 98.4) and 9.4 +/- 6 micromol/L (1.8 to 28.9), respectively. Seven athletes (14%) finished with plasma caffeine levels > or = 40 micromol/L. Plasma values from elite athletes did not differ from age group competitors. Despite the prevalence of its consumption and the training experience of this athletic group, over one quarter of athletes remained either confused or uninformed about caffeine's legality. Levels of plasma caffeine taken immediately post race indicated that athletes typically finish with quantities of caffeine that have been shown to improve endurance performance (i.e., approximately 20 micromol/L or a dose of > or = 3 mg/kg body weight).

  7. Energy balance during an ironman triathlon in male and female triathletes.

    PubMed

    Kimber, Nicholas E; Ross, Jenny J; Mason, Sue L; Speedy, Dale B

    2002-03-01

    Energy balance of 10 male and 8 female triathletes participating in an Ironman event (3.8-km swim, 180-km cycle, 42.2-km run) was investigated. Energy intake (EI) was monitored at 7 designated points by dietary recall of food and fluid consumption. Energy expenditure (EE) during cycling and running was calculated using heart rate-VO, regression equations and during swimming by the multiple regression equation: Y = 3.65v+ 0.02W- 2.545 where Yis VO,in L x min(-1), v is the velocity in m s(-1), Wis the body weight in kilograms. Total EE (10,036 +/- 931 and 8,570 +/- 1,014 kcal) was significantly greater than total EI (3,940 +/- 868 and 3,115 +/- 914 kcal, p <.001) for males and females, respectively, although energy balance was not different between genders. Finishing time was inversely related to carbohydrate (CHO) intake (g x kg(-1) x h(-1)) during the marathon run for males (r = -.75,p <.05), and not females, suggesting that increasing CHO ingestion during the run may have been a useful strategy for improving Ironman performance in male triathletes. PMID:11993622

  8. Triathlon.

    PubMed

    Strock, Gregory A; Cottrell, Erika R; Lohman, James M

    2006-08-01

    From its roots in San Diego to its Olympic debut in Sydney in 2000, triathlon has emerged as a popular sport with a wide variety of participants. Because of the nature of the sport, excessive training resulting in overuse injuries is common. Triathlon injuries can also be unique from the individual sports involved in that they are attributed to a cumulative effect of multi-sport training. Because many triathletes have not grown up participating in the individual sports, biomechanics in each of the disciplines must also be considered as a source of injury. Nutrition and environmental factors and the role that they play in the endurance athlete should also not be overlooked. The sport of triathlon is rapidly growing, and the ability to recognize the unique aspects of these injuries can help the multisport athlete to train properly and be healthier and more successful.

  9. The impact of 6-month training preparation for an Ironman triathlon on the proportions of naïve, memory and senescent T cells in resting blood.

    PubMed

    Cosgrove, Cormac; Galloway, Stuart D R; Neal, Craig; Hunter, Angus M; McFarlin, Brian K; Spielmann, Guilllaume; Simpson, Richard J

    2012-08-01

    Athletes appear to be at a greater risk of illness while undertaking arduous training regimens in preparation for endurance events. As infection susceptibility has been linked with increased proportions of differentiated and senescent T cells in the periphery, changes in the proportions of these cell types due to long-term high-volume exercise training could have important implications for athlete infection risk. This study examined the effects of 6-month training preparation for an Ironman triathlon on the proportions of naïve, memory and senescent T cells in resting blood. Ten club-level triathletes (9 males; 1 female: 43 ± 3 years) were sampled at 27 (December), 21 (January), 15 (March), 9 (May) and 3 (June) weeks before an Ironman Triathlon. An additional sample was collected 2-week post-competition (August). Four-colour flow cytometry was used for the phenotypic analysis of CD4+ and CD8+ blood T cells. Proportions of differentiated (KLRG1+/CD57-) CD8+ T cells and "transitional" (CD45RA+/CD45RO+) CD4+ and CD8+ T cells increased with training, as the values in June were elevated 37, 142 and 116%, respectively, from those observed in December. Proportions of senescent (KLRG1+/CD57+) CD4+ or CD8+ T cells did not change during the training phase. Two weeks post-race, proportions of differentiated CD8+ T cells had returned to baseline values, while the proportions of senescent CD4+ T cells increased 192% alongside a 31% reduction in naïve (CD45RA+/CD45RO-) cells. In conclusion, increases in differentiated and "transitional" T cells due to arduous exercise training could compromise host protection to novel pathogens and increase athlete infection risk, although whether or not the composition of naïve and differentiated T cells in blood can serve as prognostic biomarkers in athletes remains to be established.

  10. Sex difference in race performance and age of peak performance in the Ironman Triathlon World Championship from 1983 to 2012

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The fastest Ironman race times in ‘Ironman Hawaii’ were achieved in very recent years. This study investigated the change in sex difference in both race performance and the age of peak performance across years in the top ten athletes for split disciplines and overall race time in the ‘Ironman Hawaii’ between 1983 and 2012. Methods Changes in split times, overall race times, and age of athletes across years for the top ten overall and the fastest swimmers, cyclists, and runners were investigated using regression analyses and analyses of variance. Results Between 1983 and 2012, the overall top ten men and women finishers improved their swimming (only men), cycling, running, and overall race times. The sex difference in overall race time decreased significantly (p = 0.01) from 15.2% to 11.3% across time. For the split disciplines, the sex difference remained unchanged (p > 0.05) for swimming (12.5 ± 3.7%) and cycling (12.5 ± 2.7%) but decreased for running from 13.5 ± 8.1% to 7.3 ± 2.9% (p = 0.03). The time performance of the top ten swimmers remained stable (p > 0.05), while those of the top ten cyclists and top ten runners improved (p < 0.01). The sex difference in performance remained unchanged (p > 0.05) in swimming (8.0 ± 2.4%), cycling (12.7 ± 1.8%), and running (15.2 ± 3.0%). Between 1983 and 2012, the age of the overall top ten finishers and the fastest swimmers, cyclists, and runners increased across years for both women and men (p < 0.01). Conclusions To summarize, for the overall top ten finishers, the sex difference decreased across years for overall race time and running, but not for swimming and cycling. For the top ten per discipline, the sex difference in performance remained unchanged. The athletes improved their performances across years although the age of peak performance increased. PMID:23849215

  11. Factors influencing pacing in triathlon

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Sam SX; Peiffer, Jeremiah J; Brisswalter, Jeanick; Nosaka, Kazunori; Abbiss, Chris R

    2014-01-01

    Triathlon is a multisport event consisting of sequential swim, cycle, and run disciplines performed over a variety of distances. This complex and unique sport requires athletes to appropriately distribute their speed or energy expenditure (ie, pacing) within each discipline as well as over the entire event. As with most physical activity, the regulation of pacing in triathlon may be influenced by a multitude of intrinsic and extrinsic factors. The majority of current research focuses mainly on the Olympic distance, whilst much less literature is available on other triathlon distances such as the sprint, half-Ironman, and Ironman distances. Furthermore, little is understood regarding the specific physiological, environmental, and interdisciplinary effects on pacing. Therefore, this article discusses the pacing strategies observed in triathlon across different distances, and elucidates the possible factors influencing pacing within the three specific disciplines of a triathlon. PMID:25258562

  12. Factors influencing pacing in triathlon.

    PubMed

    Wu, Sam Sx; Peiffer, Jeremiah J; Brisswalter, Jeanick; Nosaka, Kazunori; Abbiss, Chris R

    2014-01-01

    Triathlon is a multisport event consisting of sequential swim, cycle, and run disciplines performed over a variety of distances. This complex and unique sport requires athletes to appropriately distribute their speed or energy expenditure (ie, pacing) within each discipline as well as over the entire event. As with most physical activity, the regulation of pacing in triathlon may be influenced by a multitude of intrinsic and extrinsic factors. The majority of current research focuses mainly on the Olympic distance, whilst much less literature is available on other triathlon distances such as the sprint, half-Ironman, and Ironman distances. Furthermore, little is understood regarding the specific physiological, environmental, and interdisciplinary effects on pacing. Therefore, this article discusses the pacing strategies observed in triathlon across different distances, and elucidates the possible factors influencing pacing within the three specific disciplines of a triathlon.

  13. 76 FR 53824 - Safety Zone; 2011 Rohto Ironman 70.3 Miami, Biscayne Bay, Miami, FL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-30

    ..., Miami, FL in the Federal Register (76 FR 24840). We received no comments on the proposed rule. No public... Rohto Ironman 70.3 Miami, a triathlon. The Rohto Ironman 70.3 Miami is scheduled to take place on Sunday... swim portion of the triathlon. Discussion of Rule On October 30, 2011, Paramount Productions, LLC...

  14. Nutritional considerations in triathlon.

    PubMed

    Jeukendrup, Asker E; Jentjens, Roy L P G; Moseley, Luke

    2005-01-01

    Triathlon combines three disciplines (swimming, cycling and running) and competitions last between 1 hour 50 minutes (Olympic distance) and 14 hours (Ironman distance). Independent of the distance, dehydration and carbohydrate (CHO) depletion are the most likely causes of fatigue in triathlon, whereas gastrointestinal (GI) problems, hyperthermia and hyponatraemia are potentially health threatening, especially in longer events. Although glycogen supercompensation may be beneficial for triathlon performance (even Olympic distance), this does not necessarily have to be achieved by the traditional supercompensation protocol. More recently, studies have revealed ways to increase muscle glycogen concentrations to very high levels with minimal modifications in diet and training. During competition, cycling provides the best opportunity to ingest fluids. The optimum CHO concentration seems to be in the range of 5-8% and triathletes should aim to achieve a CHO intake of 60-70 g/hour. Triathletes should attempt to limit body mass losses to 1% of body mass. In all cases, a drink should contain sodium (30-50 mmol/L) for optimal absorption and prevention of hyponatraemia.Post-exercise rehydration is best achieved by consuming beverages that have a high sodium content (>60 mmol/L) in a volume equivalent to 150% of body mass loss. GI problems occur frequently, especially in long-distance triathlon. Problems seem related to the intake of highly concentrated carbohydrate solutions, or hyperosmotic drinks, and the intake of fibre, fat and protein. Endotoxaemia has been suggested as an explanation for some of the GI problems, but this has not been confirmed by recent research. Although mild endotoxaemia may occur after an Ironman-distance triathlon, this does not seem to be related to the incidence of GI problems. Hyponatraemia has occasionally been reported, especially among slow competitors in triathlons and probably arises due to loss of sodium in sweat coupled with very high

  15. 78 FR 54599 - Safety Zone; 2013 Ironman 70.3 Miami, Biscayne Bay; Miami, FL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-05

    ... FR Federal Register NPRM Notice of Proposed Rulemaking A. Public Participation and Request for... regarding our public dockets in the January 17, 2008, issue of the Federal Register (73 FR 3316). 4. Public... during the 2013 Ironman 70.3 Miami, a triathlon. The Ironman 70.3 Miami is scheduled to take place...

  16. 76 FR 24840 - Safety Zone; 2011 Rohto Ironman 70.3 Miami, Biscayne Bay, Miami, FL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-03

    ..., 2008, issue of the Federal Register (73 FR 3316). Public Meeting We do not now plan to hold a public... during the 2011 Rohto Ironman 70.3 Miami, a triathlon. The Rohto Ironman 70.3 Miami is scheduled to...

  17. 77 FR 63720 - Special Local Regulations; 2012 Ironman 70.3 Miami, Biscayne Bay; Miami, FL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-17

    ... of Homeland Security FR Federal Register NPRM Notice of Proposed Rulemaking A. Regulatory History and... the Federal Register (77 FR 2012- 18455). We received no comments on the proposed rule. No public... during the 2012 Ironman 70.3 Miami, a triathlon. The Ironman 70.3 Miami is scheduled to take place...

  18. 77 FR 44522 - Special Local Regulations; 2012 Ironman 70.3 Miami, Biscayne Bay; Miami, FL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-30

    ... Security FR Federal Register NPRM Notice of Proposed Rulemaking A. Public Participation and Request for... regarding our public dockets in the January 17, 2008, issue of the Federal Register (73 FR 3316). 4. Public... Park, in Miami, Florida during the 2012 Ironman 70.3 Miami, a triathlon. The Ironman 70.3 Miami...

  19. Analysis of ultra-triathlon performances.

    PubMed

    Lepers, Romuald; Knechtle, Beat; Knechtle, Patrizia; Rosemann, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Despite increased interest in ultra-endurance events, little research has examined ultra-triathlon performance. The aims of this study were: (i) to compare swimming, cycling, running, and overall performances in three ultra-distance triathlons, double Ironman distance triathlon (2IMT) (7.6 km swimming, 360 km cycling, and 84.4 km running), triple Ironman distance triathlon (3IMT) (11.4 km, 540 km, and 126.6 km), and deca Ironman distance triathlon (10IMT) (38 km, 1800 km, and 420 km) and (ii) to examine the relationships between the 2IMT, 3IMT, and 10IMT performances to create predicted equations of the 10IMT performances. Race results from 1985 through 2009 were examined to identify triathletes who performed the three considered ultra-distances. In total, 73 triathletes (68 men and 5 women) were identified. The contribution of swimming to overall ultra-triathlon performance was lower than for cycling and running. Running performance was more important to overall performance for 2IMT and 3IMT compared with 10IMT The 2IMT and 3IMT performances were significantly correlated with 10IMT performances for swimming and cycling, but not for running. 10IMT total time performance might be predicted by the following equation: 10IMT race time (minutes) = 5885 + 3.69 × 3IMT race time (minutes). This analysis of human performance during ultra-distance triathlons represents a unique data set in the field of ultra-endurance events. Additional studies are required to determine the physiological and psychological factors associated with ultra-triathlon performance.

  20. Trends in Triathlon Performance: Effects of Sex and Age.

    PubMed

    Lepers, Romuald; Knechtle, Beat; Stapley, Paul J

    2013-09-01

    The influences of sex and age upon endurance performance have previously been documented for both running and swimming. A number of recent studies have investigated how sex and age influence triathlon performance, a sport that combines three disciplines (swimming, cycling and running), with competitions commonly lasting between 2 (short distance: 1.5-km swim, 40-km cycle and 10-km run) and 8 h (Ironman distance: 3.8-km swim,180-km cycle and 42-km run) for elite triathletes. Age and sex influences upon performance have also been investigated for ultra-triathlons, with distances corresponding to several Ironman distances and lasting several days, and for off-road triathlons combining swimming, mountain biking and trail running. Triathlon represents an intriguing alternative model for analysing the effects of age and sex upon endurance and ultra-endurance ([6 h) performance because sex differences and age-related declines in performance can be analysed in the same individuals across the three separate disciplines. The relative participation of both females and masters athletes (age[40 years) in triathlon has increased consistently over the past 25 years. Sex differences in triathlon performance are also known to differ between the modes of locomotion adopted (swimming, cycling or running) for both elite and non-elite triathletes. Generally, time differences between sexes in swimming have been shown to be smaller on average than during cycling and running. Both physiological and morphological factors contribute to explaining these findings. Performance density (i.e. the time difference between the winner and tenth-placed competitor) has progressively improved (time differences have decreased) for international races over the past two decades for both males and females, with performance density now very similar for both sexes. For age-group triathletes, sex differences in total triathlon performance time increases with age. However,the possible difference in age

  1. Changes in transition times in ‘Ironman Hawaii’ between 1998 and 2013

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Recent findings showed that elite Ironman triathletes competing in ‘Ironman Hawaii’ improved both split and overall race times. The present study investigated whether elite athletes also improved in transition time (i.e. time needed between disciplines for changing clothes and equipment). Methods Changes in split times, overall race times and transition times (i.e. expressed in absolute and relative terms) in the annual fastest competing in ‘Ironman Hawaii’ were investigated using linear, non-linear and multi-level regression analyses. To detect a potential difference in transition times between different race distances, we compared transition times in ‘Ironman Hawaii’ to transition times in the World Championships ‘Ironman 70.3’ covering the half distance of the Ironman distance triathlon. Results In ‘Ironman Hawaii’, transition times remained unchanged for the annual fastest women but increased linearly for the annual fastest men. For the annual ten fastest, transition times increased linearly for women and men in both absolute and relative terms. The sex difference in transition times remained unchanged for the annual fastest, but decreased linearly for the annual ten fastest. In ‘Ironman 70.3’, transition times remained unchanged for the annual fastest. For the annual ten fastest, transition times decreased linearly for both women and men in absolute and relative terms. The sex difference in transition times remained unchanged for both the annual fastest and the annual ten fastest. Transition times were faster in ‘Ironman 70.3’ for women in 2011 and for men in 2006, 2007, and 2010-2013. In relative terms, transition times were faster in ‘Ironman 70.3’compared to ‘Ironman Hawaii’ during 2006-2013. The sex difference in transition times remained unchanged. Conclusions In ‘Ironman Hawaii’, transition times increased for both women and men whereas the sex difference decreased. In ‘Ironman 70.3’, transition

  2. Pacing Strategy and Change in Body Composition during a Deca Iron Triathlon.

    PubMed

    Herbst, Lutz; Knechtle, Beat; Lopez, Carlos Luis; Andonie, Jorge Luis; Fraire, Oscar Salas; Kohler, Götz; Rüst, Christoph Alexander; Rosemann, Thomas

    2011-08-31

    We investigated the timeline of performances in the three races of the 'World Challenge Deca Iron Triathlon', held in 2006, 2007 and 2009, where the athletes completed one Ironman triathlon daily on 10 consecutive days. The association of anthropometric characteristics such as body fat estimated using bioelectrical impedance analysis and previous experience in ultra-triathlon with race time was investigated using multiple linear regression analysis. Forty-nine athletes participated in these three races; 23 (47%) participants completed the race within 8,817 (1,322) min. Day 1 was the fastest with 762 (86) min; the slowest was Day 10 with 943 (167) min (P<0.05). The time per Ironman increased during the race (P<0.05). Body mass and fat mass decreased whereas lean body mass increased (P<0.05). Race time was related to both the number of finished Triple Iron triathlons (P=0.028) and the personal best time in a Triple Iron triathlon (P<0.0001). We concluded that performance in a Deca Iron triathlon decreased throughout the competition, with the fastest race on Day 1 and the slowest on Day 10. The number of finished Triple Iron triathlons and the personal best time in a Triple Iron triathlon, but not anthropometry, were related to race time. To conclude, athletes need to have a high number of previously completed Triple Iron triathlons, as well as a fast personal best time in a Triple Iron triathlon, in order to finish a Deca Iron triathlon successfully. PMID:22129824

  3. Pacing Strategy and Change in Body Composition during a Deca Iron Triathlon.

    PubMed

    Herbst, Lutz; Knechtle, Beat; Lopez, Carlos Luis; Andonie, Jorge Luis; Fraire, Oscar Salas; Kohler, Götz; Rüst, Christoph Alexander; Rosemann, Thomas

    2011-08-31

    We investigated the timeline of performances in the three races of the 'World Challenge Deca Iron Triathlon', held in 2006, 2007 and 2009, where the athletes completed one Ironman triathlon daily on 10 consecutive days. The association of anthropometric characteristics such as body fat estimated using bioelectrical impedance analysis and previous experience in ultra-triathlon with race time was investigated using multiple linear regression analysis. Forty-nine athletes participated in these three races; 23 (47%) participants completed the race within 8,817 (1,322) min. Day 1 was the fastest with 762 (86) min; the slowest was Day 10 with 943 (167) min (P<0.05). The time per Ironman increased during the race (P<0.05). Body mass and fat mass decreased whereas lean body mass increased (P<0.05). Race time was related to both the number of finished Triple Iron triathlons (P=0.028) and the personal best time in a Triple Iron triathlon (P<0.0001). We concluded that performance in a Deca Iron triathlon decreased throughout the competition, with the fastest race on Day 1 and the slowest on Day 10. The number of finished Triple Iron triathlons and the personal best time in a Triple Iron triathlon, but not anthropometry, were related to race time. To conclude, athletes need to have a high number of previously completed Triple Iron triathlons, as well as a fast personal best time in a Triple Iron triathlon, in order to finish a Deca Iron triathlon successfully.

  4. Personal best time, percent body fat, and training are differently associated with race time for male and female ironman triathletes.

    PubMed

    Knechtle, Beat; Wirth, Andrea; Baumann, Barbara; Knechtle, Patrizia; Rosemann, Thomas

    2010-03-01

    We studied male and female nonprofessional Ironman triathletes to determine whether percent body fat, training, and/or previous race experience were associated with race performance. We used simple linear regression analysis, with total race time as the dependent variable, to investigate the relationship among athletes' percent body fat, average amount of weekly training, and best time in an Ironman triathlon. For male athletes, percent body fat (r2 = 0.57, p < .001) was related to total race time but not average weekly training. For women, percent body fat showed no association with total race time; howeven average weekly training volume was related to total race time (r = .43, p < .01). Percent body fat and average weekly training were not correlated in either gender Speed in training was not associated with race performance in either gender. For men (r2 = .56, p < .001) and women (r2 = .45, p < .05), personal best time in an Ironman triathlon was related to total race time. We concluded that percent body fat was related to race performance in male athletes and to average weekly training in female athletes. Personal best time in an Ironman triathlon was associated with total race time for both male and female athletes.

  5. Resizing Triathlons for Fairness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wainer, Howard; De Veaux, Richard D.

    As currently configured, triathlons are dominated by cyclists and runners. The concept of fairness, as applied to triathlons, suggests that a cyclist, runner, and swimmer, all equally proficient, can each traverse the associated segment of the triathlon in approximately equal times. This definition of fairness is used to derive fair triathlon…

  6. Sex differences in ultra-triathlon performance at increasing race distance.

    PubMed

    Rüst, Christoph Alexander; Knechtle, Beat; Knechtle, Patrizia; Rosemann, Thomas; Lepers, Romuald

    2013-04-01

    It has been argued that women should be able to outrun men in ultra-endurance distances. The present study investigated the sex difference in overall race times and split times between elite female and male Ironman triathletes competing in Ironman Hawaii (3.8 km swimming, 180 km cycling, and 42.195 km running) and Double Iron ultra-triathletes (7.6 km swimming, 360 km cycling, and 84.4 km running). Data from 20,638 athletes, including 5,163 women and 15,475 men competing in Ironman Hawaii and from 143 women and 1,252 men competing in Double Iron ultra-triathlon races held worldwide between 1999 and 2011 were analyzed. In Ironman Hawaii, the sex difference in performance of the top three athletes remained unchanged during the period studied for overall race time. For Double Iron ultra-triathletes, the sex difference for the top three athletes remained unchanged for overall race time. Sex differences increased as endurance race distances increased and showed no changes over time. It appears that women are unlikely to close the gap in ultra-endurance performance with men in ultra-triathlons in the near future. Physiological (e.g., maximum oxygen uptake) and anthropometric characteristics (e.g., skeletal muscle mass) may set biological limits for women.

  7. Effect of a multistage ultraendurance triathlon on aldosterone, vasopressin, extracellular water and urine electrolytes.

    PubMed

    Knechtle, B; Morales, N P Hernández; González, E Ruvalcaba; Gutierrez, A A Aguirre; Sevilla, J Noriega; Gómez, R Amézquita; Robledo, A R Estrada; Rodríguez, A L Marroquín; Fraire, O Salas; Andonie, J L; Lopez, L C; Kohler, G; Rosemann, T

    2012-02-01

    Prolonged endurance exercise over several days induces increase in extracellular water (ECW). We aimed to investigate an association between the increase in ECW and the change in aldosterone and vasopressin in a multistage ultraendurance triathlon, the 'World Challenge Deca Iron Triathlon' with 10 Ironman triathlons within 10 days. Before and after each Ironman, body mass, ECW, urinary [Na(+)], urinary [K(+)], urinary specific gravity, urinary osmolality and aldosterone and vasopressin in plasma were measured. The 11 finishers completed the total distance of 38 km swimming, 1800 km cycling and 422 km running within 145.5 (18.8) hours and 25 (22) minutes. ECW increased by 0.9 (1.1) L from 14.6 (1.5) L prerace to 15.5 (1.9) L postrace (P < 0.0001). Aldosterone increased from 70.8 (104.5) pg/mL to 102.6 (104.6) pg/mL (P = 0.033); vasopressin remained unchanged. The increase in ECW was related neither to postrace aldosterone nor to postrace vasopressin. In conclusion, ECW and aldosterone increased after this multistage ultraendurance triathlon, but vasopressin did not. The increase in ECW and the increase in aldosterone were not associated.

  8. Hydration and thermoregulation during a half-ironman performed in tropical climate.

    PubMed

    Baillot, Michelle; Hue, Olivier

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the core temperature (TC) and markers of hydration status in athletes performing a half Ironman triathlon race in hot and humid conditions (27.2 ± 0.5°C, relative humidity was 80 ± 2%). Before and immediately after the 2012 Guadeloupe half Ironman triathlon, body mass and urine osmolarity (mean ± SD) were measured in 19 well-trained male triathletes. TC was measured before and after the race, and at each transition during the event, using an ingestible pill telemetry system. Ambient temperature and heart rate (HR) were measured throughout the race. Mean ± SD performance time was 331 ± 36 minutes and HR was 147 ± 16 beats·min(-1). Wet bulb globe temperature (WBGT) averaged 25.4 ± 1.0°C and ocean temperature was 29.5°C. The average TC at the beginning of the race (TC1) was 37.1 ± 0.7°C; it was 37.8 ± 0.9°C after swimming (TC2), 37.8 ± 1.0°C after cycling (TC3), and (TC4) 38.4 ± 0.7°C after running. Body mass significantly declined during the race by 3.7 ± 1.9 kg (4.8 ± 2.4%; p < 0.05), whereas urine osmolarity significantly increased from 491.6 ± 300.6 to 557.9 ± 207.9 mosm·L(-1) (p < 0.05). Changes in body mass were not related to finishing TC or urine osmolarity. Ad libitum fluid intake appears applicable to athletes acclimatized to tropical climate, when performing a half Ironman triathlon in a warm and humid environment. Key pointsAd libitum fluid intake appears applicable to athletes acclimatized to tropical climate when performing a half Ironman triathlon in a warm and humid environment.The final core temperature average was 38.8 ± 0.7ºC after the event in these triathletes and the athletes showed no evidence of heat illness while competing in a warm and humid environment.Core temperature was dependent on both activity and anthropometry. PMID:25983573

  9. Hydration and Thermoregulation During a Half-Ironman Performed in Tropical Climate

    PubMed Central

    Baillot, Michelle; Hue, Olivier

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the core temperature (TC) and markers of hydration status in athletes performing a half Ironman triathlon race in hot and humid conditions (27.2 ± 0.5°C, relative humidity was 80 ± 2%). Before and immediately after the 2012 Guadeloupe half Ironman triathlon, body mass and urine osmolarity (mean ± SD) were measured in 19 well-trained male triathletes. TC was measured before and after the race, and at each transition during the event, using an ingestible pill telemetry system. Ambient temperature and heart rate (HR) were measured throughout the race. Mean ± SD performance time was 331 ± 36 minutes and HR was 147 ± 16 beats·min-1. Wet bulb globe temperature (WBGT) averaged 25.4 ± 1.0°C and ocean temperature was 29.5°C. The average TC at the beginning of the race (TC1) was 37.1 ± 0.7°C; it was 37.8 ± 0.9°C after swimming (TC2), 37.8 ± 1.0°C after cycling (TC3), and (TC4) 38.4 ± 0.7°C after running. Body mass significantly declined during the race by 3.7 ± 1.9 kg (4.8 ± 2.4%; p < 0.05), whereas urine osmolarity significantly increased from 491.6 ± 300.6 to 557.9 ± 207.9 mosm·L-1 (p < 0.05). Changes in body mass were not related to finishing TC or urine osmolarity. Ad libitum fluid intake appears applicable to athletes acclimatized to tropical climate, when performing a half Ironman triathlon in a warm and humid environment. Key points Ad libitum fluid intake appears applicable to athletes acclimatized to tropical climate when performing a half Ironman triathlon in a warm and humid environment. The final core temperature average was 38.8 ± 0.7ºC after the event in these triathletes and the athletes showed no evidence of heat illness while competing in a warm and humid environment. Core temperature was dependent on both activity and anthropometry. PMID:25983573

  10. Performance and sex differences in 'Isklar Norseman Xtreme Triathlon'.

    PubMed

    Knechtle, Beat; Nikolaidis, Pantelis Theodoros; Stiefel, Michael; Rosemann, Thomas; Rüst, Christoph Alexander

    2016-10-31

    The performance and sex differences of long-distance triathletes competing in 'Ironman Hawaii' are well investigated. However, less information is available with regards to triathlon races of the Ironman distance held under extreme environmental conditions (e.g. extreme cold) such as the 'Isklar Norseman Xtreme Triathlon' which started in 2003. In 'Isklar Norseman Xtreme Triathlon', athletes swim at a water temperature of ~13-15°C, cycle at temperatures of ~5-20°C and run at temperatures of ~12-28°C in the valley and of ~2-12°C at Mt. Gaustatoppen. This study analysed the performance trends and sex differences in 'Isklar Norseman Xtreme Triathlon' held from 2003 to 2015 using mixed-effects regression analyses. During this period, a total of 175 women (10.6%) and 1,852 men (89.4%) successfully finished the race. The number of female (r² = 0.53, P = 0.0049) and male (r² = 0.37, P = 0.0271) finishers increased and the men-to-women ratio decreased (r² = 0.86, P < 0.0001). Men were faster than women in cycling (25.41 ± 2.84 km/h versus 24.25 ± 2.17 km/h) (P < 0.001), but not in swimming (3.06 ± 0.62 km/h vs. 2.94 ± 0.57 km/h), running (7.43 ± 1.13 km/h vs. 7.31 ± 0.93 km/h) and overall race time (874.57 ± 100.62 min vs. 899.95 ± 90.90 min) (P > 0.05). Across years, women improved in swimming and both women and men improved in cycling and in overall race time (P < 0.001). In running, however, neither women nor men improved (P > 0.05). In summary, in 'Isklar Norseman Xtreme Triathlon' from 2003 to 2015, the number of successful women increased across years, women achieved a similar performance to men in swimming, cycling and overall race time, and women improved across, years in swimming, cycling and overall race time.

  11. Effects of oral salt supplementation on physical performance during a half-ironman: A randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Del Coso, J; González-Millán, C; Salinero, J J; Abián-Vicén, J; Areces, F; Lledó, M; Lara, B; Gallo-Salazar, C; Ruiz-Vicente, D

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of oral salt supplementation to improve exercise performance during a half-ironman triathlon. Twenty-six experienced triathletes were matched for age, anthropometric data, and training status, and randomly placed into the salt group (113 mmol Na(+) and 112 mmol Cl(-)) or the control group (cellulose). The experimental treatments were ingested before and during a real half-ironman triathlon competition. Pre- and post-race body mass, maximal force during a whole-body isometric strength test, maximal height during a countermovement jump, were measured, and blood samples were obtained. Sweat samples were obtained during the running section. Total race time was lower in the salt group than in the control group (P = 0.04). After the race, whole-body isometric strength (P = 0.17) and jump height (P = 0.49) were similarly reduced in both groups. Sweat loss (P = 0.98) and sweat Na(+) concentration (P = 0.72) were similar between groups. However, body mass tended to be less reduced in the salt group than in the control group (P = 0.09) while post-race serum Na(+) (P = 0.03) and Cl(-) (P = 0.03) concentrations were higher in the salt group than in the control group. Oral salt supplementation was effective to lessen body mass loss and increase serum electrolyte concentration during a real half-ironman. PMID:25683094

  12. Effects of oral salt supplementation on physical performance during a half-ironman: A randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Del Coso, J; González-Millán, C; Salinero, J J; Abián-Vicén, J; Areces, F; Lledó, M; Lara, B; Gallo-Salazar, C; Ruiz-Vicente, D

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of oral salt supplementation to improve exercise performance during a half-ironman triathlon. Twenty-six experienced triathletes were matched for age, anthropometric data, and training status, and randomly placed into the salt group (113 mmol Na(+) and 112 mmol Cl(-)) or the control group (cellulose). The experimental treatments were ingested before and during a real half-ironman triathlon competition. Pre- and post-race body mass, maximal force during a whole-body isometric strength test, maximal height during a countermovement jump, were measured, and blood samples were obtained. Sweat samples were obtained during the running section. Total race time was lower in the salt group than in the control group (P = 0.04). After the race, whole-body isometric strength (P = 0.17) and jump height (P = 0.49) were similarly reduced in both groups. Sweat loss (P = 0.98) and sweat Na(+) concentration (P = 0.72) were similar between groups. However, body mass tended to be less reduced in the salt group than in the control group (P = 0.09) while post-race serum Na(+) (P = 0.03) and Cl(-) (P = 0.03) concentrations were higher in the salt group than in the control group. Oral salt supplementation was effective to lessen body mass loss and increase serum electrolyte concentration during a real half-ironman.

  13. Influence of anthropometry on race performance in extreme endurance triathletes: World Challenge Deca Iron Triathlon 2006

    PubMed Central

    Knechtle, Beat; Knechtle, Patrizia; Andonie, Jorge Luis; Kohler, Götz

    2007-01-01

    Objective To investigate the influence of anthropometric variables on race performance in ultra‐endurance triathletes in an ultra‐triathlon. Design Descriptive field study. Setting The “World Challenge Deca Iron Triathlon 2006” in Monterrey, Mexico, in which everyday for 10 consecutive days athletes had to perform the distance of one Ironman triathlon of 3.8 km swimming, 180 km cycling and 42.195 km running. Subjects Eight male ultra‐endurance athletes (mean (SD) age 40.6 (10.7) years, weight 76.4 (8.4) kg, height 175 (4) cm and body mass index (BMI) 24.7 (2.2) kg/m2). Interventions None. Main outcome measures Direct measurement of body mass, height, leg length, skinfold thicknesses, limb circumference and calculation of BMI, skeletal muscle mass (SM), percentage SM (%SM) and percentage body fat (%BF) in order to correlate measured and calculated anthropometric variables with race performance. Results Race time was not significantly (p>0.05) influenced by the directly measured variables, height, leg length, body mass, average skinfold thicknesses, or circumference of thigh, calf or upper arm. Furthermore, no significant (p>0.05) correlation was observed between race time and the calculated variables, BMI, %SM and %BF. Conclusions In a multistage ultra‐triathlon over 10 Ironman triathlon distances in 10 consecutive days, there was no effect of body mass, height, leg length, skinfold thicknesses, limb circumference, BMI, %SM or %BF on race performance in the only eight finishers. PMID:17556527

  14. Organizing an Intramural Triathlon.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutchinson, Bruce

    1984-01-01

    Suggestions for developing an intramural triathlon consisting of a 1000-yard swim, 15-mile bike ride, and 5-mile run are presented in this article. Topics to consider when organizing this event include course selection, publicity, personnel, equipment, and awards. (DF)

  15. Medical considerations in triathlon competition: recommendations for triathlon organisers, competitors and coaches.

    PubMed

    Dallam, George M; Jonas, Steven; Miller, Thomas K

    2005-01-01

    events including both one-half and full Ironman distances (2.5 and 3.8 km swim, 80 and 180 km cycle, 20 and 42 km run, respectively), as well as ultra-distance events that exceed the Ironman distance. In the longer events, the previously mentioned medical considerations are further magnified and additional considerations such as hyponatraemia can also occur. Reducing risk associated with these concerns is accomplished by: taking into account weather and water temperature/conditions data prior to event scheduling; effective swim, cycle and run course organisation and management; environmental monitoring prior to and during the event; the implementation of a water safety plan; provision of appropriate fluid replacement throughout the course; implementation of helmet use and non-drafting regulations in the cycling leg; and competitor knowledge regarding fluid replacement, biomechanical technique, physical preparation, safe equipment and course familiarity. Despite these concerns, triathlon participation appears to relatively safe for persons of all ages, assuming that high-risk adults undertake health screening. PMID:15707378

  16. Age of peak performance in elite male and female Ironman triathletes competing in Ironman Switzerland, a qualifier for the Ironman world championship, Ironman Hawaii, from 1995 to 2011

    PubMed Central

    Rüst, Christoph Alexander; Knechtle, Beat; Knechtle, Patrizia; Rosemann, Thomas; Lepers, Romuald

    2012-01-01

    Background The age of peak performance in elite endurance athletes has been investigated for elite marathoners, but not for elite Ironman triathletes. The aim of this study was to analyze the age of peak performance in swimming (3.8 km), cycling (180 km), running (42 km), and overall race time for elite female and male Ironman triathletes competing in Ironman Switzerland, a qualifier for the Ironman world championship, known as the Ironman Hawaii. Methods The age of the annual top ten overall swimmers, cyclists, runners, and annual overall finishers for both male and female elite triathletes and their corresponding split and overall race times at the Ironman Switzerland were analyzed between 1995 and 2011. Results The mean age of the elite Ironman triathletes was 33 ± 3 years for men and 34 ± 4 years for women. For women, the age of peak performance was not significantly different between the three disciplines (P > 0.05), while for men, the best swimmers (29 ± 3 years) were significantly (P < 0.05) younger than the best runners (35 ± 5 years). During the study period, the age of peak performance remained unchanged for men at 31 ± 3 years (P > 0.05), but increased for women from 30 ± 4 years in 1995 to 36 ± 5 years in 2011 (P < 0.01). Conclusion Although both women and men improved their overall race times during the 1995–2011 period, the age of peak performance was similar between women and men in the three disciplines and in overall race time. Future studies need to examine the change in age of peak performance across years in the Ironman Hawaii world championship event. PMID:24198600

  17. Applied physiology of triathlon.

    PubMed

    O'Toole, M L; Douglas, P S

    1995-04-01

    The triathlon is a 3-event endurance sport in which athletes compete sequentially in swimming, cycling and running. The primary determinant of success is the ability to sustain a high rate of energy expenditure for prolonged periods of time. Exercise training-induced physiological adaptations in virtually all systems of the body allow the athlete to accomplish this. Aerobic capacity (measured as maximal oxygen uptake, VO2max), economy of motion (submaximal VO2) and fractional utilisation of maximal capacity (%VO2max) reflect the integrated responses of these physiological adaptations. Numerous studies have reported relatively high mean VO2max values for various groups of triathletes that are comparable to those reported for athletes in single-event endurance sports and clearly above those reported for untrained individuals. In shorter distance triathlons and in studies using recreational (rather than elite) triathletes, VO2max is related to performance in the corresponding event of the triathlon (e.g. tethered swimming VO2max with swim time). In longer events and with more elite triathletes, VO2max correlates less well with performance. The physiological adaptations that correspond to and facilitate improved VO2max occur centrally in the cardiovascular system, centred on increased maximal cardiac output, and peripherally in the metabolic systems, centred around increased arterio-venous O2 (a-v O2) difference. While a high VO2max in individuals is clearly of importance to triathlon performance, energy output must be sustained for long periods of time, making economy of motion also very important. Studies suggests that competitive swimmers have better swimming economy than triathletes. However, since many triathletes have previously been competitive swimmers this finding is questionable. The finding suggests that triathletes from nonswimming backgrounds would benefit from improving swimming technique rather than concentrating training workouts solely on distance. In

  18. Left Ventricular Function and Physiological Performance in Female Ironman Athletes and Female Police Officers.

    PubMed

    Leischik, Roman; Foshag, Peter; Strauss, Markus; Spelsberg, Norman

    2016-06-01

    Data about physiological performance of female ironman triathletes are rare. However, some studies have reported this endurance sport may cause damage to the right or left ventricles, even in females. The goal of this study was to assess prospectively the right/left ventricular function and physiological performance in female athletes (middle- and long ironman distance) and to compare the findings to female federal police officers. A total of 33 female triathletes and 37 female police officers were examined using spiro-ergometry and echocardiography. Female triathletes achieved VO2max 52.8 ± 5.7 ml/kg(-1)·min(-1), and police officers 35.3 ± 6.5 ml/kg(-1)·min(-1) In athletes, left ventricular end-diastolic diameter was 4.4 ± 0.3 cm and in police officers 4.5 ± 0.4 cm, and the left ventricular muscle mass index was 85.8 g/m(2 )± 18.7 in athletes and in police officers 72.0 g/m(2 )± 9.1. Right ventricular area change among athletes was 49.4 ± 8.5%, and in police officers 46.0 ± 6.9%. The performance date of female triathletes can be used as training prescription for leisure female triathletes, when middle or long distances in triathlon competitions are planned. No right or left ventricular dysfunction was found despite long training and finishing of long distance competitions: non-elite athletes, 5.4 ± 2.8 years of triathlon competitions; elite athletes, 7.6 ± 5.8 years. PMID:27207600

  19. Somatotype, training and performance in Ironman athletes.

    PubMed

    Kandel, Michel; Baeyens, Jean Pierre; Clarys, Peter

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the physiques of Ironman athletes and the relationship between Ironman's performance, training and somatotype. A total of 165 male and 22 female competitors of the Ironman Switzerland volunteered in this study. Ten anthropometric dimensions were measured, and 12 training and history variables were recorded with a questionnaire. The variables were compared with the race performance. The somatotype was a strong predictor of Ironman performance (R=0.535; R(2)=0.286; sign. p<0.001) in male athletes. The endomorphy component was the most substantial predictor. Reductions in endomorphy by one standard deviation as well as an increased ectomorphy value by one standard deviation lead to significant and substantial improvement in Ironman performance (28.1 and 29.8 minutes, respectively). An ideal somatotype of 1.7-4.9-2.8 could be established. Age and quantitative training effort were not significant predictors on Ironman performance. In female athletes, no relationship between somatotype, training and performance was found. The somatotype of a male athlete defines for 28.6% variance in Ironman performance. Athletes not having an ideal somatotype of 1.7-4.9-2.8 could improve their performance by altering their somatotype. Lower rates in endomorphy, as well as higher rates in ectomorphy, resulted in a significant better race performance. The impact of somatotype was the most distinguished on the run discipline and had a much greater impact on the total race time than the quantitative training effort. These findings could not be found in female athletes. PMID:23834510

  20. Somatotype, training and performance in Ironman athletes.

    PubMed

    Kandel, Michel; Baeyens, Jean Pierre; Clarys, Peter

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the physiques of Ironman athletes and the relationship between Ironman's performance, training and somatotype. A total of 165 male and 22 female competitors of the Ironman Switzerland volunteered in this study. Ten anthropometric dimensions were measured, and 12 training and history variables were recorded with a questionnaire. The variables were compared with the race performance. The somatotype was a strong predictor of Ironman performance (R=0.535; R(2)=0.286; sign. p<0.001) in male athletes. The endomorphy component was the most substantial predictor. Reductions in endomorphy by one standard deviation as well as an increased ectomorphy value by one standard deviation lead to significant and substantial improvement in Ironman performance (28.1 and 29.8 minutes, respectively). An ideal somatotype of 1.7-4.9-2.8 could be established. Age and quantitative training effort were not significant predictors on Ironman performance. In female athletes, no relationship between somatotype, training and performance was found. The somatotype of a male athlete defines for 28.6% variance in Ironman performance. Athletes not having an ideal somatotype of 1.7-4.9-2.8 could improve their performance by altering their somatotype. Lower rates in endomorphy, as well as higher rates in ectomorphy, resulted in a significant better race performance. The impact of somatotype was the most distinguished on the run discipline and had a much greater impact on the total race time than the quantitative training effort. These findings could not be found in female athletes.

  1. Triathlon: running injuries.

    PubMed

    Spiker, Andrea M; Dixit, Sameer; Cosgarea, Andrew J

    2012-12-01

    The running portion of the triathlon represents the final leg of the competition and, by some reports, the most important part in determining a triathlete's overall success. Although most triathletes spend most of their training time on cycling, running injuries are the most common injuries encountered. Common causes of running injuries include overuse, lack of rest, and activities that aggravate biomechanical predisposers of specific injuries. We discuss the running-associated injuries in the hip, knee, lower leg, ankle, and foot of the triathlete, and the causes, presentation, evaluation, and treatment of each.

  2. Effects of a Deca Iron Triathlon on body composition: a case study.

    PubMed

    Knechtle, B; Knechtle, P; Schück, R; Andonie, J L; Kohler, G

    2008-04-01

    We investigated energy balance and change of body composition in one athlete in a multistage triathlon, the World Challenge Deca Iron Triathlon 2006, where athletes had to perform one Ironman triathlon of 3.8 km swimming, 180 km cycling and 42.195 km running per day for ten consecutive days. In one well-experienced male ultra-endurance triathlete, we measured body mass, skinfold thicknesses and perimeters of extremities, in order to calculate skeletal muscle mass, fat mass and percentage of body fat. Energy intake was measured by analysis of nutrition, and energy expenditure was calculated using a portable heart rate monitor. This was performed to quantify energy deficit. In addition, bio-impedance measurements were performed to determine fluid metabolism. The athlete finished the race in 128 hours, 22 minutes and 42 seconds in 3rd position. Body mass decreased by 1 kilogram, skeletal muscle mass decreased by 0.9 kilograms and calculated fat mass decreased by 0.8 kilograms. Total body water increased by 2.8 liters. Total energy expenditure for the Deca Iron was 89,112 kilocalories and a total energy deficit of 11,480 kilocalories resulted. We presume that energy deficit was covered by consumption of adipose subcutaneous tissue as well as skeletal muscle mass; the degradation of muscle mass seems to lead to hypoproteinemic edemas. PMID:17879892

  3. Changes in Contributions of Swimming, Cycling, and Running Performances on Overall Triathlon Performance Over a 26-Year Period.

    PubMed

    Figueiredo, Pedro; Marques, Elisa A; Lepers, Romuald

    2016-09-01

    Figueiredo, P, Marques, EA, and Lepers, R. Changes in contributions of swimming, cycling, and running performances on overall triathlon performance over a 26-year period. J Strength Cond Res 30(9): 2406-2415, 2016-This study examined the changes in the individual contribution of each discipline to the overall performance of Olympic and Ironman distance triathlons among men and women. Between 1989 and 2014, overall performances and their component disciplines (swimming, cycling and running) were analyzed from the top 50 overall male and female finishers. Regression analyses determined that for the Olympic distance, the split times in swimming and running decreased over the years (r = 0.25-0.43, p ≤ 0.05), whereas the cycling split and total time remained unchanged (p > 0.05), for both sexes. For the Ironman distance, the cycling and running splits and the total time decreased (r = 0.19-0.88, p ≤ 0.05), whereas swimming time remained stable, for both men and women. The average contribution of the swimming stage (∼18%) was smaller than the cycling and running stages (p ≤ 0.05), for both distances and both sexes. Running (∼47%) and then cycling (∼36%) had the greatest contribution to overall performance for the Olympic distance (∼47%), whereas for the Ironman distance, cycling and running presented similar contributions (∼40%, p > 0.05). Across the years, in the Olympic distance, swimming contribution significantly decreased for women and men (r = 0.51 and 0.68, p < 0.001, respectively), whereas running increased for men (r = 0.33, p = 0.014). In the Ironman distance, swimming and cycling contributions changed in an undulating fashion, being inverse between the two segments, for both sexes (p < 0.01), whereas running contribution decreased for men only (r = 0.61, p = 0.001). These findings highlight that strategies to improve running performance should be the main focus on the preparation to compete in the Olympic distance; whereas, in the Ironman, both

  4. Changes in Contributions of Swimming, Cycling, and Running Performances on Overall Triathlon Performance Over a 26-Year Period.

