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Sample records for african medical research

  1. Beliefs and Preferences for Medical Research Among African-Americans

    PubMed Central

    Kalu, Nnenna; Kwagyan, John; Marshall, Vanessa J.; Ewing, Altovise T.; Bland, Walter P.; Hesselbrock, Victor; Taylor, Robert E.; Scott, Denise M.

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives Numerous factors contribute to underrepresentation of African-Americans in medical research, including beliefs, historical events, structural, and health access obstacles. This study examined beliefs about medical research and the types of study methods preferred among potential African-American research participants. Methods A sample of 304 African-American participants from the Washington, DC Metropolitan area, completed a survey evaluating beliefs about medical research and preferred research study methods. Multiple Regression analyses were performed to examine how age, gender, and education may influence these beliefs and preferences for research study methods. Results The beliefs and preferences surveyed did not differ by age, gender, or educational attainment. There was an overwhelmingly favorable belief (90 %) that medical research was necessary and assists in finding a cure for a disease. Most respondents preferred participating in research related to issues with which they were familiar (e.g., diabetes, hypertension) or working with researchers of a similar ethnic background to themselves. Interestingly, though nonsignificant, those with higher levels of educational trended toward the belief that participation in research was risky. Conclusion The findings of this study indicate that certain beliefs about medical research participation and preferred study methodologies reported by African-Americans did not differ by age, gender, or level of education. This information about African-American’s beliefs and preferences regarding medical research should lead to an awareness of potential gains in African-American participation through the development of culturally sensitive medical research studies and methodologies. PMID:26896107

  2. Giving voice to African thought in medical research ethics.

    PubMed

    Tangwa, Godfrey B

    2017-04-01

    In this article, I consider the virtual absence of an African voice and perspective in global discourses of medical research ethics against the backdrop of the high burden of diseases and epidemics on the continent and the fact that the continent is actually the scene of numerous and sundry medical research studies. I consider some reasons for this state of affairs as well as how the situation might be redressed. Using examples from the HIV/AIDS and Ebola epidemics, I attempt to show that the marginalization of Africa in medical research and medical research ethics is deliberate rather than accidental. It is causally related, in general terms, to a Eurocentric hegemony derived from colonialism and colonial indoctrination cum proselytization. I end by proposing seven theses for the critical reflection and appraisal of the reader.

  3. African American and White Physicians: A Comparison of Satisfaction with Medical Education, Professional Careers, and Research Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gartland, John J.; Hojat, Mohammadreza; Christian, Edward B.; Callahan, Clara A.; Nasca, Thomas J.

    2003-01-01

    Surveyed African American and White physicians to compare their satisfaction with medical school, their medical career, and their professional and research activities and achievements. Found that respondents were comparable as to their careers, professional activities, and achievements. African Americans' practice patterns reflected a greater…

  4. African-American community attitudes and perceptions toward schizophrenia and medical research: an exploratory study.

    PubMed Central

    Hamilton, Lynnae A.; Aliyu, Muktar H.; Lyons, Paul D.; May, Roberta; Swanson, Charlie L.; Savage, Robert; Go, Rodney C. P.

    2006-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Ensuring adequate representation of all demographic groups in medical research is necessary in order to ensure that the benefits associated with participation are equitably shared. Mental health research is unique in that the stigma associated with mental illness, such as schizophrenia, further hinders participation. Using focus groups, we set out to explore the attitudes and views of African Americans with regard to schizophrenia and medical research. METHODS: Four focus group discussions were conducted, with 23 participants divided into two groups of working and retired adults, and two groups of full- and part-time students selected from inner-city residents of Birmingham, AL, and surrounding counties. Data obtained were analyzed using the content analysis method. RESULTS: Diverse views were expressed about the cause of mental illness, and much of this was influenced by cultural beliefs. There was considerable misunderstanding of schizophrenia, and the majority of participants described the disease in terms of positive symptoms only. Whereas for older participants the Tuskegee syphilis study experience was an important factor in their reluctance to participate in medical research, younger participants expressed no knowledge of the study. Among younger participants an assumed level of social distrust was evident, with prominent fear of participating in research that employs physically intrusive methods. CONCLUSION: The provision of accurate information through trusted community sources and open dialogue will help to dispel myths, correct faulty assumptions and increase African-American participation in schizophrenia research. PMID:16532974

  5. Attitudes of African American and low socioeconomic status white women toward medical research.

    PubMed

    Farmer, Deborah F; Jackson, Sharon A; Camacho, Fabian; Hall, Mark A

    2007-02-01

    Minority and low socioeconomic status women are under-represented in clinical research due to logistical, informational, attitudinal, and sociocultural barriers. The primary objective of this study was to explore factors associated with research participation among African American and low socioeconomic status White women using the Theory of Planned Behavior. A secondary goal was to assess differences in barriers to research participation by age and race. A combination of qualitative (focus groups) and quantitative (trust scale) methodologies was employed. Ten focus groups were held, organized by age and race. Content analysis revealed three predominant themes: fear, distrust, and hope. Older women had higher trust; there was no difference in trust by race. The results suggest that women have conflicting feelings about research that cross ethnic lines and should be addressed by researchers. Effective strategies for overcoming barriers and increasing representation are those that establish ongoing relationships with relevant communities.

  6. Perceived racial discrimination, but not mistrust of medical researchers, predicts the heat pain tolerance of African Americans with symptomatic knee osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Pham, Quyen T.; Glover, Toni L.; Sotolongo, Adriana; King, Christopher D.; Sibille, Kimberly T.; Herbert, Matthew S.; Cruz-Almeida, Yenisel; Sanden, Shelley H.; Staud, Roland; Redden, David T.; Bradley, Laurence A.; Fillingim, Roger B.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Studies have shown that perceived racial discrimination is a significant predictor of clinical pain severity among African Americans. It remains unknown whether perceived racial discrimination also alters the nociceptive processing of painful stimuli, which, in turn, could influence clinical pain severity. This study examined associations between perceived racial discrimination and responses to noxious thermal stimuli among African Americans and non-Hispanic whites. Mistrust of medical researchers was also assessed given its potential to affect responses to the noxious stimuli. Method One hundred and thirty (52% African American, 48% non-Hispanic white) community-dwelling older adults with symptomatic knee osteoarthritis completed two study sessions. In session one, individuals provided demographic, socioeconomic, physical and mental health information. They completed questionnaires related to perceived lifetime frequency of racial discrimination and mistrust of medical researchers. In session two, individuals underwent a series of controlled thermal stimulation procedures to assess heat pain sensitivity, particularly heat pain tolerance. Results African Americans were more sensitive to heat pain and reported greater perceived racial discrimination as well as greater mistrust of medical researchers compared to non-Hispanic whites. Greater perceived racial discrimination significantly predicted lower heat pain tolerance for African Americans but not non-Hispanic whites. Mistrust of medical researchers did not significantly predict heat pain tolerance for either racial group Conclusion These results lend support to the idea that perceived racial discrimination may influence the clinical pain severity of African Americans via the nociceptive processing of painful stimuli. PMID:24219416

  7. African Americans and the medical establishment.

    PubMed

    Smith, C

    1999-09-01

    The African American community's response to the AIDS epidemic has reflected the profound mistrust of the medical establishment which many African Americans feel. Among African Americans, the belief that the epidemic originated in a genocidal plot is widespread. It is thought that organized medicine has been significantly involved in this plot. If we look at African Americans' historical relationship to the medical establishment from the era of slavery to the recent past, the suspicious attitudes which make such beliefs possible can be seen as an intelligible response to a new disease which disproportionately affects African Americans. Successful medical and public health responses to the epidemic have depended and will continue to depend upon overcoming the historical legacy of suspicion and gaining the trust of the community.

  8. Morals, morale and motivations in data fabrication: Medical research fieldworkers views and practices in two Sub-Saharan African contexts.

    PubMed

    Kingori, Patricia; Gerrets, René

    2016-10-01

    Data fabrication, incorrect collection strategies and poor data management, are considered detrimental to high-quality scientific research. While poor data management have been occasionally excused, fabrication constitutes a cardinal sin - scientific misconduct. Scholarly examinations of fabrication usually seek to expose and capture its prevalence and, less frequently, its consequences and causes. Most accounts centre on high-income countries, individual senior researchers and scientists who are portrayed as irrational, immoral or deceptive. We argue that such accounts contain limitations in overlooking data collected in 'the field', in low-income countries, by junior researchers and non-scientists. Furthermore, the processes and motivations for fabrication and subversive practices are under-examined. Drawing on two separate ethnographies, conducted in 2004-2009 in medical research projects in sub-Saharan Africa, this paper investigates fabrication among fieldworkers using data from observations and informal conversations, 68 interviews and 7 Focus Group Discussions involving diverse stakeholders. Based on an interpretative approach, we examined fieldworkers' accounts that fabrications were motivated by irreconcilable moral concerns, faltering morale resulting from poor management, and inadequate institutional support. To fieldworkers, data fabrication constituted a 'tool' for managing their quotidian challenges. Fabrications ranged from active to passive acts, to subvert, resist and readdress tensions deriving from employment inequalities and challenging socio-economic conditions. We show that geographical and hierarchical distance between high-ranking research actors and fieldworkers in contemporary configurations of international medical research can compartmentalise, and ultimately undermine, the relationships necessary to produce high-quality data. In focusing on fieldworkers, we argue for the inclusion of wide-ranging perspectives in examinations of data

  9. A survey of Sub-Saharan African medical schools

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Sub-Saharan Africa suffers a disproportionate share of the world's burden of disease while having some of the world's greatest health care workforce shortages. Doctors are an important component of any high functioning health care system. However, efforts to strengthen the doctor workforce in the region have been limited by a small number of medical schools with limited enrolments, international migration of graduates, poor geographic distribution of doctors, and insufficient data on medical schools. The goal of the Sub-Saharan African Medical Schools Study (SAMSS) is to increase the level of understanding and expand the baseline data on medical schools in the region. Methods The SAMSS survey is a descriptive survey study of Sub-Saharan African medical schools. The survey instrument included quantitative and qualitative questions focused on institutional characteristics, student profiles, curricula, post-graduate medical education, teaching staff, resources, barriers to capacity expansion, educational innovations, and external relationships with government and non-governmental organizations. Surveys were sent via e-mail to medical school deans or officials designated by the dean. Analysis is both descriptive and multivariable. Results Surveys were distributed to 146 medical schools in 40 of 48 Sub-Saharan African countries. One hundred and five responses were received (72% response rate). An additional 23 schools were identified after the close of the survey period. Fifty-eight respondents have been founded since 1990, including 22 private schools. Enrolments for medical schools range from 2 to 1800 and graduates range from 4 to 384. Seventy-three percent of respondents (n = 64) increased first year enrolments in the past five years. On average, 26% of respondents' graduates were reported to migrate out of the country within five years of graduation (n = 68). The most significant reported barriers to increasing the number of graduates, and improving

  10. Dystonia Medical Research Foundation

    MedlinePlus

    ... Member Joins Peer Review of DOD Peer Reviewed Medical Research Program More News Support Groups Join the DMRF ... of Dystonia Research Research News Funding Programs Current Research Dystonia Coalition ... Connect Contact Us Privacy Policy Support Groups Calendar

  11. Glaucoma Medication Adherence among African Americans: Program Development

    PubMed Central

    Dreer, Laura E.; Girkin, Christopher A.; Campbell, Lisa; Wood, Andy; Gao, Liyan; Owsley, Cynthia

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To elucidate barriers and facilitators related to glaucoma medication adherence among African Americans (AA) with glaucoma and to elicit input from a community-based participatory research team in order to guide the development of a culturally informed, health promotion program for improving glaucoma medication adherence among AA’s. Methods The nominal group technique (NGT), a highly structured focus group methodology, was implemented with 12 separate groups of AA’s patients with glaucoma (N = 89) to identify barriers and facilitators related to glaucoma medication usage. Participant rank-ordering votes were summed across groups and categorized into themes. Next, an individually and culturally targeted health promotion program promoting appropriate medication adherence was developed based on focus group results and input from a community-based participatory research team. Results The top five barriers included problems with 1) forgetfulness, 2) side effects, 3) cost/affordability, 4) eye drop administration, and 5) the eye drop schedule. The most salient top five facilitators were 1) fear or thoughts about the consequences of not taking eye drops, 2) use of memory aids, cues, or strategies, 3) maintaining a regular routine or schedule for eye drop administration, 4) ability to afford eye drops, and 5) keeping eye drops in the same area. The resulting health promotion program was based on a multi-component empowerment framework that included glaucoma education, motivational interviewing, and problem-solving training to improve glaucoma medication adherence. Conclusions Barriers and facilitators related to glaucoma medication adherence among AA’s are multifactorial. Based on the NGT themes and input from the community-based participatory research team, a culturally informed, health promotion program was designed and holds great promise for improving medication adherence among this vulnerable population. PMID:23873033

  12. Understanding Medical Research

    MedlinePlus

    ... you hear about the results of a new medical research study. Sometimes the results of one study seem ... when reading or listening to reports of new medical findings. Some questions that can help you evaluate ... was the research done? If a new treatment was being tested, ...

  13. Medical Advocacy and Supportive Environments for African Americans following Abnormal Mammograms

    PubMed Central

    Molina, Yamile; Hempstead, Bridgette H.; Thompson-Dodd, Jacci; Weatherby, Shauna Rae; Dunbar, Claire; Hohl, Sarah D.; Malen, Rachel C.; Ceballos, Rachel M.

    2014-01-01

    African American women experience disproportionately adverse outcomes relative to non-Latina White women after an abnormal mammogram result. Research has suggested medical advocacy and staff support may improve outcomes among this population. The purpose of the study was to understand reasons African American women believe medical advocacy to be important and examine if and how staff can encourage and be supportive of medical advocacy. A convenience-based sample of 30–74 year old women who self-identified as African American/Black/of African descent and who had received an abnormal mammogram result was recruited from community-based organizations, mobile mammography services, and the local department of health. This qualitative study included semi-structured interviews. Patients perceived medical advocacy to be particularly important for African Americans, given mistrust and discrimination present in medical settings and their own familiarity with their bodies and symptoms. Respondents emphasized staff can encourage medical advocacy through offering information in general in a clear, informative, and empathic style. Cultural competency interventions that train staff how to foster medical advocacy may be a strategy to improve racial disparities following an abnormal mammogram. PMID:25270556

  14. Medical Advocacy and Supportive Environments for African-Americans Following Abnormal Mammograms.

    PubMed

    Molina, Yamile; Hempstead, Bridgette H; Thompson-Dodd, Jacci; Weatherby, Shauna Rae; Dunbar, Claire; Hohl, Sarah D; Malen, Rachel C; Ceballos, Rachel M

    2015-09-01

    African-American women experience disproportionately adverse outcomes relative to non-Latina White women after an abnormal mammogram result. Research has suggested medical advocacy and staff support may improve outcomes among this population. The purpose of the study was to understand reasons African-American women believe medical advocacy to be important and examine if and how staff can encourage and be supportive of medical advocacy. A convenience-based sample of 30-74-year-old women who self-identified as African-American/Black/of African descent and who had received an abnormal mammogram result was recruited from community-based organizations, mobile mammography services, and the local department of health. This qualitative study included semi-structured interviews. Patients perceived medical advocacy to be particularly important for African-Americans, given mistrust and discrimination present in medical settings and their own familiarity with their bodies and symptoms. Respondents emphasized that staff can encourage medical advocacy through offering information in general in a clear, informative, and empathic style. Cultural competency interventions that train staff how to foster medical advocacy may be a strategy to improve racial disparities following an abnormal mammogram.

  15. African Education Research. Part Three: Continuing Research Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dresang, Eliza T., Comp.

    This document, which is the third part of the African Education Research (AER) Project, presents a categorized listing of research resources and partially annotated bibliography of existing bibliographies intended for use by African researchers, decision makers, and other persons interested in education in Africa. The continuing sources of…

  16. Critical Race Theory: A Counternarrative of African American Male Medical Students Attending Predominately White Medical Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Adrienne L.

    2013-01-01

    The history of African Americans seeking medical education in the United States is rooted in a legacy of racial segregation, cultural constructs, and legal doctrine that differs from other ethnic and racial groups. The disturbing results of this legacy are that while African Americans account for 12.9% of the U.S. population, they only account for…

  17. Army Medical Robotics Research

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-01-01

    Army Medical Robotics Research Gary Gilbert, Ph.D., U.S. Army TATRC, Ph: (301) 619-4043, Fax: (301) 619-2518 gilbert@tatrc.org, www.tatrc.org...politically sensitive low intensity combat in urban terrain. Research progress has been made in the areas of robotics ; artificial intelligence...institutions have demonstrated intelligent robots that execute functions ranging from performing mechanical repairs to playing soccer. The military has

  18. Medical School Research Pipeline: Medical Student Research Experience in Psychiatry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balon, Richard; Heninger, George; Belitsky, Richard

    2006-01-01

    Objective: The authors discuss the importance of introducing research training in psychiatry and neurosciences to medical students. Methods: A review of existing models of research training in psychiatry with focus on those providing research training to medical students is presented. Results: Two research-training models for medical students that…

  19. African Education Research. Part One: Issues and Patterns.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bigelow, Ross Edgar

    This study of 416 African Education Research (AER) projects was conducted to: (a) provide information on current studies by Africans on African education; (b) provide a framework for critical analysis of research based on a classification of the issues; and (c) provide a listing and discussion of continuing research resources which would aid…

  20. Medical Research System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Based on Johnson Space Flight Center's development of a rotating bioreactor cell culture apparatus for Space Shuttle medical research, Johnson Space Flight Center engineers who worked on the original project formed a company called Synthecon, with the intention of commercializing the bioreactor technology. Synthecon grows three dimensional tissues in the bioreactor. These are superior to previous two-dimensional tissue samples in the study of human cell growth. A refined version of the Johnson Space Center technology, Synthecon's Rotary Cell Culture System includes a cell culture chamber that rotates around a horizontal axis. The cells establish an orbit that approximates free fall through the liquid medium in the chamber. The technology has significant applications for cancer research and treatment as well as AIDS research.

  1. Building Research Capacity for African Institutions: Confronting the Research Leadership Gap and Lessons from African Research Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owusu, Francis; Kalipeni, Ezekiel; Awortwi, Nicholas; Kiiru, Joy Mueni Maina

    2017-01-01

    This study explores the meaning and competencies of "research leadership" in the African context and investigates strategies for developing it. Data for the study were gathered through an online survey that targeted recipients of research grants/support from key research funders to selected African institutions. The recipients of these…

  2. Recruiting intergenerational African American males for biomedical research Studies: a major research challenge.

    PubMed

    Byrd, Goldie S; Edwards, Christopher L; Kelkar, Vinaya A; Phillips, Ruth G; Byrd, Jennifer R; Pim-Pong, Dora Som; Starks, Takiyah D; Taylor, Ashleigh L; Mckinley, Raechel E; Li, Yi-Ju; Pericak-Vance, Margaret

    2011-06-01

    The health and well-being of all individuals, independent of race, ethnicity, or gender, is a significant public health concern. Despite many improvements in the status of minority health, African American males continue to have the highest age-adjusted mortality rate of any race-sex group in the United States. Such disparities are accounted for by deaths from a number of diseases such as diabetes, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), cancer, and cardiovascular disease, as well as by many historical and present social and cultural constructs that present as obstacles to better health outcomes. Distrust of the medical community, inadequate education, low socioeconomic status, social deprivation, and underutilized primary health care services all contribute to disproportionate health and health care outcomes among African Americans compared to their Caucasian counterparts. Results of clinical research on diseases that disproportionately affect African American males are often limited in their reliability due to common sampling errors existing in the majority of biomedical research studies and clinical trials. There are many reasons for underrepresentation of African American males in clinical trials, including their common recollection and interpretation of relevant historical of biomedical events where minorities were abused or exposed to racial discrimination or racist provocation. In addition, African American males continue to be less educated and more disenfranchised from the majority in society than Caucasian males and females and their African American female counterparts. As such, understanding their perceptions, even in early developmental years, about health and obstacles to involvement in research is important. In an effort to understand perspectives about their level of participation, motivation for participation, impact of education, and engagement in research, this study was designed to explore factors that impact their willingness to participate. Our

  3. African Primary Care Research: Reviewing the literature

    PubMed Central

    Mash, Bob

    2014-01-01

    Abstract This is the second article in the series on African primary care research. The article focuses on how to search for relevant evidence in the published literature that can be used in the development of a research proposal. The article addresses the style of writing required and the nature of the arguments for the social and scientific value of the proposed study, as well as the use of literature in conceptual frameworks and in the methods. Finally, the article looks at how to keep track of the literature used and to reference it appropriately. PMID:26245433

  4. Some Growth Points in African Child Development Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Serpell, Robert; Marfo, Kofi

    2014-01-01

    We reflect on ways in which research presented in earlier chapters responds to challenges of generating an African child development field and identify additional issues calling for the field's attention. The chapters collectively display a variety of African contexts and reflexive evidence of the authors' African cultural roots. Connecting…

  5. Social and Cultural Factors Influence African American Men's Medical Help Seeking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffith, Derek M.; Allen, Julie Ober; Gunter, Katie

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To examine the factors that influenced African American men's medical help seeking. Method: Thematic analysis of 14 focus groups with 105 older, urban African American men. Results: African American men described normative expectations that they did not go to the doctor and that they were afraid to go, with little explanation. When they…

  6. Some growth points in African child development research.

    PubMed

    Serpell, Robert; Marfo, Kofi

    2014-01-01

    We reflect on ways in which research presented in earlier chapters responds to challenges of generating an African child development field and identify additional issues calling for the field's attention. The chapters collectively display a variety of African contexts and reflexive evidence of the authors' African cultural roots. Connecting research with African audiences demands cooperative communication between educational practitioners and parents with low literacy, and cross-sector communication among professionals. Intracultural exploration of factors influencing the pattern of human development has begun to document the potential of indigenous African cultures as a fund of resources for enhancing child development. Priority topics for future African developmental research include multilingualism, musical performance, socially distributed caregiving, and the relation between adolescence and economic activity. Integration of multiple disciplines in the application of research-based principles to service delivery in the fields of community-based (re)habilitation and early childhood care and education calls for researcher collaboration with practitioners.

  7. Conducting Precision Medicine Research with African Americans

    PubMed Central

    Halbert, Chanita Hughes; McDonald, Jasmine; Vadaparampil, Susan; Rice, LaShanta; Jefferson, Melanie

    2016-01-01

    Importance Precision medicine is an approach to detecting, treating, and managing disease that is based on individual variation in genetic, environmental, and lifestyle factors. Precision medicine is expected to reduce health disparities, but this will be possible only if studies have adequate representation of racial minorities. Objective It is critical to anticipate the rates at which individuals from diverse populations are likely to participate in precision medicine studies as research initiatives are being developed. We evaluated the likelihood of participating in a clinical study for precision medicine. Design, Setting, Participants Observational study conducted between October 2010 and February 2011 in a national sample of African Americans. Main Outcome Measure Intentions to participate in a government sponsored study that involves providing a biospecimen and generates data that could be shared with other researchers to conduct future studies. Results One third of respondents would participate in a clinical study for precision medicine. Only gender had a significant independent association with participation intentions. Men had a 1.86 (95% CI = 1.11, 3.12, p = 0.02) increased likelihood of participating in a precision medicine study compared to women in the model that included overall barriers and facilitators. In the model with specific participation barriers, distrust was associated with a reduced likelihood of participating in the research described in the vignette (OR = 0.57, 95% CI = 0.34, 0.96, p = 0.04). Conclusion and Relevance African Americans may have low enrollment in PMI research. As PMI research is implemented, extensive efforts will be needed to ensure adequate representation. Additional research is needed to identify optimal ways of ethically describing precision medicine studies to ensure sufficient recruitment of racial minorities. PMID:27441706

  8. Medical Products Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Ventrex Laboratories, Inc. develops, manufactures and markets a line of medical diagnostic assays based on biochemical techniques, in particular immunochemical techniques. Their products are sold worldwide to hospitals and medical laboratories for use in testing blood samples and other biological fluids. Analysis of a patient's body fluids, compared with normal values, aids a physician in confirming or otherwise diagnosing a suspected disease condition. NERAC's rapid information retrieval has provided Ventrex invaluable up-to-date information, and has permitted large scale savings. NERAC's service was particularly important in the development of a new product in the company's Ventre/Sep line, which is used in radioimmunoassays.

  9. Lessons Learned: Research within an Urban, African American District

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Kimberly Ann

    2012-01-01

    For an African American female researcher whose race, class, and gender work as oppressive intersecting units shaping my contextualized experiences, meaning-making, and self-definition, the implications of my work with African American communities are complicated. In this article, I draw on culturally sensitive research practices, critical race…

  10. Medical Research for All Americans

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home Current Issue Past Issues Medical Research for All Americans Past Issues / Summer 2009 Table of Contents ... improvements to the health and well being of all Americans. Starting on page 10, our special section ...

  11. Microcomputer Systems for Medical Researchers

    PubMed Central

    Bassler, Richard A.

    1982-01-01

    A bewildering array of choices awaits the medical researchers in the selection of microcomputer systems. These are real computers capable of producing real products. Choosing one is difficult. Software is the starting point. Inexpensive computing is possible for everyone.

  12. [Medical research at Norwegian universities].

    PubMed

    Røttingen, J A; Thorsby, P; Seem, C; Gautvik, K M

    1998-06-10

    This study shows that Norwegian medical research suffers from lack of both public funds and recruitment, as well as being affected by the following major factors. Norway uses less of its GNP on R&D than other Western countries and less than the OECD average. Medical research in particular receives less financial support than in any of the other Nordic countries. Norwegian medical researchers publish less material and are cited less often than their colleagues in comparable countries. More than half of the medically trained scientific staff in Norway's four medical faculties will retire during the next decade and today there are many vacant positions in academic medicine because there are not enough competent applicants to fill them. The percentage of M.D.s among professors and lecturers has fallen, and a continued decline in preclinical and laboratory medicine and in public health is predicted. This percentage has also decreased among Ph.D. students, while the age at which medical doctors dissertate has increased and is higher than for other Ph.D.s. The number of medical students doing research has fallen in recent years, and the number of doctoral theses has not increased as much in medicine as in other fields. There are significant differences between the salaries paid in medical science and those paid in clinical medicine. Lack of resources and low salaries keep doctors from pursuing a career in academic medicine. In conclusion, if Norway is to be visible in the field of international medical science, this negative trend must be reversed and medical research and academic medicine revitalised.

  13. Attitudes about racism, medical mistrust, and satisfaction with care among African American and white cardiac patients.

    PubMed

    LaVeist, T A; Nickerson, K J; Bowie, J V

    2000-01-01

    The authors examine determinants of satisfaction with medical care among 1,784 (781 African American and 1,003 white) cardiac patients. Patient satisfaction was modeled as a function of predisposing factors (gender, age, medical mistrust, and perception of racism) and enabling factors (medical insurance). African Americans reported less satisfaction with care. Although both black and white patients tended not to endorse the existence of racism in the medical care system, African American patients were more likely to perceive racism. African American patients were significantly more likely to report mistrust. Multivariate analysis found that the perception of racism and mistrust of the medical care system led to less satisfaction with care. When perceived racism and medical mistrust were controlled, race was no longer a significant predictor of satisfaction.

  14. Informed consent in medical research.

    PubMed

    Evans, John Grimley; Beck, Peter

    2002-01-01

    That people should only be enrolled in medical research if they have given free and informed consent is now an unquestioned principle of research ethics. It is however a recent innovation. Prior to the prominence given to consent to participation in research in the condemnation of German doctors arraigned at Nuremberg in 1945, informed consent had appeared in American litigation, but only as an issue in clinical malpractice suits. Informed consent as an ethical requirement in medical research had arisen in some earlier European contexts. Despite the Nuremberg judgement, informed consent by participants in research was not widely recognised as ethically mandatory until the early 1970s. This delay seems to have been due in part to scepticism about the practicability of truly informed consent, but medical paternalism and the circumstances surrounding military research during the Cold War period may have contributed.

  15. Medical research. Fools' gold.

    PubMed

    Hacking, John

    2004-04-01

    London, Oxford and Cambridge receive an unequal share of research and development funds. Eight other cities are working with the government to raise their own status generally. New regional centres of excellence would reduce the disparities.

  16. [Photography in medical research].

    PubMed

    Hochman, Bernardo; Nahas, Fabio Xerfan; Ferreira, Lydia Masako

    2005-01-01

    Medical photography is an adequate scientific document when performed on a standard fashion. A proper photography is an important issue on a scientific publication. Plastic surgeons are experts in clinical photography and, frequently, an image is a more significant data than the written part of a paper. The purpose of this article is to describe the principles developed in this specialty. Basic photographic equipment used for clinical pictures is described. Standardized pictures determined by patient position and framing using anatomical references are reported. Using these rules it is possible to compare pre and post operative pictures. Topics such as intra operative pictures in endoscopic surgery, computer fotogrametry and in Experimental Surgery are also analyzed.

  17. In/dependent Collaborations: Perceptions and Experiences of African Scientists in Transnational HIV Research

    PubMed Central

    Moyi Okwaro, Ferdinand; Geissler, P. W.

    2015-01-01

    This article examines collaboration in transnational medical research from the viewpoint of African scientists working in partnerships with northern counterparts. It draws on ethnographic fieldwork in an HIV laboratory of an East African state university, with additional data from interviews with scientists working in related research institutions. Collaboration is today the preferred framework for the mechanisms by which northern institutions support research in the south. The concept signals a shift away from the legacy of unequal (post‐) colonial power relations, although, amid persisting inequalities, the rhetorical emphasis on equality might actually hinder critical engagement with conflicts of interest and injustice. To collaborate, African scientists engage various strategies: They establish a qualified but flexible, non‐permanent workforce, diversify collaborators and research areas, source complementary funding to assemble infrastructures, and maintain prospective research populations to attract transnational clinical trials. Through this labor of collaboration, they sustain their institutions under prevailing conditions of scarcity. PMID:25800667

  18. In/dependent Collaborations: Perceptions and Experiences of African Scientists in Transnational HIV Research.

    PubMed

    Moyi Okwaro, Ferdinand; Geissler, P W

    2015-12-01

    This article examines collaboration in transnational medical research from the viewpoint of African scientists working in partnerships with northern counterparts. It draws on ethnographic fieldwork in an HIV laboratory of an East African state university, with additional data from interviews with scientists working in related research institutions. Collaboration is today the preferred framework for the mechanisms by which northern institutions support research in the south. The concept signals a shift away from the legacy of unequal (post-) colonial power relations, although, amid persisting inequalities, the rhetorical emphasis on equality might actually hinder critical engagement with conflicts of interest and injustice. To collaborate, African scientists engage various strategies: They establish a qualified but flexible, non-permanent workforce, diversify collaborators and research areas, source complementary funding to assemble infrastructures, and maintain prospective research populations to attract transnational clinical trials. Through this labor of collaboration, they sustain their institutions under prevailing conditions of scarcity.

  19. African Primary Care Research: writing a research report.

    PubMed

    Couper, Ian; Mash, Bob

    2014-06-06

    Presenting a research report is an important way of demonstrating one's ability to conduct research and is a requirement of most research-based degrees. Although known by various names across academic institutions, the structure required is mostly very similar, being based on the Introduction, Methods, Results, Discussion format of scientific articles.This article offers some guidance on the process of writing, aimed at helping readers to start and to continue their writing; and to assist them in presenting a report that is received positively by their readers, including examiners. It also details the typical components of the research report, providing some guidelines for each, as well as the pitfalls to avoid.This article is part of a series on African Primary Care Research that aims to build capacity for research particularly at a Master's level.

  20. Radiology research and medical students.

    PubMed

    Whitworth, Pat W; Agarwal, Ankit; Colucci, Andrew; Sherry, Steven J; Subramaniam, Rathan M

    2013-12-01

    Fostering radiology research among medical students can enhance a student's interest and understanding of radiology and research. It increases the academic productivity of the mentor and the department. Radiology faculty and departments should actively seek to recruit and engage students in research. Once involved, students benefit greatly from being given clear responsibility, close supervision, timely feedback, and a degree of autonomy. At the heart of the student research process is the crucial mentor-mentee relationship, and mentors should be cognizant of their vital role and methods of encouraging and enhancing this relationship. Ultimately, the advancement of the field of radiology depends on constant innovation and improvement. Radiology research by medical students fuels both innovation and the development of future academic radiologists and physician-scientists, helping to secure future growth for our field.

  1. Creating a segregated medical profession: African American physicians and organized medicine, 1846-1910.

    PubMed

    Baker, Robert B; Washington, Harriet A; Olakanmi, Ololade; Savitt, Todd L; Jacobs, Elizabeth A; Hoover, Eddie; Wynia, Matthew K; Blanchard, Janice; Boulware, L Ebony; Braddock, Clarence; Corbie-Smith, Giselle; Crawley, LaVera; LaVeist, Thomas A; Maxey, Randall; Mills, Charles; Moseley, Kathryn L; Williams, David R

    2009-06-01

    An independent panel of experts, convened by the American Medical Association (AMA) Institute for Ethics, analyzed the roots of the racial divide within American medical organizations. In this, the first of a 2-part report, we describe 2 watershed moments that helped institutionalize the racial divide. The first occurred in the 1870s, when 2 medical societies from Washington, DC, sent rival delegations to the AMA's national meetings: an all-white delegation from a medical society that the US courts and Congress had formally censured for discriminating against black physicians; and an integrated delegation from a medical society led by physicians from Howard University. Through parliamentary maneuvers and variable enforcement of credentialing standards, the integrated delegation was twice excluded from the AMA's meetings, while the all-white society's delegations were admitted. AMA leaders then voted to devolve the power to select delegates to state societies, thereby accepting segregation in constituent societies and forcing African American physicians to create their own, separate organizations. A second watershed involved AMA-promoted educational reforms, including the 1910 Flexner report. Straightforwardly applied, the report's population-based criterion for determining the need for phySicians would have recommended increased training of African American physicians to serve the approximately 9 million African Americans in the segregated south. Instead, the report recommended closing all but 2 African American medical schools, helping to cement in place an African American educational system that was separate, unequal, and destined to be insufficient to the needs of African Americans nationwide.

  2. Deployment Related Medical Research Program

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-12-01

    18 The Congressionally Directed Medical Research Programs (CDMRP) was born from a powerful grassroots effort led by the breast cancer advocacy...community that convinced Congress to appropriate funds for breast cancer research. This enabled a unique partner- ship among the public, Congress, and...healing • Approaches to prevention or treatment of bone infections • Methods and technologies for prevention of the formation of bacterial biofilms in

  3. The role of the African-American physician in reducing traffic-related injury and death among African Americans: consensus report of the National Medical Association.

    PubMed Central

    Daniels, Fernando; Moore, Wayne; Conti, Christopher; Norville Perez, Lucille C.; Gaines, Beverly M.; Hood, Rodney G.; Swain, Ian J. J.; Williams, Rudolph; Burgess, Chaka T.

    2002-01-01

    ISSUE: Traffic-related injuries and fatalities disproportionately affect the African American community. These high rates of traffic-related death and injury among African Americans manifest in multiple areas of traffic safety, including: Failure to use seat belts and child restraints. High incidence of alcohol-impaired driving. Failure to follow child passenger and seat belt safety laws and recommendations. High rates of pedestrian accidents, ofen brought on by impairments of drivers and/or pedestrians. Research indicates that national public information campaigns, with general messages only slightly modified for African American audiences, have not been culturally appropriate or effective in changing traffic safety behavior. In addition, traditional distribution mechanisms for these messages have not effectively reached the target population. Evidence suggests that in the African American community, there is a pervasive lack of knowledge of the devastating impact of traffic-related accidents on the overall health status of the community. This lack of information has resulted in a tragic cycle, in which parents fail to model safe operation of motor vehicles, and generation after generation copy this behavior, increasing the community's vulnerability to serious injuries and untimely deaths. This trend toward improper traffic safety habits among African Americans persists despite federal, state and local laws to enforce and promote sound traffic safety practices. OBJECTIVE: To study the existence of disparities in traffic-related injury and death among African Americans and to determine what kinds of traffic safety messages and campaigns will be effective in encouraging African Americans to respond to safety laws in sufficient numbers to reduce the disproportionately high rate of injury and death. Traffic safety issues were examined to effectively recommend policy, address barriers, best practices, and intervention strategies for the National Medical Association

  4. African American Culture and Heritage in Higher Education Research and Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freeman, Kassie, Ed.

    Fifteen papers examine the cultural context and history of African Americans in higher education research and practice. Papers are grouped in three parts: African American culture in higher education research; African American higher education research issues and paradigms; and African American culture and higher education policy and practice.…

  5. Cultural barriers to African American participation in anxiety disorders research.

    PubMed

    Williams, Monnica T; Beckmann-Mendez, Diana A; Turkheimer, Eric

    2013-01-01

    Anxiety disorders are understudied, underdiagnosed, and undertreated in African Americans. Research focused on the phenomenology, etiology, and treatment of anxiety in African Americans has been hampered by lack of inclusion of this population in clinical research studies. The reason for exclusion is not well understood, although cultural mistrust has been hypothesized as a major barrier to research participation. This article reviews the relevant literature to date and examines the experience of 6 African American adults who participated in a larger clinical assessment study about anxiety. Drawing upon in-depth semistructured interviews about their subjective experiences, we examined participant perspectives about the assessment process, opinions about African American perception of anxiety studies, and participant-generated ideas about how to improve African American participation. Based on a qualitative analysis of responses, feelings of mistrust emerged as a dominant theme. Concerns fell under 6 categories, including not wanting to speak for others, confidentiality, self and group presentation concerns, repercussions of disclosure, potential covert purposes of the study, and the desire to confide only in close others. Suggestions for increasing African American participation are discussed, including assurances of confidentiality, adequate compensation, and a comfortable study environment.

  6. Research Lumbar Punctures among African Americans and Caucasians: Perception Predicts Experience

    PubMed Central

    Howell, Jennifer C.; Parker, Monica W.; Watts, Kelly D.; Kollhoff, Alexander; Tsvetkova, Dobromira Z.; Hu, William T.

    2016-01-01

    African Americans are under-represented in Alzheimer’s disease (AD)-related biomarker studies, and it has been speculated that mistrust plays a major factor in the recruitment of African Americans for studies involving invasive procedures such as the lumbar puncture (LP). We set out to determine factors associated with non-participation in a biomarker study aiming to explore cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) AD biomarker differences between older African Americans and Caucasians. We also surveyed participants’ procedure-related perception (a standard medical procedure vs. a frightening invasive procedure) and reluctance, as well as the rate and type of post-procedure discomfort and complications. Among 288 subjects approached for study participation, 145 (50.3%) refused participation with concerns over LP being the most commonly reported reason. Relatively more African Americans than Caucasians reported concerns over LP as the main reason for non-participation (46% vs. 25%, p = 0.03), but more African Americans also did not provide a specific reason for non-participation. Among those who completed study participation (including the LP), African Americans and Caucasians were similar in pre-LP perceptions and reluctance, as well as post-LP rates of discomfort or complication. Perceiving LP as a frightening invasive procedure, not race, is associated with increased likelihood of post-LP discomfort or complication (RR 6.2, 95% confidence interval 1.1–37.0). Our results indicate that LP is a well perceived procedure in a cohort of African American and Caucasian research participants, and is associated with few serious complications. The pre-procedure perception that the LP is a frightening invasive procedure significantly increases the risk of self-reported discomfort of complications, and African Americans may be more likely to turn down study participation because of the LP. Future studies will need to address factors associated with negative LP perceptions to further

  7. The Minority Aging Research Study: ongoing efforts to obtain brain donation in African Americans without dementia.

    PubMed

    Barnes, Lisa L; Shah, Raj C; Aggarwal, Neelum T; Bennett, David A; Schneider, Julie A

    2012-07-01

    The Minority Aging Research Study (MARS) is a longitudinal, epidemiologic cohort study of decline in cognitive function and risk of Alzheimer's disease (AD) in older African Americans, with brain donation after death added as an optional component for those willing to consider organ donation. In this manuscript, we first summarize the study design and methods of MARS. We then provide details of ongoing efforts to achieve neuropathologic data on over 100 African Americans participating in MARS and in three other clinical-pathologic cohort studies at Rush University Medical Center. The results examine strategies for recruiting and consenting African Americans without dementia; (2) efforts to maintain high rates of follow-up participation; (3) strategies for achieving high rates of agreement to brain donation; and (4) the methodology of obtaining rapid brain autopsy at death. The implications of these efforts are discussed.

  8. A Tool for Medical Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    California Measurements, Inc.'s PC-2 Aerosol Particle Analyzer, developed by William Chiang, a former Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) engineer, was used in a study to measure the size of particles in the medical environment. Chiang has a NASA license for the JPL crystal oscillator technology and originally built the instrument for atmospheric research. In the operating room, it enabled researchers from the University of California to obtain multiple sets of data repeatedly and accurately. The study concluded that significant amounts of aerosols are generated during surgery when power tools are employed, and most of these are in the respirable size. Almost all contain blood and are small enough to pass through surgical masks. Research on the presence of blood aerosols during oral surgery had similar results. Further studies are planned to determine the possibility of HIV transmission during surgery, and the PC-2H will be used to quantify blood aerosols.

  9. African American Women Leaders in Academic Research Libraries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Epps, Sharon K.

    2008-01-01

    Effective leadership and increasing diversity are central concerns in the library profession. Using qualitative interviewing and research methods, this study identifies the attributes, knowledge, and skills that African American women need in order to be successful leaders in today's Association of Research Libraries (ARL). These findings indicate…

  10. African American Men, Inequality and Family Structure: A Research Note.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zuberi, Tukufu

    Research into the social history of African American men in deteriorating socioeconomic conditions has enhanced the understanding of the family. This research helps to understand the different experiences of diverse groups within the society and different group reactions to social change. Yet, social scientists and policymakers have shown a…

  11. Naval Medical Research Institute Summaries of Research for 1985

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-01-01

    NAVAL MEDICAL RESEARCH INSTITUTE BETHESDA, MARYLAND 0 SUMMARIES OF RESEARCH ~TC 1985 _ _ __ _ __ _ _ ) K. SORENSEN, CAPT. MC, USN * Commanding...Officer Naval Medical Research Institute NAVAL MEDICAL RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT COMMAND ~ ~mod KEY TO CITATiOIS NMRI 83-0006 HOMER LD SHELTON JB WILLIAMS...OFFICE SYMBOL 7a. NAME OF MONITORING ORGANIZATION Naval Medical Research Naval Medical Command Institute N 6rc ADDRESS (City, State, and ZIPCodoe) 7b

  12. Assessment of the Status of African-Americans. Volume V: Health and Medical Care of African-Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, Wornie L.; Darity, William, Sr.; Roman, Stanford; Baquet, Claudia; Roberson, Norma L.

    In 1987 a project was undertaken to assess the status of African Americans in the United States in the topical areas to be addressed by the National Research Council's Study Committee on the Status of Black Americans: education, employment, income and occupations, political participation and the administration of justice, social and cultural…

  13. The African Genome Variation Project shapes medical genetics in Africa.

    PubMed

    Gurdasani, Deepti; Carstensen, Tommy; Tekola-Ayele, Fasil; Pagani, Luca; Tachmazidou, Ioanna; Hatzikotoulas, Konstantinos; Karthikeyan, Savita; Iles, Louise; Pollard, Martin O; Choudhury, Ananyo; Ritchie, Graham R S; Xue, Yali; Asimit, Jennifer; Nsubuga, Rebecca N; Young, Elizabeth H; Pomilla, Cristina; Kivinen, Katja; Rockett, Kirk; Kamali, Anatoli; Doumatey, Ayo P; Asiki, Gershim; Seeley, Janet; Sisay-Joof, Fatoumatta; Jallow, Muminatou; Tollman, Stephen; Mekonnen, Ephrem; Ekong, Rosemary; Oljira, Tamiru; Bradman, Neil; Bojang, Kalifa; Ramsay, Michele; Adeyemo, Adebowale; Bekele, Endashaw; Motala, Ayesha; Norris, Shane A; Pirie, Fraser; Kaleebu, Pontiano; Kwiatkowski, Dominic; Tyler-Smith, Chris; Rotimi, Charles; Zeggini, Eleftheria; Sandhu, Manjinder S

    2015-01-15

    Given the importance of Africa to studies of human origins and disease susceptibility, detailed characterization of African genetic diversity is needed. The African Genome Variation Project provides a resource with which to design, implement and interpret genomic studies in sub-Saharan Africa and worldwide. The African Genome Variation Project represents dense genotypes from 1,481 individuals and whole-genome sequences from 320 individuals across sub-Saharan Africa. Using this resource, we find novel evidence of complex, regionally distinct hunter-gatherer and Eurasian admixture across sub-Saharan Africa. We identify new loci under selection, including loci related to malaria susceptibility and hypertension. We show that modern imputation panels (sets of reference genotypes from which unobserved or missing genotypes in study sets can be inferred) can identify association signals at highly differentiated loci across populations in sub-Saharan Africa. Using whole-genome sequencing, we demonstrate further improvements in imputation accuracy, strengthening the case for large-scale sequencing efforts of diverse African haplotypes. Finally, we present an efficient genotype array design capturing common genetic variation in Africa.