    PubMed

    Figueiredo, Pedro; Marques, Elisa A; Lepers, Romuald

    2016-09-01

    Figueiredo, P, Marques, EA, and Lepers, R. Changes in contributions of swimming, cycling, and running performances on overall triathlon performance over a 26-year period. J Strength Cond Res 30(9): 2406-2415, 2016-This study examined the changes in the individual contribution of each discipline to the overall performance of Olympic and Ironman distance triathlons among men and women. Between 1989 and 2014, overall performances and their component disciplines (swimming, cycling and running) were analyzed from the top 50 overall male and female finishers. Regression analyses determined that for the Olympic distance, the split times in swimming and running decreased over the years (r = 0.25-0.43, p ≤ 0.05), whereas the cycling split and total time remained unchanged (p > 0.05), for both sexes. For the Ironman distance, the cycling and running splits and the total time decreased (r = 0.19-0.88, p ≤ 0.05), whereas swimming time remained stable, for both men and women. The average contribution of the swimming stage (∼18%) was smaller than the cycling and running stages (p ≤ 0.05), for both distances and both sexes. Running (∼47%) and then cycling (∼36%) had the greatest contribution to overall performance for the Olympic distance (∼47%), whereas for the Ironman distance, cycling and running presented similar contributions (∼40%, p > 0.05). Across the years, in the Olympic distance, swimming contribution significantly decreased for women and men (r = 0.51 and 0.68, p < 0.001, respectively), whereas running increased for men (r = 0.33, p = 0.014). In the Ironman distance, swimming and cycling contributions changed in an undulating fashion, being inverse between the two segments, for both sexes (p < 0.01), whereas running contribution decreased for men only (r = 0.61, p = 0.001). These findings highlight that strategies to improve running performance should be the main focus on the preparation to compete in the Olympic distance; whereas, in the Ironman, both

  5. Higher prevalence of exercise-associated hyponatremia in triple iron ultra-triathletes than reported for ironman triathletes.

    PubMed

    Rüst, Christoph Alexander; Knechtle, Beat; Knechtle, Patrizia; Rosemann, Thomas

    2012-06-30

    "In a recent study of male and female ultra-marathoners in a 161-km ultra-marathon, the prevalence of exercise-associated hyponatremia (EAH) was higher than reported for marathoners. Regarding triathletes, the prevalence of EAH has been investigated in Ironman triathletes, but not in Triple Iron ultra-triathletes. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of EAH in male ultra-triathletes competing in a Triple Iron ultra-triathlon over 11.4 km swimming, 540 km cycling, and 126.6 km running. Changes in body mass, fat mass, skeletal muscle mass, total body water, haematocrit, plasma volume, plasma sodium concentration ([Na ⁺ ]) and urine specific gravity were determined in 31 male athletes with (means ± standard deviation) 42.1 ± 8.1 years of age, 77.0 ± 7.0 kg body mass, 1.78 ± 0.06 m body height and a BMI of 24.3 ± 1.7 kg/m² in the 'Triple Iron Triathlon Germany'. Of the 31 finishers, eight athletes (26%) developed asymptomatic EAH. Body mass, fat mass, skeletal muscle mass, and haematocrit decreased, plasma volume increased ( P < 0.05), plasma [Na ⁺], total body water and urine specific gravity remained stable. The decrease in body mass was related to both the decrease in fat mass and skeletal muscle mass ( P < 0.05), but was not related to overall race time, the change in plasma [Na ⁺ ], post-race plasma [Na ⁺ ], or urine specific gravity. The prevalence of EAH was higher in these Triple Iron ultra-triathletes compared to existing reports on Ironman triathletes. Body fluid homeostasis remained stable in these ultra-triathletes although body mass decreased." PMID:22784278

  6. Higher prevalence of exercise-associated hyponatremia in triple iron ultra-triathletes than reported for ironman triathletes.

    PubMed

    Rüst, Christoph Alexander; Knechtle, Beat; Knechtle, Patrizia; Rosemann, Thomas

    2012-06-30

    "In a recent study of male and female ultra-marathoners in a 161-km ultra-marathon, the prevalence of exercise-associated hyponatremia (EAH) was higher than reported for marathoners. Regarding triathletes, the prevalence of EAH has been investigated in Ironman triathletes, but not in Triple Iron ultra-triathletes. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of EAH in male ultra-triathletes competing in a Triple Iron ultra-triathlon over 11.4 km swimming, 540 km cycling, and 126.6 km running. Changes in body mass, fat mass, skeletal muscle mass, total body water, haematocrit, plasma volume, plasma sodium concentration ([Na ⁺ ]) and urine specific gravity were determined in 31 male athletes with (means ± standard deviation) 42.1 ± 8.1 years of age, 77.0 ± 7.0 kg body mass, 1.78 ± 0.06 m body height and a BMI of 24.3 ± 1.7 kg/m² in the 'Triple Iron Triathlon Germany'. Of the 31 finishers, eight athletes (26%) developed asymptomatic EAH. Body mass, fat mass, skeletal muscle mass, and haematocrit decreased, plasma volume increased ( P < 0.05), plasma [Na ⁺], total body water and urine specific gravity remained stable. The decrease in body mass was related to both the decrease in fat mass and skeletal muscle mass ( P < 0.05), but was not related to overall race time, the change in plasma [Na ⁺ ], post-race plasma [Na ⁺ ], or urine specific gravity. The prevalence of EAH was higher in these Triple Iron ultra-triathletes compared to existing reports on Ironman triathletes. Body fluid homeostasis remained stable in these ultra-triathletes although body mass decreased."

  7. 77 FR 40544 - Safety Zone; ESI Ironman 70.3 Augusta Triathlon, Savannah River; Augusta, GA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-10

    ... INFORMATION: Table of Acronyms DHS Department of Homeland Security FR Federal Register NPRM Notice of Proposed... public dockets in the January 17, 2008, issue of the Federal Register (73 FR 3316). 4. Public Meeting We... general public during the 1.1 mile swim portion of the competition. Persons and vessels would...

  8. 77 FR 55141 - Safety Zone, ESI Ironman 70.3 Augusta Triathlon, Savannah River; Augusta, GA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-07

    ... INFORMATION: Table of Acronyms DHS Department of Homeland Security FR Federal Register NPRM Notice of Proposed..., Augusta, GA in the Federal Register (77 FR 40544). The Coast Guard received no comments on the proposed... mile swim on the waters of the Savannah River. The temporary safety zone is necessary for the safety...

  9. Sex difference in Double Iron ultra-triathlon performance

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    split times, and the sex difference remained unchanged across years for overall race time and split times. The sex differences for overall race times and split times were higher than reported for Ironman triathlon. PMID:23849631

  10. Ad libitum fluid intake leads to no leg swelling in male Ironman triathletes – an observational field study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background An association between fluid intake and limb swelling has been described for 100-km ultra-marathoners. We investigated a potential development of peripheral oedemata in Ironman triathletes competing over 3.8 km swimming, 180 km cycling and 42.2 km running. Methods In 15 male Ironman triathletes, fluid intake, changes in body mass, fat mass, skeletal muscle mass, limb volumes and skinfold thickness were measured. Changes in renal function, parameters of skeletal muscle damage, hematologic parameters and osmolality in both serum and urine were determined. Skinfold thicknesses at hands and feet were measured using LIPOMETER® and changes of limb volumes were measured using plethysmography. Results The athletes consumed a total of 8.6 ± 4.4 L of fluids, equal to 0.79 ± 0.43 L/h. Body mass, skeletal muscle mass and the volume of the lower leg decreased (p <0.05), fat mass, skinfold thicknesses and the volume of the arm remained unchanged (p >0.05). The decrease in skeletal muscle mass was associated with the decrease in body mass (p <0.05). The decrease in the lower leg volume was unrelated to fluid intake (p >0.05). Haemoglobin, haematocrit and serum sodium remained unchanged (p >0.05). Osmolality in serum and urine increased (p <0.05). The change in body mass was related to post-race serum sodium concentration ([Na+]) (r = −0.52, p <0.05) and post-race serum osmolality (r = −0.60, p <0.05). Conclusions In these Ironman triathletes, ad libitum fluid intake maintained plasma [Na+] and plasma osmolality and led to no peripheral oedemata. The volume of the lower leg decreased and the decrease was unrelated to fluid intake. Future studies may investigate ultra-triathletes competing in a Triple Iron triathlon over 11.4 km swimming, 540 km cycling and 126.6 km running to find an association between fluid intake and the development of peripheral oedemata. PMID:22937792

  11. Performance analysis and prediction in triathlon.

    PubMed

    Ofoghi, Bahadorreza; Zeleznikow, John; Macmahon, Clare; Rehula, Jan; Dwyer, Dan B

    2016-01-01

    Performance in triathlon is dependent upon factors that include somatotype, physiological capacity, technical proficiency and race strategy. Given the multidisciplinary nature of triathlon and the interaction between each of the three race components, the identification of target split times that can be used to inform the design of training plans and race pacing strategies is a complex task. The present study uses machine learning techniques to analyse a large database of performances in Olympic distance triathlons (2008-2012). The analysis reveals patterns of performance in five components of triathlon (three race "legs" and two transitions) and the complex relationships between performance in each component and overall performance in a race. The results provide three perspectives on the relationship between performance in each component of triathlon and the final placing in a race. These perspectives allow the identification of target split times that are required to achieve a certain final place in a race and the opportunity to make evidence-based decisions about race tactics in order to optimise performance.

  12. Continued stabilization of Triathlon cemented TKA

    PubMed Central

    Molt, Mats; Ryd, Leif; Toksvig-Larsen, Sören

    2016-01-01

    Background and purpose There is a general call for phased introduction of new implants, and one step in the introduction is an early evaluation of micromotion. We compared the micromotion in the Triathlon and its predecessor, the Duracon total knee prosthesis, concentrating especially on continuous migration over 5 years of follow-up. Patients and methods 60 patients were randomized to receive either a cemented Triathlon total knee prosthesis or a cemented Duracon total knee prosthesis. 3-D tibial component migration was measured by radiostereometric analysis (RSA) at 3 months and at 1, 2, and 5 years. Results There was no statistically significant difference in maximum total point motion (MTPM) between the 2 groups (p = 0.1). The mean MTPM at 5 years for the Duracon was 1.10 (SD 1.21) mm and for the Triathlon it was 0.66 (SD 0.38) mm. The numbers of continuously migrating prostheses were similar in the groups at the fifth year of follow-up; 6 of 21 prostheses in the Duracon group and 3 of 21 in the Triathlon group had migrated more than 0.3 mm between the second year and the fifth year of follow-up (p = 0.2). Interpretation The Triathlon has a micromotion pattern similar to that of the Duracon total knee system at both short-term and medium-term follow-up, and may therefore, over time, show the same good long-term mechanical stability. PMID:27088580

  13. The aspect of experience in ultra-triathlon races.

    PubMed

    Knechtle, Beat; Zingg, Matthias Alexander; Rosemann, Thomas; Rüst, Christoph Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Previous experience seems to be an important predictor for endurance and ultra-endurance performance. The present study investigated whether the number of previously completed races and/or the personal best times in shorter races is more predictive for performance in longer non-stop ultra-triathlons such as a Deca Iron ultra-triathlon. All female and male ultra-triathletes who had finished between 1985 and 2014 at least one Double Iron ultra-triathlon (i.e. 7.6 km swimming, 360 km cycling and 84.4 km running), one Triple Iron ultra-triathlon (i.e. 11.4 km swimming, 540 km cycling and 126.6 km running), one Quintuple Iron ultra-triathlon (i.e. 19 km swimming, 900 km cycling and 221 km running) and one Deca Iron ultra-triathlon (i.e. 38 km swimming, 1,800 km cycling and 422 km running) were identified and their best race times for each distance were recorded. Multiple regression analysis (stepwise, forward selection, p of F for inclusion <0.05, p of F for exclusion >0.1, listwise deletion) was used to determine all variables correlating to overall race time and performance in split disciplines for both Quintuple and Deca Iron ultra-triathlon. The number of finished shorter races (i.e. Double and Triple Iron ultra-triathlon) was not associated with the number of finished longer races (i.e. Quintuple and Deca Iron ultra-triathlon) whereas both split and overall race times correlated to split and overall race times of the longer races with the exception of the swimming split times in Double Iron ultra-triathlon showing no correlation with swimming split times in both Quintuple and Deca Iron ultra-triathlon. In summary, previous experience seemed of importance in performance for longer ultra-triathlon races (i.e. Quintuple and Deca Iron ultra-triathlon) where the personal best times of shorter races (i.e. Double and Triple Iron ultra-triathlon) were important, but not the number of previously finished races. For athletes and coaches, fast race times in

  14. 77 FR 46613 - Safety Zone; 2012 Ironman US Championship Swim, Hudson River, Fort Lee, NJ

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-06

    ...) entitled 2012 Ironman US Championship Swim, Hudson River, Fort Lee, NJ in the Federal Register (77 FR 34285...) 366-9826. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Table of Acronyms DHS Department of Homeland Security FR Federal... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; 2012 Ironman US Championship Swim,...

  15. Vegan triple-ironman (raw vegetables/fruits).

    PubMed

    Leischik, Roman; Spelsberg, Norman

    2014-01-01

    Endurance sport requires a healthy and balanced diet. In this case report we present the findings of an ultra-triathlete (three times Ironman, means 11.4 km swim, 540 km bike, 125 km run in 41:18 h as a whole) living on a raw vegan diet and having finished the competitions under these nutritional conditions. To this end, the vegan ultra triathlete and a control group of 10 Ironman triathletes of similar age living on a mixed diet were investigated, using echocardiography and spiroergometry. In addition, blood samples were taken from the vegan athlete both in the sporting season and in the off-season. The vegan athlete showed no signs of dietary deficiencies or impaired health. In comparison with the control group, the vegan athlete showed a higher oxygen intake at the respiratory compensation point. This case demonstrates that even top-class sporting performance, like that of a three-time Ironman, is possible on a vegan diet. Whether a vegan diet offers advantages or disadvantages for the performance of endurance athletes remains an open question.

  16. Vegan Triple-Ironman (Raw Vegetables/Fruits)

    PubMed Central

    Leischik, Roman; Spelsberg, Norman

    2014-01-01

    Endurance sport requires a healthy and balanced diet. In this case report we present the findings of an ultra-triathlete (three times Ironman, means 11.4 km swim, 540 km bike, 125 km run in 41:18 h as a whole) living on a raw vegan diet and having finished the competitions under these nutritional conditions. To this end, the vegan ultra triathlete and a control group of 10 Ironman triathletes of similar age living on a mixed diet were investigated, using echocardiography and spiroergometry. In addition, blood samples were taken from the vegan athlete both in the sporting season and in the off-season. The vegan athlete showed no signs of dietary deficiencies or impaired health. In comparison with the control group, the vegan athlete showed a higher oxygen intake at the respiratory compensation point. This case demonstrates that even top-class sporting performance, like that of a three-time Ironman, is possible on a vegan diet. Whether a vegan diet offers advantages or disadvantages for the performance of endurance athletes remains an open question. PMID:24826311

  17. Evaluation of a 7-Gene Genetic Profile for Athletic Endurance Phenotype in Ironman Championship Triathletes

    PubMed Central

    Grealy, Rebecca; Herruer, Jasper; Smith, Carl L. E.; Hiller, Doug; Haseler, Luke J.; Griffiths, Lyn R.

    2015-01-01

    Polygenic profiling has been proposed for elite endurance performance, using an additive model determining the proportion of optimal alleles in endurance athletes. To investigate this model’s utility for elite triathletes, we genotyped seven polymorphisms previously associated with an endurance polygenic profile (ACE Ins/Del, ACTN3 Arg577Ter, AMPD1 Gln12Ter, CKMM 1170bp/985+185bp, HFE His63Asp, GDF8 Lys153Arg and PPARGC1A Gly482Ser) in a cohort of 196 elite athletes who participated in the 2008 Kona Ironman championship triathlon. Mean performance time (PT) was not significantly different in individual marker analysis. Age, sex, and continent of origin had a significant influence on PT and were adjusted for. Only the AMPD1 endurance-optimal Gln allele was found to be significantly associated with an improvement in PT (model p = 5.79 x 10−17, AMPD1 genotype p = 0.01). Individual genotypes were combined into a total genotype score (TGS); TGS distribution ranged from 28.6 to 92.9, concordant with prior studies in endurance athletes (mean±SD: 60.75±12.95). TGS distribution was shifted toward higher TGS in the top 10% of athletes, though the mean TGS was not significantly different (p = 0.164) and not significantly associated with PT even when adjusted for age, sex, and origin. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis determined that TGS alone could not significantly predict athlete finishing time with discriminating sensitivity and specificity for three outcomes (less than median PT, less than mean PT, or in the top 10%), though models with the age, sex, continent of origin, and either TGS or AMPD1 genotype could. These results suggest three things: that more sophisticated genetic models may be necessary to accurately predict athlete finishing time in endurance events; that non-genetic factors such as training are hugely influential and should be included in genetic analyses to prevent confounding; and that large collaborations may be necessary to obtain

  18. Triathlon related musculoskeletal injuries: the status of injury prevention knowledge.

    PubMed

    Gosling, Cameron McR; Gabbe, Belinda J; Forbes, Andrew B

    2008-07-01

    Triathlon is a popular participation sport that combines swimming, cycling and running into a single event. A number of studies have investigated the incidence of injury, profile of injuries sustained and factors contributing to triathlon injury. This paper summarises the published literature in the context of the evidence base for the prevention of triathlon related injuries. Relevant articles on triathlon injuries were sourced from peer-reviewed English language journals and assessed using the Translating Research into Injury Prevention Practice (TRIPP) framework. This review highlights the significant knowledge gap that exists in the published literature describing the incidence of injury, the profile of injuries sustained and evidence for the prevention of injury in triathlon. Despite the number of studies undertaken to address TRIPP Stages 1 and 2 (injury surveillance, aetiology and mechanism of injury), most triathlon studies have been limited by retrospective designs with substantial, and unvalidated, recall periods, inconsistency in the definitions used for a reportable injury and exposure to injury, or a failure to capture exposure data at all. Overall, the paucity of quality, prospective studies investigating the incidence of injury in triathlon and factors contributing to their occurrence has led to an inability to adequately inform the development of injury prevention strategies (TRIPP Stages 3-6) for this sport, a situation that must be rectified if gains are to be made in reducing the burden of triathlon related injury.

  19. The triathlon tips from the top: practical tips for racing and training for a triathlon.

    PubMed

    Bales, James; Bales, Karrn; Deakon, Robert; Johnson, Don

    2012-12-01

    Training for a triathlon is a very demanding pursuit. There are a multitude of problems, such as overuse injuries, overtraining, and inappropriate training that can derail even the best athlete. We present some of the symptoms to look for to avoid overtraining, some training tips to maximize your training time, and look at some popular myths that surround endurance training.

  20. Differences in gender and performance in off-road triathlon.

    PubMed

    Lepers, Romuald; Stapley, Paul J

    2010-12-01

    The aims of this study were: (1) to examine performance trends and compare elite male and female athletes at the off-road triathlon (1.5-km swim, 30-km mountain biking, and 11-km trail running) world championships since its inception in 1996, and (2) to compare gender-related differences between off-road triathlon and conventional road-based triathlon. Linear regression analyses and ANOVA were used to examine performance trends and differences between the sexes. Elite male performance times stabilized over the 2005-2009 period, whereas elite female performance times continued to improve, especially for the run leg. Differences in performance times between the sexes were less marked in swimming than in mountain biking and running, whereas differences in power output were more marked for mountain biking than for swimming and running. In addition, differences in cycling between the sexes were greater for off-road than conventional on-road triathlon. The specific aspects of mountain biking (e.g. level and terrain) may partly explain the significant differences between the sexes recorded in cycling for off-road triathlon. Future studies will need to focus on the physiological bases of off-road triathlon and how they differ from conventional triathlon.

  1. Swimming overuse injuries associated with triathlon training.

    PubMed

    Bales, James; Bales, Karrn

    2012-12-01

    Most triathlon overuse injuries occur due to the running and cycling aspects of the sport. By nature of swimming being a non-weight-bearing sport, triathletes have a tendency to use swimming for rehabilitation and recovery. Swimming has a significantly lower injury rate than the other 2 disciplines in a triathlon. Most triathletes use the freestyle stroke, because it is typically the first stroke learned, it is for many the fastest stroke, and by lifting the head the freestyle stroke allows triathletes to sight their direction, which is important in open water swimming. During the freestyle stroke, the shoulder undergoes repetitive overhead motion, and shoulder pain is the most common and well-documented site of musculoskeletal pain in competitive swimmers. It is felt that the pathologic process is attributable to repetitive overhead motion causing microtrauma in the shoulder from either mechanical impingement or generalized laxity or both. Without sufficient rest and recovery, the development of inflammation and pain may result. Depending on the age of the triathlete and the exact etiology of the shoulder pain, treatment options range from nonsurgical to surgical in nature. PMID:23147088

  2. Swimming overuse injuries associated with triathlon training.

    PubMed

    Bales, James; Bales, Karrn

    2012-12-01

    Most triathlon overuse injuries occur due to the running and cycling aspects of the sport. By nature of swimming being a non-weight-bearing sport, triathletes have a tendency to use swimming for rehabilitation and recovery. Swimming has a significantly lower injury rate than the other 2 disciplines in a triathlon. Most triathletes use the freestyle stroke, because it is typically the first stroke learned, it is for many the fastest stroke, and by lifting the head the freestyle stroke allows triathletes to sight their direction, which is important in open water swimming. During the freestyle stroke, the shoulder undergoes repetitive overhead motion, and shoulder pain is the most common and well-documented site of musculoskeletal pain in competitive swimmers. It is felt that the pathologic process is attributable to repetitive overhead motion causing microtrauma in the shoulder from either mechanical impingement or generalized laxity or both. Without sufficient rest and recovery, the development of inflammation and pain may result. Depending on the age of the triathlete and the exact etiology of the shoulder pain, treatment options range from nonsurgical to surgical in nature.

  3. A comparison of participation and performance in age-group finishers competing in and qualifying for Ironman Hawaii

    PubMed Central

    Stiefel, Michael; Rüst, Christoph Alexander; Rosemann, Thomas; Knechtle, Beat

    2013-01-01

    Background Athletes intending to compete in Ironman Hawaii need to qualify in an age-group based qualification system. We compared participation and top ten performances of athletes in various age groups between Ironman Hawaii and its qualifier races. Methods Finishes in Ironman Hawaii and in its qualifier races in 2010 were analyzed in terms of performance, age, and sex. Athletes were categorized into age groups from 18–24 to 75–79 years and split and race times were determined for the top ten athletes in each age group. Results A higher proportion of athletes aged 25–49 years finished in the qualifier races than in Ironman Hawaii. In athletes aged 18–24 and 50–79 years, the percentage of finishes was higher in Ironman Hawaii than in the qualifier races. For women, the fastest race times were slower in Ironman Hawaii than in the qualifier races for those aged 18–24 (P<0.001), 25–29 (P<0.05), and 60–64 (P<0.05) years. Swim split times were slower in Ironman Hawaii than in the qualifier races for all age groups (P<0.05). Cycling times were slower in Ironman Hawaii for 18–24, 25–29, 40–44, 50–54, and 60–64 years (P<0.05) in age groups. For men, finishers aged 18–24 (P<0.001), 40–44 (P<0.001), 50–54 (P<0.01), 55–59 (P<0.001), 60–64 (P<0.01), and 65–69 (P<0.001) years were slower in Ironman Hawaii than in the qualifier races. Swim split times were slower in Ironman Hawaii than in the qualifier races for all age groups (P<0.05). Cycling times were slower in Ironman Hawaii for those aged 18–24 and those aged 40 years and older (P<0.05). Conclusion There are differences in terms of participation and performance for athletes in different age groups between Ironman Hawaii and its qualifier races. Triathletes aged 25–49 years and men generally were underrepresented in Ironman Hawaii compared with in its Ironman qualifier races. These athletes may have had less chance to qualify for Ironman Hawaii than female athletes or younger (<25

  4. 76 FR 55564 - Safety Zone; Revolution 3 Triathlon, Sandusky Bay, Lake Erie, Cedar Point, OH

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-08

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Revolution 3 Triathlon, Sandusky Bay, Lake... intended to restrict vessels from a portion of Lake Erie during the Revolution 3 Triathlon. This temporary... in the preceding paragraph. Background and Purpose The Revolution 3 Triathlon will occur between 6...

  5. 76 FR 8656 - Safety Zone; Miami International Triathlon, Bayfront Park, Miami, FL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-15

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Miami International Triathlon, Bayfront... establishing a temporary safety zone in the waters east of Bayfront Park for the Miami International Triathlon in Miami, Florida. The triathlon is scheduled to take place on March 20, 2011. The temporary...

  6. The Elementary Triathlon: Change the "I" to "Y" and Add "ES"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Docheff, Dennis

    2008-01-01

    The triathlon has become very popular in the fitness world. Athletes train for months and even years to get their bodies in top shape to attempt the three-part triathlon race--swim, bike, and distance run. While this activity continues to grow in popularity across the country, the purpose of this article is to create an appropriate triathlon for…

  7. 77 FR 34285 - Safety Zone; 2012 Ironman U.S. Championship Swim, Hudson River, Fort Lee, NJ

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-11

    ... the January 17, 2008, issue of the Federal Register (73 FR 3316). Public Meeting We do not plan now to... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; 2012 Ironman U.S. Championship Swim, Hudson... vicinity of Englewood Cliffs and Fort Lee, NJ for the 2012 Ironman U.S. Championship swim event....

  8. Swim Positioning and its Influence on Triathlon Outcome

    PubMed Central

    LANDERS, GRANT J.; BLANKSBY, BRIAN A.; ACKLAND, TIMOTHY R.; MONSON, RONALD

    2008-01-01

    Questions have been raised regarding which of the three legs of a triathlon influences the final finishing position. Some coaches subjectively believe that the swim and run are more important than the cycle, especially since the introduction of drafting during the cycle. This study analysed race position shifts between each of the three disciplines to assess the importance of the swim finish position and final finish position during draft legal Olympic distance triathlon events. Ten male and 10 female triathlon world cup events during one season were analysed. The results suggested that the triathlon swim leg is important because the winner exited the water in the first pack in 90% of elite male and 70% of elite female races. Correlations were also derived from finishing order for the whole triathlon and a finishing order that included the swim only, cycle only or run only time. For men, the average correlations for final finishing order with each of the swim, cycle and run, respectively, were 0.49, 0.67 and 0.86 and for the women; average correlations were 0.39, 0.67 and 0.85. Hence, this indicated that it was important to exit the water in the first pack and run well after cycling to achieve a successful final finishing position. PMID:27182300

  9. 78 FR 10523 - Special Local Regulation; Southern California Annual Marine Events for the San Diego Captain of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-14

    ... regulation. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard will enforce the 2013 California Ironman Triathlon Special Local... Regulation for the 2013 California Ironman Triathlon in 33 CFR 100.1101 (Item 2 on Table 1) from 6:40...

  10. The timing of fluid intake during an Olympic distance triathlon.

    PubMed

    McMurray, Robert G; Williams, David K; Battaglini, Claudio L

    2006-12-01

    Seven highly trained male triathletes, aged 18 to 35 years, were tested during two simulated Olympic distance triathlons to determine whether run performance was enhanced when consuming 177 ml of water at 8, 16, 24, and 32 kilometers (Early Trials) compared to consumption at 10, 20, 30, and 40 kilometers (Late Trials), during the cycling segment of the triathlon. Swim times for 1500 m were similar between trials; 40-km cycling times were approximately 10 s faster during the Late Trials; however, 10-km run times were faster during the Early Trials (P < 0.02). No significant differences between run trials were found for the rating of perceived exertion, oxygen uptake, heart rate, and change in urine specific gravity. It was concluded that the consumption of fluids earlier in the cycle phase of the Olympic distance triathlon benefits the run and overall performance time. PMID:17342882

  11. Triathlon: how to mentally prepare for the big race.

    PubMed

    Bales, James; Bales, Karrn

    2012-12-01

    With the mastery of 3 sports required, a triathlon can be a daunting mental challenge. Some liken a triathlon to a physical game of chess. A triathlete must mentally assess their physical ability across 3 sports against their competitors, the environment, and, most of all, themselves. The mental preparation required for a triathlon is often minimized, but its importance should not be underestimated. Appropriate mental planning should be carried out during training. The need for nutrition, race planning, visualization, imaging, and possible changes in conditions should all be anticipated. Anxiousness at the start of the event is normal, but this energy needs to be channeled appropriately, or it can be detrimental. Athletes who arrive at race day with a sound mental strategy typically perform better.

  12. Outbreak of leptospirosis among triathlon participants in Langau, Austria, 2010.

    PubMed

    Radl, Christoph; Müller, Maria; Revilla-Fernandez, Sandra; Karner-Zuser, Stefanie; de Martin, Alfred; Schauer, Ulrike; Karner, Franz; Stanek, Gerold; Balcke, Peter; Hallas, Andreas; Frank, Herbert; Fürnschlief, Albert; Erhart, Friedrich; Allerberger, Franz

    2011-12-01

    We report on the first documented outbreak of leptospirosis in Austria. In July 2010, four cases of serologically confirmed leptospirosis occurred in athletes after a triathlon held in Langau. Heavy rains preceded the triathlon (rainfall: 22 mm). The index case (Patient A) was a 41-year-old previously healthy male, who was admitted to hospital A on July 8 with a four-day history of fever up to 40°C that began 14 days after attending the triathlon event. On July 7, patient B, a 42-year-old male, was admitted to the same hospital, with signs and symptoms of kidney failure. Hemodialysis was performed every other day for 3 weeks. While the serum drawn on the day of admission was negative for antibodies against Leptospira, a specimen from July 28 tested positive with Leptospira interrogans. On July 11, patient C, a 40-year-old male, was admitted to hospital B for nephritis. On July 14, patient D, a 44-year-old male, was admitted to hospital C with a ten days history of intermittent fever, mild dry cough and headache. Our report underlines that in Austria recreational users of bodies of freshwater must be aware of an existing risk of contracting leptospirosis, particularly after heavy rains. The suppressive influence of a triathlon on the immune system is well documented and therefore an outbreak in this population group can be seen as a sensitive indicator concerning possible risk for the general population.

  13. Age-related changes in ultra-triathlon performances

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The age-related decline in performance has been investigated in swimmers, runners and triathletes. No study has investigated the age-related performance decline in ultra-triathletes. The purpose of this study was to analyse the age-related declines in swimming, cycling, running and overall race time for both Triple Iron ultra-triathlon (11.4-km swimming, 540-km cycling and 126.6-km running) and Deca Iron ultra-triathlon (38-km swimming, 1,800-km cycling and 420-km running). Methods The age and performances of 423 male Triple Iron ultra-triathletes and 119 male Deca Iron ultra-triathletes were analysed from 1992 to 2010 using regression analyses and ANOVA. Results The mean age of the finishers was significantly higher for Deca Iron ultra-triathletes (41.3 ± 3.1 years) compared to a Triple Iron ultra-triathletes (38.5 ± 3.3 years) (P < 0.05). For both ultra-distances, the fastest overall race times were achieved between the ages of 25 and 44 years. Deca Iron ultra-triathletes achieved the same level of performance in swimming and cycling between 25 and 54 years of age. Conclusions The magnitudes of age-related declines in performance in the three disciplines of ultra-triathlon differ slightly between Triple and Deca Iron ultra-triathlon. Although the ages of Triple Iron ultra-triathletes were on average younger compared to Deca Iron ultra-triathletes, the fastest race times were achieved between 25 and 44 years for both distances. Further studies should investigate the motivation and training of ultra-triathletes to gain better insights in ultra-triathlon performance. PMID:23849327

  14. Age and gender interactions in short distance triathlon performance.

    PubMed

    Etter, Franziska; Knechtle, Beat; Bukowski, Arkadiusz; Rüst, Christoph Alexander; Rosemann, Thomas; Lepers, Romuald

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the participation and performance trends as well as the age and gender interaction at the Olympic distance 'Zürich Triathlon' (1.5 km swim, 40 km cycle and 10 km run) from 2000 to 2010 in 7,939 total finishers (1,666 females and 6,273 males). Female triathletes aged from 40 to 54 years significantly (P < 0.05) increased their participation while the participation of younger females and males remained stable. Males of 50-54 years of age and females of 45-49 years of age improved their total race time. For elite top five overall triathletes, mean gender differences in swimming, cycling, running and overall race time were 15.2 ± 4.6%, 13.4 ± 2.3%, 17.1 ± 2.5%, and 14.8 ± 1.8%, respectively. For both elite and age group athletes, the gender difference in cycling time was significantly (P <0.001) lower than for swimming and running. The gender difference in overall Olympic distance triathlon performance increased after the age of 35 years, which appeared earlier compared to long distance triathlon as suggested by previous studies. Future investigations should compare gender difference in performance for different endurance events across age to confirm a possible effect of exercise duration on gender difference with advancing age.

  15. Maximising performance in triathlon: applied physiological and nutritional aspects of elite and non-elite competitions.

    PubMed

    Bentley, David J; Cox, Gregory R; Green, Daniel; Laursen, Paul B

    2008-07-01

    Triathlon is a sport consisting of sequential swimming, cycling and running. The main diversity within the sport of triathlon resides in the varying event distances, which creates specific technical, physiological and nutritional considerations for athlete and practitioner alike. The purpose of this article is to review physiological as well as nutritional aspects of triathlon and to make recommendations on ways to enhance performance. Aside from progressive conditioning and training, areas that have shown potential to improve triathlon performance include drafting when possible during both the swim and cycle phase, wearing a wetsuit, and selecting a lower cadence (60-80 rpm) in the final stages of the cycle phase. Adoption of a more even racing pace during cycling may optimise cycling performance and induce a "metabolic reserve" necessary for elevated running performance in longer distance triathlon events. In contrast, drafting in swimming and cycling may result a better tactical approach to increase overall performance in elite Olympic distance triathlons. Daily energy intake should be modified to reflect daily training demands to assist triathletes in achieving body weight and body composition targets. Carbohydrate loading strategies and within exercise carbohydrate intake should reflect the specific requirements of the triathlon event contested. Development of an individualised fluid plan based on previous fluid balance observations may assist to avoid both dehydration and hyponatremia during prolonged triathlon racing. PMID:17869183

  16. 76 FR 54703 - Safety Zone; Myrtle Beach Triathlon, Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway, Myrtle Beach, SC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-02

    ... Triathlon, Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway, Myrtle Beach, SC in the Federal Register (76 FR 124). We received... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Myrtle Beach Triathlon, Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway, Myrtle Beach, SC AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY:...

  17. 78 FR 35787 - Safety Zones; Revolution 3 Triathlon, Lake Erie, Sandusky Bay, Cedar Point, OH

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-14

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zones; Revolution 3 Triathlon, Lake Erie... restrict vessel traffic during the swim portion of the Revolution 3 Triathlon, Lake Erie, Sandusky Bay, OH.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Table of Acronyms DHS Department of Homeland Security FR Federal Register NPRM...

  18. 77 FR 49401 - Safety Zones; Revolution 3 Triathlon, Lake Erie, Sandusky Bay, Cedar Point, OH

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-16

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zones; Revolution 3 Triathlon, Lake Erie... restrict vessel traffic during the swim portion of the Revolution 3 Triathlon, Lake Erie, Sandusky Bay, OH.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Table of Acronyms DHS Department of Homeland Security FR Federal Register NPRM...

  19. 75 FR 55477 - Safety Zone; Revolution 3 Triathlon, Lake Erie & Sandusky Bay, Cedar Point, OH

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-13

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Revolution 3 Triathlon, Lake Erie... safety zone is intended to restrict vessels from portions of the Lake Erie during the Revolution 3 Cedar... is as follows: Sec. 165.T09-0791 Safety Zone; Revolution 3 Cedar Point Triathlon, Lake...

  20. 78 FR 17097 - Safety Zone; Lake Havasu Triathlon; Lake Havasu City, AZ

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-20

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Lake Havasu Triathlon; Lake Havasu City, AZ... temporary safety zone within the navigable waters of Lake Havasu and the London Bridge Channel for the Lake... Triathlon will consist of 600 participants. The waterside swim course consists of 1500 meters in Lake...

  1. 33 CFR 165.T09-0140 - Safety Zone; USA Triathlon, Milwaukee Harbor, Milwaukee, Wisconsin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Safety Zone; USA Triathlon, Milwaukee Harbor, Milwaukee, Wisconsin. 165.T09-0140 Section 165.T09-0140 Navigation and Navigable Waters... Guard District § 165.T09-0140 Safety Zone; USA Triathlon, Milwaukee Harbor, Milwaukee, Wisconsin....

  2. 33 CFR 165.170 - Safety Zone: Triathlon, Ulster Landing, Hudson River, NY.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 CFR 165.23 apply. (2) No vessels will be allowed to transit the safety zone without the permission... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Safety Zone: Triathlon, Ulster... § 165.170 Safety Zone: Triathlon, Ulster Landing, Hudson River, NY. (a) Regulated area. The...

  3. 33 CFR 165.T09-0140 - Safety Zone; USA Triathlon, Milwaukee Harbor, Milwaukee, Wisconsin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Safety Zone; USA Triathlon, Milwaukee Harbor, Milwaukee, Wisconsin. 165.T09-0140 Section 165.T09-0140 Navigation and Navigable Waters... Guard District § 165.T09-0140 Safety Zone; USA Triathlon, Milwaukee Harbor, Milwaukee, Wisconsin....

  4. 33 CFR 165.170 - Safety Zone: Triathlon, Ulster Landing, Hudson River, NY.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 CFR 165.23 apply. (2) No vessels will be allowed to transit the safety zone without the permission... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Safety Zone: Triathlon, Ulster... § 165.170 Safety Zone: Triathlon, Ulster Landing, Hudson River, NY. (a) Regulated area. The...

  5. 77 FR 14321 - Safety Zone; Myrtle Beach Triathlon, Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway, Myrtle Beach, SC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-09

    ..., 2008, issue of the Federal Register (73 FR 3316). Public Meeting We do not now plan to hold a public..., spectators, and the general public during the swim portions of the triathlon races. Persons and vessels would... the general public during the swim portion of the triathlon races. Discussion of Proposed Rule...

  6. Upper body skinfold thickness is related to race performance in male Ironman triathletes.

    PubMed

    Knechtle, B; Knechtle, P; Rosemann, T

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the association between skinfold thickness and race performance in male and female Ironman triathletes. Skinfold thicknesses at 8 sites and percent body fat were correlated to total race time including the split times for the 3 sub disciplines, for 27 male and 16 female Ironman athletes. In the males, percent body fat (r=0.76; p<0.0001), the sum of upper body skinfolds (r=0.75; p<0.0001) and the sum of all 8 skinfolds (r=0.71; p<0.0001) were related to total race time. Percent body fat (r=-0.67; p<0.001), the sum of upper body skinfolds (r=-0.63, p=0.0004) and the sum of all 8 skinfolds (r=-0.59; p<0.001) were also associated with speed in cycling during the race. In the females, none of the skinfold thicknesses showed an association with total race time, average weekly training volume or speed in the sub disciplines in the race. The results of this study indicate that low skinfold thicknesses of the upper body are related to race performance in male Ironman triathletes, but not in females.

  7. Age-related changes in conventional road versus off-road triathlon performance.

    PubMed

    Lepers, Romuald; Stapley, Paul J

    2011-08-01

    The aims of this study were: (i) to analyze age-related declines in swimming, cycling, and running performances for road-based and off-road triathlons, and (ii) to compare age-related changes in these three disciplines between road-based and off-road triathlons. Swimming, cycling, running and total time performances of the top five males between 20 and 70 years of age (in 5-year intervals) were analyzed for short distance road-based (1.5 km swim, 40 km cycle, and 10 km run) and off-road (1.5 km swim, 30 km mountain bike, and 11 km trail run) triathlons at the 2009 World Championships. Independently of age, there was a lesser age-related decline in cycling performance (P < 0.01) compared to running and swimming for road-based triathlon. In contrast, age-related decline did not differ between the three locomotion modes for off-road triathlon. With advancing age, the performance decline was less pronounced (P < 0.01) for road-based than for off-road triathlon in swimming (≥65 years), cycling (≥50 years), running (≥60 years), and total event (≥55 years) times, respectively. These results suggest that the rate of the decline in performance for off-road triathlon is greater than for road-based triathlon, indicating that the type of discipline (road vs. mountain bike cycling and road vs. trail running) exerts an important influence on the magnitude of the age-associated changes in triathlon performance.

  8. Training on a knife's edge: how to balance triathlon training to prevent overuse injuries.

    PubMed

    Bales, James; Bales, Karrn

    2012-12-01

    The sport of triathlon offers athletes the chance to build and/or maintain cardiovascular fitness across 3 endurance disciplines. Swimming, biking, and running each have a host of overuse injuries that can occur as a result of overtraining. High running mileage, a history of previous injury, inadequate warm up or cool down, and an increase in the years of triathlon experience are a few of the factors that have been linked to triathlon overuse injuries. Early identification of overtraining symptoms and a corresponding reallocation of balance between each discipline, perhaps with an emphasis on increasing swimming, may help prevent many overuse injuries.

  9. Outbreak of leptospirosis among triathlon participants in Germany, 2006

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background In August 2006, a case of leptospirosis occurred in an athlete after a triathlon held around Heidelberg and in the Neckar river. In order to study a possible outbreak and to determine risk factors for infection an epidemiological investigation was performed. Methods Participants of the triathlon were contacted by e-mail and were asked to fill out a standardized questionnaire. In addition, they were asked to supply a serum sample for laboratory diagnosis of leptospirosis. A confirmed case patient was defined as a clinical case (i.e. fever and at least one additional symptom suggestive for leptospirosis) with at least two of the following tests positive: ELISA IgM, latex agglutination testing, or microscopic agglutination testing. Rainfall and temperature records were obtained. Results A total of 142 of 507 triathletes were contacted; among these, five confirmed leptospirosis cases were found. Open wounds were identified as the only significant risk factor for illness (p = 0.02). Heavy rains that preceded the swimming event likely increased leptospiral contamination of the Neckar River. Discussion This is the first outbreak of leptospirosis related to a competitive sports event in Germany. Among people with contact to freshwater, the risk of contracting leptospirosis should be considered by health care providers also in temperate countries, particularly in the summer after heavy rains. PMID:20380736

  10. Personal Best Time, Percent Body Fat, and Training Are Differently Associated with Race Time for Male and Female Ironman Triathletes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knechtle, Beat; Wirth, Andrea; Baumann, Barbara; Knechtle, Patrizia; Rosemann, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    We studied male and female nonprofessional Ironman triathletes to determine whether percent body fat, training, and/or previous race experience were associated with race performance. We used simple linear regression analysis, with total race time as the dependent variable, to investigate the relationship among athletes' percent body fat, average…

  11. Leptospirosis mimicking acute cholecystitis among athletes participating in a triathlon.

    PubMed

    Guarner, J; Shieh, W J; Morgan, J; Bragg, S L; Bajani, M D; Tappero, J W; Zaki, S R

    2001-07-01

    Leptospirosis, a disease acquired by exposure to contaminated water, is characterized by fever accompanied by various symptoms, including abdominal pain. An acute febrile illness occurred in athletes who participated in an Illinois triathlon in which the swimming event took place in a freshwater lake. Of 876 athletes, 120 sought medical care and 22 were hospitalized. Two of the athletes had their gallbladders removed because of abdominal pain and clinical suspicion of acute cholecystitis. We applied an immunohistochemical test for leptospirosis to these gallbladders and demonstrated bacterial antigens staining (granular and filamentous patterns) around blood vessels of the serosa and muscle layer. Rare intact bacteria were seen in 1 case. These results show that leptospirosis can mimic the clinical symptoms of acute cholecystitis. If a cholecystectomy is performed in febrile patients with suspicious environmental or animal exposure, pathologic studies for leptospirosis on formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues may be of great value.

  12. Wheat gluten hydrolysate affects race performance in the triathlon.

    PubMed

    Koikawa, Natsue; Aoki, Emi; Suzuki, Yoshio; Sakuraba, Keishoku; Nagaoka, Isao; Aoki, Kazuhiro; Shimmura, Yuki; Sawaki, Keisuke

    2013-07-01

    Wheat gluten hydrolysate (WGH) is a food ingredient, prepared by partial enzymatic digestion of wheat gluten, which has been reported to suppress exercise-induced elevation of serum creatinine kinase (CK) activity. However, its effects on athletic performance have not yet been elucidated. This is the presentation of an experiment performed on five female college triathletes who completed an Olympic distance triathlon with or without ingestion of 21 g of WGH during the cycling leg. The experiment was performed in a crossover double-blind manner. The race time of the running leg and thus the total race time was significantly shorter when WGH was ingested. However, serum CK levels exhibited no apparent differences between the two WGH or placebo groups.

  13. The Relationship between Anthropometry and Split Performance in Recreational Male Ironman Triathletes

    PubMed Central

    Knechtle, Beat; Wirth, Andrea; Alexander Rüst, Christoph; Rosemann, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this study was to investigate the relation between anthropometric variables and total race time including split times in 184 recreational male Ironman triathletes. Methods Body mass, body height, body mass index, lengths and circumferences of imbs, thicknesses of skin-folds, sum of skin-fold thicknesses, and percent body fat were related to total race time including split times using correlation analysis and effect size. Results A large effect size (r>0.37) was found for the association between body mass index and time in the run split and between both the sum of skin-folds and percent body fat with total race time. A medium effect size (r=0.24–0.36) was observed in the association between body mass and both the split time in running and total race time, between body mass index and total race time, between both the circumferences of upper arm and thigh with split time in the run and between both the sum of skin-folds and percent body fat with split times in swimming, cycling and running. Conclusions The results of this study showed that lower body mass, lower body mass index and lower body fat were associated with both a faster Ironman race and a faster run split; lower circumferences of upper arm and thigh were also related with a faster run split. PMID:22375214

  14. Hematological and biochemical changes during a short triathlon competition in novice triathletes.

    PubMed

    Long, D; Blake, M; McNaughton, L; Angle, B

    1990-01-01

    Short-course 'sprint' triathlons have become popular in recent years, often as a precursor to the longer full-course triathlons. We undertook a study investigating the haematological and biochemical changes that occur in novice triathletes between the start and finish and after each of the three legs of a short sprint triathlon involving swimming, cycling and running. The changes that occurred in the triathlon included a significant (P less than 0.003) decrease in weight from 71.7 kg, SD 7.9 to 70.3 kg, SD 7.6. Throughout the time span of the triathlon, the white blood cell count increased significantly (P less than 0.001), as did the platelet count (P less than 0.005) and plateletcrit (P less than 0.001). There were no significant changes during the period of the race in any of the other haematological variables measured. The biochemical variables measured were glucose, triglycerides, sodium, potassium, calcium, lactate dehydrogenase, creatinine and aspartate aminotransferase. Triglyceride, calcium and potassium values did not change between the pre- and post-race samplings. All other biochemical parameters showed a significant change (P less than 0.05 or better). Changes that occurred in the haematological and biochemical parameters between stages were many and varied. There was also a significant change in plasma volume during the swimming event (P less than 0.001), but this returned to normal during the later stages of the triathlon. In conclusion the changes that occurred during the triathlon were many and were similar to those reported elsewhere in the literature for longer events.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  15. Exercise-Induced Pulmonary Edema in a Triathlon.

    PubMed

    Yamanashi, Hirotomo; Koyamatsu, Jun; Nobuyoshi, Masaharu; Murase, Kunihiko; Maeda, Takahiro

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Family physicians have more opportunities to attend athletic competitions as medical staff at first-aid centers because of the increasing popularity of endurance sports. Case. A 38-year-old man who participated in a triathlon race experienced difficulty in breathing after swimming and was moved to a first-aid center. His initial oxygen saturation was 82% and a thoracic computed tomography scan showed bilateral ground glass opacity in the peripheral lungs. His diagnosis was noncardiogenic pulmonary edema associated with exercise or swimming: exercise-induced pulmonary edema (EIPE) or swimming-induced pulmonary edema (SIPE). Treatment with furosemide and corticosteroid relieved his symptoms of pulmonary edema. Discussion. Noncardiogenic pulmonary edema associated with endurance sports is not common, but knowledge about EIPE/SIPE or neurogenic pulmonary edema associated with hyponatremia, which is called Ayus-Arieff syndrome, is crucial. Knowledge and caution for possible risk factors, such as exposure to cold water or overhydration, are essential for both medical staff and endurance athletes. Conclusion. To determine the presence of pulmonary edema associated with strenuous exercise, oxygen saturation should be used as a screening tool at a first-aid center. To avoid risks for EIPE/SIPE, knowledge about these diseases is essential for medical staff and for athletes who perform extreme exercise.

  16. Exercise-Induced Pulmonary Edema in a Triathlon

    PubMed Central

    Yamanashi, Hirotomo; Koyamatsu, Jun; Nobuyoshi, Masaharu; Murase, Kunihiko; Maeda, Takahiro

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Family physicians have more opportunities to attend athletic competitions as medical staff at first-aid centers because of the increasing popularity of endurance sports. Case. A 38-year-old man who participated in a triathlon race experienced difficulty in breathing after swimming and was moved to a first-aid center. His initial oxygen saturation was 82% and a thoracic computed tomography scan showed bilateral ground glass opacity in the peripheral lungs. His diagnosis was noncardiogenic pulmonary edema associated with exercise or swimming: exercise-induced pulmonary edema (EIPE) or swimming-induced pulmonary edema (SIPE). Treatment with furosemide and corticosteroid relieved his symptoms of pulmonary edema. Discussion. Noncardiogenic pulmonary edema associated with endurance sports is not common, but knowledge about EIPE/SIPE or neurogenic pulmonary edema associated with hyponatremia, which is called Ayus-Arieff syndrome, is crucial. Knowledge and caution for possible risk factors, such as exposure to cold water or overhydration, are essential for both medical staff and endurance athletes. Conclusion. To determine the presence of pulmonary edema associated with strenuous exercise, oxygen saturation should be used as a screening tool at a first-aid center. To avoid risks for EIPE/SIPE, knowledge about these diseases is essential for medical staff and for athletes who perform extreme exercise. PMID:26229538

  17. Effect of swimming intensity on subsequent cycling and overall triathlon performance

    PubMed Central

    Peeling, P; Bishop, D; Landers, G; Boone, T

    2005-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate the effects of different swimming intensities on subsequent cycling and overall triathlon performance. Methods: Nine highly trained, male triathletes completed five separate laboratory sessions comprising one graded exercise test, a swim time trial (STT), and three sprint distance triathlons (TRI). The swimming velocities of the three TRI sessions were 80–85% (S80), 90–95% (S90), and 98–102% (S100) of the STT velocity. Subsequent cycling and running were performed at a perceived maximal intensity. Swimming stroke mechanics were measured during the swim. Plasma lactate concentration and ratings of perceived exertion were recorded at the conclusion of the swim and over the course of subsequent cycling and running. Oxygen consumption was recorded during the cycle. Results: The S80 and S90 cycle times were faster than the S100 cycle time (p<0.05). The overall triathlon time of S80 was faster than that of S100 (p<0.05). The S100 swim was characterised by a greater stroke rate than S80 and S90 (p<0.05) and a greater plasma lactate concentration than S80 (p<0.01). Conclusion: A swimming intensity below that of a time trial effort significantly improves subsequent cycling and overall triathlon performance. PMID:16306507

  18. 77 FR 75853 - Safety Zone; Bone Island Triathlon, Atlantic Ocean; Key West, FL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-26

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Bone Island Triathlon, Atlantic Ocean; Key... establishing a temporary safety zone on the waters of the Atlantic Ocean in Key West, Florida, during the Bone... Atlantic Ocean located south of Key West, Florida. Approximately 1000 swimmers will be participating in...

  19. 76 FR 37700 - Safety Zone; Myrtle Beach Triathlon, Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway, Myrtle Beach, SC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-28

    ... notice regarding our public dockets in the January 17, 2008, issue of the Federal Register (73 FR 3316... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Myrtle Beach Triathlon, Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway, Myrtle Beach, SC AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of proposed...

  20. 78 FR 70901 - Safety Zone; Bone Island Triathlon, Atlantic Ocean; Key West, FL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-27

    ... Department of Homeland Security FR Federal Register NPRM Notice of Proposed Rulemaking A. Public... Federal Register (73 FR 3316). 4. Public Meeting We do not now plan to hold a public meeting. But you may... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Bone Island Triathlon, Atlantic Ocean;...

  1. A Triple Iron Triathlon Leads to a Decrease in Total Body Mass but Not to Dehydration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knechtle, Beat; Knechtle, Patrizia; Rosemann, Thomas; Oliver, Senn

    2010-01-01

    A loss in total body mass during an ultraendurance performance is usually attributed to dehydration. We identified the changes in total body mass, fat mass, skeletal muscle mass, and selected markers of hydration status in 31 male nonprofessional ultratriathletes participating in a Triple Iron triathlon involving 11.4 km swimming, 540 km cycling…

  2. 76 FR 55796 - Safety Zone; TriRock Triathlon, San Diego Bay, San Diego, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-09

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; TriRock Triathlon, San Diego Bay, San Diego... safety zone upon the specified navigable waters of the San Diego Bay, San Diego, California, in support of a bay swim in San Diego Harbor. This safety zone is necessary to provide for the safety of...

  3. Changes in Kidney Functions during Middle-distance Triathlon in Male Athletes.

    PubMed

    Poortmans, J R; Jeannaud, F; Baudry, S; Carpentier, A

    2015-11-01

    Strenuous exercise induces proteinuria which is related to the intensity of exercise. However, renal responses to each type of exercise during a middle-distance triathlon have not been reported. The present study, carried out on 7 healthy athletes, investigated renal function at rest and after each exercise of a half-triathlon race. Blood and urine samples were collected at rest and after each specific event. Protein excretion and renal clearances were determined on each sample. Compared with resting values, albuminuria was increased by a factor of 30 (p<0.05) after swimming but did not differ from the resting value after cycling and running (p>0.05). Rates of β2-microglobulin and retinol-binding protein excretion did not change throughout the triathlon (p>0.05). Glomerular filtration rate (expressed as creatinine clearance) remained stable after each exercise event, whereas tubular reabsorption rate (expressed as urea clearance) was reduced by 50, 40 and 65% after swimming, cycling and running, respectively, compared to pre-exercise values (p<0.05). Glomerular membrane permeability (expressed as albumin clearance) was significantly increased by the swimming event (13 times, p<0.05). These results suggest that middle-distance triathlon has a noticeable impact on the glomerular membrane permeability (albumin clearance) and elimination of protein waste (urea clearance) depending on exercise type.

  4. Physiological assessment of isolated running does not directly replicate running capacity after triathlon-specific cycling.

    PubMed

    Etxebarria, Naroa; Hunt, Julie; Ingham, Steve; Ferguson, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Triathlon running is affected by prior cycling and power output during triathlon cycling is variable in nature. We compared constant and triathlon-specific variable power cycling and their effect on subsequent submaximal running physiology. Nine well-trained male triathletes (age 24.6 ± 4.6 years, [Formula: see text] 4.5 ± 0.4 L · min(-1); mean ± SD) performed a submaximal incremental run test, under three conditions: no prior exercise and after a 1 h cycling trial at 65% of maximal aerobic power with either a constant or a variable power profile. The variable power protocol involved multiple 10-90 s intermittent efforts at 40-140% maximal aerobic power. During cycling, pulmonary ventilation (22%, ± 14%; mean; ± 90% confidence limits), blood lactate (179%, ± 48%) and rating of perceived exertion (7.3%, ± 10.2%) were all substantially higher during variable than during constant power cycling. At the start of the run, blood lactate was 64%, ± 61% higher after variable compared to constant power cycling, which decreased running velocity at 4 mM lactate threshold by 0.6, ± 0.9 km · h(-1). Physiological responses to incremental running are negatively affected by prior cycling and, to a greater extent, by variable compared to even-paced cycling. Testing and training of triathletes should account foe higher physiological cost of triathlon-specific cycling and its effect on subsequent running.

  5. 33 CFR 100.905 - Door County Triathlon; Door County, WI.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Door County Triathlon; Door County, WI. 100.905 Section 100.905 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY REGATTAS AND MARINE PARADES SAFETY OF LIFE ON NAVIGABLE WATERS § 100.905 Door County...

  6. 33 CFR 100.905 - Door County Triathlon; Door County, WI.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Door County Triathlon; Door County, WI. 100.905 Section 100.905 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY REGATTAS AND MARINE PARADES SAFETY OF LIFE ON NAVIGABLE WATERS § 100.905 Door County...

  7. 33 CFR 100.905 - Door County Triathlon; Door County, WI.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Door County Triathlon; Door County, WI. 100.905 Section 100.905 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY REGATTAS AND MARINE PARADES SAFETY OF LIFE ON NAVIGABLE WATERS § 100.905 Door County...

  8. 33 CFR 100.905 - Door County Triathlon; Door County, WI.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Door County Triathlon; Door County, WI. 100.905 Section 100.905 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY REGATTAS AND MARINE PARADES SAFETY OF LIFE ON NAVIGABLE WATERS § 100.905 Door County...

  9. Effect of different warm-up procedures on subsequent swim and overall sprint distance triathlon performance.

    PubMed

    Binnie, Martyn J; Landers, Grant; Peeling, Peter

    2012-09-01

    This study investigated the effect of 3 warm-up procedures on subsequent swimming and overall triathlon performance. Seven moderately trained, amateur triathletes completed 4 separate testing sessions comprising 1 swimming time trial (STT) and 3 sprint distance triathlons (SDT). Before each SDT, the athletes completed 1 of three 10-minute warm-up protocols including (a) a swim-only warm-up (SWU), (b) a run-swim warm-up (RSWU), and (c) a control trial of no warm-up (NWU). Each subsequent SDT included a 750-m swim, a 500-kJ (∼20 km) ergometer cycle and a 5-km treadmill run, which the athletes performed at their perceived race intensity. Blood lactate, ratings of perceived exertion, core temperature, and heart rate were recorded over the course of each SDT, along with the measurement of swim speed, swim stroke rate, and swim stroke length. There were no significant differences in individual discipline split times or overall triathlon times between the NWU, SWU, and RSWU trials (p > 0.05). Furthermore, no difference existed between trials for any of the swimming variables measured (p > 0.05) nor did they significantly differ from the preliminary STT (p > 0.05). The findings of this study suggest that warming up before an SDT provides no additional benefit to subsequent swimming or overall triathlon performance.

  10. 77 FR 41048 - Safety Zone; Hudson Valley Triathlon, Ulster Landing, Hudson River, NY

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-12

    ...) 366-9826. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Table of Acronyms DHS Department of Homeland Security FR Federal... Federal Register (76 FR 139) for this event. The Coast Guard is issuing this final rule without prior... Landing, NY for the 16th Annual Hudson Valley Triathlon swim event. This temporary safety zone...

  11. Specific aspects of contemporary triathlon: implications for physiological analysis and performance.

    PubMed

    Bentley, David J; Millet, Grégoire P; Vleck, Verónica E; McNaughton, Lars R

    2002-01-01

    Triathlon competitions are performed over markedly different distances and under a variety of technical constraints. In 'standard-distance' triathlons involving 1.5km swim, 40km cycling and 10km running, a World Cup series as well as a World Championship race is available for 'elite' competitors. In contrast, 'age-group' triathletes may compete in 5-year age categories at a World Championship level, but not against the elite competitors. The difference between elite and age-group races is that during the cycle stage elite competitors may 'draft' or cycle in a sheltered position; age-group athletes complete the cycle stage as an individual time trial. Within triathlons there are a number of specific aspects that make the physiological demands different from the individual sports of swimming, cycling and running. The physiological demands of the cycle stage in elite races may also differ compared with the age-group format. This in turn may influence performance during the cycle leg and subsequent running stage. Wetsuit use and drafting during swimming (in both elite and age-group races) result in improved buoyancy and a reduction in frontal resistance, respectively. Both of these factors will result in improved performance and efficiency relative to normal pool-based swimming efforts. Overall cycling performance after swimming in a triathlon is not typically affected. However, it is possible that during the initial stages of the cycle leg the ability of an athlete to generate the high power outputs necessary for tactical position changes may be impeded. Drafting during cycling results in a reduction in frontal resistance and reduced energy cost at a given submaximal intensity. The reduced energy expenditure during the cycle stage results in an improvement in running, so an athlete may exercise at a higher percentage of maximal oxygen uptake. In elite triathlon races, the cycle courses offer specific physiological demands that may result in different fatigue responses

  12. Endurance Sport and “Cardiac Injury”: A Prospective Study of Recreational Ironman Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Leischik, Roman; Spelsberg, Norman

    2014-01-01

    Background: Participation in triathlon competitions has increased in recent years. Many studies have described left or right ventricular injury in endurance athletes. The goal of this study was to examine the right and left ventricular cardiac structures and function and dynamic cardio-pulmonary performance in a large cohort of middle- and long-distance triathletes. Methods: 87 triathletes (54 male and 33 female) were examined using spiroergometry and echocardiography. The inclusion criterion was participation in at least one middle- or long distance triathlon. Results: Male triathletes showed a maximum oxygen absorption of 58.1 ± 8.6 mL/min/kg (female triathletes 52.8 ± 5.7 mL/min/kg), maximum ergometer performance of 347.8 ± 49.9 W (female triathletes 264.5 ± 26.1 W). Left ventricular ejection fraction (EF) was normal (male triathletes EF: 61.9% ± 3%, female triathletes EF: 63.0% ± 2.7%) and systolic right ventricular area change fraction (RV AFC%) showed normal values (males RV AFC%: 33.5% ± 2.2%, females 32.2% ± 2.8%). Doppler indices of diastolic function were normal in both groups. With respect to the echocardiographic readings the left ventricular mass for males and females were 217.7 ± 41.6 g and 145.9 ± 31.3 g, respectively. The relative wall thickness for males was 0.50 ± 0.07, whereas it was 0.47 ± 0.09 for females. The probability of left ventricular mass >220 g increased with higher blood pressure during exercise (OR: 1.027, CI 1.002–1.052, p = 0.034) or with higher training volume (OR: 1.23, CI 1.04–1.47, p = 0.019). Conclusions: Right or left ventricular dysfunction could not be found, although the maximal participation in triathlon competitions was 29 years. A left ventricular mass >220 g is more likely to occur with higher arterial pressure during exercise and with a higher training volume. PMID:25192145

  13. Plasma volume responses associated with a sprint triathlon in novice triathletes.

    PubMed

    McNaughton, L R

    1989-06-01

    Short-course triathlons have recently become popular in Australia, especially with novice athletes as a lead up to the longer versions. This study investigated the changes that occurred in plasma volume of novice triathletes undertaking their first competitive triathlon. Ten males participated in the event which took place on a cool, overcast day and consisted of a 1.0-km swim, a 30-km cycle ride, and a 10-km run. The subjects were all well trained with VO2max values of 53.2 +/- 6.1 ml O2.kg-1.min-1. A control experiment was also conducted with the athletes spending the same time resting in the same position as they did while competing in the event. Blood was drawn and analyzed for hemoglobin and packed cell volume. The time for completion of the triathlon was 134.8 +/- 6.9 min, with the swim stage being 25.2 +/- 5.7 min, the cycle stage 60.9 +/- 7.1 min, and the running stage 48.7 +/- 6.6 min. Weight decreased significantly (P less than 0.01) during the event from a pre-event high of 71.7 +/- 7.9 kg to a post-event low of 70.3 +/- 7.6 kg. Plasma volume during the triathlon by 14.3% +/- 1.8% (P less than 0.001), but during the control trial by only 5.2% +/- 1.6%. The difference of 9.1% +/- 1.7% can be attributed to the effects of exercise on plasma volume rather than an effect of posture. The major decrease in plasma volume was during the running stage of the triathlon during which it decreased by 6.2% +/- 1.7%, of which 3.0% +/- 1.8% was attributable to exercise alone.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  14. Nation related participation and performance trends in ‘Ironman Hawaii’ from 1985 to 2012

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background This study examined participation and performance trends in ‘Ironman Hawaii’ regarding the nationality of the finishers. Methods Associations between nationalities and race times of 39,706 finishers originating from 124 countries in the ‘Ironman Hawaii’ from 1985 to 2012 were analyzed using single and multi-level regression analysis. Results Most of the finishers originated from the United States of America (47.5%) followed by athletes from Germany (11.7%), Japan (7.9%), Australia (6.7%), Canada (5.2%), Switzerland (2.9%), France (2.3%), Great Britain (2.0%), New Zealand (1.9%), and Austria (1.5%). German women showed the fastest increase in finishers (r2 = 0.83, p < 0.0001), followed by Australia (r2 = 0.78, p < 0.0001), Canada (r2 = 0.78, p < 0.0001) and the USA (r2 = 0.69, p < 0.0001). Japanese women showed no change in the number of finishers (r2 = 0.01, p > 0.05). For men, athletes from France showed the steepest increase (r2 = 0.85, p < 0.0001), followed by Austria (r2 = 0.68, p < 0.0001), Australia (r2 = 0.67, p < 0.0001), Brazil (r2 = 0.60, p < 0.0001), Great Britain (r2 = 0.46, p < 0.0001), Germany (r2 = 0.26, p < 0.0001), the United States of America (r2 = 0.21, p = 0.013) and Switzerland (r2 = 0.14, p = 0.0044). The number of Japanese men decreased (r2 = 0.35, p = 0.0009). The number of men from Canada (r2 = 0.02, p > 0.05) and New Zealand (r2 = 0.02, p > 0.05) remained unchanged. Regarding female performance, the largest improvements were achieved by Japanese women (17.3%). The fastest race times in 2012 were achieved by US-American women. Women from Japan, Canada, Germany, Australia, and the United States of America improved race times. For men, the largest improvements were achieved by athletes originating from Brazil (20.9%) whereas the fastest race times in 2012 were achieved by athletes from Germany

  15. The incidence of heat casualties in sprint triathlon: the tale of two Melbourne race events.

    PubMed

    Gosling, Cameron McR; Gabbe, Belinda J; McGivern, Jeanne; Forbes, Andrew B

    2008-01-01

    Triathlon is a popular participation sport combining swimming, cycling and running into a single event. The Triathlon Australia medical policy advocates the use of wet bulb globe temperature as the criterion for altering race distance and an ambient temperature of 35 degrees C as a criterion for consideration of cancellation of an event, but there is little empirical evidence detailing the effectiveness of this policy. Nor has the impact of environmental thermal stress on triathletes in shorter duration events been determined. During an injury surveillance investigation of a triathlon race series over the 2006/2007 seasons, two events with similar environmental conditions were completed. One thousand eight hundred and eighty-four participants competed in event 1 (December 2006) and 2000 competed in event 2 (February 2007). Maximum dry bulb (DBT), minimum vapour pressure (VP) and minimum relative humidity (RH) for event 1 were 37 degrees C DBT, 0.56 kPa VP and 9% RH measured by the Bureau of Meteorology. Fifty-three participants presented for medical aid, 15 due to heat-related collapse. The conditions measured for event 2 were 33 degrees C DBT, 1.16 kPa VP and 24% RH and there were no heat illness presentations despite 38 individuals presenting for medical aid. These observations suggest that the risk of heat-related collapse is greatest when high-environmental temperatures occur early in the competitive season when participants may be inadequately prepared and have not yet acquired natural acclimatisation to heat. Any Triathlon Australia policy revision could place stronger emphasis on the use of ambient temperature as a limiting criterion for race organisers.

  16. Salivary concentrations of cortisol and testosterone and prediction of performance in a professional triathlon competition.

    PubMed

    Balthazar, Cláudio Heitor; Garcia, Marcia Carvalho; Spadari-Bratfisch, Regina Celia

    2012-09-01

    The aim of this study was to examine salivary cortisol and testosterone concentrations in professional male athletes during a short triathlon competition using non-invasive methods, and to determine whether these hormone concentrations could be accurate predictors of performance. Eight adult male athletes (age, mean ± SEM: 27.8 ± 3.2 years; body mass index: 21.66 ± 0.42) in a professional triathlon team volunteered to participate in this study. Saliva samples were taken on the competition day and 7 days after competition on a rest day. The performance of the athletes was assessed by their rank order in the competition. Salivary cortisol concentrations were greater on the competition day than on the rest day in the early morning, immediately after waking up, 30 min later, immediately before the start of the competition, and later in the evening. Testosterone concentrations were greater on the competition day in the morning and in the evening. The diurnal rhythm of both cortisol and testosterone concentrations was maintained on both days and the testosterone/cortisol ratio (T/C ratio) was similar between days. The performance of the athletes was positively correlated with salivary cortisol concentration in the early morning of the competition day, but was not correlated with testosterone concentrations at any of the time points. In conclusion, early morning salivary cortisol concentration, but not T/C ratio, could be used to predict performance in athletes during a professional triathlon competition. PMID:22128832

  17. Salivary concentrations of cortisol and testosterone and prediction of performance in a professional triathlon competition.

    PubMed

    Balthazar, Cláudio Heitor; Garcia, Marcia Carvalho; Spadari-Bratfisch, Regina Celia

    2012-09-01

    The aim of this study was to examine salivary cortisol and testosterone concentrations in professional male athletes during a short triathlon competition using non-invasive methods, and to determine whether these hormone concentrations could be accurate predictors of performance. Eight adult male athletes (age, mean ± SEM: 27.8 ± 3.2 years; body mass index: 21.66 ± 0.42) in a professional triathlon team volunteered to participate in this study. Saliva samples were taken on the competition day and 7 days after competition on a rest day. The performance of the athletes was assessed by their rank order in the competition. Salivary cortisol concentrations were greater on the competition day than on the rest day in the early morning, immediately after waking up, 30 min later, immediately before the start of the competition, and later in the evening. Testosterone concentrations were greater on the competition day in the morning and in the evening. The diurnal rhythm of both cortisol and testosterone concentrations was maintained on both days and the testosterone/cortisol ratio (T/C ratio) was similar between days. The performance of the athletes was positively correlated with salivary cortisol concentration in the early morning of the competition day, but was not correlated with testosterone concentrations at any of the time points. In conclusion, early morning salivary cortisol concentration, but not T/C ratio, could be used to predict performance in athletes during a professional triathlon competition.

  18. Performance in Olympic triathlon: changes in performance of elite female and male triathletes in the ITU World Triathlon Series from 2009 to 2012.

    PubMed

    Rüst, Christoph Alexander; Lepers, Romuald; Stiefel, Michael; Rosemann, Thomas; Knechtle, Beat

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the changes in performance and sex difference in performance of the world best triathletes at the ITU (International Triathlon Union) World Triathlon Series (i.e. 1.5 km swimming, 40 km cycling and 10 km running) during the 2009-2012 period including the 2012 London Olympic Games. Changes in overall race times, split times and sex difference in performance of the top ten women and men of each race were analyzed using single and multi-level regression analyses. Swimming and running split times remained unchanged whereas cycling split times (ß = 0.003, P < 0.001) and overall race times (ß = 0.003, P < 0.001) increased significantly for both women and men. The sex difference in performance remained unchanged for swimming and cycling but decreased for running (ß = -0.001, P = 0.001) from 14.9 ± 2.7% to 13.2 ± 2.6% and for overall race time (ß = -0.001, P = 0.006) from 11.9 ± 1.2% to 11.4 ± 1.4%. The sex difference in running (14.3 ± 2.4%) was greater (P < 0.001) compared to swimming (9.1 ± 5.1%) and cycling (9.5 ± 2.7%). These findings suggest that (i) the world's best female short-distance triathletes reduced the gap with male athletes in running and total performance at short distance triathlon with drafting during the 2009-2012 period and (ii) the sex difference in running was greater compared to swimming and cycling. Further studies should investigate the reasons why the sex difference in performance was greater in running compared to swimming and cycling in elite short-distance triathletes.

  19. The impact of triathlon training and racing on athletes' general health.

    PubMed

    Vleck, Veronica; Millet, Gregoire P; Alves, Francisco Bessone

    2014-12-01

    Although the sport of triathlon provides an opportunity to research the effect of multi-disciplinary exercise on health across the lifespan, much remains to be done. The literature has failed to consistently or adequately report subject age group, sex, ability level, and/or event-distance specialization. The demands of training and racing are relatively unquantified. Multiple definitions and reporting methods for injury and illness have been implemented. In general, risk factors for maladaptation have not been well-described. The data thus far collected indicate that the sport of triathlon is relatively safe for the well-prepared, well-supplied athlete. Most injuries 'causing cessation or reduction of training or seeking of medical aid' are not serious. However, as the extent to which they recur may be high and is undocumented, injury outcome is unclear. The sudden death rate for competition is 1.5 (0.9-2.5) [mostly swim-related] occurrences for every 100,000 participations. The sudden death rate is unknown for training, although stroke risk may be increased, in the long-term, in genetically susceptible athletes. During heavy training and up to 5 days post-competition, host protection against pathogens may also be compromised. The incidence of illness seems low, but its outcome is unclear. More prospective investigation of the immunological, oxidative stress-related and cardiovascular effects of triathlon training and competition is warranted. Training diaries may prove to be a promising method of monitoring negative adaptation and its potential risk factors. More longitudinal, medical-tent-based studies of the aetiology and treatment demands of race-related injury and illness are needed.

  20. Ice slurry ingestion during cycling improves Olympic distance triathlon performance in the heat.

    PubMed

    Stevens, Christopher John; Dascombe, Ben; Boyko, Andriy; Sculley, Dean; Callister, Robin

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of ice slurry ingestion during a triathlon on intragastric temperature and 10 km running performance in the heat. Nine well-trained male triathletes performed two randomised trials of a simulated Olympic distance triathlon in hot conditions (32-34°C). Exercise intensity during the swim (1500 m) and cycle (1 hr) legs was standardised, and the 10 km run leg was a self-paced time trial. During the cycle leg, either 10 g · kgBM(-1) of ice slurry (< 1°C) or room temperature fluid (32-34°C) was ingested. In the run leg of the ice slurry trial, performance time (43.4 ± 3.7 vs. 44.6 ± 4.0 min; P = 0.03), intragastric temperature (at 1.5 km; 35.5 ± 1.2 vs. 37.5 ± 0.4°C; P = 0.002) and perceived thermal stress (at 5 km; 73 ± 9 vs. 80 ± 7 mm; P = 0.04) were significantly lower. Oxygen consumption was significantly higher in the ice trial between 9.5-10 km (52.4 ± 3.4 vs. 47.8 ± 5.4 mL · kg(-1) · min(-1); P = 0.04). The results suggest ice slurry ingestion was an effective ergogenic aid for triathlon running performance in the heat. The attenuation of intragastric temperature and perceived thermal stress were likely contributors to the self-selection of a higher running intensity and improved performance time.

  1. Dietary and non-dietary correlates of gastrointestinal distress during the cycle and run of a triathlon.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Patrick B

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to assess whether pre-race dietary and non-dietary factors were associated with gastrointestinal (GI) distress during the cycle and run of a 70.3-mile triathlon. Fifty three participants recorded dietary details the day before and morning of the triathlon and retrospectively reported GI symptoms from the cycle and run. Occurrence and severity of nausea, regurgitation and fullness were combined into an upper GI (UGI) category, while lower abdominal cramps, flatulence and urge to defecate were combined into a lower GI (LGI) category. Spearman's rho coefficients were used to examine whether UGI and LGI were associated with: (1) pre-race diet (kilocalories, carbohydrate, fibre, fat, protein, caffeine); and (2) non-dietary factors (age, body mass index, experience, weight change, GI distress history, finishing time). Of non-dietary factors, only a history of GI distress showed significant associations with GI symptoms during the triathlon (ρ = .32-.36; P < .05). Morning kilocalorie (ρ = .28, P = .04) and carbohydrate (ρ = .36, P < .01) intakes were modestly, positively associated with UGI during the cycle, while morning caffeine intake (ρ = .30, P = .03) showed a modest positive association with LGI during the run. The associations between diet and GI distress variables remained significant after adjusting for non-dietary factors. Competitors of 70.3-mile triathlons should carefully weigh the benefits of higher race-morning energy, carbohydrate and caffeine intakes against their potential to increase GI distress.

  2. ATriple Iron triathlon leads to a decrease in total body mass but not to dehydration.

    PubMed

    Knechtle, Beat; Knechtle, Patrizia; Rosemann, Thomas; Oliver, Senn

    2010-09-01

    A loss in total body mass during an ultraendurance performance is usually attributed to dehydration. We identified the changes in total body mass, fat mass, skeletal muscle mass, and selected markers of hydration status in 31 male nonprofessional ultratriathletes participating in a Triple Iron triathlon involving 11.4 km swimming, 540 km cycling and 126.6 km running. Measurements were taken prior to starting the race and after arrival at the finish line. Total body mass decreased by 1.66 kg (SD = 1.92; -5.3 kg to +1.2 kg; p < .001), skeletal muscle mass by 1.00 kg (SD = 0.90; -2.54 kg to +2.07 kg; p < .001), and fat mass by 0.58 kg (SD = 0.78; -1.74 kg to +0.87 kg; p < .001). The decrease in total body mass was associated with the decrease in skeletal muscle mass (r = .44; p < .05) and fat mass (r = .51; p < .05). Total body water and urinary specific gravity did not significantly change. Plasma urea increased significantly (p < .001); the decrease in skeletal muscle mass and the increase in plasma urea were associated (r = .39; p < .05). We conclude that completing a Triple Iron triathlon leads to decreased total body mass due to reduced fat mass and skeletal muscle mass but not to dehydration. The association of decrease in skeletal muscle mass and increased plasma urea suggests a loss in skeletal muscle mass.

  3. Cardiac Damage Biomarkers Following a Triathlon in Elite and Non-elite Triathletes.

    PubMed

    Park, Chan-Ho; Kim, Kwi-Baek; Han, Jin; Ji, Jin-Goo; Kwak, Yi-Sub

    2014-10-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate cardiac damage biomarkers after a triathlon race in elite and non-elite athlete groups. Fifteen healthy men participated in the study. Based on performance, they were divided into elite athlete group (EG: n=7) and non-elite athlete group (NEG: n=8). Participants' blood samples were obtained during four periods: before, immediately, 2 hours and 7 days after finishing the race. creatine kinase (CK), creatine kinase-myoglobin (CK-MB), myoglobin, and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) were significantly increased in both groups immediately after, and 2 hours after finishing the race (p<.05). CK, CK-MB, and myoglobin were completely recovered after 7 days (p<.05). Hematocrit (Hct) was significantly decreased in both groups (p<.05) 7 days after the race. LDH was significantly decreased in the EG (p<.05) only 7 days after the race. Homoglobin (Hb) was significantly decreased in the NEG (p<.05) only 2 hours after the race. Although cardiac troponin T (cTnT) was significantly increased in the EG but not in the NEG 2hours after the race (p<.05), there was no group-by-time interaction. cTnT was completely recovered in both groups 7 days after the race. In conclusion, cardiac damage occurs during a triathlon race and, is greater in elite than in non-elite. However, all cardiac damage markers return to normal range within 1 week.

  4. Profile of injures prevalence in athletes who participated in SESC Triathlon Caiobá-2011

    PubMed Central

    Bertola, Izabela Pichinin; Sartori, Renato Pineda; Corrêa, Daniela Gallon; Zotz, Talita Gianello Gnoato; Gomes, Anna Raquel Silveira

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To identify the prevalence of injuries occurred during training and/or competition in triathlon athletes at SESC Triathlon Caiobá-2011. METHODS: One hundred and ninety athletes participated in the study (153 males and 37 females). RESULTS: Athletes reported time of practice between 3 to 6 years (20%), training frequency of 5 days per week (48%), at least one injury during trainings (76%). The prevalence of injuries according to the sports category was: running (79%), cycling (16%) and swimming (5%). The most injured region during training (39%) and competition (46%) was the calf. Female athletes reported 92% of injuries during running training and 35% of those injuries were on ankle and foot. During competition only two athletes reported injuries. Muscle injury was the most prevalent (54%) among male athletes, followed by tendon (19%), ligament (17%) and bone (9%) injuries. Among female athletes prevalent injuries were: 32% muscle, 32% bone, 32% tendon and only 4% ligament injuries. CONCLUSION: Skeletal muscle injuries were the most commom lesions during running training, however, male athletes reported mostly calf injuries, while female had mostly ankle and foot injuries. Level of Evidence III. Study of Non-Consecutive Patients; Without Consistently Applied Reference ''Gold'' Standard. PMID:25246848

  5. Cardiac Damage Biomarkers Following a Triathlon in Elite and Non-elite Triathletes

    PubMed Central

    Park, Chan-Ho; Kim, Kwi-Baek; Han, Jin; Ji, Jin-Goo

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate cardiac damage biomarkers after a triathlon race in elite and non-elite athlete groups. Fifteen healthy men participated in the study. Based on performance, they were divided into elite athlete group (EG: n=7) and non-elite athlete group (NEG: n=8). Participants' blood samples were obtained during four periods: before, immediately, 2 hours and 7 days after finishing the race. creatine kinase (CK), creatine kinase-myoglobin (CK-MB), myoglobin, and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) were significantly increased in both groups immediately after, and 2 hours after finishing the race (p<.05). CK, CK-MB, and myoglobin were completely recovered after 7 days (p<.05). Hematocrit (Hct) was significantly decreased in both groups (p<.05) 7 days after the race. LDH was significantly decreased in the EG (p<.05) only 7 days after the race. Homoglobin (Hb) was significantly decreased in the NEG (p<.05) only 2 hours after the race. Although cardiac troponin T (cTnT) was significantly increased in the EG but not in the NEG 2hours after the race (p<.05), there was no group-by-time interaction. cTnT was completely recovered in both groups 7 days after the race. In conclusion, cardiac damage occurs during a triathlon race and, is greater in elite than in non-elite. However, all cardiac damage markers return to normal range within 1 week. PMID:25352762

  6. Body weight changes in child and adolescent athletes during a triathlon competition.

    PubMed

    Aragón-Vargas, Luis Fernando; Wilk, Boguslaw; Timmons, Brian W; Bar-Or, Oded

    2013-01-01

    We examined young athletes during a triathlon performed in a hot climate. Complete or partial data were available for 95 athletes competing in the National Triathlon Championship in Costa Rica. Mean ± SD for age and body weight (BW) were 13.1 ± 2.5 years and 46.3 ± 11.5 kg, respectively. Race requirements included: 500 m swimming, 15 km cycling, 3.5 km running for juniors (9-13 years); 800 m swimming, 30 km cycling, 8 km running for seniors (14-17 years). WBGT on race day was >31 °C. BW recorded pre- and post-race was available for 92 athletes and performance data were available for 83 of these. Information regarding symptoms experienced during the race was available for 95 athletes. Change in BW (%ΔBW) was calculated and ranged from +0.6 to -2.4 % for junior boys (-1.2 ± 0.9 %), +0.7 to -2.5 % for junior girls (-1.3 ± 0.9 %), 0 to -2.8 % for senior girls (-1.3 ± 0.9 %), and +0.6 to -4.5 % for senior boys (-1.7 ± 1.1 %). Eighteen participants reported no medical symptoms. Of 77 participants who reported symptoms, 42.9 % reported exhaustion/fatigue, 36.4 % reported side stitch/cramp, and 23.4 % reported dizziness. Participants reporting no medical symptoms achieved almost identical (P = 0.99) %ΔBW as those reporting at least one symptom. %ΔBW was more negative (P = 0.005) in participants who reported dizziness (-1.9 %ΔBW) compared with those who did not (-1.4 %ΔBW). %ΔBW was associated with performance in junior girls (r = 0.47, P = 0.02) and senior boys (r = 0.51, P = 0.01), with a trend in junior boys (r = 0.41, P = 0.053) but not in senior girls (r = 0.004, P = 0.99). Young athletes participating in a triathlon in a hot climate can tolerate mild to moderate levels of dehydration, without detrimental effects to self-assessed health.

  7. Muscle Damage and Its Relationship with Muscle Fatigue During a Half-Iron Triathlon

    PubMed Central

    Coso, Juan Del; González-Millán, Cristina; Salinero, Juan José; Abián-Vicén, Javier; Soriano, Lidón; Garde, Sergio; Pérez-González, Benito

    2012-01-01

    Background To investigate the cause/s of muscle fatigue experienced during a half-iron distance triathlon. Methodology/Principal Findings We recruited 25 trained triathletes (36±7 yr; 75.1±9.8 kg) for the study. Before and just after the race, jump height and leg muscle power output were measured during a countermovement jump on a force platform to determine leg muscle fatigue. Body weight, handgrip maximal force and blood and urine samples were also obtained before and after the race. Blood myoglobin and creatine kinase concentrations were determined as markers of muscle damage. Results Jump height (from 30.3±5.0 to 23.4±6.4 cm; P<0.05) and leg power output (from 25.6±2.9 to 20.7±4.6 W · kg−1; P<0.05) were significantly reduced after the race. However, handgrip maximal force was unaffected by the race (430±59 to 430±62 N). Mean dehydration after the race was 2.3±1.2% with high inter-individual variability in the responses. Blood myoglobin and creatine kinase concentration increased to 516±248 µg · L−1 and 442±204 U · L−1, respectively (P<0.05) after the race. Pre- to post-race jump change did not correlate with dehydration (r = 0.16; P>0.05) but significantly correlated with myoglobin concentration (r = 0.65; P<0.001) and creatine kinase concentration (r = 0.54; P<0.001). Conclusions/significance During a half-iron distance triathlon, the capacity of leg muscles to produce force was notably diminished while arm muscle force output remained unaffected. Leg muscle fatigue was correlated with blood markers of muscle damage suggesting that muscle breakdown is one of the most relevant sources of muscle fatigue during a triathlon. PMID:22900101

  8. [Disorders of water- and electrolyte balance in a triathlon. 2 case reports and review of the literature].

    PubMed

    Günthard, H; Keller, E

    1997-05-28

    Triathlon is an increasingly popular sport. The number of active triathletes in Switzerland has increased greatly in recent years. We report two participants of the Zürcher Euroman. Triathlon 1995, who presented with clinically significant water and electrolyte disturbance. The race took place on a hot day and both athletes ingested large amounts of hypoosmolar fluids during and in case 1, after the competition. Case 1 was a 27 year old woman who developed generalized seizures one hour after finishing the race. She had confusion which persisted for several hours. The initial serum sodium concentration was 118 mmol/L. Case 2 was a 29 year old man who collapsed during the triathlon and was confused for hours afterwards. He presented with a serum sodium concentration of 120 mmol/L. Both patients had massive polyuria (first hour urine output of 900 ml, and 1300 ml respectively) that decreased in parallel with the normalization of the serum sodium. The pathophysiology, differential diagnosis and therapy of electrolyte and water disturbances in triathletes is discussed in relation to our two cases and the literature is reviewed.

  9. Nation related participation and performance trends in 'Norseman Xtreme Triathlon' from 2006 to 2014.

    PubMed

    Rüst, Christoph A; Bragazzi, Nicola Luigi; Signori, Alessio; Stiefel, Michael; Rosemann, Thomas; Knechtle, Beat

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the nation related participation and performance trends in triathletes competing in 'Norseman Xtreme Triathlon' between 2006 and 2014 using mixed models, one-way analysis of variance and multi-variate regression analyses. A total of 1594 athletes (139 women and 1455 men) originating from 34 different countries finished the race. Most of the athletes originated from Norway, Germany, Great Britain, Sweden, USA and France. In the mixed model analysis considering all finishers (n = 1594), with calendar year, sex and country as independent and overall race time as dependent variable, calendar year (p < 0.0001), sex (p < 0.0001), country (p < 0.0001) and the interaction sex × calendar year (p = 0.012) were significant. In the model where overall race time was separated in the three disciplines, we found interactions such as country × discipline (p < 0.0001), year × discipline (p < 0.0001), sex × discipline (p < 0.0001), calendar year × sex (p = 0.044), calendar year × sex × discipline (p = 0.031). Overall race time decreased every year, above all in the year 2012. Women were slower than men, but women reduced this gender gap year after year and above all in the year 2007 (p = 0.001). Athletes from Norway and Germany were faster than those from Great Britain and other countries. Split times of the discipline decreased throughout the years. In particular, the discipline having more impact on overall race time was cycling. Most of the podiums were achieved by Norwegian women and men. For women, the fastest split and transition times were achieved by Norwegian women with exception of the run where German women were faster. Norwegian men were the fastest in split and transition times although French athletes were the fastest in swimming. Across years, the annual three fastest Norwegian women improved in cycling, running, overall race time and transition times but not Norwegian and German men. British men, however

  10. Spring-mass behaviour during the run of an international triathlon competition.

    PubMed

    Le Meur, Y; Thierry, B; Rabita, G; Dorel, S; Honnorat, G; Brisswalter, J; Hausswirth, C

    2013-08-01

    We investigated the changes in step temporal parameters and spring-mass behaviour during the running phase of a major international triathlon competition. 73 elite triathletes were followed during the 2011 World Championships Grand Final. The running speed, ground contact and flight times were assessed over a 30 m flat section at the beginning of the 4 running laps and towards the finish line, by using a high-frequency camera (300 Hz). The leg and vertical stiffness, and vertical displacement of the mass centre were calculated from step temporal characteristics. A concomitant decrease in running speed, vertical stiffness and leg stiffness was reported during the 4 running laps, except towards the finish line, where these parameters increased. Running biomechanics was not affected between the beginning and the end of the 10 km run, when triathletes were compared for the same running speed (1.68±0.16 m vs. 1.70±0.17 m for step length, 3.18±0.11 Hz vs. 3.16±0.15 Hz for step rate, 12.87±3.14 kN.m - 1 vs.12.76±3.05 kN.m - 1 for Kleg, 31.18±4.71 kN.m - 1 vs.30.74±3.88 kN.m - 1 for Kvert, at lap1 and finish, respectively). Multiple regression models revealed that both step rate change and step length change were correlated with running speed change and that the standardized partial regression coefficient was higher for step length change than for step rate. Independent of the cofounding effect of speed and despite the neuromuscular fatigue previously shown after long-duration events, the lower limb mechanical stiffness and the overall spring-mass regulation were not altered over the 10 km triathlon run in elite competitors. This study showed also that step length explained, to a greater extent than step frequency, the running speed variance in elite triathletes.

  11. Hydration-dehydration, heat, humidity, and "cool, clear, water".

    PubMed

    Lockett, Lawrence J

    2012-12-01

    Personal recollections of dehydration meltdowns during the Kona Ironman Triathlon, reflections on their cause, and the author's experiential recommendations regarding hydration, prevention of dehydration, and "beat the heat and humidity" measures. PMID:23147099

  12. Temporal activity in particular segments and transitions in the olympic triathlon.

    PubMed

    Cejuela, Roberto; Cala, Antonio; Pérez-Turpin, José A; Villa, José G; Cortell, Juan M; Chinchilla, Juan J

    2013-03-01

    The Olympic Triathlon is a combined endurance sport. It includes back-to-back swimming, cycling, running and the transition between events (T1 & T2). The aim of the current study was to analyse the possible relationship between the Lost Time T1 & T2 and overall performance. The results showed that the percentages of total time corresponding to each part of the race were: 16.2% for swimming, 0.74% for the swimming-cycling transition (T1), 53.07% for cycling, 0.47% for the cycling-running transition (T2) and 29.5% for running. The correlations between each part of the race and the final placing were: r=0.36 for swimming, r=0.25 for T1, r=0.62 for the cycling, r=0.33 for T2, and r=0.83 for the running. Also, values of r=0.34 & r=0.43 were obtained for Lost Time T1 and Lost Time T2, respectively. In conclusion, losing less time during T2 has been demonstrated to be related to obtaining a better final result.

  13. Intensity profile during an ultra-endurance triathlon in relation to testing and performance.

    PubMed

    Barrero, A; Chaverri, D; Erola, P; Iglesias, X; Rodríguez, F A

    2014-12-01

    We examined the heart rate (HR)-based intensity profile during an ultra-endurance triathlon (UET) estimated from the individual HR-oxygen uptake (˙VO2) relationship during specific graded tests, relating it to race performance. 9 male ultra-endurance triathletes completed the study. Before racing, subjects performed graded exercise tests involving cycle (C) ergometry, treadmill running (R) and free swimming (S) for peak ˙VO2 and HR at ventilatory thresholds (VT). Exercise-specific HR-˙VO2 regression equations were developed. Mean race HR was higher during S (149.2 (10.1) bpm) than during C (137.1 (5.7) bpm) and R (136.2 (10.5) bpm). During C and R, HR was below both VT (11% and 27-28%). HR differences between S and C correlated with C, R and final times. The greatest differences between S and C were related to the worst times in the next stages. These ultra-endurance triathletes performed S at a higher relative intensity, which was inversely correlated with performance in the following stages. The best predictors of final racing time (81%) were weight-adjusted ˙VO2max and HR difference between C and S. A more adequate characterization of the time pattern during the whole race, especially during S, adds new information concerning the intensity profile and cardiovascular demands of an UET race.

  14. Physiological and biomechanical adaptations to the cycle to run transition in Olympic triathlon: review and practical recommendations for training

    PubMed Central

    Millet, G.; Vleck, V.

    2000-01-01

    Current knowledge of the physiological, biomechanical, and sensory effects of the cycle to run transition in the Olympic triathlon (1.5 km, 10 km, 40 km) is reviewed and implications for the training of junior and elite triathletes are discussed. Triathlon running elicits hyperventilation, increased heart rate, decreased pulmonary compliance, and exercise induced hypoxaemia. This may be due to exercise intensity, ventilatory muscle fatigue, dehydration, muscle fibre damage, a shift in metabolism towards fat oxidation, and depleted glycogen stores after a 40 km cycle. The energy cost (CR) of running during the cycle to run transition is also increased over that of control running. The increase in CR varies from 1.6% to 11.6% and is a reflection of triathlete ability level. This increase may be partly related to kinematic alterations, but research suggests that most biomechanical parameters are unchanged. A more forward leaning trunk inclination is the most significant observation reported. Running pattern, and thus running economy, could also be influenced by sensorimotor perturbations related to the change in posture. Technical skill in the transition area is obviously very important. The conditions under which the preceding cycling section is performed—that is, steady state or stochastic power output, drafting or non-drafting—are likely to influence the speed of adjustment to transition. The extent to which a decrease in the average 10 km running speed occurs during competition must be investigated further. It is clear that the higher the athlete is placed in the field at the end of the bike section, the greater the importance to their finishing position of both a quick transition area time and optimal adjustment to the physiological demands of the cycle to run transition. The need for, and current methods of, training to prepare junior and elite triathletes for a better transition are critically reviewed in light of the effects of sequential cycle to run

  15. Physiological and Neuromuscular Response to a Simulated Sprint-Distance Triathlon: Effect of Age Differences and Ability Level.

    PubMed

    García-Pinillos, Felipe; Cámara-Pérez, José C; González-Fernández, Francisco T; Párraga-Montilla, Juan A; Muñoz-Jiménez, Marcos; Latorre-Román, Pedro Á

    2016-04-01

    This study aimed to describe the acute impact of a simulated sprint-distance triathlon at physiological and neuromuscular levels and to determine whether age and athletic performance influenced the response in triathletes. Nineteen triathletes performed a sprint-distance triathlon under simulated conditions. Cardiovascular response was monitored during the race. Rate of perceived exertion along with muscular performance parameters (countermovement jump [CMJ], squat jump [SJ], and handgrip strength test [HS]) were tested at pre- and posttest and during every transition, while a 20-m sprint test (S20m) was performed before and after the race. Blood lactate was recorded postrace. A repeated measures analysis of variance showed that the neuromuscular response-in terms of CMJ, SJ, and HS-was unchanged (p ≥ 0.05), while S20m performance was impaired at posttest (p < 0.001). A linear regression analysis showed that ΔCMJ predicted the overall race time (R = 0.226; p = 0.046). In addition, 2 cluster analyses (k-means) were performed by grouping according to athletic performance and age. Between-group comparison showed no significant differences in the impact of the race at either the physiological or the neuromuscular level. The results showed that muscular performance parameters were not impaired throughout the race despite high levels of fatigue reported. However, despite maintaining initial levels of muscle force after the race, the fatigue-induced changes in S20m were significant, which could reinforce the need to train sprint ability in endurance athletes. Finally, despite the differences in ability level or in age, the acute physiological and neuromuscular responses to a simulated sprint-distance triathlon were similar.