  14. The African Genome Variation Project shapes medical genetics in Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gurdasani, Deepti; Carstensen, Tommy; Tekola-Ayele, Fasil; Pagani, Luca; Tachmazidou, Ioanna; Hatzikotoulas, Konstantinos; Karthikeyan, Savita; Iles, Louise; Pollard, Martin O.; Choudhury, Ananyo; Ritchie, Graham R. S.; Xue, Yali; Asimit, Jennifer; Nsubuga, Rebecca N.; Young, Elizabeth H.; Pomilla, Cristina; Kivinen, Katja; Rockett, Kirk; Kamali, Anatoli; Doumatey, Ayo P.; Asiki, Gershim; Seeley, Janet; Sisay-Joof, Fatoumatta; Jallow, Muminatou; Tollman, Stephen; Mekonnen, Ephrem; Ekong, Rosemary; Oljira, Tamiru; Bradman, Neil; Bojang, Kalifa; Ramsay, Michele; Adeyemo, Adebowale; Bekele, Endashaw; Motala, Ayesha; Norris, Shane A.; Pirie, Fraser; Kaleebu, Pontiano; Kwiatkowski, Dominic; Tyler-Smith, Chris; Rotimi, Charles; Zeggini, Eleftheria; Sandhu, Manjinder S.

    2015-01-01

    Given the importance of Africa to studies of human origins and disease susceptibility, detailed characterization of African genetic diversity is needed. The African Genome Variation Project provides a resource with which to design, implement and interpret genomic studies in sub-Saharan Africa and worldwide. The African Genome Variation Project represents dense genotypes from 1,481 individuals and whole-genome sequences from 320 individuals across sub-Saharan Africa. Using this resource, we find novel evidence of complex, regionally distinct hunter-gatherer and Eurasian admixture across sub-Saharan Africa. We identify new loci under selection, including loci related to malaria susceptibility and hypertension. We show that modern imputation panels (sets of reference genotypes from which unobserved or missing genotypes in study sets can be inferred) can identify association signals at highly differentiated loci across populations in sub-Saharan Africa. Using whole-genome sequencing, we demonstrate further improvements in imputation accuracy, strengthening the case for large-scale sequencing efforts of diverse African haplotypes. Finally, we present an efficient genotype array design capturing common genetic variation in Africa.

  15. Medication adherence skills training for African-American breast cancer survivors: the effects on health literacy, medication adherence, and self-efficacy.

    PubMed

    Rust, Connie F; Davis, Cindy; Moore, Matthew R

    2015-01-01

    There are gaps in research regarding medication adherence, self-efficacy in proper medication adherence, and health literacy among breast cancer survivors. This pilot randomized controlled study was conducted to provide information addressing health literacy with respect to medication adherence and self-efficacy in African American breast cancer survivors. The study sample consisted of an intervention group (n = 24) of medication adherence skills training (MST) and a control group (n = 24), with a total sample population of 48 participants. The MST workshop was a collaborative intervention between pharmacy and social work and was designed to address issues that may be encountered while taking multiple medications for various acute and chronic conditions, increase participant confidence in accessing necessary resources for improved medication usage, and enhance personal self-efficacy regarding health care. A statistically significant relationship was detected between initial health literacy and medication adherence, as well as initial health literacy and self-efficacy. These findings indicated that individuals with higher health literacy were more likely to have higher levels of self-efficacy and were more likely to adhere to medication instructions. Analysis of the intervention and treatment groups did not show a statistically significant effect on health literacy, medication adherence, or self-efficacy from pre-test to post-test.

  16. Money versus mission at an African-American medical school: Knoxville College Medical Department, 1895-1900.

    PubMed

    Savitt, T L

    2001-01-01

    Knoxville College Medical Department (KCMD) was, to all appearances, a missionary medical school established in 1895 by a small black Presbyterian college in the Tennessee mountains to train African-American physicians. In reality, it functioned as a proprietary medical school organized and operated by a group of local white physicians who were more interested in making money than in furthering the school's mission of educating black Christian physicians. KCMD limped along until 1900 when the college's new president reported to the trustees about the white faculty's greed, irreligious behavior, poor teaching, and bad medical reputation, and about how the presence of the medical school on campus undermined the college's overall mission. KCMD graduated two students before closing its doors in 1900. A group of faculty then reopened the school off-campus as the Knoxville Medical College. That school closed in 1910.

  17. Enhancing research capacity of African institutions through social networking.

    PubMed

    Jimenez-Castellanos, Ana; Ramirez-Robles, Maximo; Shousha, Amany; Bagayoko, Cheick Oumar; Perrin, Caroline; Zolfo, Maria; Cuzin, Asa; Roland, Alima; Aryeetey, Richmond; Maojo, Victor

    2013-01-01

    Traditionally, participation of African researchers in top Biomedical Informatics (BMI) scientific journals and conferences has been scarce. Looking beyond these numbers, an educational goal should be to improve overall research and, therefore, to increase the number of scientists/authors able to produce and publish high quality research. In such scenario, we are carrying out various efforts to expand the capacities of various institutions located at four African countries - Egypt, Ghana, Cameroon and Mali - in the framework of a European Commission-funded project, AFRICA BUILD. This project is currently carrying out activities such as e-learning, collaborative development of informatics tools, mobility of researchers, various pilot projects, and others. Our main objective is to create a self-sustained South-South network of BMI developers.

  18. Trials and tribulations of an African-led research and capacity development programme: the case for EDCTP investments.

    PubMed

    Zumla, A; Huggett, J; Dheda, K; Green, C; Kapata, N; Mwaba, P

    2010-04-01

    We describe the initiation and establishment of The University of Zambia - University College London Medical School (UNZA-UCLMS) Research and Training Project, an entirely African scientist-led, south-north partnership. In its 16 year existence, the project, by successfully obtaining competitive grant funding, has transformed itself into one of Africa's most productive African-led R&D programmes with training and visible research outputs. The project serves as a role model and now networks R&D and training activities with six southern African (10 institutions) and six European countries. This project case study illustrates that deep commitment is essential for success and that the factors which facilitate success in R&D in Africa need to be evaluated. The long-term prospects for sustaining the UNZA-UCLMS Project appear bright and are dependent on several factors: the ability to retain trained African scientists; obtaining continued competitive or donor grant funding support; and serious investment by the African governments involved. The recent 255 million Euros EDCTP investment in sub-Saharan Africa through south-north partnerships is expected to enhance existing African-led R&D programmes. African governments and scientists must rise to the challenge.

  19. Adequacy of pharmacological information provided in pharmaceutical drug advertisements in African medical journals

    PubMed Central

    Oshikoya, Kazeem A.; Senbanjo, Idowu O.; Soipe, Ayo

    2008-01-01

    Pharmaceutical advertisement of drugs is a means of advocating drug use and their selling but not a substitute for drug formulary to guide physicians in safe prescribing. Objectives: To evaluate drug advertisements in Nigerian and other African medical journals for their adequacy of pharmacological information. Methods: Twenty four issues from each of West African Journal of Medicine (WAJM), East African Medical Journal (EAMJ), South African Medical Journal (SAMJ), Nigerian Medical Practitioner (NMP), Nigerian Quarterly Journal of Hospital Medicine (NQJHM) and Nigerian Postgraduate Medical Journal (NPMJ) were reviewed. While EAMJ, SAMJ and NMP are published monthly, the WAJM, NQJHM and NPMJ are published quarterly. The monthly journals were reviewed between January 2005 and December 2006, and the quarterly journals between January 2001 and December 2006. The drug information with regards to brand/non-proprietary name, pharmacological data, clinical information, pharmaceutical information and legal aspects was evaluated as per World Health Organisation (WHO) criteria. Counts in all categories were collated for each advertiser. Results: Forty one pharmaceutical companies made 192 advertisements. 112 (58.3%) of these advertisements were made in the African medical journals. Pfizer (20.3%) and Swipha (12.5%) topped the list of the advertising companies. Four (2.1%) adverts mentioned generic names only, 157 (81.8%) mentioned clinical indications. Adults and children dosage (39.6%), use in special situations such as pregnancy and renal or liver problems (36.5%), adverse effects (30.2%), average duration of treatment (26.0%), and potential for interaction with other drugs (18.7%) were less discussed. Pharmaceutical information such as available dosage forms and product and package information {summary of the generic and proprietary names, the formulation strength, active ingredient, route of administration, batch number, manufactured and expiry dates, and the manufacturer

  20. Supporting medical education research quality: the Association of American Medical Colleges' Medical Education Research Certificate program.

    PubMed

    Gruppen, Larry D; Yoder, Ernie; Frye, Ann; Perkowski, Linda C; Mavis, Brian

    2011-01-01

    The quality of the medical education research (MER) reported in the literature has been frequently criticized. Numerous reasons have been provided for these shortcomings, including the level of research training and experience of many medical school faculty. The faculty development required to improve MER can take various forms. This article describes the Medical Education Research Certificate (MERC) program, a national faculty development program that focuses exclusively on MER. Sponsored by the Association of American Medical Colleges and led by a committee of established medical education researchers from across the United States, the MERC program is built on a set of 11 interactive workshops offered at various times and places across the United States. MERC participants can customize the program by selecting six workshops from this set to fulfill requirements for certification. This article describes the history, operations, current organization, and evaluation of the program. Key elements of the program's success include alignment of program content and focus with needs identified by prospective users, flexibility in program organization and logistics to fit participant schedules, an emphasis on practical application of MER principles in the context of the participants' activities and interests, consistency in program content and format to ensure standards of quality, and a sustainable financial model. The relationship between the national MERC program and local faculty development initiatives is also described. The success of the MERC program suggests that it may be a possible model for nationally disseminated faculty development programs in other domains.

  1. Medical Research, Medical Journals and the Public Interest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Relman, Arnold S.

    1989-01-01

    The editor-in-chief of the New England Journal of Medicine discusses considerations in medical research integrity and publication, including the issues of research methodology, readership interest, article selection, editing, honesty, the author's responsibility, announcements of research to the mass media, and previous publication. (MSE)

  2. The use of psychiatric medications to treat depressive disorders in African American women.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Allesa P

    2006-07-01

    Review of the current literature confirms that African American women as a group are underdiagnosed and undertreated for psychiatric disorders. Hence, much effort is targeted towards awareness, screening, and improving access to health care for this population. However, once an African American woman is diagnosed with a major mental health disorder, determining the optimal course of treatment is a process that must be approached carefully because of gender and racial/ethnic differences in response and metabolism of psychiatric medications. African American women fall into both of these understudied categories. Given the small numbers of African American women represented in the clinical trials on which clinical practice is based, one must consider the limitations of current knowledge regarding psychoactive medications in this population. Culturally based attitudes or resistance to pharmacotherapy can complicate the use of psychoactive medicines, often a first-line approach in primary care clinics. Communication with patients is key, as well as openness to patient concerns and tolerance of these medications.

  3. Comparative effectiveness research: challenges for medical journals.

    PubMed

    Sox, Harold C; Helfand, Mark; Grimshaw, Jeremy; Dickersin, Kay; Tovey, David; Knottnerus, J André; Tugwell, Peter

    2010-04-28

    Editors from a number of medical journals lay out principles for journals considering publication of Comparative Effectiveness Research (CER). In order to encourage dissemination of this editorial, this article is freely available in PLoS Medicine and will be also published in Medical Decision Making, Croatian Medical Journal, The Cochrane Library, Trials, The American Journal of Managed Care, and Journal of Clinical Epidemiology.

  4. Communication Development and Disorders in African American Children: Research, Assessment, and Intervention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamhi, Alan G., Ed.; And Others

    The collection of papers on language development and African-American children includes: "The Challenges of Conducting Language Research with African American Children" (Holly K. Craig); "Issues in Recruiting African American Participants for Research" (Joyce L. Harris); "Issues in Assessing the Language Abilities of…

  5. Positionality of African Americans and a Theoretical Accommodation of It: Rethinking Science Education Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parsons, Eileen R. Carlton

    2008-01-01

    This essay addresses a call for research involving African Americans to interpret data from the historical, contemporary, and cultural experiences of African Americans. The essay argues for a science education research approach that explicitly considers the positionality of African Americans in the United States. This positionality involves the…

  6. Criminal DNA databank statutes and medical research.

    PubMed

    Bressler, Davina Dana

    2002-01-01

    Every state and the federal government collects DNA from convicted individuals for certain crimes. Furthermore, most states participate in the Federal Bureau of Investigation's Combined DNA Identification System, which allows states to share criminal DNA records for solving crimes. Some commentators claim that the statues that authorize this practice also would allow the government to use criminal DNA samples or records in medical or behavioral research. A careful reading of the statutes reveals that these assertions are either wrong or exaggerated. Only one state allows for medical research with records, and no state allows medical or behavioral research with DNA samples. This note explains that the DNA samples, not the DNA records, are needed in order to conduct medical or behavioral research. Moreover, this note shows that the statutory phrases "law enforcement purposes," "other humanitarian purposes," and "research" into quality control or protocol probably do not authorize medical or behavioral research.

  7. Research Plan for the National Center for Medical Rehabilitation Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. of Child Health and Human Development (NIH), Bethesda, MD.

    This research plan describes a framework for defining and developing the field of rehabilitation sciences and research opportunities for the National Center for Medical Rehabilitation Research (NCMRR) and other agencies funding medical rehabilitation research. The plan addresses the needs of both persons who are involved in habilitation and in…

  8. Transition of Research into Medical Practice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Polk, James D.; Johnson-Throop, Kathy A.

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the process of transforming medical research into practical medicine for astronauts and for every day people. Several examples of medical practices that started in space medical research and then were proved useful in other settings: Actigraphy, bone density scanning, the use of Potassium Citrate as a countermeasure used to lessen the risk of kidney stone formation, and ultrasound uses in remote and telemedicine,

  9. Text Messaging to Improve Hypertension Medication Adherence in African Americans: BPMED Intervention Development and Study Protocol

    PubMed Central

    Artinian, Nancy T; Schwiebert, Loren; Yarandi, Hossein; Levy, Phillip D

    2015-01-01

    Background Hypertension (HTN) is a major public health concern in the United States, with almost 78 million Americans age 20 years and over suffering from the condition. Moreover, HTN is a key risk factor for health disease and stroke. African Americans disproportionately shoulder the burdens of HTN, with greater prevalence, disease severity, earlier onset, and more HTN-related complications than age-matched whites. Medication adherence for the treatment of HTN is poor, with estimates indicating that only about half of hypertensive patients are adherent to prescribed medication regimens. Although no single intervention for improving medication adherence has emerged as superior to others, text message medication reminders have the potential to help improve medication adherence in African Americans with uncontrolled HTN as mobile phone adoption is very high in this population. Objective The purpose of this two-phased study was to develop (Phase I) and test in a randomized controlled trial (RCT) (Phase II) a text message system, BPMED, to improve the quality of medication management through increasing medication adherence in African Americans with uncontrolled HTN. Methods In Phase I, we recruited 16 target end-users from a primary care clinic, to assist in the development of BPMED through participating in one of three focus groups. Focus groups sought to gain patient perspectives on HTN, medication adherence, mobile phone use, and the use of text messaging to support medication adherence. Potential intervention designs were presented to participants, and feedback on the designs was solicited. In Phase II, we conducted two pilot RCTs to determine the feasibility, acceptability, and preliminary efficacy of BPMED in primary care and emergency department settings. Both pilot studies recruited approximately 60 participants, who were randomized equally between usual care and the BPMED intervention. Results Although data collection is now complete, data analysis from the

  10. Cultural Rationales Guiding Medication Adherence Among African American with HIV/AIDS

    PubMed Central

    Neufeld, Stewart; Berry, Rico; Luborsky, Mark

    2011-01-01

    Abstract To date, only modest gains have been achieved in explaining adherence to medical regimens, limiting effective interventions. This is a particularly important issue for African Americans who are disproportionately affected by the HIV epidemic. Few studies have focused on intragroup variation among African Americans in adherence to ART. The aim of this study was to identify and describe the cultural rationales guiding African American patients' formulation and evaluation of adherence. Rationales are key features of purposeful human action. In-depth interviews with 80 seropositive African Americans were tape recorded, transcribed, and analyzed. Participant CD4, viral load and medical histories were collected at each data point. Analysis of four waves of panel data identified three types of adherence rationales: Authoritative Knowledge Rationale (AKR; n=29, 36.3%), Following Doctors' Orders Rationale (DOR; n=24, 30.0%) and Individualized Adherence Rationale (IAR; n=27, 33.8%). Differences in mean reported adherence between the rationale groups did not achieve statistical significance. However, the fraction reporting low adherence (<70%), although not different by rationale group at the first interview (T1), was significantly higher for the IAR group by the fourth interview (T4). Objective clinical markers (CD4 and viral load) improved over time (from T1 to T4) for AKR and DOR groups, but remained unchanged for the IAR group, yet self-reported adherence declined for all groups over the course of the four interviews. PMID:21777141

  11. Medical research misconduct need regulatory reforms.

    PubMed

    Bedi, Neeraj

    2014-10-01

    The medical research misconduct has become a global problem. Except from countries like the USA, China, and Germany the exact figures of misconduct are not available. The research misconduct include fabricating the data, falsifying data, and plagiarism. The irresponsible research practices are publishing research data more than once, conflicts of interest is not declared, selective reporting of data and including an author who has not contributed at all and many more. About 2% of scientists have been found to admit the fabricating the data and 33% researchers were involved in irresponsible research practices. There is no formal regulatory programs available to monitor the research projects. Few developed countries like the USA, Germany, and China tried to develop programs which can monitor the medical research misconduct. There is a need to develop a regulatory system at national and institutional level to regulate the research activity to ensure that good ethical and scientific standards are practiced by medical researchers.

  12. The South African oil pollution research program

    SciTech Connect

    Chapman, P.

    1980-05-01

    A program to establish the impacts of oil pollution on the coastal ecosystem of South Africa was undertaken by the Committee for Marine Pollution of the Nat'l Program for Environmental Science. Research is needed to: predict oil spill movement, including coastal dynamics, the effects of winds on oil slicks, and other factors determining oil spill movement; quantify the effects of oil and;or dispersants on biota for use when compiling contingency plans to minimize damage after a spill; develop ways to contain, combat, and clean oil spills; collect and synthesize data on petroleum hydrocarbon input to the coastal waters of South Africa; and determine the fate, transfer, and physical and biological properties of these hydrocarbons and dispersants in selected ecosystems.s)

  13. Research priorities for Chagas disease, human African trypanosomiasis and leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    2012-01-01

    This report provides a review and analysis of the research landscape for three diseases - Chagas disease, human African trypanosomiasis and leishmaniasis - that disproportionately afflict poor and remote populations with limited access to health services. It represents the work of the disease reference group on Chagas Disease, Human African Trypanosomiasis and Leishmaniasis (DRG3) which was established to identify key research priorities through review of research evidence and input from stakeholders' consultations. The diseases, which are caused by related protozoan parasites, are described in terms of their epidemiology and diseases burden, clinical forms and pathogenesis, HIV coinfection, diagnosis, drugs and drug resistance, vaccines, vector control, and health-care interventions. Priority areas for research are identified based on criteria such as public health relevance, benefit and impact on poor populations and equity, and feasibility. The priorities are found in the areas of diagnostics, drugs, vector control, asymptomatic infection, economic analysis of treatment and vector control methods, and in some specific issues such as surveillance methods or transmission-blocking vaccines for particular diseases. This report will be useful to researchers, policy and decision-makers, funding bodies, implementation organizations, and civil society. This is one of ten disease and thematic reference group reports that have come out of the TDR Think Tank, all of which have contributed to the development of the Global Report for Research on Infectious Diseases of Poverty, available at: www.who.int/tdr/stewardship/global_report/en/index.html.

  14. Research of medical gases in Poland

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Research of medical gases is well established in Poland and has been marked with the foundation of several professional societies. Numerous academic centers including those dealing with hyperbaric and diving medicine conduct studies of medical gases, in vast majority supported with intramural funds. In general, Polish research of medical gases is very much clinical in nature, covering new applications and safety of medical gases in medicine; on the other hand there are several academic centers pursuing preclinical studies, and elaborating basic theories of gas physiology and mathematical modeling of gas exchange. What dominates is research dealing with oxygen and ozone as well as studies of anesthetic gases and their applications. Finally, several research directions involving noble gas, hydrogen and hydrogen sulfide for cell protection, only begin to gain recognition of basic scientists and clinicians. However, further developments require more monetary spending on research and clinical testing as well as formation of new collective bodies for coordinating efforts in this matter. PMID:23916016

  15. Medical technology advances from space research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pool, S. L.

    1972-01-01

    Details of medical research and development programs, particularly an integrated medical laboratory, as derived from space technology are given. The program covers digital biotelemetry systems, automatic visual field mapping equipment, sponge electrode caps for clinical electroencephalograms, and advanced respiratory analysis equipment. The possibility of using the medical laboratory in ground based remote areas and regional health care facilities, as well as long duration space missions is discussed.

  16. AILA Africa Research Network Launch 2007: Research into the Use of the African Languages for Academic Purposes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wildsmith-Cromarty, Rosemary

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the one-day symposium was to bring together scholars in applied linguistics with an interest in the African languages for the launch of the new AILA Africa regional network. Contributions were in the form of invited research papers from several African countries. This report focuses on the South African contribution, which highlighted…

  17. Cultivating Medical Education Research Mentorship as a Pathway Towards High Quality Medical Education Research.

    PubMed

    Blanchard, Rebecca D; Visintainer, Paul F; La Rochelle, Jeffrey

    2015-09-01

    The lack of effective and consistent research mentorship and research mentor training in both undergraduate medical education (UME) and graduate medical education (GME) is a critical constraint on the development of innovative and high quality medical education research. Clinical research mentors are often not familiar with the nuances and context of conducting education research. Clinician-educators, meanwhile, often lack the skills in developing and conducting rigorous research. Mentors who are not prepared to articulate potential scholarship pathways for their mentees risk limiting the mentee's progress in early stages of their career. In fact, the relative paucity of experienced medical education research mentors arguably contributes to the perpetuation of a cycle leading to fewer well-trained researchers in medical education, a lack of high quality medical education research, and relative stagnation in medical education innovation. There is a path forward, however. Integration of doctoral-level educators, structured inter-departmental efforts, and external mentorship provide opportunities for faculty to gain traction in their medical education research efforts. An investment in medical education research mentors will ensure rigorous research for high quality innovation in medical education and patient care.

  18. Medical Schools, Clinical Research, and Ethical Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Makarushka, Julia L.; Lally, John J.

    1974-01-01

    Recent discussion of the ethical problems of biomedical human experimentation has drawn attention to the responsibility of the medical schools for training new clinical investigators and for safeguarding the rights and welfare of the subjects of clinical research conducted in the medical schools and their affiliated hospitals. (Author)

  19. Ethics in Medical Research and Publication

    PubMed Central

    Masic, Izet; Hodzic, Ajla; Mulic, Smaila

    2014-01-01

    To present the basic principles and standards of Ethics in medical research and publishing, as well as the need for continuing education in the principles and ethics in science and publication in biomedicine. An analysis of relevant materials and documents, sources from the published literature. Investing in education of researches and potential researches, already in the level of medical schools. Educating them on research ethics, what constitutes research misconduct and the seriousness of it repercussion is essential for finding a solution to this problem and ensuring careers are constructed on honesty and integrity. PMID:25317288

  20. Capacity development for health research in Africa: experiences managing the African Doctoral Dissertation Research Fellowship Program

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Africa's progress depends on her capacity to generate, adapt, and use scientific knowledge to meet regional health and development needs. Yet, Africa's higher education institutions that are mandated to foster this capacity lack adequate resources to generate and apply knowledge, raising the need for innovative approaches to enhance research capacity. In this paper, we describe a newly-developed program to support PhD research in health and population sciences at African universities, the African Doctoral Dissertation Research Fellowship (ADDRF) Program. We also share our experiences implementing the program. As health research capacity-strengthening in Africa continues to attract attention and as the need for such programs to be African-led is emphasized, our experiences in developing and implementing the ADDRF offer invaluable lessons to other institutions undertaking similar initiatives. PMID:20587016

  1. The Inclusion of African-American Study Participants in Web-Based Research Studies: Viewpoint

    PubMed Central

    Harker, Laura; Arriola, Kimberly R. Jacob

    2016-01-01

    The use of Web-based methods for research recruitment and intervention delivery has greatly increased as Internet usage continues to grow. These Internet-based strategies allow for researchers to quickly reach more people. African-Americans are underrepresented in health research studies. Due to this, African-Americans get less benefit from important research that could address the disproportionate health outcomes they face. Web-based research studies are one promising way to engage more African-Americans and build trust with the African-American community. With African-Americans’ increasing access to the Internet using mobile phones and other mobile phone technologies, we advocate for efforts to increase the representation of African-Americans in research studies by using the Internet as a recruitment tool and conclude with recommendations that support this goal. PMID:27334683

  2. African-Americans' perceptions of health care provider cultural competence that promote HIV medical self-care and antiretroviral medication adherence.

    PubMed

    Gaston, Gina B

    2013-01-01

    Most studies of cultural competence in healthcare examine healthcare providers' definitions of cultural competence practices. This study is unique in that it examines the relationship between African-American patients' perceptions of the cultural competence of their HIV healthcare providers and the adherence of these patients to medical self-care and antiretroviral therapy (ART). This cross-sectional, exploratory, descriptive study was conducted at the Ruth Rothstein CORE Center in Chicago, Illinois. The sample consisted of 202 HIV-positive African-Americans who completed surveys during clinic visits. Multiple measures were used, including the Patient Assessments of Cultural Competency survey instrument developed by the Department of Health and Human Services Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. Medical self-care was measured using the advice and instructions scale and the self-care symptom management for people living with HIV/AIDS categorical scale. ART adherence was measured using the Adherence Behaviors Self-Report and Adherence Self-Report scales. The data revealed many significant correlations between variables. The more patients believed that providers should integrate culture in HIV treatment; the better their reported health (F1,138=0.151, P=0.05) and the more they followed their provider's advice and instructions (medical self-care; F1,138=0.029, P=0.05). Participants who trusted their providers engaged in more medical self-care (F1,138=0.280, P=0.01). More shared treatment decisions were reported among participants who had higher levels of education (F1,127=0.337, P=0.05). Findings of this study indicate the need for increased attention to the role of cultural competence in HIV/AIDS care. Understanding patient perceptions of provider cultural competence has the potential to improve HIV treatment adherence and health outcomes.

  3. Calixarenes in bio-medical researches.

    PubMed

    Rodik, Roman V; Boyko, Vyacheslav I; Kalchenko, Vitaly I

    2009-01-01

    Application of calixarene derivatives in bio-medical researches is reviewed in this article. Antiviral, bactericidal, antithrombothic, antituberculosis, anticancer activity as well as specific protein complexation, membranotropic properties and toxicity of modified calixarenes are discussed.

  4. Reflections on Experimental Research in Medical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, David A.; Beckman, Thomas J.

    2010-01-01

    As medical education research advances, it is important that education researchers employ rigorous methods for conducting and reporting their investigations. In this article we discuss several important yet oft neglected issues in designing experimental research in education. First, randomization controls for only a subset of possible confounders.…

  5. African Primary Care Research: qualitative data analysis and writing results.

    PubMed

    Mabuza, Langalibalele H; Govender, Indiran; Ogunbanjo, Gboyega A; Mash, Bob

    2014-06-05

    This article is part of a series on African primary care research and gives practical guidance on qualitative data analysis and the presentation of qualitative findings. After an overview of qualitative methods and analytical approaches, the article focuses particularly on content analysis, using the framework method as an example. The steps of familiarisation, creating a thematic index, indexing, charting, interpretation and confirmation are described. Key concepts with regard to establishing the quality and trustworthiness of data analysis are described. Finally, an approach to the presentation of qualitative findings is given.

  6. Systematic reviews in context: highlighting systematic reviews relevant to Africa in the Pan African Medical Journal

    PubMed Central

    Wiysonge, Charles Shey; Kamadjeu, Raoul; Tsague, Landry

    2016-01-01

    contribute in enhancing the value of research in Africa, the Pan African Medical Journal will start a new regular column that will highlight priority systematic reviews relevant to the continent. PMID:27795777

  7. Cultural Attitudes and Body Dissatisfaction: Morgan State Researchers Find that Perceptions of Body Image among Young African Americans May Be Life Threatening

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawkins, B. Denise

    2005-01-01

    Young African Americans don't appear to perceive obesity in the way the medical community does, putting them at greater risk for developing chronic diseases such as diabetes, hypertension and cancer, says a first-ever study led by researchers at the Morgan State University Prevention Sciences Research Center. The pilot study, which provides a rare…

  8. Competency-based medical education in two Sub-Saharan African medical schools

    PubMed Central

    Kiguli-Malwadde, Elsie; Olapade-Olaopa, E Oluwabunmi; Kiguli, Sarah; Chen, Candice; Sewankambo, Nelson K; Ogunniyi, Adesola O; Mukwaya, Solome; Omaswa, Francis

    2014-01-01

    Background Relatively little has been written on Medical Education in Sub-Saharan Africa, although there are over 170 medical schools in the region. A number of initiatives have been started to support medical education in the region to improve quality and quantity of medical graduates. These initiatives have led to curricular changes in the region, one of which is the introduction of Competency-Based Medical Education (CBME). Institutional reviews This paper presents two medical schools, Makerere University College of Health Sciences and College of Medicine, University of Ibadan, which successfully implemented CBME. The processes of curriculum revision are described and common themes are highlighted. Both schools used similar processes in developing their CBME curricula, with early and significant stakeholder involvement. Competencies were determined taking into consideration each country’s health and education systems. Final competency domains were similar between the two schools. Both schools established medical education departments to support their new curricula. New teaching methodologies and assessment methods were needed to support CBME, requiring investments in faculty training. Both schools received external funding to support CBME development and implementation. Conclusion CBME has emerged as an important change in medical education in Sub-Saharan Africa with schools adopting it as an approach to transformative medical education. Makerere University and the University of Ibadan have successfully adopted CBME and show that CBME can be implemented even for the low-resourced countries in Africa, supported by external investments to address the human resources gap. PMID:25525404

  9. U.S.{/}South African Undergraduate Education and Research Workshops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coleman, K. M.; Nolan, J. R.; Davis, K. L.; Phelps, T. J.; Kieft, T. L.; van Heerden, E.; Litthauer, D.; Pfiffner, S. M.

    2002-12-01

    Deep South African mines (2 to 3.5 km below land surface) have provided unique opportunities for research investigating geochemical and microbial processes in deep subsurface environments. The environments encountered in these mines range from prolific biofilms to hot saline water emanating from gas-rich boreholes. This venture is an outgrowth of ongoing research funded by the NSF Life in Extreme Environments Program as the Witswatersrand Deep Microbiology Project. A workshop for U.S. and South African underrepresented undergraduates was held in December 2001 and is being repeated in December 2002. The main purpose of the workshops were to provide a field and laboratory research experience for underrepresented undergraduate students from the United States (U.S.) and South Africa (S.A.) in the fields of earth, biological, and environmental sciences and engineering. Additional purposes included continuing the exchange of scientific, educational, and biotechnological efforts, and to discuss and explore opportunities for expanding the educational, research and biotechnological efforts. The workshop goals were to recruit and engage undergraduate students in unique and exciting research not normally available to them. The workshops offered state-of-the-art experimental opportunities on specific scientific topics, including subsurface biogeochemstry and microbial ecology. The workshops strengthened scientific and technological collaborations between the South African and U.S. academic communities and South African mining companies. The mines welcome opportunities to host under represented student education initiatives and are forthcoming with refreshments, mining gear, underground transport and geologists. We successfully demonstrated that a workshop with underground activities involving students from both nations was safe, feasible, and career enhancing. Student activities included chemical analyses of groundwater, enrichment for iron- and sulfate-reducing bacteria and

  10. African diversity may hold key to human origins, medical questions. Genetic diversity.

    PubMed

    1999-02-01

    The genetic diversity of human populations in Africa has been studied less in Africa than it has been in Europe and Asia. However, the study of such diversity in Africa is important to the determination of where, when, and how modern humans evolved; to gain insight into the genetic diseases of Africans and African-Americans; and to identify potential treatments for diseases like malaria and HIV. Dr. Sarah Tishkoff et al.'s study of 3 locations on DNA samples from 13-18 populations in Africa and 30-45 other populations in other parts of the world found extremely high genetic diversity both within and between the African populations, and much less diversity in non-African populations. Tishkoff's research team examined the genetic information inherited from both the father and mother, which exists upon a strand of DNA close enough together that the markers are transferred intact. The use of genetic markers to trace lineages found that modern humans appear to have emerged from Africa 100,000-150,000 years ago and that the population which left Africa was rather small. These data agree with earlier research findings. The findings of Tishkoff et al. also suggest that the group which migrated from Africa came from northern East Africa.

  11. Reported Racial Discrimination, Trust in Physicians, and Medication Adherence Among Inner-City African Americans With Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Hargraves, J. Lee; Rosal, Milagros; Briesacher, Becky A.; Schoenthaler, Antoinette; Person, Sharina; Hullett, Sandral; Allison, Jeroan

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. We sought to determine if reported racial discrimination was associated with medication nonadherence among African Americans with hypertension and if distrust of physicians was a contributing factor. Methods. Data were obtained from the TRUST project conducted in Birmingham, Alabama, 2006 to 2008. All participants were African Americans diagnosed with hypertension and receiving care at an inner city, safety net setting. Three categories of increasing adherence were defined based on the Morisky Medication Adherence Scale. Trust in physicians was measured with the Hall General Trust Scale, and discrimination was measured with the Experiences of Discrimination Scale. Associations were quantified by ordinal logistic regression, adjusting for gender, age, education, and income. Results. The analytic sample consisted of 227 African American men and 553 African American women, with a mean age of 53.7 ±9.9 years. Mean discrimination scores decreased monotonically across increasing category of medication adherence (4.1, 3.6, 2.9; P = .025), though the opposite was found for trust scores (36.5, 38.5, 40.8; P < .001). Trust mediated 39% (95% confidence interval = 17%, 100%) of the association between discrimination and medication adherence. Conclusions. Within our sample of inner city African Americans with hypertension, racial discrimination was associated with lower medication adherence, and this association was partially mediated by trust in physicians. Patient, physician and system approaches to increase “earned” trust may enhance existing interventions for promoting medication adherence. PMID:24028222

  12. Advances in Translational Medical Research

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-25

    the first nodes that receive lymph drainage allowed for a change in practice  Results of the clinical trial contributed to what is now the current...Raskind Seattle Institute for Biomedical and Clinical Research Got Nightmares? 2011 MHS Conference Quality of Life: Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy 25...multi-center clinical trial testing the validity and accuracy of sentinel lymph node biopsy in predicting the spread of disease  Accurately identifying

  13. Towards migration research networking in Eastern-Southern African subregions.

    PubMed

    Oucho, J O

    1993-01-01

    This article reports efforts made by a small group of Eastern-Southern African (ESA) subregion scholars to adopt a systematic approach to establishing a regional network Migration Network in Eastern and Southern Africa (MINESA). The approach involved: 1) holding a conference at which symptomatic types of internal and international migration would be discussed; 2) publication of the conference proceedings; and 3) establishment of MINESA as a network of policy-oriented research in the two subregions. The first stage has been accomplished, the second is nearly complete, and the third has yet to be undertaken. During the African Population Conference organized by the International Union for Scientific Study of Population in Dakar, Senegal, on 5-9 November 1988, a small group agreed on a timetable to establish MINESA. At the ESA conference, papers were presented on ESA issues; internal migration processes and mechanism; refugee movements and their implications for countries; the effects on the economies of Southern African states, of emigration to the Republic of South Africa (RSA). In a keynote address, Adepoju surveyed migration and development in Western-Central (Middle) Africa and Eastern-Southern Africa, which included colonial and post-colonial historical epochs, internal and international migration, and labor and refugee movements. A paper on Kenya by Oucho discussed the implications for rural-urban balance of internal migration based on 1969 and 1979 censuses. Rural-urban migration from the traditional economy to Nairobi and Mombasa in particular has created an unacceptable rural-urban imbalance, adversely affecting rural development. Eastern and Southern Africa has seen massive and wide spatial dispersal of refugees (victims of wars, drought, and famine). Two papers were presented on Tanzania and one on Uganda. The final set of papers addressed the effects of labor migration to the RSA on Swaziland and Lesotho.

  14. Research and Evaluation in Medical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferris, Helena A.; Collins, Mary E.

    2015-01-01

    The landscape of medical education is continuously evolving, as are the needs of the learner. The appropriate use of research and evaluation is key when assessing the need for change and instituting one's innovative endeavours. This paper demonstrates how research seeks to generate new knowledge, whereas evaluation uses information acquired from…

  15. [Medical research ethics 50 years after Nuremberg].

    PubMed

    Ruyter, K W

    1997-12-10

    50 years ago, in Nuremberg, 23 German doctors were accused of crimes against humanity. The anniversary is a solemn reminder of the dark origins of medical research ethics. Many researchers today believe that the medical experiments carried out under Hitler "vaccinated" postwar researchers against abuse. A review of the practices of postwar research shows that the "vaccination" had limited effect and that there is no reason to believe that the events which took place under Hitler were unique and will never happen again. After the war various measures were introduced to protect research subjects: informed consent, self regulation and independent research ethics committees. The measures have undoubtedly limited the abuse of subjects substantially. Nevertheless, in the Armed Forces, where abuse has been most rampant after the war, informed consent is not always practised and independent review is seldom carried out. With the support of grant institutions, journals and industry the protection of research subjects can be improved. It is recommended that medical faculties arrange an annual commemoration of the victims of medical research in order to raise consciousness and awareness among teachers and students.

  16. Accession Medical Standards Analysis and Research Activity

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    Chief, Accession Medical Standards Analysis & Research Activity Li Yuanzhang, PhD Senior Statistician Department of Epidemiology David N...ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) AMSARA, Department of Epidemiology , Division of Preventive Medicine Walter Reed Army Institute of Research 503... Epidemiology of Injury form the Assessment of Recruit Strength and Motivation study ARMS) and Program

  17. The Medical Research Model: No Magic Formula

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kingsbury, G. Gage

    2006-01-01

    In the No Child Left Behind Act and the What Works Clearinghouse, the federal government has attempted to establish guidelines for the type of education research that U.S. schools should consider in selecting instructional programs and resources. The government's clear preference for the medical model--a powerful research design in such fields as…

  18. [Ethics in clinical research. World Medical Association].

    PubMed

    Villalobos, J J

    1990-07-01

    Ethics is the branch of Philosophy that treats the essential; the origin and the obligatory character of the moral, for that reason it relates with the man conscience; it deals with the knowledge and acceptation of the right and the rejection of the evil (wrong). This is subordinated to the will of the man who is free to decide between the right and the evil. The purpose of biomedical research involving human subjects must help to improve diagnostic, therapeutic and prophylactic procedures and to understand the aetiology and pathogenesis of a disease. In current medical practice most diagnostic, therapeutic or prophylactic procedures involve hazard. This applies especially to biomedical research. Medical progress is based on research which ultimately must rely in part on experimentation involving human subjects. The World Medical Association has prepared the recommendations described in this article as a guide to every physician in biomedical research involving human subjects.

  19. The West African medical staff and the administration of Imperial tropical medicine, 1902-14.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Ryan

    2010-01-01

    Established in 1902, the West African Medical Staff (WAMS) brought together the six medical departments of British West Africa. Its formation also followed the foundation of schools of tropical medicine in London and Liverpool. While the 'white' dominions were at the centre of Joseph Chamberlain's ambitions of erecting a system of imperial preference, the tropical colonies were increasingly tethered to the future security and prosperity of Greater Britain. Therefore, politicians and businessmen considered the WAMS and the new tropical medicine important first steps for making Britain's West African possessions healthier and more profitable regions of the empire. However, rather than realising these goals, significant structural barriers, and the self-interest and conservatism this helped breed among medical officers, made the application of even the most basic public health measures extremely challenging. Like many policies emanating from Whitehall during this period, what made the WAMS and the new tropical medicine thoroughly imperial was nothing accomplished in practice, but the hopes and aspirations placed in them.

  20. Nazi Medical Research in Neuroscience: Medical Procedures, Victims, and Perpetrators.

    PubMed

    Loewenau, Aleksandra; Weindling, Paul J

    2016-01-01

    Issues relating to the euthanasia killings of the mentally ill, the medical research conducted on collected body parts, and the clinical investigations on living victims under National Socialism are among the best-known abuses in medical history. But to date, there have been no statistics compiled regarding the extent and number of the victims and perpetrators, or regarding their identities in terms of age, nationality, and gender. "Victims of Unethical Human Experiments and Coerced Research under National Socialism," a research project based at Oxford Brookes University, has established an evidence-based documentation of the overall numbers of victims and perpetrators through specific record linkages of the evidence from the period of National Socialism, as well as from post-WWII trials and other records. This article examines the level and extent of these unethical medical procedures as they relate to the field of neuroscience. It presents statistical information regarding the victims, as well as detailing the involvement of the perpetrators and Nazi physicians with respect to their post-war activities and subsequent court trials.

  1. Medical Informatics Education & Research in Greece

    PubMed Central

    Chouvarda, I.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Objectives This paper aims to present an overview of the medical informatics landscape in Greece, to describe the Greek ehealth background and to highlight the main education and research axes in medical informatics, along with activities, achievements and pitfalls. Methods With respect to research and education, formal and informal sources were investigated and information was collected and presented in a qualitative manner, including also quantitative indicators when possible. Results Greece has adopted and applied medical informatics education in various ways, including undergraduate courses in health sciences schools as well as multidisciplinary postgraduate courses. There is a continuous research effort, and large participation in EU-wide initiatives, in all the spectrum of medical informatics research, with notable scientific contributions, although technology maturation is not without barriers. Wide-scale deployment of eHealth is anticipated in the healthcare system in the near future. While ePrescription deployment has been an important step, ICT for integrated care and telehealth have a lot of room for further deployment. Conclusions Greece is a valuable contributor in the European medical informatics arena, and has the potential to offer more as long as the barriers of research and innovation fragmentation are addressed and alleviated. PMID:26123910

  2. [The evaluation of medical research].

    PubMed

    Malacara, J M

    1997-01-01

    The peer review process for manuscripts submitted for publication to scientific journals and for the evaluation of grant research proposals is unsatisfactory in several respects. We examine here some of the problems related with evaluation of scientific merit. Some criteria for rejection are proposed, i.e. a poor preparation of the manuscript, a lack of a distinct hypothesis, a disagreement between hypothesis and methodology, and a deficient methodology. Other important criteria causes of rejection would be lack of originality of the hypothesis, scarce relevance of the work, and inconsistency in the results. Conversely, interesting work are rejected for invalid objections such as "less than optimal design", "lack of experience of the group" and some conceptual objections which are controversial. In order to improve the peer review process, we propose a larger role of editorial committees in final editorial decisions, an improved mechanism for selection of reviewers, and more explicit criteria for causes of rejection for reviewers and authors.

  3. Achieving healthy weight in African-American communities: research perspectives and priorities.

    PubMed

    Kumanyika, Shiriki K; Gary, Tiffany L; Lancaster, Kristie J; Samuel-Hodge, Carmen D; Banks-Wallace, Joanne; Beech, Bettina M; Hughes-Halbert, Chanita; Karanja, Njeri; Odoms-Young, Angela M; Prewitt, T Elaine; Whitt-Glover, Melicia C

    2005-12-01

    The longstanding high burden of obesity in African-American women and the more recent, steeper than average rise in obesity prevalence among African-American children constitute a mandate for an increased focus on obesity prevention and treatment research in African-American communities. The African-American Collaborative Obesity Research Network (AACORN) was formed to stimulate and support greater participation in framing and implementing the obesity research agenda by investigators who have both social and cultural grounding in African-American life experiences and obesity-related scientific expertise. AACORN's examination of obesity research agenda issues began in 2003 in conjunction with the Think Tank on Enhancing Obesity Research at the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI). The assessment was subsequently expanded to take into account the overall NIH strategic plan for obesity research, literature reviews, and descriptions of ongoing studies. In identifying priorities, AACORN members considered the quality, quantity, focus, and contextual relevance of published research relevant to obesity prevention and treatment in African-American adults or children. Fifteen recommended research priorities are presented in five categories adapted from the NHLBI Think Tank proceedings: health effects, social and environmental context, prevention and treatment, research methods, and research training and funding. These recommendations from an African-American perspective build on and reinforce certain aspects of the NHLBI and overall NIH research agendas by providing more specific rationale and directions on areas for enhancement in the type of research being done or in the conceptualization and implementation of that research.

  4. Faculty development in medical education research.

    PubMed

    LaMantia, Joseph; Hamstra, Stanley J; Martin, Daniel R; Searle, Nancy; Love, Jeffrey; Castaneda, Jill; Aziz-Bose, Rahela; Smith, Michael; Griswold-Therodorson, Sharon; Leuck, JoAnna

    2012-12-01

    This 2012 Academic Emergency Medicine consensus conference breakout session was devoted to the task of identifying the history and current state of faculty development in education research in emergency medicine (EM). The participants set a future agenda for successful faculty development in education research. A number of education research and content experts collaborated during the session. This article summarizes existing academic and medical literature, expert opinions, and audience consensus to report our agreement and findings related to the promotion of faculty development.

  5. Perceptions of Nigerian medical specialists on research

    PubMed Central

    Mahmoud, Abdulraheem O.; Ayanniyi, Abdulkabir A.; Lawal, Abdul; Omolase, Charles O.; Ologunsua, Yinka; Samaila, Elsie

    2011-01-01

    The current research aimed at collating the views of medical specialists on disease priorities, class and outcomes of health research in Nigeria, and draw appropriate policy implications. Structured questionnaires were distributed to consent 90 randomly selected medical specialists practising in six Nigerian tertiary health institutions. Participants' background information, relative disease priority, research types and class, type and class of publication media, frequency of publications, challenges faced in publishing research, impact of their research on health practice or policy, and inventions made were probed. Fifty-one out of the 90 questionnaires distributed were returned giving a response rate of 63.3%. Sixty-four point six percent indicated that the highest priority should be given to non communicable diseases while still recognizing that considerations should be giving to the others. They were largely “always” involved in simple low budget retrospective studies or cross-sectional and medical education studies (67.8%) and over a third (37.5%) had never been involved in clinical trials. They largely preferred to “always” publish in PubMed indexed journals that are foreign-based (65.0%). They also indicated that their research works very rarely resulted in inventions (4%) and change (4%) in clinical practice or health policy. Our study respondents indicated that they were largely involved in simple low budget research works that rarely had significant impacts and outcomes. We recommend that adequate resources and research infrastructures particularly funding be made available to medical specialists in Nigeria. Both undergraduate and postgraduate medical education in Nigeria should emphasize research training in their curricula.