  16. Investigation of a leptospirosis outbreak in triathlon participants, Réunion Island, 2013.

    PubMed

    Pagès, F; Larrieu, S; Simoes, J; Lenabat, P; Kurtkowiak, B; Guernier, V; Le Minter, G; Lagadec, E; Gomard, Y; Michault, A; Jaffar-Bandjee, M C; Dellagi, K; Picardeau, M; Tortosa, P; Filleul, L

    2016-02-01

    We report herein the investigation of a leptospirosis outbreak occurring in triathlon competitors on Réunion Island, Indian Ocean. All participants were contacted by phone or email and answered a questionnaire. Detection and molecular characterization of pathogenic Leptospira was conducted in inpatients and in rodents trapped at the vicinity of the event. Of the 160 athletes competing, 101 (63·1%) agreed to participate in the study. Leptospirosis was biologically confirmed for 9/10 suspected cases either by real-time PCR or serological tests (MAT or ELISA). The total attack rate, children's attack rate, swimmers' attack rate, and the attack rate in adult swimmers were respectively estimated at 8·1% [95% confidence interval (CI) 4·3-14·7], 0%, 12·7% (95% CI 6·8-22·4) and 23·1% (95% CI 12·6-33·8). Leptospirosis cases reported significantly more wounds [risk ratio (RR) 4·5, 95% CI 1·6-13], wore complete neoprene suits less often (RR 4·3, 95% CI 1·3-14·5) and were most frequently unlicensed (RR 6·6, 95% CI 2·9-14·8). The epidemiological investigation supported that some measures such as the use of neoprene suits proved efficient in protecting swimmers against infection. PCR detection in rats revealed high Leptospira infection rates. Partial sequencing of the 16S gene and serology on both human and animal samples strongly suggests that rats were the main contaminators and were likely at the origin of the infection in humans.

  17. 33 CFR 100.1101 - Southern California annual marine events for the San Diego Captain of the Port Zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 1 of this section must submit an application each year as required by 33 CFR Part 100 to the... the waters around Vacation Isle. 2. California Half Ironman Triathlon Sponsor North America Sport, Inc. Event Description Swimming Portion of Triathlon Race. Date Saturday in late March or early...

  18. 33 CFR 100.1101 - Southern California annual marine events for the San Diego Captain of the Port Zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 1 of this section must submit an application each year as required by 33 CFR Part 100 to the... the waters around Vacation Isle. 2. California Half Ironman Triathlon Sponsor North America Sport, Inc. Event Description Swimming Portion of Triathlon Race. Date Saturday in late March or early...

  19. Physiological and biomechanical adaptations to the cycle to run transition in Olympic triathlon: review and practical recommendations for training.

    PubMed

    Millet, G P; Vleck, V E

    2000-10-01

    Current knowledge of the physiological, biomechanical, and sensory effects of the cycle to run transition in the Olympic triathlon (1.5 km, 10 km, 40 km) is reviewed and implications for the training of junior and elite triathletes are discussed. Triathlon running elicits hyperventilation, increased heart rate, decreased pulmonary compliance, and exercise induced hypoxaemia. This may be due to exercise intensity, ventilatory muscle fatigue, dehydration, muscle fibre damage, a shift in metabolism towards fat oxidation, and depleted glycogen stores after a 40 km cycle. The energy cost (CR) of running during the cycle to run transition is also increased over that of control running. The increase in CR varies from 1.6% to 11.6% and is a reflection of triathlete ability level. This increase may be partly related to kinematic alterations, but research suggests that most biomechanical parameters are unchanged. A more forward leaning trunk inclination is the most significant observation reported. Running pattern, and thus running economy, could also be influenced by sensorimotor perturbations related to the change in posture. Technical skill in the transition area is obviously very important. The conditions under which the preceding cycling section is performed-that is, steady state or stochastic power output, drafting or non-drafting-are likely to influence the speed of adjustment to transition. The extent to which a decrease in the average 10 km running speed occurs during competition must be investigated further. It is clear that the higher the athlete is placed in the field at the end of the bike section, the greater the importance to their finishing position of both a quick transition area time and optimal adjustment to the physiological demands of the cycle to run transition. The need for, and current methods of, training to prepare junior and elite triathletes for a better transition are critically reviewed in light of the effects of sequential cycle to run exercise

  20. Whole blood coagulation and platelet activation in the athlete: A comparison of marathon, triathlon and long distance cycling

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Serious thrombembolic events occur in otherwise healthy marathon athletes during competition. We tested the hypothesis that during heavy endurance sports coagulation and platelets are activated depending on the type of endurance sport with respect to its running fraction. Materials and Methods 68 healthy athletes participating in marathon (MAR, running 42 km, n = 24), triathlon (TRI, swimming 2.5 km + cycling 90 km + running 21 km, n = 22), and long distance cycling (CYC, 151 km, n = 22) were included in the study. Blood samples were taken before and immediately after completion of competition to perform rotational thrombelastometry. We assessed coagulation time (CT), maximum clot firmness (MCF) after intrinsically activation and fibrin polymerization (FIBTEM). Furthermore, platelet aggregation was tested after activation with ADP and thrombin activating peptide 6 (TRAP) by using multiple platelet function analyzer. Results Complete data sets were obtained in 58 athletes (MAR: n = 20, TRI: n = 19, CYC: n = 19). CT significantly decreased in all groups (MAR -9.9%, TRI -8.3%, CYC -7.4%) without differences between groups. In parallel, MCF (MAR +7.4%, TRI +6.1%, CYC +8.3%) and fibrin polymerization (MAR +14.7%, TRI +6.1%, CYC +8.3%) were significantly increased in all groups. However, platelets were only activated during MAR and TRI as indicated by increased AUC during TRAP-activation (MAR +15.8%) and increased AUC during ADP-activation in MAR (+50.3%) and TRI (+57.5%). Discussion While coagulation is activated during physical activity irrespective of type we observed significant platelet activation only during marathon and to a lesser extent during triathlon. We speculate that prolonged running may increase platelet activity, possibly, due to mechanical alteration. Thus, particularly prolonged running may increase the risk of thrombembolic incidents in running athletes. PMID:20452885

  1. Ingesting a high-dose carbohydrate solution during the cycle section of a simulated Olympic-distance triathlon improves subsequent run performance.

    PubMed

    McGawley, Kerry; Shannon, Oliver; Betts, James

    2012-08-01

    The well-established ergogenic benefit of ingesting carbohydrates during single-discipline endurance sports has only been tested once within an Olympic-distance (OD) triathlon. The aim of the present study was to compare the effect of ingesting a 2:1 maltodextrin/fructose solution with a placebo on simulated OD triathlon performance. Six male and 4 female amateur triathletes (age, 25 ± 7 years; body mass, 66.8 ± 9.2 kg; peak oxygen uptake, 4.2 ± 0.6 L·min(-1)) completed a 1500-m swim time-trial and an incremental cycle test to determine peak oxygen uptake before performing 2 simulated OD triathlons. The swim and cycle sections of the main trials were of fixed intensities, while the run section was completed as a time-trial. Two minutes prior to completing every quarter of the cycle participants consumed 202 ± 20 mL of either a solution containing 1.2 g·min(-1) of maltodextrin plus 0.6 g·min(-1) of fructose at 14.4% concentration (CHO) or a sugar-free, fruit-flavored drink (PLA). The time-trial was 4.0% ± 1.3% faster during the CHO versus PLA trial, with run times of 38:43 ± 1:10 min:s and 40:22 ± 1:18 min:s, respectively (p = 0.010). Blood glucose concentrations were higher in the CHO versus PLA trial (p < 0.001), while perceived stomach upset did not differ between trials (p = 0.555). The current findings show that a 2:1 maltodextrin/fructose solution (1.8 g·min(-1) at 14.4%) ingested throughout the cycle section of a simulated OD triathlon enhances subsequent 10-km run performance in triathletes. PMID:22616665

  2. Ingesting a high-dose carbohydrate solution during the cycle section of a simulated Olympic-distance triathlon improves subsequent run performance.

    PubMed

    McGawley, Kerry; Shannon, Oliver; Betts, James

    2012-08-01

    The well-established ergogenic benefit of ingesting carbohydrates during single-discipline endurance sports has only been tested once within an Olympic-distance (OD) triathlon. The aim of the present study was to compare the effect of ingesting a 2:1 maltodextrin/fructose solution with a placebo on simulated OD triathlon performance. Six male and 4 female amateur triathletes (age, 25 ± 7 years; body mass, 66.8 ± 9.2 kg; peak oxygen uptake, 4.2 ± 0.6 L·min(-1)) completed a 1500-m swim time-trial and an incremental cycle test to determine peak oxygen uptake before performing 2 simulated OD triathlons. The swim and cycle sections of the main trials were of fixed intensities, while the run section was completed as a time-trial. Two minutes prior to completing every quarter of the cycle participants consumed 202 ± 20 mL of either a solution containing 1.2 g·min(-1) of maltodextrin plus 0.6 g·min(-1) of fructose at 14.4% concentration (CHO) or a sugar-free, fruit-flavored drink (PLA). The time-trial was 4.0% ± 1.3% faster during the CHO versus PLA trial, with run times of 38:43 ± 1:10 min:s and 40:22 ± 1:18 min:s, respectively (p = 0.010). Blood glucose concentrations were higher in the CHO versus PLA trial (p < 0.001), while perceived stomach upset did not differ between trials (p = 0.555). The current findings show that a 2:1 maltodextrin/fructose solution (1.8 g·min(-1) at 14.4%) ingested throughout the cycle section of a simulated OD triathlon enhances subsequent 10-km run performance in triathletes.

  3. Fatigue Fracture of the Calcaneus: From Early Diagnosis to Treatment: A Case Report of a Triathlon Athlete.

    PubMed

    Serrano, Simão; Figueiredo, Pedro; Páscoa Pinheiro, João

    2016-06-01

    Stress fractures are frequently underdiagnosed and undertreated despite being common in sports. Early diagnosis is crucial; therefore, a high index of clinical suspicion is required. Complementary examinations are essential for diagnosis and follow-up. The authors report a clinical case of a young adult triathlon athlete referring mechanical pain in the rear left foot, with 2 weeks' progression. An earlier increase in daily training intensity was recorded. Complementary examinations confirmed a calcaneal fatigue fracture. Immobilization and no weight bearing were introduced for an initial period of 4 weeks, and the rehabilitation process was started. Progressive weight bearing was introduced between fourth and eighth weeks. Sports activity started at the 12th week. Boundaries to sports activity were eliminated by the 24th week, without pain or functional limitation. Repetitive overload to the heel and intense axial weight bearing in association to repetitive concentric/eccentric gastrocnemius contraction are related to calcaneal stress fracture, the second most common stress fracture in the foot. Calcaneal stress fractures can be adequately treated with activity modification, without casting or surgical intervention. When in the presence of bilateral stress fractures, metabolic and nutritional issues must be considered. The case report highlights the importance of sports medicine examination for detecting intrinsic and extrinsic fatigue fracture risk factors.

  4. Carbohydrate Intake in Form of Gel Is Associated With Increased Gastrointestinal Distress but Not With Performance Differences Compared With Liquid Carbohydrate Ingestion During Simulated Long-Distance Triathlon.

    PubMed

    Sareban, Mahdi; Zügel, David; Koehler, Karsten; Hartveg, Paul; Zügel, Martina; Schumann, Uwe; Steinacker, Jürgen Michael; Treff, Gunnar

    2016-04-01

    The ingestion of exogenous carbohydrates (CHO) during prolonged endurance exercise, such as long-distance triathlon, is considered beneficial with regard to performance. However, little is known about whether this performance benefit differs among different forms of CHO administration. To this end, the purpose of our study was to determine the impact of CHO ingestion from a semisolid source (GEL) on measures of performance and gastrointestinal (GI) comfort compared with CHO ingestion from a liquid source (LIQ). Nine well-trained triathletes participated in this randomized crossover study. Each participant completed a 60-min swim, 180-min bike exercise, and a 60-min all-out run in a laboratory environment under 2 conditions, once while receiving 67.2 ± 7.2 g · h-1 (M ± SD) of CHO from GEL and once while receiving 67.8 ± 4.2 g · h-1 of CHO from LIQ. The amount of fluid provided was matched among conditions. Respiratory exchange ratio (RER), blood glucose, and lactate as well as GI discomfort were assessed at regular intervals during the experiment. The distance covered during the final all-out run was not significantly different among participants ingesting GEL (11.81 ± 1.38 km) and LIQ (11.91 ± 1.53 km; p = .89). RER, blood glucose, and lactate did not differ significantly at any time during the experiment. Seven participants reported GI discomfort with GEL, and no athlete reported GI discomfort with LIQ (p = .016). This study suggests that administration of GEL does not alter long-distance triathlon performance when compared with LIQ, but GEL seems to be associated with reduced GI tolerance. Athletes should consider this a potential disadvantage of GEL administration during long-distance triathlon.

  5. African Aesthetics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abiodun, Rowland

    2001-01-01

    No single traditional discipline can adequately supply answers to the many unresolved questions in African art history. Because of the aesthetic, cultural, historical, and, not infrequently, political biases, already built into the conception and development of Western art history, the discipline of art history as defined and practiced in the West…

  6. "African Connection."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adelman, Cathy; And Others

    This interdisciplinary unit provides students in grades kindergarten through seventh grade an opportunity to understand diversity through a study of Africa as a diverse continent. The project is designed to provide all elementary students with cultural enrichment by exposing them to African music, art, storytelling, and movement. This project can…

  7. Obesity and African Americans

    MedlinePlus

    ... Data > Minority Population Profiles > Black/African American > Obesity Obesity and African Americans African American women have the ... ss6304.pdf [PDF | 3.38MB] HEALTH IMPACT OF OBESITY More than 80 percent of people with type ...

  8. Africans in America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hart, Ayanna; Spangler, Earl

    This book introduces African-American history and culture to children. The first Africans in America came from many different regions and cultures, but became united in this country by being black, African, and slaves. Once in America, Africans began a long struggle for freedom which still continues. Slavery, the Civil War, emancipation, and the…

  9. Therapy with African Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nwadiora, Emeka

    1996-01-01

    Informs helping professionals about the unique history and challenges of African families to guide them toward providing ethnically sensitive psychological services to African immigrant families in need. African families undergo great stress when faced with the alienation of being Black and African in a Euro-American culture. (SLD)

  10. African Outreach Workshop 1974.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Nancy J.

    This report discusses the 1974 African Outreach Workshop planned and coordinated by the African Studies Program at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. Its major aim was to assist teachers in developing curriculum units on African using materials available in their local community. A second aim was for the African Studies Program to…

  11. Participation and Performance Trends in Triple Iron Ultra-triathlon – a Cross-sectional and Longitudinal Data Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Rüst, Christoph Alexander; Knechtle, Beat; Knechtle, Patrizia; Rosemann, Thomas; Lepers, Romuald

    2012-01-01

    Purpose The aims of the present study were to investigate (i) the changes in participation and performance and (ii) the gender difference in Triple Iron ultra-triathlon (11.4 km swimming, 540 km cycling and 126.6 km running) across years from 1988 to 2011. Methods For the cross-sectional data analysis, the association between with overall race times and split times was investigated using simple linear regression analyses and analysis of variance. For the longitudinal data analysis, the changes in race times for the five men and women with the highest number of participations were analysed using simple linear regression analyses. Results During the studied period, the number of finishers were 824 (71.4%) for men and 80 (78.4%) for women. Participation increased for men (r 2=0.27, P<0.01) while it remained stable for women (8%). Total race times were 2,146 ± 127.3 min for men and 2,615 ± 327.2 min for women (P<0.001). Total race time decreased for men (r 2=0.17; P=0.043), while it increased for women (r 2=0.49; P=0.001) across years. The gender difference in overall race time for winners increased from 10% in 1992 to 42% in 2011 (r 2=0.63; P<0.001). The longitudinal analysis of the five women and five men with the highest number of participations showed that performance decreased in one female (r 2=0.45; P=0.01). The four other women as well as all five men showed no change in overall race times across years. Conclusions Participation increased and performance improved for male Triple Iron ultra-triathletes while participation remained unchanged and performance decreased for females between 1988 and 2011. The reasons for the increase of the gap between female and male Triple Iron ultra-triathletes need further investigations. PMID:23012633

  12. The African Connection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oguntoyinbo, Lekan

    2012-01-01

    From student and faculty exchanges to joint research projects, U.S. universities maintain a broad spectrum of collaborative relationships with African universities. It's unclear how many U.S. colleges and universities have partnerships with African universities. The African Studies Association, an organization of scholars, doesn't keep that kind…

  13. Linguistic Imperialism: African Perspectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillipson, Robert

    1996-01-01

    Responds to an article on aspects of African language policy and discusses the following issues: multilingualism and monolingualism, proposed changes in language policy from the Organization for African Unity and South African initiatives, the language of literature, bilingual education, and whose interests English-language teaching is serving.…

  14. The Munich Triathlon Heart Study: ventricular function, myocardial velocities, and two-dimensional strain in healthy children before and after endurance stress.

    PubMed

    Hauser, Michael; Petzuch, Kurt; Kühn, Andreas; Schön, Patrick; Elmenhorst, Julia; Schönfelder, Martin; Oberhoffer, Renate; Vogt, Manfred O

    2013-03-01

    Intense exercise has been shown to have negative effects on systolic and diastolic ventricular function in adults. Very little is known about the normal reaction of the growing heart to endurance stress. For this study, 26 healthy children (18 males) with a mean age of 12.61 years (range, 7.92-16.42 years) took part in an age-adapted triathlon circuit. The athletes were investigated by two-dimensional (2D) echocardiographic/speckle tracking, M-mode, pulse-wave Doppler, color Doppler, and color-coded tissue Doppler at 2-4 weeks before and immediately after the race. After the competition, cardiac output increased, mediated by an increase in heart rate and not by an elevated preload, according the Frank-Starling mechanism. Two-dimensional speckle tracking showed a reduced longitudinal strain in the right and left ventricles and additionally reduced circumferential strain in the left ventricle. The late diastolic inflow velocities were increased in both ventricles, indicating reduced diastolic function due to an impairment of myocardial relaxation. Immediately after endurance exercise, systolic and diastolic functions were attenuated in children and adolescents. In contrast to adult studies, this study could show a heart rate-mediated increase in cardiac output. The sequelae of these alterations are unclear, and the growing heart especially may be more susceptible to myocardial damage caused by intense endurance stress.

  15. The African superswell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nyblade, Andrew A.; Robinson, Scott W.

    1994-01-01

    Maps of residual bathymetry in the ocean basins around the African continent reveal a broad bathymetric swell in the southeastern Atlantic Ocean with an amplitude of about 500 m. We propose that this region of anomalously shallow bathymetry, together with the contiguous eastern and southern African plateaus, form a superswell which we refer to as the African superswell. The origin of the African superswell is uncertain. However, rifting and volcanism in eastern Africa, as well as heat flow measurements in southern Africa and the southeastern Atlantic Ocean, suggest that the superswell may be attributed, at least in part, to heating of the lithosphere.

  16. 16 Extraordinary African Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lobb, Nancy

    This collection for children tells the stories of 16 African Americans who helped make America what it is today. African Americans can take pride in the heritage of these contributors to society. Biographies are given for the following: (1) Sojourner Truth, preacher and abolitionist; (2) Frederick Douglass, abolitionist; (3) Harriet Tubman, leader…

  17. African Studies Computer Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuntz, Patricia S.

    African studies computer resources that are readily available in the United States with linkages to Africa are described, highlighting those most directly corresponding to African content. Africanists can use the following four fundamental computer systems: (1) Internet/Bitnet; (2) Fidonet; (3) Usenet; and (4) dial-up bulletin board services. The…

  18. Understanding African American Males

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Edward Earl

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the socialization skills, self-esteem, and academic readiness of African American males in a school environment. Discussions with students and the School Perceptions Questionnaire provided data for this investigation. The intended targets for this investigation were African American students; however, there…

  19. Africans Away from Home.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarke, John Henrik

    Africans who were brought across the Atlantic as slaves never fully adjusted to slavery or accepted its inevitability. Resistance began on board the slave ships, where many jumped overboard or committed suicide. African slaves in South America led the first revolts against tyranny in the New World. The first slave revolt in the Caribbean occurred…

  20. Keeping African Masks Real

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waddington, Susan

    2012-01-01

    Art is a good place to learn about our multicultural planet, and African masks are prized throughout the world as powerfully expressive artistic images. Unfortunately, multicultural education, especially for young children, can perpetuate stereotypes. Masks taken out of context lose their meaning and the term "African masks" suggests that there is…

  1. Educating African American Males

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Edward E.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Schools across America spend money, invest in programs, and sponsor workshops, offer teacher incentives, raise accountability standards, and even evoke the name of Obama in efforts to raise the academic achievement of African American males. Incarceration and college retention rates point to a dismal plight for many African American…

  2. African horse sickness and African carnivores.

    PubMed

    Alexander, K A; Kat, P W; House, J; House, C; O'Brien, S J; Laurenson, M K; McNutt, J W; Osburn, B I

    1995-11-01

    African horse sickness (AHS) is a disease that affects equids, and is principally transmitted by Culicoides spp. that are biological vectors of AHS viruses (AHSV). The repeated spread of AHSV from sub-Saharan Africa to the Middle East, northern Africa and the Iberian peninsula indicate that a better understanding of AHS epizootiology is needed. African horse sickness has long been known to infect and cause mortality among domestic dogs that ingest virus contaminated meat, but it is uncertain what role carnivores play in transmission of the virus. We present evidence of widespread natural AHS infection among a diversity of African carnivore species. We hypothesize that such infection resulted from ingestion of meat and organs from AHS-infected prey species. The effect of AHS on the carnivores is unknown, as is their role in the maintenance cycle of the disease.

  3. Diabetes in African Americans

    PubMed Central

    Marshall, M

    2005-01-01

    African Americans have a high risk for type 2 diabetes. Genetic traits, the prevalence of obesity, and insulin resistance all contribute to the risk of diabetes in the African American community. African Americans have a high rate of diabetic complications, because of poor glycaemic control and racial disparities in health care in the USA. African Americans with diabetes may have an atypical presentation that simulates type 1 diabetes, but then their subsequent clinical course is typical of type 2 diabetes. Culturally sensitive strategies, structured disease management protocols, and the assistance of nurses, diabetic educators, and other health care professionals are effective in improving the outcome of diabetes in the African American community. PMID:16344294

  4. African bees to control African elephants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vollrath, Fritz; Douglas-Hamilton, Iain

    2002-11-01

    Numbers of elephants have declined in Africa and Asia over the past 30 years while numbers of humans have increased, both substantially. Friction between these two keystone species is reaching levels which are worryingly high from an ecological as well as a political viewpoint. Ways and means must be found to keep the two apart, at least in areas sensitive to each species' survival. The aggressive African bee might be one such method. Here we demonstrate that African bees deter elephants from damaging the vegetation and trees which house their hives. We argue that bees can be employed profitably to protect not only selected trees, but also selected areas, from elephant damage.

  5. The effects of prior incremental cycle exercise on the physiological responses during incremental running to exhaustion: relevance for sprint triathlon performance.

    PubMed

    Bentley, David J; McNaughton, Lars R; Lamyman, Robert; Roberts, Simon P

    2003-01-01

    It is common for the physiological working capacity of a triathlete when cycling and running to be assessed on two separate days. The aim of this study was to establish whether an incremental running test to exhaustion has a negative effect after a 5 h recovery from an incremental cycling test. Eight moderately trained triathletes (age, 26.2 +/- 3.4 years; body mass, 67.3 +/- 9.1 kg; VO2max when cycling, 59 +/- 13 ml x kg x min(-1); mean +/- s) completed an incremental running test 5 h after an incremental cycling test (fatigue) as well as an incremental running test without previous activity (control). Maximum running speed, maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) and the lactate threshold were determined for each incremental running test and correlated with the average speed during a 5 km run, which was performed immediately after a 20 km cycling time-trial, as in a sprint triathlon. There were no significant differences in maximum running speed, VO2max or the lactate threshold in either incremental running test (control or fatigue). Furthermore, good agreement was found for each physiological variable in both the control and fatigue tests. For the fatigue test, there were significant correlations between the average speed during a 5 km run and both VO2max expressed in absolute terms (r = 0.83) and the lactate threshold (r = 0.88). However, maximum running speed correlated most strongly with the average speed during a 5 km run (r = 0.96). The results of this study indicate that, under controlled conditions, an incremental running test can be performed successfully 5 h after an incremental cycling test to exhaustion. Also, the maximum running speed achieved during an incremental running test is the variable that correlates most strongly with the average running speed during a 5 km run after a 20 km cycling time-trial in well-trained triathletes. PMID:12587889

  6. Astronomy for African development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Govender, Kevindran

    2011-06-01

    In recent years there have been a number of efforts across Africa to develop the field of astronomy as well as to reap benefit from astronomy for African people. This presentation will discuss the case of the SALT (Southern African Large Telescope) Collateral Benefits Programme (SCBP) which was set up to ensure societal benefit from astronomy. With African society as the target, the SCBP has embarked on various projects from school level education to public understanding of science to socio-economic development, the latter mainly being felt in the rural communities surrounding the South African Astronomical Observatory (home to SALT). A development plan for ``Astronomy in Africa'' will also be discussed. This plan has been drawn up with input from all over Africa and themed ``Astronomy for Education''. The Africa case stands as a good example for the IYA cornerstone project ``Developing Astronomy Globally'' which focuses on developing regions.

  7. African American Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... specific health concerns. Differences in the health of groups can result from Genetics Environmental factors Access to care Cultural factors On this page, you'll find links to health issues that affect African Americans.

  8. African American Suicide

    MedlinePlus

    ... accounted for 83.8% of Caucasian elderly suicides. • Firearms were the predominant method of suicide among African ... per 100,000 annually. Source: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. National Vital Statistics System. Mortality Data. ...

  9. Effects of moderate-intensity aerobic cycling and swim exercise on post-exertional blood pressure in healthy young untrained and triathlon-trained men and women.

    PubMed

    Lakin, Robert; Notarius, Catherine; Thomas, Scott; Goodman, Jack

    2013-12-01

    Aerobic exercises such as running, walking and cycling are known to elicit a PEH (post-exercise hypotensive) response in both trained and UT (untrained) subjects. However, it is not known whether swim exercise produces a similar effect in normotensive individuals. The complex acute physiological responses to water immersion suggest swimming may affect BP (blood pressure) differently than other forms of aerobic exercises. We tested the hypothesis that an acute bout of swimming would fail to elicit a PEH BP response compared with an equivalent bout of stationary cycling, regardless of training state. We studied 11 UT and ten triathlon-trained young healthy normotensive [SBP/DBP (systolic BP/diastolic BP) <120/80 mmHg)] men and women (age 23±1 years) who underwent 30 min of intensity-matched cycling and swimming sessions to assess changes in BP during a 75-min seated recovery. CO (cardiac output), SV (stroke volume), TPR (total peripheral resistance), HR (heart rate), HRV (HR variability) and core and skin temperature were also assessed. In UT subjects, PEH was similar between cycling (-3.1±1 mmHg) and swimming (-5.8±1 mmHg), with the greater magnitude of PEH following swimming, reflecting a significant fall in SV between modalities (P<0.05). Trained individuals did not exhibit a PEH response following swimming (0.3±1 mmHg), yet had a significant fall in SBP at 50 min post-cycling exercise (-3.7±1 mmHg) (P<0.05). The absence of PEH after swimming in the trained group may reflect a higher cardiac sympathetic outflow [as indicated by the LF (low-frequency) spectral component of HRV) (25 and 50 min) (P<0.05)] and a slower return of vagal tone, consistent with a significant increase in HR between modalities at all time points (P<0.05). These results suggest that training may limit the potential for an effective post-exertional hypotensive response to aerobic swimming.

  10. African-Americans and Alzheimer's

    MedlinePlus

    ... Share Plus on Google Plus African-Americans and Alzheimer's alz.org | IHaveAlz Introduction 10 Warning Signs Brain ... African-Americans are at a higher risk for Alzheimer's disease. Many Americans dismiss the warning signs of ...

  11. English as an African Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Desai, Gaurav

    1993-01-01

    Discusses the role of the English language in postcolonial African literature, focusing on the politics of language, "Africanized" English, and the social languages used in Chinua Achebe's novels and concludes that English today is as much an African language as a British or American one. (Contains 37 references.) (MDM)

  12. The Struggles over African Languages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maseko, Pam; Vale, Peter

    2016-01-01

    In this interview, African Language expert Pam Maseko speaks of her own background and her first encounter with culture outside of her mother tongue, isiXhosa. A statistical breakdown of South African languages is provided as background. She discusses Western (originally missionary) codification of African languages and suggests that this approach…

  13. The Genetic Structure and History of Africans and African Americans

    PubMed Central

    Tishkoff, Sarah A.; Reed, Floyd A.; Friedlaender, Françoise R.; Ehret, Christopher; Ranciaro, Alessia; Froment, Alain; Hirbo, Jibril B.; Awomoyi, Agnes A.; Bodo, Jean-Marie; Doumbo, Ogobara; Ibrahim, Muntaser; Juma, Abdalla T.; Kotze, Maritha J.; Lema, Godfrey; Moore, Jason H.; Mortensen, Holly; Nyambo, Thomas B.; Omar, Sabah A.; Powell, Kweli; Pretorius, Gideon S.; Smith, Michael W.; Thera, Mahamadou A.; Wambebe, Charles; Weber, James L.; Williams, Scott M.

    2010-01-01

    Africa is the source of all modern humans, but characterization of genetic variation and of relationships among populations across the continent has been enigmatic. We studied 121 African populations, four African American populations, and 60 non-African populations for patterns of variation at 1327 nuclear microsatellite and insertion/deletion markers. We identified 14 ancestral population clusters in Africa that correlate with self-described ethnicity and shared cultural and/or linguistic properties. We observed high levels of mixed ancestry in most populations, reflecting historical migration events across the continent. Our data also provide evidence for shared ancestry among geographically diverse hunter-gatherer populations (Khoesan speakers and Pygmies). The ancestry of African Americans is predominantly from Niger-Kordofanian (~71%), European (~13%), and other African (~8%) populations, although admixture levels varied considerably among individuals. This study helps tease apart the complex evolutionary history of Africans and African Americans, aiding both anthropological and genetic epidemiologic studies. PMID:19407144

  14. The Other African Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matory, J. Lorand

    Black North America is ethnically and culturally diverse. It contains many groups who do not call themselves or have not always called themselves "Negro,""Black,""African-American," and so forth, such as Louisiana Creoles of color and many of the Indian tribes east of the Mississippi. There are also numerous North American ethnic groups of African…

  15. African Oral Tradition Literacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Doris

    1985-01-01

    Presents the basic principles of two systems for notating African music and dance: Labanotation (created to record and analyze movements) and Greenotation (created to notate musical instruments of Africa and to parallel Labanotation whereby both music and dance are incorporated into one integrated score). (KH)

  16. Elective: African Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenkins, Kenneth V.

    The make-up of a course in African literature for high school students is discussed. It is pointed out that the course can be constructed on already familiar lines. High school students will be able to describe clearly, for example, the relationship between environment and character or the dilemma of characters caught between traditional values…

  17. Understanding traditional African healing

    PubMed Central

    MOKGOBI, M.G.

    2015-01-01

    Traditional African healing has been in existence for many centuries yet many people still seem not to understand how it relates to God and religion/spirituality. Some people seem to believe that traditional healers worship the ancestors and not God. It is therefore the aim of this paper to clarify this relationship by discussing a chain of communication between the worshipers and the Almighty God. Other aspects of traditional healing namely types of traditional healers, training of traditional healers as well as the role of traditional healers in their communities are discussed. In conclusion, the services of traditional healers go far beyond the uses of herbs for physical illnesses. Traditional healers serve many roles which include but not limited to custodians of the traditional African religion and customs, educators about culture, counselors, social workers and psychologists. PMID:26594664

  18. Human African trypanosomiasis.

    PubMed

    Lejon, Veerle; Bentivoglio, Marina; Franco, José Ramon

    2013-01-01

    Human African trypanosomiasis or sleeping sickness is a neglected tropical disease that affects populations in sub-Saharan Africa. The disease is caused by infection with the gambiense and rhodesiense subspecies of the extracellular parasite Trypanosoma brucei, and is transmitted to humans by bites of infected tsetse flies. The disease evolves in two stages, the hemolymphatic and meningoencephalitic stages, the latter being defined by central nervous system infection after trypanosomal traversal of the blood-brain barrier. African trypanosomiasis, which leads to severe neuroinflammation, is fatal without treatment, but the available drugs are toxic and complicated to administer. The choice of medication is determined by the infecting parasite subspecies and disease stage. Clinical features include a constellation of nonspecific symptoms and signs with evolving neurological and psychiatric alterations and characteristic sleep-wake disturbances. Because of the clinical profile variability and insidiously progressive central nervous system involvement, disease staging is currently based on cerebrospinal fluid examination, which is usually performed after the finding of trypanosomes in blood or other body fluids. No vaccine being available, control of human African trypanosomiasis relies on diagnosis and treatment of infected patients, assisted by vector control. Better diagnostic tools and safer, easy to use drugs are needed to facilitate elimination of the disease.

  19. Diversity among African Pygmies

    PubMed Central

    Ramírez Rozzi, Fernando V.; Sardi, Marina L.

    2010-01-01

    Although dissimilarities in cranial and post-cranial morphology among African pygmies groups have been recognized, comparative studies on skull morphology usually pull all pygmies together assuming that morphological characters are similar among them and different with respect to other populations. The main aim of this study is to compare cranial morphology between African pygmies and non-pygmies populations from Equatorial Africa derived from both the Eastern and the Western regions in order to test if the greatest morphological difference is obtained in the comparison between pygmies and non-pygmies. Thirty three-dimensional (3D) landmarks registered with Microscribe in four cranial samples (Western and Eastern pygmies and non-pygmies) were obtained. Multivariate analysis (generalized Procrustes analysis, Mahalanobis distances, multivariate regression) and complementary dimensions of size were evaluated with ANOVA and post hoc LSD. Results suggest that important cranial shape differentiation does occur between pygmies and non-pygmies but also between Eastern and Western populations and that size changes and allometries do not affect similarly Eastern and Western pygmies. Therefore, our findings raise serious doubt about the fact to consider African pygmies as a homogenous group in studies on skull morphology. Differences in cranial morphology among pygmies would suggest differentiation after divergence. Although not directly related to skull differentiation, the diversity among pygmies would probably suggest that the process responsible for reduced stature occurred after the split of the ancestors of modern Eastern and Western pygmies. PMID:21049030

  20. African horse sickness.

    PubMed

    Zientara, S; Weyer, C T; Lecollinet, S

    2015-08-01

    African horse sickness (AHS) is a devastating disease of equids caused by an arthropod-borne virus belonging to the Reoviridae family, genus Orbivirus. It is considered a major health threat for horses in endemic areas in sub-Saharan Africa. African horse sickness virus (AHSV) repeatedly caused large epizootics in the Mediterranean region (North Africa and southern Europe in particular) as a result of trade in infected equids. The unexpected emergence of a closely related virus, the bluetongue virus, in northern Europe in 2006 has raised fears about AHSV introduction into Europe, and more specifically into AHSV-free regions that have reported the presence of AHSV vectors, e.g. Culicoides midges. North African and European countries should be prepared to face AHSV incursions in the future, especially since two AHSV serotypes (serotypes 2 and 7) have recently spread northwards to western (e.g. Senegal, Nigeria, Gambia) and eastern Africa (Ethiopia), where historically only serotype 9 had been isolated. The authors review key elements of AHS epidemiology, surveillance and prophylaxis. PMID:26601437

  1. East African Rift Valley, Kenya

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    This rare, cloud free view of the East African Rift Valley, Kenya (1.5N, 35.5E) shows a clear view of the Turkwell River Valley, an offshoot of the African REift System. The East African Rift is part of a vast plate fracture which extends from southern Turkey, through the Red Sea, East Africa and into Mozambique. Dark green patches of forests are seen along the rift margin and tea plantations occupy the cooler higher ground.

  2. A Teacher's Guide to African Narratives. Studies in African Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Brien, Sara Talis

    This guide is designed to help secondary school teachers include African literature in their classes. It furnishes English and social studies teachers with a foundation for teaching African literature by offering critical commentary on the texts themselves. A synthesis of anthropological and historical material is presented to help both teachers…

  3. African American Administrators and Staff

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Dianne; Taylor, Janice D.; Burrell, Charlotte; Stewart, Gregory

    2006-01-01

    This article explores the issues of African American participation in the administrative ranks of the academy. The authors find that African Americans tend to hold positions that are marginal in academic organizations, lacking power and influence, and that not much has changed over recent decades. Forces influencing this condition are explored,…

  4. African-American Children's Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kline, Lucinda

    This paper examines the history of African American children's literature, the present-day status of it, and ventures predictions about its future. The paper also considers the historic and social factors of the debate about whether an author who is not African American can write a book that will/should be accepted in this category of children's…

  5. African-American Sacred Music.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, A. Peter

    1991-01-01

    The history of African-American sacred music is traced from the time of slavery to the present interest in gospel music. The religious music of African Americans is geared toward liberation themes. It is important that this music does not dilute its power through cross-over with other music forms. (SLD)

  6. Africanization in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Pinto, M. Alice; Rubink, William L.; Patton, John C.; Coulson, Robert N.; Johnston, J. Spencer

    2005-01-01

    The expansion of Africanized honeybees from South America to the southwestern United States in <50 years is considered one of the most spectacular biological invasions yet documented. In the American tropics, it has been shown that during their expansion Africanized honeybees have low levels of introgressed alleles from resident European populations. In the United States, it has been speculated, but not shown, that Africanized honeybees would hybridize extensively with European honeybees. Here we report a continuous 11-year study investigating temporal changes in the genetic structure of a feral population from the southern United States undergoing Africanization. Our microsatellite data showed that (1) the process of Africanization involved both maternal and paternal bidirectional gene flow between European and Africanized honeybees and (2) the panmitic European population was replaced by panmitic mixtures of A. m. scutellata and European genes within 5 years after Africanization. The post-Africanization gene pool (1998–2001) was composed of a diverse array of recombinant classes with a substantial European genetic contribution (mean 25–37%). Therefore, the resulting feral honeybee population of south Texas was best viewed as a hybrid swarm. PMID:15937139

  7. The history of African trypanosomiasis

    PubMed Central

    Steverding, Dietmar

    2008-01-01

    The prehistory of African trypanosomiasis indicates that the disease may have been an important selective factor in the evolution of hominids. Ancient history and medieval history reveal that African trypanosomiasis affected the lives of people living in sub-Saharan African at all times. Modern history of African trypanosomiasis revolves around the identification of the causative agents and the mode of transmission of the infection, and the development of drugs for treatment and methods for control of the disease. From the recent history of sleeping sickness we can learn that the disease can be controlled but probably not be eradicated. Current history of human African trypanosomiasis has shown that the production of anti-sleeping sickness drugs is not always guaranteed, and therefore, new, better and cheaper drugs are urgently required. PMID:18275594

  8. Cancer statistics for African Americans.

    PubMed

    Ghafoor, Asma; Jemal, Ahmedin; Cokkinides, Vilma; Cardinez, Cheryll; Murray, Taylor; Samuels, Alicia; Thun, Michael J

    2002-01-01

    The American Cancer Society provides estimates on the number of new cancer cases and deaths, and compiles health statistics on African Americans in a biennial publication, Cancer Facts and Figures for African Americans. The compiled statistics include cancer incidence, mortality, survival, and lifestyle behaviors using the most recent data on incidence and survival from the National Cancer Institute's (NCI) Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) program, mortality data from the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS), and behavioral information from the Behavior Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS), Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS), and National Health Interview Survey (NHIS). It is estimated that 132,700 new cases of cancer and 63,100 deaths will occur among African Americans in the year 2003. Although African Americans have experienced higher incidence and mortality rates of cancer than whites for many years, incidence rates have declined by 2.7 percent per year in African-American males since 1992, while stabilizing in African-American females. During the same period, death rates declined by 2.1 percent and 0.4 percent per year among African-American males and females, respectively. The decrease in both incidence and death rates from cancer among African-American males was the largest of any racial or ethnic group. Nonetheless, African Americans still carry the highest cancer burden among US racial and ethnic groups. Most cancers detectable by screening are diagnosed at a later stage and survival rates are lower within each stage of disease in African Americans than in whites. The extent to which these disparities reflect unequal access to health care versus other factors is an active area of research.

  9. Bioenergy and African transformation.

    PubMed

    Lynd, Lee R; Sow, Mariam; Chimphango, Annie Fa; Cortez, Luis Ab; Brito Cruz, Carlos H; Elmissiry, Mosad; Laser, Mark; Mayaki, Ibrahim A; Moraes, Marcia Afd; Nogueira, Luiz Ah; Wolfaardt, Gideon M; Woods, Jeremy; van Zyl, Willem H

    2015-01-01

    Among the world's continents, Africa has the highest incidence of food insecurity and poverty and the highest rates of population growth. Yet Africa also has the most arable land, the lowest crop yields, and by far the most plentiful land resources relative to energy demand. It is thus of interest to examine the potential of expanded modern bioenergy production in Africa. Here we consider bioenergy as an enabler for development, and provide an overview of modern bioenergy technologies with a comment on application in an Africa context. Experience with bioenergy in Africa offers evidence of social benefits and also some important lessons. In Brazil, social development, agricultural development and food security, and bioenergy development have been synergistic rather than antagonistic. Realizing similar success in African countries will require clear vision, good governance, and adaptation of technologies, knowledge, and business models to myriad local circumstances. Strategies for integrated production of food crops, livestock, and bioenergy are potentially attractive and offer an alternative to an agricultural model featuring specialized land use. If done thoughtfully, there is considerable evidence that food security and economic development in Africa can be addressed more effectively with modern bioenergy than without it. Modern bioenergy can be an agent of African transformation, with potential social benefits accruing to multiple sectors and extending well beyond energy supply per se. Potential negative impacts also cut across sectors. Thus, institutionally inclusive multi-sector legislative structures will be more effective at maximizing the social benefits of bioenergy compared to institutionally exclusive, single-sector structures. PMID:25709714

  10. African oil plays

    SciTech Connect

    Clifford, A.J. )

    1989-09-01

    The vast continent of Africa hosts over eight sedimentary basins, covering approximately half its total area. Of these basins, only 82% have entered a mature exploration phase, 9% have had little or no exploration at all. Since oil was first discovered in Africa during the mid-1950s, old play concepts continue to bear fruit, for example in Egypt and Nigeria, while new play concepts promise to become more important, such as in Algeria, Angola, Chad, Egypt, Gabon, and Sudan. The most exciting developments of recent years in African oil exploration are: (1) the Gamba/Dentale play, onshore Gabon; (2) the Pinda play, offshore Angola; (3) the Lucula/Toca play, offshore Cabinda; (4) the Metlaoui play, offshore Libya/Tunisia; (5) the mid-Cretaceous sand play, Chad/Sudan; and (6) the TAG-I/F6 play, onshore Algeria. Examples of these plays are illustrated along with some of the more traditional oil plays. Where are the future oil plays likely to develop No doubt, the Saharan basins of Algeria and Libya will feature strongly, also the presalt of Equatorial West Africa, the Central African Rift System and, more speculatively, offshore Ethiopia and Namibia, and onshore Madagascar, Mozambique, and Tanzania.

  11. Bioenergy and African transformation.

    PubMed

    Lynd, Lee R; Sow, Mariam; Chimphango, Annie Fa; Cortez, Luis Ab; Brito Cruz, Carlos H; Elmissiry, Mosad; Laser, Mark; Mayaki, Ibrahim A; Moraes, Marcia Afd; Nogueira, Luiz Ah; Wolfaardt, Gideon M; Woods, Jeremy; van Zyl, Willem H

    2015-01-01

    Among the world's continents, Africa has the highest incidence of food insecurity and poverty and the highest rates of population growth. Yet Africa also has the most arable land, the lowest crop yields, and by far the most plentiful land resources relative to energy demand. It is thus of interest to examine the potential of expanded modern bioenergy production in Africa. Here we consider bioenergy as an enabler for development, and provide an overview of modern bioenergy technologies with a comment on application in an Africa context. Experience with bioenergy in Africa offers evidence of social benefits and also some important lessons. In Brazil, social development, agricultural development and food security, and bioenergy development have been synergistic rather than antagonistic. Realizing similar success in African countries will require clear vision, good governance, and adaptation of technologies, knowledge, and business models to myriad local circumstances. Strategies for integrated production of food crops, livestock, and bioenergy are potentially attractive and offer an alternative to an agricultural model featuring specialized land use. If done thoughtfully, there is considerable evidence that food security and economic development in Africa can be addressed more effectively with modern bioenergy than without it. Modern bioenergy can be an agent of African transformation, with potential social benefits accruing to multiple sectors and extending well beyond energy supply per se. Potential negative impacts also cut across sectors. Thus, institutionally inclusive multi-sector legislative structures will be more effective at maximizing the social benefits of bioenergy compared to institutionally exclusive, single-sector structures.

  12. Successfully Educating Our African-American Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moncree-Moffett, Kareem

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this empirical study was to explore the lived experiences of African American retired female teachers who have prior experience with educating urban African American students in public schools. Also explored are the experiences of active African American female teachers of urban African American students and comparisons are…

  13. Negro, Black, Black African, African Caribbean, African American or what? Labelling African origin populations in the health arena in the 21st century

    PubMed Central

    Agyemang, C.; Bhopal, R.; Bruijnzeels, M.

    2005-01-01

    Broad terms such as Black, African, or Black African are entrenched in scientific writings although there is considerable diversity within African descent populations and such terms may be both offensive and inaccurate. This paper outlines the heterogeneity within African populations, and discusses the strengths and limitations of the term Black and related labels from epidemiological and public health perspectives in Europe and the USA. This paper calls for debate on appropriate terminologies for African descent populations and concludes with the proposals that (1) describing the population under consideration is of paramount importance (2) the word African origin or simply African is an appropriate and necessary prefix for an ethnic label, for example, African Caribbean or African Kenyan or African Surinamese (3) documents should define the ethnic labels (4) the label Black should be phased out except when used in political contexts. PMID:16286485

  14. Negro, Black, Black African, African Caribbean, African American or what? Labelling African origin populations in the health arena in the 21st century.

    PubMed

    Agyemang, Charles; Bhopal, Raj; Bruijnzeels, Marc

    2005-12-01

    Broad terms such as Black, African, or Black African are entrenched in scientific writings although there is considerable diversity within African descent populations and such terms may be both offensive and inaccurate. This paper outlines the heterogeneity within African populations, and discusses the strengths and limitations of the term Black and related labels from epidemiological and public health perspectives in Europe and the USA. This paper calls for debate on appropriate terminologies for African descent populations and concludes with the proposals that (1) describing the population under consideration is of paramount importance (2) the word African origin or simply African is an appropriate and necessary prefix for an ethnic label, for example, African Caribbean or African Kenyan or African Surinamese (3) documents should define the ethnic labels (4) the label Black should be phased out except when used in political contexts. PMID:16286485

  15. No statistically significant kinematic difference found between a cruciate-retaining and posterior-stabilised Triathlon knee arthroplasty: a laboratory study involving eight cadavers examining soft-tissue laxity.

    PubMed

    Hunt, N C; Ghosh, K M; Blain, A P; Rushton, S P; Longstaff, L M; Deehan, D J

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the maximum laxity conferred by the cruciate-retaining (CR) and posterior-stabilised (PS) Triathlon single-radius total knee arthroplasty (TKA) for anterior drawer, varus-valgus opening and rotation in eight cadaver knees through a defined arc of flexion (0º to 110º). The null hypothesis was that the limits of laxity of CR- and PS-TKAs are not significantly different. The investigation was undertaken in eight loaded cadaver knees undergoing subjective stress testing using a measurement rig. Firstly the native knee was tested prior to preparation for CR-TKA and subsequently for PS-TKA implantation. Surgical navigation was used to track maximal displacements/rotations at 0º, 30º, 60º, 90º and 110° of flexion. Mixed-effects modelling was used to define the behaviour of the TKAs. The laxity measured for the CR- and PS-TKAs revealed no statistically significant differences over the studied flexion arc for the two versions of TKA. Compared with the native knee both TKAs exhibited slightly increased anterior drawer and decreased varus-valgus and internal-external roational laxities. We believe further study is required to define the clinical states for which the additional constraint offered by a PS-TKA implant may be beneficial.

  16. African and African Caribbean users' perceptions of inpatient services.

    PubMed

    Secker, J; Harding, C

    2002-04-01

    It has been suggested that well-documented differences in African and African Caribbean people's contact with mental health services may stem from the organization, processes and practices of services themselves. This article presents the findings of a qualitative study which explored the inpatient experiences of a sample of African and African Caribbean people. Although some positive experiences were described, in the main, participants' accounts revolved around a sense of loss of control and around experiences of overt and implicit racism. Underpinning these experiences were relationships with staff that were perceived to be unhelpful. On the basis of both the positive and negative experiences described, we draw conclusions about the changes required to ensure that inpatient services more effectively meet the needs of this group.

  17. The African Millennium Villages

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez, Pedro; Palm, Cheryl; Sachs, Jeffrey; Denning, Glenn; Flor, Rafael; Harawa, Rebbie; Jama, Bashir; Kiflemariam, Tsegazeab; Konecky, Bronwen; Kozar, Raffaela; Lelerai, Eliud; Malik, Alia; Modi, Vijay; Mutuo, Patrick; Niang, Amadou; Okoth, Herine; Place, Frank; Sachs, Sonia Ehrlich; Said, Amir; Siriri, David; Teklehaimanot, Awash; Wang, Karen; Wangila, Justine; Zamba, Colleen

    2007-01-01

    We describe the concept, strategy, and initial results of the Millennium Villages Project and implications regarding sustainability and scalability. Our underlying hypothesis is that the interacting crises of agriculture, health, and infrastructure in rural Africa can be overcome through targeted public-sector investments to raise rural productivity and, thereby, to increased private-sector saving and investments. This is carried out by empowering impoverished communities with science-based interventions. Seventy-eight Millennium Villages have been initiated in 12 sites in 10 African countries, each representing a major agroecological zone. In early results, the research villages in Kenya, Ethiopia, and Malawi have reduced malaria prevalence, met caloric requirements, generated crop surpluses, enabled school feeding programs, and provided cash earnings for farm families. PMID:17942701

  18. Central African Republic.

    PubMed

    1989-11-01

    The Central African Republic contains 242,000 square miles, which rolling terrain almost 2000 feet above sea level. The climate is tropical, and it has a population of 2.8 million people with a 2.5% growth rate. There are more than 80 ethnic groups including Baya 34%, Banda 28%, Sara 10%, Mandja 9%, Mboum 9%, and M'Baka 7%. The religions are traditional African 35%, protestant 25%, Roman Catholic 25%, and Muslim 15%, and the languages are French and Sangho. The infant mortality rate is 143/1000, with expectancy at 49 years and a 40% literacy rate. The work force of 1 million is 70% agricultural, industry 6% and commerce and service 6% and government 3%. The government consists of a president assisted by cabinet ministers and a single party. Natural resources include diamonds, uranium, timber, gold, and oil, and major industries are beverages, textiles, and soap. Agricultural products feature coffee, cotton, peanuts, tobacco, food crops and livestock. Most of the population live in rural areas and most of the 80 ethnic groups have their own language. This is one of the world's least developed countries, with a per capita income of $375/year. The main problems with development are the poor transportation infrastructure, and the weak internal and international marketing systems. The US and various international organizations have aided in agriculture development, health programs, and family planning. US investment is mainly in diamond and gold mining, and although oil drilling has been successful it is not economically feasible at current prices.

  19. Early African Hominids: Pedagogic Patterns.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, James L.

    1984-01-01

    By studying early African hominids, students can learn about the interactive testing and creative aspects of scientific thinking and sharpen their geographical skills. It is impossible to study this topic without giving prominence to space and time. (RM)

  20. Hepatitis C in African Americans.

    PubMed

    Saab, Sammy; Jackson, Christian; Nieto, Jose; Francois, Fritz

    2014-10-01

    The care of hepatitis C virus (HCV) in African Americans represents an opportunity to address a major health disparity in medicine. In all facets of HCV infection, African Americans are inexplicably affected, including in the prevalence of the virus, which is higher among them compared with most of the racial and ethnic groups. Ironically, although fibrosis rates may be slow, hepatocellular carcinoma and mortality rates appear to be higher among African Americans. Sustained viral response (SVR) rates have historically significantly trailed behind Caucasians. The reasons for this gap in SVR are related to both viral and host factors. Moreover, low enrollment rates in clinical trials hamper the study of the efficacy of anti-viral therapy. Nevertheless, the gap in SVR between African Americans and Caucasians may be narrowing with the use of direct-acting agents. Gastroenterologists, hepatologists, primary care physicians, and other health-care providers need to address modifiable risk factors that affect the natural history, as well as treatment outcomes, for HCV among African Americans. Efforts need to be made to improve awareness among health-care providers to address the differences in screening and referral patterns for African Americans.

  1. The African Pediatric Fellowship Program: Training in Africa for Africans.

    PubMed

    Wilmshurst, Jo M; Morrow, Brenda; du Preez, Avril; Githanga, David; Kennedy, Neil; Zar, Heather J

    2016-01-01

    Africa has a significant burden of childhood disease, with relatively few skilled health care professionals. The African Paediatric Fellowship Programme was developed by the Department of Pediatrics and Child Health at the University of Cape Town to provide relevant training for African child health professionals, by Africans, within Africa. Trainees identified by partner academic institutions spend 6 months to 2 years training in the Department of Pediatrics and allied disciplines. They then return to their home institution to build practice, training, research, and advocacy. From 2008 to 2015, 73 physicians have completed or are completing training in general pediatrics or a pediatric subspecialty. At 1 year posttraining, 98% to 100% are practicing back in their home institution. The impact of the returning fellows is evident from their practice interventions, research collaborations, and positions as stakeholders who can change health care policies. Thirty-three centers in 13 African countries are partners with the program, and the program template is now followed by other partner sites in Africa. Increasing and retaining the skills pool of African child health specialists is building a network of motivated, highly skilled clinicians who are equipped to advance child health in Africa. PMID:26659458

  2. The African Pediatric Fellowship Program: Training in Africa for Africans.

    PubMed

    Wilmshurst, Jo M; Morrow, Brenda; du Preez, Avril; Githanga, David; Kennedy, Neil; Zar, Heather J

    2016-01-01

    Africa has a significant burden of childhood disease, with relatively few skilled health care professionals. The African Paediatric Fellowship Programme was developed by the Department of Pediatrics and Child Health at the University of Cape Town to provide relevant training for African child health professionals, by Africans, within Africa. Trainees identified by partner academic institutions spend 6 months to 2 years training in the Department of Pediatrics and allied disciplines. They then return to their home institution to build practice, training, research, and advocacy. From 2008 to 2015, 73 physicians have completed or are completing training in general pediatrics or a pediatric subspecialty. At 1 year posttraining, 98% to 100% are practicing back in their home institution. The impact of the returning fellows is evident from their practice interventions, research collaborations, and positions as stakeholders who can change health care policies. Thirty-three centers in 13 African countries are partners with the program, and the program template is now followed by other partner sites in Africa. Increasing and retaining the skills pool of African child health specialists is building a network of motivated, highly skilled clinicians who are equipped to advance child health in Africa.

  3. East African Rift

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    Places where the earth's crust has formed deep fissures and the plates have begun to move apart develop rift structures in which elongate blocks have subsided relative to the blocks on either side. The East African Rift is a world-famous example of such rifting. It is characterized by 1) topographic deep valleys in the rift zone, 2) sheer escarpments along the faulted walls of the rift zone, 3) a chain of lakes within the rift, most of the lakes highly saline due to evaporation in the hot temperatures characteristic of climates near the equator, 4) voluminous amounts of volcanic rocks that have flowed from faults along the sides of the rift, and 5) volcanic cones where magma flow was most intense. This example in Kenya displays most of these features near Lake Begoria.

    The image was acquired December 18, 2002, covers an area of 40.5 x 32 km, and is located at 0.1 degrees north latitude, 36.1 degrees east longitude.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  4. An African ethic for nursing?

    PubMed

    Haegert, S

    2000-11-01

    This article derives from a doctoral thesis in which a particular discourse was used as a 'paradigm case'. From this discourse an ethic set within a South African culture arose. Using many cultural 'voices' to aid the understanding of this narrative, the ethic shows that one can build on both a 'justice' and a 'care' ethic. With further development based on African culture one can take the ethic of care deeper and reveal 'layers of understanding'. Care, together with compassion, forms the foundation of morality. Nursing ethics has followed particular western moral philosophers. Often nursing ethics has been taught along the lines of Kohlberg's theory of morality, with its emphasis on rules, rights, duties and general obligations. These principles were universalistic, masculine and noncontextual. However, there is a new ethical movement among Thomist philosophers along the lines to be expounded in this article. Nurses such as Benner, Bevis, Dunlop, Fry and Gadow--to name but a few--have welcomed the concept of an 'ethic of care'. Gilligan's work gave a feminist view and situated ethics in the everyday aspects of responsiveness, responsibility, context and concern. Shutte's search for a 'philosophy for Africa' has resulted in finding similarities in Setiloane and in Senghor with those of Thomist philosophers. Using this African philosophy and a research participant's narrative, an African ethic evolves out of the African proverb: 'A person is a person through other persons', or its alternative rendering: 'I am because we are: we are because I am.' This hermeneutic narrative reveals 'the way affect imbues activity with ethical meaning' within the context of a black nursing sister in a rural South African hospital. It expands upon the above proverb and incorporates the South African constitutional idea of 'Ubuntu' (compassion and justice or humanness).

  5. African American Males. A Critical Link in the African American Family.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Dionne J., Ed.

    African Americans are experiencing extreme stress in the United States, and African-American males appear to suffer the most. The chapters in this volume examine some of the issues confronting African-American men today. They include: (1) "Introduction" (Dionne J. Jones); (2) "Reaffirming Young African American Males: Mentoring and Community…

  6. African American Preschoolers' Language, Emergent Literacy Skills, and Use of African American English: A Complex Relation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connor, Carol McDonald; Craig, Holly K.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined the relation between African American preschoolers' use of African American English (AAE) and their language and emergent literacy skills in an effort to better understand the perplexing and persistent difficulties many African American children experience learning to read proficiently. Method: African American…

  7. African horse sickness.

    PubMed

    Mellor, Philip Scott; Hamblin, Christopher

    2004-01-01

    African horse sickness virus (AHSV) causes a non-contagious, infectious insect-borne disease of equids and is endemic in many areas of sub-Saharan Africa and possibly Yemen in the Arabian Peninsula. However, periodically the virus makes excursions beyond its endemic areas and has at times extended as far as India and Pakistan in the east and Spain and Portugal in the west. The vectors are certain species of Culicoides biting midge the most important of which is the Afro-Asiatic species C. imicola. This paper describes the effects that AHSV has on its equid hosts, aspects of its epidemiology, and present and future prospects for control. The distribution of AHSV seems to be governed by a number of factors including the efficiency of control measures, the presence or absence of a long term vertebrate reservoir and, most importantly, the prevalence and seasonal incidence of the major vector which is controlled by climate. However, with the advent of climate-change the major vector, C. imicola, has now significantly extended its range northwards to include much of Portugal, Spain, Italy and Greece and has even been recorded from southern Switzerland. Furthermore, in many of these new locations the insect is present and active throughout the entire year. With the related bluetongue virus, which utilises the same vector species of Culicoides this has, since 1998, precipitated the worst outbreaks of bluetongue disease ever recorded with the virus extending further north in Europe than ever before and apparently becoming endemic in that continent. The prospects for similar changes in the epidemiology and distribution of AHSV are discussed.

  8. African N Assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bekunda, M.; Galford, G. L.; Hickman, J. E.; Palm, C.

    2011-12-01

    Africa's smallholder agricultural systems face unique challenges in planning for reducing poverty, concurrent with adaptation and mitigation to climate change. At continental level, policy seeks to promote a uniquely African Green Revolution to increase crop yields and food production, and improve local livelihoods. However, the consequences on the environment and climate are not clear; these pro-economic development measures should be linked to climate change adaptation and mitigation measures, and research is required to help achieve these policy proposals by identifying options, and testing impacts. In particular, increased nitrogen (N) inputs are essential for increasing food production in Africa, but are accompanied by inevitable increases in losses to the environment. These losses appear to be low at input levels promoted in agricultural development programs, while the increased N inputs both increase current food production and appear to reduce the vulnerability of food production to changes in climate. We present field and remote sensing evidence from Malawi that subsidizing improved seed and fertilizers increases resilience to drought without adding excess N to the environment. In Kenya, field research identified thresholds in N2O losses, where emissions are very low at fertilization rates of less than 200 kg ha-1. Village-scale models have identified potential inefficiencies in the food production process where the largest losses of reactive N occur, and which could be targeted to reduce the amount of N released to the environment. We further review some on-going research activities and progress in Africa that compare different methods of managing resources that target resilience in food production and adaptation to climate change, using nutrient N as an indicator, while evaluating the effects of these resource management practices on ecosystems and the environment.

  9. African Perceptions of Female Attractiveness

    PubMed Central

    Coetzee, Vinet; Faerber, Stella J.; Greeff, Jaco M.; Lefevre, Carmen E.; Re, Daniel E.; Perrett, David I.

    2012-01-01

    Little is known about mate choice preferences outside Western, educated, industrialised, rich and democratic societies, even though these Western populations may be particularly unrepresentative of human populations. To our knowledge, this is the first study to test which facial cues contribute to African perceptions of African female attractiveness and also the first study to test the combined role of facial adiposity, skin colour (lightness, yellowness and redness), skin homogeneity and youthfulness in the facial attractiveness preferences of any population. Results show that youthfulness, skin colour, skin homogeneity and facial adiposity significantly and independently predict attractiveness in female African faces. Younger, thinner women with a lighter, yellower skin colour and a more homogenous skin tone are considered more attractive. These findings provide a more global perspective on human mate choice and point to a universal role for these four facial cues in female facial attractiveness. PMID:23144734

  10. Plio-pleistocene African climate

    SciTech Connect

    deMenocal, P.B.

    1995-10-06

    Marine records of African climate variability document a shift toward more arid conditions after 2.8 million years ago (Ma), evidently resulting from remote forcing by cold North Atlantic sea-surface temperatures associated with the onset of Northern Hemisphere glacial cycles. African climate before 2.8 Ma was regulated by low-latitude insolation forcing of monsoonal climate due to Earth orbital precession. Major steps in the evolution of African hominids and other vertebrates are coincident with shifts to more arid, open conditions near 2.8 Ma, 1.7 Ma, and 1.0 Ma, suggesting that some Pliocene (Plio)-Pleistocene speciation events may have been climatically mediated. 65 refs., 6 figs.

  11. Plio-Pleistocene African Climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demenocal, Peter B.

    1995-10-01

    Marine records of African climate variability document a shift toward more arid conditions after 2.8 million years ago (Ma), evidently resulting from remote forcing by cold North Atlantic sea-surface temperatures associated with the onset of Northern Hemisphere glacial cycles. African climate before 2.8 Ma was regulated by low-latitude insolation forcing of monsoonal climate due to Earth orbital precession. Major steps in the evolution of African hominids and other vertebrates are coincident with shifts to more arid, open conditions near 2.8 Ma, 1.7 Ma, and 1.0 Ma, suggesting that some Pliocene (Plio)-Pleistocene speciation events may have been climatically mediated.

  12. West African crude production diversifies

    SciTech Connect

    Aalund, L.

    1983-06-01

    Nigeria, with its seven crude-oil export streams, dominated West African production and accounted for over 70% of the depressed 1.8 million b/d output from the region last year. However, during the 1970s a flurry of new producing fields, primarily off the African coast, diversified production among a number of countries and touched off a wave of oil activity. The Journal takes a close look at the quality of West African oil in this installment of assays on world export crudes. This issue covers, in alphabetical order, Bonny Light (Nigeria) to Espoir (Ivory Coast). A following issue will wrap up West Africa by presenting assays on crudes from Forcados Blend (Nigeria) to Zaire Crude (Zaire).

  13. The African Cultural Astronomy Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urama, Johnson O.; Holbrook, Jarita C.

    2011-06-01

    Indigenous, endogenous, traditional, or cultural astronomy focuses on the many ways that people and cultures interact with celestial bodies. In most parts of Africa, there is very little or no awareness about modern astronomy. However, like ancient people everywhere, Africans wondered at the sky and struggled to make sense of it. The African Cultural Astronomy Project aims to unearth the body of traditional knowledge of astronomy possessed by peoples of the different ethnic groups in Africa and to consider scientific interpretations when appropriate for cosmogonies and ancient astronomical practices. Regardless of scientific validity, every scientist can relate to the process of making observations and creating theoretical mechanisms for explaining what is observed. Through linking the traditional and the scientific, it is believed that this would be used to create awareness and interest in astronomy in most parts of Africa. This paper discusses the vision, challenges and prospects of the African Cultural Astronomy Project in her quest to popularize astronomy in Africa.

  14. The African American Image in American Cinema.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bourne, St. Clair

    1990-01-01

    Political conditions have influenced the screen images of U.S. cinema, and the images of African Americans have reflected prevailing social stereotypes. The history of African-American representation in films is traced, and it is noted that the tendency to portray African Americans stereotypically has not changed. (SLD)

  15. Towards a Norm in South African Englishes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Walt, Johann L.; van Rooy, Bertus

    2002-01-01

    Investigates the perception and application of the norm in South African English with specific reference to Black South African English. Hypothesizes that South African English is in the hibernation and expansion phase. Three sets of data are presented and analyzed. (Author/VWL)

  16. African Centered Knowledge: A British Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christian, Mark

    2001-01-01

    Considers the impact of African centered knowledge within the United Kingdom. Recent development of African Diaspora studies has forged links between various black Atlantic communities. The United Kingdom has experienced positive grassroots community response to the work of noted African centered scholars, yet within the British academy,…

  17. Freedom Road: Adult Education of African Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Elizabeth A., Ed.

    This book contains six chapters by various authors about the history of African Americans' contributions and participation in adult education. The book reports on how some African American leaders saw the connection between education and the eventual freedom or uplift of the African American people. Following a foreword (Phyllis M. Cunningham) and…

  18. An Introduction to West African Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taiwo, Oladele

    Intended to provide help for those interested in studying West African literature, this book is divided into three parts. Part One provides background information: the various African oral traditions are discussed, related to the way of life of the people, and examined for the extent to which they form the basis of present West African literary…

  19. Engaging African Americans in Smoking Cessation Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallen, Jacqueline; Randolph, Suzanne; Carter-Pokras, Olivia; Feldman, Robert; Kanamori-Nishimura, Mariano

    2014-01-01

    Background: African Americans are disproportionately exposed to and targeted by prosmoking advertisements, particularly menthol cigarette ads. Though African Americans begin smoking later than whites, they are less likely to quit smoking than whites. Purpose: This study was designed to explore African American smoking cessation attitudes,…

  20. African American Teaching and the Matriarchal Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeffries, Rhonda Baynes

    This paper discusses the role of matriarchs in African-American culture, explaining that traditionally, African-American matriarchs arise from a combination of African norms and American social positions that naturally forces them to assume leadership conditions. The roles these women assume are a response to the desire to survive in a society…

  1. The Economic Question and the African Novel.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okonkwo, J. I.

    1989-01-01

    Presents examples of how African novelists express their ideas on the restructuring of African economic orders and the social and political implications that emanate from them. Discusses the present state of the African economy reflected in the visions of these writers, and their visions of future socio-economic health of Africa. (JS)

  2. Content-based Instruction for African Languages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moshi, Lioba

    2001-01-01

    Examines content-based instruction for African languages and considers Schleicher's (2000) expatiation of goal-based instruction for African languages. Focuses on the parameters for content-based instruction, the profile of a content-based instructional program, the nature of content-based instruction, the first steps for African languages, and…

  3. Complex Syntax Production of African American Preschoolers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Sandra C.; Roberts, Joanne E.

    2001-01-01

    This study examined changes in the complex syntax production of 85 African American preschoolers and the role of child (gender, age, African American English) and family (home environment) factors. Age, gender, and home environment effects were found for the amount of complex language used. African American English was not related to amount of…

  4. Heart failure in African Americans.

    PubMed

    Yancy, Clyde W

    2005-10-10

    The demographics of the United States are changing, and in the next few decades there will no longer be a racial/ethnic majority population. Increased awareness of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in special populations is warranted as these populations increase. Heart failure carries a substantial burden on those affected, particularly African Americans, who have a disproportionate burden of heart disease. Current treatments for heart failure include angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, beta-blockers, angiotensin II-receptor antagonists, and vasodilating agents. This review discusses the unique characteristics of CVD in African Americans and addresses the need for targeted treatments to reduce the excess burden found in this population.

  5. Classic African American Children's Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNair, Jonda C.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to assert that there are classic African American children's books and to identify a sampling of them. The author presents multiple definitions of the term classic based on the responses of children's literature experts and relevant scholarship. Next, the manner in which data were collected and analyzed in regard to…

  6. Wellness among African American Counselors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Day-Vines, Norma L.; Holcomb-McCoy, Cheryl

    2007-01-01

    Although there are various definitions of wellness, few conceptual definitions have addressed the contextual dimensions of wellness relative to African American counselors. The authors present an overview of generic models of wellness, discuss factors that both inhibit and promote wellness, offer some culture-specific models of wellness, and…

  7. Liberia: America's Closest African Ally.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Samuel; Mowell, Barry

    1997-01-01

    Profiles Liberia, the West African nation patterned after the United States and colonized with freed U.S. slaves in the early 19th century. Reviews the country's history and its eruption into civil strife in 1990, showing how tensions have often characterized relationships between Liberians of different ethnic identities. (MJP)

  8. Improvisation in West African Musics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Locke, David

    1980-01-01

    Discussed is music of the sub-Sahara. Vocal, instrumental, and dance drumming from the Sudan Desert, the North Coast, East Horn, Central and West Africa, and contrapuntal yodeling of Pygmies is described. For African musicians, the ability to improvise, and creativity, are gifts from God. Includes selected readings and recordings. (KC)

  9. African American Men in College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cuyjet, Michael J., Ed.

    2006-01-01

    This book is a much-needed resource that includes examples of real-world programs and activities to enhance academic success in the college environment for African American men. The examples are collected from a variety of institutions across the country. With contributions from leading practitioners and scholars in the field, this book explores…

  10. Developing anatomical terms in an African language.

    PubMed

    Madzimbamuto, Farai Daniel

    2012-03-01

    Clinical and technical information imparted in most African languages involves inexact terminology and code switching, so it lacks the explanatory power characterised by the English language. African languages are absent in the tertiary science education environment and forums where African scientists could present scientific material in the medium of African languages. This limits the development of African languages in the scientific domain. There has recently been a trend in several African languages to develop and intellectualise them, especially in the field of medical sciences. The ChiShona language is used to explore the ability of an African language to develop new terminology, to name the vertebral skeleton and describe it scientifically. It uses word compounding to demonstrate terminology development. ChiShona has similarities with several hundred other Bantu languages in East, Central and Southern Africa. Advancing this language can promote similar developments in others, making them more explanatory for the lay public and health professionals. PMID:22380900

  11. Coming of Age: African American Male Rites-of-Passage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Paul, Jr.

    An overview is provided of issues confronting the African American male, along with a strategy to nurture a new generation of African American males. Chapters 1 and 2 focus on the social status and new demographics of the African American male and the external threats that are devastating to the African American male and the African American…

  12. The UCAR Africa Initiative: Enabling African Solutions to African Needs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandya, R.; Bruintjes, R.; Foote, B.; Heck, S.; Hermann, S.; Hoswell, L.; Konate, M.; Kucera, P.; Laing, A.; Lamptey, B.; Moncrieff, M.; Ramamurthy, M.; Roberts, R.; Spangler, T.; Traoré, A.; Yoksas, T.; Warner, T.

    2007-12-01

    The University Corporation for Atmospheric Research (UCAR) Africa Initiative (AI) is a coordinated effort aimed at building sustainable partnerships between UCAR and African institutions in order to pursue research and applications for the benefit of the African people. The initiative is based on four fundamental operating principles, concisely summarized by the overall philosophy of enabling African solutions to African needs. The four principles are: • Collaborate with African institutions • Focus on institutional capacity building and research support • Explore science research themes critical to Africa and important for the world • Leverage the research infrastructure in UCAR to add value These principles are realized in a set of pilot activities, chosen for their high probability of short-term results and ability to set the stage for longer-term collaboration. The three pilot activities are listed below. 1. A modest radar network and data-distribution system in Mali and Burkina Faso, including a data-sharing MOU between the Mail and Burkina Faso Weather Services. 2. A partnership among UCAR, the Ghana Meteorological Agency, and the Ghana university community to develop an operational Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model for West Africa. The output is used by researchers and operational forecasters in Africa. Model output is also part of a demonstration project that aims to allow humanitarian agencies to share geo-referenced information in Africa via a web portal. 3. A workshop in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso from April 2-6, 2007, with the theme Improving Lives by Understanding Weather. The workshop, co-organized with Programme SAAGA and the Commité Permanent Inter-Etats de Lutte Contre la Sécheresse dans le Sahel (CILSS), included over 80 participants from 18 countries, and produced a set of recommendations for continued collaboration. Our presentation will provide an update of these pilot activities and point to future directions. Recognizing

  13. Schistosomes in South African penguins.

    PubMed

    Aldhoun, Jitka A; Horne, Elizabeth C

    2015-01-01

    During the years 2009-2012, faeces of African penguins (Spheniscus demersus L.) from South African rehabilitation centres were examined for helminths. In total, 46 out 555 samples (8.29 %), mostly belonging to adult birds, were found to contain oval schistosome eggs with a spine on one pole. Their dimensions were 153.21 ± 9.07 × 87.14 ± 8.67 μm. Selected DNA fragments (18S, 28S and ITS rDNA) were sequenced and compared to other schistosome isolates deposited in GenBank. The shape of the eggs suggests that they belong to the genus Gigantobilharzia; however, due to the insufficient stage of knowledge of the genus and limited number of species available for comparison, we were not able to assign the isolate unambiguously to this genus based on either the egg morphology or the results of molecular analysis. PMID:25339513

  14. Schistosomes in South African penguins.

    PubMed

    Aldhoun, Jitka A; Horne, Elizabeth C

    2015-01-01

    During the years 2009-2012, faeces of African penguins (Spheniscus demersus L.) from South African rehabilitation centres were examined for helminths. In total, 46 out 555 samples (8.29 %), mostly belonging to adult birds, were found to contain oval schistosome eggs with a spine on one pole. Their dimensions were 153.21 ± 9.07 × 87.14 ± 8.67 μm. Selected DNA fragments (18S, 28S and ITS rDNA) were sequenced and compared to other schistosome isolates deposited in GenBank. The shape of the eggs suggests that they belong to the genus Gigantobilharzia; however, due to the insufficient stage of knowledge of the genus and limited number of species available for comparison, we were not able to assign the isolate unambiguously to this genus based on either the egg morphology or the results of molecular analysis.

  15. Mental health concerns among African immigrants.

    PubMed

    Venters, Homer; Adekugbe, Olayinka; Massaquoi, Jacob; Nadeau, Cheryl; Saul, Jack; Gany, Francesca

    2011-08-01

    African immigrants represent a rapidly expanding group of immigrants in the United States. In New York City, Africans constitute the fastest growing segment of immigrants but the needs and practices of African immigrants in the U.S. remain poorly understood. A community based organization (CBO) serving African immigrants in Staten Island, NY began a health screening program in 2008 with the goal of promoting access to primary care. Over 18 months, 296 visits were recorded at African Refuge health screenings, representing a total of 87 people who averaged just over 3 visits per person. The screenings identified mental health among the top three medical problems of clients but referral to mental health services was rare. Dedicated services are required to better screen for mental health concerns and refer African immigrants to mental health care.

  16. Hair care practices in African American women.

    PubMed

    Quinn, Chemene R; Quinn, Timothy M; Kelly, A Paul

    2003-10-01

    Hair care in African American women is wrought with historical and cultural issues. Dermatologists need to improve their understanding of hair and scalp disorders in their African American patient population by being informed about the styling methods commonly used by and for these patients. The styling habits described in this article are intended to encompass the hairstyles adapted by a wide range of African American women with varying hair textures.

  17. African American Therapists Working with African American Families: An Exploration of the Strengths Perspective in Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell-Tolliver, Laverne; Burgess, Ruby; Brock, Linda J.

    2009-01-01

    With the exception of Hill's (1971, 1999) work, historically much of the literature on African American families has focused more on pathology than strengths. This study used interviews with 30 African American psychotherapists, self-identified as employing a strengths perspective with African American families, to investigate which strengths they…

  18. 75 FR 2844 - African Development Foundation, Board of Directors Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-19

    ...; ] AFRICAN DEVELOPMENT FOUNDATION African Development Foundation, Board of Directors Meeting Time: Tuesday, January 26, 2010, 8:30 a.m. to 1 p.m. Place: African Development Foundation, Conference Room, 1400...

  19. 75 FR 14418 - African Development Foundation, Board of Directors Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-25

    ...; ] AFRICAN DEVELOPMENT FOUNDATION African Development Foundation, Board of Directors Meeting Time: Tuesday, April 13, 2010, 9:30 a.m. to 1 p.m. Place: African Development Foundation, Conference Room, 1400...

  20. 75 FR 45600 - African Development Foundation, Board of Directors Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-03

    ...; ] AFRICAN DEVELOPMENT FOUNDATION African Development Foundation, Board of Directors Meeting Time: Tuesday, August 17, 2010, 8:30 a.m. to 1 p.m. Place: African Development Foundation, Conference Room, 1400...

  1. Gentle Africanized bees on an oceanic island

    PubMed Central

    Rivera-Marchand, Bert; Oskay, Devrim; Giray, Tugrul

    2012-01-01

    Oceanic islands have reduced resources and natural enemies and potentially affect life history traits of arriving organisms. Among the most spectacular invasions in the Western hemisphere is that of the Africanized honeybee. We hypothesized that in the oceanic island Puerto Rico, Africanized bees will exhibit differences from the mainland population such as for defensiveness and other linked traits. We evaluated the extent of Africanization through three typical Africanized traits: wing size, defensive behavior, and resistance to Varroa destructor mites. All sampled colonies were Africanized by maternal descent, with over 65% presence of European alleles at the S-3 nuclear locus. In two assays evaluating defense, Puerto Rican bees showed low defensiveness similar to European bees. In morphology and resistance to mites, Africanized bees from Puerto Rico are similar to other Africanized bees. In behavioral assays on mechanisms of resistance to Varroa, we directly observed that Puerto Rican Africanized bees groomed-off and bit the mites as been observed in other studies. In no other location, Africanized bees have reduced defensiveness while retaining typical traits such as wing size and mite resistance. This mosaic of traits that has resulted during the invasion of an oceanic island has implications for behavior, evolution, and agriculture. PMID:23144660

  2. Gentle Africanized bees on an oceanic island.

    PubMed

    Rivera-Marchand, Bert; Oskay, Devrim; Giray, Tugrul

    2012-11-01

    Oceanic islands have reduced resources and natural enemies and potentially affect life history traits of arriving organisms. Among the most spectacular invasions in the Western hemisphere is that of the Africanized honeybee. We hypothesized that in the oceanic island Puerto Rico, Africanized bees will exhibit differences from the mainland population such as for defensiveness and other linked traits. We evaluated the extent of Africanization through three typical Africanized traits: wing size, defensive behavior, and resistance to Varroa destructor mites. All sampled colonies were Africanized by maternal descent, with over 65% presence of European alleles at the S-3 nuclear locus. In two assays evaluating defense, Puerto Rican bees showed low defensiveness similar to European bees. In morphology and resistance to mites, Africanized bees from Puerto Rico are similar to other Africanized bees. In behavioral assays on mechanisms of resistance to Varroa, we directly observed that Puerto Rican Africanized bees groomed-off and bit the mites as been observed in other studies. In no other location, Africanized bees have reduced defensiveness while retaining typical traits such as wing size and mite resistance. This mosaic of traits that has resulted during the invasion of an oceanic island has implications for behavior, evolution, and agriculture.

  3. Race, health, and the African Diaspora.

    PubMed

    Spigner, Clarence

    Health inequalities exist throughout the African Diaspora and are viewed in this article as largely color-coded. In developed, developing, and undeveloped nations today, "racial" stratification is consistently reflected in an inability to provide adequate health regardless of national policy or ideology. For instance, African Americans experience less than adequate health care very similar to Blacks in Britain, in spite of each nations differing health systems. Latin America's Africana Negra communities experience poorer health similar to Blacks throughout the Caribbean. The African continent itself is arguably the poorest on earth. A common history of racism correlates with health disparities across the African Diaspora.

  4. Suicidal Behaviors in the African American Community

    PubMed Central

    Crosby, Alex; Molock, Sherry Davis

    2006-01-01

    This article reviews the risk and protective factors associated with suicidal thoughts and behaviors in the African American community. The authors provide a brief review of the history of suicide research in African American communities and critique some of the paradigms and underlying assumptions that have made it difficult to address the problem of suicidal behaviors in the African American community. The article also summarizes the articles that are presented in this special edition of the Journal of Black Psychology on suicidality in the African American community. PMID:17047727

  5. Precolonial African History. AHA Pamphlets, 501.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curtin, Philip D.

    This pamphlet surveys western historiography of precolonial Africa. Prior to World War II, African history emphasized the European role in Africa, relegating African history before European colonization to minor importance. Only after the increase in university enrollments and funding in the 1960's did opportunities for innovative research and new…

  6. African Education and Globalization: Critical Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abdi, Ali A., Ed.; Puplampu, Korbla P., Ed.; Dei, George J. Sefa, Ed.

    2006-01-01

    Containing both theoretical discussions of globalization and specific case analyses of individual African countries, this collection of essays examines the intersections of African education and globalization with multiple analytical and geographical emphases and intentions. The 11 essays critically analyze the issues from historical, cultural,…

  7. Prostate cancer in men of African origin.

    PubMed

    McGinley, Kathleen F; Tay, Kae Jack; Moul, Judd W

    2016-02-01

    Men of African origin are disproportionately affected by prostate cancer: prostate cancer incidence is highest among men of African origin in the USA, prostate cancer mortality is highest among men of African origin in the Caribbean, and tumour stage and grade at diagnosis are highest among men in sub-Saharan Africa. Socioeconomic, educational, cultural, and genetic factors, as well as variations in care delivery and treatment selection, contribute to this cancer disparity. Emerging data on single-nucleotide-polymorphism patterns, epigenetic changes, and variations in fusion-gene products among men of African origin add to the understanding of genetic differences underlying this disease. On the diagnosis of prostate cancer, when all treatment options are available, men of African origin are more likely to choose radiation therapy or to receive no definitive treatment than white men. Among men of African origin undergoing surgery, increased rates of biochemical recurrence have been identified. Understanding differences in the cancer-survivorship experience and quality-of-life outcomes among men of African origin are critical to appropriately counsel patients and improve cultural sensitivity. Efforts to curtail prostate cancer screening will likely affect men of African origin disproportionately and widen the racial disparity of disease.

  8. Improving African American Achievement in Geometry Honors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mims, Adrian B.

    2010-01-01

    This case study evaluated the significance of implementing an enrichment mathematics course during the summer to rising African American ninth graders entitled, "Geometry Honors Preview." In the past, 60 to 70 percent of African American students in this school district had withdrawn from Geometry Honors by the second academic quarter. This study…

  9. African (Black) Psychology: Issues and Synthesis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baldwin, Joseph A.

    1986-01-01

    Reviews the recent attempts of Black psychologists and social scientists to formulate a conceptual-operational framework for the study of psychological phenomena as they bear on the cultural-survival conditions of Black-African people. Outlines issues and problems in the attempt to define African (Black) psychology and discusses its relation to…

  10. Kenya's Maligned African Press: A Reassessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scotton, James F.

    Kenya's dozen or more newspapers and 50 news sheets edited and published by Africans in the turbulent 1945-52 preindependence period were condemned as irresponsible, inflammatory, antiwhite, and seditious by the Kenya colonial government, and this characterization has been accepted by many scholars and journalists, including Africans. There is…

  11. Cancer and the African American Experience

    Cancer.gov

    The first plenary of the EPEC-O (Education in Palliative and End-of-Life Care for Oncology) Self-Study: Cultural Considerations When Caring for African Americans explores the many factors that lead to inequalities in cancer care outcomes for African Americans.

  12. African American Undergraduates and the Academic Library

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitmire, Ethelene

    2006-01-01

    This study examines the academic library experiences of African American undergraduates attending a research university in the Midwest. Data collection techniques included questionnaires and ethnographic observations. The results indicated that African American undergraduates are using the academic library primarily to read and to study with their…

  13. Children Ask Questions about West African Art.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abercrombie, Denice; Cochran, Mathilda; Mims, Margaret

    1997-01-01

    Presents a collection of questions that fifth-grade students asked about African artwork and answers provided by staff from the Museum of Fine Arts in Houston, Texas. Observes that students' interest in important visual aspects of the art creates lead-ins to more detailed discussions of West African art and culture. (DSK)

  14. Genetics Home Reference: African iron overload

    MedlinePlus

    ... of a genetic condition? Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center Frequency African iron overload is common in rural areas of central and ... more about the gene associated with African iron overload SLC40A1 Related Information What is a gene? What is a gene ...

  15. An African Perspective on Human Rights.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shiman, David

    1992-01-01

    Presents a series of classroom activities comparing differing views of human rights in the United Nations Universal Declaration of Human Rights and the African Charter on Human and People's Rights. Includes excerpts from the African Charter on Human and People's Rights and the full text of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. (CFR)

  16. Smoking Cessation in African-Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahluwalia, Jasjit S.

    1996-01-01

    Because the smoking behavior of African Americans differs considerably from that of other groups, researchers examined differences between African Americans who did and did not use the nicotine patch as an adjunct to counseling and education for smoking cessation. Results indicated the nicotine patch significantly improved six-month cessation…

  17. New data on African health professionals abroad

    PubMed Central

    Clemens, Michael A; Pettersson, Gunilla

    2008-01-01

    Background The migration of doctors and nurses from Africa to developed countries has raised fears of an African medical brain drain. But empirical research on the causes and effects of the phenomenon has been hampered by a lack of systematic data on the extent of African health workers' international movements. Methods We use destination-country census data to estimate the number of African-born doctors and professional nurses working abroad in a developed country circa 2000, and compare this to the stocks of these workers in each country of origin. Results Approximately 65,000 African-born physicians and 70,000 African-born professional nurses were working overseas in a developed country in the year 2000. This represents about one fifth of African-born physicians in the world, and about one tenth of African-born professional nurses. The fraction of health professionals abroad varies enormously across African countries, from 1% to over 70% according to the occupation and country. Conclusion These numbers are the first standardized, systematic, occupation-specific measure of skilled professionals working in developed countries and born in a large number of developing countries. PMID:18186916

  18. The African American Woman. Runta (Truth).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Monica L.; Watson, Betty Collier, Ed.

    1989-01-01

    The African American woman has commanded widespread public attention, but popular misconceptions of her socioeconomic role and status differ sharply from her actual situation. The following basic characteristics of the contemporary African American woman, drawn from census figures, are outlined: (1) demographically, females comprise a majority of…

  19. A Mirror Image African American Student Reflections

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cannon Dawson, Candice

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation is a narrative inquiry research project that focuses on the collegiate experiences of African American students at both historically black colleges and universities (HBCUs) and predominantly white institutions (PWIs). I look at how African American college students who engage in race or culturally specific activities, the degree…

  20. African Higher Education: An International Reference Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teferra, Damtew, Ed.; Altbach, Philip G., Ed.

    This book is a comprehensive survey of all aspects and dimensions of higher education in Africa. It includes a historical overview of higher education, descriptions of the higher education systems in each African country, and analyses of current and timely topics in higher education. Part 1, "Themes," contains 13 essays on trends in African higher…

  1. African American Art: A Los Angeles Legacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Harriet

    This curriculum unit focuses on the importance of Los Angeles (California) as a center for African American art and shows how African American artists have developed their own styles and how critics and collectors have encouraged them. The unit consists of four lessons, each of which can stand alone or be used in conjunction with the others. It…

  2. British African Caribbean Women and Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adkison-Bradley, Carla; Maynard, Donna; Johnson, Phillip; Carter, Stephaney

    2009-01-01

    Depression is a common condition among women in the United Kingdom. However, little is known about the context of depression among British African Caribbean women. This article offers a preliminary discussion regarding issues and information pertaining to depression among British African Caribbean women. Characteristics and symptoms of depression…

  3. Heart Truth for African American Women

    MedlinePlus

    THE HEART TRUTH ® FOR AFRICAN AMERICAN WOMEN: AN ACTION PLAN When you hear the term “heart disease,” what’s your first reaction? Like many women, you may ... in four women dies of heart disease. For African American women, the risk of heart disease is especially ...

  4. Kunta Kinte's Struggle to be African

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Courlander, Harold

    1986-01-01

    This article reveals the differences between the character Kunta Kinte and the historical record concerning African males in the preslavery period. Kunta's non-African behaviors include displays of blind anger and rage, prudishness, and actions unknown in his Mandinka culture. These represent the many misrepresentations and ambiguities in Alex…

  5. The African Diaspora: A Literary Overview.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duodu, Mark W.

    1988-01-01

    Identifies historical factors crucial to the evolution of Black literature in America and the Caribbean, including the triangular trade that displaced and destroyed many Africans, the literary movements of Negritude and the Harlem Renaissance, and the literary collaboration between American and African writers. (DMM)

  6. Computer Networks and African Studies Centers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuntz, Patricia S.

    The use of electronic communication in the 12 Title VI African Studies Centers is discussed, and the networks available for their use are reviewed. It is argued that the African Studies Centers should be on the cutting edge of contemporary electronic communication and that computer networks should be a fundamental aspect of their programs. An…

  7. Hidden Education among African Americans during Slavery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gundaker, Grey

    2007-01-01

    Background/Context: Historical studies examine aspects of African American education in and out of school in detail (Woodson 1915, 1933, Bullock 1970, Anderson 1988, Morris 1982, Rachal 1986, Rose 1964, Webber 1978, Williams 2005). Scholars of African American literacy have noted ways that education intersects other arenas such as religion and…

  8. Traditional African Religion: A Resource Unit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garland, William E.

    This resource unit is based on research conducted by Lynn Mitchell and Ernest Valenzuela, experienced classroom teachers of African history and culture. The unit consists of an introduction by Mr. Garland and two major parts. Part I is an annotated bibliography of selected sources on various aspects of traditional African Religion useful in…

  9. South African Education Program: An Evaluation Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ladd, Florence C.

    Consequences of participation in the South African Education Program, which enabled 290 South Africans to study in the United States between 1979 and 1985, were evaluated. Attention was directed to outcomes of participation and the educational experience and intellectual and social growth experienced by the students and alumni, who were Black…

  10. African American Teachers and Culturally Relevant Pedagogy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Michele

    An overview is presented of research on African American teachers, addressing the large body of literature written by policy analysts, first-person narratives, and the sociological and anthropological literature. Policy research has identified the small number of African American teachers and has studied some reasons for this shortage and some of…

  11. Reading Comprehension among African American Graduate Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Onwuegbuzie, Anthony J.; Mayes, Eric; Arthur, Leslie; Johnson, Joseph; Robinson, Veronica; Ashe, Shante; Elbedour, Salman; Collins, Kathleen M. T.

    2004-01-01

    A study was conducted to examine the reading comprehension performance of African American graduate students. The result showed that though the African American sample attained statistically significantly higher levels of reading comprehension than a normative sample of undergraduate students, they achieved lower levels of reading comprehension…

  12. The TG/HDL-C ratio does not predict insulin resistance in overweight women of African descent: a study of South African, African American and West African women.

    PubMed

    Knight, Michael G; Goedecke, Julia H; Ricks, Madia; Evans, Juliet; Levitt, Naomi S; Tulloch-Reid, Marshall K; Sumner, Anne E

    2011-01-01

    Women of African descent have a high prevalence of diseases caused by insulin resistance. To positively impact cardiometabolic health in Black women, effective screening tests for insulin resistance must be identified. Recently, the TG/HDL-C ratio has been recommended as a tool to predict insulin resistance in overweight people. While the ratio predicts insulin resistance in White women, it is ineffective in African American women. As there are no data for African women, we tested the ability of the TG/HDL-C ratio to predict insulin resistance in Black women from South Africa, West Africa and the United States. For comparison, the ratio was also tested in White women from South Africa. Participants were 801 women (157 Black South African, 382 African American, 119 West African, 143 White South African, age 36 +/- 9y [mean +/- SD]). Standardized scores were created from log-transformed homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance values from each population. Participants in the upper third of their population distribution were classified as insulin-resistant. To predict insulin resistance by the TC/HDL-C ratio, area under the receiver operating characteristic (AUC-ROC) curve was used and criteria were: 0.50 for no discrimination and > or = 0.70 for acceptable. Seventy-one percent of the Black women were overweight vs 51% of White women (P<.01). In overweight White women, AUC-ROC curve for prediction of insulin resistance by TG/HDL-C was 0.76 +/- 0.06, but below the 0.70 threshold in each group of overweight Black women (Black South African: 0.64 +/- 0.06, African American: 0.66 +/- 0.03, and West African: 0.63 +/- 0.07). Therefore, TG/HDL-C does not predict insulin resistance in overweight African American women and this investigation extends that finding to overweight Black South African and West African women. Resources to identify effective markers of insulin resistance are needed to improve cardiometabolic health in women of African descent.

  13. African Americans and the medical establishment.

    PubMed

    Smith, C

    1999-09-01

    The African American community's response to the AIDS epidemic has reflected the profound mistrust of the medical establishment which many African Americans feel. Among African Americans, the belief that the epidemic originated in a genocidal plot is widespread. It is thought that organized medicine has been significantly involved in this plot. If we look at African Americans' historical relationship to the medical establishment from the era of slavery to the recent past, the suspicious attitudes which make such beliefs possible can be seen as an intelligible response to a new disease which disproportionately affects African Americans. Successful medical and public health responses to the epidemic have depended and will continue to depend upon overcoming the historical legacy of suspicion and gaining the trust of the community.

  14. Relationships among obesity, inflammation, and insulin resistance in African Americans and West Africans.

    PubMed

    Doumatey, Ayo P; Lashley, Kerrie S; Huang, Hanxia; Zhou, Jie; Chen, Guanjie; Amoah, Albert; Agyenim-Boateng, Kofi; Oli, Johnnie; Fasanmade, Olufemi; Adebamowo, Clement A; Adeyemo, Adebowale A; Rotimi, Charles N

    2010-03-01

    Several research studies in different populations indicate that inflammation may be the link between obesity and insulin resistance (IR). However, this relationship has not been adequately explored among African Americans, an ethnic group with disproportionately high rates of obesity and IR. In this study, we conducted a comparative study of the relationship among adiposity, inflammation, and IR in African Americans and West Africans, the ancestral source population for African Americans. The associations between obesity markers (BMI and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR)), inflammatory markers (high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), haptoglobin, interleukin (IL)-6, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha), and IR (homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA(IR))) were evaluated in 247 West Africans and 315 African Americans. In average, African Americans were heavier than the West Africans (by an average of 1.6 BMI units for women and 3 BMI units for men). Plasma hsCRP, haptoglobin, and IL-6 (but not TNF-alpha level) were higher in African Americans than in West Africans. In both populations, BMI was associated with markers of inflammation and with HOMA(IR), and these associations remained significant after adjusting for sex and age. However, the pattern of associations between measured inflammatory markers and IR was different between the two groups. In West Africans, hsCRP was the only inflammatory marker associated with IR. In contrast, hsCRP, haptoglobin, and IL-6 were all associated with IR in African Americans. Interestingly, none of the associations between markers of inflammation and IR remained significant after adjusting for BMI. This finding suggests that in African Americans, the relationship between inflammatory markers and IR is mediated by adiposity.