  6. Qualitative research methods for medical educators.

    PubMed

    Hanson, Janice L; Balmer, Dorene F; Giardino, Angelo P

    2011-01-01

    This paper provides a primer for qualitative research in medical education. Our aim is to equip readers with a basic understanding of qualitative research and prepare them to judge the goodness of fit between qualitative research and their own research questions. We provide an overview of the reasons for choosing a qualitative research approach and potential benefits of using these methods for systematic investigation. We discuss developing qualitative research questions, grounding research in a philosophical framework, and applying rigorous methods of data collection, sampling, and analysis. We also address methods to establish the trustworthiness of a qualitative study and introduce the reader to ethical concerns that warrant special attention when planning qualitative research. We conclude with a worksheet that readers may use for designing a qualitative study. Medical educators ask many questions that carefully designed qualitative research would address effectively. Careful attention to the design of qualitative studies will help to ensure credible answers that will illuminate many of the issues, challenges, and quandaries that arise while doing the work of medical education.

  7. A Researcher "Called" to "Taboo" Places?: A Burgeoning Research Method in African-Centered Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shockley, Kmt G.

    2009-01-01

    This article presents a self-reflexive analysis of the complexities of conducting Afrocentric education research while living with a "double consciousness." Having been "called" to places that are considered to be "taboo" the author takes readers on a journey that begins in his busy mind and ends in on the African continent in a "rabbit hole."…

  8. [Accessing medical records for research purposes].

    PubMed

    Alcalde Bezhold, Guillermo; Alfonso Farnós, Iciar

    2013-01-01

    The Organic Law 15/1999 of 13 December on the Protection of Personal Data and the Law 41/2002 of 14 November regulating patient autonomy and rights and obligations of information and clinical documentation are the basic rules which govern the medical history in Spain. However, the lack of development of these laws regarding data protection in clinical research, particularly in terms of access to the medical history, repeatedly causes doubts about its construction by the Research Ethics Committees. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to analyze the rules which govern the access to the medical history for research purposes, with particular emphasis on the common problems that arise in the Committees for the ethical evaluation of these projects and finally setting a series of recommendations. The use for research purpose of genetic personal data contained in the medical history is also addressed in this paper. In this sense, a key contribution of the Law on Biomedical Research is relating to the specific regulation of the genetic personal data, both with respect to their production and access to the data as a support and regarding to its use for research purpose.

  9. Quality Research in South African Higher Education: Illusions, Imperatives and Ideals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hay, D.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the complexity facing South African researchers in higher education as they try to overcome the heritage of the old, fragmented higher education system. Necessary paradigm shifts are identified, as are focus areas for improving the quality of South African higher education research at both national and institutional levels. (DB)

  10. Offering African Americans Opportunities to Participate in Clinical Trials Research: How Social Workers Can Help

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, Susan E.

    2005-01-01

    Historically, African Americans have resisted participation in clinical trials and other research projects because of distrust of the mostly white research establishment. Although there are legitimate reasons for refusing to join clinical trials, most notably the abuses of the Tuskegee Syphilis Study, African Americans may be passing up…

  11. African American Alumni Feelings of Attachment to a Predominately White Research Intensive University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burley, Hansel; Butner, Bonita; Causey-Bush, Tonia; Bush, Lawson, V

    2007-01-01

    The authors examined African American alumni opinions of their experience at a predominately white research intensive university from the development office's perspective. Research on decades of African American alumni opinions of their alma mater is nonexistent. Gender, financial aid and matriculation period were the independent variables. The…

  12. Trends in Themes of African American Family Research 1939-1989: A Synopsis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Lenwood G.

    1990-01-01

    Themes in research on African-American families between 1939 and 1989 are discussed, and the following recently developed themes are highlighted: (1) stress, (2) aging, (3) adoption, (4) prison, (5) polygamy, and (6) violence. Much more research is needed to provide better understanding of the African-American family. (SLD)

  13. Research in Medical School: A Survey Evaluating Why Medical Students Take Research Years

    PubMed Central

    Taleghani, Noushafarin

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: In recent years, an increasing number of medical students have taken time off during medical school in order to conduct research. Schools and students have invested millions of dollars and thousands of person-years on research projects, but little is known as to why students choose to take this time off. We aim to characterize why students take research years during medical school. Methods: The authors distributed an online survey about research in medical school to students at five medical schools that have highly regarded research programs. Results: 328 students responded to the survey. The most common reasons students take years off for research are: “increase competitiveness for residency application” (32%), “time to pursue other opportunities” (24%), and “academic interest” (23%). Students who would still take a research year even if they were already assured a position in a residency program of their choice were at 65%, while 35% would not take a research year. Responses varied based on whether students intended to go into a competitive specialty. Discussion: Medical students take research years for multiple reasons, although they frequently are not motivated by an interest in the research itself. Many student projects consume a substantial amount of time and money despite having little educational value. Medical schools, residency programs, and policymakers should rethink incentives to increase value and help students better pursue their academic interests. PMID:27672532

  14. Antarctica: a review of recent medical research.

    PubMed

    Olson, James J

    2002-10-01

    This article reviews recent developments and areas of research in Antarctic medical science. Nineteen nations are part of the Antarctic treaty and undertake research programmes in Antarctica. Medical science is a small but important part of these programmes. Areas that have been studied include aspects of cold physiology, ultraviolet light effects, endocrine changes (including polar T3 syndrome), alterations in immune function, chronobiology, psychology, microbiology, epidemiology and telemedicine. Antarctica has been recognized as the closest thing on Earth to a testing ground for aspects of space exploration and as such has been termed a space analogue.

  15. Modelling Medications for Public Health Research

    PubMed Central

    van Gaans, D.; Ahmed, S.; D’Onise, K.; Moyon, J.; Caughey, G.; McDermott, R.

    2016-01-01

    Most patients with chronic disease are prescribed multiple medications, which are recorded in their personal health records. This is rich information for clinical public health researchers but also a challenge to analyse. This paper describes the method that was undertaken within the Public Health Research Data Management System (PHReDMS) to map medication data retrieved from individual patient health records for population health researcher’s use. The PHReDMS manages clinical, health service, community and survey research data within a secure web environment that allows for data sharing amongst researchers. The PHReDMS is currently used by researchers to answer a broad range of questions, including monitoring of prescription patterns in different population groups and geographic areas with high incidence/prevalence of chronic renal, cardiovascular, metabolic and mental health issues. In this paper, we present the general notion of abstraction network, a higher level network that sits above a terminology and offers compact and more easily understandable view of its content. We demonstrate the utilisation of abstraction network methodology to examine medication data from electronic medical records to allow a compact and more easily understandable view of its content. PMID:28149446

  16. Medical education practice-based research networks: Facilitating collaborative research

    PubMed Central

    Schwartz, Alan; Young, Robin; Hicks, Patricia J.; APPD LEARN, For

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Research networks formalize and institutionalize multi-site collaborations by establishing an infrastructure that enables network members to participate in research, propose new studies, and exploit study data to move the field forward. Although practice-based clinical research networks are now widespread, medical education research networks are rapidly emerging. Aims: In this article, we offer a definition of the medical education practice-based research network, a brief description of networks in existence in July 2014 and their features, and a more detailed case study of the emergence and early growth of one such network, the Association of Pediatric Program Directors Longitudinal Educational Assessment Research Network (APPD LEARN). Methods: We searched for extant networks through peer-reviewed literature and the world-wide web. Results: We identified 15 research networks in medical education founded since 2002 with membership ranging from 8 to 120 programs. Most focus on graduate medical education in primary care or emergency medicine specialties. Conclusions: We offer four recommendations for the further development and spread of medical education research networks: increasing faculty development, obtaining central resources, studying networks themselves, and developing networks of networks. PMID:25319404

  17. Reporting research in medical journals and newspapers.

    PubMed Central

    Entwistle, V.

    1995-01-01

    Newspapers are important sources of information about medical advances for many lay people and can influence those working in the health service. Medical journalists on newspapers routinely use general medical journals to obtain information on research. The Lancet and BMJ are both examined carefully by broadsheet journalists in Britain each week. These papers published an average of 1.25 stories from these journals every Friday. The stories focused on serious diseases, topical health problems, and new treatments rather than social problems. The newspaper stories were based on the full research article and not the journals' press releases, although the press releases were valued as early information. Journalists relied heavily on the peer review processes of the journals in ensuring accuracy. PMID:7719187

  18. The Impact of Everyday Discrimination and Racial Identity Centrality on African American Medical Student Well-Being: a Report from the Medical Student CHANGE Study.

    PubMed

    Perry, Sylvia P; Hardeman, Rachel; Burke, Sara E; Cunningham, Brooke; Burgess, Diana J; van Ryn, Michelle

    2016-09-01

    Positive psychological well-being is an important predictor of and contributor to medical student success. Previous work showed that first-year African American medical students whose self-concept was highly linked to their race (high racial identity centrality) were at greater risk for poor well-being. The current study extends this work by examining (a) whether the psychological impact of racial discrimination on well-being depends on African American medical students' racial identity centrality and (b) whether this process is explained by how accepted students feel in medical school. This study used baseline data from the Medical Student Cognitive Habits and Growth Evaluation (CHANGE) Study, a large national longitudinal cohort study of 4732 medical students at 49 medical schools in the USA (n = 243). Regression analyses were conducted to test whether medical student acceptance mediated an interactive effect of discrimination and racial identity centrality on self-esteem and well-being. Both racial identity centrality and everyday discrimination were associated with negative outcomes for first-year African American medical students. Among participants who experienced higher, but not lower, levels of everyday discrimination, racial identity centrality was associated with negative outcomes. When everyday discrimination was high, but not low, racial identity was negatively related to perceived acceptance in medical school, and this in turn was related to increased negative outcomes. Our results suggest that discrimination may be particularly harmful for African American students who perceive their race to be central to their personal identity. Additionally, our findings speak to the need for institutional change that includes commitment and action towards inclusivity and the elimination of structural racism.

  19. Assessment of the Status of African-Americans. Volume II: Research on the African-American Family: A Holistic Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Robert B.; Billingsley, Andrew; Ingram, Eleanor; Malson, Michelene R.; Rubin, Robert H.; Stack, Carol B.; Stewart, James B.; Teele, James E.

    In 1987 a project was undertaken to assess the status of African Americans in the United States in the topical areas to be addressed by the National Research Council's Study Committee on the Status of Black Americans: education, employment, income and occupations, political participation and the administration of justice, social and cultural…

  20. Shifting Paradigms of Research in Medical Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Irby, David M.; Edwards, Janine C. Ed.

    1990-01-01

    Medical educators debate which models of scientific research should be applied to problems in academic medicine. The reigning model was derived from the first scientific revolution of Newtonian physics. The emerging model is grounded in the second scientific revolution of Einstein's quantum physics. (Author/MSE)

  1. Medical Amnesty Policies: Research is Needed

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oster-Aaland, Laura; Eighmy, Myron A.

    2008-01-01

    This article explores the issues surrounding medical amnesty policies in higher education beginning with the background of such policies, a summary of the current debate regarding the policies, and a discussion of research related to helping behaviors among college students. Due to the negative consequences of alcohol misuse, many student affairs…

  2. Developing a competency-based medical education curriculum for the core basic medical sciences in an African Medical School

    PubMed Central

    Olopade, Funmilayo Eniola; Adaramoye, Oluwatosin Adekunle; Raji, Yinusa; Fasola, Abiodun Olubayo; Olapade-Olaopa, Emiola Oluwabunmi

    2016-01-01

    The College of Medicine of the University of Ibadan recently revised its MBBS and BDS curricula to a competency-based medical education method of instruction. This paper reports the process of revising the methods of instruction and assessment in the core basic medical sciences directed at producing medical and dental graduates with a sound knowledge of the subjects sufficient for medical and dental practice and for future postgraduate efforts in the field or related disciplines. The health needs of the community and views of stakeholders in the Ibadan medical and dental schools were determined, and the “old” curriculum was reviewed. This process was directed at identifying the strengths and weaknesses of the old curricula and the newer competences required for modern-day medical/dental practice. The admission criteria and processes and the learning methods of the students were also studied. At the end of the review, an integrated, system-based, community-oriented, person-centered, and competency-driven curriculum was produced and approved for implementation. Four sets of students have been admitted into the curriculum. There have been challenges to the implementation process, but these have been overcome by continuous faculty development and reorientation programs for the nonteaching staff and students. Two sets of students have crossed over to the clinical school, and the consensus among the clinical teachers is that their knowledge and application of the basic medical sciences are satisfactory. The Ibadan medical and dental schools are implementing their competency-based medical education curricula successfully. The modifications to the teaching and assessment of the core basic medical science subjects have resulted in improved learning and performance at the final examinations. PMID:27486351

  3. Medical mistrust and patient satisfaction with mammography: The mediating effects of perceived self-efficacy among navigated African American women

    PubMed Central

    Molina, Yamile; Kim, Seijeoung; Berrios, Nerida; Calhoun, Elizabeth A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Medical mistrust is salient among African American women, given historic and contemporary racism within medical settings. Mistrust may influence satisfaction among navigated women by affecting women's preferences and perceptions of their healthcare self-efficacy and their providers' roles in follow-up of abnormal teset results. Objectives To a) examine if general medical mistrust and healthcare self-efficacy predict satisfaction with mammography services; and b) test the mediating effects of health-related self-efficacy. Design The current study is a part of a randomized controlled patient navigation trial for medically underserved women who had received a physician referral to obtain a mammogram in three community hospitals in Chicago, IL. After consent, 671 African American women with no history of cancer completed questionnaires concerning medical mistrust and received navigation services. After their mammography appointment, women completed healthcare self-efficacy and patient satisfaction questionnaires. Results Women with lower medical mistrust and greater perceived self-efficacy reported greater satisfaction with care. Medical mistrust was directly and indirectly related to patient satisfaction through self-efficacy. Conclusions Preliminary findings suggest future programs designed to increase healthcare self-efficacy may improve patient satisfaction among African American women with high levels of medical mistrust. Our findings add to a growing body of literature indicating the importance of self-efficacy and active participation in healthcare, especially among the underserved. PMID:25308749

  4. Emergency Medical Services: Research Methodology. Research Proceedings Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center for Health Services Research and Development (DHEW/PHS), Rockville, MD.

    The thirteen papers included here were presented at a conference on the importance of systematic research in evaluating the Emergency Medical Services (EMS) system and administrative functions. The first paper spells out the roles and responsibilities EMS administrators incur when they make a commitment to participate in a research project. An…

  5. Research and academic education in medical sexology.

    PubMed

    Pinchera, A; Jannini, E A; Lenzi, A

    2003-01-01

    Advances in sexual pharmacology have stimulated the development of new analytical instruments in the management of sexual dysfunction, with increasing research in the area of basic mechanisms of human sexual response. However, the public is greatly interested and eager for new discoveries and pharmacological treatments to enhance sexual performance and relationships, and cure common sexual dysfunctions and symptoms. The need for sexology--in this case, a new "medical" sexology--to utilize scientific tools and be taught in medical schools is therefore evident.

  6. Double standards in special medical research: questioning the discrepancy between requirements for medical research involving incompetent adults and medical research involving children.

    PubMed

    Stepanov, Nikola A; Smith, Malcolm K

    2013-09-01

    Medical research represents a substantial departure from conventional medical care. Medical care is patient-orientated, with decisions based on the best interests and/or wishes of the person receiving the care. In contrast, medical research is future-directed. Primarily it aims to contribute new knowledge about illness or disease, or new knowledge about interventions, such as drugs, that impact upon some human condition. Current State and Territory laws and research ethics guidelines in Australia relating to the review of medical research appropriately acknowledge that the functions of medical care and medical research differ. Prior to a medical research project commencing, the study must be reviewed and approved by a Human Research Ethics Committee (HREC). For medical research involving incompetent adults, some jurisdictions require an additional, independent safeguard by way of tribunal or court approval of medical research protocols. This extra review process reflects the uncertainty of medical research involvement, and the difficulties surrogate decision-makers of incompetent adults face in making decisions about others, and deliberating about the risks and benefits of research involvement. Parents of children also face the same difficulties when making decisions about their child's research involvement. However, unlike the position concerning incompetent adults, there are no similar safeguards under Australian law in relation to the approval of medical research involving children. This column questions why this discrepancy exists with a view to generating further dialogue on the topic.

  7. A Review of Research on School Bullying among African American Youth: An Ecological Systems Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patton, Desmond Upton; Hong, Jun Sung; Williams, Abigail B.; Allen-Meares, Paula

    2013-01-01

    School bullying and peer victimization are social problems that affect African American youth across various environmental contexts. Regrettably, many of the empirical research on bullying and peer victimization among African American youth has examined individual and direct level influences in silos rather than a constellation of factors…

  8. An Interdisciplinary Outreach Model of African American Recruitment for Alzheimer's Disease Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Monique M.; Meisel, Marie M.; Williams, James; Morris, John C.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The African American Outreach Satellite (Satellite) provides educational outreach to facilitate African American recruitment for longitudinal studies at the Washington University Alzheimer's Disease Research Center (ADRC). This descriptive article characterizes the Satellite's recruitment methods, plan for community engagement, results of…

  9. Suppressor Effects in Coping Research with African American Adolescents from Low-Income Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaylord-Harden, Noni K.; Cunningham, Jamila A.; Holmbeck, Grayson N.; Grant, Kathryn E.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of the current study was to demonstrate the replicable nature of statistical suppressor effects in coping research through 2 examples with African American adolescents from low-income communities. Method: Participants in the 1st example included 497 African American adolescents (mean age = 12.61 years, SD = 0.99; 57% female)…

  10. Research capacity building and collaboration between South African and American partners: the adaptation of an intervention model for HIV/AIDS prevention in corrections research.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Priscilla; Taylor, Sandra E; Sifunda, Sibusiso

    2002-10-01

    This article examines a partnership between researchers from the United States who are involved in corrections health issues and scientists from South Africa who conduct prison health research, a previously underresearched area in South Africa. The article discusses some of the challenges as well as opportunities for knowledge and skills exchange via capacity building and collaboration strategies. Through historical and contemporary perspectives, it also discusses barriers and benefits of collaboration when forging links between researchers from developed and less developed nations. A focus on conducting public health research in South Africa, and on HIV/AIDS studies in particular, is placed within the context of the 2001 document of the Council on Health Research for Development. The South African prison health study represents a collaborative between the South African National Health Promotion Research and Development Group of the Medical Research Council, the South African Department of Correctional Services, and Emory University in Atlanta, Georgia. The article illuminates the process of adapting a model for a postapartheid prison study from one designed for use in the American correctional system.

  11. The impact of African Americans' beliefs about HIV medical care on treatment adherence: a systematic review and recommendations for interventions.

    PubMed

    Gaston, Gina B; Alleyne-Green, Binta

    2013-01-01

    Disparities in access to and retention of regular HIV medical treatment persist among African Americans living with HIV. Many scholars believe that the mistrust of health care held by many African Americans stems from a legacy of abuse, from medical experimentation on slaves to the unethical practices with patients in the Tuskegee Syphilis study. We performed a systematic appraisal of the literature, using several key terms, in order to understand how attitudes about HIV-related health care influence African Americans' engagement in care. We examined peer-reviewed studies published during the period January 2001 through May 2012. An initial search generated 326 studies. Sixteen descriptive studies met our inclusion criteria. Experiences of racism, conspiracy beliefs and the quality of provider relationships appeared to impact engagement. Providers should openly investigate personal beliefs that adversely affect their treatment decisions, listen to patient narratives, and share treatment decisions in order to create a transparent environment.

  12. African, Asian or Indian enigma, the East Asian Helicobacter pylori: facts or medical myths.

    PubMed

    Graham, David Y; Lu, Hong; Yamaoka, Yoshio

    2009-05-01

    Helicobacter pylori is etiologically related to peptic ulcer disease and gastric adenocarcinomas. Reports of geographical enigmas (African, Asian, Indian and Costa Rican enigmas) are based on perceptions that clinical presentations in a population or region are not as the authors expected. We discuss the background for these enigmas and examine the evidence whether they are real or are medical myths. The African enigma was challenged almost as soon as it was proposed and recent analyses of endoscopic data have confirmed it is a myth, as H. pylori-related diseases occur in Africa at the expected frequencies. The Asian and Indian enigmas relate to gastric cancer and peptic ulcers, respectively, and when one takes the patterns of gastritis in the different regions, these enigmas disappear. The pattern of gastritis underlies and predicts the clinical outcome and the predominant pattern of gastritis has been observed to change much more rapidly than can be accounted for by changes in host genetics. There is also no evidence that these changes relate to changes in the predominant H. pylori strain. The factors that link most closely to preventing an atrophic corpus are environmental, with food preservation and diet currently assuming the most prominent roles. This focus on diseases (cancer vs duodenal ulcers) instead of the underlying patterns of gastritis has fostered, and possibly helped to perpetuate, these mythical enigmas. We suggest that a better strategy would be to focus on the pathogenesis of underlying histopathologic differences which could also lead to the identification of specific chemoprevention strategies.

  13. Legal liability of physicians in medical research.

    PubMed

    Sava, H; Matlow, P T; Sole, M J

    1994-04-01

    The intent of this paper is to provide an overview, in layperson's language, of the concepts in law which may be applicable to a physician who undertakes research. The paper is divided into 2 parts. Part I deals with liability issues and standards of care. It is meant to enable the physician/researcher to recognize a potential liability situation. Part II examines insurance and related issues such as the role of the Canadian Medical Protective Association (CMPA). The paper begins with a review of 2 potential categories of liability: criminal and civil tort. Next, legal issues surrounding the consent process, which form the majority of negligence claims, are dealt with. The research process is then discussed with emphasis on the Medical Research Council of Canada Guidelines on Human Experimentation. Part II covers how research projects are funded and identifies the parties from whom insurance coverage may be sought. Information is provided from the various sources offering insurance and quasi-insurance protection with special attention on the CMPA. Each source details the circumstances necessary for its particular coverage to be triggered. Other issues addressed include those arising when research is conducted outside Canada and multiple coverage.

  14. African Americans’ Perceptions of Adherence to Medications and Lifestyle Changes Prescribed to Treat Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Pettey, Christina M.; McSweeney, Jean C.; Stewart, Katharine E.; Cleves, Mario A.; Price, Elvin T.; Heo, Seongkum; Souder, Elaine

    2016-01-01

    More than 80 million Americans have hypertension (HTN), and African Americans (AAs) are disproportionately affected. AAs also have lower rates of adherence to HTN treatment. It is important to understand AAs’ perceptions of adherence to develop effective interventions. The aim of this study is to examine AAs’ perceptions of adherence to medications and lifestyle changes prescribed to treat HTN. In this qualitative study, we used purposive sampling to recruit Southern AAs with HTN aged 21 and older from a free, faith-based clinic. We recorded individual, in-person interviews about perceptions related to adherence to treatment of HTN and analyzed verbatim transcripts using content analysis and constant comparison. We also conducted medical record audits. Twenty-nine AAs participated (52% female, 38% were <50 years of age, 52% had taken anti-HTN medications for ≥5 years). Audits indicated that 65% had uncontrolled HTN during the previous year. Two main themes included causes of HTN and ways to improve blood pressure. Perceived causes of HTN included diet, stress, unhealthy actions, genes, and obesity. Ways to improve HTN included using cultural treatments “passed down,” increasing exercise, reducing stress, and losing weight. Many reported using home remedies to control HTN, including drinking pickle juice. More than half of this sample had uncontrolled HTN. They identified influences of culture on perceptions of adherence including causes and treatment of HTN, and possibly detrimental home remedies. It is imperative that clinicians identify culturally appropriate interventions for this high-risk group. PMID:27148469

  15. Validation of the Beck Depression Inventory-II in a Low-Income African American Sample of Medical Outpatients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grothe, Karen B.; Dutton, Gareth R.; Jones, Glenn N.; Bodenlos, Jamie; Ancona, Martin; Brantley, Phillip J.

    2005-01-01

    The psychometric properties of the Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II) are well established with primarily Caucasian samples. However, little is known about its reliability and validity with minority groups. This study evaluated the psychometric properties of the BDI-II in a sample of low-income African American medical outpatients (N = 220).…

  16. Research on and in medical education.

    PubMed

    Panter, Michaela S

    2011-09-01

    Dr. George Lister of the University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center delivered the Lee E. Farr Lecture on Student Research Day on May 9, 2011. This day focused on the dissertation work of Yale School of Medicine MD students, whose research opportunities for prospective physicians were recently examined and critiqued by Yale's Committee to Promote Student Interest in Careers as Physician Scientists. Lister's talk served to highlight the importance of communication between the laboratory and the clinic in optimizing diagnostics and treatments, effectively affirming the validity of the Committee's objectives.

  17. I too, am America: a review of research on systemic lupus erythematosus in African-Americans

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Edith M; Bruner, Larisa; Adkins, Alyssa; Vrana, Caroline; Logan, Ayaba; Kamen, Diane; Oates, James C

    2016-01-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a multi-organ autoimmune disorder that can cause significant morbidity and mortality. A large body of evidence has shown that African-Americans experience the disease more severely than other racial-ethnic groups. Relevant literature for the years 2000 to August 2015 were obtained from systematic searches of PubMed, Scopus, and the EBSCOHost platform that includes MEDLINE, CINAHL, etc. to evaluate research focused on SLE in African-Americans. Thirty-six of the 1502 articles were classified according to their level of evidence. The systematic review of the literature reported a wide range of adverse outcomes in African-American SLE patients and risk factors observed in other mono and multi-ethnic investigations. Studies limited to African-Americans with SLE identified novel methods for more precise ascertainment of risk and observed novel findings that hadn't been previously reported in African-Americans with SLE. Both environmental and genetic studies included in this review have highlighted unique African-American populations in an attempt to isolate risk attributable to African ancestry and observed increased genetic influence on overall disease in this cohort. The review also revealed emerging research in areas of quality of life, race-tailored interventions, and self-management. This review reemphasizes the importance of additional studies to better elucidate the natural history of SLE in African-Americans and optimize therapeutic strategies for those who are identified as being at high risk. PMID:27651918

  18. I too, am America: a review of research on systemic lupus erythematosus in African-Americans.

    PubMed

    Williams, Edith M; Bruner, Larisa; Adkins, Alyssa; Vrana, Caroline; Logan, Ayaba; Kamen, Diane; Oates, James C

    2016-01-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a multi-organ autoimmune disorder that can cause significant morbidity and mortality. A large body of evidence has shown that African-Americans experience the disease more severely than other racial-ethnic groups. Relevant literature for the years 2000 to August 2015 were obtained from systematic searches of PubMed, Scopus, and the EBSCOHost platform that includes MEDLINE, CINAHL, etc. to evaluate research focused on SLE in African-Americans. Thirty-six of the 1502 articles were classified according to their level of evidence. The systematic review of the literature reported a wide range of adverse outcomes in African-American SLE patients and risk factors observed in other mono and multi-ethnic investigations. Studies limited to African-Americans with SLE identified novel methods for more precise ascertainment of risk and observed novel findings that hadn't been previously reported in African-Americans with SLE. Both environmental and genetic studies included in this review have highlighted unique African-American populations in an attempt to isolate risk attributable to African ancestry and observed increased genetic influence on overall disease in this cohort. The review also revealed emerging research in areas of quality of life, race-tailored interventions, and self-management. This review reemphasizes the importance of additional studies to better elucidate the natural history of SLE in African-Americans and optimize therapeutic strategies for those who are identified as being at high risk.

  19. A Select Bibliography of Research on Africanized English and Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Ovetta; And Others

    1995-01-01

    This bibliography contains 103 references to scholarship on Africanized English and related educational scholarship published since 1985 and includes articles published in scholarly journals, books, and chapters from edited volumes. (MDM)

  20. RESEARCH REPORT: South African students' views of the universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemmer, M.; Lemmer, T. N.; Smit, J. J. A.

    2003-05-01

    In an empirical study the perceptions of the universe of 232 first-year Physics students from two South African universities were determined and interpreted in terms of their worldviews. The results were compared to Aristotelian and Newtonian views as well as with those of children as revealed in a literature survey. The worldviews of three non-scientific groups, namely the ancient Greeks, small children and traditional Africans are organistic in nature. The results of the empirical study showed that a statistically significant larger number of African than European students have organistic models of the universe. Since an organistic worldview differs completely from the formalized mechanistic worldview on which the classical mechanics taught at school is based, consequences for Physics education and African students are evident. This study hopes to contribute to the knowledge about the origin and features of pre-scientific conceptions and views so that they can be addressed more effectively in the science classroom.

  1. Development of the Meharry Medical College Prostate Cancer Research Program

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-03-01

    viable community network ties. One project will investigate health care seeking behavior of AA, another will investigate the role of lycopene in PCa risk...SUBJECT TERMS Prostate cancer, Dietary risk factors, Lycopene , Genetic predisposition, African-Americans, Cancer research training, Prostate cancer...The PI awaits comments from the HSRRB. Project 1: (Dr. Ukoli, PI / Dr. Dittus, Mentor) “ Lycopene in Prostate Cancer Risk among African-Americans

  2. Reflections and perspectives of African-American community leaders regarding genetics and genomics research: sentiment and wisdom of Sankofa.

    PubMed

    Underwood, Sandra Millon; Buseh, Aaron G; Stevens, Patricia E; Townsend, Leolia; Kelber, Sheryl T

    2013-07-01

    Advances in genetic and genomic research are shifting the typical disease timeline. For those afflicted by disease and for population groups known to experience excess disease-related morbidity and mortality, the ability to use genetics and genomics to predict an individuals' predisposition for developing a disease and/or to anticipate an individual's response to treatments holds tremendous promise. Over the past two decades several public and private institutions within the United States have been established for the purpose of collecting and storing biological specimens for the purpose of conducting genetic/genomic research. Multiple reports indicate that the involvement of racial/ethnic minority participants in these bio-repositories is limited. Little is known about the willingness of African-Americans, one of the largest and most vulnerable racial/ethnic population groups, to participate in genetic research, genomic research, and to contribute biological specimens to bio-repositories. An exploratory study was undertaken using principles of community engagement and community-based participatory research to examine the perspectives of leaders within the African-American community about participation in genetics research, genomics research, and bio-banking. Semi-structured focus groups with twenty-one African-American community leaders were the primary means of gathering the study data. Reflections and commentary of the community leaders were interspersed with sentiments of "Sankofa." The emergent themes, health-related disparities, historical injustices in medical research, the promise of genetic and genomic research, and genetics/genomic research engagement, implicated the importance of conducting genetics/genomics research in the context of the community interdependent with efforts to address determinants of health and health disparities.

  3. Development of an Asset Map of Medical Education Research Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christiaanse, Mary E.; Russell, Eleanor L.; Crandall, Sonia J.; Lambros, Ann; Manuel, Janeen C.; Kirk, Julienne K.

    2008-01-01

    Introduction: Medical education research is gaining recognition as scholarship within academic medical centers. This survey was conducted at a medium-sized academic medical center in the United States. The purpose of the study was to learn faculty interest in research in medical education, so assets could be used to develop educational scholarship…

  4. From the NIH Director: The Value of Medical Research

    MedlinePlus

    ... Issues From the NIH Director: The Value of Medical Research Past Issues / Summer 2008 Table of Contents For ... Harris, or participating in clinical trials to advance medical research. Photo courtesy of NIH As director of the ...

  5. Senator Arlen Specter: Backing Medical Research and Battling Lymphoma

    MedlinePlus

    ... Cover Story: Leukemia/Lymphoma Senator Arlen Specter: Backing Medical Research and Battling Lymphoma Past Issues / Summer 2008 Table ... been a long-time supporter and proponent of medical research. Recently, he underwent his second round of chemotherapy ...

  6. U.S. Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    ... you for your interest in the U.S. Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases (USAMRIID). The dedicated members ... site provides an introduction to the U.S. Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases (USAMRIID) and contains official ...

  7. Model observers in medical imaging research.

    PubMed

    He, Xin; Park, Subok

    2013-10-04

    Model observers play an important role in the optimization and assessment of imaging devices. In this review paper, we first discuss the basic concepts of model observers, which include the mathematical foundations and psychophysical considerations in designing both optimal observers for optimizing imaging systems and anthropomorphic observers for modeling human observers. Second, we survey a few state-of-the-art computational techniques for estimating model observers and the principles of implementing these techniques. Finally, we review a few applications of model observers in medical imaging research.

  8. Snake oil and venoms for medical research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolpert, H. D.

    2011-04-01

    Some think that using derivatives of snake venom for medical purposes is the modern version of snake oil but they are seriously misjudging the research potentials of some of these toxins in medicines of the 2000's. Medical trials, using some of the compounds has proven their usefulness. Several venoms have shown the possibilities that could lead to anticoagulants, helpful in heart disease. The blood clotting protein from the taipan snake has been shown to rapidly stop excessive bleeding. The venom from the copperhead may hold an answer to breast cancer. The Malaysian pit viper shows promise in breaking blood clots. Cobra venom may hold keys to finding cures for Parkinson's disease and Alzheimer's. Rattlesnake proteins from certain species have produced blood pressure medicines. Besides snake venoms, venom from the South American dart frog, mollusks (i.e. Cone Shell Snail), lizards (i.e. Gila Monster & Komodo Dragon), some species of spiders and tarantulas, Cephalopods, mammals (i.e. Platypus & Shrews), fish (i.e. sting rays, stone fish, puffer fish, blue bottle fish & box jelly fish), intertidal marine animals (echinoderms)(i.e. Crown of Thorn Star Fish & Flower Urchin) and the Honeybee are being investigated for potential medical benefits.

  9. Synchrotron radiation applications in medical research

    SciTech Connect

    Thomlinson, W.

    1995-12-31

    The medical projects employing synchrotron radiation as discussed in this paper are, for the most part, still in their infancies and no one can predict the direction in which they will develop. Both the basic research and applied medical programs are sure to be advanced at the new facilities coming on line, especially the ESRF and Spring- 8. However, success is not guaranteed. There is a lot of competition from advances in conventional imaging with the development of digital angiography, computed tomography, functional magnetic resonance imaging and ultrasound. The synchrotron programs will have to provide significant advantages over these modalities in order to be accepted by the medical profession. Advances in image processing and potentially the development of compact sources will be required in order to move the synchrotron developed imaging technologies into the clinical world. In any event, it can be expected that the images produced by the synchrotron technologies will establish ``gold standards`` to be targeted by conventional modalities. A lot more work needs to be done in order to bring synchrotron radiation therapy and surgery to the level of human studies and, subsequently, to clinical applications.

  10. Reform of Medical Education. The Role of Research in Medical Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Condliffe, Peter G.; Furnia, Arthur H.

    This book is the second of a series of conference proceedings on problems of medical education held by the Fogarty International Center. The participants discussed the value of research in medical education, research as a teaching tool, research and the teaching of community medicine, concepts of medical education, the role of the school of…

  11. Promoting medical student research productivity: the student perspective.

    PubMed

    Young, Benjamin K; Cai, Fei; Tandon, Vickram J; George, Paul; Greenberg, Paul B

    2014-06-02

    One-third of medical students complete medical school without significant exposure to research. This gap in their medical education is significant: research not only exposes medical students to scientific methodology and academic writing, but also encourages them to multi-task, communicate, and critically analyze the scientific literature - valuable skills that will serve them well in their future medical careers. We report herein the proceedings from a student-led symposium that aimed to promote student involvement in research at the Alpert Medical School of Brown University by providing practical information on how to successfully complete a research project.

  12. Suicide and homicide bereavement among African Americans: implications for survivor research and practice.

    PubMed

    Sharpe, Tanya L; Joe, Sean; Taylor, Katie C

    Suicide and homicide are among the leading causes of death for young African-American men; however, little is known about how family members cope with these types of deaths. This exploratory phenomenological study examines the traumatic loss and coping experiences of a purposive convenience sample of 12 immediate African-American surviving family members with a combined experience of 13 deaths, 8 suicides and 5 homicides. Novel aspects of suicide and homicide survivor phenomenon were identified, including Survivor Responses and Reactions, Coping Strategies, and Survivor Service Needs. The implications for research and for those providing services to surviving African-American families are discussed.

  13. African-German Cooperation in Educational Research and Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sachsenmeier, Peter

    The report presents background information and proceedings from a conference held in Bonn, Germany, in September 1977 to encourage exchange of ideas between African and German educators and government officials. Specifically, the conference served to document the increasing interest of German educators to interact with educators from the third…

  14. Harnessing microbiome and probiotic research in sub-Saharan Africa: recommendations from an African workshop

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    To augment capacity-building for microbiome and probiotic research in Africa, a workshop was held in Nairobi, Kenya, at which researchers discussed human, animal, insect, and agricultural microbiome and probiotics/prebiotics topics. Five recommendations were made to promote future basic and translational research that benefits Africans. PMID:24739094

  15. How students perceive medical competences: a cross-cultural study between the Medical Course in Portugal and African Portuguese Speaking Countries

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background A global effort has been made in the last years to establish a set of core competences that define the essential professional competence of a physician. Regardless of the environment, culture or medical education conditions, a set of core competences is required for medical practice worldwide. Evaluation of educational program is always needed to assure the best training for medical students and ultimately best care for patients. The aim of this study was to determine in what extent medical students in Portugal and Portuguese speaking African countries, felt they have acquired the core competences to start their clinical practice. For this reason, it was created a measurement tool to evaluate self-perceived competences, in different domains, across Portuguese and Portuguese-speaking African medical schools. Methods The information was collected through a questionnaire that defines the knowledge, attitudes and skills that future doctors should acquire. The Cronbach's Alpha and Principal Components Analysis (PCA) were used to evaluate the reliability of the questionnaire. In order to remove possible confounding effect, individual scores were standardized by country. Results The order of the domain's scores was similar between countries. After standardization, Personal Attitudes and Professional Behavior showed median scores above the country global median and Knowledge alone showed median score below the country global median. In Portugal, Clinical Skills showed score below the global median. In Angola, Clinical Skills and General Skills showed a similar result. There were only significant differences between countries in Personal Attitudes (p < 0.001) and Professional Behavior (p = 0.043). Conclusions The reliability of the instrument in Portuguese and Portuguese-speaking African medical schools was confirmed. Students have perceived their level of competence in personal attitudes in a high level and in opposite, knowledge and clinical skills with some

  16. ADHD--To Medicate or Not? Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Karen

    2009-01-01

    What does the research indicate are the effects of medicating or not medicating adolescents with ADHD? Many parents and health care providers are rethinking and questioning the long-term effects of medication on children. Whether or not to medicate adolescents with ADHD is a conundrum that many parents face. Some parents believe their child will…

  17. Faculty development in medical education research: a cooperative model.

    PubMed

    Coates, Wendy C; Love, Jeffrey N; Santen, Sally A; Hobgood, Cherri D; Mavis, Brian E; Maggio, Lauren A; Farrell, Susan E

    2010-05-01

    As the definition of scholarship is clarified, each specialty should develop a cadre of medical education researchers who can design, test, and optimize educational interventions. In 2004, the Association for American Medical Colleges' Group on Educational Affairs developed the Medical Education Research Certificate (MERC) program to provide a curriculum to help medical educators acquire or enhance skills in medical education research, to promote effective collaboration with seasoned researchers, and to create better consumers of medical education scholarship. MERC courses are offered to individuals during educational meetings. Educational leaders in emergency medicine (EM) identified a disparity between the "scholarship of teaching" and medical education research skills, and they collaborated with the MERC steering committee to develop a mentored faculty development program in medical education research. A planning committee comprising experienced medical education researchers who are also board-certified, full-time EM faculty members designed a novel approach to the MERC curriculum: a mentored team approach to learning, grounded in collaborative medical education research projects. The planning committee identified areas of research interest among participants and formed working groups to collaborate on research projects during standard MERC workshops. Rather than focusing on individual questions during the course, each mentored group identified a single study hypothesis. After completing the first three workshops, group members worked under their mentors' guidance on their multiinstitutional research projects. The expected benefits of this approach to MERC include establishing a research community network, creating projects whose enrollments offer a multiinstitutional dimension, and developing a cadre of trained education researchers in EM.

  18. [Anthropology of medical research in developing countries: a Senegalese experience].

    PubMed

    Ouvrier, Ashley

    2013-01-01

    Medical research is an essential tool of biomedicine that raises many social and ethical questions especially in resource-poor countries where the number of clinical trials has increased significantly over the past two decades. This article presents the way anthropology of medical research critically examines medical research in non-western countries without questioning its strategic importance for advances in scientific knowledge and in public health improvement. This article draws on observations conducted in Senegal in 2007 during a vaccine trial against meningitis and discusses, more broadly, medical research in non western-countries related to: the presence and management of medical research sites, the impact of medical research benefits on its representations and the questions raised by blood-stealing rumours regarding medical research practice itself.

  19. PROMOTING RESEARCH INTEGRITY IN AFRICA: AN AFRICAN VOICE OF CONCERN ON RESEARCH MISCONDUCT AND THE WAY FORWARD

    PubMed Central

    Kombe, Francis; Anunobi, Eucharia Nkechinyere; Tshifugula, Nyanyukweni Pandeni; Wassenaar, Douglas; Njadingwe, Dimpho; Mwalukore, Salim; Chinyama, Jonathan; Randrianasolo, Bodo; Akindeh, Perpetua; Dlamini, Priscilla S.; Ramiandrisoa, Felasoa Noroseheno; Ranaivo, Naina

    2013-01-01

    African researchers and their collaborators have been making significant contributions to useful research findings and discoveries in Africa. Despite evidence of scientific misconduct even in heavily regulated research environments, there is little documented information that supports prevalence of research misconduct in Africa. Available literature on research misconduct has focused on the developed world, where credible research integrity systems are already in place. Public attention to research misconduct has lately increased, calling for attention to weaknesses in current research policies and regulatory frameworks. Africa needs policies, structural and governance systems that promote responsible conduct of research. To begin to offset this relative lack of documented evidence of research misconduct, contributors working in various research institutions from nine African countries agreed to share their experiences to highlight problems and explore the need to identify strategies to promote research integrity in the African continent. The experiences shared include anecdotal but reliable accounts of previously undocumented research misconduct, including some ‘normal misbehavior’ of frontline staff in those countries. Two broad approaches to foster greater research integrity are proposed including promotion of institutional and individual capacity building to instil a culture of responsible research conduct in existing and upcoming research scientist and developing deterrent and corrective policies to minimize research misconduct and other questionable research practices. By sharing these experiences and through the strategies proposed, the authors hope to limit the level of research misconduct and promote research integrity in Africa. PMID:23594261

  20. Promoting research integrity in Africa: an African voice of concern on research misconduct and the way forward.

    PubMed

    Kombe, Francis; Anunobi, Eucharia Nkechinyere; Tshifugula, Nyanyukweni Pandeni; Wassenaar, Douglas; Njadingwe, Dimpho; Mwalukore, Salim; Chinyama, Jonathan; Randrianasolo, Bodo; Akindeh, Perpetua; Dlamini, Priscilla S; Ramiandrisoa, Felasoa Noroseheno; Ranaivo, Naina

    2014-12-01

    African researchers and their collaborators have been making significant contributions to useful research findings and discoveries in Africa. Despite evidence of scientific misconduct even in heavily regulated research environments, there is little documented information that supports prevalence of research misconduct in Africa. Available literature on research misconduct has focused on the developed world, where credible research integrity systems are already in place. Public attention to research misconduct has lately increased, calling for attention to weaknesses in current research policies and regulatory frameworks. Africa needs policies, structural and governance systems that promote responsible conduct of research. To begin to offset this relative lack of documented evidence of research misconduct, contributors working in various research institutions from nine African countries agreed to share their experiences to highlight problems and explore the need to identify strategies to promote research integrity in the African continent. The experiences shared include anecdotal but reliable accounts of previously undocumented research misconduct, including some 'normal misbehavior' of frontline staff in those countries. Two broad approaches to foster greater research integrity are proposed including promotion of institutional and individual capacity building to instil a culture of responsible research conduct in existing and upcoming research scientist and developing deterrent and corrective policies to minimize research misconduct and other questionable research practices. By sharing these experiences and through the strategies proposed, the authors hope to limit the level of research misconduct and promote research integrity in Africa.

  1. Current Practice in Research Ethics: Global Trends and New Opportunities for African Universities. Research and Innovation Policy Series. Number 1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Liam

    2007-01-01

    Research Ethics has emerged as one of the most well-developed policy areas within the sphere of Research and Innovation Management. As such, for African institutions looking to strengthen their policy frameworks, develop increased collaborations, and increase research outputs, a thorough understanding of global trends in Ethics will be vital.…

  2. MRIdb: medical image management for biobank research.

    PubMed

    Woodbridge, Mark; Fagiolo, Gianlorenzo; O'Regan, Declan P

    2013-10-01

    Clinical picture archiving and communications systems provide convenient, efficient access to digital medical images from multiple modalities but can prove challenging to deploy, configure and use. MRIdb is a self-contained image database, particularly suited to the storage and management of magnetic resonance imaging data sets for population phenotyping. It integrates a mature image archival system with an intuitive web-based user interface that provides visualisation and export functionality. In addition, utilities for auditing, data migration and system monitoring are included in a virtual machine image that is easily deployed with minimal configuration. The result is a freely available turnkey solution, designed to support epidemiological and imaging genetics research. It allows the management of patient data sets in a secure, scalable manner without requiring the installation of any bespoke software on end users' workstations. MRIdb is an open-source software, available for download at http://www3.imperial.ac.uk/bioinfsupport/resources/software/mridb .