  15. The Call for an African University: A Critical Reflection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Wyk, Berte; Higgs, Philip

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we draw on philosophy (particularly African philosophy) to analyse the call for an African university. The call for an African university may be viewed as a call that insists that all critical and transformative educators in Africa embrace an indigenous African worldview and root their nation's educational paradigms in an indigenous…

  16. Fatigue Severity among African Americans: Gender and Age Interactions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Song, Sharon; Jason, Leonard A.; Taylor, Renee R.; Torres-Harding, Susan R.; Helgerson, Jena; Witter, Elizabeth

    2002-01-01

    Investigated the relationship between fatigue, age, and gender among African Americans, Caucasians, and Latinos. Survey results found significant age and gender interactions among African Americans and Caucasians. African American women and older African American men had the highest fatigue rates. There was no significant difference in levels of…

  17. The African-American History of Martha's Vineyard.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weintraub, Elaine

    1993-01-01

    Reports on research into African American history and experiences in Martha's Vineyard (Massachusetts). Examines primary sources and oral traditions of African American cultural and social history from 1703 to the present. Discusses African American sailors, race relations, and contributions by African American individuals to the community. (CFR)

  18. Racism: perceptions of distress among African Americans.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Vetta L Sanders

    2002-04-01

    Some scholars have suggested that stressful living conditions are a major source of mental disorder among African Americans (Krieger, 1999; Neighbors, 1990; Kessler & Neighbors, 1986). There has, however, been debate as to whether this higher level of distress is due to racism or the fact that African Americans are more often of lower socioeconomic status. Stressors that play a significant role in mental disorder might be expected to occur more frequently among African Americans than the general population. This paper attempts to provide empirical support for the notion that racism is a separate and unique source of stress for African Americans. Specifically, it was hypothesized that African Americans would report more experiences of (1) daily stress and (2) racism than other groups and (3) the impact of racial stress would be greater among African Americans. One hundred and fifty six participants completed the Daily Stress Inventory and the Experience of Discrimination questionnaire. Multivariate analysis of variance indicated that African Americans reported higher impact of discrimination scores than European Americans. There were no gender or ethnicity differences in daily stress or the number of racial incidents reported. The implications of the data are discussed.

  19. Constraining the African pole of rotation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asfaw, Laike M.

    1992-08-01

    In the absence of well defined transform faults in the East African rift system for constraining the plate kinematic reconstruction, the pole of relative motion for the African (Nubian) and Somalian plates has been determined from residual motion. If Africa and Somalia are to continue to drift apart along the East African rift system (which would then evolve into a series of ridges offset by transform faults) then incipient transform faults that may reflect the direction of relative motion should already be in place along the East African rift system. The incipient transforms along the East African rift system are characterized by shear zones, such as the Zambezi shear zone in the south and the Aswa and Hamer shear zones in the north. Some of these shear zones have been associated with recent strike-slip faulting in the NW-SE direction during periods of earthquakes. Provided that these, consistently NW-SE oriented, strike-slip movements in the shear zones give the direction of relative motion of the adjacent plates, then they can be used to constrain the position of the Africa-Somalia Euler pole. Due to the fact that identifying transform faults in the East African rift system is difficult and because the genesis of transform faults characterizing a plate boundary at an inception stage is not well known, the discussion here is limited to the northern segment of the East African rift system where shear zones are better characterized by the existing geophysical data. The characterizing features vary with latitude, indicating the complexity of the problem of the genesis of transform faults. I believe, however, that the relatively well defined intra-continental transform fault in the northern East African rift system, which is characterized by strike-slip faulting and earthquakes, constrains the pole of relative motion for the African and Somalian plates to a position near 1.5°S and 29.0°E.

  20. The Epworth Score in African American Populations

    PubMed Central

    Hayes, Amanda L.; Spilsbury, James C.; Patel, Sanjay R.

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: African Americans have elevated scores on the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) compared to whites. The reason for this difference is not clear. Methods: Responses to the ESS were assessed in 687 patients (52.3% African American) referred to a hospital-based sleep clinic. Differences in total ESS score and the scores on individual Epworth questions were compared in African Americans and whites. Findings were validated in an independent sleep apnea research cohort of 712 subjects (57.3% African Americans). Results: African Americans in the clinic-based population had a higher mean ESS score than whites (11.4 ± 0.3 vs. 9.8 ± 0.3, p < 0.0001). This difference persisted after adjusting for sleepiness risk factors. In adjusted analyses including responses to the other ESS questions, African Americans scored significantly greater on 3 of the 8 ESS component questions: questions 2-“Watching TV,” 6-“Sitting and talking to someone,” and 7-“Sitting quietly after lunch without alcohol.” In the validation cohort, African Americans also had a higher mean ESS score (9.1 ± 0.3, vs. 8.2 ± 0.3, p = 0.04). In addition they had significantly elevated scores on questions 6 and 7 (p = 0.0002, p = 0.012 respectively) even after adjusting for responses to the other Epworth questions. Conclusions: African Americans have greater sleepiness than whites as assessed by the ESS; this is independent of sleepiness risk factors. The difference appears due primarily to differences in responses to questions 6 and 7 of the ESS questions suggesting a difference in the interpretation of these 2 questions. Citation: Hayes AL; Spilsbury JC; Patel SR. The Epworth score in African American populations. J Clin Sleep Med 2009;5(4):344-348. PMID:19968012

  1. African American Women's Preparation for Childbirth From the Perspective of African American Health-Care Providers.

    PubMed

    Abbyad, Christine; Robertson, Trina Reed

    2011-01-01

    Preparation for birthing has focused primarily on Caucasian women. No studies have explored African American women's birth preparation. From the perceptions of 12 African American maternity health-care providers, this study elicited perceptions of the ways in which pregnant African American women prepare for childbirth. Focus group participants answered seven semistructured questions. Four themes emerged: connecting with nurturers, traversing an unresponsive system, the need to be strong, and childbirth classes not a priority. Recommendations for nurses and childbirth educators include: (a) self-awareness of attitudes toward African Americans, (b) empowering of clients for birthing, (c) recognition of the role that pregnant women's mothers play, (d) tailoring of childbirth classes for African American women, and (e) research on how racism influences pregnant African American women's preparation for birthing.

  2. Enslaved Africans and doctors in South Carolina.

    PubMed Central

    Goodson, Martia Graham

    2003-01-01

    This interpretation of the relationship between enslavement and American medicine in 19th century South Carolina reveals the intimacy that existed between Africans enslaved in that state and the doctors who practiced and taught there. Enslaved Africans were resourceful and reliable medical figures in the slave community. Their knowledge of medical botany permeated the slave quarters and plantation hospitals and was appropriated into southern medical knowledge. The trajectories of the careers of three South Carolina physicians are tied to their practice around and on the enslaved. The beginnings of gynecological surgery are linked to 1840s experimentation on enslaved African women performed by one of them. PMID:12749683

  3. Substance abuse in African American women.

    PubMed

    Wingo, L K

    2001-01-01

    Substance abuse is a serious problem from which, regardless of sex or race, no one is immune. Each racial and gender group has specific etiological factors relating to the use of illicit drugs. Data regarding substance abuse in African American women has only recently begun to emerge in the literature. Issues such as socio-economic, racism, and sexism, place African American women at particular risk for substance abuse. Limited availability to treatment, a lack of appropriate treatment and poor social supports impact recovery and places these women at risk for relapse. This article provides an overview of the current literature regarding substance abuse, treatment and recovery in African American women.

  4. Misconceptions of depression in african americans.

    PubMed

    Sohail, Zohaib; Bailey, Rahn Kennedy; Richie, William D

    2014-01-01

    Major depression is a very common disabling disorder. Although the relationship between race and depression is complex, depression affects all races, all ethnic and geographic locations as well as all age groups. The prevalence of depression in African Americans is controversial, due to the paucity of research. The deficit in the knowledge and skills in treating depression in African Americans have not been adequately addressed so far. Inadequate and insufficient data on African Americans contributes to the problems of under diagnoses, misdiagnosis, and under treatment of depression. This article will highlight the existing problem of depression in Afro American with a focus on diagnostic and treatment issues.

  5. Discussing Cancer: Communication with African Americans

    PubMed Central

    Caito, Nikki; Hood, Sula; Thompson, Vetta L. Sanders

    2015-01-01

    Regular screening for colorectal cancer (CRC) facilitates earlier detection, lowers mortality, and may reduce incidence through detection and removal of pre-cancerous polyps. Optimizing health professional delivery of CRC screening information and recommendations can assist in reducing CRC disparity in the African American community. This paper presents qualitative data on African Americans’ attitudes about health professional CRC communications based on the analysis of focus groups (N=79). Using a social-ecological framework, colorectal cancer and professional communication themes are examined to offer four general and nine cancer specific theoretically based and culturally appropriate strategies for improving health professional cancer communication with African Americans. PMID:25050658

  6. Assessing spirituality in mentally ill African Americans.

    PubMed

    Perdue, Bobbie; Johnson, Deanna; Singley, Doretha; Jackson, Cheylon

    2006-01-01

    The case scenario illustrates the advantage of using spirituality as a tool for recovery when working with mentally ill African American clients. Often spiritual and clinical perspectives are seen as contradictory. But for African Americans, these perspectives can be mutually reinforcing. Spirituality can serve as a resource of strength. It can provide emotional consolation, inspiration, guidance, and security. It can foster personal responsibility, identity, respect for ethical codes and community building. Mental Health professionals who use spirituality as a tool for recovery can expect to have better client outcomes when working with African Americans than those who do not.

  7. Competitive interactions between neotropical pollinators and africanized honey bees.

    PubMed

    Roubik, D W

    1978-09-15

    The Africanized honey bee, a hybrid of European and African honey bees, is thought to displace native pollinators. After experimental introduction of Africanized honey bee hives near flowers, stingless bees became less abundant or harvested-less resource as visitation by Africanized honey bees increased. Shifts in resource use caused by colonizing Africanized honey bees may lead to population decline of Neotropical pollinators. PMID:17743636

  8. Cognition and Health in African American Men

    PubMed Central

    Sims, Regina C.; Thorpe, Roland J.; Gamaldo, Alyssa A.; Aiken-Morgan, Adrienne T.; Hill, LaBarron K.; Allaire, Jason C.; Whitfield, Keith E.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Despite high rates of poor health outcomes, little attention has been focused on associations between prominent health factors and cognitive function in African American men, exclusively. The objective was to examine relationships between cardiovascular and pulmonary health, and cognitive function in African American men. Method Data from 257 men were pooled from two studies of African American aging. The mean age of participants was 58.15 and mean educational attainment was 11.78 years. Participants provided self-reported health and demographic information, completed cognitive measures, and had their blood pressure and peak expiratory flow assessed. Results After adjustment, significant relationships were found between average peak expiratory flow rate (APEFR) and cognitive performance measures. Discussion Results suggest that lung function is important to consider when examining cognitive function in African American men. Understanding the role of health in cognition and implications for quality of life in this population will be critical as life expectancies increase. PMID:25053802

  9. Health Conditions Common in African American Women

    MedlinePlus

    ... health. Return to top Health conditions common in African-American women Asthma Breast cancer Cancer Cervical cancer Diabetes Glaucoma and cataracts Heart disease High blood pressure High cholesterol HIV/AIDS Infant death Kidney disease Lupus Mental health ...

  10. African-Americans and Heart Disease, Stroke

    MedlinePlus

    ... more about African-Americans and stroke at our Power To End Stroke website This content was last reviewed July 2015. ... Attack • Heart Failure (HF) • Heart Valve Problems and Disease • High Blood ...

  11. Mellonee Burnim on African American Music.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Patricia Shehan

    1995-01-01

    Describes the role and influence of Mellonee Burnim on U.S. music education. Discusses the origins and impact of African American gospel music. Includes a list of selected resources and two lesson plans featuring gospel music. (CFR)

  12. What physicians should know about Africanized honeybees.

    PubMed

    Sherman, R A

    1995-12-01

    The Africanized honeybee, popularly known as the "killer bee," is already well established in Texas and has recently entered California and Arizona. As the Africanized honeybee spreads in North America, the medical community must become aware of the problems associated with this insect and ensure that sting emergencies can be handled quickly and appropriately. The major differences between Africanized and European honeybees are that the former are more irritable, they swarm more readily and frequently, they defend their hives more vehemently, and they sting more collectively. It is not the composition nor the volume of an individual bee's venom, but rather the cumulative dose of multiple stings that accounts for the morbidity and mortality associated with Africanized honeybee-sting incidents. Even nonallergic persons are susceptible to the toxic effects of these large combined venom loads. Africanized honeybee-sting victims are treated the same as victims of European honeybee stings. Authorities will prepare for the bees' arrival by expanding public awareness, teaching risk-avoidance behavior, providing for the removal of troublesome hives, and developing sting treatment protocols that can be initiated rapidly in the field or emergency departments. Health care professionals should participate in the educational efforts and in the development of needed emergency response protocols so that the effects of the Africanized honeybee will be merely a nuisance rather than a plague. PMID:8553637

  13. What physicians should know about Africanized honeybees.

    PubMed Central

    Sherman, R A

    1995-01-01

    The Africanized honeybee, popularly known as the "killer bee," is already well established in Texas and has recently entered California and Arizona. As the Africanized honeybee spreads in North America, the medical community must become aware of the problems associated with this insect and ensure that sting emergencies can be handled quickly and appropriately. The major differences between Africanized and European honeybees are that the former are more irritable, they swarm more readily and frequently, they defend their hives more vehemently, and they sting more collectively. It is not the composition nor the volume of an individual bee's venom, but rather the cumulative dose of multiple stings that accounts for the morbidity and mortality associated with Africanized honeybee-sting incidents. Even nonallergic persons are susceptible to the toxic effects of these large combined venom loads. Africanized honeybee-sting victims are treated the same as victims of European honeybee stings. Authorities will prepare for the bees' arrival by expanding public awareness, teaching risk-avoidance behavior, providing for the removal of troublesome hives, and developing sting treatment protocols that can be initiated rapidly in the field or emergency departments. Health care professionals should participate in the educational efforts and in the development of needed emergency response protocols so that the effects of the Africanized honeybee will be merely a nuisance rather than a plague. PMID:8553637

  14. Multiple sclerosis susceptibility alleles in African Americans

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Britt A.; Wang, Joanne; Taylor, Elise M.; Caillier, Stacy J.; Herbert, Joseph; Khan, Omar A.; Cross, Anne H.; De Jager, Philip L.; Gourraud, Pierre-Antoine F.; Cree, Bruce C.A.; Hauser, Stephen L.; Oksenberg, Jorge R.

    2009-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune demyelinating disease characterized by complex genetics and multifaceted gene-environment interactions. Compared to whites, African Americans have a lower risk for developing MS, but African Americans with MS have a greater risk of disability. These differences between African Americans and whites may represent differences in genetic susceptibility and/or environmental factors. SNPs from 12 candidate genes have recently been identified and validated with MS risk in white populations. We performed a replication study using 918 cases and 656 unrelated controls to test whether these candidate genes are also associated with MS risk in African Americans. CD6, CLEC16a, EVI5, GPC5, and TYK2 contained SNPs that are associated with MS risk in the African American dataset. EVI5 showed the strongest association outside the MHC (rs10735781, OR = 1.233, 95% CI = 1.06–1.43, P value = 0.006). In addition, RGS1 appears to affect age of onset whereas TNFRSF1A appears to be associated with disease progression. None of the tested variants showed results that were statistically in-consistent with the effects established in whites. The results are consistent with shared disease genetic mechanisms among individuals of European and African ancestry. PMID:19865102

  15. Teaching African American Youth: Learning from the Lives of Three African American Social Studies Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McBride, Chantee Earl

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the life histories of three African American social studies teachers, focusing on the evolution and changes in their identities, perspectives, and attitudes related to their profession and instructional practice. In addition, the study addresses the significance of the teachers' racialized experiences as African Americans and…

  16. "Women ... Mourn and Men Carry on": African Women Storying Mourning Practices--A South African Example

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kotze, Elmarie; Els, Lishje; Rajuili-Masilo, Ntsiki

    2012-01-01

    African mourning of loss of lives in South Africa has been shaped by discursive practices of both traditional African cultures and the sociopolitical developments under apartheid and in post-apartheid South Africa. This article reports on changes in mourning practices on the basis of a literature review and uses a collection of examples to…

  17. Crossing Cultures in Marriage: Implications for Counseling African American/African Couples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Durodoye, Beth A.; Coker, Angela D.

    2008-01-01

    A wealth of literature exists regarding intermarriage between White and ethnic minority couples. Noticeably lacking, however, is information considering within-group diversity amongst Black couples. This paper will focus on cultural dynamics that may operate with African American and African couples residing in the United States. Through an…

  18. Changing Fatherhood: An Exploratory Qualitative Study with African and African Caribbean Men in England

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Robert; Hewison, Alistair; Wildman, Stuart; Roskell, Carolyn

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents findings from a qualitative study undertaken with 46 African and African Caribbean men exploring their experiences of fatherhood. Data analysis was informed by Connell's theoretical work on changing gender relations. Findings indicate that fathers' lives were mediated by masculinities, racism, gender, migration and…

  19. Perceptions of African American and European American Teachers on the Education of African American Boys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bacon, Ellen; Banks, Joy; Young, Kathryn; Jackson, Francesina R.

    2007-01-01

    The authors interviewed 27 teachers (16 African American and 11 European American) on instructional factors contributing to overidentification of behavior problems in African American boys. Interviews focused on teachers' perspectives of effective teachers, teacher-student relationships, and communication styles. Analysis of the interviews showed…

  20. An Ambivalent Community: International African Students in Residence at a South African University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weber, Everard

    2016-01-01

    This is a qualitative case study of the experiences and perceptions of South African and especially international, African students living in university residences in South Africa. The concept, community, is used to interpret interview data. This community was characterised by ambivalent social relations: There was discrimination by South Africans…

  1. A SNP test to identify Africanized honeybees via proportion of 'African' ancestry.

    PubMed

    Chapman, Nadine C; Harpur, Brock A; Lim, Julianne; Rinderer, Thomas E; Allsopp, Michael H; Zayed, Amro; Oldroyd, Benjamin P

    2015-11-01

    The honeybee, Apis mellifera, is the world's most important pollinator and is ubiquitous in most agricultural ecosystems. Four major evolutionary lineages and at least 24 subspecies are recognized. Commercial populations are mainly derived from subspecies originating in Europe (75-95%). The Africanized honeybee is a New World hybrid of A. m. scutellata from Africa and European subspecies, with the African component making up 50-90% of the genome. Africanized honeybees are considered undesirable for bee-keeping in most countries, due to their extreme defensiveness and poor honey production. The international trade in honeybees is restricted, due in part to bans on the importation of queens (and semen) from countries where Africanized honeybees are extant. Some desirable strains from the United States of America that have been bred for traits such as resistance to the mite Varroa destructor are unfortunately excluded from export to countries such as Australia due to the presence of Africanized honeybees in the USA. This study shows that a panel of 95 single nucleotide polymorphisms, chosen to differentiate between the African, Eastern European and Western European lineages, can detect Africanized honeybees with a high degree of confidence via ancestry assignment. Our panel therefore offers a valuable tool to mitigate the risks of spreading Africanized honeybees across the globe and may enable the resumption of queen and bee semen imports from the Americas.

  2. African American Pastors' Beliefs and Actions Regarding Childhood Incest in the African American Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wells, Tesia Denis

    2012-01-01

    This quantitative study sought to explore African American pastors' beliefs and actions regarding childhood incest in the African American community and their decisions to inform the proper authorities. This exploratory study was developed in order to draw both public and academic attention to the understudied phenomenon of childhood incest…

  3. African swine fever virus serotype-specific proteins are significant protective antigens for African swine fever

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    African swine fever (ASF) is an emerging disease threat for the swine industry worldwide. No ASF vaccine is available and progress is hindered by lack of knowledge concerning the extent of African swine fever virus (ASFV) strain diversity and the viral antigens conferring type specific protective im...

  4. Research with African Americans: Lessons Learned about Recruiting African American Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coker, Angela D.; Huang, Hsin-Hsin; Kashubeck-West, Susan

    2009-01-01

    The authors briefly explore literature related to recruiting African American research participants, reflect on their experiences conducting body image research with a sample of African American college women in an earlier study (S. Kashubeck-West et al., 2008), and discuss some methodological and cultural challenges that they encountered during…

  5. African Games of Strategy: A Teaching Manual. African Outreach Series, No. 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crane, Louise

    Appreciation of African games has increased in this country; especially board games which have been popularized through commercial versions. African games are invaluable resources for studying subjects requiring mathematical concepts, as well as social studies, history, geography, and languages. This manual presents some of the better known…

  6. Trade in Educational Services: Reflections on the African and South African Higher Education System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sehoole, Chika Trevor

    2004-01-01

    This article discusses and analyses the emergence of globalisation and its impact on developments within the African continent. Africa's response at a regional level through the New Partnership for Africa's Development and at a subregional level through the Southern African Development Community's "Protocol on Education" come under scrutiny. These…

  7. Antigenic variation in African trypanosomes

    PubMed Central

    Horn, David

    2014-01-01

    Studies on Variant Surface Glycoproteins (VSGs) and antigenic variation in the African trypanosome, Trypanosoma brucei, have yielded a remarkable range of novel and important insights. The features first identified in T. brucei extend from unique to conserved-among-trypanosomatids to conserved-among-eukaryotes. Consequently, much of what we now know about trypanosomatid biology and much of the technology available has its origin in studies related to VSGs. T. brucei is now probably the most advanced early branched eukaryote in terms of experimental tractability and can be approached as a pathogen, as a model for studies on fundamental processes, as a model for studies on eukaryotic evolution or often all of the above. In terms of antigenic variation itself, substantial progress has been made in understanding the expression and switching of the VSG coat, while outstanding questions continue to stimulate innovative new approaches. There are large numbers of VSG genes in the genome but only one is expressed at a time, always immediately adjacent to a telomere. DNA repair processes allow a new VSG to be copied into the single transcribed locus. A coordinated transcriptional switch can also allow a new VSG gene to be activated without any detectable change in the DNA sequence, thereby maintaining singular expression, also known as allelic exclusion. I review the story behind VSGs; the genes, their expression and switching, their central role in T. brucei virulence, the discoveries that emerged along the way and the persistent questions relating to allelic exclusion in particular. PMID:24859277

  8. African female sexuality and the heterosexual form.

    PubMed

    Mcfadden, P

    1994-03-01

    All women find sexuality problematical, especially women living in countries that were colonized or colonized others. The stereotype of repressed sexuality in Victorian England found its antithesis in the stereotype of promiscuous African sexuality which had to be "civilized" and controlled through religion and repression. Colonizing nations have seen the discourse on sexuality move from the private to the public domain, while Africa maintains its silence on the subject. Sexuality is a difficult topic because it embraces the most intimate and individual of our human emotions, thus, it is difficult even to voice sexual preferences to a lifetime partner. In addition, especially in Africa, sexuality is a very gender-specific social construct. Africans foster heterosexuality through socialization from early childhood and discourage any sign of sexual stimulation in their children. After teaching that humans are "naturally" heterosexual, Africans teach their children that marriage is essential for the moral uprightness of society, although most Africans are, in fact, raised in many types of alternative families. Critique of the heterosexual form is literally nonexistent in African feminist genre because African sexuality is really male sexuality. When people assert that an African culture exists, they really mean that patriarchal constructs about maleness and femaleness pervade the continent. Women are not expected to experience sexual satisfaction, and, indeed, the practice of female genital mutilation assures that they will never experience sexual pleasure. This practice assures that female sexuality exists only through men. It represents a misogynist point of view about the female body and is equally repulsive whether it takes the form of "excision" of a part of the clitoris or removal of all of the external genitalia. This practice controls female sexuality by depriving women of the opportunity to masturbate or to engage in homosexual relations. The resulting option

  9. Genetic bottlenecks, perceived racism, and hypertension risk among African Americans and first-generation African immigrants.

    PubMed

    Poston, W S; Pavlik, V N; Hyman, D J; Ogbonnaya, K; Hanis, C L; Haddock, C K; Hyder, M L; Foreyt, J P

    2001-05-01

    The complexity of factors influencing the development of hypertension (HTN) in African Americans has given rise to theories suggesting that genetic changes occurred due to selection pressures/genetic bottleneck effects (ie, constriction of existing genetic variability) over the course of the slave trade. Ninety-nine US-born and 86 African-born health professionals were compared in a cross-sectional survey examining genetic and psychosocial predictors of HTN. We examined the distributions of three genetic loci (G-protein, AGT-235, and ACE I/D) that have been associated with increased HTN risk. There were no significant differences between US-born African Americans and African-born immigrants in the studied genetic loci or biological variables (eg, plasma renin and angiotensin converting enzyme activity), except that the AGT-235 homozygous T genotype was somewhat more frequent among African-born participants than US-born African Americans. Only age, body mass index, and birthplace consistently demonstrated associations with HTN status. Thus, there was no evidence of a genetic bottleneck in the loci studied, ie, that US-born African Americans have different genotype distributions that increase their risk for HTN. In fact, some of the genotypic distributions evidenced lower frequencies of HTN-related alleles among US-born African Americans, providing evidence of European admixture. The consistent finding that birthplace (ie, US vs Africa) was associated with HTN, even though it was not always significant, suggests potential and unmeasured cultural, lifestyle, and environmental differences between African immigrants and US-born African Americans that are protective against HTN.

  10. Africans and Black Americans in the United States: Social Distance and Differential Acculturation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emoungu, Paul-Albert

    1992-01-01

    Presents an exploratory examination of the causes of social distance characterizing the association between Africans and African Americans. African American's perceptions about Africa and Africans are assessed through anecdotes and impressions, and thoughts and criticisms of Africans about African Americans are considered. A social science…

  11. Men of African Descent and Carcinoma of the Prostate Consortium

    Cancer.gov

    The Men of African Descent and Carcinoma of the Prostate Consortium collaborates on epidemiologic studies to address the high burden of prostate cancer and to understand the causes of etiology and outcomes among men of African ancestry.

  12. Afro-Americans and Early Pan-Africanism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Contee, Clarence G.

    1970-01-01

    History of the Pan-African movement, the roles of W.E.B.Du Bois and Marcus Garvey in the movement activities, and the shift to African based leadership of the movement in the 1940's are discussed. (KG)

  13. What about African Americans and High Blood Pressure?

    MedlinePlus

    ANSWERS by heart Lifestyle + Risk Reduction High Blood Pressure What About African Americans and High Blood Pressure? The prevalence of high blood pressure in African Americans is among the highest in ...

  14. The Communicative Orientation of First-Year African language Textbooks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schleicher, Antonia Folarin; Gleisner, Karin

    2001-01-01

    Examines how well first-year African language textbooks convey communicative competency issues to African language learners and provides a suitable guide for the selection of communicatively-oriented first-year textbooks. (Author/VWL)

  15. Lift every voice: voices of African-American lesbian elders.

    PubMed

    Woody, Imani

    2015-01-01

    Old lesbians of African descent have experienced racism, heterosexism, homophobia, and ageism. This article explores the topics of aging, ageism, heterosexism, and minority stress among older African-American lesbians. The narratives and subsequent analysis offer significant contributions to the dialogue regarding Black aging lesbians in the aging and lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) communities generally and in the African-American and African-American lesbian communities specifically.

  16. Heart failure in African Americans: disparities can be overcome.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Alok; Colvin-Adams, Monica; Yancy, Clyde W

    2014-05-01

    African Americans are disproportionately affected by heart failure, with a high prevalence at an early age. Hypertension, diabetes, obesity, and chronic kidney disease are all common in African Americans and all predispose to heart failure. Neurohormonal imbalances, endothelial dysfunction, genetic polymorphisms, and socioeconomic factors also contribute. In general, the same evidence-based treatment guidelines that apply to white patients with heart failure also apply to African Americans. However, the combination of hydralazine and isosorbide dinitrate is advised specifically for African Americans.

  17. KSC kicks off African-American History Month

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Clothed in her traditional African garb, Michelle Amos, mistress of ceremonies, welcomes the audience on Feb. 3 at the kick-off of African-American History Month. The theme for this year's observation is 'Heritage and Horizons: The African-American Legacy and the Challenges of the 21st Century.' February is designated each year as a time to celebrate the achievements and contributions of African Americans to Kennedy Space Center, NASA and the nation.

  18. The decade of the African child.

    PubMed

    Schuftan, C

    1995-11-01

    The Organization of African States and UNICEF in 1992 jointly proposed that 1994-2003 be designated the Decade of the African Child. Although Africa would like to solve its children's problems on its own, especially in health and nutrition, it cannot do so alone. This paper identifies nine challenges and windows of opportunity on which consensus exists in Africa, and where donors can collaborate with moral, technical, and financial support to improve every African child's quality of life. Sections discuss the empowerment factor; health and nutrition policies; breaking out of poverty; women and child care; the right to know; linking people, primary health care, and nutrition; the need for early warning systems; restructuring the economy; and the changing face of the 1990s. The author stresses that neither governments, nongovernmental organizations, nor donors can afford to be passive observers of the pressing problems of the 1990s. Concerted efforts are needed now more than ever to fight important problems head-on.

  19. Intimate Partner Violence among West African Immigrants

    PubMed Central

    AKINSULURE-SMITH, ADEYINKA M.; CHU, TRACY; KEATLEY, EVA; RASMUSSEN, ANDREW

    2013-01-01

    Although the number of African immigrants arriving to the United States has increased significantly, there has been little investigation regarding their experiences of intimate partner violence or coping strategies. This study used focus groups and individual interviews to explore intimate partner violence among 32 heterosexual West African immigrants. Results suggest that although cultural expectations influence their coping strategies, West African–born men and women face different realities, with women reporting multiple instances of abuse and a sense of frustration with the existing options for assistance. Although participants discussed multilevel support structures within the immediate West African community to address intimate partner violence, all of these options maintained a gender hierarchy, leaving women dissatisfied. Challenges and barriers to partner violence resolution and coping strategies are identified. Results are examined in terms of their implications for addressing the needs of this underserved population. Implications for future research and services are discussed and highlighted. PMID:23730146

  20. Gastrointestinal Symptoms among African Americans Undergoing Hemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Daniels, Glenda; Robinson, Janie R; Walker, Charles; Pennings, Jacquelyn S; Anderson, Staci T

    2015-01-01

    The incidence of end stage renal disease is more than three times higher in African Americans. Treatment regimens contribute to gastrointestinal (GI) complaints. This study's purpose was to examine the incidence of GI symptoms in African-American patients undergoing hemodialysis. Younger participants were more likely to report mild indigestion, while older participants reported severe indigestion or none at all. Females were more likely to report gastrointestinal symptoms. Commonly reported co-morbidities included hypertension, diabetes, and heart disease. Time on hemodialysis ranged from 1 to 279 months. Those who had been on hemodialysis the longest were more likely to report acid reflux, stomach rumbling and mild diarrhea. This study provides a foundation for early identification of GI symptoms in African-Americans patients undergoing hemodialysis.

  1. Rabies and African wild dogs in Kenya.

    PubMed

    Kat, P W; Alexander, K A; Smith, J S; Munson, L

    1995-11-22

    Three packs of African wild dogs (Lycaon pictus) ranging to the north of the Masai Mara National Reserve in southwestern Kenya were monitored from 1988 to 1990. During a six week period (August 2-September 14, 1989), 21 of 23 members of one of these packs died. Histological examination of two brain samples revealed eosinophilic intracytoplasmic inclusions (Negri bodies), supporting a diagnosis of rabies viral encephalitis. An additional brain sample tested positive for rabies with a fluorescent antibody test. Nucleotide sequence of the rabies viral N and G genes from isolates of four African wild dogs (including an individual from Tanzania) indicated that infection was with a viral variant common among domestic dogs in Kenya and Tanzania. A hypothesis linking African wild dog rabies deaths to researcher handling is evaluated and considered implausible.

  2. The management of hypertension in African Americans.

    PubMed

    Ferdinand, Keith C; Armani, Annemarie M

    2007-06-01

    The prevalence of hypertension in blacks in the United States is among the highest in the world. Compared with whites, blacks develop hypertension at an earlier age, their average blood pressures are much higher and they experience worse disease severity. Consequently, blacks have a 1.3 times greater rate of nonfatal stroke, 1.8 times greater rate of fatal stroke, 1.5 times greater rate of heart disease death, 4.2 times greater rate of end-stage kidney disease, and a 50% higher frequency of heart failure; overall, mortality due to hypertension and its consequences is 4 to 5 times more likely in African Americans than in whites. The increased prevalence of hypertension and excessive target organ damage is due to a combination of genetic and, most likely, environmental factors. There are no clinical trial data at present to suggest that lower-than-usual BP targets should be set for high-risk demographic groups such as African Americans. The primary means of prevention and early treatment of hypertension in African Americans will be the appropriate use of lifestyle modification. The International Society of Hypertension in Blacks guidelines realize that most patients will require combination therapy, many of them first-line, to reach appropriate BP goals. Although certain classes and combinations of antihypertensive agents have been well-established to be effective, the choice of drugs for combination therapy in African American patients may be different. Within the African American group, the responsiveness to monotherapy with ACE inhibitors, angiotensin receptor blockers, and beta blockers may be less than the responsiveness to diuretics and calcium channel blockers, but these differences are corrected when diuretics are added to the neurohormonal antagonists. Of note, African American patients with systolic BP >15 mm Hg or a diastolic BP >10 mm Hg above goal should be treated with first-line combination therapy.

  3. Cancer statistics for African Americans, 2013.

    PubMed

    DeSantis, Carol; Naishadham, Deepa; Jemal, Ahmedin

    2013-05-01

    In this article, the American Cancer Society estimates the number of new cancer cases and deaths for African Americans and compiles the most recent data on cancer incidence, mortality, survival, and screening prevalence based upon incidence data from the National Cancer Institute, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and the North American Association of Central Cancer Registries and mortality data from the National Center for Health Statistics. It is estimated that 176,620 new cases of cancer and 64,880 deaths will occur among African Americans in 2013. From 2000 to 2009, the overall cancer death rate among males declined faster among African Americans than whites (2.4% vs 1.7% per year), but among females, the rate of decline was similar (1.5% vs 1.4% per year, respectively). The decrease in cancer death rates among African American males was the largest of any racial or ethnic group. The reduction in overall cancer death rates since 1990 in men and 1991 in women translates to the avoidance of nearly 200,000 deaths from cancer among African Americans. Five-year relative survival is lower for African Americans than whites for most cancers at each stage of diagnosis. The extent to which these disparities reflect unequal access to health care versus other factors remains an active area of research. Overall, progress in reducing cancer death rates has been made, although more can and should be done to accelerate this progress through ensuring equitable access to cancer prevention, early detection, and state-of-the-art treatments.

  4. Assessing the contributions of East African and West Pacific warming to the 2014 boreal spring East African drought

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Funk, Christopher C.; Shukla, Shraddhanand; Hoell, Andrew; Livneh, Ben

    2015-01-01

    Anthropogenic warming contributed to the 2014 East African drought by increasing East African and west Pacific temperatures, and increasing the gradient between standardized western and central Pacific SST causing reduced rainfall, evapotranspiration, and soil moisture.

  5. Race, Culture, and the Education of African Americans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynn, Marvin

    2006-01-01

    In this essay, Marvin Lynn explores a range of perspectives on African American education, with particular focus on three works: "Black American Students in an Affluent Suburb: A Study of Academic Disengagement," by social anthropologist John Ogbu; "African-Centered Pedagogy: Developing Schools of Achievement for African American Children," by…

  6. Conducting Children's Health Insurance Outreach in African American Communities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patterson, Jacqueline

    In 1998, 19.7 percent of African American children were uninsured. Since a majority of African American children live in families with incomes below 200 percent of the federal poverty line, they are eligible for free or low-cost insurance coverage. This report presents strategies for facilitating the recruitment and enrollment of African American…

  7. Requests in a South African Variety of English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kasanga, Luanga A.

    2006-01-01

    The main assumption in this article is that the pragmatics of the variety of South African English commonly referred to as black South African English (BSAE) have been shaped, over time, by educated bilinguals, through a transfer of features from African languages. Transfer of syntactic forms, now firmly established in the variety, is evidenced…

  8. Effective Coping Strategies Employed in African-American Relationships.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington, Novella Channell

    Living in a society that is quick to label and condemn, has been, and continues to be a source of pain for African-Americans. However, society's microscope has for sometime had a one dimensional lens, particularly when examining the coping styles of African-American male-female relationships within the African-American family. There exists a great…

  9. Some Growth Points in African Child Development Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Serpell, Robert; Marfo, Kofi

    2014-01-01

    We reflect on ways in which research presented in earlier chapters responds to challenges of generating an African child development field and identify additional issues calling for the field's attention. The chapters collectively display a variety of African contexts and reflexive evidence of the authors' African cultural roots.…

  10. Contrastive Studies - African Languages and English. Specialised Bibliography C9.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    British Council, London (England). English-Teaching Information Centre.

    This selective bibliography lists 8 books and 19 journal articles dealing with contrastive studies of African languages and English. The entries range in date from 1953 to 1972 with the majority published since 1965. The books cited are African and British publications and the articles appeared in well-known African, European or American…

  11. An Investigation into the Achievement of African-Caribbean Pupils.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Gloria

    1996-01-01

    The case study of an African Caribbean boy in a British preschool class illustrates the ways in which African Caribbean students are caught between a devalued culture and a culture with which they do not identify. Approaches to promote cultural sensitivity toward African Caribbean children are discussed. (SLD)

  12. Student-Centered Designs of Pan-African Literature Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    M'Baye, Babacar

    2010-01-01

    A student-centered teaching methodology is an essential ingredient of a successful Pan-African literary course. In this article, the author defines Pan-Africanism and how to go about designing a Pan-African literature course. The author combines reading assignments with journals, film presentations, and lectures in a productive learning…

  13. Teaching African Politics at American Colleges and Universities: A Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenski, Henry C.; Kenski, Margaret C.

    Political scientists who teach African politics courses at U.S. colleges and universities were surveyed in 1973 to (1) discover successful teaching techniques, approaches, and texts; (2) determine the popularity of courses in African politics; and (3) collect data on the status of African politics as a research area. A questionnaire was mailed to…

  14. Problems of Transition for African Students in an American University.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adelegan, Francis O.; Parks, David J.

    1985-01-01

    Surveyed Black East African, Black West African and Arabic North African students (N=33) enrolled in an American university to identify their problems and personal attributes and environmental conditions influencing their experience. Discusses social, transportation, food, loneliness, and other problems. (MCF)

  15. Exposure of African-American Youth to Alcohol Advertising.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2003

    The marketing of alcohol products in African-American communities has, on occasion, stirred national controversy and met with fierce resistance from African Americans and others. Despite occasional media and community spotlights on the marketing of alcohol products in the African-American community, there has been no systematic review of the…

  16. Seeing African Americans as Competent Parents: Implications for Family Counselors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adkison-Bradley, Carla

    2011-01-01

    One of the primary roles of parents is to guide and socialize children to make meaningful life choices. African American parents, in particular, have the additional tasks of preparing their children to thrive in an environment that has historically been hostile toward African Americans. Yet, many African American parents are often depicted as…

  17. African American Educational Leadership in the School Superintendency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Eva C.

    2013-01-01

    African American educational leadership has long been part of American education and African American activism to resist oppression. However, the field of educational leadership has rarely included the contributions of African American leaders, particularly women leaders, into mainstream leadership theory and practices. This omission is difficult…

  18. Persistence among African American Males in the Honors College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson Goins, Johnell Roxann

    2014-01-01

    Retaining African American students, specifically African American males, is an issue that plagues the American higher education system. Research shows that African American male students are the lowest represented group in the gifted studies programs (Ford, 2010). Lockie and Burke (1999); Chen and DeJardins (2010) and Bell (2010a) found that…

  19. An Exploration of African American Students' Attitudes toward Online Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okwumabua, Theresa M.; Walker, Kristin M.; Hu, Xiangen; Watson, Andrea

    2011-01-01

    The current work presents exploratory research findings concerning African American students' attitudes toward online learning. The Online Tutoring Attitudes Scale (OTAS; Graff, 2003) was administered to 124 African American students in a positive youth development program. Findings suggest that African American students' attitudes toward…

  20. African-American Artists in Context: The Philadelphia Art Museum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verdino-Sullivan, Carla Maria

    1992-01-01

    Reviews two exhibits of visual art at the Philadelphia (Pennsylvania) Art Museum, "Works by African-Americans," which showcases the contributions of nineteenth- and twentieth-century African-American artists; and "Pertaining to Philadelphia," acquisitions from the collection of Julius Bloch, an artist and mentor to many African American artists in…

  1. African American Acculturation and Black Racial Identity: A Preliminary Investigation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pope-Davis, Donald B.; Liu, William M.; Ledesma-Jones, Shannon; Nevitt, Jonathan

    2000-01-01

    Examines the relationship between acculturation and racial identity among African Americans. One hundred eighty-seven African American students completed the Black Racial Identity Attitude Scale and the African American Acculturation Scale (AAAS). Acculturation was associated with three of the five AAAS subscales: Dissonance, Immersion, and…

  2. African American Males in Counseling: Who's Pulling the Trigger Now?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bethea-Whitfield, Patricia

    African American males face numerous challenges to their physical and psychological well-being. This project is a survey of the literature and trends relative to African American males from 1987 to the present. In reviewing the fifteen years since Parham and McDavis published their now famous article on African American men as an endangered…

  3. Engaging Youth through African-Derived Dance and Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franklin, Kikora

    2013-01-01

    This article provides a brief history of African and African-derived dance and culture and highlights the physical health, dance education, historical, and cultural benefits of a school-based program that incorporates African dance as its core component. The article also includes the phases of the programming and brings attention to potential…

  4. Registers in the Academic Writing of African American College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Syrquin, Anna F.

    2006-01-01

    The study examines the development of the registers of academic writing by African American college-level students through style and grammar: indirection inherent in the oral culture of the African American community and the paratactic functions of "because." Discourse analysis of 74 samples of academic writing by 20 African American undergraduate…

  5. Representing African American Women in U.S. History Textbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schocker, Jessica B.; Woyshner, Christine

    2013-01-01

    This article addresses the dearth of African American women in high school U.S. history textbooks. The authors conducted a content analysis of the images in an African American history textbook and found that black women are underrepresented. Women are found in less than 15 percent of the images in the African American history text, while they…

  6. Perceptions of Domestic Violence: A Dialogue with African American Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bent-Goodley, Tricia B.

    2004-01-01

    Although empirical research has accumulated over the past 20 years regarding African Americans and domestic violence, many questions remain about African American perceptions of domestic violence. This article explores African American women's perceptions about domestic violence through three focus groups held at a New York social services agency.…

  7. From Crisis to Empowerment: African American Women in Community Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bates, Marcie Ann

    2012-01-01

    Social challenges tear at the fabric of the African American family, revealing complexities that identify a de facto leader, the African American woman. She exists in a chasm of overt circumstances which heavily influences her successes. The purpose of this study is to identify factors that motivated seven female African American community college…

  8. Help-Seeking Attitudes among African American College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    So, Dominicus W.; Gilbert, Stefanie; Romero, Sergio

    2005-01-01

    Traditionally, African American students display a low-rate of seeking mental health treatment. Issues such as mistrust of White therapists, attitudes toward mental health problems, and African American spirituality affect their help-seeking behavior. The present study examined a sample of 134 African American students at a Historically Black…

  9. African American Studies in the 21st Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gates, Henry Louis, Jr.

    1992-01-01

    Explores the future of African-American studies. African-American studies should be the home of free inquiry into the complexity of being of African descent in the world, rather than a closed-shop or a resurrected version of thought police. A true proliferation of ideologies and methodologies is required. (SLD)

  10. Going to School: The African-American Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lomotey, Kofi, Ed.

    This volume presents the views of a range of African-American educators on questions related to African-American academic achievement. The concern in this volume is with the persistent, pervasive, and disproportionate underachievement of African-American students. The book is divided into four parts. Part 1, "Problem Identification," comprises the…

  11. Perceived Attractiveness, Facial Features, and African Self-Consciousness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chambers, John W., Jr.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Investigated relationships between perceived attractiveness, facial features, and African self-consciousness (ASC) among 149 African American college students. As predicted, high ASC subjects used more positive adjectives in descriptions of strong African facial features than did medium or low ASC subjects. Results are discussed in the context of…

  12. Parent Support and African American Adolescents' Career Self-Efficacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliman-Brissett, Annette E.; Turner, Sherri L.; Skovholt, Thomas M.

    2004-01-01

    Research has shown that African American adolescents are not being prepared to enter the workforce at the same rates as adolescents from other ethnic groups. While educational and career options were unavailable to African Americans in previous eras, today educational and career opportunities abound, yet many young African Americans are not in a…

  13. Oral Cancer in African Americans: Addressing Health Disparities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dodd, Virginia J.; Watson, Jennifer M.; Choi, Youjin; Tomar, Scott L.; Logan, Henrietta L.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: To explore factors underlying African Americans' perceptions of oral cancer and the oral cancer exam. Study findings were used to guide development of oral cancer messages designed to increase oral cancer exams among African Americans. Methods: Focus groups were conducted to understand African Americans' attitudes and expectations…

  14. Perceptions of Discrimination and Achievement in African American Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowley, Stephanie Johnson

    This study explored the processes that lead to relatively lower academic performance among African American students. It has been suggested that African American students perceive that, because of discrimination, education is less useful as a tool for upward mobility for African Americans than it is for members of other ethnic groups. The nature…

  15. Gender Differences in African American Attitudes toward Gay Males.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Battle, Juan; Lemelle, Anthony J., Jr.

    2002-01-01

    Used data from the 1993 National Black Politics Study to examine the way gender worked in explaining African American attitudes toward gay men. Results indicated that African American females expressed more positive attitudes toward homosexual men than did African American males, and of the variables examined (including age, church attendance,…

  16. Dialect Leveling and /ai/ Monopthongization among African American Detroiters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Bridget L.

    2002-01-01

    Presents evidence that Detroit African Americans are participating in a recent sound change that is typically associated with some White but not African American varieties in the American South. Reports a leveling pattern in which /ai/ monothongization has expanded to the salient pre-voiceless context in Detroit African American English (AAE).…

  17. Hepatocellular carcinoma and African iron overload.

    PubMed Central

    Gangaidzo, I T; Gordeuk, V R

    1995-01-01

    Both hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and iron overload are important health problems in Africa. Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is recognised as a major risk factor for HCC, but iron overload in Africans has not been considered in pathogenesis. Up to half the patients with HCC in Africa do not have any recognised risk factors such as preceding chronic HBV infection, and other risk factors remain unidentified. HCC is an important complication of HLA-linked haemochromatosis, an iron loading disorder found in Europeans. It is proposed that African iron overload might also be a risk factor for HCC. PMID:8549953

  18. Cryptosporidium and cryptosporidiosis: the African perspective.

    PubMed

    Aldeyarbi, Hebatalla M; Abu El-Ezz, Nadia M T; Karanis, Panagiotis

    2016-07-01

    The present overview discusses the findings of cryptosporidiosis research conducted in Africa and highlights the currently available information on Cryptosporidium epidemiology, genetic diversity, and distribution on the African continent, particularly among vulnerable populations, including children. It also emphasizes the burden of cryptosporidiosis, which is underestimated due to the presence of many silent asymptomatic carriers.Cryptosporidiosis is recognized as one of the leading causes of childhood diarrhea in African countries. It has dramatic adverse effects on child growth and development and causes increased mortality on a continent where HIV, poverty, and lack of sanitation and infrastructure increase the risk of cryptosporidial waterborne infection. PMID:27126869

  19. Health parties for African American study recruitment.

    PubMed

    Sadler, Georgia Robins; York, Crystal; Madlensky, Lisa; Gibson, Kathi; Wasserman, Linda; Rosenthal, Eric; Barbier, Leslie; Newman, Vicky A; Tso, Cindy

    2006-01-01

    Innovative strategies are needed to increase minorities' research participation. Using existing social networks within the African American community, "home health parties" were tested as a way to recruit African American women to a breast cancer control study. Parties included social, educational, and recruitment components. All women attending health parties consented, completed a survey, and received the study's preliminary breast cancer risk assessment. There were no differences in rates of participation for subsequent study components between women recruited via parties versus other methods. Health parties are viable recruitment strategies, reduce barriers to participation, provide a supportive environment, and are relatively inexpensive. PMID:17020516

  20. Pliocene northeast African vegetation change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liddy, H.; Sieracki, A.; Feakins, S. J.

    2012-12-01

    Plant leaf wax molecular fossils have yielded key insights into forest-grassland transitions in northeast Africa. The stable carbon isotopic composition (δ13C) of sedimentary leaf waxes (including n-alkanoic acids) records variations in the proportions of plants using the C3 (Calvin-Benson) pathway including trees, most shrubs and cool-season grasses versus the C4 (Hatch-Slack) pathway including warm-season grasses and sedges. Here we apply this technique to marine sediments from the Gulf of Aden to characterize northeast African environmental variability during the Pliocene. We sample DSDP Site 231 integrating 3kyr intervals to generate a high-resolution reconstruction spanning 3.7-5.3Ma. The δ13C compositions of downcore C30 n-alkanoic acid analyses average -27.5‰ (σ=1.2, n=177), ranging between -30.2 to -24.3‰ with repeated oscillations in the proportions of C4 biomass, presumably corresponding to the eccentricity and precessional modulation of insolation acting on monsoonal precipitation. Although δ13C values cannot be uniquely translated to C4 biomass given the spread in the C3 'endmember', we find complimentary evidence for proportions of C4 biomass from the isotopic spread of the n-alkanoic homologues (n-C28 to n-C32). Comparison to pollen data indicates that at times of low δ13C values, complete forest cover remains unlikely given the presence of grass pollen - taken together these records indicate the presence of C3 grasses. By evaluating our longer record from this site, as well as the terrestrial soil carbonate record, we find the Pliocene has low C4 proportions in comparison to higher proportions in Pleistocene and even late Miocene times. Intriguingly this drop in C4 plant biomass may correspond to a period of elevated atmospheric pCO2. Our ongoing reconstructions are of interest both for constraining environments of hominin evolution and tropical climate variability prior to the onset of Northern Hemisphere Glaciation, in particular during

  1. African Easterly Waves and Superparameterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCrary, Rachel; Randall, David; Stan, Cristiana

    2013-04-01

    This study examines the dynamics of African easterly wave (AEW) in the Superparameterized Community Climate System Model (SP-CCSM). Conventional general circulation models (GCMs) have difficulty representing AEW dynamics over West Africa. One reason is that the coarse resolution of these models limits their ability to represent the multi-scale interactions between the large-scale dynamics and individual convective systems, which are important for the origin and development of AEWs. The SP-CCSM has been designed to better simulate the interactions between small-scale circulations and large-scale dynamics, by replacing the conventional parameterizations with a 2D cloud resolving model embedded within each GCM grid column. With this approach we are able to capture the interactions between clouds and the global circulation of the atmosphere. The goal of our work is to improve our understanding of the multi-scale interactions that occur between AEWs and convection over West Africa. The implementation of the superparameterization into the CCSM improves the overall representation of monsoon precipitation over West Africa. Most notably, the region of maximum precipitation is shifted from the Gulf of Guinea in CCSM (not realistic), to over the continent in SP-CCSM. The biases found in precipitation for both models are thought to be linked to anomalously warm sea surface temperatures in the Gulf of Guinea and a misrepresentation of the equatorial Atlantic cold tongue (a common problem for coupled GCMs). AEWs and their relationship with convection are also improved in the SP-CCSM. In the standard model, little to no easterly wave activity is found over West Africa, and the relationship with convection is tenuous at best. SP-CCSM on the other hand produces strong AEWs over the region that exhibit similar horizontal and vertical structures to observations. The simulated waves are also shown to be strongly coupled to convection, and results suggest that barotropic and baroclinic

  2. Epidemiology of human African trypanosomiasis

    PubMed Central

    Franco, Jose R; Simarro, Pere P; Diarra, Abdoulaye; Jannin, Jean G

    2014-01-01

    Human African trypanosomiasis (HAT), or sleeping sickness, is caused by Trypanosoma brucei gambiense, which is a chronic form of the disease present in western and central Africa, and by Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense, which is an acute disease located in eastern and southern Africa. The rhodesiense form is a zoonosis, with the occasional infection of humans, but in the gambiense form, the human being is regarded as the main reservoir that plays a key role in the transmission cycle of the disease. The gambiense form currently assumes that 98% of the cases are declared; the Democratic Republic of the Congo is the most affected country, with more than 75% of the gambiense cases declared. The epidemiology of the disease is mediated by the interaction of the parasite (trypanosome) with the vectors (tsetse flies), as well as with the human and animal hosts within a particular environment. Related to these interactions, the disease is confined in spatially limited areas called “foci”, which are located in Sub-Saharan Africa, mainly in remote rural areas. The risk of contracting HAT is, therefore, determined by the possibility of contact of a human being with an infected tsetse fly. Epidemics of HAT were described at the beginning of the 20th century; intensive activities have been set up to confront the disease, and it was under control in the 1960s, with fewer than 5,000 cases reported in the whole continent. The disease resurged at the end of the 1990s, but renewed efforts from endemic countries, cooperation agencies, and nongovernmental organizations led by the World Health Organization succeeded to raise awareness and resources, while reinforcing national programs, reversing the trend of the cases reported, and bringing the disease under control again. In this context, sustainable elimination of the gambiense HAT, defined as the interruption of the transmission of the disease, was considered as a feasible target for 2030. Since rhodesiense HAT is a zoonosis

  3. The African VLBI network project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loots, Anita

    2015-01-01

    larger teams in science, engineering and technology issues and collaborate with the broader global science community to develop new African radio astronomy science communities.

  4. "Brothers Gonna Work It Out:" Understanding the Pedagogic Performance of African American Male Teachers Working with African American Male Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Anthony L.

    2009-01-01

    Drawing from ethnographic data, this paper explores how African American male teachers working with African American male students performed their pedagogy. This paper highlights how teachers' understanding of African American males social and educational needs shaped their pedagogical performance. Interestingly however, teachers' performance was…

  5. Predicting Non-African American Lesbian and Heterosexual Preadoptive Couples' Openness to Adopting an African American Child

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldberg, Abbie E.; Smith, JuliAnna Z.

    2009-01-01

    Despite increases in transracial adoption, African American children remain the least likely to be adopted. No research has examined the factors that predict prospective adopters' willingness to adopt an African American child. This study used multilevel modeling to examine predictors of willingness to adopt an African American child in a sample…

  6. A Call to Action to Raise Achievement for African American Students. Student Achievement Policy Brief #1: African American Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kober, Nancy

    2010-01-01

    One out of every six public school students in the U.S. is African American. The achievement of African American students as a group will have a significant impact on the nation's economic strength and social well-being. This brief looks at the performance of African American students on state reading and mathematics tests and considers the policy…

  7. "Now the African reigns supreme": the rise of African boxing on the Witwatersrand, 1924-1959.

    PubMed

    Fleming, Tyler

    2011-01-01

    This essay explores the growth of boxing among the African populations on the Witwatersrand region of South Africa between 1924 and 1959. It details how the sport's jump in popularity with Africans paralleled migration to Johannesburg. Africans increasingly saw boxing as an activity and skill conducive with survival in this new environment, and thus the sport grew in popularity, stature, and skill-level amongst this emergent urban population. The essay further explores the various ways that the sport was disseminated and popularized during the era, thus detailing how the sport reached both the African masses and petit-bourgeois educated elite. As their presence in Johannesburg became more and more permanent, boxing came to encompass various meanings and ideals, such as notions of discipline, independence and civility, to these urban populations.

  8. Sleep paralysis in African Americans with panic disorder.

    PubMed

    Paradis, Cheryl M; Friedman, Steven

    2005-03-01

    Studies have reported a wide range in lifetime prevalence of sleep paralysis (SP). This variation may stem from cultural factors, stressful life events and genetic differences in studied populations. We found that recurrent SP was more common among African-American participants, especially those with panic disorder. Recurrent SP was reported by 59% of African Americans with panic disorder, 7% of whites with panic disorder, 23% of African-American community volunteers and 6% of white community volunteers. Significantly more early life stressors were reported by African Americans than whites. Higher levels of psychosocial stressors, including poverty, racism and acculturation, may contribute to the higher rates of SP experienced by African Americans.

  9. Tuberculosis Detection by Giant African Pouched Rats

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poling, Alan; Weetjens, Bart; Cox, Christophe; Beyene, Negussie; Durgin, Amy; Mahoney, Amanda

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, operant discrimination training procedures have been used to teach giant African pouched rats to detect tuberculosis (TB) in human sputum samples. This article summarizes how the rats are trained and used operationally, as well as their performance in studies published to date. Available data suggest that pouched rats, which can…

  10. Charting the Ancestry of African Americans

    PubMed Central

    Salas, Antonio; Carracedo, Ángel; Richards, Martin; Macaulay, Vincent

    2005-01-01

    The Atlantic slave trade promoted by West European empires (15th–19th centuries) forcibly moved at least 11 million people from Africa, including about one-third from west-central Africa, to European and American destinations. The mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) genome has retained an imprint of this process, but previous analyses lacked west-central African data. Here, we make use of an African database of 4,860 mtDNAs, which include 948 mtDNA sequences from west-central Africa and a further 154 from the southwest, and compare these for the first time with a publicly available database of 1,148 African Americans from the United States that contains 1,053 mtDNAs of sub-Saharan ancestry. We show that >55% of the U.S. lineages have a West African ancestry, with <41% coming from west-central or southwestern Africa. These results are remarkably similar to the most up-to-date analyses of the historical record. PMID:16175514

  11. African American Biographies: A Collection Development Challenge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woody, Donna

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the lack of African American biographies for elementary school libraries and reports the results of a study that surveyed publishers from the Children's Book Council. Examines book reviews, discusses the number of sports figures included, and considers problems with a lack of appropriate materials to support the curriculum. (LRW)

  12. A pan-African Flood Forecasting System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thiemig, V.; Bisselink, B.; Pappenberger, F.; Thielen, J.

    2014-05-01

    The African Flood Forecasting System (AFFS) is a probabilistic flood forecast system for medium- to large-scale African river basins, with lead times of up to 15 days. The key components are the hydrological model LISFLOOD, the African GIS database, the meteorological ensemble predictions of the ECMWF and critical hydrological thresholds. In this paper the predictive capability is investigated in a hindcast mode, by reproducing hydrological predictions for the year 2003 where important floods were observed. Results were verified with ground measurements of 36 subcatchments as well as with reports of various flood archives. Results showed that AFFS detected around 70% of the reported flood events correctly. In particular, the system showed good performance in predicting riverine flood events of long duration (>1 week) and large affected areas (>10 000 km2) well in advance, whereas AFFS showed limitations for small-scale and short duration flood events. The case study for "Save flooding" illustrated the good performance of AFFS in forecasting timing and severity of the floods, gave an example of the clear and concise output products, and showed that the system is capable of producing flood warnings even in ungauged river basins. Hence, from a technical perspective, AFFS shows a large potential as an operational pan-African flood forecasting system, although issues related to the practical implication will still need to be investigated.

  13. Chikungunya Outbreaks Caused by African Genotype, India

    PubMed Central

    Yergolkar, Prasanna N.; Tandale, Babasaheb V.; Arankalle, Vidya A.; Sathe, Padmakar S.; Gandhe, Swati S.; Gokhle, Mangesh D.; Jacob, George P.; Hundekar, Supriya L.

    2006-01-01

    Chikungunya fever is reported in India after 32 years. Immunoglobulin M antibodies and virus isolation confirmed the cause. Phylogenic analysis based on partial sequences of NS4 and E1 genes showed that all earlier isolates (1963–1973) were Asian genotype, whereas the current and Yawat (2000) isolates were African genotype. PMID:17176577

  14. Dissecting the genetic diversity in African rice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    African cultivated rice, Oryza glaberrima, and its progenitor, O. barthii are excellent sources of important genes for rice improvement because they exhibit tolerance to several abiotic and biotic stresses. Development of advance backcross (ABC) populations between an unadapted donor parent and ada...

  15. Paranoid Ideation among Elderly African American Persons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bazargan, Mohsen; Bazargan, Shahrzad; King, Lewis

    2001-01-01

    A cross sectional study involving 998 independently living elderly African Americans used the Brief Symptom Inventory to measure paranoid ideation and 14 independent variables including demographic characteristics, cognitive deficit, and depression. Paranoid ideation was found in 10% of the sample. Regression analysis revealed 6 of 14 independent…

  16. African American English: A Linguistic Introduction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Lisa J.

    This introduction to African American English (AAE) looks at the grammar as a whole, describing patterns in sentence structure, sound system, word formation, and word use in AAE. The book uses linguistic description and data from conversation to explain that AAE is not a compilation of random deviations from mainstream English but rather a…

  17. The African Mythology: Old and New.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, E. Jefferson

    Myths about Africa are an inevitable outgrowth of a fundamental set of cultural assumptions about race and civilization that have been building in Western culture for at least four hundred years. The old African mythology, which consisted of crude, uncomplimentary stereotypes has been replaced by a new mythology which is much more insidious and…

  18. French-African Cultures: A Resource Unit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forbes, Barbara

    This resource unit concerns French-African cultures and their influence on other cultures. The materials may be incorporated into Levels 3, 4, and 5 French classes. Topics in the outline include environmental aspects; historical background; and cultural differences expressed in Senegal, Guinee, Mali, Cote d'Ivoire, Haute Volta, Togo, Dahomey,…

  19. African rainforests: past, present and future

    PubMed Central

    Malhi, Yadvinder; Adu-Bredu, Stephen; Asare, Rebecca A.; Lewis, Simon L.; Mayaux, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    The rainforests are the great green heart of Africa, and present a unique combination of ecological, climatic and human interactions. In this synthesis paper, we review the past and present state processes of change in African rainforests, and explore the challenges and opportunities for maintaining a viable future for these biomes. We draw in particular on the insights and new analyses emerging from the Theme Issue on ‘African rainforests: past, present and future’ of Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B. A combination of features characterize the African rainforest biome, including a history of climate variation; forest expansion and retreat; a long history of human interaction with the biome; a relatively low plant species diversity but large tree biomass; a historically exceptionally high animal biomass that is now being severely hunted down; the dominance of selective logging; small-scale farming and bushmeat hunting as the major forms of direct human pressure; and, in Central Africa, the particular context of mineral- and oil-driven economies that have resulted in unusually low rates of deforestation and agricultural activity. We conclude by discussing how this combination of factors influences the prospects for African forests in the twenty-first century. PMID:23878339

  20. West African Folktales [and] Instructor's Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gale, Steven H.

    Traditionally, an important function of folktales in West Africa has been to educate, as the older generation imparts knowledge to younger members of the family, tribe, societal unit, or ethnic group both informally in everyday life and more formally within the context of the bush schools. This anthology of West African folk literature offers more…

  1. The landscape of recombination in African Americans

    PubMed Central

    Hinch, Anjali G.; Tandon, Arti; Patterson, Nick; Song, Yunli; Rohland, Nadin; Palmer, Cameron D.; Chen, Gary K.; Wang, Kai; Buxbaum, Sarah G.; Akylbekova, Meggie; Aldrich, Melinda C.; Ambrosone, Christine B.; Amos, Christopher; Bandera, Elisa V.; Berndt, Sonja I.; Bernstein, Leslie; Blot, William J.; Bock, Cathryn H.; Boerwinkle, Eric; Cai, Qiuyin; Caporaso, Neil; Casey, Graham; Cupples, L. Adrienne; Deming, Sandra L.; Diver, W. Ryan; Divers, Jasmin; Fornage, Myriam; Gillanders, Elizabeth M.; Glessner, Joseph; Harris, Curtis C.; Hu, Jennifer J.; Ingles, Sue A.; Isaacs, Williams; John, Esther M.; Kao, W. H. Linda; Keating, Brendan; Kittles, Rick A.; Kolonel, Laurence N.; Larkin, Emma; Le Marchand, Loic; McNeill, Lorna H.; Millikan, Robert C.; Murphy, Adam; Musani, Solomon; Neslund-Dudas, Christine; Nyante, Sarah; Papanicolaou, George J.; Press, Michael F.; Psaty, Bruce M.; Reiner, Alex P.; Rich, Stephen S.; Rodriguez-Gil, Jorge L.; Rotter, Jerome I.; Rybicki, Benjamin A.; Schwartz, Ann G.; Signorello, Lisa B.; Spitz, Margaret; Strom, Sara S.; Thun, Michael J.; Tucker, Margaret A.; Wang, Zhaoming; Wiencke, John K.; Witte, John S.; Wrensch, Margaret; Wu, Xifeng; Yamamura, Yuko; Zanetti, Krista A.; Zheng, Wei; Ziegler, Regina G.; Zhu, Xiaofeng; Redline, Susan; Hirschhorn, Joel N.; Henderson, Brian E.; Taylor, Herman A.; Price, Alkes L.; Hakonarson, Hakon; Chanock, Stephen J.; Haiman, Christopher A.; Wilson, James G.; Reich, David; Myers, Simon R.

    2011-01-01

    Recombination, together with mutation, is the ultimate source of genetic variation in populations. We leverage the recent mixture of people of African and European ancestry in the Americas to build a genetic map measuring the probability of crossing-over at each position in the genome, based on about 2.1 million crossovers in 30,000 unrelated African Americans. At intervals of more than three megabases it is nearly identical to a map built in Europeans. At finer scales it differs significantly, and we identify about 2,500 recombination hotspots that are active in people of West African ancestry but nearly inactive in Europeans. The probability of a crossover at these hotspots is almost fully controlled by the alleles an individual carries at PRDM9 (P<10−245). We identify a 17 base pair DNA sequence motif that is enriched in these hotspots, and is an excellent match to the predicted binding target of African-enriched alleles of PRDM9. PMID:21775986

  2. African American Students' Attitudes toward Entrepreneurship Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ede, Fred O.; Panigrahi, Bhagaban; Calcich, Stephen E.

    1998-01-01

    A survey of 171 African-American students found that 72% came from nonentrepreneurial family backgrounds; only 24.5% intended to start their own businesses, there were no gender differences in entrepreneurship attitudes, and seniors and those from entrepreneurial backgrounds were more favorable toward entrepreneurship. (SK)

  3. Adult Illiteracy: The Root of African Underdevelopment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jogwu, C. N. O.

    2010-01-01

    All African Nations belong to the category of third world underdeveloped countries of the world. UNDP Human Development Index uses factors like per capita income, health of the people, and educational attainment to classify countries. Adult literacy and gross enrolment ratios are indicators of education status. This paper uses Nigeria, a typical…

  4. Sun protection behaviors among African Americans.

    PubMed

    Hall, H I; Rogers, J D

    1999-01-01

    The anatomic distribution of some skin cancers suggests that sun exposure may be an etiologic factor for skin cancer among African Americans. Yet little is known about sun protection behaviors among African Americans. We analyzed data from the 1992 National Health Interview Survey (N = 1,583) to determine the prevalence of sun protection behaviors and sun sensitivity. About 6% of African Americans reported being extremely sensitive to the sun and severe sunburning, and 9% reported mild burns. Overall, 53% of respondents (47% of men and 57% of women) reported that they were very likely to wear protective clothing, seek shade, or use sunscreen lotion. Women were more likely than men to report seeking shade and using sunscreen. Sun protection behaviors were more frequently reported by those who sunburn more easily and were positively associated with age. Use of sunscreen was positively associated with income and education. Education about sun protection and early detection may help reduce the morbidity and mortality of skin cancer among African Americans.

  5. Wages and Labor Management in African Manufacturing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fafchamps, Marcel; Soderbom, Mans

    2006-01-01

    Using matched employer-employee data from ten African countries, we examine the relationship between wages, worker supervision, and labor productivity in manufacturing. Wages increase with firm size for both production workers and supervisors. We develop a two-tier model of supervision that can account for this stylized fact and we fit the…

  6. Intertextuality in EAP: An African Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmes, John

    2004-01-01

    This paper focuses on the development of EAP methodology within an African EAP context. I describe the setting up and implementation of an EAP study skills programme at the University of Asmara, Eritrea, over the period 1994-1998 and its subsequent development up to 2002. The unique social and political context of the EAP programme served as a…

  7. African American Women Counselors, Wellness, and Spirituality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knowles, Debora; Bryant, Rhonda M.

    2011-01-01

    Given their tremendous professional responsibilities, professional counselors face daunting challenges to remaining healthy and avoiding role stress and overload. This article explores the intersection of race, gender, wellness, and spirituality in the self-care of African American women counselors. The authors give particular attention to…

  8. African-American Males: Education or Incarceration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Robert L.

    This paper analyzes the relationship between levels of educational attainment and outcomes for African American males, in particular the likelihood of conflict with the criminal justice system. The analysis begins with a look at society's belief system and political and economic forces, and argues that these have combined to promote failure among…

  9. African Theatre and the University of Leeds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banham, Martin; Plastow, Jane

    2006-01-01

    This paper discusses the impact that teaching and research on African theatre in the Workshop Theatre of the University of Leeds' School of English may have had in Africa and elsewhere. After surveying the productivity and influence of the Workshop Theatre to the present, the authors ask if they have contributed meaningfully to the development,…

  10. African and Pacific Literature: A Comparative Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Kristine L.

    Literary writing in Africa and the Pacific addresses themes that reflect colonial experience and the struggles of newly independent nations to cope with change and conflicts between traditional and modern existence. The novels of Chinua Achebe of Nigeria and Ngugi Wa Thiong'o of Kenya illustrate many dominant themes of African literature. Achebe…

  11. Caring School Leadership: A South African Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Vyver, Cornelius P.; van der Westhuizen, Philip C.; Meyer, L. W.

    2014-01-01

    The research pivoted on the question whether South African school principals fulfilled their caring role towards teachers. The aims of the study were threefold. First, to determine how principals rated their care-giving, secondly to determine whether significant discrepancies existed between principals' rating of their care-giving and…

  12. African American Female Superintendents: Resilient School Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Bernadeia H.

    2012-01-01

    Six African American female superintendents who had served as superintendents in at least 2 school districts were interviewed to understand ways in which they responded to barriers and adversity in their roles, with a particular emphasis on issues related to sexism and racism. Study participants shared that they work to engage the community and…

  13. Educational Resilience in African American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cunningham, Michael; Swanson, Dena Phillips

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this article was to examine factors within the school context that facilitates educational resilience among African American high school students. The authors expected academic self-esteem to be positively associated with future expectations (academic and general). They expected perceptions of school-based social support to have…

  14. Cataloging the Pan-African Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayes, Dianne

    2012-01-01

    Of all the honors and accolades bibliophile and noted authority on the Underground Railroad Charles Blockson has received, being bequeathed recently with some of Harriet Tubman's personal items by her great-niece is one of the most significant experiences of his life. A longtime collector of books and rare items by and about African-Americans,…

  15. Legacy of a Pioneer African American Educator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cazers, Gunars; Curtner-Smith, Matthew

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose was to reconstruct the historical and legendary contribution of one exemplary African American physical education teacher educator who lived and worked in the Deep South prior to and immediately following the 1954 Brown v. Board of Education court case. The following questions guided data collection and analysis: To what…

  16. African Traditional Pedagogy in a Modern Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Milton N.; Coulibaly, Medjomo

    1985-01-01

    This study identified pedagogical principles of African traditional education and then tested for their use today in schools located in rural villages of the Ivory Coast. Results showed that the 10 major principles identified are employed today in teaching and learning in that country. (RM)

  17. The African Heritage in Spanish Caribbean Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smart, Ian I.

    1981-01-01

    Uses Fanon's concept of the Manichean colonial situation and his Dialectical Theory of Identification to explore images of African heritage in the works of two mulatto Cuban poets, Gabriel de la Concepcion Valdez (1809-1844) and Nicolas Guillen (born 1902). (GC)

  18. Liberty in African and Western Thought.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mudimbe, V. Y.

    The theoretical African mode of thinking about liberty seems to stand in contrast to the view of liberty that has dominated Western philosophy. Western philosophy accepts as its starting point the notion of an unconstrained and uncontextualized "I" that is defined in relation to the self and its inner being. Greek, Cartesian, and classical…

  19. African American's Perceptions of Psychotherapy and Psychotherapists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Vetta L. Sanders; Akbar, Maysa D.; Bazile, Anita

    The attitudes and beliefs about utilization of mental health services of 201 African Americans, 18 years and older, are explored. One hundred and thirty-four females and 66 males participated in mixed sex focus groups conducted in an urban, Midwestern city. Discussion probes addressed participant perceptions of psychotherapists and psychotherapy,…

  20. City Children in African Children's Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuntz, Patricia S.

    A descriptive study identified titles and features of children's books set in an African city. Data were collected from various reviews of children's literature for titles published since 1980. In addition, the Cooperative Children's Book Center's log list of acquired titles for Africa from 1990 to 1996 was reviewed. Results showed that authors…

  1. Violent Behaviors among African-American Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrett, Darhyl

    1995-01-01

    Explores the development of behaviors by using Erik Erikson's psychosocial developmental theory, with emphasis on adolescents. Examines factors, such as identity versus identity diffusion, that may be contributing to increasing acts of violence by African American adolescents. Other factors are examined that may contribute to increased violence.…

  2. African rainforests: past, present and future.

    PubMed

    Malhi, Yadvinder; Adu-Bredu, Stephen; Asare, Rebecca A; Lewis, Simon L; Mayaux, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    The rainforests are the great green heart of Africa, and present a unique combination of ecological, climatic and human interactions. In this synthesis paper, we review the past and present state processes of change in African rainforests, and explore the challenges and opportunities for maintaining a viable future for these biomes. We draw in particular on the insights and new analyses emerging from the Theme Issue on 'African rainforests: past, present and future' of Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B. A combination of features characterize the African rainforest biome, including a history of climate variation; forest expansion and retreat; a long history of human interaction with the biome; a relatively low plant species diversity but large tree biomass; a historically exceptionally high animal biomass that is now being severely hunted down; the dominance of selective logging; small-scale farming and bushmeat hunting as the major forms of direct human pressure; and, in Central Africa, the particular context of mineral- and oil-driven economies that have resulted in unusually low rates of deforestation and agricultural activity. We conclude by discussing how this combination of factors influences the prospects for African forests in the twenty-first century. PMID:23878339

  3. 2000 African American History Month Celebration Luncheon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    In the Early Space Exploration Conference Center at the KSC Visitor Complex, Dr. Julian M. Earls (left), deputy director for Operations, Glenn Research Center, receives a plaque from astronaut Joan Higginbotham (right) during the 2000 African American History Month Celebration Luncheon. Dr. Earls was guest speaker at the luncheon.

  4. African American Homeschooling Practices: Empirical Evidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazama, Ama

    2016-01-01

    Despite a significant increase in scholarly interest for homeschooling, some of its most critical aspects, such as instructional daily practices, remain grossly understudied. This essay thus seeks to fill that void by presenting empirical evidence regarding the homeschooling practices of a specific group, African Americans. Most specifically, the…

  5. 2000 African American History Month Celebration Luncheon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    In the Early Space Exploration Conference Center at the KSC Visitor Complex, the planning committee for the 2000 African American History Month Celebration Luncheon gather in the lobby. At the far left is Mack McKinney, chief, Programs Resources Management, who was chairperson for the event.

  6. 2000 African American History Month Celebration Luncheon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Mack McKinney (left), chief, Programs Resources Management, and Delores Abraham (right), with the Astronaut office, flank one of the posters decorating the Early Space Exploration Conference Center at the KSC Visitor Complex for the 2000 African American History Month Celebration Luncheon. McKinney is chairperson for the event.

  7. Colorectal Cancer in African Americans: An Update

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Renee; White, Pascale; Nieto, Jose; Vieira, Dorice; Francois, Fritz; Hamilton, Frank

    2016-01-01

    This review is an update to the American College of Gastroenterology (ACG) Committee on Minority Affairs and Cultural Diversity's paper on colorectal cancer (CRC) in African Americans published in 2005. Over the past 10 years, the incidence and mortality rates of CRC in the United States has steadily declined. However, reductions have been strikingly much slower among African Americans who continue to have the highest rate of mortality and lowest survival when compared with all other racial groups. The reasons for the health disparities are multifactorial and encompass physician and patient barriers. Patient factors that contribute to disparities include poor knowledge of benefits of CRC screening, limited access to health care, insurance status along with fear and anxiety. Physician factors include lack of knowledge of screening guidelines along with disparate recommendations for screening. Earlier screening has been recommended as an effective strategy to decrease observed disparities; currently the ACG and American Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopists recommend CRC screening in African Americans to begin at age 45. Despite the decline in CRC deaths in all racial and ethnic groups, there still exists a significant burden of CRC in African Americans, thus other strategies including educational outreach for health care providers and patients and the utilization of patient navigation systems emphasizing the importance of screening are necessary. These strategies have been piloted in both local communities and Statewide resulting in notable significant decreases in observed disparities. PMID:27467183

  8. Marginality Theory and the African American Student.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grant, G. Kathleen; Breese, Jeffrey R.

    1997-01-01

    Reports on a study of African-American college students at a state university in the Midwest. The study examined the effects of marginality on their college experience and performance. Identifies six reactions to marginality and provides case study examples of each. Includes extensive references and verbatim comments from the students. (MJP)

  9. Prevalence of Stuttering in African American Preschoolers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Proctor, Adele; Yairi, Ehud; Duff, Melissa C.; Zhang, Jie

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: In this study, the authors sought to determine the prevalence of stuttering in African American (AA) 2- to 5-year-olds as compared with same-age European Americans (EAs). Method: A total of 3,164 children participated: 2,223 AAs and 941 EAs. Data were collected using a 3-pronged approach that included investigators' individual…

  10. Meningococcal carriage in the African meningitis belt.

    PubMed

    2013-08-01

    A meningococcal serogroup A polysaccharide/tetanus toxoid conjugate vaccine (PsA-TT) (MenAfriVac(™) ) is being deployed in countries of the African meningitis belt. Experience with other polysaccharide/protein conjugate vaccines has shown that an important part of their success has been their ability to prevent the acquisition of pharyngeal carriage and hence to stop transmission and induce herd immunity. If PsA-TT is to achieve the goal of preventing epidemics, it must be able to prevent the acquisition of pharyngeal carriage as well as invasive meningococcal disease and whether PsA-TT can prevent pharyngeal carriage needs to be determined. To address this issue, a consortium (the African Meningococcal Carriage (MenAfriCar) consortium) was established in 2009 to investigate the pattern of meningococcal carriage in countries of the African meningitis belt prior to and after the introduction of PsA-TT. This article describes how the consortium was established, its objectives and the standardised field and laboratory methods that were used to achieve these objectives. The experience of the MenAfriCar consortium will help in planning future studies on the epidemiology of meningococcal carriage in countries of the African meningitis belt and elsewhere.

  11. An Exploration of African Students in Malaysia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lian, Irene Tan Ai

    2011-01-01

    The exploratory study is an attempt to understand the reasons that prompted African students to study in Malaysia, the challenges encountered and the coping strategies used. The research on such topics among international students is well documented, but studies on international students in Malaysia are scarce. The sample included 155 African…

  12. AFRICAN ADULT EDUCATION--A BIBLIOGRAPHY.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BOWN, LALAGE

    THIS BIBLIOGRAPHY, A TENTATIVE LISTING OF MATERIALS ON AFRICAN ADULT EDUCATION PREPARED WITHOUT FULL BIBLIOGRAPHIC DETAIL IS LIMITED TO SOURCES IN ENGLISH AND FRENCH. THE ENGLISH SOURCES DO NOT INCLUDE MANY FROM AMERICA. IT IS AN EXTENSION AND REVISION OF THE PRELIMINARY BIBLIOGRAPHY DRAWN UP AT THE UNIVERSITY OF IBADAN IN 1965. THE FIRST SECTION…

  13. Depressive Symptoms in African-American Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, Michael K.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Examined the prevalence of depressive symptoms in an African American female college student sample (n=78) using the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI2) and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). MMPI-2 was a more conservative scale than BDI in identifying depressive symptom levels. Discusses stress inoculation methods to assist…

  14. Cultural Considerations When Caring for African Americans

    Cancer.gov

    The EPEC-O (Education in Palliative and End-of-Life Care for Oncology) Self-Study: Cultural Considerations When Caring for African Americans is a free comprehensive multimedia curricula for health professionals caring for persons with cancer and their families.

  15. Biological evaluation of Trans-African highways

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adamatzky, Andrew; Kayem, Anne V. D. M.

    2013-01-01

    The Trans-African highway network is a unique concept of integrated development of transport corridors spanning all African countries and providing landlocked countries access to seaports. The planned road system is still maturing and just partially complete, thus giving us a chance to play with different scenarios of its growth and to consider potential alternative transport networks. We study the evolving transport network in the African continent with a groundbreaking technique of imitating growing transport networks with slime mould Physarum polycephalum. We represent the major urban areas of Africa with a source of nutrients, inoculate a piece of the slime mould in Cairo and allow the mould to span all urban areas with its network of protoplasmic tubes. We then compare the slime mould networks with existing and planned highway corridors. We found that slime mould provides a good approximation of the Trans-African highway network, with some roads of Eastern Africa delineated by P. polycephalum in a larger number of laboratory experiments. We demonstrate direct matches between protoplasmic tubes and Trans-Sahelian as well as Lagos-Mombasa corridors. Finally we analyse the bio-logic of transport network development in families of generalised Physarum graphs.

  16. In Pursuit of African Scholarship: Unpacking Engagement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Brien, Frances

    2009-01-01

    Engagement between higher education and other societal sectors is a key theme in higher education discourse in South Africa, as it is in other countries. In South Africa, however, engagement has gained additional status as an appropriate strategy for pursuing African Scholarship. On the ground, however, inequitable power relationships and erratic…

  17. Dictionaries of African Sign Languages: An Overview

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmaling, Constanze H.

    2012-01-01

    This article gives an overview of dictionaries of African sign languages that have been published to date most of which have not been widely distributed. After an introduction into the field of sign language lexicography and a discussion of some of the obstacles that authors of sign language dictionaries face in general, I will show problems…

  18. African Universities Tackle the Continent's Agricultural Crisis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindow, Megan

    2009-01-01

    Pests, population growth, and depleted soil have wreaked havoc on agriculture in Africa, so universities across the continent are rethinking how they teach the topic. Some African universities have been building their own networks and pooling their limited resources to train more agricultural scientists and improve their responsiveness to the…

  19. Promotive Parenting Practices among African American Mothers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams-Wheeler, Meeshay

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine communication/reasoning, behavioral control, and trust as predictors of resourcefulness among African American children during middle childhood (6-12 years of age). Mothers who practice promotive socialization strategies are more likely to rear children who are socially competent and well adjusted. Multiple…

  20. African Socialism and Educational Practice. Draft.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Draisma, Tom

    The relationship between the secondary education system and wider political, economic, and sociocultural developments in Africa is examined. Special emphasis is given to the problems of political ideology and education in Zambia; but as Zambian socialist ideology and educational history show similarities to other African nations, the author's…

  1. African American College Women's Suicide Buffers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marion, Michelle S.; Range, Lillian M.

    2003-01-01

    To examine the relationships buffers may have with suicide ideation, 300 African American female college students completed measures of suicide ideation and buffers. Three variables accounted for a significant and unique portion of the variance in suicide ideation: family support, a view that suicide is unacceptable, and a collaborative religious…

  2. Gout and African Americans: Reducing disparities.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Bharat; Lenert, Petar

    2016-09-01

    African Americans are more likely to suffer from gout and are less likely to receive optimal treatment for it. Physicians should be aware of risk factors for gout and professional guidelines for treating acute attacks and high uric acid levels, and should help develop strategies to reduce disparities in healthcare delivery. PMID:27618355

  3. African Drum and Steel Pan Ensembles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sunkett, Mark E.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses how to develop both African drum and steel pan ensembles providing information on teacher preparation, instrument choice, beginning the ensemble, and lesson planning. Includes additional information for the drum ensembles. Lists references and instructional materials, sources of drums and pans, and common note layout/range for steel pan…

  4. Colorectal Cancer in African Americans: An Update.

    PubMed

    Williams, Renee; White, Pascale; Nieto, Jose; Vieira, Dorice; Francois, Fritz; Hamilton, Frank

    2016-01-01

    This review is an update to the American College of Gastroenterology (ACG) Committee on Minority Affairs and Cultural Diversity's paper on colorectal cancer (CRC) in African Americans published in 2005. Over the past 10 years, the incidence and mortality rates of CRC in the United States has steadily declined. However, reductions have been strikingly much slower among African Americans who continue to have the highest rate of mortality and lowest survival when compared with all other racial groups. The reasons for the health disparities are multifactorial and encompass physician and patient barriers. Patient factors that contribute to disparities include poor knowledge of benefits of CRC screening, limited access to health care, insurance status along with fear and anxiety. Physician factors include lack of knowledge of screening guidelines along with disparate recommendations for screening. Earlier screening has been recommended as an effective strategy to decrease observed disparities; currently the ACG and American Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopists recommend CRC screening in African Americans to begin at age 45. Despite the decline in CRC deaths in all racial and ethnic groups, there still exists a significant burden of CRC in African Americans, thus other strategies including educational outreach for health care providers and patients and the utilization of patient navigation systems emphasizing the importance of screening are necessary. These strategies have been piloted in both local communities and Statewide resulting in notable significant decreases in observed disparities. PMID:27467183

  5. Careers of African Americans in Academic Astronomy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fikes, Robert Jr.

    2000-01-01

    Though traditionally the field of academic astronomy has belonged almost exclusively to whites, today several black scholars are beginning to make their mark in this scientific discipline. Profiles a group of contemporary African American scholars who are astronomers and astrophysicists, noting that there are at least four black graduate students…

  6. African Americans in Television: An Afrocentric Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tait, Alice A.; Perry, Robert L.

    1994-01-01

    Proposes that, historically and contemporarily, African Americans were and are severely underrepresented in the Eurocentric press, portrayed stereotypically, depicted in low-status occupational roles, and denied news or public affairs programs to adequately serve their informational needs. Theories on mass media's impact on society and individuals…

  7. The landscape of recombination in African Americans.

    PubMed

    Hinch, Anjali G; Tandon, Arti; Patterson, Nick; Song, Yunli; Rohland, Nadin; Palmer, Cameron D; Chen, Gary K; Wang, Kai; Buxbaum, Sarah G; Akylbekova, Ermeg L; Aldrich, Melinda C; Ambrosone, Christine B; Amos, Christopher; Bandera, Elisa V; Berndt, Sonja I; Bernstein, Leslie; Blot, William J; Bock, Cathryn H; Boerwinkle, Eric; Cai, Qiuyin; Caporaso, Neil; Casey, Graham; Cupples, L Adrienne; Deming, Sandra L; Diver, W Ryan; Divers, Jasmin; Fornage, Myriam; Gillanders, Elizabeth M; Glessner, Joseph; Harris, Curtis C; Hu, Jennifer J; Ingles, Sue A; Isaacs, William; John, Esther M; Kao, W H Linda; Keating, Brendan; Kittles, Rick A; Kolonel, Laurence N; Larkin, Emma; Le Marchand, Loic; McNeill, Lorna H; Millikan, Robert C; Murphy, Adam; Musani, Solomon; Neslund-Dudas, Christine; Nyante, Sarah; Papanicolaou, George J; Press, Michael F; Psaty, Bruce M; Reiner, Alex P; Rich, Stephen S; Rodriguez-Gil, Jorge L; Rotter, Jerome I; Rybicki, Benjamin A; Schwartz, Ann G; Signorello, Lisa B; Spitz, Margaret; Strom, Sara S; Thun, Michael J; Tucker, Margaret A; Wang, Zhaoming; Wiencke, John K; Witte, John S; Wrensch, Margaret; Wu, Xifeng; Yamamura, Yuko; Zanetti, Krista A; Zheng, Wei; Ziegler, Regina G; Zhu, Xiaofeng; Redline, Susan; Hirschhorn, Joel N; Henderson, Brian E; Taylor, Herman A; Price, Alkes L; Hakonarson, Hakon; Chanock, Stephen J; Haiman, Christopher A; Wilson, James G; Reich, David; Myers, Simon R

    2011-07-20

    Recombination, together with mutation, gives rise to genetic variation in populations. Here we leverage the recent mixture of people of African and European ancestry in the Americas to build a genetic map measuring the probability of crossing over at each position in the genome, based on about 2.1 million crossovers in 30,000 unrelated African Americans. At intervals of more than three megabases it is nearly identical to a map built in Europeans. At finer scales it differs significantly, and we identify about 2,500 recombination hotspots that are active in people of West African ancestry but nearly inactive in Europeans. The probability of a crossover at these hotspots is almost fully controlled by the alleles an individual carries at PRDM9 (P value < 10(-245)). We identify a 17-base-pair DNA sequence motif that is enriched in these hotspots, and is an excellent match to the predicted binding target of PRDM9 alleles common in West Africans and rare in Europeans. Sites of this motif are predicted to be risk loci for disease-causing genomic rearrangements in individuals carrying these alleles. More generally, this map provides a resource for research in human genetic variation and evolution.

  8. Art exhibit focuses on African astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2012-07-01

    Connections between Africans and astronomy are the focus of a new exhibition in the National Museum of African Art in Washington, D. C. "African Cosmos: Stellar Arts," which includes artwork, cultural items, and scientific displays from ancient to contemporary times, is the first major exhibit "that brings together arts and science focused on Africa's contribution to keen observations of the heavens over time," curator Christine Mullen Kreamer said at a 20 June news briefing. Among the exhibit's nearly 100 objects are an ancient Egyptian mummy board that includes a representation of the sky goddess Nut, sculptures by the Dogon people of Mali depicting figures in relation to the cosmos, a video that uses data from two square degrees of the Hubble Space Telescope Cosmic Evolution Survey, and a nearly floor-to-ceiling "Rainbow Serpent" constructed of plastic containers by Benin artist Hazoume. An untitled acrylic painting (Figure 1) by South African Gavin Jantjes evokes a myth of the Khoi San people of southern Africa, as it portrays a girl throwing evening fire embers into the night sky, where they remained as the Milky Way.

  9. Contemporary Sexism in the South African Navy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Wijk, Charles H.

    2011-01-01

    The military traditionally embraces highly sexist attitudes. Over the past decade, the South African Navy (SAN) has been exposed to an increasingly progressive political environment. This study investigated contemporary expressions of sexism in the SAN. A representative sample of 476 sailors completed the Ambivalent Sexism Inventory, Modern Sexism…

  10. RHD allele distribution in Africans of Mali

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, Franz F; Moulds, Joann M; Tounkara, Anatole; Kouriba, Bourema; Flegel, Willy A

    2003-01-01

    Background Aberrant and non-functional RHD alleles are much more frequent in Africans than in Europeans. The DAU cluster of RHD alleles exemplifies that the alleles frequent in Africans have evaded recognition until recently. A comprehensive survey of RHD alleles in any African population was lacking. Results We surveyed the molecular structure and frequency of RHD alleles in Mali (West Africa) by evaluating 116 haplotypes. Only 69% could be attributed to standard RHD (55%) or the RHD deletion (14%). The aberrant RHD allele DAU-0 was predicted for 19%, RHDΨ for 7% and Ccdes for 4% of all haplotypes. DAU-3 and the new RHD allele RHD(L207F), dubbed DMA, were found in one haplotype each. A PCR-RFLP for the detection of the hybrid Rhesus box diagnostic for the RHD deletion in Europeans was false positive in 9 individuals, including all carriers of RHDΨ . Including two silent mutations and the RHD deletion, a total of 9 alleles could be differentiated. Conclusion Besides standard RHD and the RHD deletion, DAU-0, RHDΨ and Ccdes are major alleles in Mali. Our survey proved that the most frequent alleles of West Africans have been recognized allowing to devise reliable genotyping and phenotyping strategies. PMID:14505497

  11. African Trypanosomes Find a Fat Haven

    PubMed Central

    Beverley, Stephen M.

    2016-01-01

    The African trypanosome was thought to primarily develop in the bloodstream and interstitial spaces of its mammalian host. In this issue of Cell Host & Microbe, Trindade et al. (2016) report the surprising finding that during ongoing persistent infections in mice, a major fraction of the parasites reside within fatty tissues. PMID:27281564

  12. Allocation of Students in North African Universities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Marie Thourson

    1981-01-01

    Student bodies at public universities in Morocco, Algeria, and Tunisia have grown rapidly, outside the direct control of university authorities. How the three North African nations differ in their policies regulating which students may study which subjects, and the implications of these policies for the goals of higher education are discussed.…

  13. Two African Saints in Medieval Germany.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grimm, Reinhold

    1992-01-01

    The origin and development of two African saints are discussed: Saint Maurice, patron saint of the eastern empire of Otto I; and Caspar, the youngest of the three Magi. Their representation in German art is described and illustrated. (Author/LB)

  14. Myths in African Concept of Reality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaja, Jones M.

    2014-01-01

    Myths are accounts of the origin of societies and institutions not subject to rationalization but often used by historians and philosophers in their quest to study African history; for it is only thus that we can comprehend the various aspects of the continent's history and culture. This paper examines the critical understanding of African…

  15. Language and the African American Child

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Lisa J.

    2011-01-01

    How do children acquire African American English? How do they develop the specific language patterns of their communities? Drawing on spontaneous speech samples and data from structured elicitation tasks, this book explains the developmental trends in the children's language. It examines topics such as the development of tense/aspect marking,…

  16. Fat, fibre and cancer risk in African Americans and rural Africans.

    PubMed

    O'Keefe, Stephen J D; Li, Jia V; Lahti, Leo; Ou, Junhai; Carbonero, Franck; Mohammed, Khaled; Posma, Joram M; Kinross, James; Wahl, Elaine; Ruder, Elizabeth; Vipperla, Kishore; Naidoo, Vasudevan; Mtshali, Lungile; Tims, Sebastian; Puylaert, Philippe G B; DeLany, James; Krasinskas, Alyssa; Benefiel, Ann C; Kaseb, Hatem O; Newton, Keith; Nicholson, Jeremy K; de Vos, Willem M; Gaskins, H Rex; Zoetendal, Erwin G

    2015-04-28

    Rates of colon cancer are much higher in African Americans (65:100,000) than in rural South Africans (<5:100,000). The higher rates are associated with higher animal protein and fat, and lower fibre consumption, higher colonic secondary bile acids, lower colonic short-chain fatty acid quantities and higher mucosal proliferative biomarkers of cancer risk in otherwise healthy middle-aged volunteers. Here we investigate further the role of fat and fibre in this association. We performed 2-week food exchanges in subjects from the same populations, where African Americans were fed a high-fibre, low-fat African-style diet and rural Africans a high-fat, low-fibre western-style diet, under close supervision. In comparison with their usual diets, the food changes resulted in remarkable reciprocal changes in mucosal biomarkers of cancer risk and in aspects of the microbiota and metabolome known to affect cancer risk, best illustrated by increased saccharolytic fermentation and butyrogenesis, and suppressed secondary bile acid synthesis in the African Americans.

  17. Fat, Fiber and Cancer Risk in African Americans and Rural Africans

    PubMed Central

    O'Keefe, Stephen J.D.; Li, Jia V.; Lahti, Leo; Ou, Junhai; Carbonero, Franck; Mohammed, Khaled; Posma, Joram M; Kinross, James; Wahl, Elaine; Ruder, Elizabeth; Vipperla, Kishore; Naidoo, Vasudevan; Mtshali, Lungile; Tims, Sebastian; Puylaert, Philippe G.B.; DeLany, James; Krasinskas, Alyssa; Benefiel, Ann C.; Kaseb, Hatem O.; Newton, Keith; Nicholson, Jeremy K.; de Vos, Willem M.; Gaskins, H. Rex; Zoetendal, Erwin G.