  3. Registers for Networked Medical Research in Germany

    PubMed Central

    Stausberg, J.; Altmann, U.; Antony, G.; Drepper, J.; Sax, U.; Schütt, A.

    2010-01-01

    Background Several disease specific registers are operated by members of the ‘TMF – Technology, Methods, and Infrastructure for Networked Medical Research’, an umbrella organization of research networks in Germany. Objective To describe the coverage and the current state as well as financial and organizational issues of registers operated by member networks of the TMF, to identify their requirements and needs, and to recommend best practice models. Methods A survey with a self-completion questionnaire including all 55 TMF member networks was carried out in winter 2007/2008. Interviews focusing on technological issues were conducted and analyzed in summer 2009 with a convenience sample of 10 registers. Results From 55 TMF member networks, 11 provided information about 14 registers. Six registers address diseases of the circulatory system with more than 150,000 registered patients. The interviews revealed a typical setting of “research registers”. Research registers are an important mean to generate hypotheses for clinical research, to identify eligible patients, and to share data with clinical trials. Concerning technical solutions, we found a remarkable heterogeneity. The analysis of the most efficient registers revealed a structure with five levels as best practice model of register management: executive, operations, IT-management, software, hardware. Conclusion In the last ten years, the TMF member networks established disease specific registers in Germany mainly to support clinical research. The heterogeneity of organizational and technical solutions as well as deficits in register planning motivated the development of respective recommendations. The TMF will continue to assist the registers in quality improvement. PMID:23616850

  4. The Effect of Message Framing on African American Women's Intention to Participate in Health-Related Research.

    PubMed

    Balls-Berry, Joyce E; Hayes, Sharonne; Parker, Monica; Halyard, Michele; Enders, Felicity; Albertie, Monica; Pinn, Vivian; Radecki Breitkopf, Carmen

    2016-05-01

    This study examined the effect of message framing on African American women's intention to participate in health-related research and actual registration in ResearchMatch (RM), a disease-neutral, national volunteer research registry. A community-engaged approach was used involving collaboration between an academic medical center and a volunteer service organization formed by professional women of color. A self-administered survey that contained an embedded message framing manipulation was distributed to more than 2,000 African American women attending the 2012 national assembly of The Links, Incorporated. A total of 391 surveys were completed (381 after exclusion: 187 containing the gain-framed message and 194 containing the loss-framed message). The majority (57%) of women expressed favorable intentions to participate in health-related research, and 21% subsequently enrolled in RM. The effect of message framing on intention was moderated by self-efficacy. There was no effect of message framing on RM registration; however, those with high self-efficacy were more than 2 times as likely as those with low self-efficacy to register as a potential study volunteer in RM (odds ratio = 2.62, 95% confidence interval [1.29, 5.33]). This investigation makes theoretical and practical contributions to the field of health communication and informs future strategies to meaningfully and effectively include women and minorities in health-related research.

  5. Barriers to Obtaining Sera and Tissue Specimens of African-American Women for the Advancement of Cancer Research

    PubMed Central

    Strissel, Katherine J.; Nicholas, Dequina A.; Castagne-Charlotin, Myriam; Ko, Naomi; Denis, Gerald V.

    2016-01-01

    African-American women, a historically understudied and underserved group, have increased risk for triple-negative breast cancer and obesity-associated disease. Obesity-associated metabolic diseases share a common link of low grade chronic inflammation, but not all obese women have metabolic disturbances or are inflamed. One goal of our ongoing research is to identify blood biomarkers that can predict increased risk of breast cancer in women who have obesity or metabolic dysfunction. However, vulnerable populations that stand to benefit most from advances in biomedical research are also underrepresented in research studies. The development of effective, novel approaches for cancer prevention and treatment will require significant basic medical research effort to establish the necessary evidence base in multiple populations. Work with vulnerable human subjects at a safety net hospital enabled us to comment on potential obstacles to obtaining serological and tissue specimens from African-American women. Here, we report some unexpected barriers to participation in our ongoing research study that might inform future efforts. PMID:27441007

  6. Strategies for successful conduct of research with low-income African American populations.

    PubMed

    Adderley-Kelly, Beatrice; Green, Pauline M

    2005-01-01

    Health disparities among racial and ethnic minorities are associated with poor health outcomes. African Americans bear a disproportionate amount of the burden of health disparities. The elimination of health disparities among the nation's racial and ethnic groups requires immediate action that the health care community cannot accomplish in isolation. Eliminating health disparities calls for new and non-traditional partnerships across diverse sectors of the community that include research initiatives using culturally competent and participatory action methodologies. While there is much evidence documenting health disparities in racial and ethnic groups, there is little evidence of successful interventions that address health disparities in African Americans. Furthermore, there is little direction for successful strategies for recruiting African Americans for participation in health disparities research. This article addresses important factors to consider when conducting research with low income African Americans based on the authors' research experience in health promotion and cancer detection and prevention. Strategies for successful conduct of research with low income African American populations are offered.

  7. Strategic Planning for Recruitment and Retention of Older African Americans in Health Promotion Research Programs.

    PubMed

    Dreer, Laura E; Weston, June; Owsley, Cynthia

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to 1) describe a strategic plan for recruitment and retention used in conducting eye health education research with African-Americans living in urban and rural areas of Alabama and 2) characterize recruitment and retention patterns for this community-based project. We evaluated an eye health education program tailored specifically to older African Americans. InCHARGE© was designed to promote eye disease prevention by conveying the personal benefits of annual, dilated, comprehensive eye care and teaching strategies to minimize barriers to regular eye care. The InCHARGE© program or a social contact control program was delivered at 20 senior centers in predominately African American urban and rural communities. From pooled data across three studies, 380 African Americans completed a questionnaire about knowledge and attitudes/beliefs about eye disease and eye care before the program and by telephone at either 3 or 6 months after the presentation. The project consisted of 4 phases and a total of 10 strategic objectives for recruitment as well as retention of older African Americans that were implemented in a systematic fashion. Overall, retention rates for follow-up at either 3 or 6 months were 75% and 66% respectively. African Americans from rural areas were more likely to be lost to follow-up compared to those from urban areas. We discuss the benefits of utilizing a strategic plan that serves to address problems with underrepresentation of minorities in clinical research.

  8. Strategic Planning for Recruitment and Retention of Older African Americans in Health Promotion Research Programs

    PubMed Central

    Dreer, Laura E.; Weston, June; Owsley, Cynthia

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to 1) describe a strategic plan for recruitment and retention used in conducting eye health education research with African-Americans living in urban and rural areas of Alabama and 2) characterize recruitment and retention patterns for this community-based project. We evaluated an eye health education program tailored specifically to older African Americans. InCHARGE© was designed to promote eye disease prevention by conveying the personal benefits of annual, dilated, comprehensive eye care and teaching strategies to minimize barriers to regular eye care. The InCHARGE© program or a social contact control program was delivered at 20 senior centers in predominately African American urban and rural communities. From pooled data across three studies, 380 African Americans completed a questionnaire about knowledge and attitudes/beliefs about eye disease and eye care before the program and by telephone at either 3 or 6 months after the presentation. The project consisted of 4 phases and a total of 10 strategic objectives for recruitment as well as retention of older African Americans that were implemented in a systematic fashion. Overall, retention rates for follow-up at either 3 or 6 months were 75% and 66% respectively. African Americans from rural areas were more likely to be lost to follow-up compared to those from urban areas. We discuss the benefits of utilizing a strategic plan that serves to address problems with underrepresentation of minorities in clinical research. PMID:25346876

  9. Medical education: a particularly complex intervention to research.

    PubMed

    Mattick, Karen; Barnes, Rebecca; Dieppe, Paul

    2013-10-01

    Previous debate has explored whether medical education research should become more like health services research in terms of frameworks, collaborations and methodologies. Notable recent changes in health services research include an increasing emphasis on complex interventions, defined as interventions that involve more than one component. The purpose of this study was to explore the extent of thinking about medical education as a complex intervention and to analyse medical education research to determine whether its collaborations and methodologies are becoming more like health services research. Research articles published in three journals over 2 years were analysed to determine the purpose of the research in relation to a framework for evaluating complex interventions, the degree of collaboration, and the methodology. Most studies aimed to develop theory or assess effectiveness and many categories of the complex interventions framework were not represented in the medical education research literature. Studies usually involved only one research site and were predominantly quantitative but not experimental or quasi-experimental. Whilst medical education research has not moved significantly in the direction of health services research over recent years, the complex interventions lens provided insights into why this might be so (namely the significant challenges associated with researching medical education). We recommend that medical education researchers work within a complex interventions framework and look to research fields with similar challenges (e.g. the study of chronic illness in a changing context) for ideas about theories, frameworks, methodologies and collaborations that can illuminate the field of medical education research.

  10. Global informetric perspective studies on translational medical research

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Translational medical research literature has increased rapidly in the last few decades and played a more and more important role during the development of medicine science. The main aim of this study is to evaluate the global performance of translational medical research during the past few decades. Methods Bibliometric, social network analysis, and visualization technologies were used for analyzing translational medical research performance from the aspects of subject categories, journals, countries, institutes, keywords, and MeSH terms. Meanwhile, the co-author, co-words and cluster analysis methods were also used to trace popular topics in translational medical research related work. Results Research output suggested a solid development in translational medical research, in terms of increasing scientific production and research collaboration. We identified the core journals, mainstream subject categories, leading countries, and institutions in translational medical research. There was an uneven distribution of publications at authorial, institutional, and national levels. The most commonly used keywords that appeared in the articles were “translational research”, “translational medicine”, “biomarkers”, “stroke”, “inflammation”, “cancer”, and “breast cancer”. Conclusions The subject categories of “Research & Experimental Medicine”, “Medical Laboratory Technology”, and “General & Internal Medicine” play a key role in translational medical research both in production and in its networks. Translational medical research and CTS, etc. are core journals of translational research. G7 countries are the leading nations for translational medical research. Some developing countries, such as P.R China, also play an important role in the communication of translational research. The USA and its institutions play a dominant role in the production, collaboration, citations and high quality articles. The research trends in

  11. Medical-Research Ethics under the Microscope.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mangan, Katherine

    2003-01-01

    Discusses the growing involvement between medical schools and medical industries and the ethical problems this situation poses. The main concern is that investigators may expose subjects to unnecessary risks because they are driven by financial motives. (SLD)

  12. Can significant differences in regulating medical and non-medical research be justified?

    PubMed

    Hunter, David

    2014-01-01

    It is now typical for human subjects research to be regulated by review by an independent research ethics committee in most jurisdictions. However it is common for countries to opt to only compulsorily regulate medical research while leaving some or all non-medical research either unregulated or only regulated on a voluntary basis. In this paper I will argue, using regulation in the UK as an example, that it is difficult to justify this sharp distinction in practices. While I won't come to any definitive conclusions in this paper as to whether research ought to be regulated compulsorily I will suggest that we would be better to regulate all research, albeit perhaps with a lighter touch than the present UK system if we want to prevent some highly risky research avoiding appropriate regulation. I will examine several arguments to defend making such a distinction; that medical professionals have special moral duties, that medical research has a higher magnitude/frequency of risks and that regulating non-medical research constitutes the inappropriate imposition of the medical model onto non-medical research. Having critiqued these objections I will then discuss the advantages of harmonizing the regulation of research and conclude that there is not a good reason to treat medical and non-medical research as fundamentally different in kind.

  13. [SOROKA UNIVERSITY MEDICAL CENTER: THE ROAD TO LEADERSHIP IN QUALITY OF MEDICAL CARE, SERVICE AND RESEARCH].

    PubMed

    Davidson, Ehud; Sheiner, Eyal

    2016-02-01

    Soroka University Medical Center is a tertiary hospital, and the sole medical center in the Negev, the southern part of Israel. Soroka has invested in quality, service and research. The region has developed joint programs in order to advance the quality of medical care whilst optimizing the utilization of available resources. In this editorial we describe the path to leadership in quality of medical care, service and research.

  14. The Emergence of Research in the South African Academic Development Movement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boughey, Chrissie; Niven, Penny

    2012-01-01

    This paper uses an analytical framework developed from the work of philosopher Roy Bhaskar and sociologist Margaret Archer to explore the emergence of a body of research on teaching and learning in South African higher education. This research, generated in a field known as "Academic Development" in South Africa and as "Educational…

  15. Researching Transformation at a South African University--Ethical Dilemmas in the Politics of Representation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ismail, Salma

    2011-01-01

    This article focuses on the complexity of researching institutional culture and the ethical dilemmas posed in representing staff according to race and gender, drawing on three qualitative studies undertaken at a previously white South African university between 2000 and 2007. During the research process, issues of representation became a concern…

  16. International Development and Research Capacities: Increasing Access to African Scholarly Publishing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Metcalfe, Amy Scott; Esseh, Samuel; Willinsky, John

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines the evolving relationship between Canada and the African academic research community through the promotion of a concept known as Information and Communication Technology for Development (ICT4D) and with an eye to its implications for increasing the circulation of research through such means as open access (OA) publishing…

  17. Applied Research Centres at South African Universities. The Relationship between 'Base' Internal Structures and Network 'Superstructures'

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, David

    2005-01-01

    This article considers the way in which applied research centres and units at South African higher education institutions enhance their networks with industry, government and community organizations. The findings from 12 case studies of research groupings at higher education institutions in Cape Town support the author's argument for a more…

  18. How Can the Operating Environment for Nutrition Research Be Improved in Sub-Saharan Africa? The Views of African Researchers

    PubMed Central

    Van Royen, Kathleen; Lachat, Carl; Holdsworth, Michelle; Smit, Karlien; Kinabo, Joyce; Roberfroid, Dominique; Nago, Eunice; Garimoi Orach, Christopher; Kolsteren, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    Optimal nutrition is critical for human development and economic growth. Sub-Saharan Africa is facing high levels of food insecurity and only few sub-Saharan African countries are on track to eradicate extreme poverty and hunger by 2015. Effective research capacity is crucial for addressing emerging challenges and designing appropriate mitigation strategies in sub-Saharan Africa. A clear understanding of the operating environment for nutrition research in sub-Saharan Africa is a much needed prerequisite. We collected data on the barriers and requirements for conducting nutrition research in sub-Saharan Africa through semi-structured interviews with 144 participants involved in nutrition research in 35 countries in sub-Saharan Africa. A total of 133 interviews were retained for coding. The main barriers identified for effective nutrition research were the lack of funding due to poor recognition by policymakers of the importance of nutrition research and under-utilisation of research findings for developing policy, as well as an absence of research priority setting from within Africa. Current research topics were perceived to be mainly determined by funding bodies from outside Africa. Nutrition researchers argued for more commitment from policymakers at national level. The low capacity for nutrition research was mainly seen as a consequence of insufficient numbers of nutrition researchers, limited skills and a poor research infrastructure. In conclusion, African nutrition researchers argued how research priorities need to be identified by African stakeholders, accompanied by consensus building to enable creating a problem-driven national research agenda. In addition, it was considered necessary to promote interactions among researchers, and between researchers and policymakers. Multidisciplinary research and international and cross-African collaboration were seen as crucial to build capacity in sub-Saharan nutrition research. PMID:23776663

  19. [Medical research in the US Armed Forces. Part 4].

    PubMed

    Agapitov, A A; Aleĭnikov, S I; Bolekhan, V N; Ivchenko, E V; Krassiĭ, A B; Nagibovich, O A; Petrov, S V; Rezvantsev, M V; Soldatov, E A; Shalakhin, R A; Sheppli, E V

    2013-01-01

    The present article is the fourth part of the review dedicated to organization and management of medical research in the US Armed Forces. The first, second and the third parts were published in the previous issues of the journal. Specifically this article is dedicated to organization and management of medical research in the US Navy. It is shown that in the US Navy the fundamental and a part of applied investigations are conducted in the Office of Naval Research while more practical research is carried out at the Naval Medical Research Center. The latter includes the Naval Health Research Center, the Naval Submarine Medical Research Laboratory and seven Naval Medical Research Units which are successively presented. The particular research programs conducted in the above mentioned organizations are discussed.

  20. An Evaluation of Research Ethics in Undergraduate Health Science Research Methodology Programs at a South African University.

    PubMed

    Coetzee, Tanya; Hoffmann, Willem A; de Roubaix, Malcolm

    2015-10-01

    The amended research ethics policy at a South African University required the ethics review of undergraduate research projects, prompting the need to explore the content and teaching approach of research ethics education in health science undergraduate programs. Two qualitative data collection strategies were used: document analysis (syllabi and study guides) and semi-structured interviews with research methodology coordinators. Five main themes emerged: (a) timing of research ethics courses, (b) research ethics course content, (c) sub-optimal use of creative classroom activities to facilitate research ethics lectures, (d) understanding the need for undergraduate project research ethics review, and (e) research ethics capacity training for research methodology lecturers and undergraduate project supervisors.

  1. Sleep paralysis and trauma, psychiatric symptoms and disorders in an adult African American population attending primary medical care.

    PubMed

    Mellman, Thomas A; Aigbogun, Notalelomwan; Graves, Ruth Elaine; Lawson, William B; Alim, Tanya N

    2008-01-01

    The occurrence of sleep paralysis (SP) absent narcolepsy appears to not be uncommon in African Americans and probably other non-European groups. Prior research has linked SP to trauma and psychiatric disorders and suggested a specific relationship to panic disorder in African Americans. The objective of our study was to evaluate relationships of SP with trauma, concurrent psychiatric symptoms and lifetime psychiatric diagnoses in an adult African American population recruited from primary care. Cross sectional study with surveys and diagnostic interviews; Patients attending primary care clinics filled out a survey that determined the 6 month prevalence and associated features of SP, a panic disorder screen, the self-rated Hamilton Depression Scale, and an inventory of trauma exposure. A subset of trauma-exposed participants (N = 142) received comprehensive diagnostic interviews that incorporated the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV and the Clinician Assessed PTSD Scale. Four hundred and forty-one adults participated (mean age-40.0 SD = 13.3, 68% female, 95% African American). Fourteen percent endorsed recent SP. In approximately 1/3 of those with SP, episodes also featured panic symptoms. SP was strongly associated with trauma history, and concurrent anxiety and mood symptoms. SP was not associated with specific psychiatric disorders other than lifetime (but not current) alcohol or substance use disorders. Our findings suggest that SP is not uncommon in adult African Americans and is associated with trauma and concurrent distress but not with a specific psychiatric diagnosis.

  2. Evaluation of an mHealth Medication Regimen Self-Management Program for African American and Hispanic Uncontrolled Hypertensives

    PubMed Central

    Davidson, Tatiana M.; McGillicuddy, John; Mueller, Martina; Brunner-Jackson, Brenda; Favella, April; Anderson, Ashley; Torres, Magaly; Ruggiero, Kenneth J.; Treiber, Frank A.

    2015-01-01

    African Americans and Hispanics have disproportionate rates of uncontrolled essential hypertension (EH) compared to Non-Hispanic Whites. Medication non-adherence (MNA) is the leading modifiable behavior to improved blood pressure (BP) control. The Smartphone Medication Adherence Stops Hypertension (SMASH) program was developed using a patient-centered, theory-guided, iterative design process. Electronic medication trays provided reminder signals, and Short Message Service [SMS] messaging reminded subjects to monitor BP with Bluetooth-enabled monitors. Motivational and reinforcement text messages were sent to participants based upon levels of adherence. Thirty-eight African-American (18) and Hispanic (20) uncontrolled hypertensives completed clinic-based anthropometric and resting BP evaluations prior to randomization, and again at months 1, 3 and 6. Generalized linear mixed modeling (GLMM) revealed statistically significant time-by-treatment interactions (p < 0.0001) indicating significant reductions in resting systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) for the SMASH group vs. the standard care (SC) control group across all time points. 70.6% of SMASH subjects vs. 15.8% of the SC group reached BP control (< 140/90 mmH) at month 1 (p < 0.001). At month 6, 94.4% of the SMASH vs. 41.2% of the SC group exhibited controlled BP (p < 0.003). Our findings provide encouraging evidence that efficacious mHealth, chronic disease, medical regimen, self-management programs can be developed following principles of patient-centered, theory-guided design. PMID:26593951

  3. Transfusion safety in francophone African countries: an analysis of strategies for the medical selection of blood donors

    PubMed Central

    Tayou, Claude Tagny; Kouao, Maxime Diané; Touré, Hamane; Gargouri, Jalel; Fazul, Ahamada Said; Ouattara, Siaka; Anani, Ludovic; Othmani, Habiba; Feteke, Lochina; Dahourou, Honorine; Mbensa, Guy Olivier; Molé, Simplice; Nébié, Yacouba; Mbangue, Madeleine; Toukam, Michel; Boulahi, Mahommed Ould; Andriambelo, Lalatiana Valisoa; Rakoto, Olivat; Baby, Mounirou; Yahaya, Rakia; Bokilo, Amelia; Senyana, Florent; Mbanya, Dora; Shiboski, Caroline; Murphy, Edward L.; Lefrère, Jean Jacques

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND The goal of selecting a healthy blood donor is to safeguard donors and reduce the risks of infections and immunologic complications for recipients. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS To evaluate the blood donor selection process, a survey was conducted in 28 blood transfusion centers located in 15 francophone African countries. Data collected included availability of blood products, risk factors for infection identified among blood donor candidates, the processing of the information collected before blood collection, the review process for the medical history of blood donor candidates, and deferral criteria for donor candidates. RESULTS During the year 2009, participating transfusion centers identified 366,924 blood donor candidates. A mean of 13% (range, 0%–36%) of the donor candidates were excluded based solely on their medical status. The main risk factors for blood-borne infections were having multiple sex partners, sexual intercourse with occasional partners, and religious scarification. Most transfusion centers collected this information verbally instead of having a written questionnaire. The topics least addressed were the possible complications relating to the donation, religious scarifications, and history of sickle cell anemia and hemorrhage. Only three centers recorded the temperature of the blood donors. The deferral criteria least reported were sickle cell anemia, piercing, scarification, and tattoo. CONCLUSIONS The medical selection process was not performed systemically and thoroughly enough, given the regional epidemiologic risks. It is essential to identify the risk factors specific to francophone African countries and modify the current medical history questionnaires to develop a more effective and relevant selection process. PMID:22014098

  4. Magnetic manipulation instrumentation for medical physics research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gillies, G. T.; Ritter, R. C.; Broaddus, W. C.; Grady, M. S.; Howard, M. A., III; McNeil, R. G.

    1994-03-01

    The noncontact magnetic manipulation of probe masses within the body is an area of research that has received substantial attention from the medical physics community, especially during the past three decades. The therapeutic and diagnostic possibilities arising from such technology include site-specific drug delivery within the central nervous system, advancement of techniques for navigation and selective catheterization of vessels within the cardiovascular and cerebrovascular systems, and the nonsurgical exploration of the alimentary and respiratory tracts. In this review, we examine the physical principles underlying in vivo magnetic manipulation systems, and catalog the various types of instrumentation used for such purposes to date. Thereafter, we evaluate the different methods of image-based localization used to identify the position of the probe within the body. Finally, we appraise an emerging technology known as nonlinear magnetic stereotaxis, a technique that permits minimally invasive access to difficult-to-approach parts of the brain. We close the review with a few comments on the directions for future work within this field.

  5. Tissue simulating gel for medical research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Companion, John A. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    A tissue simulating gel and a method for preparing the tissue simulating gel are disclosed. The tissue simulating gel is prepared by a process using water, gelatin, ethylene glycol, and a cross-linking agent. In order to closely approximate the characteristics of the type of tissue being simulated, other material has been added to change the electrical, sound conducting, and wave scattering properties of the tissue simulating gel. The result of the entire process is a formulation that will not melt at the elevated temperatures involved in hyperthermia medical research. Furthermore, the tissue simulating gel will not support mold or bacterial growth, is of a sufficient mechanical strength to maintain a desired shape without a supporting shell, and is non-hardening and non-drying. Substances have been injected into the tissue simulating gel prior to the setting-up thereof just as they could be injected into actual tissue, and the tissue simulating gel is translucent so as to permit visual inspection of its interior. A polyurethane spray often used for coating circuit boards can be applied to the surface of the tissue simulating gel to give a texture similar to human skin, making the tissue simulating gel easier to handle and contributing to its longevity.

  6. Medical technology advances from space research.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pool, S. L.

    1971-01-01

    NASA-sponsored medical R & D programs for space applications are reviewed with particular attention to the benefits of these programs to earthbound medical services and to the general public. Notable among the results of these NASA programs is an integrated medical laboratory equipped with numerous advanced systems such as digital biotelemetry and automatic visual field mapping systems, sponge electrode caps for electroencephalograms, and sophisticated respiratory analysis equipment.

  7. Qualitative study of African-American job satisfaction in a scientific/technical research environment

    SciTech Connect

    Krossa, Cheryl Delemos

    1996-09-01

    Many studies have been conducted in the area of job satisfaction. Its necessary attributes sor components have been studied, analyzed, validated, standardized, and normed, onpredominantly white male populations. Few of these studies have focused on people of color, specifically African-Americans, and fewer still on those African-Americans working in a high-tech, scientific and research environments. The researchers have defined what is necessary for the current dominent culture`s population, but are their findings applicable and valid for our nation`s other cultures and ethnic groups? Among the conclusions: the subjects felt that there was no real difference in job satisfiers from their white colleagues; however the subjects had the sense of community (African-American) and the need to give back to it. Frustrations included politics, funding, and lack of control.

  8. The importance of research in undergraduate medical education.

    PubMed

    Ávila, Mauricio José; Rodríguez-Restrepo, Andrea

    2014-11-24

    Currently medical information flows at great speed, bombarding medical students. Students are unfamiliar with fundamental aspects of biomedical literature appraisal. We assert that research performed during medical school will help to reduce the gap between the information available and comprehension by the student. The goal of the present review is to expound the importance of performing research during the undergraduate medical years and the relevance of research in other fields of medicine. We performed a literature review searching MEDLINE with terms consistent with our objective. We discuss the conduct of research projects during medical school training. The analysis of the articles retrieved proves that research is feasible and that it is a critical process during the undergraduate period for medical students.

  9. Issues and priorities of medical education research in Asia.

    PubMed

    Majumder, M A A

    2004-03-01

    This article addresses the roles, issues, approaches, rationale, pitfalls, priorities and balance of research in medical education, particularly its "disarray" status in Asia. Research in medical education has influenced education in many ways. Most importantly, it provides legitimate evidences to stakeholders on which to make educational decisions. It also has a wider social impact on teaching practice and subsequent clinical practice. However, in Asia, medical educational research has not substantially influenced educational policy and medical practices. Moreover, it fails to receive comparable attention as in developed countries. A number of constraints that have hampered the development of educational research in Asia are identified: low socio-economic condition of the region; cultural and religious values and beliefs of the people; lack of congruence between the mission and vision of medical schools; leadership crisis; lack of financial resources; inadequate exposure to medical educational research in undergraduate training; lack of collaboration and commitment; and unforeseeable short-term outcome of medical education. The article concludes with some specific recommendations to strengthen research and to create a research culture in the region, including active leadership and commitment of the institutes/organisations, careful assessment and strategic settings of the priorities of medical educational research, establishment of a regional centre for medical education research, availability of financial resources, wider dissemination of research findings, collaboration with the developed countries and initiative to publish regional-based medical education journals, including electronic journals. Appropriate research environment and culture will enable stakeholders to obtain evidence-based information from educational research to increase the relevance, quality, cost-effectiveness and equity of medical education and practice in Asia.

  10. Perceptions, Knowledge, Incentives, and Barriers of Brain Donation among African American Elders Enrolled in an Alzheimer's Research Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lambe, Susan; Cantwell, Nicole; Islam, Fareesa; Horvath, Kathy; Jefferson, Angela L.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To learn about African American older adults' knowledge and perceptions of brain donation, factors that relate to participating or not participating in a brain donation research program, and methods to increase African American brain donation commitment rates in the context of an Alzheimer's disease (AD) research program. Design and…

  11. Irish-African Partnership and Research Capacity Building for Development: Potential to Learn from Research for the Education and Lifelong Learning Sector

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mark, Rob; Nakabugo, Mary Goretti

    2011-01-01

    The Irish-African Partnership for Research Capacity Building (IAP) is a research consortium involving all of the nine universities on the island of Ireland together with four African universities, with the overall aim of building research capacity for poverty reduction. The project was supported by a three-year grant from Irish Aid. This article…

  12. Participation and Research of Astronomers and Astrophysicists of Black African Descent (1900–2005)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oluseyi, Hakeem M.; Urama, Johnson

    The second half of the Twentieth Century witnessed the emergence of the first modern Astronomers and Astrophysicists of Black African descent. In this paper we enumerate these researchers and briefly describe their activities. We also describe the broader social and political contexts which have impacted their participation and research. We focus primarily on researchers in the United States of America (28) and in Nigeria (19) who have together produced over 90% of the astronomical researchers known to the authors. We briefly mention researchers from other countries including South Africa (3) and in Eurasia (2). We conclude by describing the pioneering researchers and disseminators of the Black African Diaspora's contribution of to the modern astronomical sciences.

  13. Participation and Research of Astronomers and Astrophysicists of Black African Descent (1900 2005)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oluseyi, Hakeem M.; Urama, Johnson

    The second half of the Twentieth Century witnessed the emergence of the first modern Astronomers and Astrophysicists of Black African descent. In this paper we enumerate these researchers and briefly describe their activities. We also describe the broader social and political contexts which have impacted their participation and research. We focus primarily on researchers in the United States of America (28) and in Nigeria (19) who have together produced over 90% of the astronomical researchers known to the authors. We briefly mention researchers from other countries including South Africa (3) and in Eurasia (2). We conclude by describing the pioneering researchers and disseminators of the Black African Diaspora's contribution of to the modern astronomical sciences.

  14. Effect of Expectation of Care on Adherence to Antihypertensive Medications Among Hypertensive Blacks: Analysis of the Counseling African Americans to Control Hypertension (CAATCH) Trial

    PubMed Central

    Grant, Andrea Barnes; Seixas, Azizi; Frederickson, Keville; Butler, Mark; Tobin, Jonathan N.; Jean-Louis, Girardin; Ogedegbe, Gbenga

    2017-01-01

    Novel ideas are needed to increase adherence to antihypertensive medication. The current study used data from the Counseling African Americans to Control Hypertension (CAATCH) study, a sample of 442 hypertensive African Americans, to investigate the mediating effects of expectation of hypertension care, social support, hypertension knowledge, and medication adherence, adjusting for age, sex, number of medications, diabetes, education, income, employment, insurance status, and intervention. Sixty-six percent of patients had an income of $20,000 or less and 56% had a high school education or less, with a mean age of 57 years. Greater expectation of care was associated with greater medication adherence (P=.007), and greater social support was also associated with greater medication adherence (P=.046). Analysis also showed that expectation of care mediated the relationship between hypertension knowledge and medication adherence (P<.05). Expectation of care and social support are important factors for developing interventions to increase medication adherence among blacks. PMID:26593105

  15. Effect of Expectation of Care on Adherence to Antihypertensive Medications Among Hypertensive Blacks: Analysis of the Counseling African Americans to Control Hypertension (CAATCH) Trial.

    PubMed

    Grant, Andrea Barnes; Seixas, Azizi; Frederickson, Keville; Butler, Mark; Tobin, Jonathan N; Jean-Louis, Girardin; Ogedegbe, Gbenga

    2016-07-01

    Novel ideas are needed to increase adherence to antihypertensive medication. The current study used data from the Counseling African Americans to Control Hypertension (CAATCH) study, a sample of 442 hypertensive African Americans, to investigate the mediating effects of expectation of hypertension care, social support, hypertension knowledge, and medication adherence, adjusting for age, sex, number of medications, diabetes, education, income, employment, insurance status, and intervention. Sixty-six percent of patients had an income of $20,000 or less and 56% had a high school education or less, with a mean age of 57 years. Greater expectation of care was associated with greater medication adherence (P=.007), and greater social support was also associated with greater medication adherence (P=.046). Analysis also showed that expectation of care mediated the relationship between hypertension knowledge and medication adherence (P<.05). Expectation of care and social support are important factors for developing interventions to increase medication adherence among blacks.

  16. Racial Identity Development of African American Students during Their First Semester at a Research University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whyte, Patricia Jones

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the effects of background characteristics, initial interaction with the environment, and first-year experiences at a public, research extensive University on the racial identity and racial attitudes of African American/Black first-time, first-year University students. This study is concerned with the changes…

  17. Exploring South African Grade 11 Learners' Perceptions of Classroom Inquiry: Validation of a Research Instrument

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dudu, Washington T.; Vhurumuku, Elaosi

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses the adoption and validation of a research instrument, on determining learners' levels of perception of classroom inquiry based on data collected from South African Grade 11 learners. The Learners' Perception of Classroom Inquiry (LPCI) instrument consists only of Likert-type items which rank activities according to how often…

  18. Seeking to Improve African American Girls' Attitudes toward Science: A Participatory Action Research Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buck, Gayle A.; Cook, Kristin L.; Quigley, Cassie F.; Prince, Pearl; Lucas, Yvonne

    2014-01-01

    In this participatory action research study, we answered the question, How can we improve attitudes toward science education of the African American girls at an elementary school? Girls in grades 3-6 completed the Modified Attitudes toward Science Inventory. A purposeful sample of 30 girls participated in several focus-group interviews throughout…

  19. Shanghai Academic Ranking of World Universities (ARWU) and the "Big Five" South African Research Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boshoff, N.

    2009-01-01

    This article critically examines the methodology of the Shanghai Academic Ranking of World Universities (ARWU) by generating raw scores for the "big five" South African research universities (Stellenbosch, Cape Town, Kwazulu-Natal, Pretoria and the Witwatersrand, henceforth referred to as SU, UCT, UKZN, UP and WITS) using the ARWU…

  20. Prevention-Related Research Targeting African American Alternative Education Program Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carswell, Steven B.; Hanlon, Thomas E.; Watts, Amy M.; O'Grady, Kevin E.

    2014-01-01

    This article reports on a program of research that examined the background, planning, implementation, and evaluation of an after-school preventive intervention program within an ongoing urban alternative education program targeting African American students referred to the school because of their problematic behavior in regular schools. The…

  1. Unpacking the Predominance of Case Study Methodology in South African Postgraduate Educational Research, 1995-2004

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rule, P.; Davey, B.; Balfour, R. J.

    2011-01-01

    The Project Postgraduate Educational Research (PPER) data indicate that case study is the most popular methodology among South African education masters and doctorate students in the period 1995-2004. This article reflects on the reasons for the preference for case study by considering epistemological and contextual factors. It unpacks the links…

  2. Mathematics Education Research on Minorities from 1984 to 1994: Focus on African American Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ajose, Sunday A.

    Judged by its results, the current system for educating African American students in mathematics is a distinct failure. For years, educators either ignored this problem or simply blamed the failure of the system on its victims. In 1984 the Journal for Research in Mathematics Education drew national attention to the problem by devoting an entire…

  3. Impressions: How First-Year, African American Students Pictured a Research University. ASHE Annual Meeting Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Douglas, Katie B.

    In this study 10 first-year African American students (five men and five women) took photographs that illustrated their perceptions of the predominantly white research university they attended and discussed their pictures in subsequent individual and focus group interviews. Two theoretical frameworks provided the structure for the analysis:…

  4. Research on Employment in the Rural Nonfarm Sector in Africa. African Rural Employment Paper No. 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liedholm, Carl

    Within the context of the role of rural employment in overall economic development, the objectives were to summarize existing knowledge of the rural African nonfarm sector and to develop an analytical framework for examing utilization of labor in this sector, using a descriptive profile, a theoretical model, and a research approach to rural…

  5. Ethical issues in genomic research on the African continent: experiences and challenges to ethics review committees.

    PubMed

    Ramsay, Michèle; de Vries, Jantina; Soodyall, Himla; Norris, Shane A; Sankoh, Osman

    2014-08-21

    This is a report on a workshop titled 'Ethics for genomic research across five African countries: Guidelines, experiences and challenges', University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa, 10 and 11 December 2012. The workshop was hosted by the Wits-INDEPTH partnership, AWI-Gen, as part of the H3Africa Consortium.

  6. A History of Computer-Assisted Medical Diagnosis at Naval Submarine Medical Research Laboratory

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-05-01

    user documenta- tion 7 . The conversion was essentially ’line- Dental Pain Program for-line" to keep the knowledge representation (the "brains" of the...the 19. Caras, B. G., Fisherkeller, K. D., and management of acute dental pain - User’s Southerland D. G. (1989). MEDIC - Manual (NSMRL Report 1143...for "classic" presentations of dental pain marine Medical Research Laboratory. (NSMRL Report 1136). Groton, CT: Naval Submarine Medical Research 37

  7. Medical Research Pays Off for All Americans

    MedlinePlus

    ... from serious medical conditions. He was struck by polio in the summer of 1921, at age 39. ... be controlled. FDR's Condition Treatment Now Treatment Then Polio – (infantile paralysis, poliomyelitis) Polio is an infection of ...

  8. Genetic Engineering of Animals for Medical Research: Students' Views.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Ruaraidh; Stanisstreet, Martin; O'Sullivan, Helen; Boyes, Edward

    1999-01-01

    Reports on the results of a survey meant to ascertain the views of 16- to 18-year-old students (n=778) on using animals in medical research. Suggests that students have no greater objection to the use of genetically engineered animals over naturally bred animals in medical research. Contains 16 references. (Author/WRM)

  9. National Medical Association/National Institutes of Health Workshop on Violence and the Conduct of Research. Workgroup Proceedings, June 1-2, 1994.

    PubMed

    Martinez, R A; Pointer, A; Vereen, D; Marks, S F

    1995-11-01

    The physical, economic, and mental toll caused by violence in the United States has put tremendous pressure on American medical, political, religious, and social institutions. The impact in urban neighborhoods has been especially harrowing, forcing African-American organizations to address this domestic problem with ideas and suggestions unique to their philosophies and collective talents. This article contains general perspectives and commentary from physicians and social science experts who participated in a workshop sponsored by the National Medical Association, the National Institute of Drug Abuse, and the National Institute of Mental Health to discuss topics on violence, its health consequences, and the conduct of research in the African-American community.

  10. Medical Applications of Non-Medical Research: Applications Derived from BES-Supported Research and Research at BES Facilities

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    1998-07-01

    This publication contains stories that illustrate how the Office of Basic Energy Sciences (BES) research and major user facilities have impacted the medical sciences in the selected topical areas of disease diagnosis, treatment (including drug development, radiation therapy, and surgery), understanding, and prevention.

  11. Regulation and the social licence for medical research.

    PubMed

    Dixon-Woods, Mary; Ashcroft, Richard E

    2008-12-01

    Regulation and governance of medical research is frequently criticised by researchers. In this paper, we draw on Everett Hughes' concepts of professional licence and professional mandate, and on contemporary sociological theory on risk regulation, to explain the emergence of research governance and the kinds of criticism it receives. We offer explanations for researcher criticism of the rules and practices of research governance, suggesting that these are perceived as interference in their mandate. We argue that, in spite of their complaints, researchers benefit from the institutions of governance and regulation, in particular by the ways in which regulation secures the social licence for research. While it is difficult to answer questions such as: "Is medical research over-regulated?" and "Does the regulation of medical research successfully protect patients or promote ethical conduct?", a close analysis of the social functions of research governance and its relationship to risk, trust, and confidence permits us to pose these questions in a more illuminating way.

  12. Differential Predictors of Medication Adherence in HIV: Findings from a Sample of African American and Caucasian HIV-Positive Drug-Using Adults

    PubMed Central

    Moizel, Jennifer; Panos, Stella E.; Patel, Sapna M.; Byrd, Desiree A.; Myers, Hector F.; Wyatt, Gail E.; Hinkin, Charles H.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Modest or even occasional nonadherence to combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) can result in adverse clinical outcomes. African Americans demonstrate lower rates of adherence than Caucasians or Latinos. Identifying factors that influence medication adherence among African Americans is a critical step toward reducing HIV/AIDS disease progression and mortality. In a sample of 181 African American (n=144) and Caucasian (n=37) HIV-positive drug-using individuals [age (M=42.31; SD=6.6) education (M=13.41; SD=2.1)], we examined the influence of baseline drug use, literacy, neurocognition, depression, treatment-specific social support, and patient satisfaction with health care provider on medication adherence averaged over the course of 6 months (study dates 2002–2006). Our findings suggest differential baseline predictors of medication adherence for African Americans and Caucasians, such that patient satisfaction with provider was the strongest predictor of follow-up medication adherence for African Americans whereas for Caucasians depressive symptoms and treatment-specific social support were predictive of medication adherence (after controlling for duration of drug use). PMID:22889235

  13. Digital Libraries and Recent Medical Informatics Research. Findings from the IMIA Yearbook of Medical Informatics 2001.

    PubMed

    Ammenwerth, E; Knaup, P; Maier, C; Mludek, V; Singer, R; Skonetzki, S; Wolff, A C; Haux, R; Kulikowski, C

    2001-05-01

    The Yearbook of Medical Informatics is published annually by the International Medical Informatics Association (IMIA) and contains a selection of recent excellent papers on medical informatics research (http://www.med.uni-heidelberg.de/mi/yearbook/index.htm). The special topic of the just published Yearbook 2001 is "Digital Libraries and Medicine". Digital libraries have changed dramatically and will continue to change the way we work with medical knowledge. The selected papers present recent research and new results on digital libraries. As usual, the Yearbook 2001 also contains a variety of papers on other subjects relevant to medical informatics, such as Electronic Patient Records, Health Information Systems, Health and Clinical Management, Decision Support Systems, Education, as well as Image and Signal Processing. This paper will briefly introduce the contributions covering digital libraries and will show how medical informatics research contributes to this important topic.

  14. Searching in the Dark: Phenotyping Diabetic Retinopathy in a De-Identified Electronic Medical Record Sample of African Americans

    PubMed Central

    Restrepo, Nicole A.; Farber-Eger, Eric; Crawford, Dana C.

    2016-01-01

    A hurdle to EMR-based studies is the characterization and extraction of complex phenotypes not readily defined by single diagnostic/procedural codes. Here we developed an algorithm utilizing data mining techniques to identify a diabetic retinopathy (DR) cohort of type-2 diabetic African Americans from the Vanderbilt University de-identified EMR system. The algorithm incorporates a combination of diagnostic codes, current procedural terminology billing codes, medications, and text matching to identify DR when gold-standard digital photography results were unavailable. DR cases were identified with a positive predictive value of 75.3% and an accuracy of 84.8%. Controls were classified with a negative predictive value of 1.0% as could be assessed. Limited studies of DR have been performed in African Americans who are at an elevated risk of DR. Identification of EMR-based African American cohorts may help stimulate new biomedical studies that could elucidate differences in risk for the development of DR and other complex diseases. PMID:27570675

  15. Social work research on African Americans and suicidal behavior: a systematic 25-year review.

    PubMed

    Joe, Sean; Niedermeier, Danielle M

    2008-11-01

    Suicide among African Americans is a neglected topic. Social workers practice in both clinical and nonclinical settings, and as the largest occupational group of mental health professionals, they have a unique opportunity to reach this underserved group. However, little is known about social work's empirical knowledge base for recognition and treatment of suicidal behavior among African Americans. The authors performed a systematic critical review of published articles by social workers on African American suicide and suicidal behavior, to ascertain the state of social worker's contribution to and knowledge of suicide risk factors and effective treatments. They conducted Web-based (for example, Social Work Abstracts, PsycINFO, PubMed, JSTOR) and manual searches of suicide research conducted by social work investigators and published in peer-reviewed journals from 1980 to 2005. References cited in the articles were used to identify candidate articles. According to the search results, social workers contributed only 11 empirical research articles focusing on African American suicide or nonfatal suicidal behavior. Risk factors for suicide are reviewed, and the implications for clinical social work practice and research are addressed.

  16. African-American Biography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Ron

    1995-01-01

    Suggests sources of information for African American History Month for library media specialists who work with students in grades four through eight. Gale Research's "African-American Reference Library," which includes "African-America Biography,""African-American Chronology," and "African-American Almanac,"…

  17. Enhancing cancer control programmatic and research opportunities for African-Americans through technical assistance training.

    PubMed

    Satcher, David; Sullivan, Louis W; Douglas, Harry E; Mason, Terry; Phillips, Rogsbert F; Sheats, Joyce Q; Smith, Selina A

    2006-10-15

    African-Americans remain severely underrepresented in cancer control program delivery and research. Community-based organizational leaders and minority junior investigators have received little attention as representatives of target populations, or as agents to deliver and evaluate efforts to eliminate cancer health disparities. This paper describes activities of the National Black Leadership Initiative on Cancer II: Network Project, which has sought to address these issues. Community leaders and junior investigators received technical assistance (TA) and mentoring to develop applications for cancer education and community-based participatory research (CBPR) projects. TA was provided to 35 community leaders and 32 junior investigators. Twenty-nine community leaders won funding through the Community Partners for Cancer Education Program. Three pilot research applications were funded. Technical assistance may improve minority recruitment/retention in CBPR cancer control research and enhance understanding and elimination of cancer health disparities among African-Americans. Cancer 2006. (c) American Cancer Society.

  18. The Tripler Army Medical Center's LE3AN program: a six-month retrospective analysis of program effectiveness for African-American and European-American females.

    PubMed Central

    Simpson, Mark; Earles, Jay; Folen, Raymond; Trammel, Rick; James, Larry

    2004-01-01

    This is a retrospective study that examines the effectiveness of the Tripler Army Medical Center (TAMC) LE3AN Program for weight management among African-American and European American women. African-American and European-American active-duty females who enrolled in the TAMC LE3AN Program between July 1998 and December 2001, and completed six months of follow-up were included in the analysis. The results indicate that the program is associated with significant weight loss for participants, and that it is equally effective for African-American and European-American women. Weekly follow-up visits were correlated with greater weight loss. PMID:15540884

  19. The Department of Medical Education at the University of Michigan Medical School: a case study in medical education research productivity.