    2015-01-01

    Rates of colon cancer are much higher in African Americans (65:100,000) than in rural South Africans (<5:100,000). The higher rates are associated with higher animal protein and fat and lower fiber consumption, higher colonic secondary bile acids, lower colonic short chain fatty acid quantities and higher mucosal proliferative biomarkers of cancer risk in otherwise healthy middle aged volunteers. Here we investigate further the role of fat and fiber in this association. We performed two-week food exchanges in subjects from the same populations, where African Americans were fed a high-fiber, lowfat African-style diet, and rural Africans a high-fat low-fiber western-style diet under close supervision. In comparison to their usual diets, the food changes resulted in remarkable reciprocal changes in mucosal biomarkers of cancer risk and in aspects of the microbiota and metabolome known to affect cancer risk, best illustrated by increased saccharolytic fermentation and butyrogenesis and suppressed secondary bile acid synthesis in the African Americans. PMID:25919227

  18. An African-American family with dystonia.

    PubMed

    Puschmann, Andreas; Xiao, Jianfeng; Bastian, Robert W; Searcy, Jill A; LeDoux, Mark S; Wszolek, Zbigniew K

    2011-08-01

    The genetic cause of late-onset focal and segmental dystonia remains unknown in most individuals. Recently, mutations in Thanatos-associated protein domain containing, apoptosis associated protein 1 (THAP1) have been described in DYT6 dystonia and associated with some cases of familial and sporadic late-onset dystonia in Caucasians. We are not aware of any previous descriptions of familial dystonia in African-Americans or reports of THAP1 mutations in African-Americans. Herein, we characterize an African-American (AA) kindred with late-onset primary dystonia, clinically and genetically. The clinical phenotype included cervical, laryngeal and hand-forearm dystonia. Symptoms were severe and disabling for several family members, whereas others only displayed mild signs. There were no accompanying motor or cognitive signs. In this kindred, age of onset ranged from 45 to 50 years and onset was frequently sudden, with symptoms developing within weeks or months. DYT1 was excluded as the cause of dystonia in this kindred. The entire genomic region of THAP1, including non-coding regions, was sequenced. We identified 13 sequence variants in THAP1, although none co-segregated with dystonia. A novel THAP1 variant (c.-237-3G>T/A) was found in 3/84 AA dystonia patient alleles and 3/212 AA control alleles, but not in 5870 Caucasian alleles. In summary, although previously unreported, familial primary dystonia does occur in African-Americans. Genetic analysis of the entire genomic region of THAP1 revealed a novel variant that was specific for African-Americans. Therefore, genetic testing for dystonia and future studies of candidate genes must take genetic background into consideration. PMID:21601506

  19. An African-American Family with Dystonia

    PubMed Central

    Puschmann, Andreas; Xiao, Jianfeng; Bastian, Robert W.; Searcy, Jill A.; LeDoux, Mark S.; Wszolek, Zbigniew K.

    2011-01-01

    The genetic cause of late-onset focal and segmental dystonia remains unknown in most individuals. Recently, mutations in Thanatos-associated protein domain containing, apoptosis associated protein 1 (THAP1) have been described in DYT6 dystonia and associated with some cases of familial and sporadic late-onset dystonia in Caucasians. We are not aware of any previous descriptions of familial dystonia in African Americans or reports of THAP1 mutations in African Americans. Herein, we characterize an African-American (AA) kindred with late-onset primary dystonia, clinically and genetically. The clinical phenotype included cervical, laryngeal and hand-forearm dystonia. Symptoms were severe and disabling for several family members, whereas others only displayed mild signs. There were no accompanying motor or cognitive signs. In this kindred, age of onset ranged from 45 to 50 years and onset was frequently sudden, with symptoms developing within weeks or months. DYT1 was excluded as the cause of dystonia in this kindred. The entire genomic region of THAP1, including non-coding regions, was sequenced. We identified 13 sequence variants in THAP1, although none co-segregated with dystonia. A novel THAP1 variant (c.-237-3G>T/A) was found in 3/84 AA dystonia patient alleles and 3/212 AA control alleles, but not in 5,870 Caucasian alleles. In summary, although previously unreported, familial primary dystonia does occur in African Americans. Genetic analysis of the entire genomic region of THAP1 revealed a novel variant that was specific for African Americans. Therefore, genetic testing for dystonia and future studies of candidate genes must take genetic background into consideration. PMID:21601506

  20. Informing cancer prevention strategies for African Americans: the relationship of African American acculturation to fruit, vegetable, and fat intake.

    PubMed

    Ard, Jamy D; Skinner, Celette Sugg; Chen, Chuhe; Aickin, Mikel; Svetkey, Laura P

    2005-06-01

    Acculturation has been associated with health-related behaviors in African Americans. We sought to determine if there is a relationship between acculturation and dietary intake in African Americans. African Americans in the PREMIER trial completed the African American Acculturation Scale (AAAS) and 2 nonconsecutive 24-h dietary recalls (n = 238). Analysis of variance (ANOVA) and canonical correlation were used to assess relationships between acculturation and dietary intakes. Canonical correlation (p = 0.05) showed that traditional African Americans had lower intakes of fruits/vegetables and milk/dairy with higher intakes of fats, meat, and nuts. This pattern was supported by differences in the ANOVA. African American acculturation is related to dietary intake. These findings have implications for the design of cancer-related public health messages targeted to African Americans. PMID:16015458

  1. Population affinities of African Colombians to Sub-Saharan Africans based on dental morphology.

    PubMed

    Delgado-Burbano, M E

    2007-01-01

    The Atlantic slave trade moved more than 13 million Africans to American lands between the 15th and 19th centuries. Previous historical, linguistic, and social-cultural studies suggested a Western-Central Bantu African origin for the Colombian slaves; however, their precise provenance remains unclear. The present study investigates the variation of the epigenetic dental traits in the deciduous and permanent dentition and phenotypic affinities of a contemporary Afro-Colombian community (n=178) in an attempt to identify their possible African ancestors. The results of a multivariate analysis of principal components show that Afro-descendents from Guapi have strong phenotypic relationships with several Bantu-speakers groups of Western and Western-Central Africa (Sub-Saharan region), specifically from Gabon, Congo, Pygmies, Nigeria, Cameroon, Togo and Benin. In concordance with recent mtDNA studies, this research suggests a distant but important relationship between Afro-Colombians and Eastern and South-Eastern African populations. This analysis also shows a marked dental divergence with North African samples. The dental information is not very different from the cultural, linguistic and historic data; however, it is more in agreement with studies based on molecular variation. In addition, this study reveals that African-Americans from North America, Central America-Caribbean and South America have high biological variation essentially identical to their several Sub-Saharan sources. Although a microevolutionary model, based on differential rates of gene flow with Native American and European-American groups and little selective pressures influence, better explains the phenotypic variation observed, more African-American dental samples must be analyzed from a regional perspective.

  2. Ectomycorrhizal symbiosis of tropical African trees.

    PubMed

    Bâ, Amadou M; Duponnois, Robin; Moyersoen, Bernard; Diédhiou, Abdala G

    2012-01-01

    The diversity, ecology and function of ectomycorrhizal (EM) fungi and ectomycorrhizas (ECMs) on tropical African tree species are reviewed here. While ECMs are the most frequent mycorrhizal type in temperate and boreal forests, they concern an economically and ecologically important minority of plants in African tropical forests. In these African tropical forests, ECMs are found mainly on caesalpionioid legumes, Sarcolaenaceae, Dipterocarpaceae, Asterpeiaceae, Phyllantaceae, Sapotaceae, Papilionoideae, Gnetaceae and Proteaceae, and distributed in open, gallery and rainforests of the Guineo-Congolian basin, Zambezian Miombo woodlands of East and South-Central Africa and Sudanian savannah woodlands of the sub-sahara. Overall, EM status was confirmed in 93 (26%) among 354 tree species belonging to EM genera. In addition, 195 fungal taxa were identified using morphological descriptions and sequencing of the ML5/ML6 fragment of sporocarps and ECMs from West Africa. Analyses of the belowground EM fungal communities mostly based on fungal internal transcribed spacer sequences of ECMs from Continental Africa, Madagascar and the Seychelles also revealed more than 350 putative species of EM fungi belonging mainly to 18 phylogenetic lineages. As in temperate forests, the /russula-lactarius and /tomentella-thelephora lineages dominated EM fungal flora in tropical Africa. A low level of host preference and dominance of multi-host fungal taxa on different African adult tree species and their seedlings were revealed, suggesting a potential for the formation of common ectomycorrhizal networks. Moreover, the EM inoculum potential in terms of types and density of propagules (spores, sclerotia, EM root fragments and fragments of mycelia strands) in the soil allowed opportunistic root colonisation as well as long-term survival in the soil during the dry season. These are important characteristics when choosing an EM fungus for field application. In this respect, Thelephoroid fungal sp

  3. A plea to better feed African soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stroosnijder, Leo

    2014-05-01

    Most African cropping system are rainfed. Rain is distributed at the soil surface over infiltration and runoff. The infiltrated water is stored in the rootable soil layer and the excess drains below that layer into the groundwater. The stored water is partly lost as evaporation to the atmosphere and partly used as transpiration for plant growth. In African cropping system the green water use efficiency (GWUE: fraction transpiration over rainfall) is as low as 15%. This low value is due to the often poor soil quality (physical, chemical and biological) of African soils. The poor physical state causes a weak soil structure resulting in crust formation with low infiltration and high runoff as consequences. The water holding capacity of the rootable soil layer is also poor, causing quite some water lost into deeper layers. African soils are poor due to long time soil mining. Soil life depends on soil organic matter (SOM) which is decreasing everywhere at an average rate of 2% per year. It is common sense that an improved soil quality is essential for improved food security. The key that triggers a sustainable improvement in soil quality is a system's approach that focus on the management of organic resources. Soil is a living organism, and it feeds on SOM. This feed is continuously consumed but a living soil makes new SOM out of fresh organic matter. In order to keep our soils alive we need cropping systems that feed our soils with fresh organic matter in the form of crop residues in the right mix of quality and quantity. The tendency to breed crops with a high harvest index (hence low straw) and the many other uses of crop residues (competing claims) with it recent use for bio-ethanol fabrication is disastrous for our living soils. If we continue to allow SOM to decrease, soil crusting and hard setting will increase with less end less water available for the production of green biomass. Lower available water will trigger a negative spiral with lower food security and

  4. Range and Frequency of Africanized Honey Bees in California (USA)

    PubMed Central

    Kono, Yoshiaki; Kohn, Joshua R.

    2015-01-01

    Africanized honey bees entered California in 1994 but few accounts of their northward expansion or their frequency relative to European honey bees have been published. We used mitochondrial markers and morphometric analyses to determine the prevalence of Africanized honeybees in San Diego County and their current northward progress in California west of the Sierra Nevada crest. The northernmost African mitotypes detected were approximately 40 km south of Sacramento in California’s central valley. In San Diego County, 65% of foraging honey bee workers carry African mitochondria and the estimated percentage of Africanized workers using morphological measurements is similar (61%). There was no correlation between mitotype and morphology in San Diego County suggesting Africanized bees result from bidirectional hybridization. Seventy percent of feral hives, but only 13% of managed hives, sampled in San Diego County carried the African mitotype indicating that a large fraction of foraging workers in both urban and rural San Diego County are feral. We also found a single nucleotide polymorphism at the DNA barcode locus COI that distinguishes European and African mitotypes. The utility of this marker was confirmed using 401 georeferenced honey bee sequences from the worldwide Barcode of Life Database. Future censuses can determine whether the current range of the Africanized form is stable, patterns of introgression at nuclear loci, and the environmental factors that may limit the northern range of the Africanized honey bee. PMID:26361047

  5. In vitro permeation of platinum through African and Caucasian skin.

    PubMed

    Franken, A; Eloff, F C; du Plessis, J; Badenhorst, C J; Du Plessis, J L

    2015-02-01

    The majority of the South African workforce are Africans, therefore potential racial differences should be considered in risk and exposure assessments in the workplace. Literature suggests African skin to be a superior barrier against permeation and irritants. Previous in vitro studies on metals only included skin from Caucasian donors, whereas this study compared the permeation of platinum through African and Caucasian skin. A donor solution of 0.3 mg/ml of potassium tetrachloroplatinate (K₂PtCl₄) dissolved in synthetic sweat was applied to the vertical Franz diffusion cells with full thickness abdominal skin. Skin from three female African and three female Caucasian donors were included (n=21). The receptor solution was removed at various intervals during the 24 h experiment, and analysed with high resolution inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Skin was digested and analysed by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). Significantly higher permeation of platinum through intact African skin (p=0.044), as well as a significantly higher mass of platinum retention in African skin in comparison with Caucasian skin (p=0.002) occurred. Significant inter-donor variation was found in both racial groups (p<0.02). Results indicate that African workers have increased risk of dermal permeation and therefore possible sensitisation caused by dermal exposure to platinum salts. These results are contradictory to limited literature suggesting a superior barrier in African skin and further investigation is necessary to explain the higher permeation through African skin.

  6. Range and Frequency of Africanized Honey Bees in California (USA).

    PubMed

    Kono, Yoshiaki; Kohn, Joshua R

    2015-01-01

    Africanized honey bees entered California in 1994 but few accounts of their northward expansion or their frequency relative to European honey bees have been published. We used mitochondrial markers and morphometric analyses to determine the prevalence of Africanized honeybees in San Diego County and their current northward progress in California west of the Sierra Nevada crest. The northernmost African mitotypes detected were approximately 40 km south of Sacramento in California's central valley. In San Diego County, 65% of foraging honey bee workers carry African mitochondria and the estimated percentage of Africanized workers using morphological measurements is similar (61%). There was no correlation between mitotype and morphology in San Diego County suggesting Africanized bees result from bidirectional hybridization. Seventy percent of feral hives, but only 13% of managed hives, sampled in San Diego County carried the African mitotype indicating that a large fraction of foraging workers in both urban and rural San Diego County are feral. We also found a single nucleotide polymorphism at the DNA barcode locus COI that distinguishes European and African mitotypes. The utility of this marker was confirmed using 401 georeferenced honey bee sequences from the worldwide Barcode of Life Database. Future censuses can determine whether the current range of the Africanized form is stable, patterns of introgression at nuclear loci, and the environmental factors that may limit the northern range of the Africanized honey bee.

  7. Range and Frequency of Africanized Honey Bees in California (USA).

    PubMed

    Kono, Yoshiaki; Kohn, Joshua R

    2015-01-01

    Africanized honey bees entered California in 1994 but few accounts of their northward expansion or their frequency relative to European honey bees have been published. We used mitochondrial markers and morphometric analyses to determine the prevalence of Africanized honeybees in San Diego County and their current northward progress in California west of the Sierra Nevada crest. The northernmost African mitotypes detected were approximately 40 km south of Sacramento in California's central valley. In San Diego County, 65% of foraging honey bee workers carry African mitochondria and the estimated percentage of Africanized workers using morphological measurements is similar (61%). There was no correlation between mitotype and morphology in San Diego County suggesting Africanized bees result from bidirectional hybridization. Seventy percent of feral hives, but only 13% of managed hives, sampled in San Diego County carried the African mitotype indicating that a large fraction of foraging workers in both urban and rural San Diego County are feral. We also found a single nucleotide polymorphism at the DNA barcode locus COI that distinguishes European and African mitotypes. The utility of this marker was confirmed using 401 georeferenced honey bee sequences from the worldwide Barcode of Life Database. Future censuses can determine whether the current range of the Africanized form is stable, patterns of introgression at nuclear loci, and the environmental factors that may limit the northern range of the Africanized honey bee. PMID:26361047

  8. Hematopoietic SCT for the Black African and non-Black African variants of sickle cell anemia.

    PubMed

    Lucarelli, G; Isgrò, A; Sodani, P; Marziali, M; Gaziev, J; Paciaroni, K; Gallucci, C; Cardarelli, L; Ribersani, M; Alfieri, C; De Angelis, G; Armiento, D; Andreani, M; Testi, M; Amato, A; Akinyanju, O O; Wakama, T T

    2014-11-01

    Sickle cell anemia (SCA) remains associated with high risks of morbidity and early death. Allogeneic hematopoietic SCT (HSCT) is the only curative treatment for SCA. We report our experience with transplantation in a group of patients with the non-Black African variant and the Black African variant of SCA. This study included 40 consecutive SCA patients (13 patients with the non-Black African variant and 27 with the Black African variant) who underwent BM transplantation from HLA-identical sibling donors between June 2004 and May 2013, following a myeloablative-conditioning regimen. All patients obtained sustained engraftment. One patient (non-Black African variant) became a stable mixed chimera with 25% donor cells more than 6 years after transplantation. The probabilities of survival, SCA-free survival and TRM at 5 years after transplant were 91%, 91% and 9%, respectively. All surviving patients remained free of any SCA-related events after transplantation. Our results confirm that it is possible to offer a greater than 90% chance of cure to children with SCA. HSCT should be considered the standard of care for who have an HLA-identical donor, before complications result from the sickling of RBC.

  9. Heat flow from the West African shield

    SciTech Connect

    Brigaud, F.; Lucazeau, F.; Ly, S.; Sauvage, J.F.

    1985-09-01

    The heat flow over Precambrian shields is generally lower than over other continental provinces. Previous observations at 9 sites of the West African shield have shown that heat flow ranges from 20 mW m/sup -2/ in Niger to 38-42 mW m/sup -2/ in Liberia, Ghana and Nigeria. Since some of these values are lower than expected for Precambrian shields, it is important to find out whether or not they are representative of the entire shield before trying to derive its thermal structure. In this paper, we present new heat flow determinations from seven sites of the West African shield. These indicate that the surface heat flow is comparable with that of other Precambrian shields in the world.

  10. Young Africans Tackle Their Continent's Environmental Issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olwoch, Jane Mukarugwiza

    2008-11-01

    Young African Scientists Session at the Fourth International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme Congress; Cape Town, South Africa, 7 May 2008; Africa is often described as a unique and diverse continent. This is reflected in its biodiversity, economic and social circumstances, and diversity in culture and environment. The Young African Scientists (YAS) session at the International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme Congress was one of the congress's highlights. Global environmental change research in Africa was presented to an audience that included visiting international and national scientists, policy makers, and a group of schoolchildren. From the uniqueness of Africa's paleoclimate to the diversity and complexity of current and future impacts of environmental change on Africa, the session not only provided an overview of current projects but also highlighted the problems that are intertwined with poverty. This session was sponsored by the Global Change System for Analysis, Research, and Training (START).

  11. Bushmeat hunting changes regeneration of African rainforests.

    PubMed

    Effiom, Edu O; Nuñez-Iturri, Gabriela; Smith, Henrik G; Ottosson, Ulf; Olsson, Ola

    2013-05-22

    To assess ecological consequences of bushmeat hunting in African lowland rainforests, we compared paired sites, with high and low hunting pressure, in three areas of southeastern Nigeria. In hunted sites, populations of important seed dispersers-both small and large primates (including the Cross River gorilla, Gorilla gorilla diehli)-were drastically reduced. Large rodents were more abundant in hunted sites, even though they are hunted. Hunted and protected sites had similar mature tree communities dominated by primate-dispersed species. In protected sites, seedling communities were similar in composition to the mature trees, but in hunted sites species with other dispersal modes dominated among seedlings. Seedlings emerging 1 year after clearing of all vegetation in experimental plots showed a similar pattern to the standing seedlings. This study thus verifies the transforming effects of bushmeat hunting on plant communities of tropical forests and is one of the first studies to do so for the African continent. PMID:23516245

  12. Bushmeat hunting changes regeneration of African rainforests.

    PubMed

    Effiom, Edu O; Nuñez-Iturri, Gabriela; Smith, Henrik G; Ottosson, Ulf; Olsson, Ola

    2013-05-22

    To assess ecological consequences of bushmeat hunting in African lowland rainforests, we compared paired sites, with high and low hunting pressure, in three areas of southeastern Nigeria. In hunted sites, populations of important seed dispersers-both small and large primates (including the Cross River gorilla, Gorilla gorilla diehli)-were drastically reduced. Large rodents were more abundant in hunted sites, even though they are hunted. Hunted and protected sites had similar mature tree communities dominated by primate-dispersed species. In protected sites, seedling communities were similar in composition to the mature trees, but in hunted sites species with other dispersal modes dominated among seedlings. Seedlings emerging 1 year after clearing of all vegetation in experimental plots showed a similar pattern to the standing seedlings. This study thus verifies the transforming effects of bushmeat hunting on plant communities of tropical forests and is one of the first studies to do so for the African continent.

  13. Appendicectomy prevalences in South African adolescents.

    PubMed

    Walker, A R; Walker, B F; Duvenhage, A; Jones, J; Ncongwane, J; Segal, I

    1982-01-01

    From questioning 16,939 South African pupils of 16-18 years, in 56 high schools, mean prevalences of appendicectomies in representative segments of ethnic groups were found to be: rural Blacks 0.6%; urban Blacks 0.7%; Indians, 2.9%; Coloureds (Eur-African-Malay), 1.7%; Whites, 10.5%. Percentages in the sexes were similar. Only those of Indian and Coloured pupils appear to be increasing. Blacks and Whites, respectively, have high and low intakes of fibre-containing foods, which are negatively correlated with appendicectomy prevalences. However, although intakes of fibre-containing foods are slightly higher in Indians and Coloureds than in Whites, the former's appendicectomy prevalences are lower than would be dietarily expected. PMID:6292030

  14. Engineering processes for the African VLBI network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thondikulam, Venkatasubramani L.; Loots, Anita; Gaylard, Michael

    2013-04-01

    The African VLBI Network (AVN) is an initiative by the SKA-SA and HartRAO, business units of the National Research Foundation (NRF), Department of Science and Technology (DST), South Africa. The aim is to fill the existing gap of Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI)-capable radio telescopes in the African continent by a combination of new build as well as conversion of large redundant telecommunication antennas through an Inter-Governmental collaborative programme in Science and Technology. The issue of human capital development in the Continent in the techniques of radio astronomy engineering and science is a strong force to drive the project and is expected to contribute significantly to the success of Square Kilometer Array (SKA) in the Continent.

  15. Towards the South African Underground Laboratory (SAUL)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wyngaardt, S. M.; Newman, R. T.; Lindsay, R.; Buffler, A.; de Meijer, R.; Maleka, P.; Bezuidenhout, J.; Nchodu, R.; van Rooyen, M.; Ndlovu, Z.

    Over the past two years there has been discussion among South African physicists about the possibility of establishing a deep underground physics laboratory to study, amongst others, double beta decay, geoneutrinos, reactor neutrinos and dark matter. As a step towards a full proposal for such a laboratory a number of smaller programmes are currently being performed to investigate feasibility of the Huguenot Tunnel in the Du Toitskloof Mountains near Paarl (Western Cape, South Africa) as a possible sight for the South African Underground Laboratory facility. The programme includes measurements of radon in air (using electret ion chambers and alpha spectroscopy), background gammaray measurements (inside/outside) the tunnel using scintillator (inorganic) detectors, cosmic ray measurements using organic scintillators and radiometric analyses of representative rock samples.

  16. [Hemiplegic forms of human African trypanosomiasis].

    PubMed

    Sonan, T; Giordano, C; Boa, F; Dumas, M

    1988-01-01

    Hemiplegic forms of human African trypanosomiasis are unusual. From 1963 to 1987, 14 cases have been reported in the literature. One may be mistakenly led to look for a space-occupying lesion when clinical features include hemiplegia, vascular shift from median line during arteriography, focal EEG anomalies and intracranial hypertension. The discussion on diagnosis also covers subacute or chronic meningo encephalitis (tuberculosis syphilis or fungal infection). CT scanner findings suggest the association of a massive demyelination of centrum semiovale, with cerebral oedema.

  17. African return migration: past, present, and future.

    PubMed

    Gregory, J W; Piche, V

    1983-01-01

    The various forms of return migration in Africa in the twentieth century are first examined, and the factors affecting them are discussed. The authors then consider the value of the household, rather than the individual, as the unit of analysis. Return migration is also analyzed in terms of the linking role it plays between Africa's capitalist and non-capitalist countries. Finally, alternative future trends in the circulatory flow of African labor are considered.

  18. The Offshore East African Rift System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franke, D.; Klimke, J.; Jokat, W.; Stollhofen, H.; Mahanjane, S.

    2014-12-01

    Numerous studies have addressed various aspects of the East African Rift system but surprisingly few on the offshore continuation of the south-eastern branch of the rift into the Mozambique Channel. The most prominent article has been published almost 30 years ago by Mougenot et al. (1986) and is based on vintage seismic data. Several studies investigating earthquakes and plate motions from GPS measurements reveal recent deformation along the offshore branch of the East African Rift system. Slip vectors from earthquakes data in Mozambique's offshore basins show a consistent NE direction. Fault plane solutions reveal ~ E-W extensional failure with focal depth clustering around 19 km and 40 km, respectively. Here, we present new evidence for neotectonic deformation derived from modern seismic reflection data and supported by additional geophysical data. The modern rift system obviously reactivates structures from the disintegration of eastern Gondwana. During the Jurassic/Cretaceous opening of the Somali and Mozambique Basins, Madagascar moved southwards along a major shear zone, to its present position. Since the Miocene, parts of the shear zone became reactivated and structurally overprinted by the East African rift system. The Kerimbas Graben offshore northern Mozambique is the most prominent manifestation of recent extensional deformation. Bathymetry data shows that it deepens northwards, with approximately 700 m downthrown on the eastern shoulder. The graben can be subdivided into four subbasins by crosscutting structural lineaments with a NW-SE trend. Together with the N-S striking graben-bounding faults, this resembles a conjugate fault system. In seismic reflection data normal faulting is distinct not only at the earthquake epicenters. The faults cut through the sedimentary successions and typically reach the seafloor, indicating ongoing recent deformation. Reference: Mougenot, D., Recq, M., Virlogeux, P., and Lepvrier, C., 1986, Seaward extension of the East

  19. Seasonal distribution of African savanna fires

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cahoon, Donald R., Jr.; Stocks, Brian J.; Levine, Joel S.; Cofer, Wesley R., III; O'Neill, Katherine P.

    1992-01-01

    The temporal and spatial distribution of savanna fires over the entire African continent, as determined from nighttime satellite imagery, is described. It is found that, contrary to expectations, most fires are left to burn uncontrolled, so that there is no strong diurnal cycle in the fire frequency. The knowledge gained from this study regarding the distribution and variability of fires is helpful in the monitoring of climatically important trace gases emitted from burning biomass.

  20. Africans in the American Labor Market.

    PubMed

    Elo, Irma T; Frankenberg, Elizabeth; Gansey, Romeo; Thomas, Duncan

    2015-10-01

    The number of migrants to the United States from Africa has grown exponentially since the 1930s. For the first time in America's history, migrants born in Africa are growing at a faster rate than migrants from any other continent. The composition of African-origin migrants has also changed dramatically: in the mid-twentieth century, the majority were white and came from only three countries; but today, about one-fifth are white, and African-origin migrants hail from across the entire continent. Little is known about the implications of these changes for their labor market outcomes in the United States. Using the 2000-2011 waves of the American Community Survey, we present a picture of enormous heterogeneity in labor market participation, sectoral choice, and hourly earnings of male and female migrants by country of birth, race, age at arrival in the United States, and human capital. For example, controlling a rich set of human capital and demographic characteristics, some migrants-such as those from South Africa/Zimbabwe and Cape Verde, who typically enter on employment visas-earn substantial premiums relative to other African-origin migrants. These premiums are especially large among males who arrived after age 18. In contrast, other migrants-such as those from Sudan/Somalia, who arrived more recently, mostly as refugees-earn substantially less than migrants from other African countries. Understanding the mechanisms generating the heterogeneity in these outcomes-including levels of socioeconomic development, language, culture, and quality of education in countries of origin, as well as selectivity of those who migrate-figures prominently among important unresolved research questions. PMID:26304845

  1. Africans in the American Labor Market.

    PubMed

    Elo, Irma T; Frankenberg, Elizabeth; Gansey, Romeo; Thomas, Duncan

    2015-10-01

    The number of migrants to the United States from Africa has grown exponentially since the 1930s. For the first time in America's history, migrants born in Africa are growing at a faster rate than migrants from any other continent. The composition of African-origin migrants has also changed dramatically: in the mid-twentieth century, the majority were white and came from only three countries; but today, about one-fifth are white, and African-origin migrants hail from across the entire continent. Little is known about the implications of these changes for their labor market outcomes in the United States. Using the 2000-2011 waves of the American Community Survey, we present a picture of enormous heterogeneity in labor market participation, sectoral choice, and hourly earnings of male and female migrants by country of birth, race, age at arrival in the United States, and human capital. For example, controlling a rich set of human capital and demographic characteristics, some migrants-such as those from South Africa/Zimbabwe and Cape Verde, who typically enter on employment visas-earn substantial premiums relative to other African-origin migrants. These premiums are especially large among males who arrived after age 18. In contrast, other migrants-such as those from Sudan/Somalia, who arrived more recently, mostly as refugees-earn substantially less than migrants from other African countries. Understanding the mechanisms generating the heterogeneity in these outcomes-including levels of socioeconomic development, language, culture, and quality of education in countries of origin, as well as selectivity of those who migrate-figures prominently among important unresolved research questions.

  2. Africans in the American Labor Market

    PubMed Central

    Elo, Irma T.; Frankenberg, Elizabeth; Gansey, Romeo; Thomas, Duncan

    2015-01-01

    The number of migrants to the United States from Africa has grown exponentially since the 1930s. For the first time in America’s history, migrants born in Africa are growing at a faster rate than migrants from any other continent. The composition of African-origin migrants has also changed dramatically: in the mid-twentieth century, the majority were white and came from only three countries; but today, about one-fifth are white, and African-origin migrants hail from across the entire continent. Little is known about the implications of these changes for their labor market outcomes in the United States. Using the 2000–2011 waves of the American Community Survey, we present a picture of enormous heterogeneity in labor market participation, sectoral choice, and hourly earnings of male and female migrants by country of birth, race, age at arrival in the United States, and human capital. For example, controlling a rich set of human capital and demographic characteristics, some migrants—such as those from South Africa/Zimbabwe and Cape Verde, who typically enter on employment visas—earn substantial premiums relative to other African-origin migrants. These premiums are especially large among males who arrived after age 18. In contrast, other migrants—such as those from Sudan/Somalia, who arrived more recently, mostly as refugees—earn substantially less than migrants from other African countries. Understanding the mechanisms generating the heterogeneity in these outcomes—including levels of socioeconomic development, language, culture, and quality of education in countries of origin, as well as selectivity of those who migrate—remain important unresolved research questions. PMID:26304845

  3. The topology of African exports: Emerging patterns on spanning trees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Araújo, Tanya; Ferreira, Manuel Ennes

    2016-11-01

    This paper is a contribution to interweaving two lines of research that have progressed in separate ways: network analysis of international trade and the literature on African trade and development. Gathering empirical data on African countries has important limitations and so does the space occupied by African countries in the analysis of trade networks. Here, these limitations are dealt with by the definition of two independent bipartite networks: a destination share network and a commodity share network. These networks-together with their corresponding minimal spanning trees-allow to uncover some ordering emerging from African exports in the broader context of international trade. The emerging patterns help to understand important characteristics of African exports and its binding relations to other economic, geographic and organizational concerns as the recent literature on African trade, development and growth has shown.

  4. Age, gender and health among African Americans.

    PubMed

    Fitzpatrick, T R; Thanh, V T

    1997-01-01

    Public policy and epidemiological studies have not adequately addressed age and gender differences on important health dimensions among African Americans. The purpose of this study was to examine gender and health among five age groups of African Americans. A sample of 1,174 respondents age 24 to 85 was selected from the 1986 Americans' Changing Lives (ACL) Study. Regression analysis was performed using a hierarchical model to examine age and gender on five dimensions of health: functional health, chronic conditions, satisfaction with health, self-ratings of health, and activities of daily living (ADL) limitations controlling for age, education, income, and marital status among five age groups of African Americans. Results revealed that in the 24-39 age group, men had fewer chronic conditions and less ADL limitations, yet rated their health poorer than their female counterparts. In the 75 and over age group men had better functional health yet were less satisfied with their health than women. Control variables were significantly related to objective and subjective dimensions of health especially among the younger age groups. Overall, gender differences persist mainly among the youngest and oldest age groups despite variations in the above demographic variables. Implications for social work practice and future research are discussed.

  5. Micropropagation of African violet (Saintpaulia ionantha Wendl.).

    PubMed

    Shukla, Mukund; Sullivan, J Alan; Jain, Shri Mohan; Murch, Susan J; Saxena, Praveen K

    2013-01-01

    Micropropagation is an important tool for rapid multiplication and the creation of genetic variability in African violets (Saintpaulia ionantha Wendl.). Successful in vitro propagation depends on the specific requirements and precise manipulation of various factors such as the type of explants used, physiological state of the mother plant, plant growth regulators in the culture medium, and growth conditions. Development of cost-effective protocols with a high rate of multiplication is a crucial requirement for commercial application of micropropagation. The current chapter describes an optimized protocol for micropropagation of African violets using leaf explants obtained from in vitro grown plants. In this process, plant regeneration occurs via both somatic embryogenesis and shoot organogenesis simultaneously in the explants induced with the growth regulator thidiazuron (TDZ; N-phenyl-N'-1,2,3-thidiazol-5-ylurea). The protocol is simple, rapid, and efficient for large-scale propagation of African violet and the dual routes of regeneration allow for multiple applications of the technology from simple clonal propagation to induction or selection of variants to the production of synthetic seeds.

  6. African American Culture and Hypertension Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Peters, Rosalind M.; Aroian, Karen J.; Flack, John M.

    2009-01-01

    A qualitative study was done to explore attitudes and beliefs of African Americans regarding hypertension-preventive self-care behaviors. Five focus groups, with 34 participants, were held using interview questions loosely based on the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB). Analysis revealed themes broadly consistent with the TPB, and also identified an overarching theme labeled “circle of culture.” The circle is a metaphor for ties that bind individuals within the larger African American community, and provides boundaries for culturally acceptable behaviors. Three sub-themes were identified: one describes how health behaviors are “passed from generation to generation,” another reflects a sense of being “accountable” to others within the culture; and the third reflects negative views taken toward people who are “acting different,” moving outside the circle of culture. Findings provide an expanded perspective of the TPB by demonstrating the influence of culture and collective identify on attitude formation and health-related behaviors among African Americans. PMID:17056776

  7. Micropropagation of African violet (Saintpaulia ionantha Wendl.).

    PubMed

    Shukla, Mukund; Sullivan, J Alan; Jain, Shri Mohan; Murch, Susan J; Saxena, Praveen K

    2013-01-01

    Micropropagation is an important tool for rapid multiplication and the creation of genetic variability in African violets (Saintpaulia ionantha Wendl.). Successful in vitro propagation depends on the specific requirements and precise manipulation of various factors such as the type of explants used, physiological state of the mother plant, plant growth regulators in the culture medium, and growth conditions. Development of cost-effective protocols with a high rate of multiplication is a crucial requirement for commercial application of micropropagation. The current chapter describes an optimized protocol for micropropagation of African violets using leaf explants obtained from in vitro grown plants. In this process, plant regeneration occurs via both somatic embryogenesis and shoot organogenesis simultaneously in the explants induced with the growth regulator thidiazuron (TDZ; N-phenyl-N'-1,2,3-thidiazol-5-ylurea). The protocol is simple, rapid, and efficient for large-scale propagation of African violet and the dual routes of regeneration allow for multiple applications of the technology from simple clonal propagation to induction or selection of variants to the production of synthetic seeds. PMID:23179707

  8. Seasonal Distribution of African Savanna Fires

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cahoon, Donald R.; Stocks, Brian J.; Levine, Joel S.; Cofer, Wesley R., III; O'Neill, Katherine P.

    1992-01-01

    Savannas consist of a continuous layer of grass interspersed with scattered trees or shrubs, and cover approx. 10 million square kilometers of tropical Africa. African savanna fires, almost all resulting from human activities, may produce as much as a third of the total global emissions from biomass burning. Little is known, however, about the frequency and location of these fires, and the area burned each year. Emissions from African savanna burning are known to be transported over the mid-Atlantic, south Pacific and Indian oceans; but to study fully the transport of regional savanna burning and the seasonality of the atmospheric circulation must be considered simultaneously. Here we describe the temporal and spatial distribution of savanna fires over the entire African continent, as determined from night-time satellite imagery. We find that, contrary to expectations, most fires are left to burn uncontrolled, so that there is no strong diurnal cycle in the fire frequency. The knowledge gained from this study regarding the distribution and variability of fires will aid monitoring of the climatically important trace gases emitted from burning biomass.

  9. Neuropsychological screening tests in African Americans.

    PubMed Central

    Lampley-Dallas, V. T.

    2001-01-01

    Neuropsychological tests are instruments used to diagnose a variety of cognitive conditions. This article will review a few of the brief scales commonly used in screening for dementia. It will also discuss the properties of and problems with some of the brief scales that are commonly used to screen African Americans for dementia, highlighting the various biases. The Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) is the most widely known and utilized cognitive impairment instrument in the United States. Whether or not it is biased to race after adjusting the scores for educational attainment remains controversial. The Blessed Information-Memory-Concentration Test (BIMC), Blessed Orientation-Memory-Concentration Test (BOMC), Short Portable Mental Status Questionnaire (SPMSQ), and Neurobehavioral Cognitive Status Examination (NCSE) are other screening tests used to diagnose dementia. Some of these tests have been found to misclassify many more African Americans as demented compared to the proportion of whites that are misclassified. The Cambridge Cognitive Examination (CAMCOG) is the only brief neuropsychological scale designed to actually diagnose early dementia, but it is not known if it is biased for African Americans. PMID:11560287

  10. Mayo's Older African Americans Normative Studies: WMS-R norms for African American elders.

    PubMed

    Lucas, John A; Ivnik, Robert J; Smith, Glenn E; Ferman, Tanis J; Willis, Floyd B; Petersen, Ronald C; Graff-Radford, Neill R

    2005-06-01

    Norms for African American elders on the Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised (WMS-R) were derived from a sample of 309 community-dwelling individuals participating in Mayo's Older African Americans Normative Studies (MOAANS). Normative estimates are provided for traditional WMS-R subtest scores and for supplemental procedures to evaluate forgetting rates and recognition memory. Tables are provided to convert raw WMS-R subtest and supplemental scores to age-corrected scaled scores. These may be further adjusted for years of education, if desired, by applying regression-based corrections. We anticipate that these data will enhance the diagnostic utility and clinical interpretation of WMS-R performance in older African Americans.

  11. Perspectives from the historic African American medical institutions.

    PubMed

    Epps, C H

    1999-05-01

    The historically African American medical schools have been at the center of medical education for African American physicians in the United States since the Howard University College of Medicine opened in 1868. Although there were more than a dozen African American medical schools established during the next few decades, as propriety or church affiliated schools, only two survived the Flexner Report in 1910. Howard University (1868) and Meharry (1876) survived and trained generations of African Americans. These two schools educated approximately 85% of all African American physicians whereas the majority medical schools educated 15% for more than half of the twentieth century. As the result of a series of lawsuits filed by the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, civil rights legislation and affirmative action programs, the numbers of the schools that now admitted African Americans increased and the total numbers of African American medical students increased when discrimination was prohibited in 1966. The percentage of African American medical students attending predominantly white institutions increased by 25% in 1948, by 47% in 1968, by 61% in 1983 and to 84% in 1990. Two additional predominantly African American medical schools were established: the Charles R. Drew Medical School, Los Angeles (affiliated with the University of California, Los Angeles) in 1966, and Morehouse Medical School, Atlanta, which admitted its first class in 1978. Recent court decisions prohibiting schools from considering race as factor in admission and the end of affirmative action programs have resulted in a drop in total minority enrollment. The historically African American medical schools, that admitted approximately 15% of the African American medical students during the era of affirmative action programs, will see this percentage decrease as the majority institutions admit fewer African American medical students and minority students. In the United States

  12. Y Chromosome Lineages in Men of West African Descent

    PubMed Central

    Keita, Shomarka O. Y.; Kittles, Rick A.

    2012-01-01

    The early African experience in the Americas is marked by the transatlantic slave trade from ∼1619 to 1850 and the rise of the plantation system. The origins of enslaved Africans were largely dependent on European preferences as well as the availability of potential laborers within Africa. Rice production was a key industry of many colonial South Carolina low country plantations. Accordingly, rice plantations owners within South Carolina often requested enslaved Africans from the so-called “Grain Coast” of western Africa (Senegal to Sierra Leone). Studies on the African origins of the enslaved within other regions of the Americas have been limited. To address the issue of origins of people of African descent within the Americas and understand more about the genetic heterogeneity present within Africa and the African Diaspora, we typed Y chromosome specific markers in 1,319 men consisting of 508 west and central Africans (from 12 populations), 188 Caribbeans (from 2 islands), 532 African Americans (AAs from Washington, DC and Columbia, SC), and 91 European Americans. Principal component and admixture analyses provide support for significant Grain Coast ancestry among African American men in South Carolina. AA men from DC and the Caribbean showed a closer affinity to populations from the Bight of Biafra. Furthermore, 30–40% of the paternal lineages in African descent populations in the Americas are of European ancestry. Diverse west African ancestries and sex-biased gene flow from EAs has contributed greatly to the genetic heterogeneity of African populations throughout the Americas and has significant implications for gene mapping efforts in these populations. PMID:22295064

  13. KSC kicks off African-American History Month

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Michelle Amos, mistress of ceremonies for the kick-off of African-American History Month, works with the audience to assist them in the pronunciation of a few token words in native Swahili. The theme for this year's observation is 'Heritage and Horizons: The African-American Legacy and the Challenges of the 21st Century.' February is designated each year as a time to celebrate the achievements and contributions of African Americans to Kennedy Space Center, NASA and the nation.

  14. African Genetic Ancestry is Associated with Sleep Depth in Older African Americans

    PubMed Central

    Halder, Indrani; Matthews, Karen A.; Buysse, Daniel J.; Strollo, Patrick J.; Causer, Victoria; Reis, Steven E.; Hall, Martica H.

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: The mechanisms that underlie differences in sleep characteristics between European Americans (EA) and African Americans (AA) are not fully known. Although social and psychological processes that differ by race are possible mediators, the substantial heritability of sleep characteristics also suggests genetic underpinnings of race differences. We hypothesized that racial differences in sleep phenotypes would show an association with objectively measured individual genetic ancestry in AAs. Design: Cross sectional. Setting: Community-based study. Participants: Seventy AA adults (mean age 59.5 ± 6.7 y; 62% female) and 101 EAs (mean age 60.5 ± 7 y, 39% female). Measurements and Results: Multivariate tests were used to compare the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and in-home polysomnographic measures of sleep duration, sleep efficiency, apnea-hypopnea index (AHI), and indices of sleep depth including percent visually scored slow wave sleep (SWS) and delta EEG power of EAs and AAs. Sleep duration, efficiency, and sleep depth differed significantly by race. Individual % African ancestry (%AF) was measured in AA subjects using a panel of 1698 ancestry informative genetic markers and ranged from 10% to 88% (mean 67%). Hierarchical linear regression showed that higher %AF was associated with lower percent SWS in AAs (β (standard error) = −4.6 (1.5); P = 0.002), and explained 11% of the variation in SWS after covariate adjustment. A similar association was observed for delta power. No association was observed for sleep duration and efficiency. Conclusion: African genetic ancestry is associated with indices of sleep depth in African Americans. Such an association suggests that part of the racial differences in slow-wave sleep may have genetic underpinnings. Citation: Halder I, Matthews KA, Buysse DJ, Strollo PJ, Causer V, Reis SE, Hall MH. African genetic ancestry is associated with sleep depth in older African Americans. SLEEP 2015;38(8):1185–1193

  15. Equatorial Electrojet Observations in the African Continent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yizengaw, E.; Moldwin, M. B.; Mebrahtu, A.; Damtie, B.; Pfaff, R.; Zesta, E.

    2008-12-01

    Although Satellite observations in the African sector show unique equatorial ionospheric structures that can severely impact navigation and communication systems, the study of ionospheric disturbances in this region is difficult due to the lack of ground-based instruments. This has created a gap in global understanding of the physics behind the evolution and formation of plasma irregularities in the equatorial region, which imposes limitations on ionospheric density modeling efforts. Therefore, in order to have a more complete global understanding of equatorial ionosphere motion, the international space science community has begun to develop an observational infrastructure in the African sector. This includes the deployment of a number of arrays of small instruments, including the AMBER magnetometer array, through the International Heliophysical Year (IHY) cooperative program with the United Nations Basic Space Science (UNBSS) program. Two AMBER magnetometers have been deployed successfully at Adigrat (~6°N magnetic) in Ethiopia and at Medea in Algeria (28°N magnetic), and became fully operational on 03 August 2008. The remaining two AMBER magnetometers will be deployed soon in Cameroon and Namibia. One of the prime scientific objectives of AMBER is to understand the processes governing electrodynamics of the equatorial ionosphere as a function of latitude, local time, magnetic activity, and season in the African region. The most credible driving mechanism of ionospheric plasma (E × B drift) can be estimated using two magnetometers, one right at the equator and the other about 6 off the equator. Therefore, using the AMBER magnetometer at Adigrat and the INTERMAGNET magnetometer located at Addis Ababa (0.9°N magnetic) in Ethiopia, the equatorial electrojet (E × B drift) activities in that longitudinal sector of the African continent is estimated. The paper also presents the comparison between the estimated vertical drift and the drift values obtained from the

  16. 76 FR 43649 - Board of Directors Meeting; African Development Foundation, Board of Directors Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-21

    ...; ] AFRICAN DEVELOPMENT FOUNDATION Board of Directors Meeting; African Development Foundation, Board of Directors Meeting Time: Tuesday, August 2, 2011, 9 a.m. to 12 p.m. Place: African Development...

  17. African American women and breastfeeding: an integrative literature review.

    PubMed

    Spencer, Becky S; Grassley, Jane S

    2013-07-01

    The purpose of this article is to present a review of literature regarding factors that influence breastfeeding intentions, initiation, and duration in the African American population. Research related to health disparities experienced by African Americans in the United States, as well as research regarding the protective benefits of breastfeeding for those specific health disparities, are also presented. Community and institutional interventions and promotional campaigns aimed at increasing initiation and duration of breastfeeding in the African American population are discussed. Future research regarding African American women's breastfeeding experiences using Black feminist thought as a theoretical foundation is recommended.

  18. The myth of meritocracy and African American health.

    PubMed

    Kwate, Naa Oyo A; Meyer, Ilan H

    2010-10-01

    Recent theoretical and empirical studies of the social determinants of health inequities have shown that economic deprivation, multiple levels of racism, and neighborhood context limit African American health chances and that African Americans' poor health status is predicated on unequal opportunity to achieve the American Dream. President Obama's election has been touted as a demonstration of American meritocracy-the belief that all may obtain the American Dream-and has instilled hope in African Americans. However, we argue that in the context of racism and other barriers to success, meritocratic ideology may act as a negative health determinant for African Americans.

  19. Critical social theory and the domination of African American Women.

    PubMed

    Davis, S P

    1995-01-01

    This historical reconstruction of the experiences of African American women in America from slavery to the present exposes the prevailing and enduring system of White male domination. From White men having control of their reproductive choices, to conspiracy to withhold the right to vote, African American women were victims of both sexism and racism. Later, as a result of the myth conceived by White sociologists of the super African American woman, further divisiveness became apparent in the African American home. As African American women took advantage of educational opportunities only to find that there was a dearth of similarly educated African American males to marry, increasing numbers of African American men were reported as parties to violent acts, drugs or illness. All of these variables are conjectured as impacting on the African American woman's experience. Lastly, data were presented depicting the increasing trend of African American women marrying White men, and the emergence of a more diverse workforce. It was concluded that economics serve as a catalyst for this change in human relations.

  20. Perspectives of African-American women on infant mortality.

    PubMed

    Barnes, Glenna L

    2008-01-01

    Twice as many African-American infants die each year when compared to White infants. This study explores the lived experiences of African-American women to identify factors related to this racial gap in infant mortality. Thirteen African-American women from two Virginia towns participated in either a focus group or in-depth interviews. Content and interpretive analysis revealed several themes. Participants indicated that the experiences of stress and racism are constant factors in African-American women's lives and are inseparable from their pregnancy experiences. Participants noted the importance of social support and the health care provider-client relationship for positive pregnancy outcomes.