    PubMed

    Gruppen, Larry D

    2004-10-01

    The Department of Medical Education (DME) at the University of Michigan Medical School has a strong and sustained history of contributing to medical education research. The author identifies several dimensions that contribute to this productivity: (1) the quality of department faculty and the complementary areas of expertise they possess; (2) a critical mass of educational scholars, both within and outside the DME; (3) extensive collaborations of DME faculty with colleagues in other departments on educational innovation; (4) the departmental status of the DME; (5) the separation of the DME from the administration of the curriculum; (6) the need to balance the missions of research and educational support of the medical school; (7) the research-intensive nature of the larger University of Michigan environment; (8) the complex challenge of funding the educational scholarship mission; and (9) the importance of maintaining visibility within the institution. Factors that will affect the health of future educational scholarship include (1) the response to the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education's definition of resident competencies and similar initiatives; (2) the growth of opportunities for advanced training in educational scholarship and the corresponding expansion of medical school faculty with greater interest and skills in educational research; (3) an emerging emphasis on the importance of behavioral science in medical care; (4) demands on the clinical productivity of collaborating faculty; and (5) the paucity of funding for medical education research.

  20. 25 years of African trypanosome research: From description to molecular dissection and new drug discovery.

    PubMed

    Matthews, Keith R

    2015-01-01

    The Molecular Parasitology conference was first held at the Marine Biological laboratory, Woods Hole, USA 25 years ago. Since that first meeting, the conference has evolved and expanded but has remained the showcase for the latest research developments in molecular parasitology. In this perspective, I reflect on the scientific discoveries focussed on African trypanosomes (Trypanosoma brucei spp.) that have occurred since the inaugural MPM meeting and discuss the current and future status of research on these parasites.

  1. Strategies to Build Trust and Recruit African American and Latino Residents for Health Research: A Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Sankaré, Ibrahima C; Bross, Rachelle; Brown, Arleen F; del Pino, Homero E; Jones, Loretta F; Morris, D’Ann M; Porter, Courtney; Lucas-Wright, Aziza; Vargas, Roberto; Forge, Nell; Norris, Keith C; Kahn, Katherine L

    2015-01-01

    Background This study used Community Partnered Participatory Research (CPPR) to address low participation of racial and ethnic minorities in medical research and the lack of trust between underrepresented communities and researchers. Methods Using a community and academic partnership in July 2012, residents of a South Los Angeles neighborhood were exposed to research recruitment strategies: referral by word-of-mouth, community agencies, direct marketing, and extant study participants. Results Among 258 community members exposed to recruitment strategies, 79.8% completed the study. Exposed individuals identified their most important method for learning about the study as referral by study participants (39.8%), community agencies (30.6%), word-of-mouth (17.5%), or direct marketing promotion (12.1%). Study completion rates varied by recruitment method: referral by community agencies (88.7%), referral by participants (80.4%), direct marketing promotion (86.2%), word of mouth (64.3%). Conclusions Although African American and Latino communities are often described as difficult to engage in research, we found high levels of research participation and completion when recruitment strategies emerged from the community itself. This suggests recruitment strategies based on CPPR principles represent an important opportunity for addressing health disparities and our high rates of research completion should provide optimism and a road map for next steps. PMID:26094679

  2. Creating a Pipeline for African American Computing Science Faculty: An Innovative Faculty/Research Mentoring Program Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charleston, LaVar J.; Gilbert, Juan E.; Escobar, Barbara; Jackson, Jerlando F. L.

    2014-01-01

    African Americans represent 1.3% of all computing sciences faculty in PhD-granting departments, underscoring the severe underrepresentation of Black/African American tenure-track faculty in computing (CRA, 2012). The Future Faculty/Research Scientist Mentoring (FFRM) program, funded by the National Science Foundation, was found to be an effective…

  3. African Primary Care Research: quantitative analysis and presentation of results.

    PubMed

    Mash, Bob; Ogunbanjo, Gboyega A

    2014-06-06

    This article is part of a series on Primary Care Research Methods. The article describes types of continuous and categorical data, how to capture data in a spreadsheet, how to use descriptive and inferential statistics and, finally, gives advice on how to present the results in text, figures and tables. The article intends to help Master's level students with writing the data analysis section of their research proposal and presenting their results in their final research report.

  4. African primary care research: performing surveys using questionnaires.

    PubMed

    Govender, Indiran; Mabuza, Langalibalele H; Ogunbanjo, Gboyega A; Mash, Bob

    2014-04-25

    The aim of this article is to provide practical guidance on conducting surveys and the use of questionnaires for postgraduate students at a Masters level who are undertaking primary care research. The article is intended to assist with writing the methods section of the research proposal and thinking through the relevant issues that apply to sample size calculation, sampling strategy, design of a questionnaire and administration of a questionnaire. The articleis part of a larger series on primary care research, with other articles in the series focusing on the structure of the research proposal and the literature review, as well as quantitative data analysis.

  5. Problems of communicative competence in multi-cultural medical encounters in South African health services.

    PubMed

    Grant, T

    2006-11-01

    Research in health communication shows communicative competence to be an important aspect of successful health-care. Definitions of competence involve more than the participants, however; the position and status of these participants in terms of the medical hierarchy and accepted paradigm, the language of choice, educational levels and a host of other variables affect relationships and perceptions of competence. This article grapples with a number of issues that impact on communicative competence in the health-care professions, given the multi-lingual and -cultural society within South Africa as well as emerging shifts that foreground this debate. In particular, the thorny question around language use, the hegemonies of the past regarding a dominant lingua franca and subsequent issues involving translation and interpretation are discussed.

  6. Financial Hardship, Unmet Medical Need, and Health Self-Efficacy among African American Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tucker-Seeley, Reginald D.; Mitchell, Jamie A.; Shires, Deirdre A.; Modlin, Charles S., Jr.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Health self-efficacy (the confidence to take care of one's health) is a key component in ensuring that individuals are active partners in their health and health care. The purpose of this study was to determine the association between financial hardship and health self-efficacy among African American men and to determine if unmet…

  7. Community-based participatory research principles for the African American community

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Selina A.; Whitehead, Mary S.; Sheats, Joyce Q.; Ansa, Benjamin E.; Coughlin, Steven S.; Blumenthal, Daniel S.

    2015-01-01

    Background Numerous sets of principles have been developed to guide the conduct of community-based participatory research (CBPR). However, they tend to be written in language that is most appropriate for academics and other research professionals; they may not help lay people from the community understand CBPR. Methods Many community members of the National Black Leadership Initiative on Cancer assisting with the Educational Program to Increase Colorectal Cancer Screening (EPICS) had little understanding of CBPR. We engaged community members in developing culturally-specific principles for conducting academic-community collaborative research. Results We developed a set of CBPR principles intended to resonate with African-American community members. Conclusions Applying NBLIC-developed CBPR principles contributed to developing and implementing an intervention to increase colorectal cancer screening among African Americans. PMID:26336653

  8. Research priorities in medical education in the Eastern Mediterranean Region.

    PubMed

    Amini, M; Kojuri, J; Lotfi, F; Karimian, Z; Abadi, A S H

    2012-07-01

    Ways are needed to effect quality improvement in medical education research in the Eastern Mediterranean Region (EMR). This study aimed to determine the principle themes and to draw up a list of priorities in medical education research in EMR. Using the nominal group technique with a group of 30 experts, a list of major themes in medical education research was prepared. In a 2-round Delphi survey the list was sent to another 47 experts in the Region with a questionnaire that included open questions about change and reform in medical education. In the final list of 20, the 5 highest priorities identified were: training physicians to be effective teachers; community-driven models for curriculum development; clinical teaching models; education about professionalism and ethics; and education for evidence-based medicine. Themes determined by this survey can help researchers in EMR to focus on priority areas in research.

  9. Synchrotron radiation applications in medical research

    SciTech Connect

    Thomlinson, W.

    1997-08-01

    Over the past two decades there has been a phenomenal growth in the number of dedicated synchrotron radiation facilities and a corresponding growth in the number of applications in both basic and applied sciences. The high flux and brightness, tunable beams, time structure and polarization of synchrotron radiation provide an ideal x- ray source for many applications in the medical sciences. There is a dual aspect to the field of medical applications of synchrotron radiation. First there are the important in-vitro programs such as structural biology, x-ray microscopy, and radiation cell biology. Second there are the programs that are ultimately targeted at in-vivo applications. The present status of synchrotron coronary angiography, bronchography, multiple energy computed tomography, mammography and radiation therapy programs at laboratories around the world is reviewed.

  10. Human Research Program Exploration Medical Capability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barsten, Kristina

    2010-01-01

    NASA s Human Research Program (HRP) conducts and coordinates research projects that provide human health and performance countermeasures, knowledge, technologies, and tools to enable safe, reliable, and productive human space exploration. The Program is divided into 6 major elements, which a) Provide the Program s knowledge and capabilities to conduct research, addressing the human health and performance risks. b) Advance the readiness levels of technology and countermeasures to the point of transfer to the customer programs and organizations. The National Space Biomedical Research Institute (NSBRI) is a partner with the HRP in developing a successful research program. 3

  11. The research career interests of graduating medical students.

    PubMed

    Kassebaum, D G; Szenas, P L; Ruffin, A L; Masters, D R

    1995-09-01

    In this baseline study, the authors analyze in detail many of the factors that influenced the research career intentions of the 1994 U.S. graduates of MD-only programs. Studies of the research interests of the nation's medical school graduates are important because MD-PhD programs do not produce sufficient numbers of physician-scientists, and the remainder must come from the regular population of medical graduates. Data on school characteristics and medical students' demographics, research career intentions, and educational experiences were derived from the AAMC's Institutional Profile System (IPS), Student Application and Information Management System (SAIMS), Matriculating Student Questionnaire (MSQ), and Medical School Graduation Questionnaire (GQ). The 1994 GQ was used as the index instrument to make the correlations reported in this article. A number of findings emerged concerning the 1994 graduates. A greater percentage of these students who began medical school with strong research career intentions and maintained these intentions had entered private medical schools. The lower rate of research interest amongst the students enrolled in public medical schools was compounded by the significantly greater loss of earlier research intentions of those in public schools compared with those in private schools.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  12. Occupational lung disease in the South African mining industry: research and policy implementation.

    PubMed

    Murray, Jill; Davies, Tony; Rees, David

    2011-01-01

    South African miners face an epidemic of occupational lung diseases. Despite a plethora of research on the mining industry, and the gold mining industry in particular, research impact (including disease surveillance) on policy implementation and occupational health systems performance lags. We describe the gold mining environment, and research on silicosis, tuberculosis, HIV and AIDS, and compensation for occupational disease including initiatives to influence policy and thus reduce dust levels and disease. As these have been largely unsuccessful, we identify possible impediments, some common to other low- and middle-income countries, to the translation of research findings and policy initiatives into effective interventions.

  13. Research in medical education: balancing service and science.

    PubMed

    Albert, Mathieu; Hodges, Brian; Regehr, Glenn

    2007-02-01

    Since the latter part of the 1990's, the English-speaking medical education community has been engaged in a debate concerning the types of research that should have priority. To shed light on this debate and to better understand its implications for the practice of research, 23 semi-structured interviews were conducted with "influential figures" from the community. The results were analyzed using the concept of "field" developed by the sociologist Pierre Bourdieu. The results reveal that a large majority of these influential figures believe that research in medical education continues to be of insufficient quality despite the progress that has taken place over the past 2 decades. According to this group, studies tend to be both redundant and opportunistic, and researchers tend to have limited understanding of both theory and methodological practice from the social sciences. Three factors were identified by the participants to explain the current problems in research: the working conditions of researchers, budgetary restraints in financing research in medical education, and the conception of research in the medical environment. Two principal means for improving research are presented: intensifying collaboration between PhD's and clinicians, and encouraging the diversification of perspectives brought to bear on research in medical education.

  14. Teaching Medical Students Basic Neurotransmitter Pharmacology Using Primary Research Resources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halliday, Amy C.; Devonshire, Ian M.; Greenfield, Susan A.; Dommett, Eleanor J.

    2010-01-01

    Teaching pharmacology to medical students has long been seen as a challenge, and one to which a number of innovative approaches have been taken. In this article, we describe and evaluate the use of primary research articles in teaching second-year medical students both in terms of the information learned and the use of the papers themselves. We…

  15. Medical marijuana: CAS releases report, government cuts research funding.

    PubMed

    Betteridge, Glenn

    2006-12-01

    In June 2006, the Canadian AIDS Society (CAS) released a comprehensive report with recommendations to overcome barriers to the use of cannabis for medical purposes faced by people living with HIV/AIDS in Canada. On 25 September 2006, as part of package of spending cuts, the federal government announced plans to eliminate its marijuana medical research program.

  16. The Morehouse Mystique: Becoming a Doctor at the Nation's Newest African American Medical School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gasman, Marybeth

    2012-01-01

    The Morehouse School of Medicine in Atlanta, Georgia, is one of only four predominantly Black medical schools in the United States. Among its illustrious alumni are surgeons general of the United States, medical school presidents, and numerous other highly regarded medical professionals. This book tells the engrossing history of this venerable…

  17. The Use of Sociocultural Constructs in Cancer Screening Research Among African Americans

    PubMed Central

    Deshpande, Anjali D.; Sanders Thompson, Vetta L.; Vaughn, Kimberlee P.; Kreuter, Matthew W.

    2013-01-01

    Background Studies are increasingly examining the role of sociocultural values, beliefs, and attitudes in cancer prevention. However, these studies vary widely in how sociocultural constructs are defined and measured, how they are conceived as affecting cancer beliefs, behaviors, and screening, and how they are applied in interventions. Methods To characterize the current state of this research literature, we conducted a critical review of studies published between 1990 and 2006 to describe the current use of sociocultural constructs in cancer screening research among African Americans. We included quantitative and qualitative studies with cancer as a primary focus that included African American participants, assessed screening behaviors, reported race-specific analyses, and considered one or more sociocultural factors. Studies were evaluated for type of cancer and screening analyzed, study population, methodology, sociocultural constructs considered, definitions of constructs, provision of psychometric data for measures, and journal characteristics. Results Of 94 studies identified for review, 35 met the inclusion criteria and were evaluated. Most focused on breast cancer screening, and thus African American women. Sociocultural constructs were seldom clearly defined, and the sources and psychometric properties of sociocultural measures were rarely reported. Conclusions A multidisciplinary approach to developing a common language and a standardized set of measures for sociocultural constructs will advance research in this area. Specific recommendations are made for future research. PMID:19556966

  18. African Scientific Network: A model to enhance scientific research in developing countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kebede, Abebe

    2002-03-01

    Africa has over 350 higher education institutions with a variety of experiences and priorities. The primary objectives of these institutions are to produce white-collar workers, teachers, and the work force for mining, textiles, and agricultural industries. The state of higher education and scientific research in Africa have been discussed in several conferences. The proposals that are generated by these conferences advocate structural changes in higher education, North-South institutional linkages, mobilization of the African Diaspora and funding. We propose a model African Scientific Network that would facilitate and enhance international scientific partnerships between African scientists and their counterparts elsewhere. A recent article by James Lamout (Financial Times, August 2, 2001) indicates that emigration from South Africa alone costs $8.9 billion in lost human resources. The article also stated that every year 23,000 graduates leave Africa for opportunities overseas, mainly in Europe, leaving only 20,000 scientists and engineers serving over 600 million people. The International Organization for Migration states that the brain drain of highly skilled professionals from Africa is making economic growth and poverty alleviation impossible across the continent. In our model we will focus on a possible networking mechanism where the African Diaspora will play a major role in addressing the financial and human resources needs of higher education in Africa

  19. Then & Now: Medical Research Pays Off for All Americans

    MedlinePlus

    ... Issues Then & Now Medical Research Pays Off for All Americans Past Issues / Fall 2007 Table of Contents ... which afflict tens of millions of Americans of all ages. William Howard Taft—Then & Now Taft's Condition ...

  20. A Multiagent System for Dynamic Data Aggregation in Medical Research

    PubMed Central

    Urovi, Visara; Barba, Imanol; Aberer, Karl; Schumacher, Michael Ignaz

    2016-01-01

    The collection of medical data for research purposes is a challenging and long-lasting process. In an effort to accelerate and facilitate this process we propose a new framework for dynamic aggregation of medical data from distributed sources. We use agent-based coordination between medical and research institutions. Our system employs principles of peer-to-peer network organization and coordination models to search over already constructed distributed databases and to identify the potential contributors when a new database has to be built. Our framework takes into account both the requirements of a research study and current data availability. This leads to better definition of database characteristics such as schema, content, and privacy parameters. We show that this approach enables a more efficient way to collect data for medical research. PMID:27975063

  1. Interior, looking corridor connecting 511 to 515 into Medical Research ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior, looking corridor connecting 511 to 515 into Medical Research Library in 516. - Fitzsimons General Hospital, Central Service Building, North of Building No. 511, East of corridor connecting Building 511 to Building 515, Aurora, Adams County, CO

  2. "So What's New?" The Discussions in Medical Research Articles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Azirah, Hasim

    2000-01-01

    Examines the discussion of results in medical research articles to determine the strategies used by the writers to persuade the readers that their research is either new or a development of previous work and that their study is a contribution to a specialist field. Twenty-four research articles were analyzed using Swales moves analysis as well as…

  3. Medical Education: A Particularly Complex Intervention to Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mattick, Karen; Barnes, Rebecca; Dieppe, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Previous debate has explored whether medical education research should become more like health services research in terms of frameworks, collaborations and methodologies. Notable recent changes in health services research include an increasing emphasis on complex interventions, defined as interventions that involve more than one component. The…

  4. Researching health inequities among African Americans: the imperative to understand social class.

    PubMed

    Oliver, M Norman; Muntaner, Carles

    2005-01-01

    Racial and ethnic inequities in health abound in many disease categories. African-American communities suffer from an increased burden of illness, with higher incidence and mortality rates and more severe morbidity in cerebrovascular disease, heart disease, several cancers, diabetes, and many other ailments. Healthy People 2010, the federal government's health plan, calls for eliminating health disparities by race, ethnicity, gender, education, income, disability, geographic location, or sexual orientation. Research aimed at increasing our understanding of these health disparities and designing and evaluating interventions to improve African-American health is hampered by a liberal, classless approach. The authors argue for a theoretical framework in this research that recognizes that class exploitation sets the stage for and interacts with racial discrimination to determine racial inequities in health.

  5. Needles and Haystacks: Finding Funding for Medical Education Research.

    PubMed

    Gruppen, Larry D; Durning, Steven J

    2016-04-01

    Medical education research suffers from a significant and persistent lack of funding. Although adequate funding has been shown to improve the quality of research, there are a number of factors that continue to limit it. The competitive environment for medical education research funding makes it essential to understand strategies for improving the search for funding sources and the preparation of proposals. This article offers a number of resources, strategies, and suggestions for finding funding. Investigators must be able to frame their research in the context of significant issues and principles in education. They must set their proposed work in the context of prior work and demonstrate its potential for significant new contributions. Because there are few funding sources earmarked for medical education research, researchers much also be creative, flexible, and adaptive as they seek to present their ideas in ways that are appealing and relevant to the goals of funders. Above all, the search for funding requires persistence and perseverance.

  6. Conflict and Peace Research: South African Realities and Challenges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nieuwmeijer, Louise, Ed.; Olivier, Johan, Ed.

    This report resulted from a national workshop held September 5-6, 1995, near Johannesburg, South Africa. The theme of the workshop, "Reflections on Conflict and Peace," was chosen to echo the nature and purpose of the workshop. The major papers presented include: (1) "Conflict and Peace Research Methodology" (Louise…

  7. Dangerous Predatory Publishers Threaten Medical Research.

    PubMed

    Beall, Jeffrey

    2016-10-01

    This article introduces predatory publishers in the context of biomedical sciences research. It describes the characteristics of predatory publishers, including spamming and using fake metrics, and it describes the problems they cause for science and universities. Predatory journals often fail to properly manage peer review, allowing pseudo-science to be published dressed up as authentic science. Academic evaluation is also affected, as some researchers take advantage of the quick, easy, and cheap publishing predatory journals provide. By understanding how predatory publishers operate, researchers can avoid becoming victimized by them.

  8. Dangerous Predatory Publishers Threaten Medical Research

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    This article introduces predatory publishers in the context of biomedical sciences research. It describes the characteristics of predatory publishers, including spamming and using fake metrics, and it describes the problems they cause for science and universities. Predatory journals often fail to properly manage peer review, allowing pseudo-science to be published dressed up as authentic science. Academic evaluation is also affected, as some researchers take advantage of the quick, easy, and cheap publishing predatory journals provide. By understanding how predatory publishers operate, researchers can avoid becoming victimized by them. PMID:27550476

  9. Attitudes of Saudi Arabian Undergraduate Medical Students towards Health Research

    PubMed Central

    Al-Hilali, Sara M.; Al-Kahtani, Eman; Zaman, Babar; Khandekar, Rajiv; Al-Shahri, Abdullah; Edward, Deepak P.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: This study aimed to evaluate attitudes, perceptions and perceived barriers towards health research among Saudi Arabian undergraduate medical students. Methods: This cross-sectional study took place between August and October 2014 and included 520 students from five medical schools across Saudi Arabia. An anonymous online survey with 21 close-ended questions was designed to assess students’ attitudes towards research, contribution to research-related activities, awareness of the importance of research, perception of available resources/opportunities for research, appreciation of medical students’ research contributions and perceived barriers to research. Responses were scored on a 5-point Likert scale. Results: A total of 401 students participated in the study (response rate: 77.1%). Of these, 278 (69.3%) were female. A positive attitude towards research was reported by 43.9% of the students. No statistically significant differences were observed between genders with regards to attitudes towards and available resources for research (P = 0.500 and 0.200, respectively). Clinical students had a significantly more positive attitude towards research compared to preclinical students (P = 0.007). Only 26.4% of the respondents believed that they had adequate resources/opportunities for research. According to the students, perceived barriers to undertaking research included time constraints (n = 200; 49.9%), lack of research mentors (n = 95; 23.7%), lack of formal research methodology training (n = 170; 42.4%) and difficulties in conducting literature searches (n = 145; 36.2%). Conclusion: Less than half of the surveyed Saudi Arabian medical students had a positive attitude towards health research. Medical education policies should aim to counteract the barriers identified in this study. PMID:26909216

  10. Promoting Developmental Research: A Challenge for African Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohamedbhai, Goolam

    2014-01-01

    There are two well-known and often-quoted facts about Sub-Saharan Africa. One is that, in spite of significant progress made in recent years, Africa remains the least developed region in the world and is unlikely to achieve all the Millennium Development Goals by 2015. The other is that Africa fares very poorly in terms of research and innovation;…

  11. Using culturally sensitive theories and research to meet the academic needs of low-income African American children.

    PubMed

    Tucker, Carolyn M; Herman, Keith C

    2002-10-01

    The economic and social barriers to the academic and social success of many African American children remain in place as the new millennium begins. These realities provide impetus for developing community-based partnership education programs designed to self-empower African American children for academic and social success under any socioeconomic conditions that exist in their lives. Progress toward effective program development, however, has been hindered by a dearth of culturally sensitive theories and research. The Research-Based Model Partnership Education Program (Model Program) is an effective, community-based, university-school-community partnership education program for self-empowering African American children for success. The formative and summative research of the Model Program is described in hopes of advancing theory and research for meeting the academic and social needs of low-income African American children.

  12. Developing research skills in medical students: AMEE Guide No. 69.

    PubMed

    Laidlaw, Anita; Aiton, Jim; Struthers, Julie; Guild, Simon

    2012-01-01

    This Guide has been written to provide guidance for individuals involved in curriculum design who wish to develop research skills and foster the attributes in medical undergraduates that help develop research. The Guide will provoke debate on an important subject, and although written specifically with undergraduate medical education in mind, we hope that it will be of interest to all those involved with other health professionals' education. Initially, the Guide describes why research skills and its related attributes are important to those pursuing a medical career. It also explores the reasons why research skills and an ethos of research should be instilled into professionals of the future. The Guide also tries to define what these skills and attributes should be for medical students and lays out the case for providing opportunities to develop research expertise in the undergraduate curriculum. Potential methods to encourage the development of research-related attributes are explored as are some suggestions as to how research skills could be taught and assessed within already busy curricula. This publication also discusses the real and potential barriers to developing research skills in undergraduate students, and suggests strategies to overcome or circumvent these. Whilst we anticipate that this Guide will appeal to all levels of expertise in terms of student research, we hope that, through the use of case studies, we will provide practical advice to those currently developing this area within their curriculum.

  13. South African Dental Students' Perceptions of Most Important Nonclinical Skills According to Medical Leadership Competency Framework.

    PubMed

    Van der Berg-Cloete, Sophy E; Snyman, Lorraine; Postma, Thomas C; White, John G

    2016-11-01

    Recent developmental frameworks suggest that dental curricula should focus on developing nonclinical skills in dental students. The aim of this study was to qualitatively map students' perceptions of the most important nonclinical skills against the Medical Leadership Competency Framework (MLCF). A representative sample of second- to fifth-year students (n=594; overall response rate 69%) from all four dental schools in South Africa participated in a cross-sectional survey in 2014-15 enquiring about nonclinical skills and dental practice management. One of the questions required students to list the four most important nonclinical skills required for a dentist. Students (n=541) most frequently noted competencies related to working with others (97.9%), personal qualities (72.3%), and managing services (42.9%) as the most important nonclinical skills. Very few students mentioned competencies related to the improvement of services (14.1%) and the provision of strategic direction (10.9%). The students' attention appeared to be on nonclinical skills generally required for clinical care with some realization of the importance of managing services, indicating a need for a stronger focus on leadership and management training in dental schools in South Africa. The results also helped to unravel some of the conceptual ambiguity of the MLCF and highlight opportunities for leadership research using the MLCF as a conceptual framework.

  14. International travel as medical research: architecture and the modern hospital.

    PubMed

    Logan, Cameron; Willis, Julie

    2010-01-01

    The design and development of the modern hospital in Australia had a profound impact on medical practice and research at a variety of levels. Between the late 1920s and the 1950s hospital architects, administrators, and politicians travelled widely in order to review the latest international developments in the hospital field They were motivated by Australia's geographic isolation and a growing concern with how to govern the population at the level of physical health. While not 'medical research' in the conventional sense of the term, this travel was a powerful generator of medical thinking in Australia and has left a rich archival legacy. This paper draws on that archive to demonstrate the ways in which architectural research and international networks of hospital specialists profoundly shaped the provision of medical infrastructure in Australia.

  15. Religion and the body in medical research.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Courtney S

    1998-09-01

    Religious discussion of human organs and tissues has concentrated largely on donation for therapeutic purposes. The retrieval and use of human tissue samples in diagnostic, research, and education contexts have, by contrast, received very little direct theological attention. Initially undertaken at the behest of the National Bioethics Advisory Commission, this essay seeks to explore the theological and religious questions embedded in nontherapeutic use of human tissue. It finds that the "donation paradigm" typically invoked in religious discourse to justify uses of the body for therapeutic reasons is inadequate in the context of nontherapeutic research, while the "resource paradigm" implicit in scientific discourse presumes a reductionist account of the body that runs contrary to important religious values about embodiment. The essay proposes a "contribution paradigm" that provides a religious perspective within which research on human tissue can be both justified and limited.

  16. Triage capabilities of medical trainees in Ghana using the South African triage scale: an opportunity to improve emergency care

    PubMed Central

    Gyedu, Adam; Agbedinu, Kwabena; Dalwai, Mohammed; Osei-Ampofo, Maxwell; Nakua, Emmanuel Kweku; Oteng, Rockefeller; Stewart, Barclay

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The incidence of emergency conditions is increasing worldwide, particularly in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). However, triage and emergency care training has not been prioritized in LMICs. We aimed to assess the reliability and validity of the South African Triage Scale (SATS) when used by providers not specifically trained in SATS, as well as to compare triage capabilities between senior medical students and senior house officers to examine the effectiveness of our curriculum for house officer training with regards to triage. Methods Sixty each of senior medical students and senior house officers who had not undergone specific triage or SATS training were asked to triage 25 previously validated emergency vignettes using the SATS. Estimates of reliability and validity were calculated. Additionally, over- and under-triage, as well as triage performance between the medical students and house officers was assessed against a reference standard. Results Fifty-nine senior medical students (98% response rate) and 43 senior house officers (72% response rate) completed the survey (84% response rate overall). A total of 2,550 triage assignments were included in the analysis (59 medical student and 43 house officer triage assignments for 25 vignettes each; 1,475 and 1,075 triage assignments, respectively). Inter-rater reliability was moderate (quadratically weighted κ 0.59 and 0.60 for medical students and house officers, respectively). Triage using SATS performed by these groups had low sensitivity (medical students: 54%, 95% CI 49–59; house officers: 55%, 95% CI 48–60) and moderate specificity (medical students: 84%, 95% CI 82 - 89; house officers: 84%, 95% CI 82 - 97). Both groups under-triaged most ‘emergency’ level vignette patients (i.e. SATS Red; 80 and 82% for medical students and house officers, respectively). There was no difference between the groups for any metric. Conclusion Although the SATS has proven utility in a number of

  17. Research for medical illustrators: photographic photometry.

    PubMed

    Young, Stephen

    2008-12-01

    The control of photographic variables when producing images for research where the data required is related to the subject's reflectance, absorption or transmission properties is important. The process variables are identified and guidance given on how these might be either controlled, or at least measured, so that correction factors might be applied to the data.

  18. [Polar medical research from the viewpoint of public health].

    PubMed

    Schrader, G

    1989-12-01

    The increasing interest in polar researches is the reason for numerous foundations of antarctic stations during the last years. In 1987 the German Democratic Republic founded a research station on the 6th continent, working all the years round. The medical polar research, hitherto done only sporadically has got a greater importance now and a working group "Polar Medicine" was established in 1989. Special hygienic problems in Antarctica and future research are discussed.

  19. African primary care research: choosing a topic and developing a proposal.

    PubMed

    Mash, Bob

    2014-02-06

    This is the first in a series of articles on primary care research in the African context. The aim of the series is to help build capacity for primary care research amongst the emerging departments of family medicine and primary care on the continent. Many of the departments are developing Masters of Medicine programmes in Family Medicine and their students will all be required to complete research studies as part of their degree. This series is being written with this audience in particular in mind--both the students who must conceptualise and implement a research project as well as their supervisors who must assist them.This article gives an overview of the African primary care context, followed by a typology of primary care research. The article then goes on to assist the reader with choosing a topic and defining their research question. Finally the article addresses the structure and contents of a research proposal and the ethical issues that should be considered.

  20. African Primary Care Research: Choosing a topic and developing a proposal

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Abstract This is the first in a series of articles on primary care research in the African context. The aim of the series is to help build capacity for primary care research amongst the emerging departments of family medicine and primary care on the continent. Many of the departments are developing Masters of Medicine programmes in Family Medicine and their students will all be required to complete research studies as part of their degree. This series is being written with this audience in particular in mind – both the students who must conceptualise and implement a research project as well as their supervisors who must assist them. This article gives an overview of the African primary care context, followed by a typology of primary care research. The article then goes on to assist the reader with choosing a topic and defining their research question. Finally the article addresses the structure and contents of a research proposal and the ethical issues that should be considered. PMID:26245432

  1. Using databases in medical education research: AMEE Guide No. 77.

    PubMed

    Cleland, Jennifer; Scott, Neil; Harrild, Kirsten; Moffat, Mandy

    2013-05-01

    This AMEE Guide offers an introduction to the use of databases in medical education research. It is intended for those who are contemplating conducting research in medical education but are new to the field. The Guide is structured around the process of planning your research so that data collection, management and analysis are appropriate for the research question. Throughout we consider contextual possibilities and constraints to educational research using databases, such as the resources available, and provide concrete examples of medical education research to illustrate many points. The first section of the Guide explains the difference between different types of data and classifying data, and addresses the rationale for research using databases in medical education. We explain the difference between qualitative research and qualitative data, the difference between categorical and quantitative data, and the difference types of data which fall into these categories. The Guide reviews the strengths and weaknesses of qualitative and quantitative research. The next section is structured around how to work with quantitative and qualitative databases and provides guidance on the many practicalities of setting up a database. This includes how to organise your database, including anonymising data and coding, as well as preparing and describing your data so it is ready for analysis. The critical matter of the ethics of using databases in medical educational research, including using routinely collected data versus data collected for research purposes, and issues of confidentiality, is discussed. Core to the Guide is drawing out the similarities and differences in working with different types of data and different types of databases. Future AMEE Guides in the research series will address statistical analysis of data in more detail.

  2. Why We Need Community Engagement in Medical Research

    PubMed Central

    Holzer, Jessica K.; Ellis, Lauren; Merritt, Maria W.

    2014-01-01

    Background The medical research enterprise depends on public recognition of its societal value. In light of evidence indicating public mistrust, especially among minorities, inadequate enrollment and diversity of research participants, and poor uptake of findings, medical research appears to fall short of sufficient public regard. Community engagement in medical research, with special attention to minority communities, may help to remedy this shortfall by demonstrating respect for communities in practical ways. Approach We provide three case examples that illustrate how specific approaches to community-engaged research can build trust between researchers and communities, encourage participation among under-represented groups, and enhance the relevance and uptake of research findings. Discussion A common attribute of the specific approaches discussed here is that they enable researchers to demonstrate respect by recognizing community values and interests. The demonstration of respect for communities has intrinsic ethical importance. Conclusion Two potential outgrowths of demonstrating respect specifically through community engagement are (1) the production of research that is more relevant to the community and (2) the mitigation of asymmetry in the researcher-community relationship. We summarize practical resources available to researchers who seek to incorporate community engagement in their research. PMID:24979468

  3. African Americans Respond Poorly to Hepatitis C Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black Issues in Higher Education, 2004

    2004-01-01

    African Americans have a significantly lower response rate to treatment for chronic hepatitis C than non-Hispanic Whites, according to a new study led by Duke University Medical Center researchers. Some African Americans--19 percent--did respond to the drug combination of peginterferon alfa-2b and ribavirin. But in non-Hispanic Whites with the…

  4. Decline of clinical research in academic medical centers.

    PubMed

    Meador, Kimford J

    2015-09-29

    Marked changes in US medical school funding began in the 1960s with progressively increasing revenues from clinical services. The growth of clinical revenues slowed in the mid-1990s, creating a funding crisis for US academic health care centers, who responded by having their faculty increase their clinical duties at the expense of research activities. Surveys document the resultant stresses on the academic clinician researcher. The NIH provides greater funding for basic and translational research than for clinical research, and the new Patient-Centered Outcomes Research Institute is inadequately funded to address the scope of needed clinical research. An increasing portion of clinical research is funded by industry, which leaves many important clinical issues unaddressed. There is an inadequate supply of skilled clinical researchers and a lack of external support for clinical research. The impact on the academic environment in university medical centers is especially severe on young faculty, who have a shrinking potential to achieve successful academic careers. National health care research funding policies should encourage the right balance of life-science investigations. Medical universities need to improve and highlight education on clinical research for students, residents, fellows, and young faculty. Medical universities also need to provide appropriate incentives for clinical research. Without training to ensure an adequate supply of skilled clinical researchers and a method to adequately fund clinical research, discoveries from basic and translational research cannot be clinically tested and affect patient care. Thus, many clinical problems will continue to be evaluated and treated with inadequate or even absent evidence-based knowledge.

  5. The role of social networking sites in medical genetics research.

    PubMed

    Reaves, Allison Cook; Bianchi, Diana W

    2013-05-01

    Social networking sites (SNS) have potential value in the field of medical genetics as a means of research subject recruitment and source of data. This article examines the current role of SNS in medical genetics research and potential applications for these sites in future studies. Facebook is the primary SNS considered, given the prevalence of its use in the United States and role in a small but growing number of studies. To date, utilization of SNS in medical genetics research has been primarily limited to three studies that recruited subjects from populations of Facebook users [McGuire et al. (2009); Am J Bioeth 9: 3-10; Janvier et al. (2012); Pediatrics 130: 293-298; Leighton et al. (2012); Public Health Genomics 15: 11-21]. These studies and a number of other medical and public health studies that have used Facebook as a context for recruiting research subjects are discussed. Approaches for Facebook-based subject recruitment are identified, including paid Facebook advertising, snowball sampling, targeted searching and posting. The use of these methods in medical genetics research has the potential to facilitate cost-effective research on both large, heterogeneous populations and small, hard-to-access sub-populations.

  6. Naval Medical Research and Development Strategic Plan

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-03-01

    Detachment (NMRCD), Lima, Peru (with a principal ois. ecticut. • Naval Directed Energy Biological Effects Laboratory (DEBL), San Antonio, Texas. • Naval...Maryland. (NAMRU-2), Jakarta, Indonesia (with principal field sites in Singapore and in Ph field site in Iquitos, Peru ). • Naval Institute for Dental...researchers at our OCONUS labs in Egypt, Indonesia, and Peru may be working with host national government collaborators to assess the threat of emerging

  7. Medical and biomedical research productivity from Palestine, 2002 – 2011

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Medical research productivity reflects the level of medical education and practice in a particular country. The objective of this study was to examine the quantity and quality of medical and biomedical research published from Palestine. Findings Comprehensive review of the literature indexed by Scopus was conducted. Data from Jan 01, 2002 till December 31, 2011 was searched for authors affiliated with Palestine or Palestinian authority. Results were refined to limit the search to medical and biomedical subjects. The quality of publication was assessed using Journal Citation Report. The total number of publications was 2207. A total of 770 publications were in the medical and biomedical subject areas. The annual rate of publication was 0.077 articles per gross domestic product/capita. The 770 publications have an h-index of 32. One hundred and thirty eight (18%) articles were published in 46 journals that were not indexed in the web of knowledge. Twenty two (22/770; 2.9%) articles were published in journals with an IF > 10. Conclusions The quantity and quality of research originating from Palestinian institutions is promising given the scarce resources of Palestine. However, more effort is needed to bridge the gap in medical research productivity and to promote better health in Palestine. PMID:23375070

  8. Naval Aerospace Medical Research Laboratory Bibliography, 1981-1986.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-06-01

    n Ltd.. 6 pp., 1981. Olsen, R.G., Microwave-induced Developmental Defects in the Common Mealworm Tenerio mlit-ýr_--A Decade o’ Re-seaFch-, NAMRL-1283...Tri-service Aeromedical Research Panel Fall Technical Meeting , NAMRL Monograph 33, Naval Aerospace A Medical Research Laboratory, Pensacola, FL

  9. Research in Medical Education: Balancing Service and Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albert, Mathieu; Hodges, Brian; Regehr, Glenn

    2007-01-01

    Since the latter part of the 1990's, the English-speaking medical education community has been engaged in a debate concerning the types of research that should have priority. To shed light on this debate and to better understand its implications for the practice of research, 23 semi-structured interviews were conducted with "influential figures"…

  10. The effective management of medical isotope production in research reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Drummond, D.T. )

    1993-01-01

    During the 50-yr history of the use of radioisotopes for medical applications, research reactors have played a pivotal role in the production of many if not most of the key products. The marriage between research reactors and production operations is subject to significant challenges on two fronts. The medical applications of the radioisotope products impose some unique constraints and requirements on the production process. In addition, the mandates and priorities of a research reactor are not always congruent with the demands of a production environment. This paper briefly reviews the historical development of medical isotope production, identifies the unique challenges facing this endeavor, and discusses the management of the relationship between the isotope producer and the research reactor operator. Finally, the key elements of a successful relationship are identified.

  11. Eligibility, recruitment, and retention of African Americans with severe mental illness in community research.

    PubMed

    Hampton, Michelle DeCoux; White, Mary C; Chafetz, Linda

    2009-04-01

    Data that addresses severely mentally ill (SMI) African Americans (AAs) likelihood to participate in clinical research is limited. This study's purpose was to determine if differences exist between races regarding eligibility, recruitment, and retention in a community-based clinical trial. The sample included 293 participants. Data sources included clinical records and interviews. Logistic regression was used for analysis. AAs were as likely to participate and to complete followup interviews as Whites. In contrast to studies about non-mentally ill AAs, AAs with SMI appeared to be as willing to consent to and to remain in clinical research studies as Whites.

  12. Ethics and the ethnography of medical research in Africa

    PubMed Central

    Molyneux, Sassy; Geissler, P. Wenzel

    2008-01-01

    The ethics of medical research have grown as an area of expertise and debate in recent years, with two broad approaches emerging in relation to transnational research: (1) the refinement of guidelines and strengthening of review, processes primarily to protect the right of individual research participants and strengthen interpersonal relations at the micro-level; and (2) considering more centrally, as crucial ethical concerns, the wider interests of whole populations, the functioning of research institutions, the processes of collaboration, and the ethics of inequitable international relations. We see the two areas of debate and action as complementary, and believe that social science conducted in and around transnational medical research environments can bring these two perspectives together in a more ‘situated ethics’ of research. To explore this idea for medical research in Africa, we organized a conference in December 2005 in Kilifi, Kenya. In this introduction we outline the two emerging approaches to medical ethics, summarise each of seven papers selected from the conference for inclusion in this special issue on ethics and ethnography, and finally highlight two areas of lively debate at the conference itself: the appropriateness and value of ethics guidelines and review boards for medical research; and the ethical review of social science research. Together, the papers and debates point to the importance of focusing on the ethics of relationships and on justice in both biomedicine and social science research, and on giving greater voice and visibility to the field staff who often play a crucial and under-supported role in ‘doing ethics’ in the field. They also point to the potential value of social science research on the range of relationships operating at different levels and time scales in medical research, including those surrounding community engagement activities, and the role and functioning of ethics review boards. We conclude by highlighting

  13. Alzheimer's disease: research advances and medical reality.

    PubMed

    Seiguer, Erica

    2005-07-01

    Alzheimer's disease was the eighth-leading cause of death in 2001. There is no cure and no effective treatment. Alzheimer's disease presents policy-makers with several challenges, including the level of funding and direction of federally funded research, as well as the cost pressures on Medicare and Medicaid of long-term care. These challenges will increase in intensity as demographic changes, particularly the aging of baby boomers, take hold. Better prevention of Alzheimer's, advances in therapy, and appropriate care modalities will likely require significant investment.

  14. Promoting African American women and sexual assertiveness in reducing HIV/AIDS: an analytical review of the research literature.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, Bernice Roberts; Jenkins, Chalice C

    2011-01-01

    African American women, including adolescents and adults, are disproportionately affected by the transmission of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS). HIV/AID is a health disparity issue for African American females in comparison to other ethnic groups. According to data acquired from 33 states in 2005, 64% of women who have HIV/ AIDS are African American women. It is estimated that during 2001-2004, 61% of African Americans under the age of 25 had been living with HIV/AIDS. This article is an analytical review of the literature emphasizing sexual assertiveness of African American women and the gap that exists in research literature on this population. The multifaceted model of HIV risk posits that an interpersonal predictor of risky sexual behavior is sexual assertiveness. The critical themes extracted from a review of the literature reveal the following: (a) sexual assertiveness is related to HIV risk in women, (b) sexual assertiveness and sexual communication are related, and (c) women with low sexual assertiveness are at increased risk of HIV As a result of this comprehensive literature, future research studies need to use models in validating sexual assertiveness interventions in reducing the risk of HIV/AIDS in African American women. HIV/AIDs prevention interventions or future studies need to target reducing the risk factors of HIV/AIDS of African Americans focusing on gender and culture-specific strategies.

  15. Medical ethics, bioethics and research ethics education perspectives in South East Europe in graduate medical education.

    PubMed

    Mijaljica, Goran

    2014-03-01

    Ethics has an established place within the medical curriculum. However notable differences exist in the programme characteristics of different schools of medicine. This paper addresses the main differences in the curricula of medical schools in South East Europe regarding education in medical ethics and bioethics, with a special emphasis on research ethics, and proposes a model curriculum which incorporates significant topics in all three fields. Teaching curricula of Medical Schools in Bulgaria, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Serbia, Macedonia and Montenegro were acquired and a total of 14 were analyzed. Teaching hours for medical ethics and/or bioethics and year of study in which the course is taught were also analyzed. The average number of teaching hours in medical ethics and bioethics is 27.1 h per year. The highest national average number of teaching hours was in Croatia (47.5 h per year), and the lowest was in Serbia (14.8). In the countries of the European Union the mean number of hours given to ethics teaching throughout the complete curriculum was 44. In South East Europe, the maximum number of teaching hours is 60, while the minimum number is 10 teaching hours. Research ethics topics also show a considerable variance within the regional medical schools. Approaches to teaching research ethics vary, even within the same country. The proposed model for education in this area is based on the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization Bioethics Core Curriculum. The model curriculum consists of topics in medical ethics, bioethics and research ethics, as a single course, over 30 teaching hours.

  16. [The relevance of the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) for medical publishing and research].

    PubMed

    Reyes, Humberto B

    2014-01-01

    The International Committee of Medical Journal Editors is a leading independent institution providing guidance for the report of biomedical research and health related topics in medical journals. Established in 1978, it is currently constituted by editors of fourteen general medical journals from different countries, plus one representative for the US National Library of Medicine and one representative for the World Association of Biomedical Journal Editors. Since 1978 the Committee provides a document, originally named "Uniform Requirements…", "to help authors, editors, and others involved in peer review and biomedical publishing create and distribute accurate, clear, unbiased medical journal articles". This document has been updated several times and the last version was released in August 2013, now renamed "Recommendations for the Conduct, Reporting, Editing, and Publication of Scholarly Work in Medical Journals", available in www.icmje.org and citable as "ICMJE Recommendations". A vast proportion of medical journals, worldwide, have adopted these recommendations as rules. The ICMJE discusses and provides guidance on several relevant aspects including criteria on authorship, peer review, scientific misconduct, conflicts of interest, clinical trials registration, good editorial practices, the relations between editors and journal owners, the protection of individuals subject to medical research, the solvency of electronic publications, among others. The 2013 ICMJE Annual Meeting took place in Santiago, Chile, in November 4 and 5. The photograph shows attendants to the final session.

  17. An intensely sympathetic awareness: experiential similarity and cultural norms as means for gaining older African Americans' trust of scientific research.

    PubMed

    Sabir, Myra G; Pillemer, Karl A

    2014-04-01

    Well-known trust-building methods are routinely used to recruit and retain older African Americans into scientific research studies, yet the quandary over how to overcome this group's hesitance to participate in research remains. We present two innovative and testable methods for resolving the dilemma around increasing older African Americans' participation in scientific research studies. Certain specific and meaningful experiential similarities between the primary researcher and the participants, as well as clear recognition of the elders' worth and dignity, improved older African Americans' willingness to adhere to a rigorous research design. Steps taken in an intervention study produced a potentially replicable strategy for achieving strong results in recruitment, retention and engagement of this population over three waves of assessment. Sixty-two (n=62) older African Americans were randomized to treatment and control conditions of a reminiscence intervention. Sensitivity to an African American cultural form of respect for elders (recognition of worth and dignity), and intersections between the lived experience of the researcher and participants helped dispel this population's well-documented distrust of scientific research. Results suggest that intentional efforts to honor the worth and dignity of elders through high level hospitality and highlighting meaningful experiential similarities between the researcher and the participants can improve recruitment and retention results. Experiential similarities, in particular, may prove more useful to recruitment and retention than structural similarities such as age, race, or gender, which may not in themselves result in the trust experiential similarities elicit.

  18. An intensely sympathetic awareness: Experiential similarity and cultural norms as means for gaining older African Americans’ trust of scientific research

    PubMed Central

    Sabir, Myra G.; Pillemer, Karl A.

    2014-01-01

    Well-known trust-building methods are routinely used to recruit and retain older African Americans into scientific research studies, yet the quandary over how to overcome this group’s hesitance to participate in research remains. We present two innovative and testable methods for resolving the dilemma around increasing older African Americans’ participation in scientific research studies. Certain specific and meaningful experiential similarities between the primary researcher and the participants, as well as clear recognition of the elders’ worth and dignity, improved older African Americans’ willingness to adhere to a rigorous research design. Steps taken in an intervention study produced a potentially replicable strategy for achieving strong results in recruitment, retention and engagement of this population over three waves of assessment. Sixty-two (n = 62) older African Americans were randomized to treatment and control conditions of a reminiscence intervention. Sensitivity to an African-American cultural form of respect for elders (recognition of worth and dignity), and intersections between the lived experience of the researcher and participants helped dispel this population’s well-documented distrust of scientific research. Results suggest that intentional efforts to honor the worth and dignity of elders through high level hospitality and highlighting meaningful experiential similarities between the researcher and the participants can improve recruitment and retention results. Experiential similarities, in particular, may prove more useful to recruitment and retention than structural similarities such as age, race, or gender, which may not in themselves result in the trust experiential similarities elicit. PMID:24655682

  19. Grounded theory in medical education research: AMEE Guide No. 70.

    PubMed

    Watling, Christopher J; Lingard, Lorelei

    2012-01-01

    Qualitative research in general and the grounded theory approach in particular, have become increasingly prominent in medical education research in recent years. In this Guide, we first provide a historical perspective on the origin and evolution of grounded theory. We then outline the principles underlying the grounded theory approach and the procedures for doing a grounded theory study, illustrating these elements with real examples. Next, we address key critiques of grounded theory, which continue to shape how the method is perceived and used. Finally, pitfalls and controversies in grounded theory research are examined to provide a balanced view of both the potential and the challenges of this approach. This Guide aims to assist researchers new to grounded theory to approach their studies in a disciplined and rigorous fashion, to challenge experienced researchers to reflect on their assumptions, and to arm readers of medical education research with an approach to critically appraising the quality of grounded theory studies.

  20. Industry Support of Medical Research: Important Opportunity or Treacherous Pitfall?

    PubMed

    Tierney, William M; Meslin, Eric M; Kroenke, Kurt

    2016-02-01

    Pharmaceutical and device manufacturers fund more than half of the medical research in the U.S. Research funding by for-profit companies has increased over the past 20 years, while federal funding has declined. Research funding from for-profit medical companies is seen as tainted by many academicians because of potential biases and prior misbehavior by both investigators and companies. Yet NIH is encouraging partnerships between the public and private sectors to enhance scientific discovery. There are instances, such as methods for improving drug adherence and post-marketing drug surveillance, where the interests of academician researchers and industry could be aligned. We provide examples of ethically performed industry-funded research and a set of principles and benchmarks for ethically credible academic-industry partnerships that could allow academic researchers, for-profit companies, and the public to benefit.

  1. African swine fever virus: current state and future perspectives in vaccine and antiviral research.

    PubMed

    Zakaryan, Hovakim; Revilla, Yolanda

    2016-03-15

    African swine fever (ASF) is among the most significant of swine diseases for which no effective vaccines and antivirals are available. The disease, which is endemic in Africa, was introduced to Trans-Caucasian countries and the Russian Federation in 2007, where it remains prevalent today among domestic pigs and wild boars. Although some measures were implemented, ASF continues to pose a global risk for all countries, and thereby highlighting the importance of vaccine and antiviral research. In this review, an overview of research efforts toward the development of effective vaccines during the past decades is presented. As an alternative to vaccine development, the current state in antiviral research against ASFV is also presented. Finally, future perspectives in vaccine and antiviral research giving emphasis on some strategies that may allow researchers to develop effective countermeasures against ASF are discussed.

  2. Progress of Iran in Medical Research.

    PubMed

    Kolahdoozan, Shadi; Massarrat, Sadegh

    2016-11-01

     The indexed Iranian journals in ISI and PubMed at the end of 2012 with known impact factor (IF) were evaluated with regard to the number of articles published in 2010-2012, the number of citations by authors from inside and outside Iran, their IF as well as their ranking order among all other journals in their specialized categories. There were among 130 English journals, 21 indexed with known IF. The mean IF of these journals increased from 0.4 in 2010 to 0.68 in 2012. The number of citations per article by authors from outside Iran increased from 0.19 to 0.49 during the same time period. The rank of the majority of the indexed journals was in the lowest 20% of their category. Although some improvement has been observed in the quality and the number of citations of Iranian journals indexed in ISI during these two years, the quality of the manuscripts remains low. A reduction in the number of journals, a change of their structure as well as more financial resources for research is necessary for the improvement of the quality and better rank and status of Iranian science among an international audience.

  3. Patients’ Views Concerning Research on Medical Practices: Implications for Consent

    PubMed Central

    Weinfurt, Kevin P.; Bollinger, Juli M.; Brelsford, Kathleen M.; Crayton, Travis J.; Topazian, Rachel J.; Kass, Nancy E.; Beskow, Laura M.; Sugarman, Jeremy

    2016-01-01

    Background Comparative effectiveness research (CER) and pragmatic clinical trials commonly test interventions that are in routine use and pose minimal incremental risk or burdens to patients who participate in this research. The objective of this study was to elicit the range of patients’ views and opinions regarding a variety of different types of research on usual medical practices, especially notification and authorization for them. Methods We conducted twelve focus groups with adults in five U.S. cities—six focus groups addressing CER (“CER groups”) and six groups addressing research involving hospital operations and clinician interventions (“Operations groups”). Participants discussed hypothetical research studies and potential methods of notifying patients and obtaining their authorization to participate. Group discussions were recorded, transcribed, and coded to identify patients’ views related to research on standard medical practice. Results A total of ninety six people participated. Twelve key themes emerged from participants’ discussions of the hypothetical research studies; these themes were then grouped into four general categories: clinical care; notification and authorization; communication; and conduct and design of research. The desire to be actively notified and asked was more prominent with regard to CER studies than with regard to Operations studies. Conclusions Our data suggest that effective policy and guidance will involve balancing different patients’ interests and potentially different sets of interests for different types of research studies on usual medical practices. PMID:27800531

  4. Growing Research Among Osteopathic Residents and Medical Students: A Consortium-Based Research Education Continuum Model.

    PubMed

    Brannan, Grace D

    2016-05-01

    In general, physicians' interest in research continues to be a challenge. The lack of research culture is more pronounced in the osteopathic medical profession, which is historically not research oriented. With increasing focus on evidence-based medicine and with the single accreditation system for graduate medical education in motion, growing research and scholarly activities among osteopathic physicians and students and residents becomes imperative. This article illustrates how an educational consortium, such as an osteopathic postdoctoral training institution, can play a pivotal role in creating a culture of research through broad-based training of medical students and residents.

  5. [Ocean and bio-medical research].

    PubMed

    Boeuf, par Gilles

    2007-01-01

    On the Planet Earth, oceans and seas today correspond to the largest volume offered to Life. Roughly, 275,000 species have been described from marine environments, only representing some 15% of all the present known living. But marine biomass can be enormous. Life appeared in the ancestral ocean 3 800 million years ago and determining events occurred there: appearance of the nuclear membrane and cell nucleus, "pluricellularity", capture of bacteria transformed into organelles, then sexuality. On the 33 phyla existing today on the Earth, 12 never have left the ocean and are exclusively marine. Such biodiversity, archaism of characters, organisational and behavioural patterns make these marine organisms an excellent reservoir for identifying and extracting very interesting pharmacological and cosmetic molecules (>5 000 today) and/or to represent very pertinent "models" for basic and applied research. Relationships between ocean and public health are physical, chemical, biological and physiological. A few marine species as "models" set the base for major advances in life sciences recognized by several Nobel Prices: from the discovery of phagocytosis to anaphylactic shock, and including nervous influx transmission, memory molecular bases, cyclins discovery, eye organisation, neurotransmitter membrane receptors, bases of the specific immune system... These marine models are very useful to understand the origin and functioning of important living mechanisms in the human and sometimes to deduce applications for efficient treatments. Ocean supplies mankind with renewable living resources, much threatened today. We have to manage and protect these to maintain ecosystems, stocks and biodiversity. Only because of the greenhouse effect and anthropic emissions, temperature is globally increasing: and, what if (tomorrow?) one million species would disappear (before 2050) because of global warming?

  6. Defining risk in aerospace medical unconsciousness research.

    PubMed

    Whinnery, J E

    1989-07-01

    The maneuverability envelopes of current and future fighter/attack aircraft exceed unprotected human tolerance to environmental stress. Human exposure to unconsciousness therefore can result not only inflight, but in research and training laboratories which endeavor to provide methods of enhanced protection for aircrew. Solving the problem of unconsciousness requires a thorough understanding of the phenomenon itself. This can only be accomplished by defining the psychophysiologic aspects of unconsciousness and techniques to prevent its occurrence or enhance recovery, should it occur. The safety of experimental human exposure to G-LOC however, remains of some concern. A framework for discussing the relative insult to the central nervous system may be constructed from what is currently known about G-LOC. The results of animal experimentation allow an estimation of the central nervous system tolerance to hypoxia without permanent alteration of tissue integrity. Clinical medicine documentation of syncope and fainting episodes, coupled with a long history of uncomplicated G-LOC episodes suggests that a certain window of safe exposure exists. Utilization of G-LOC as an endpoint included exposure of very large numbers of humans to unconsciousness without significant complication. Animal experimentation suggests that 180 s of central nervous system hypoxia is associated with uncomplicated recovery. Human exposure as long as 100 s has also been safely accomplished. Centrifuge G-LOC exposure typically results in only 15-20 s of central nervous system hypoxia. As long as G-LOC experimentation using humans is performed within well defined limits, it may be accomplished within an acceptable risk envelope.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  7. Career research opportunities for the medical laboratory scientist.

    PubMed

    McGlasson, David L

    2011-01-01

    Medical Laboratory Scientists (MLS) typically practice in hospital laboratories; however there are multiple alternatives in research. This article details the advantages of working in a variety of research laboratory settings. These include public institutions, federal laboratory workplaces, private facilities, and industry settings. A view of the different research laboratory settings such as public institutions, federal laboratory workplaces, private facilities, and industry settings will be provided. An assessment on how MLS professionals can prepare for a career in research is outlined and the report concludes with a brief summary of the various aspects of the research setting.

  8. Ongoing patient randomization: an innovation in medical care research.

    PubMed Central

    Cargill, V; Cohen, D; Kroenke, K; Neuhauser, D

    1986-01-01

    Hospitals often have rotational assignment of patients to one of several similar provider care teams. The research potential of these arrangements has gone unnoticed. By changing to random assignment of patients and physicians to provider care teams (firms) this kind of organization can be used for sequential, randomized clinical trials which are ethical and efficient. The paper describes such arrangements at three different hospitals: Cleveland Metropolitan General Hospital, Brooke Army Medical Center, and University Hospitals of Cleveland. Associated methodologic issues are discussed. This is a new, more widely applicable method for medical care research. PMID:3546202

  9. Forensic medical evaluations of child maltreatment: a proposed research agenda.

    PubMed

    Dubowitz, Howard; Christian, Cindy W; Hymel, Kent; Kellogg, Nancy D

    2014-11-01

    Physicians play an important role in the forensic evaluation of suspected child abuse and neglect. There has been considerable progress in the medical field, helping distinguish findings related to maltreatment from other conditions or circumstances. Nevertheless, important questions remain. This article covers several of these questions and proposes a research agenda concerning five main topics: sexual abuse, neglect, fractures, abusive head trauma, and physicians work in interdisciplinary settings. The suggestions are hardly inclusive, but offer suggestions the authors think are priorities, and ones that research could reasonably address. By providing some background to gaps in our knowledge, this paper should be of interest to a broader audience than just medical professionals.

  10. Medical informatic research management in academia - the Danish setting.

    PubMed

    Kjær Andersen, Stig

    2011-01-01

    The condition that the Danish universities have been subject to severe changes through the last decade has had huge consequences for management of research at the level of a discipline as Medical Informatics. The presentation pinpoints some of the instruments, which is on top of the management agenda in the new academic reality in Denmark. Performance contracts, organizational structure, general management, research constraints, ranking and performance issues, economy linked to production, ownership, and incitements are issues affecting the way research are done. The issue of effective research management is to navigate in this reality, ensure inspiration and influx from other environments dealing with medical informatics problems, in theory as well as in praxis - and shield the individual researcher from emerging bureaucracy, leaving room for creativity.

  11. Patient Confidentiality in the Research Use of Clinical Medical Databases

    PubMed Central

    Krishna, Rajeev; Kelleher, Kelly; Stahlberg, Eric

    2007-01-01

    Electronic medical record keeping has led to increased interest in analyzing historical patient data to improve care delivery. Such research use of patient data, however, raises concerns about confidentiality and institutional liability. Institutional review boards must balance patient data security with a researcher’s ability to explore potentially important clinical relationships. We considered the issues involved when patient records from health care institutions are used in medical research. We also explored current regulations on patient confidentiality, the need for identifying information in research, and the effectiveness of deidentification and data security. We will present an algorithm for researchers to use to think about the data security needs of their research, and we will introduce a vocabulary for documenting these techniques in proposals and publications. PMID:17329644

  12. Depression Over the Adult Life Course for African American Men: Toward a Framework for Research and Practice

    PubMed Central

    Watkins, Daphne C.

    2014-01-01

    Rarely are within-group differences among African American men explored in the context of mental health and well-being. Though current conceptual and empirical studies on depression among African American men exists, these studies do not offer a framework that considers how this disorder manifests over the adult life course for African American men. The purpose of this article is to examine the use of an adult life course perspective in understanding the complexity of depression for African American men. The proposed framework underscores six social determinants of depression (socioeconomic status, stressors, racial and masculine identity, kinship and social support, self-esteem and mastery, and access to quality health care) to initiate dialogue about the risk and protective factors that initiate, prolong, and exacerbate depression for African American men. The framework presented here is meant to stimulate discussion about the social determinants that influence depression for African American men to and through adulthood. Implications for the utility and applicability of the framework for researchers and health professionals who work with African American men are discussed. PMID:22105067

  13. Participation in medical research as a resource-seeking strategy in socio-economically vulnerable communities: call for research and action.

    PubMed

    Ravinetto, Raffaella M; Afolabi, Muhammed O; Okebe, Joseph; Van Nuil, Jennifer Ilo; Lutumba, Pascal; Mavoko, Hypolite Muhindo; Nahum, Alain; Tinto, Halidou; Addissie, Adamu; D'Alessandro, Umberto; Grietens, Koen Peeters

    2015-01-01

    The freedom to consent to participate in medical research is a complex subject, particularly in socio-economically vulnerable communities, where numerous factors may limit the efficacy of the informed consent process. Informal consultation among members of the Switching the Poles Clinical Research Network coming from various sub-Saharan African countries, that is Burkina Faso, The Gambia, Rwanda, Ethiopia, the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) and Benin, seems to support the hypothesis that in socio-economical vulnerable communities with inadequate access to health care, the decision to participate in research is often taken irrespectively of the contents of the informed consent interview, and it is largely driven by the opportunity to access free or better quality care and other indirect benefits. Populations' vulnerability due to poverty and/or social exclusion should obviously not lead to exclusion from medical research, which is most often crucially needed to address their health problems. Nonetheless, to reduce the possibility of exploitation, there is the need to further investigate the complex links between socio-economical vulnerability, access to health care and individual freedom to decide on participation in medical research. This needs bringing together clinical researchers, social scientists and bioethicists in transdisciplinary collaborative research efforts that require the collective input from researchers, research sponsors and funders.

  14. [African agriculture faced with global changes: researches and innovations based on ecological sciences].

    PubMed

    Masse, Dominique; Ndour Badiane, Yacine; Hien, Edmond; Akpo, Léonard-Élie; Assigbetsé, Komi; Bilgo, Ablassé; Diédhiou, Ibrahima; Hien, Victor; Lardy, Lydie

    2013-01-01

    In the context of environmental and socio-economic changes, the agriculture of Sub-Saharan African countries will have to ensure food security of the population, while reducing its environmental footprint. The biophysical and social systems of agricultural production are complex. Innovative agricultural practices will be based on an intensification of ecological processes that determine the functioning of the soil-plant system, farmers' fields and agro-ecosystems. This ecological engineering approach is useful to take up the challenge of Sub-Saharan agricultures in the future, as shown in researches conducted by IESOL International Joint Lab "Intensification of agricultural soils in West Africa" (ISRA, UCAD, TU, OU, INERA, IRD).

  15. Bibliometric Assessment of European and Sub-Saharan African Research Output on Poverty-Related and Neglected Infectious Diseases from 2003 to 2011

    PubMed Central

    Gurney, Karen A.; Mgone, Charles S.

    2015-01-01

    Background The European & Developing Countries Clinical Trials Partnership (EDCTP) is a partnership of European and sub-Saharan African countries that aims to accelerate the development of medical interventions against poverty-related diseases (PRDs). A bibliometric analysis was conducted to 1) measure research output from European and African researchers on PRDs, 2) describe collaboration patterns, and 3) assess the citation impact of clinical research funded by EDCTP. Methodology/Principal Findings Disease-specific research publications were identified in Thomson Reuters Web of Science using search terms in titles, abstracts and keywords. Publication data, including citation counts, were extracted for 2003–2011. Analyses including output, share of global papers, normalised citation impact (NCI), and geographical distribution are presented. Data are presented as five-year moving averages. European EDCTP member countries accounted for ~33% of global research output in PRDs and sub-Saharan African countries for ~10% (2007–2011). Both regions contributed more to the global research output in malaria (43.4% and 22.2%, respectively). The overall number of PRD papers from sub-Saharan Africa increased markedly (>47%) since 2003, particularly for HIV/AIDS (102%) and tuberculosis (TB) (81%), and principally involving Southern and East Africa. For 2007–2011, European and sub-Saharan African research collaboration on PRDs was highly cited compared with the world average (NCI in brackets): HIV/AIDS 1.62 (NCI: 1.16), TB 2.11 (NCI: 1.06), malaria 1.81 (NCI: 1.22), and neglected infectious diseases 1.34 (NCI: 0.97). The NCI of EDCTP-funded papers for 2003–2011 was exceptionally high for HIV/AIDS (3.24), TB (4.08) and HIV/TB co-infection (5.10) compared with global research benchmarks (1.14, 1.05 and 1.35, respectively). Conclusions The volume and citation impact of papers from sub-Saharan Africa has increased since 2003, as has collaborative research between Europe and

  16. Quality assurance in military medical research and medical radiation accident management.

    PubMed

    Hotz, Mark E; Meineke, Viktor

    2012-08-01

    The provision of quality radiation-related medical diagnostic and therapeutic treatments cannot occur without the presence of robust quality assurance and standardization programs. Medical laboratory services are essential in patient treatment and must be able to meet the needs of all patients and the clinical personnel responsible for the medical care of these patients. Clinical personnel involved in patient care must embody the quality assurance process in daily work to ensure program sustainability. In conformance with the German Federal Government's concept for modern departmental research, the international standard ISO 9001, one of the relevant standards of the International Organization for Standardization (ISO), is applied in quality assurance in military medical research. By its holistic approach, this internationally accepted standard provides an excellent basis for establishing a modern quality management system in line with international standards. Furthermore, this standard can serve as a sound basis for the further development of an already established quality management system when additional standards shall apply, as for instance in reference laboratories or medical laboratories. Besides quality assurance, a military medical facility must manage additional risk events in the context of early recognition/detection of health risks of military personnel on deployment in order to be able to take appropriate preventive and protective measures; for instance, with medical radiation accident management. The international standard ISO 31000:2009 can serve as a guideline for establishing risk management. Clear organizational structures and defined work processes are required when individual laboratory units seek accreditation according to specific laboratory standards. Furthermore, international efforts to develop health laboratory standards must be reinforced that support sustainable quality assurance, as in the exchange and comparison of test results within

  17. Self-Efficacy Mediates the Relationship between Depressive Symptoms and Medication Adherence among Hypertensive African Americans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoenthaler, Antoinette; Ogedegbe, Gbenga; Allegrante, John P.

    2009-01-01

    Many studies have documented the negative effects of depression on adherence to recommended treatment; however, little is known about the mechanism underlying this relationship. Using the Kenny and Baron analytic framework of mediation, the authors assessed whether self-efficacy mediated the relationship between depression and medication adherence…

  18. Priorities for Transgender Medical and Health Care Research

    PubMed Central

    Feldman, Jamie; Brown, George R.; Deutsch, Madeline B.; Hembree, Wylie; Meyer, Walter; Meyer-Bahlburg, Heino F.L.; Tangpricha, Vin; T’Sjoen, Guy; Safer, Joshua D.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose of Review Transgender individuals experience unique health disparities but are the subject of little focused health research. This manuscript reviews current literature on transgender medical and mental health outcomes and proposes research priorities to address knowledge gaps. Recent Findings Published research in transgender health care consists primarily of case reports, retrospective and cross-sectional studies, involving largely European settings. Challenges to US-based transgender health research include a diverse population where no single center has sufficient patient base to conduct clinical research with statistical rigor. Treatment regimens are heterogeneous and warrant study for best practices. Current research suggests increased mortality and depression in transgender individuals not receiving optimal care, and possibly a modest increase in cardiovascular risk related to hormone therapy. Current evidence does not support concerns for hormone related malignancy risk. Summary The priorities for transgender medical outcomes research should be to determine health disparities and co-morbid health conditions over the life span, along with the effects of mental health, medical, and surgical interventions on morbidity and mortality. Specific outcomes of interest based on frequency in the literature, potential severity of outcome, and patient-centered interest, include affective disorders, cardiovascular disease, malignancies, fertility, and time-dose related responses of specific interventions. PMID:26825469

  19. Use of CAM in local African-American communities: community-partnered research.

    PubMed Central

    Barnett, Marina C.; Cotroneo, Margaret; Purnell, Joseph; Martin, Danielle; Mackenzie, Elizabeth; Fishman, Alfred

    2003-01-01

    Although previous national surveys have shown an increase in the use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) in the U.S. population, racial and ethnic minority populations were under-represented in these surveys. As a result, a profile of the CAM user as white, female, affluent, middle-aged and well educated has emerged. Representing the mainstream population, these previous studies did not take into account the racial and ethnic minority populations who may have their own healing traditions and who may hold different beliefs, use different terminology, and have unique patterns of CAM use. In partnership with community-based organizations and community residents, a culturally sensitive survey instrument and protocols were designed and tested to gather data on lower income, urban African-Americans' use of, attitudes toward, and understanding of CAM. The major findings of this pilot research are 1.) Community-partnered research can help researchers gain access to sensitive data and design culturally appropriate studies; 2.) CAM terminology varies by cultural group; 3.) Certain forms of CAM (folk or family practices) are commonly found in African-American populations; and 4.) Factors that affect CAM use--including age, lack of access to conventional medicine, cultural heritage, and dissatisfaction with conventional medicine. PMID:14620706

  20. Recent application of quantification II in Japanese medical research.

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, T; Kudo, A

    1979-01-01

    Hayashi's Quantification II is a method of multivariate discrimination analysis to manipulate attribute data as predictor variables. It is very useful in the medical research field for estimation, diagnosis, prognosis, evaluation of epidemiological factors, and other problems based on multiplicity of attribute data. In Japan, this method is so well known that most of the computer program packages include the Hayashi Quantification, but it seems to be yet unfamiliar with the method for researchers outside Japan. In view of this situation, we introduced 19 selected articles of recent applications of the Quantification II in Japanese medical research. In reviewing these papers, special mention is made to clarify how the researchers were satisfied with findings provided by the method. At the same time, some recommendations are made about terminology and program packages. Also a brief discussion of the background of the quantification methods is given with special reference to the Behaviormetric Society of Japan. PMID:540587

  1. Division of Biological and Medical Research annual research summary, 1983

    SciTech Connect

    Barr, S.H.

    1984-08-01

    This research summary contains brief descriptions of research in the following areas: (1) mechanisms of hepatocarcinogenesis; (2) role of metals in cocarcinogenesis and the use of liposomes for metal mobilization; (3) control of mutagenesis and cell differentiation in cultured cells by tumor promoters; (4) radiation effects in mammalian cells; (5) radiation carcinogenesis and radioprotectors; (6) life shortening, tumor induction, and tissue dose for fission-neutron and gamma-ray irradiations; (7) mammalian genetics and biostatistics; (8) radiation toxicity studies; (9) hematopoiesis in chronic toxicity; (10) molecular biology studies; (11) chemical toxicology; (12) carcinogen identification and metabolism; (13) metal metabolism and toxicity; and (14) neurobehavioral chronobiology. (ACR)

  2. Emergency Medical Services. Project Report Phase I with Research Findings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sappe', Hoyt; Squires, Sheila S.

    This report provides results of Phase I of a project that researched the occupational area of emergency medical services (EMS), established appropriate committees, and conducted task verification. These results are intended to guide development of a program designed to train paramedics. Section 1 contains general information: purpose of Phase I;…

  3. Medical Settings as a Context for Research on Cognitive Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salmon, Karen; Brown, Deirdre A.

    2013-01-01

    Medical contexts provide a rich opportunity to study important theoretical questions in cognitive development and to investigate the influence of a range of interacting factors relating to the child, the experience, and the broader social context on children's cognition. In the context of examples of research investigating these issues, we…

  4. [Organisation of scientific and research work of Navy medical service].

    PubMed

    Gavrilov, V V; Myznikov, I L; Kuz'minov, O V; Shmelev, S V; Oparin, M Iu

    2013-03-01

    The main issues of organization of scientific and research work of medical service in the North Fleet are considered in the present article. Analysis of some paragraphs of documents, regulating this work at army level is given. The authors give an example of successful experience of such work in the North Fleet, table some suggestions which allow to improve the administration of scientific and research work in the navy and also on the district scale.

  5. Naval Medical Research And Development News. Volume 7, Issue 8

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-08-01

    PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Naval...Medical Research Center, 503 Robert Grant,Avenue,,Silver Spring,,MD, 20910 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER 9. SPONSORING/MONITORING AGENCY...cellulose. The second phase will enhance the performance of the filter material by adding functional groups onto the nanocellulose fibers. Researchers

  6. Researching the Link Between Biomass Burning and Drought Across the Northern Sub-Saharan African Savanna/Sahel Belt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ichoku, Charles; Ellison, Luke

    2012-01-01

    The northern sub-Saharan African (NSSA) region, bounded by the Sahara, Equator, and the West and East African coastlines, is subjected to intense biomass burning every year during the dry season. This is believed to be one of the drivers of the regional carbon and energy cycles, with serious implications for the water cycle anomalies that probably contribute to drought and desertification. In this presentation, we will discuss a new multi-disciplinary research in the NSSA region, review progress, evaluate preliminary results, and interact with the research and user communities to examine how best to coordinate with other research activities in order to address related environmental issues most effectively.

  7. Retreat from Nuremberg: can we prevent unethical medical research?

    PubMed

    Horner, J S

    1999-09-01

    The prosecution of doctors guilty of appalling human rights abuses at Nuremberg was achieved on the mistaken premise that the research community already had a code of conduct which, if applied, would have made such abuses impossible. In fact, not only was there no such code but when the 'Nuremberg Code' was published after the trial it continued to be ignored by many doctors for some thirty years afterwards. Indeed its central principle of informed consent has itself been eroded by subsequent international agreements on the ethics of medical research. This review shows that the mechanisms for approval of medical research which have now been promulgated in England and Wales, in practice, are applied on a very variable basis. Research in vulnerable groups unable to give fully informed consent such as children, prisoners and the incompetent elderly require the application of more rigorous standards of ethical control than those currently in operation. The use of vulnerable populations in the developing world and the application of international standards to them is also considered. A number of suggestions for improvements in current procedures in all these areas are put forward. The proposals for the United Kingdom would meet the requirements of the European Convention on bioethical research and the recent government consultation paper on medical treatment and research in incompetent adults.

  8. History and perspectives of medical research at the Albert Schweitzer Hospital in Lambaréné, Gabon.

    PubMed

    Ramharter, Michael; Adegnika, Ayola A; Agnandji, Selidji T; Matsiegui, Pierre Blaise; Grobusch, Martin P; Winkler, Stefan; Graninger, Wolfgang; Krishna, Sanjeev; Yazdanbakhsh, Maria; Mordmüller, Benjamin; Lell, Bertrand; Missinou, Michel A; Mavoungou, Elie; Issifou, Saadou; Kremsner, Peter G

    2007-01-01

    In 1913 Albert Schweitzer founded one of the first modern hospitals in Africa dedicated to the health of the local population. The Albert Schweitzer Hospital is located in Lambaréné, a small town in Gabon. In 1981 a research department--the Medical Research Unit--was established with the aim to perform research in the field of infectious diseases ( www.lambarene.org ). The main focus lies on clinical research on malaria and other parasitic diseases. Studies on the molecular biology and immunology of parasitic diseases are fostered since the inauguration of a novel building dedicated for basic science. A training program in clinical research in tropical diseases for African scientists has been set up recently.

  9. Can medical education rise to the challenge of the African crisis?

    PubMed

    Omer, Mohamed Ibrahim Ali

    2005-12-01

    In the face of the worsening health crisis in Africa, educationalists there and beyond are challenged to identify their role in resolving the crisis. The training of doctors has to be re-orientated so that they are well equipped to lead the way towards improving the health situation and effectively participating in improving the general condition of the people. This can be achieved by medical schools having control of their duties and functions and using these powers to train doctors who are community-orientated, able to identify clinical and epidemiological problems and find suitable solutions. Doctors of the future should be comfortable working in the community with other members of health teams and confident in addressing all health-related matters in the community. During their formative years in medical school they should acquire the skills to continue self-education. This paper discusses some of the important steps that should be taken by medical schools, taking into account the present situation in Africa.

  10. Undergraduate Medical Education Research in Malaysia: Time for a Change

    PubMed Central

    Salam, Abdus; Hamzah, Jemaima Che; Chin, Tan Geok; Siraj, Harlina Halizah; Idrus, Ruszymah; Mohamad, Nabishah; Raymond, Azman Ali

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Special Study Module (SSM) is a mandatory research module implemented in Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM). The objective of this paper is to provide a brief overview on the student research activities and to find out the outcome measures in terms of publication. Methods: It was a retrospective study done on SSM research projects at UKM. The SSM research is conducted from beginning of year-4 until 1st seven weeks of year-5. In year-4, students are assigned to a faculty-supervisor in small groups and spend every Thursday afternoon to plan and carry the research. Whole first seven weeks of year-5, students are placed with their supervisor continuously to collect data, do analysis, write report and present in the scientific conference. Outcomes of 5-years SSM research-projects starting from 2008/2009 to 2012/2013 academic session were analyzed. Results: Total 257 projects were completed and presented in annual scientific meetings from which 57 (22.2%) articles were published in peer reviewed journals. Conclusion: Mandatory undergraduate student research project brings an opportunity to develop students’ capacity building from conception to final report writing and thereby narrowing the gap between education and practice. Medical schools should implement research module to bring changes in research and publication culture of undergraduate medical education. PMID:26150832

  11. Medication adherence and visit-to-visit variability of systolic blood pressure in African Americans with chronic kidney disease in the AASK trial.

    PubMed

    Hong, K; Muntner, P; Kronish, I; Shilane, D; Chang, T I

    2016-01-01

    Lower adherence to antihypertensive medications may increase visit-to-visit variability of blood pressure (VVV of BP), a risk factor for cardiovascular events and death. We used data from the African American Study of Kidney Disease and Hypertension (AASK) trial to examine whether lower medication adherence is associated with higher systolic VVV of BP in African Americans with hypertensive chronic kidney disease (CKD). Determinants of VVV of BP were also explored. AASK participants (n=988) were categorized by self-report or pill count as having perfect (100%), moderately high (75-99%), moderately low (50-74%) or low (<50%) proportion of study visits with high medication adherence over a 1-year follow-up period. We used multinomial logistic regression to examine determinants of medication adherence, and multivariable-adjusted linear regression to examine the association between medication adherence and systolic VVV of BP, defined as the coefficient of variation or the average real variability (ARV). Participants with lower self-reported adherence were generally younger and had a higher prevalence of comorbid conditions. Compared with perfect adherence, moderately high, moderately low and low adherence was associated with 0.65% (±0.31%), 0.99% (±0.31%) and 1.29% (±0.32%) higher systolic VVV of BP (defined as the coefficient of variation) in fully adjusted models. Results were qualitatively similar when using ARV or when using pill counts as the measure of adherence. Lower medication adherence is associated with higher systolic VVV of BP in African Americans with hypertensive CKD; efforts to improve medication adherence in this population may reduce systolic VVV of BP.

  12. Using benchmarking research to locate agency best practices for African American clients.

    PubMed

    Kondrat, Mary Ellen; Greene, Gilbert J; Winbush, Greta B

    2002-07-01

    Using a collective case study design with benchmarking features, research reported here sought to locate differences in agency practices between public mental health agencies in which African American clients were doing comparatively better on specific proxy outcomes related to community tenure, and agencies with less success on those same variables. A panel of experts from the Ohio Department of Mental Health matched four agencies on per capita spending, percentage of African American clients, and urban-intensive setting. The panel also differentiated agencies on the basis of racial group comparisons for a number of proxy variables related to successful community tenure. Two agencies had a record of success with this client group (benchmark agencies); and two were less successful based on the selected criteria (comparison agencies). Findings indicated that when service elements explicitly related to culture were similar across study sites, the characteristics that did appear to make a difference were aspects of organizational culture. Implications for administration practice and further research are discussed.

  13. Evaluation of Strategies for Building a Research Culture--An Empirical Case Study at an African University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Studman, Cliff; Tsheko, G. Nnunu

    2007-01-01

    The impact of change strategies for developing research at an African primarily undergraduate institution is considered using a case study of the University of Botswana. After an analysis of the existing situation, a short research policy, written in understandable terms, was developed. The policy was structured so that it could be used for…

  14. Disproportionate Diagnosis of Mental Disorders among African American versus European American Clients: Implications for Counseling Theory, Research, and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Robert C.; Feisthamel, Kevin P.

    2009-01-01

    Research generated by the professions of psychiatry and psychology reveals that African Americans are more often diagnosed with specific mental disorders (e.g., psychotic disorders) compared with European Americans. No research to date, however, has investigated whether professional counselors make differential diagnoses according to client race.…

  15. [Research in general medicine, role of the medical thesis].

    PubMed

    Levasseur, G; Schweyer, F X

    2003-06-01

    General practice doctors are naturally presented as being actors on the front lines of public health. The ability of general practitioners to be aware of and deal with public health questions largely depends upon their training. Perhaps one could consider the general practitioner's thesis as a preparatory analytical work within the area of their future field of practice. Do these theses serve to provide food for thought on general practice and its contribution to public health, and if not, could they? An analysis conducted within four medical schools in western France demonstrates that the work produced for general medicine identified as such only constitutes a fraction of the overall number of medical (non-university) theses (approximately 5%). Two possible explanations may be put forward. First, on the one hand, the theses highly depend on the context of the training and the work produced is a direct result of this. Second, on the other hand, the current methods of indexing notes in the university databases does not enable general medicine to be clearly seen and visibly recognised as an academic discipline. Two questions then remain: Can medical theses be considered as research? Should research in general medicine be carried out solely by general practitioners? It is vital that resources from outside the medical field be raised and mobilised for general practice research, whose themes are multi-disciplinary and not only clinical.

  16. Enhancing medical research efficiency by using concept maps.

    PubMed

    Gurupur, Varadraj P; Kamdi, Amit S; Tuncer, Tolga; Tanik, Murat M; Tanju, Murat N

    2011-01-01

    Even with today's advances in technology, the processes involved in medical research continue to be both time consuming and labor intensive. We have built an experimental integrated tool to convert the textual information available to the researchers into a concept map using the Web Ontology Language as an intermediate source of information. This tool is based on building semantic models using concept maps. The labor-intensive sequence of processes involved in medical research is suitably replaced by using this tool built by a suitable integration of concept maps and Web Ontology Language. We analyzed this tool by considering the example of linking vitamin D deficiency with prostate cancer. This tool is intended to provide a faster solution in building relations and concepts based on the existing facts.

  17. Attitudes and beliefs of South African medical students toward organ transplantation.

    PubMed

    Sobnach, Sanju; Borkum, Megan; Millar, Alastair J W; Hoffman, Ross; Muller, Elmi; McCurdie, Fiona; Kahn, Delawir

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess and analyse the attitudes and beliefs of medical students regarding organ donation, procurement, and transplantation. Medical students at the University of Cape Town were prospectively surveyed using a self-administered questionnaire. There were 346 study participants; the mean age was 21 (range 18-33) yr, 38% were male and 62% was female. Only 8% of respondents were registered donors; clinical and white students constituted the majority of this group. Of the 315 "non-donors," the main reason for not donating was "I have not really thought about organ donation" (59%). Most students (91%) would accept an artificial organ; and 87% and 52% of students would accept human and animal organs respectively. Muslim students (11%, p<0.05) and those who believe in an after-life or reincarnation (18%, p=0.00) were less willing to accept human or animal organs. About 95% of respondents stated that they would like to learn more about transplantation and would keep information about it in their practice but only 18% of respondents knew where to find information for potential donors and recipients. Most students have a favorable attitude toward organ transplantation; religion and belief systems impact on willingness to receive organs.

  18. Prostate cancer chemoprevention in men of African descent: current state of the art and opportunities for future research.

    PubMed

    Chornokur, Ganna; Kumar, Nagi B

    2013-08-01

    Prostate cancer is the most frequently diagnosed malignancy in men. However, African American/Black men are 60 % more likely to be diagnosed with and 2.4 times more likely to die from prostate cancer, compared to Non-Hispanic White men. Despite the increased burden of this malignancy, no evidence-based recommendation regarding prostate cancer screening exists for the high-risk population. Moreover, in addition to screening and detection, African American men may constitute a prime population for chemoprevention. Early detection and chemoprevention may thus represent an integral part of prostate cancer control in this population. Importantly, recent research has elucidated biological differences in the prostate tumors of African American compared to European American men. The latter may enable a more favorable response in African American men to specific chemopreventive agents that target relevant signal transduction pathways. Based on this evolving evidence, the aims of this review are threefold. First, we aim to summarize the biological differences that were reported in the prostate tumors of African American and European American men. Second, we will review the single- and multi-target chemopreventive agents placing specific emphasis on the pathways implicated in prostate carcinogenesis. And lastly, we will discuss the most promising nutraceutical chemopreventive compounds. Our review underscores the promise of chemoprevention in prostate cancer control, as well as provides justification for further investment in this filed to ultimately reduce prostate cancer morbidity and mortality in this high-risk population of African American men.

  19. African American Faculty Expressing Concerns: Breaking the Silence at Predominantly White Research Oriented Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Henry H.; Edwards, Willie J.

    2016-01-01

    A Delphi method was used with a panel of 24 African American faculty employed at 43 predominantly white doctoral extensive universities to arrive at a group consensus on a list of concerns that African American faculty in general experienced or held. Using the Delphi method a panel of African American faculty initially worked from a list of eight…

  20. Research vulnerability: an illustrative case study from the South African mining industry.

    PubMed

    Horn, Lyn

    2007-12-01

    The concept of 'vulnerability' is well established within the realm of research ethics and most ethical guidelines include a section on 'vulnerable populations'. However, the term 'vulnerability', used within a human research context, has received a lot of negative publicity recently and has been described as being simultaneously 'too broad' and 'too narrow'. The aim of the paper is to explore the concept of research vulnerability by using a detailed case study - that of mineworkers in post-apartheid South Africa. In particular, the usefulness of Kipnis's taxonomy of research vulnerability will be examined. In recent years the volume of clinical research on human subjects in South Africa has increased significantly. The HIV and TB pandemics have contributed to this increase. These epidemics have impacted negatively on the mining industry; and mining companies have become increasingly interested in research initiatives that address these problems. This case study explores the potential research vulnerability of mineworkers in the context of the South African mining industry and examines measures that can reduce this vulnerability.

  1. "Bimodal" medical schools: excelling in research and primary care.

    PubMed

    Osborn, E H; O'Neil, E H

    1996-09-01

    The authors studied four "bimodal" medical schools--those ranked in the top 20% by the Association of American Medical Colleges both in production of primary care physicians and in receiving research grants from the National Institutes of Health. A descriptive, anthropologic method was used to describe the cultures of these schools and to determine common factors in their success. The four schools are at the University of Washington, the University of North Carolina, the University of California, San Francisco, and the University of California, San Diego. These common factors ranged from characteristics of the schools to characteristics of their external environments. All four are part of large, state-supported universities. They are relatively new schools in areas of the country that have blossomed in biotechnology, aerospace, and computer industries. The schools' missions, admission committees, and educational programs reflect their dual role: to meet the health care needs of their states and to advance basic science knowledge in medicine. Each state has a strong Academy of Family Practice, and the medical schools have been in the forefront of residency training in this specialty. Federal- and state-funded Area Health Education Centers and private foundations have provided seed money for educational programs in community and rural settings that attract medical students to primary care. Research-intensive medical schools can encourage students to enter primary care specialties if they have strong primary care leaders and programs and if they support medical education programs outside the academic, tertiary-care center. A culture of mutual respect and commitment to community service is also essential to achieving this bimodal success.

  2. Understanding the debate on medical education research: a sociological perspective.

    PubMed

    Albert, Mathieu

    2004-10-01

    Since the mid-1990s, a debate has taken place among medical education scholars regarding the forms that research should take and the roles it should play. Editors of major journals in medical education and prominent researchers in the domain have repeatedly addressed the issue and have attempted to define what medical education research should be. The goal of this article is to look at the debate from a sociological perspective and to outline the social factors shaping it. An analysis of the texts published since 1990 addressing the issue shows that the debates can be deconstructed in four topics: epistemology, methodology, the primary purpose of medical education research, and the "quality" of the projects carried out in the domain. However, the debates can also be amalgamated and synthesized using the concept of "field" as developed by sociologist Pierre Bourdieu. A "field" refers to the configuration of power relations among individuals, social groups, or institutions within a domain of activities. Scientific fields are typically structured around a "bipolar" opposition pattern. At one pole stand those individuals who promote greater collaboration with nonscientists as well as research aimed at responding to practical needs. At the opposite pole stand those individuals who aspire to achieve independence of the field from such external constraints. The use of the concept of "field" allows us to understand the debate from a larger perspective and to establish parallels with similar debates in other scientific fields. In doing so, we will have the opportunity to learn from the experience of these other fields and be more reflective about the debate in which we engage.

  3. WE-A-16A-01: International Medical Physics Symposium: Increasing Access to Medical Physics Education/Training and Research Excellence

    SciTech Connect

    Bortfeld, T; Ngoma, T; Odedina, F; Morgan, S; Wu, R; Sajo, E; Ngwa, W

    2014-06-15

    and professional development of Medical Physicists and other Radiation Oncology professionals in global health Wilfred Ngwa, Harvard Medical School, University of Massachusetts Lowell, MA The 2014 World Health Organization (WHO) Cancer report highlights an alarming increase in the global burden of cancer. It also highlights what it terms “the cancer divide”, or disparities, evinced by a substantially higher cancer burden in low and middle income countries (LMIC) in Asia, Central/South America and Africa. The WHO even predicts a potential African cancer epidemic by 2020 if significant progress is not made in global cancer control efforts. Evidence that collaborative global health approaches have led to major progress in controlling infectious diseases including in LMIC suggests that similar approaches will be useful for non-communicable diseases like cancer. In consonance with this, leaders in cancer policy from the USA and 14 economically diverse countries recently concluded that successful campaigns to control cancers with existing methods and to improve current strategies will increasingly depend onconcerted multinational collaborations (Sci Transl Med 5, p. 175, 2013). Hence there is growing urgency for increasing collaborative global cancer Care Research and Education (CaRE), as well as support for greater effectiveness of already existing initiatives involving partners from different nations, diverse economic and cultural backgrounds. The good news is that there is a growing awareness of the importance of global health and growing interest including amongst Medical Physicists and other Radiation oncology (RadOnc) professionals to participate in global health. However, many are unaware of currently existing opportunities for participation that even with small effort could have a high impact. Over 50% of cancer patients in the developed world depend on RadOnc professionals for their treatment, and hence participation of RadOnc professionals in global health

  4. Emergency Medical Services Systems Research Projects, 1977. NCHSR Research Management Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center for Health Services Research (DHEW/PHS), Hyattsville, MD.

    This document contains summaries of thirty-two research projects supported by the National Center for Health Services Research (NCHSR) under authority of the Emergency Medical Services (EMS) Systems Act. (Focus of these research projects is to describe, explain, and predict the performance of more than 200 EMS systems being established under Title…

  5. Emergency Medical Services System Research Project Abstracts, 1979. NCHSR Research Management Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center for Health Services Research (DHEW/PHS), Hyattsville, MD.

    Abstracts are presented that describe research grants related to Emergency Medical Services (EMS) System's techniques, methods, devices, and delivery; the research effort was supported by the National Center for Health Services Research during fiscal year 1979. Two sections included in the document describe projects funded under section 1205 of…

  6. Web-based platform for collaborative medical imaging research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rittner, Leticia; Bento, Mariana P.; Costa, André L.; Souza, Roberto M.; Machado, Rubens C.; Lotufo, Roberto A.

    2015-03-01

    Medical imaging research depends basically on the availability of large image collections, image processing and analysis algorithms, hardware and a multidisciplinary research team. It has to be reproducible, free of errors, fast, accessible through a large variety of devices spread around research centers and conducted simultaneously by a multidisciplinary team. Therefore, we propose a collaborative research environment, named Adessowiki, where tools and datasets are integrated and readily available in the Internet through a web browser. Moreover, processing history and all intermediate results are stored and displayed in automatic generated web pages for each object in the research project or clinical study. It requires no installation or configuration from the client side and offers centralized tools and specialized hardware resources, since processing takes place in the cloud.

  7. The bioethics of medical research in very poor countries.

    PubMed

    Tausig, Mark; Subedi, Sree; Subedi, Janardan

    2007-04-01

    Sociologists have had only a marginal effect on the development of bioethical principles for medical research despite their interest in the effects of social and economic inequality on health and its implications for issues of social and individual justice. In this article we review existing bioethical standards for conducting medical research in very poor countries. Given the substantial differences in individual exposure to health risks and the availability of health protective resources as well as differences in the disease burden and mortality and morbidity at the population level, it is clear that illness in poor countries can be better understood using a social causation of illness perspective. In turn we suggest that such a perspective can be useful for identifying bioethical standards that better apply in this context.

  8. Teaching medical students basic neurotransmitter pharmacology using primary research resources.

    PubMed

    Halliday, Amy C; Devonshire, Ian M; Greenfield, Susan A; Dommett, Eleanor J

    2010-12-01

    Teaching pharmacology to medical students has long been seen as a challenge, and one to which a number of innovative approaches have been taken. In this article, we describe and evaluate the use of primary research articles in teaching second-year medical students both in terms of the information learned and the use of the papers themselves. We designed a seminar where small groups of students worked on different neurotransmitters before contributing information to a plenary session. Student feedback suggested that when the information was largely novel, students learned considerably more. Crucially, this improvement in knowledge was seen even when they had not directly studied a particular transmitter in their work groups, suggesting a shared learning experience. Moreover, the majority of students reported that using primary research papers was easy and useful, with over half stating that they would use them in future study.

  9. Perceptions of Financial Payment for Research Participation among African-American Drug Users in HIV Studies

    PubMed Central

    McCurdy, Sheryl; Ratliff, Eric A.; Timpson, Sandra; Williams, Mark L.

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND Financial compensation for participating in research is controversial, especially when participants are recruited from economically disadvantaged and/or marginalized populations such as drug users. Little is known about these participants’ own views regarding payment for research participation. OBJECTIVE The objective of the study was to elicit underserved minority drug users’ views about monetary payments for participating in research. DESIGN Semi-structured in-depth interview study of motivations for and perceptions of participation in research was used. PARTICIPANTS Thirty-seven adult, economically disadvantaged African-American crack cocaine smokers were the participants of the study. APPROACH Participants were recruited from among those taking part in three HIV prevention studies. Interviews were conducted at one of 2 research field offices located in underserved minority neighborhoods in Houston, Texas. Interviews lasting 30–45 min were recorded, transcribed, coded, and analyzed for categories and themes using both conventional and directed qualitative content analysis. This report addresses themes under the broad category of financial motivations for participating in research. RESULTS Participants viewed monetary payment for research as essential to attract participation and desirable to provide optional income. Payment for research participation was perceived as one potential income source among others. Participants considered self-determination a prerogative for themselves and others. They rejected the notion of payment for participation as encouraging drug use or as inducing risk taking. CONCLUSIONS Research regulators should consider participants’ views of their desires and capacity for autonomous decisions about financial compensation for research rather than assume participants’ diminished capacity due to poverty and/or drug use. Payment for research participation appears to be part of the “informal economy” that has been

  10. 4th Annual Conference for African-American Researchers in the Mathematical Sciences (CAARMS4). Preliminary Program

    SciTech Connect

    Tapia, Richard

    1998-06-01

    In June, The Center for Research on Parallel Computation (CRPC), an NSF-funded Science and Technology Center, hosted the 4th Annual Conference for African-American Reserachers in the Mathematical Sciences (CAARMS4) at Rice University. The main goal of this conference was to highlight current work by African-American researchers and graduate students in mathematics. This conference strengthened the mathematical sciences by encouraging the increased participation of African-American and underrepresented groups into the field, facilitating working relationships between them and helping to cultivate their careers. In addition to the talks there was a graduate student poster session and tutorials on topics in mathematics and computer science. These talks, presentations, and discussions brought a broader perspective to the critical issues involving minority participation in mathematics.

  11. Black African Traditional Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zaslavsky, Claudia

    1970-01-01

    Discusses the traditional number systems and the origin of the number names used by several African peoples living south of the Sahara. Also included are limitations in African mathematical development, and possible topics for research. (RP)

  12. Informed consent and ethical issues in military medical research.

    PubMed

    McManus, John; Mehta, Sumeru G; McClinton, Annette R; De Lorenzo, Robert A; Baskin, Toney W

    2005-11-01

    Informed consent in military research shares many of the same fundamental principles and regulations that govern civilian biomedical research. In fact, much of modern research ethics is grounded in events that occurred in the context of war or government-sponsored research. Despite these similarities and common origins, research in the military has additional requirements designed to preserve service members' informed consent rights. The special nature of the superior-subordinate relationship in the military necessitates careful protections to avoid perceptions of coercion or undue influence on a military subject. Additionally, current legal and regulatory requirements for advanced informed consent significantly restrict the flexibility of the military to conduct research using waiver of consent. This has implications on the ability of the nation to develop effective medical treatments for the global war on terrorism. Nevertheless, work is under way to realign defense research policy with the norms of civilian biomedical practice. Future directions include the adoption of waivers for military emergency research, and the cautious introduction of human subject studies on the battlefield. This paper discusses historical background, regulatory differences, and concerns and challenges of some of these regulatory differences for research personnel that apply to informed consent and waiver of said informed consent for emergency research conducted by the U.S. military.

  13. Approaches of researches in medical geography in Poland and Ukraine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pantylej, Wiktoria

    2008-01-01

    This paper deals with the historical review of medical geography in the world, in Poland and in Ukraine. There are different approaches in medical geography: according to the research subject (ecological and economic approaches) and according to the current affairs of research (approach concerns sexuality, the age of the population and accordingly, accessibility of health care services to the population). To the author's mind, the most perspective approaches in medical geography in Poland and Ukraine are as follows: - integrative - dedicated to the health status of the population in connection with the quality and life level; - mathematical-statistical - connected with the problem of synthetic indexes of health status of the populations and factors influencing it, and with the problem of economic value of health and life of the population; - social-economic - the analysis of the influence of socioeconomic factors (such as wealth measure, rate of unemployment, work conditions and others) on public health; - ecological - connected with the researches dedicated to the analysis of environmental impact on public health status of the population; - demographical - the analysis of demographical factors of forming public health status; - social-psychological - health culture of the population, perception of the own health/morbidity and health care systems existing in different countries.

  14. [Research advances on medical genetics in China in 2015].

    PubMed

    Li, Yuanfeng; Han, Yubo; Cao, Pengbo; Meng, Jinfeng; Li, Haibei; Qin, Geng; Zhang, Feng; Jin, Guangfu; Yang, Yong; Wu, Lingqian; Ping, Jie; Zhou, Gangqiao

    2016-05-01

    Steady progress has been achieved in the medical genetics in China in 2015, as numerous original researches were published in the world's leading journals. Chinese scientists have made significant contributions to various fields of medical genetics, such as pathogenicity of rare diseases, predisposition of common diseases, somatic mutations of cancer, new technologies and methods, disease-related microRNAs (miRNAs), disease-related long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs), disease-related competing endogenous RNAs (ceRNAs), disease-related RNA splicing and molecular evolution. In these fields, Chinese scientists have gradually formed the tendency, from common variants to rare variants, from single omic analyses to multipleomics integration analyses, from genetic discovery to functional confirmation, from basic research to clinical application. Meanwhile, the findings of Chinese scientists have been drawn great attentions of international peers. This review aims to provide an overall picture of the front in Chinese medical genetics, and highlights the important findings and their research strategy.

  15. MIRMAID: A Content Management System for Medical Image Analysis Research

    PubMed Central

    Korfiatis, Panagiotis D.; Kline, Timothy L.; Blezek, Daniel J.; Langer, Steve G.; Ryan, William J.

    2015-01-01

    Today, a typical clinical study can involve thousands of participants, with imaging data acquired over several time points across multiple institutions. The additional associated information (metadata) accompanying these data can cause data management to be a study-hindering bottleneck. Consistent data management is crucial for large-scale modern clinical imaging research studies. If the study is to be used for regulatory submissions, such systems must be able to meet regulatory compliance requirements for systems that manage clinical image trials, including protecting patient privacy. Our aim was to develop a system to address these needs by leveraging the capabilities of an open-source content management system (CMS) that has a highly configurable workflow; has a single interface that can store, manage, and retrieve imaging-based studies; and can handle the requirement for data auditing and project management. We developed a Web-accessible CMS for medical images called Medical Imaging Research Management and Associated Information Database (MIRMAID). From its inception, MIRMAID was developed to be highly flexible and to meet the needs of diverse studies. It fulfills the need for a complete system for medical imaging research management. ©RSNA, 2015 PMID:26284301

  16. MIRMAID: A Content Management System for Medical Image Analysis Research.

    PubMed

    Korfiatis, Panagiotis D; Kline, Timothy L; Blezek, Daniel J; Langer, Steve G; Ryan, William J; Erickson, Bradley J

    2015-01-01

    Today, a typical clinical study can involve thousands of participants, with imaging data acquired over several time points across multiple institutions. The additional associated information (metadata) accompanying these data can cause data management to be a study-hindering bottleneck. Consistent data management is crucial for large-scale modern clinical imaging research studies. If the study is to be used for regulatory submissions, such systems must be able to meet regulatory compliance requirements for systems that manage clinical image trials, including protecting patient privacy. Our aim was to develop a system to address these needs by leveraging the capabilities of an open-source content management system (CMS) that has a highly configurable workflow; has a single interface that can store, manage, and retrieve imaging-based studies; and can handle the requirement for data auditing and project management. We developed a Web-accessible CMS for medical images called Medical Imaging Research Management and Associated Information Database (MIRMAID). From its inception, MIRMAID was developed to be highly flexible and to meet the needs of diverse studies. It fulfills the need for a complete system for medical imaging research management.

  17. Accelerating Medical Research using the Swift Workflow System

    PubMed Central

    STEF-PRAUN, Tiberiu; CLIFFORD, Benjamin; FOSTER, Ian; HASSON, Uri; HATEGAN, Mihael; SMALL, Steven L.; WILDE, Michael; ZHAO, Yong

    2009-01-01

    Both medical research and clinical practice are starting to involve large quantities of data and to require large-scale computation, as a result of the digitization of many areas of medicine. For example, in brain research – the domain that we consider here – a single research study may require the repeated processing, using computationally demanding and complex applications, of thousands of files corresponding to hundreds of functional MRI studies. Execution efficiency demands the use of parallel or distributed computing, but few medical researchers have the time or expertise to write the necessary parallel programs. The Swift system addresses these concerns. A simple scripting language, SwiftScript, provides for the concise high-level specification of workflows that invoke various application programs on potentially large quantities of data. The Swift engine provides for the efficient execution of these workflows on sequential computers, parallel computers, and/or distributed grids that federate the computing resources of many sites. Last but not least, the Swift provenance catalog keeps track of all actions performed, addressing vital bookkeeping functions that so often cause difficulties in large computations. To illustrate the use of Swift for medical research, we describe its use for the analysis of functional MRI data as part of a research project examining the neurological mechanisms of recovery from aphasia after stroke. We show how SwiftScript is used to encode an application workflow, and present performance results that demonstrate our ability to achieve significant speedups on both a local parallel computing cluster and multiple parallel clusters at distributed sites. PMID:17476063

  18. Synchrotron radiation applications in medical research at Brookhaven National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Thomlinson, W.

    1997-08-01

    In the relatively short time that synchrotrons have been available to the scientific community, their characteristic beams of UV and X-ray radiation have been applied to virtually all areas of medical science which use ionizing radiation. The ability to tune intense monochromatic beams over wide energy ranges clearly differentiates these sources from standard clinical and research tools. The tunable spectrum, high intrinsic collimation of the beams, polarization and intensity of the beams make possible in-vitro and in-vivo research and therapeutic programs not otherwise possible. From the beginning of research operation at the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS), many programs have been carrying out basic biomedical research. At first, the research was limited to in-vitro programs such as the x-ray microscope, circular dichroism, XAFS, protein crystallography, micro-tomography and fluorescence analysis. Later, as the coronary angiography program made plans to move its experimental phase from SSRL to the NSLS, it became clear that other in-vivo projects could also be carried out at the synchrotron. The development of SMERF (Synchrotron Medical Research Facility) on beamline X17 became the home not only for angiography but also for the MECT (Multiple Energy Computed Tomography) project for cerebral and vascular imaging. The high energy spectrum on X17 is necessary for the MRT (Microplanar Radiation Therapy) experiments. Experience with these programs and the existence of the Medical Programs Group at the NSLS led to the development of a program in synchrotron based mammography. A recent adaptation of the angiography hardware has made it possible to image human lungs (bronchography). Fig. 1 schematically depicts the broad range of active programs at the NSLS.

  19. The exclusion of people with psychiatric disorders from medical research.

    PubMed

    Humphreys, Keith; Blodgett, Janet C; Roberts, Laura Weiss

    2015-11-01

    People with psychiatric disorders are excluded from medical research to an unknown degree with unknown effects. We examined the prevalence of reported psychiatric exclusion criteria using a sample of 400 highly-cited randomized trials (2002-2010) across 20 common chronic disorders (6 psychiatric and 14 other medical disorders). Two coders rated the presence of psychiatric exclusion criteria for each trial. Half of all trials (and 84% of psychiatric disorder treatment trials) reported possible or definite psychiatric exclusion criteria, with significant variation across disorders (p < .001). Non-psychiatric conditions with high rates of reported psychiatric exclusion criteria included low back pain (75%), osteoarthritis (57%), COPD (55%), and diabetes (55%). The most commonly reported type of psychiatric exclusion criteria were those related to substance use disorders (reported in 48% of trials reporting at least one psychiatric exclusion criteria). General psychiatric exclusions (e.g., "any serious psychiatric disorder") were also prevalent (38% of trials). Psychiatric disorder trials were more likely than other medical disorder trials to report each specific type of psychiatric exclusion (p's < .001). Because published clinical trial reports do not always fully describe exclusion criteria, this study's estimates of the prevalence of psychiatric exclusion criteria are conservative. Clinical trials greatly influence state-of-the-art medical care, yet individuals with psychiatric disorders are often actively excluded from these trials. This pattern of exclusion represents an under-recognized and worrisome cause of health inequity. Further attention should be paid to how individuals with psychiatric disorders can be safely included in medical research to address this important clinical and social justice issue.

  20. Promoting translational research in human and veterinary medical virology.

    PubMed

    Tang, Yi-Wei

    2013-07-26

    Translational research serves as a bench-to-field "translation" of basic scientific research into practical diagnostic procedures and therapies useful in human and veterinary clinical services. The productivity of translational research involving infectious diseases relevant to both human and animal health (e.g., influenza diagnosis and epidemiology using emerging molecular detection and identification methods) can be maximized when both human and veterinary medical virology disciplines are integrated. Influenza viruses are continually evolving through site-specific mutation and segment reassortment, and these processes occur in all potential carrier species - including birds, humans, and many agriculturally important animals. This evolutionary plasticity occasionally allows "novel" influenzas to move from animal hosts to humans, potentially causing destructive pandemics; therefore, a rapid laboratory technique that can detect and identify "novel" influenza viruses is clinically and epidemiologically desirable. A technique-focused translational research approach is pursued to enhance detection and characterization of emerging influenza viruses circulating in both humans and other animal hosts. The PLEX-ID System, which incorporates multi-locus PCR and electrospray ionization/mass spectrometry, uses deliberately nonspecific primers that amplify all known variants (all H/N subtypes) of influenza virus, including human, other mammalian, and avian influenzas, and is therefore likely to generate analyzable amplicons from any novel influenza that might emerge in any host. Novel technology development and implementation such as the PLEX-ID System forms a key component of human and veterinary medical virology translational research.

  1. Summaries of research projects for fiscal years 1996 and 1997, medical applications and biophysical research

    SciTech Connect

    1998-02-01

    The Medical Applications and Biophysical Research Division of the Office of Biological and Environmental Research supports and manages research in several distinct areas of science and technology. The projects described in this book are grouped by the main budgetary areas: General Life Sciences (structural molecular biology), Medical Applications (primarily nuclear medicine) and Measurement Science (analytical chemistry instrumentation), Environmental Management Science Program, and the Small Business Innovation Research Program. The research funded by this division complements that of the other two divisions in the Office of Biological and Environmental Research (OBER): Health Effects and Life Sciences Research, and Environmental Sciences. Most of the OBER programs are planned and administered jointly by the staff of two or all three of the divisions. This summary book provides information on research supported in these program areas during Fiscal Years 1996 and 1997.

  2. Commentary: a ray of hope for medical school research funding.

    PubMed

    Gabbe, Steven G; Lockwood, Charles J; Marsh, Clay B

    2012-11-01

    Academic health centers are traditionally dependent on extramural agencies like the National Institutes of Health to fund medical research. The still-struggling U.S. economy has kept federal paylines stagnant in recent years even as research costs climb. Academic health center leaders need to find new funding sources to ensure that critical medical research continues. Myers and colleagues, in their report in this issue of Academic Medicine, found that scientific research funding by philanthropic nonprofit organizations rose 26% from 2006 to 2008. Even though the time frame for their study precedes the recent economic recession, their findings provide hope and guidance to academic health centers. Stable research portfolios should include a variety of sources, and Myers and colleagues suggest that partnership opportunities exist between federal and not-for-profit funding sources to focus on key disease areas. Seeking broader research funding may benefit at-risk groups like junior investigators, as the average age of a first-time NIH grant recipient in 2008 was 42 years old. To foster the new discoveries and ideas that come from young scientists, academic health centers need to diversify their research funding sources.It is encouraging that high-visibility philanthropic organizations enhanced funding by 26% from 2006 to 2008. However, between 2008 and 2010, overall grant support from foundations declined 2.3%. Should federal and private funding continue to fall, there is an eminent threat of losing a generation of investigators. Thus, creative solutions and partnerships are needed to fund more high-priority research to cure disease and create the future of medicine.

  3. Engaging Gatekeeper-Stakeholders in Development of a Mobile Health Intervention to Improve Medication Adherence Among African American and Pacific Islander Elderly Patients With Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Bazargan, Mohsen; Jones, Loretta; Vawer, May; Seto, Todd B; Farooq, Summer; Taira, Deborah A

    2016-01-01

    Background Approximately 70 million people in the United States have hypertension. Although antihypertensive therapy can reduce the morbidity and mortality associated with hypertension, often patients do not take their medication as prescribed. Objective The goal of this study was to better understand issues affecting the acceptability and usability of mobile health technology (mHealth) to improve medication adherence for elderly African American and Native Hawaiian and Pacific Islander patients with hypertension. Methods In-depth interviews were conducted with 20 gatekeeper-stakeholders using targeted open-ended questions. Interviews were deidentified, transcribed, organized, and coded manually by two independent coders. Analysis of patient interviews used largely a deductive approach because the targeted open-ended interview questions were designed to explore issues specific to the design and acceptability of a mHealth intervention for seniors. Results A number of similar themes regarding elements of a successful intervention emerged from our two groups of African American and Native Hawaiian and Pacific Islander gatekeeper-stakeholders. First was the need to teach participants both about the importance of adherence to antihypertensive medications. Second, was the use of mobile phones for messaging and patients need to be able to access ongoing technical support. Third, messaging needs to be short and simple, but personalized, and to come from someone the participant trusts and with whom they have a connection. There were some differences between groups. For instance, there was a strong sentiment among the African American group that the church be involved and that the intervention begin with group workshops, whereas the Native Hawaiian and Pacific Islander group seemed to believe that the teaching could occur on a one-to-one basis with the health care provider. Conclusions Information from our gatekeeper-stakeholder (key informant) interviews suggests that the

  4. Involving lay community researchers in epidemiological research: experiences from a seroprevalence study among sub-Saharan African migrants.

    PubMed

    Nöstlinger, Christiana; Loos, Jasna

    2016-01-01

    Community-based participatory research (CBPR) has received considerable attention during past decades as a method to increase community ownership in research and prevention. We discuss its application to epidemiological research using the case of second-generation surveillance conducted among sub-Saharan African (SSA) migrants in Antwerp city. To inform evidence-based prevention planning for this target group, this HIV-prevalence study used two-stage time-location sampling preceded by formative research. Extensive collaborative partnerships were built with community organizations, a Community Advisory Board provided input throughout the project, and community researchers were trained to participate in all phases of the seroprevalence study. Valid oral fluid samples for HIV testing were collected among 717 SSA migrants and linked to behavioural data assessed through an anonymous survey between December 2013 and August 2014. A qualitative content analysis of various data sources (extensive field notes, minutes of intervision, and training protocols) collected at 77 data collection visits in 51 settings was carried out to describe experiences with challenges and opportunities inherent to the CBPR approach at three crucial stages of the research process: building collaborative partnerships; implementing the study; dissemination of findings including prevention planning. The results show that CBPR is feasible in conducting scientifically sound epidemiological research, but certain requirements need to be in place. These include among others sufficient resources to train, coordinate, and supervise community researchers; continuity in the implementation; transparency about decision-taking and administrative procedures, and willingness to share power and control over the full research process. CBPR contributed to empowering community researchers on a personal level, and to create greater HIV prevention demand in the SSA communities.

  5. Involving lay community researchers in epidemiological research: experiences from a seroprevalence study among sub-Saharan African migrants

    PubMed Central

    Nöstlinger, Christiana; Loos, Jasna

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Community-based participatory research (CBPR) has received considerable attention during past decades as a method to increase community ownership in research and prevention. We discuss its application to epidemiological research using the case of second-generation surveillance conducted among sub-Saharan African (SSA) migrants in Antwerp city. To inform evidence-based prevention planning for this target group, this HIV-prevalence study used two-stage time-location sampling preceded by formative research. Extensive collaborative partnerships were built with community organizations, a Community Advisory Board provided input throughout the project, and community researchers were trained to participate in all phases of the seroprevalence study. Valid oral fluid samples for HIV testing were collected among 717 SSA migrants and linked to behavioural data assessed through an anonymous survey between December 2013 and August 2014. A qualitative content analysis of various data sources (extensive field notes, minutes of intervision, and training protocols) collected at 77 data collection visits in 51 settings was carried out to describe experiences with challenges and opportunities inherent to the CBPR approach at three crucial stages of the research process: building collaborative partnerships; implementing the study; dissemination of findings including prevention planning. The results show that CBPR is feasible in conducting scientifically sound epidemiological research, but certain requirements need to be in place. These include among others sufficient resources to train, coordinate, and supervise community researchers; continuity in the implementation; transparency about decision-taking and administrative procedures, and willingness to share power and control over the full research process. CBPR contributed to empowering community researchers on a personal level, and to create greater HIV prevention demand in the SSA communities. PMID:26885938

  6. Perceptions of cancer clinical research among African American men in North Carolina

    PubMed Central

    Trantham, Laurel C.; Carpenter, William R; DiMartino, Lisa D.; White, Brandolyn; Green, Melissa; Teal, Randall; Corbie-Smith, Giselle; Godley, Paul A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective The problem of cancer health disparities is substantial. Clinical trials are widely advocated as a means of reducing disparities and bringing state-of-the-art care to the broader community, where most cancer care is delivered. This study sought to develop a better understanding of why disproportionately few African American men enroll in clinical trials given their substantial cancer burden. Design This study applied community-based participatory research (CBPR) methods to design and conduct four focus groups of African American male cancer survivors and their caregivers in North Carolina. Results Among major themes, participants expressed confusion about the relationship between clinical trials, treatment, and research, signifying patient confusion and misinterpretation of common clinical trial terminology. Social norms including gender barriers and generational differences remain problematic; participants often reported that men do not talk about health issues, are unwilling to go to the doctor, and exhibit misapprehension and distrust regarding trials. Participants perceived this as detrimental to community health and expressed the need for more clarity in clinical trials information and a more fundamental social openness and communication about cancer detection and treatment. Conclusion Findings indicate the importance of clinical trials education in both traditional provider referral to trials and also in general patient navigation. To dispel pervasive misapprehension regarding placebos, clinical trials information should emphasize the role of standard care in modern cancer treatment trials. Many participants described willingness to participate in a trial upon physician recommendation, suggesting merit in improving patient-physician communication through culturally competent terminology and trial referral systems. PMID:26113749

  7. Ethical review of health-related biotechnology research in Africa: a role for the Pan African Bioethics Initiative (PABIN).

    PubMed

    Petros, B

    2007-01-01

    The paper reviews the status of nature and functions of the Pan African Bioethics Initiative (PABIN) a voluntary organization, founded in 2001 by leading members of the African health research and bioethics communities, with the aim of enhancing ethical awareness in Africa, in general, and building ethical clearance capacity in all African countries in particular. PABIN, with a membership drawn from more than 20 African countries is a member of the forum of the WHO/TDR Strategic Initiative for Developing Capacity in Ethical Review (SIDCER). PABIN works closely with its sister forums in Asia, Latin America, Eastern Europe, and North America as well as other continental and international organizations that promote bioethics in health research. PABIN has conducted three conferences and several seminars in collaboration with continental and international partners on subjects of ethical concerns in Africa. Strategically, PABIN aims at assisting in the development of competent in-country bioethics review systems in all African countries. Notable among the contemporary issues that is on the PABIN agenda is addressing the repercussions of the active pursuit by pharmaceutical and other commercial interests from the Western developed countries to conduct all sorts of clinical biomedical trials on African populations before marketing such biotechnological products and services. This drive has brought with it highly controversial ethical issues at a time when both technical and organizational capacity are lacking in much of Africa to address the ethical concerns that are arising from some health-related researches. PABIN seeks to assure that the expected health and social benefits derivable from biotechnology are reaped in accordance with internationally accepted norms.

  8. Universities in Africa: Working on Excellence for Whom? Reflections on Teaching, Research, and Outreach Activities at African Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zeelen, Jacques

    2012-01-01

    This article discusses the current dynamics at African universities concerning the quality of teaching, the role of research, the level of community outreach, and the position of higher education in the educational sector as a whole. Points of reference are experiences at the University of the North in South Africa as well as experiences at…

  9. New data on African health professionals abroad

    PubMed Central

    Clemens, Michael A; Pettersson, Gunilla

    2008-01-01

    Background The migration of doctors and nurses from Africa to developed countries has raised fears of an African medical brain drain. But empirical research on the causes and effects of the phenomenon has been hampered by a lack of systematic data on the extent of African health workers' international movements. Methods We use destination-country census data to estimate the number of African-born doctors and professional nurses working abroad in a developed country circa 2000, and compare this to the stocks of these workers in each country of origin. Results Approximately 65,000 African-born physicians and 70,000 African-born professional nurses were working overseas in a developed country in the year 2000. This represents about one fifth of African-born physicians in the world, and about one tenth of African-born professional nurses. The fraction of health professionals abroad varies enormously across African countries, from 1% to over 70% according to the occupation and country. Conclusion These numbers are the first standardized, systematic, occupation-specific measure of skilled professionals working in developed countries and born in a large number of developing countries. PMID:18186916

  10. Shadows amid sunshine: regulating financial conflicts in medical research.

    PubMed

    Saver, Richard S

    2014-02-01

    Under brand new rules implementing the Physician Payments Sunshine Act (Sunshine Act), a wide range of financial relationships, including many research-related payments, between industry, physicians, and teaching hospitals will be publicly disclosed through comprehensive, standardized payment reporting. The Sunshine Act represents the latest in a series of regulatory attempts to address financial conflicts of interest that may bias research conduct and threaten subject safety. This article summarizes the major aspects of the Sunshine Act affecting medical research, how it interacts with existing laws and policies, and identifies important unresolved issues and implementation challenges that still lie ahead with the rollout of the legislation underway. The Sunshine Act primarily depends on disclosure as a regulatory tool. As such, its long-term impact remains open to question. Disclosure in this context may have limited utility given, among other reasons, uncertainty about who the intended recipients are and their ability to use the information effectively. Apart from the insufficiency of transparency, this article further explores how proportionality, fairness, and accountability considerations make optimal regulation of financial conflicts in medical research quite challenging.

  11. Cohort Profile: HAART Observational Medical Evaluation and Research (HOMER) cohort.

    PubMed

    Patterson, Sophie; Cescon, Angela; Samji, Hasina; Cui, Zishan; Yip, Benita; Lepik, Katherine J; Moore, David; Lima, Viviane D; Nosyk, Bohdan; Harrigan, P Richard; Montaner, Julio S G; Shannon, Kate; Wood, Evan; Hogg, Robert S

    2015-02-01

    Since 1986, antiretroviral therapy (ART) has been available free of charge to individuals living with HIV in British Columbia (BC), Canada, through the BC Centre of Excellence in HIV/AIDS (BC-CfE) Drug Treatment Program (DTP). The Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART) Observational Medical Evaluation and Research (HOMER) cohort was established in 1996 to maintain a prospective record of clinical measurements and medication profiles of a subset of DTP participants initiating HAART in BC. This unique cohort provides a comprehensive data source to investigate mortality, prognostic factors and treatment response among people living with HIV in BC from the inception of HAART. Currently over 5000 individuals are enrolled in the HOMER cohort. Data captured include socio-demographic characteristics (e.g. sex, age, ethnicity, health authority), clinical variables (e.g. CD4 cell count, plasma HIV viral load, AIDS-defining illness, hepatitis C co-infection, mortality) and treatment variables (e.g. HAART regimens, date of treatment initiation, treatment interruptions, adherence data, resistance testing). Research findings from the HOMER cohort have featured in numerous high-impact peer-reviewed journals. The HOMER cohort collaborates with other HIV cohorts on both national and international scales to answer complex HIV-specific research questions, and welcomes input from external investigators regarding potential research proposals or future collaborations. For further information please contact the principal investigator, Dr Robert Hogg (robert_hogg@sfu.ca).

  12. Ethical and legal controversies in cloning for biomedical research--a South African perspective.

    PubMed

    Dhai, A; Moodley, J; McQuoid-Mason, D J; Rodeck, C

    2004-11-01

    Therapeutic embryonic stem cell research raises a number of ethical and legal issues. The promised benefits are new and important knowledge of human embryological development, gene action, and the production of transplantable tissue and organs that could be effective in reversing or curing currently irreversible disease processes. However, this research involves the deliberate production, use, and ultimate destruction of cloned embryos, hence re-awakening the debate on the moral status of the embryo. Other moral anxieties include the possibility that women (as donors of ova) would be exploited, that this research would land on the slippery slope of reproductive cloning, and that promises made too early could lead to false hope among sick patients. It also raises the question of intellectual and actual property rights in human cell lines and the techniques by which they are produced. Review of legal systems internationally reveals that there is no global consensus on therapeutic embryonic stem cell research. Legal considerations are very much influenced by ethical deliberations on the moral status of the embryo. The South African parliament is promulgating legislation permitting therapeutic cloning, thereby demonstrating a commitment by the state to act in the best interests of patients and of regenerative medicine.

  13. Access to Care, Treatment Ambivalence, Medication Nonadherence, and Long-Term Mortality Among Severely Hypertensive African Americans: A Prospective Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Young, J Hunter; Ng, Derek; Ibe, Chidinma; Weeks, Kristina; Brotman, Daniel J; Dy, Sydney Morss; Brancati, Frederick L; Levine, David M; Klag, Michael J

    2015-08-01

    African Americans living in poor neighborhoods bear a high burden of illness and early mortality. Nonadherence may contribute to this burden. In a prospective cohort study of urban African Americans with poorly controlled hypertension, mortality was 47.6% over a median follow-up of 6.1 years. Patients with pill-taking nonadherence were more likely to die (hazard ratio, 1.80; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.18-2.76) after adjustment for potential confounders. With regard to factors related to nonadherence, poor access to care such as difficulty paying for medications was associated with prescription refill nonadherence (odds ratio [OR], 4.12; 95% CI, 1.88-9.03). Pill-taking nonadherence was not associated with poor access to care; however, it was associated with factors related to treatment ambivalence including lower hypertension knowledge (OR, 2.97; 95% CI, 1.39-6.32), side effects (OR, 3.44; 95% CI, 1.47-8.03), forgetfulness (OR, 3.62; 95% CI, 1.78-7.34), and feeling that the medications do not help (OR, 2.78; 95% CI, 1.09-7.09). These data suggest that greater access to care is a necessary but insufficient remedy to the disparities experienced by urban African Americans with hypertension. To achieve its full promise, health reform must also address treatment ambivalence.

  14. Promoting HIV Vaccine Research in African American Communities: Does the Theory of Reasoned Action Explain Potential Outcomes of Involvement?

    PubMed

    Frew, Paula M; Archibald, Matthew; Martinez, Nina; del Rio, Carlos; Mulligan, Mark J

    2007-01-01

    The HIV/AIDS pandemic continues to challenge the African American community with disproportionate rates of infection, particularly among young women ages 25 to 34 years. Development of a preventive HIV vaccine may bring a substantial turning point in this health crisis. Engagement of the African American community is necessary to improve awareness of the effort and favorably influence attitudes and referent norms. The Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA) may be a useful framework for exploration of community engagement outcomes including future attendance, community mobilization, and study participation. Within the context of HIV vaccine outreach, we conducted a cross-sectional survey in early 2007 with 175 African-American adults (>/= 18 years). Confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modeling were performed and the findings support the potential of the model in understanding behavioral intentions toward HIV vaccine research.

  15. Promoting HIV Vaccine Research in African American Communities: Does the Theory of Reasoned Action Explain Potential Outcomes of Involvement?

    PubMed Central

    Frew, Paula M.; Archibald, Matthew; Martinez, Nina; del Rio, Carlos; Mulligan, Mark J.

    2009-01-01

    The HIV/AIDS pandemic continues to challenge the African American community with disproportionate rates of infection, particularly among young women ages 25 to 34 years. Development of a preventive HIV vaccine may bring a substantial turning point in this health crisis. Engagement of the African American community is necessary to improve awareness of the effort and favorably influence attitudes and referent norms. The Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA) may be a useful framework for exploration of community engagement outcomes including future attendance, community mobilization, and study participation. Within the context of HIV vaccine outreach, we conducted a cross-sectional survey in early 2007 with 175 African-American adults (≥ 18 years). Confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modeling were performed and the findings support the potential of the model in understanding behavioral intentions toward HIV vaccine research. PMID:20686675

  16. [Return of African sleeping sickness].

    PubMed

    Stingl, Peter

    2006-09-14

    At present there is a steady rise in African sleeping sickness (trypanosomiasis) transmitted by the Tsetse fly, and which if left untreated, is fatal. Thanks to more than so years of neglect by research, our therapeutic repertoire is limited to medications with a high level of toxicity. Both WHO and international aid organizations are pushing hard for the development of new, more efficient drugs that can be readily applied in the field.

  17. Privacy Impact Assessment for the Medical and Research Study Records of Human Volunteers

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Medical & Research Study Records of Human Volunteers System collects demographic and medical information on subjects who participate in research. Learn how this data is collected, used, access to the data, and the purpose of data collection.

  18. Genetic structure of a unique admixed population: implications for medical research.

    PubMed

    Patterson, Nick; Petersen, Desiree C; van der Ross, Richard E; Sudoyo, Herawati; Glashoff, Richard H; Marzuki, Sangkot; Reich, David; Hayes, Vanessa M

    2010-02-01

    Coloured individuals and made comparisons with historically predicted founder populations. We show that there is substantial genetic contribution from at least four distinct population groups: Europeans, South Asians, Indonesians and a population genetically close to the isiXhosa sub-Saharan Bantu. This is in good accord with the historical record. We briefly examine the implications of determining the genetic diversity of this population, not only for furthering understanding of human evolution out of Africa, but also for genome-wide association studies using admixture mapping. In conclusion, we define the genetic structure of a uniquely admixed population that holds great potential to advance genetic-based medical research.

  19. Distribution of medical research articles on the World Wide Web.

    PubMed

    Kavanagh, Kevin T

    2003-01-01

    Ninety-eight percent of 51 polled medical editors felt that published research articles should be available to the public on the World Wide Web at no charge, after a mean time from publication of 1.4 years for viewing and 1.9 years for printing. Public libraries or other government institutions could be allowed to assume the responsibility of housing and distributing the electronically stored archived material, analogous to their role with printed material, lifting the financial burden from the publishing companies.

  20. Research on medical image encryption in telemedicine systems.

    PubMed

    Dai, Yin; Wang, Huanzhen; Zhou, Zixia; Jin, Ziyi

    2016-04-29

    Recently, advances in computers and high-speed communication tools have led to enhancements in remote medical consultation research. Laws in some localities require hospitals to encrypt patient information (including images of the patient) before transferring the data over a network. Therefore, developing suitable encryption algorithms is quite important for modern medicine. This paper demonstrates a digital image encryption algorithm based on chaotic mapping, which uses the no-period and no-convergence properties of a chaotic sequence to create image chaos and pixel averaging. Then, the chaotic sequence is used to encrypt the image, thereby improving data security. With this method, the security of data and images can be improved.

  1. Seeing is believing: good graphic design principles for medical research.

    PubMed

    Duke, Susan P; Bancken, Fabrice; Crowe, Brenda; Soukup, Mat; Botsis, Taxiarchis; Forshee, Richard

    2015-09-30

    Have you noticed when you browse a book, journal, study report, or product label how your eye is drawn to figures more than to words and tables? Statistical graphs are powerful ways to transparently and succinctly communicate the key points of medical research. Furthermore, the graphic design itself adds to the clarity of the messages in the data. The goal of this paper is to provide a mechanism for selecting the appropriate graph to thoughtfully construct quality deliverables using good graphic design principles. Examples are motivated by the efforts of a Safety Graphics Working Group that consisted of scientists from the pharmaceutical industry, Food and Drug Administration, and academic institutions.

  2. Cancer Research Institute, Loma Linda University Medical Center

    SciTech Connect

    1994-08-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared an Environmental Assessment (EA) DOE/EA-0975, evaluating the construction, equipping and operation of the Cancer Research Institute (CRI) at the Loma Linda University Medical Center (LLUMC) on its campus in Loma Linda, California. Based on the analysis in the EA, the DOE has determined that the proposed action does not constitute a major federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA). Therefore, the preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement is not required. This document describes alternatives, the affected environment and environmental consequences of the proposed action.

  3. The African Connection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oguntoyinbo, Lekan

    2012-01-01

    From student and faculty exchanges to joint research projects, U.S. universities maintain a broad spectrum of collaborative relationships with African universities. It's unclear how many U.S. colleges and universities have partnerships with African universities. The African Studies Association, an organization of scholars, doesn't keep that kind…

  4. 25 years of African trypanosome research: From description to molecular dissection and new drug discovery☆☆☆

    PubMed Central

    Matthews, Keith R.

    2015-01-01

    The Molecular Parasitology conference was first held at the Marine Biological laboratory, Woods Hole, USA 25 years ago. Since that first meeting, the conference has evolved and expanded but has remained the showcase for the latest research developments in molecular parasitology. In this perspective, I reflect on the scientific discoveries focussed on African trypanosomes (Trypanosoma brucei spp.) that have occurred since the inaugural MPM meeting and discuss the current and future status of research on these parasites. PMID:25736427

  5. Bioastronautics: optimizing human performance through research and medical innovations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, David R.

    2002-01-01

    A strategic use of resources is essential to achieving long-duration space travel and understanding the human physiological changes in space, including the roles of food and nutrition in space. To effectively address the challenges of space flight, the Bioastronautics Initiative, undertaken in 2001, expands extramural collaboration and leverages unique capabilities of the scientific community and the federal government, all the while applying this integrated knowledge to Earth-based problems. Integral to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's missions in space is the reduction of risk of medical complications, particularly during missions of long duration. Cumulative medical experience and research provide the ability to develop evidence-based medicine for prevention, countermeasures, and treatment modalities for space flight. The early approach applied terrestrial clinical judgment to predict medical problems in space. Space medicine has evolved to an evidence-based approach with the use of biomedical data gathered and lessons learned from previous space flight missions to systematically aid in decision making. This approach led, for example, to the determination of preliminary nutritional requirements for space flight, and it aids in the development of nutrition itself as a countermeasure to support nutritional mitigation of adaptation to space.

  6. Evaluating U.S. medical schools' efforts to educate faculty researchers on research integrity and research misconduct policies and procedures.

    PubMed

    Titus, Sandra Larsen

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines how well U.S. medical school institutions are doing to promote research integrity. It is an important question to ask in order to determine whether there are sufficient and adequate protections in place to protect the U.S. Public Health Service's (PHS) resources devoted to medical research. This paper focuses on 5,100 medical school researchers' knowledge of what constitutes research misconduct as well as their willingness to report it to the research integrity officer (RIO) and educate their Ph.D. trainees. We learned that 5.6% of researchers could correctly distinguish seven or more of the nine scenarios that depicted likely research misconduct, as defined by the PHS regulations, from scenarios describing other ethical issues. Instead, researchers had expansive definitions and often inappropriately identified infractions such as conflicts of interest, Institutional Review Board (IRB) violations, and other breaches in ethical standards to be research misconduct. In addition, researchers who correctly identified four instances of likely research misconduct in the test items were highly unlikely to report their observations to a RIO. Researchers also provided insight on the factors they believe influence their decision making process of whether to report research misconduct. In addition, this paper also reports on the guidance that faculty said they provided their trainees on research misconduct issues. We conclude with a discussion and recommendations on what institutional leaders might consider doing in order to enhance their research integrity efforts and protect their institution's reputation.

  7. A Public Health Priority: Disparities in Gynecologic Cancer Research for African-Born Women in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Pinder, Leeya F.; Nelson, Brett D.; Eckardt, Melody; Goodman, Annekathryn

    2016-01-01

    African-born immigrants comprise one of the fastest growing populations in the U.S., nearly doubling its population size in recent years. However, it is also one of the most underrepresented groups in health-care research, especially research focused on gynecologic and breast malignancies. While the opportunity exists for access to an advanced health-care system, as immigrants migrate to the U.S., they encounter the same health-care inequalities that are faced by the native-born population based on ethnicity and social class, potentiated by limitations of health literacy and lack of familiarity with U.S. health systems. Given the continued influx of African-born immigrants in the U.S., we sought to understand the representation of this population in cervical and breast cancer research, recognizing the population’s high risk for these diseases at baseline while residing in their native countries. We determined that there is limited research in these diseases that disproportionately affect them; yet, there are identifiable and potentially modifiable factors that contribute to this paucity of evidence. This clinical commentary seeks to underscore the clear lack of research available involving African-born immigrants with respect to gynecologic and breast malignancies in the existing literature, demonstrate the need for more robust research in this population, and provide fundamental insights into barriers and solutions critical to the continued health of this growing population. PMID:27499654

  8. Opportunity Lost: The Story of African-American Achievement in California, 2010. Research Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education Trust-West, 2010

    2010-01-01

    California touts some of the highest educational standards in the country. Yet when it comes to the state's African-American students, these standards have proved to be little more than a mirage, forever out of reach. This report analyzes the most recent data on African-American achievement and opportunity gaps from the elementary grades through…

  9. The Strong African American Families Program: Translating Research into Prevention Programming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brody, Gene H.; Murry, Velma McBride; Gerrard, Meg; Gibbons, Frederick X.; Molgaard, Virginia; McNair, Lily; Brown, Anita C.; Wills, Thomas A.; Spoth, Richard L.; Luo, Zupei; Chen, Yi-fu; Neubaum-Carlan, Eileen

    2004-01-01

    A randomized prevention trial contrasted families who took part in the Strong African American Families Program (SAAF), a preventive intervention for rural African American mothers and their 11-year-olds, with control families. SAAF is based on a contextual model positing that regulated, communicative parenting causes changes in factors protecting…

  10. Research on Migration in Africa: Past, Present, and Future, African Rural Employment Paper No. 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byerlee, Derek

    African nations have been experiencing rapid rates of urbanization accompanied by serious problems of urban unemployment due to the rate of rural-urban migration and the lack of an adequate understanding of the migration process for economic policy formulation. The aim of this paper was to review the present knowledge of African rural-urban…

  11. Brief Report: Under-Representation of African Americans in Autism Genetic Research--A Rationale for Inclusion of Subjects Representing Diverse Family Structures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilton, Claudia L.; Fitzgerald, Robert T.; Jackson, Kelley M.; Maxim, Rolanda A.; Bosworth, Christopher C.; Shattuck, Paul T.; Geschwind, Daniel H.; Constantino, John N.

    2010-01-01

    African American children with autism are seriously under-represented in existing genetic registries and biomedical research studies of autism. We estimated the number of African American children with autism in the St. Louis region using CDC surveillance data and present the outcomes of a concerted effort to enroll approximately one-third of that…

  12. Text Messaging to Improve Hypertension Medication Adherence in African Americans From Primary Care and Emergency Department Settings: Results From Two Randomized Feasibility Studies

    PubMed Central

    Hirzel, Lindsey; Dawood, Rachelle M; Dawood, Katee L; Nichols, Lauren P; Artinian, Nancy T; Schwiebert, Loren; Yarandi, Hossein N; Roberson, Dana N; Plegue, Melissa A; Mango, LynnMarie C; Levy, Phillip D

    2017-01-01

    Background Hypertension (HTN) is an important problem in the United States, with an estimated 78 million Americans aged 20 years and older suffering from this condition. Health disparities related to HTN are common in the United States, with African Americans suffering from greater prevalence of the condition than whites, as well as greater severity, earlier onset, and more complications. Medication adherence is an important component of HTN management, but adherence is often poor, and simply forgetting to take medications is often cited as a reason. Mobile health (mHealth) strategies have the potential to be a low-cost and effective method for improving medication adherence that also has broad reach. Objective Our goal was to determine the feasibility, acceptability, and preliminary clinical effectiveness of BPMED, an intervention designed to improve medication adherence among African Americans with uncontrolled HTN, through fully automated text messaging support. Methods We conducted two parallel, unblinded randomized controlled pilot trials with African-American patients who had uncontrolled HTN, recruited from primary care and emergency department (ED) settings. In each trial, participants were randomized to receive either usual care or the BPMED intervention for one month. Data were collected in-person at baseline and one-month follow-up, assessing the effect on medication adherence, systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP and DBP), medication adherence self-efficacy, and participant satisfaction. Data for both randomized controlled pilot trials were analyzed separately and combined. Results A total of 58 primary care and 65 ED participants were recruited with retention rates of 91% (53/58) and 88% (57/65), respectively. BPMED participants consistently showed numerically greater, yet nonsignificant, improvements in measures of medication adherence (mean change 0.9, SD 2.0 vs mean change 0.5, SD 1.5, P=.26), SBP (mean change –12.6, SD 24.0 vs mean change

  13. [Exploring application of data mining technology in researching composition rules of Tibetan medical formulas].

    PubMed

    Cairang, Nanjia; Renzeng, Duojie; Duojie, Cairang; Luosang, Dongzhi; Li, Xianjia

    2012-08-01

    There are thousands of medicinal formulas in the ancient Tibetan medical texts. Researching the composition rules of Tibetan medical formulas is a very important step in the study and practice of Tibetan medicine. In order to explore the composition rules of Tibetan medical formulas this article draws on the research methods utilized in related fields of traditional Chinese medicine adapted to the unique characteristics of Tibetan medicine. This is the first time the utilization of data mining methods has been proposed for the research of Tibetan medical formulas. It is believed that data mining techniques can aid researchers in discovering the composition rules of Tibetan medical formulas in accordance with Tibetan medical theory.

  14. Division of Biological and Medical Research research summary 1984-1985

    SciTech Connect

    Barr, S.H.

    1985-08-01

    The Division of Biological and Medical Research at Argonne National Laboratory conducts multidisciplinary research aimed at defining the biological and medical hazards to man from energy technologies and new energy options. These technically oriented studies have a strong base in fundamental research in a variety of scientific disciplines, including molecular and cellular biology, biophysics, genetics, radiobiology, pharmacology, biochemistry, chemistry, environmental toxicology, and epidemiology. This research summary is organized into six parts. The first five parts reflect the Divisional structure and contain the scientific program chapters, which summarize the activities of the individual groups during the calendar year 1984 and the first half of 1985. To provide better continuity and perspective, previous work is sometimes briefly described. Although the summaries are short, efforts have been made to indicate the range of research activities for each group.

  15. Global health diplomacy training for military medical researchers.

    PubMed

    Katz, Rebecca; Blazes, David; Bae, Jennifer; Puntambekar, Nisha; Perdue, Christopher L; Fischer, Julie

    2014-04-01

    Given the unprecedented growth of global health initiatives in the past decade, informal diplomacy between technical partners plays an increasingly important role in shaping opportunities and outcomes. This article describes a course developed and executed specifically to equip U.S. military health professionals with core skills in practical diplomacy critical to help them successfully plan and implement public health surveillance, research, and capacity building programs with partner nation governments and organizations. We identified core competencies in practical diplomacy for laboratory and public health researchers, catalogued and evaluated existing training programs, and then developed a pilot course in global health diplomacy for military medical researchers. The pilot course was held in June 2012, and focused on analyzing contemporary issues related to global health diplomacy through the framework of actors, drivers, and policies that affect public health research and capacity-building, beginning at the level of global health governance and cooperation and moving progressively to regional (supranational), national, and institutional perspective. This course represents an approach geared toward meeting the needs specific to U.S. military public health personnel and researchers working in international settings.

  16. Division of Biological and Medical Research annual technical report, 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenthal, M.W.

    1982-06-01

    This report summarizes research during 1981 in the Division of Biological and Medical Research, Argonne National Laboratory. Studies in Low Level Radiation include comparison of lifetime effects in mice of low level neutron and gamma irradiation, delineation of the responses of dogs to continuous low level gamma irradiation, elucidation of mechanisms of radiation damage and repair in mammalian cells, and study of the genetic effects of high LET radiations. Carcinogenesis research addresses mechanisms of tumor initiation and promotion in rat liver, chemical carcinogenesis in cultured mammalian cells, and molecular and genetic mechanisms of chemical and ultraviolet mutagenesis in bacteria. Research in Toxicology uses a variety of cellular, whole animal, and chronobiological end points, chemical separations, and statistical models to evaluate the hazards and mechanisms of actions of metals, coal gasification by products, and other energy-related pollutants. Human Protein Index studies develop two-dimensional electrophoresis systems for diagnosis and detection of cancer and other disease. Biophysics research includes fundamental structural and biophysical investigations of immunoglobulins and key biological molecules using NMR, crystallographic, and x-ray and neutron small-angle scattering techniques. The final sections cover support facilities, educational activities, seminars, staff talks, staff, and funding agencies.

  17. Photodynamic research at Baylor University Medical Center Dallas, Texas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gulliya, Kirpal S.; Matthews, James Lester; Sogandares-Bernal, Franklin M.; Aronoff, Billie L.; Judy, Millard M.

    1993-03-01

    We received our first CO2 laser at Baylor University Medical Center in December 1974, following a trip to Israel in January of that year. Discussion with the customs office of the propriety of charging an 18% import tax lasted for nine months. We lost that argument. Baylor has been using lasers of many types for many procedures since that time. About ten years ago, through the kindness of Tom Dougherty and Roswell Park, we started working with photodynamic therapy, first with hematoporphyrin I and later with dihematoporphyrin ether (II). In February 1984, we were invited to a conference at Los Alamos, New Mexico, U.S.A. on medical applications of the free electron laser as part of the Star Wars Program. A grant application from Baylor was approved that November, but funding did not start for many months. This funding contributed to the development of a new research center as part of Baylor Research Institute. Many of the projects investigated at Baylor dealt with applications of the free electron laser (FEL), after it became available. A staff was assembled and many projects are still ongoing. I would like to outline those which are in some way related to photodynamic therapy.

  18. African American men's and women's perceptions of clinical trials research: focusing on prostate cancer among a high-risk population in the South.

    PubMed

    Owens, Otis L; Jackson, Dawnyéa D; Thomas, Tracey L; Friedman, Daniela B; Hébert, James R

    2013-11-01

    While African Americans are at a significantly higher risk for developing certain cancers, they also have low rates of participation in cancer research, particularly clinical trials. This study assessed both African American men's and African American women's (1) knowledge of and participation in cancer-related clinical research and (2) barriers to and motivations for participating in clinical research. Data were collected from a total of 81 participants. Phase I of this research consisted of qualitative focus groups (all 81 participants). Phase II included quantitative pre/post survey data from an education program (56 participants). Findings from the study revealed that African American men and women had poor knowledge about clinical trials and the informed consent process, limited experience in participating in clinical trials, and they feared and mistrusted cancer research. Participants identified incentives, assurance of safety, knowledge and awareness, and benefiting others as motivators to participate in clinical trials research.

  19. Barriers and Motivators to Participating in mHealth Research Among African American Men.

    PubMed

    James, Delores C S; Harville, Cedric

    2015-12-03

    Most African American (AA) men own a smartphone, which positions them to be targeted for a variety of programs, services, and health interventions using mobile devices (mHealth). The goal of this study was to assess AA men's use of technology and the barriers and motivators to participating in mHealth research. A self-administered survey was completed by 311 men. Multinomial logistic regression examined associations between three age groups (18-29 years, 30-50 years, and 51+ years), technology access, and motivators and barriers to participating in mHealth research. Sixty-five percent of men owned a smartphone and a laptop. Men aged 18 to 29 years were more likely willing to use a health app and smartwatch/wristband monitor than older men (p < .01). Men aged 18 to 29 years were also more likely than older men to be motivated to participate for a free cell phone/upgraded data plan and contribution to the greater good (p < .05). Older men were more likely than younger ones to be motivated to become more educated about the topic (p < .05). Younger men were more likely than older ones to report lack of interest in the topic as a barrier to participating (p < .01), while older men were more likely than younger ones to cite lack of research targeted to minority communities as a barrier (p < .05). This study suggests that culturally tailored mHealth research using smartphones may be of interest to AA men interested in risk reduction and chronic disease self-management. Opportunities also exist to educate AA men about the topic at hand and why minority men are being targeted for the programs and interventions.

  20. Pair Housing of Vervets/African Green Monkeys for Biomedical Research

    PubMed Central

    Jorgensen, Matthew J.; Lambert, Kelsey R.; Breaux, Sarah D.; Baker, Kate C.; Snively, Beverly M.; Weed, James L.

    2016-01-01

    Vervets, also known as African green monkeys, are a nonhuman primate species widely used in biomedical research. However, there are currently few references available describing techniques and rates of success for pair-housing this species. We present data from four cohorts of vervets from three different facilities: (i) the Wake Forest Vervet Research Colony (VRC; n = 72 female pairs, n = 52 male pairs), (ii) the University of Louisiana at Lafayette—New Iberia Research Center (UL-NIRC; n = 57 female pairs, n = 54 male pairs), (iii) the Tulane National Primate Research Center (TNRPC; n = 18 male pairs), and (iv) a cohort of imported males (n = 18 pairs) at Wake Forest. Compatibility was measured at 14, 30, and 60 days following introduction. Success rates for pair-housing at14 days ranged from 96% to 98% for females and 96% to 100% for males at the VRC and UL-NIRC but were lower in the smaller imported male cohorts (TNPRC: 50%; WF: 28%). Among the UL-NIRC cohort and VRC male cohort, most of the pair separations after 14 days were due to reasons unrelated to social incompatibility. In contrast, a large proportion of TNPRC and imported male pairs successful at 14 days required separation within 60 days due to incompatibility. Multiple logistic regressions were performed using cohort, mean age of pair and weight difference between pair-mates as potential predictors of compatibility at 14 days. All three predicted the 14-day outcome in males but not females. A separate analysis in the VRC cohort found no evidence that prior familiarity in a group setting influenced outcomes. Variations in success rates across cohorts may have been influenced by introduction methodology. Behavioral differences between vervets and macaques, coupled with our findings, lead us to theorize that the gradual introduction techniques commonly implemented to pair house macaques may not be beneficial or suitable for this species. PMID:26539878

  1. Division of Biological and Medical Research annual technical report 1982

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenthal, M.W.

    1983-05-01

    This report summarizes research during 1982 in the Division of Biological and Medical Research, Argonne National Laboratory. Studies in Carcinogenesis address mechanisms of chemical and radiation carcinogenesis including the processes of tumor initiation and promotion. The studies employ rat liver and mouse skin models as well as human rodent cell culture systems. The use of liposomes for metal mobilization is also explored. Low Level Radiation studies include delineation of the hematopoietic and other responses of dogs to continuous low level gamma irradiation, comparison of lifetime effects in mice of low level neutron and gamma irradiation, and study of the genetic effects of high LET radiation. Molecular Biology research develops two-dimensional electrophoresis systems for diagnosis and detection of cancer and other diseases. Fundamental structural and biophysical investigations of immunoglobulins and other key proteins are included, as are studies of cell growth, and of molecular and cellular effects of solar uv light. Research in Toxicology uses cellular, physiological, whole animal, and chronobiological end points and chemical separations to elucidate mechanisms and evaluate hazards of coal conversion by-products, actinides, and toxic metals. The final sections cover support facilities, educational activities, seminars, staff talks, staff, and funding agencies.

  2. The Evolution of Medical Research Writing from 1735 to 1985: The Case of the "Edinburgh Medical Journal."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atkinson, Dwight

    1992-01-01

    Research articles from the oldest continuing medical journal in English were studied in terms of rhetorical analysis of broad genre characteristics and linguistic analysis of registral features using Biber's system of text analysis. Results suggest evolution influenced can be accounted for by changing epistemological norms of medical knowledge,…

  3. Proceedings of the 2010 AFMS Medical Research Symposium. Volume 2. Operational and Medical Track: Abstracts and Presentations.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-03-15

    Bariatric Surgery for Morbid Obesity ........................................................... 78  Pilot Study of A Diabetes Prevention Program in A...Medical Research Symposium Volume 2 Operational & Medical 78 Budget Impact Analysis of Bariatric Surgery for Morbid Obesity University of...Washington Rafael Alfonso Obesity is reported to increase mortality, morbidity, and costs. Bariatric surgery remains the most effective treatment for

  4. Burkitt lymphoma research in East Africa: highlights from the 9th African organization for research and training in cancer conference held in Durban, South Africa in 2013

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    A one-day workshop on Burkitt lymphoma (BL) was held at the 9th African Organization for Research and Training in Cancer (AORTIC) conference in 2013 in Durban, South Africa. The workshop featured 15 plenary talks by delegates representing 13 institutions that either fund or implement research on BL targeting AORTIC delegates primarily interested in pediatric oncology. The main outcomes of the meeting were improved sharing of knowledge and experience about ongoing epidemiologic BL research, BL treatment in different settings, the role of cancer registries in cancer research, and opportunities for African scientists to publish in scientific journals. The idea of forming a consortium of BL to improve coordination, information sharing, accelerate discovery, dissemination, and translation of knowledge and to build capacity, while reducing redundant efforts was discussed. Here, we summarize the presentations and discussions from the workshop. PMID:25686906

  5. Self-Experimentation and Its Role in Medical Research

    PubMed Central

    Weisse, Allen B.

    2012-01-01

    Although experimentation involving human volunteers has attracted intense study, the matter of self-experimentation among medical researchers has received much less attention. Many questions have been answered only in part, or have been left unanswered. How common is this practice? Is it more common among certain nationalities? What have been the predominant medical fields in which self-experimentation has occurred? How dangerous an act has this proved to be? What have been the trends over time? What is the future likely to bring? From the available literature, I identified and analyzed 465 documented instances of this practice, performed over the course of the past 2 centuries. Most instances occurred in the United States. The peak of self-experimentation occurred in the first half of the 20th century. Eight deaths were recorded. A number of the investigators enjoyed successful careers, including the receipt of Nobel Prizes. Although self-experimentation by physicians and other biological scientists appears to be in decline, the courage of those involved and the benefits to society cannot be denied. PMID:22412227

  6. Self-experimentation and its role in medical research.

    PubMed

    Weisse, Allen B

    2012-01-01

    Although experimentation involving human volunteers has attracted intense study, the matter of self-experimentation among medical researchers has received much less attention. Many questions have been answered only in part, or have been left unanswered. How common is this practice? Is it more common among certain nationalities? What have been the predominant medical fields in which self-experimentation has occurred? How dangerous an act has this proved to be? What have been the trends over time? What is the future likely to bring?From the available literature, I identified and analyzed 465 documented instances of this practice, performed over the course of the past 2 centuries. Most instances occurred in the United States. The peak of self-experimentation occurred in the first half of the 20th century. Eight deaths were recorded. A number of the investigators enjoyed successful careers, including the receipt of Nobel Prizes. Although self-experimentation by physicians and other biological scientists appears to be in decline, the courage of those involved and the benefits to society cannot be denied.

  7. Multispecies Epidemiologic Surveillance Study after an Outbreak of Yersiniosis at an African Green Monkey Research Facility

    PubMed Central

    Soto, Esteban; Loftis, Amanda; Boruta, Daniel; Rostad, Sara; Beierschmitt, Amy; McCoy, Matthew; Francis, Stewart; Berezowski, John; Illanes, Oscar; Recinos, Diego; Arauz, Maziel; Spencer, Dustine; Fraites, Trellor; Palmour, Roberta

    2015-01-01

    After an outbreak of Yersinia enterocolitica at a NHP research facility, we performed a multispecies investigation of the prevalence of Yersinia spp. in various mammals that resided or foraged on the grounds of the facility, to better understand the epizootiology of yersiniosis. Blood samples and fecal and rectal swabs were obtained from 105 captive African green monkeys (AGM), 12 feral cats, 2 dogs, 20 mice, 12 rats, and 3 mongooses. Total DNA extracted from swab suspensions served as template for the detection of Y. enterocolitica DNA by real-time PCR. Neither Y. enterocolitica organisms nor their DNA were detected from any of these samples. However, Western blotting revealed the presence of Yersinia antibodies in plasma. The AGM samples revealed a seroprevalence of 91% for Yersinia spp. and of 61% for Y. enterocolitica specifically. The AGM that were housed in cages where at least one fatality occurred during the outbreak (clinical group) had similar seroprevalence to that of AGM housed in unaffected cages (nonclinical group). However, the nonclinical group was older than the clinical group. In addition, 25%, 100%, 33%, 10%, and 10% of the sampled local cats, dogs, mongooses, rats, and mice, respectively, were seropositive. The high seroprevalence after this outbreak suggests that Y. enterocolitica was transmitted effectively through the captive AGM population and that age was an important risk factor for disease. Knowledge regarding local environmental sources of Y. enterocolitica and the possible role of wildlife in the maintenance of yersiniosis is necessary to prevent and manage this disease. PMID:26678370

  8. Transmission routes of African swine fever virus to domestic pigs: current knowledge and future research directions

    PubMed Central

    Guinat, Claire; Gogin, Andrey; Blome, Sandra; Keil, Guenther; Pollin, Reiko; Pfeiffer, Dirk U.; Dixon, Linda

    2016-01-01

    African swine fever (ASF) is a major threat to the pig industry in Europe. Since 2007, ASF outbreaks have been ongoing in the Caucasus, Eastern Europe and the Baltic countries, causing severe economic losses for many pig farmers and pork producers. In addition, the number of ASF cases in wild boar populations has dramatically increased over the past few years. Evidence supports direct contact with infectious domestic pigs and wild boars, and consumption of contaminated feed, as the main transmission routes of ASF virus (ASFV) to domestic pigs. However, significant knowledge gaps highlight the urgent need for research to investigate the dynamics of indirect transmission via the environment, the minimal infective doses for contaminated feed ingestion, the probability of effective contacts between infectious wild boars and domestic pigs, the potential for recovered animals to become carriers and a reservoir for transmission, the potential virus persistence within wild boar populations and the influence of human behaviour for the spread of ASFV. This will provide an improved scientific basis to optimise current interventions and develop new tools and strategies to reduce the risk of ASFV transmission to domestic pigs. PMID:26966305

  9. Transmission routes of African swine fever virus to domestic pigs: current knowledge and future research directions.

    PubMed

    Guinat, Claire; Gogin, Andrey; Blome, Sandra; Keil, Guenther; Pollin, Reiko; Pfeiffer, Dirk U; Dixon, Linda

    2016-03-12

    African swine fever (ASF) is a major threat to the pig industry in Europe. Since 2007, ASF outbreaks have been ongoing in the Caucasus, Eastern Europe and the Baltic countries, causing severe economic losses for many pig farmers and pork producers. In addition, the number of ASF cases in wild boar populations has dramatically increased over the past few years. Evidence supports direct contact with infectious domestic pigs and wild boars, and consumption of contaminated feed, as the main transmission routes of ASF virus (ASFV) to domestic pigs. However, significant knowledge gaps highlight the urgent need for research to investigate the dynamics of indirect transmission via the environment, the minimal infective doses for contaminated feed ingestion, the probability of effective contacts between infectious wild boars and domestic pigs, the potential for recovered animals to become carriers and a reservoir for transmission, the potential virus persistence within wild boar populations and the influence of human behaviour for the spread of ASFV. This will provide an improved scientific basis to optimise current interventions and develop new tools and strategies to reduce the risk of ASFV transmission to domestic pigs.

  10. The Biology and Husbandry of the African Spiny Mouse (Acomys cahirinus) and the Research Uses of a Laboratory Colony.

    PubMed

    Haughton, Cheryl L; Gawriluk, Thomas R; Seifert, Ashley W

    2016-01-01

    African spiny mice (Acomys spp.) are unique precocial rodents that are found in Africa, the Middle East, and southern Asia. They exhibit several interesting life-history characteristics, including precocial development, communal breeding, and a suite of physiologic adaptations to desert life. In addition to these characteristics, African spiny mice are emerging as an important animal model for tissue regeneration research. Furthermore, their important phylogenetic position among murid rodents makes them an interesting model for evolution and development studies. Here we outline the necessary components for maintaining a successful captive breeding colony, including laboratory housing, husbandry, and health monitoring aspects. We also review past and present studies focused on spiny mouse behavior, reproduction, and disease. Last, we briefly summarize various current biomedical research directions using captive-bred spiny mice.

  11. The Biology and Husbandry of the African Spiny Mouse (Acomys cahirinus)and the Research Uses of a Laboratory Colony

    PubMed Central

    Haughton, Cheryl L; Gawriluk, Thomas R; Seifert, Ashley W

    2016-01-01

    African spiny mice (Acomysspp.) are unique precocial rodents that are found in Africa, the Middle East, and southern Asia. They exhibit several interesting life-history characteristics, including precocial development, communal breeding, and a suite of physiologic adaptations to desert life. In addition to these characteristics, African spiny mice are emerging as an important animal model for tissue regeneration research. Furthermore, their important phylogenetic position among murid rodents makes them an interesting model for evolution and development studies. Here we outline the necessary components for maintaining a successful captive breeding colony, including laboratory housing, husbandry, and health monitoring aspects. We also review past and present studies focused on spiny mouse behavior, reproduction, and disease. Last, we briefly summarize various current biomedical research directions using captive-bred spiny mice. PMID:26817973

  12. Black Adoption Placement and Research Center at 25: placing African-American children in permanent homes (1983-2008).

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Sara L; Austin, Michael J

    2011-01-01

    The Black Adoption Research and Placement Center is a nonprofit organization delivering culturally specific adoption and foster care services. The organization developed as a response to concerns in the African-American community about the high numbers of African-American children entering and not exiting the public foster care system. The organization has undergone significant transformations over its 25-year history in relation to social, political, and economic changes that have altered the ways that the agency finances and delivers services. The history of Black Adoption Research and Placement Center presents an organization that has weathered many challenges because of its strong leadership, its committed governing body, its external relationships, and its internal operations.

  13. World Medical Association Declaration of Helsinki: ethical principles for medical research involving human subjects.

    PubMed

    2014-01-01

    Published research in English-language journals are increasingly required to carry a statement that the study has been approved and monitored by an Institutional Review Board in conformance with 45 CFR 46 standards if the study was conducted in the United States. Alternative language attesting conformity with the Helsinki Declaration is often included when the research was conducted in Europe or elsewhere. The Helsinki Declaration was created by the World Medical Association in 1964 (ten years before the Belmont Report) and has been amended several times. The Helsinki Declaration differs from its American version in several respects, the most significant of which is that it was developed by and for physicians. The term "patient" appears in many places where we would expect to see "subject." It is stated in several places that physicians must either conduct or have supervisory control of the research. The dual role of the physician-researcher is acknowledged, but it is made clear that the role of healer takes precedence over that of scientist. In the United States, the federal government developed and enforces regulations on researcher; in the rest of the world, the profession, or a significant part of it, took the initiative in defining and promoting good research practice, and governments in many countries have worked to harmonize their standards along these lines. The Helsinki Declaration is based less on key philosophical principles and more on prescriptive statements. Although there is significant overlap between the Belmont and the Helsinki guidelines, the latter extends much further into research design and publication. Elements in a research protocol, use of placebos, and obligation to enroll trials in public registries (to ensure that negative findings are not buried), and requirements to share findings with the research and professional communities are included in the Helsinki Declaration. As a practical matter, these are often part of the work of American

  14. Health services research in workers' compensation medical care: policy issues and research opportunities.

    PubMed Central

    Himmelstein, J; Buchanan, J L; Dembe, A E; Stevens, B

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe some of the unique aspects of medical care offered under workers' compensation insurance systems and discuss the major policy considerations relevant to health services researchers undertaking investigations in this area. BACKGROUND AND FINDINGS: State-based workers' compensation (WC) insurance systems requiring employers to pay for medical care and wage replacement for workplace injuries and illnesses were first developed between 1910 and 1920 in the United States. Employers are generally required to purchase state-regulated workers' compensation insurance that includes first-dollar payment for all medical and rehabilitative services and payment of lost wages to workers with work-related illness or injury. Injured workers have variable but usually limited latitude in choosing their health care provider. Employers and workers' compensation insurers have incentives for controlling both the cost of medical care and lost wages. CONCLUSION: The major policy issues in WC medical care--the effect of patient choice of provider and delivery system structure, the ensuring of high-quality care, the effect of integrating benefits, and investigation of the interrelationships between work, health, and productivity--can be informed by current studies in health services research and by targeted future studies of workers' compensation populations. These studies must consider the extent of patient choice of physician, the regulatory environment, the unique role of the workplace as a risk and modifying factor, and the complex interaction between health and disability insurance benefits. PMID:10199686

  15. Integrating medical and research information: a big data approach.

    PubMed

    Tilve Álvarez, Carlos M; Ayora Pais, Alberto; Ruíz Romero, Cristina; Llamas Gómez, Daniel; Carrajo García, Lino; Blanco García, Francisco J; Vázquez González, Guillermo

    2015-01-01

    Most of the information collected in different fields by Instituto de Investigación Biomédica de A Coruña (INIBIC) is classified as unstructured due to its high volume and heterogeneity. This situation, linked to the recent requirement of integrating it to the medical information, makes it necessary to implant specific architectures to collect and organize it before it can be analysed. The purpose of this article is to present the Hadoop framework as a solution to the problem of integrating research information in the Business Intelligence field. This framework can collect, explore, process and structure the aforementioned information, which allow us to develop an equivalent function to a data mart in an Intelligence Business system.

  16. Analysing the Research Articles Published in Three Periodicals of Medical Librarianship.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haiqi, Zhang

    1995-01-01

    Reports findings from a bibliometric study of research articles published in the "Bulletin of the Medical Library Association," the "Journal of the Japan Medical Library Association," and the "Medical Information Services" from 1990 to 1992. Subject categories, length of articles, methods of research, and number of…

  17. An International Basic Science and Clinical Research Summer Program for Medical Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramjiawan, Bram; Pierce, Grant N.; Anindo, Mohammad Iffat Kabir; AlKukhun, Abedalrazaq; Alshammari, Abdullah; Chamsi, Ahmad Talal; Abousaleh, Mohannad; Alkhani, Anas; Ganguly, Pallab K.

    2012-01-01

    An important part of training the next generation of physicians is ensuring that they are exposed to the integral role that research plays in improving medical treatment. However, medical students often do not have sufficient time to be trained to carry out any projects in biomedical and clinical research. Many medical students also fail to…

  18. 78 FR 16679 - Center for Drug Evaluation and Research Medical Policy Council; Request for Comments

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-18

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Center for Drug Evaluation and Research Medical Policy... interested organizations, on medical policy issues that may be considered by the CDER Medical Policy Council (Council) in FDA's Center for Drug Evaluation and Research (CDER). These comments will help the...

  19. Plasma medicine—current state of research and medical application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weltmann, K.-D.; von Woedtke, Th

    2017-01-01

    Plasma medicine means the direct application of cold atmospheric plasma (CAP) on or in the human body for therapeutic purposes. Further, the field interacts strongly with results gained for biological decontamination. Experimental research as well as first practical application is realized using two basic principles of CAP sources: dielectric barrier discharges (DBD) and atmospheric pressure plasma jets (APPJ). Originating from the fundamental insights that the biological effects of CAP are most probably caused by changes of the liquid environment of cells, and are dominated by reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS, RNS), basic mechanisms of biological plasma activity are identified. It was demonstrated that there is no increased risk of cold plasma application and, above all, there are no indications for genotoxic effects. The most important biological effects of cold atmospheric pressure plasma were identified: (1) inactivation of a broad spectrum of microorganisms including multidrug resistant ones; (2) stimulation of cell proliferation and tissue regeneration with lower plasma treatment intensity (treatment time); (3) inactivation of cells by initialization of programmed cell death (apoptosis) with higher plasma treatment intensity (treatment time). In recent years, the main focus of clinical applications was in the field of wound healing and treatment of infective skin diseases. First CAP sources are CE-certified as medical devices now which is the main precondition to start the introduction of plasma medicine into clinical reality. Plasma application in dentistry and, above all, CAP use for cancer treatment are becoming more and more important research fields in plasma medicine. A further in-depth knowledge of control and adaptation of plasma parameters and plasma geometries is needed to obtain suitable and reliable plasma sources for the different therapeutic indications and to open up new fields of medical application.

  20. [Research on medical data mining and its applications].

    PubMed

    Liu, Chanzhen; Wang, Youjun

    2014-10-01

    With the development of computer technology, medical data has developed from traditional paper pattern into electronic mode, which could effectively promote the medical development. This paper at first presents the status and characteristics of medical data mining. Then, it discusses the critical method of medical data mining in classification, clustering and prediction, respectively. The paper focuses on the application and assessment of five algorithms which are designed for medical data mining, including decision tree, cluster analysis, association rule, intelligent algorithm and the mix algorithm. Finally, this paper outlooks the data mining application in medical domain.

  1. Founders hope new venture-capital fund will spur medical, biotechnology research

    PubMed Central

    Gray, Charlotte

    1995-01-01

    Lack of a coherent industrial strategy and venture capital have hindered scientific researchers in Canada, but the Canadian Medical Discoveries Fund (CMDF) Inc. hopes to change that. Under the leadership of Dr. Henry Friesen, president of the Medical Research Council of Canada, and Dr. Calvin Stiller, head of the multiorgan transplant unit at University Hospital, London, Ont., the new fund proposes to invest in promising medical and biotechnology research companies in Canada. The research council's peerreview system gives the new fund scientific credibility.

  2. SRI LANKAN MEDICAL MANUSCRIPTS – AN UNTAPPED SOURCE OF AYURVEDIC RESEARCH

    PubMed Central

    Liyanaratne, Jinadasa

    1991-01-01

    Sri Lankan Medical manuscripts offer a wealth of information on the practice of Ayurveda. The significant of these manuscripts in the various speheres of medical research in presented in this communication. PMID:22556558

  3. The Secure Medical Research Workspace: An IT Infrastructure to Enable Secure Research on Clinical Data

    PubMed Central

    Shoffner, Michael; Owen, Phillips; Mostafa, Javed; Lamm, Brent; Wang, Xiaoshu; Schmitt, Charles P.; Ahalt, Stanley C.

    2013-01-01

    Clinical data has tremendous value for translational research, but only if security and privacy concerns can be addressed satisfactorily. A collaboration of clinical and informatics teams, including RENCI, NC TraCS, UNC’s School of Information and Library Science, Information Technology Service’s Research Computing and other partners at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill have developed a system called the Secure Medical Research Workspace (SMRW) that enables researchers to use clinical data securely for research. SMRW significantly minimizes the risk presented when using of identified clinical data, thereby protecting patients, researchers, and institutions associated with the data. The SMRW is built on a novel combination of virtualization and data leakage protection and can be combined with other protection methodologies and scaled to production levels. PMID:23751029

  4. Radiation dosimetry at the BNL Medical Research Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Holden, N.E.; Reciniello, R.N.; Greenberg, D.D.; Hu, J.P.

    1998-11-01

    The Medical Research Reactor, BMRR, at the Brookhaven National Laboratory, BNL, is a three megawatt, 3 MW, heterogeneous, tank-type, light water cooled and moderated, graphite reflected reactor, which was designed for biomedical studies, and became operational in 1959. It provides thermal and epithermal neutron beams suitable for research studies such as radiation therapy of various types of tumors. At the present time, the major program at BMRR is Boron Neutron Capture Therapy, BNCT. Modifications have been made to the BMRR to significantly increase the available epithermal neutron flux density to a patient in clinical trials of BNCT. The data indicate that the flux density and dose rate are concentrated in the center of the beam, the patient absorbs neutrons rather than gamma radiation and as noted previously even with the increasing flux values, gamma-ray dose received by the attending personnel has remained minimal. Flux densities in the center of the thermal port and epithermal port beams have been characterized with an agreement between the measurements and the calculations.

  5. Study of African Trypanosomiasis and Leishmaniasis. Volume 1. Summary.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-12-01

    AD-A139 365 STUDS OF AFRICAN TRYPANOSOMIASIS AND LEISHMANIASIS(U) f/f ARMY MEDICAL RESEARCH UNITKENYA Apo NEW YORK 09675 M J REARDON ET AL DEC 83...STUDY OF AFRICAN TRYPANOSOMIASIS AND LEISHMANIASIS FINAL REPORT CID LTC M.J. Reardon, VC I.E. Muriithi LTC J.D. Chulay, MC LTC L.D. Hendricks, MSC ym 4...CATALOG NUMBER 4. TITLE (and Subtitle) 5. TYPE OF REPORT & PERIOD COVERED STUDY OF AFRICAN TRYPANOSOMIASIS AND FINAL--October 1982- LEISHMAIASIS 14

  6. Pair housing of Vervets/African Green Monkeys for biomedical research.

    PubMed

    Jorgensen, Matthew J; Lambert, Kelsey R; Breaux, Sarah D; Baker, Kate C; Snively, Beverly M; Weed, James L

    2017-01-01

    Vervets, also known as African green monkeys, are a nonhuman primate species widely used in biomedical research. However, there are currently few references available describing techniques and rates of success for pair-housing this species. We present data from four cohorts of vervets from three different facilities: (i) the Wake Forest Vervet Research Colony (VRC; n = 72 female pairs, n= 52 male pairs), (ii) the University of Louisiana at Lafayette-New Iberia Research Center (UL-NIRC; n = 57 female pairs, n = 54 male pairs), (iii) the Tulane National Primate Research Center (TNRPC; n = 18 male pairs), and (iv) a cohort of imported males (n = 18 pairs) at Wake Forest. Compatibility was measured at 14, 30, and 60 days following introduction. Success rates for pair-housing at 14 days ranged from 96% to 98% for females and 96% to 100% for males at the VRC and UL-NIRC but were lower in the smaller imported male cohorts (TNPRC: 50%; WF: 28%). Among the UL-NIRC cohort and VRC male cohort, most of the pair separations after 14 days were due to reasons unrelated to social incompatibility. In contrast, a large proportion of TNPRC and imported male pairs successful at 14 days required separation within 60 days due to incompatibility. Multiple logistic regressions were performed using cohort, mean age of pair and weight difference between pair-mates as potential predictors of compatibility at 14 days. All three predicted the 14-day outcome in males but not females. A separate analysis in the VRC cohort found no evidence that prior familiarity in a group setting influenced outcomes. Variations in success rates across cohorts may have been influenced by introduction methodology. Behavioral differences between vervets and macaques, coupled with our findings, lead us to theorize that the gradual introduction techniques commonly implemented to pair house macaques may not be beneficial or suitable for this species. Am. J. Primatol. 79:e22501, 2017. © 2015

  7. An informatics framework for the standardized collection and analysis of medication data in networked research.

    PubMed

    Richesson, Rachel L

    2014-12-01

    Medication exposure is an important variable in virtually all clinical research, yet there is great variation in how the data are collected, coded, and analyzed. Coding and classification systems for medication data are heterogeneous in structure, and there is little guidance for implementing them, especially in large research networks and multi-site trials. Current practices for handling medication data in clinical trials have emerged from the requirements and limitations of paper-based data collection, but there are now many electronic tools to enable the collection and analysis of medication data. This paper reviews approaches to coding medication data in multi-site research contexts, and proposes a framework for the classification, reporting, and analysis of medication data. The framework can be used to develop tools for classifying medications in coded data sets to support context appropriate, explicit, and reproducible data analyses by researchers and secondary users in virtually all clinical research domains.

  8. Integration of scientific research training into undergraduate medical education: a reminder call.

    PubMed

    Abu-Zaid, Ahmed; Alkattan, Khaled

    2013-10-21

    There is an increasingly growing trend towards integrating scientific research training into undergraduate medical education. The importance and compulsoriness of this trend has been greatly highlighted at the Boyer Commission on Educating Undergraduates in the Research University. Despite the importance and benefits of undergraduate research, attempts of medical schools to encourage undergraduates to take part in formal research training during undergraduate medical education remain unsatisfactory. This article serves as a 'reminder call' highlighting the requisite to integrate scientific research training into undergraduate medical curricula.

  9. Integration of scientific research training into undergraduate medical education: a reminder call.

    PubMed

    Abu-Zaid, Ahmed; Alkattan, Khaled

    2013-01-01

    There is an increasingly growing trend towards integrating scientific research training into undergraduate medical education. The importance and compulsoriness of this trend has been greatly highlighted at the Boyer Commission on Educating Undergraduates in the Research University. Despite the importance and benefits of undergraduate research, attempts of medical schools to encourage undergraduates to take part in formal research training during undergraduate medical education remain unsatisfactory. This article serves as a 'reminder call' highlighting the requisite to integrate scientific research training into undergraduate medical curricula.

  10. Comparison of community health worker-led diabetes medication decision-making support for low-income Latino and African American adults with diabetes using e-Health tools versus print materials: A randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Heisler, Michele; Choi, Hwajung; Palmisano, Gloria; Mase, Rebecca; Richardson, Caroline; Fagerlin, Angela; Montori, Victor M.; Spencer, Michael; An, Laurence C.

    2015-01-01

    Background Health care centers serving low-income communities have scarce resources to support medication decision-making among patients with poorly controlled diabetes. Objective We compared outcomes between community health worker (CHW) use of a tailored, interactive web-based tablet-delivered tool (iDecide) versus use of print educational materials. Design A randomized two-arm trial from 2011-2013. Trial Registration NCT01427660. Setting Community health center in Detroit serving a Latino and African American low-income population. Participants 188 adults with a hemoglobinA1c >7.5% (55%) or who reported questions, concerns, or difficulty taking diabetes medications Primary Funding Sources Agency for Health Care Quality and Research (1R18HS019256-01) and P30DK092926 (MCDTR) Measurements Primary outcomes were changes in knowledge about anti-hyperglycemic medications, patient-reported medication decisional conflict, and satisfaction with anti-hyperglycemic medication information. We also examined changes in diabetes distress, self-efficacy, medication adherence, and A1c. Intervention Participants were randomized to receive a 1-2 hour session with a CHW using either iDecide or printed educational materials and two follow-up calls. Results 94% of participants completed three-month follow-up. Both groups improved across most measures. iDecide participants reported greater improvements in satisfaction with medication information (helpfulness, p=.007; clarity, p=.03) and in diabetes distress compared to the print materials group (p<0.001). There were no differences between groups in other outcomes. Limitations The study was conducted at one health center over a short period, and the CHWs were experienced in behavioral counseling, thus possibly mitigating the need for additional support tools. Conclusions Most outcomes were similarly improved among participants receiving both types of diabetes medication decision-making support. Longer-term evaluations are necessary to

  11. Building a Registry of Research Volunteers among Older Urban African Americans: Recruitment Processes and Outcomes from a Community-Based Partnership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chadiha, Letha A.; Washington, Olivia G. M.; Lichtenberg, Peter A.; Green, Carmen R.; Daniels, Karen L.; Jackson, James S.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose of the study: An emerging strategy for increasing public participation in health research is volunteer registries. Using a community-based participatory research framework, we describe recruitment processes and outcomes in building a research volunteer registry of older urban African Americans. The specific research question examined…

  12. Quantitative and qualitative methods in medical education research: AMEE Guide No 90: Part II.

    PubMed

    Tavakol, Mohsen; Sandars, John

    2014-10-01

    Abstract Medical educators need to understand and conduct medical education research in order to make informed decisions based on the best evidence, rather than rely on their own hunches. The purpose of this Guide is to provide medical educators, especially those who are new to medical education research, with a basic understanding of how quantitative and qualitative methods contribute to the medical education evidence base through their different inquiry approaches and also how to select the most appropriate inquiry approach to answer their research questions.

  13. Quantitative and qualitative methods in medical education research: AMEE Guide No 90: Part I.

    PubMed

    Tavakol, Mohsen; Sandars, John

    2014-09-01

    Medical educators need to understand and conduct medical education research in order to make informed decisions based on the best evidence, rather than rely on their own hunches. The purpose of this Guide is to provide medical educators, especially those who are new to medical education research, with a basic understanding of how quantitative and qualitative methods contribute to the medical education evidence base through their different inquiry approaches and also how to select the most appropriate inquiry approach to answer their research questions.

  14. Development of Meharry Medical College Prostate Cancer Research Program

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-03-01

    participants into the lycopene study, sent 192 stored plasma samples for lycopene analysis, and received a DHHS 2-year funding for prostate cancer education...currently working on a manuscript with the PI. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Prostate cancer, Dietary risk factors, Lycopene , Genetic predisposition, African...of Study Participants (Project 3) …………………..27 Appendix E: Laboratory Report: Status of Lycopene Measurement (Project 1) ………………………….29

  15. Development of Meharry Medical College Prostate Cancer Research Program

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-03-01

    participants into the lycopene study, sent 192 stored plasma samples for lycopene analysis, and received a DHHS 2-year funding for prostate cancer...posters, and currently working on a manuscript with the PI. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Prostate cancer, Dietary risk factors, Lycopene , Genetic predisposition...1: Preliminary Data Analysis Table 1–Table 11: Demographic comparisons of African-Americans & Nigerians …..16 Table 12 – Table 17: Lycopene case

  16. The need for evidence in medical education: the development of best evidence medical education as an opportunity to inform, guide, and sustain medical education research.

    PubMed

    Dauphinee, W Dale; Wood-Dauphinee, Sharon

    2004-10-01

    The development of the Best Evidence Medical Education (BEME) Collaboration is introduced in the context of other systematic review initiatives, specifically the Cochrane and Campbell collaborations. The commentary addresses two goals: to describe the current status of BEME and to situate BEME in the broader context of the medical education community's need to be accountable, to conduct research to understand educational processes and results, and the key role that medical educational research must play within the quality-improvement agenda. Lessons drawn from the evidence-based practice movement of the last ten years and the current experience with BEME suggest that, although BEME will inform some educational policies and practices, its initial success may be limited because of the paucity of studies that meet current standards for evidence and the great difficulty in conducting methodologically rigorous studies in the complex social interaction called education. Nonetheless, the need exists for medical education research to continue to address key issues in medical education using experimental designs, while at the same time anticipating the need for more situation-specific data to permit educators to monitor and benchmark their existing programs within a quality-improvement and accountability framework. The authors conclude that the very nature of being professional in today's social and fiscal context demands that medical educators provide evidence of effectiveness and efficiency of their programs while at the same time BEME and medical education research continue to grow and mature.

  17. Medical research in emergency research in the European Union member states: tensions between theory and practice.

    PubMed

    Kompanje, Erwin J O; Maas, Andrew I R; Menon, David K; Kesecioglu, Jozef

    2014-04-01

    In almost all of the European Union member states, prior consent by a legal representative is used as a substitute for informed patient consent for non-urgent medical research. Deferred (patient and/or proxy) consent is accepted as a substitute in acute emergency research in approximately half of the member states. In 12 European Union member states emergency research is not mentioned in national law. Medical research in the European Union is covered by the Clinical Trial Directive 2001/20/EC. A proposal for a regulation by the European Commission is currently being examined by the European Parliament and the Council and will replace Directive 2001/20/EC. Deferred patient and/or proxy consent is allowed in the proposed regulation, but does not fit completely in the practice of emergency research. For example, deferred consent is only possible when legal representatives are not available. This criterion will delay inclusion of patients in acute life-threatening conditions in short time frames. As the regulation shall be binding in its entirety in all member states, emergency research in acute situations is still not possible as it should be.

  18. [Research on medical instrument information integration technology based on IHE PCD].

    PubMed

    Zheng, Jianli; Liao, Yun; Yang, Yongyong

    2014-06-01

    Integrating medical instruments with medical information systems becomes more and more important in healthcare industry. To make medical instruments without standard communication interface possess the capability of interoperating and sharing information with medical information systems, we developed a medical instrument integration gateway based on Integrating the Healthcare Enterprise Patient Care Device (IHE PCD) integration profiles in this research. The core component is an integration engine which is implemented according to integration profiles and Health Level Seven (HL7) messages defined in IHE PCD. Working with instrument specific Javascripts, the engine transforms medical instrument data into HL7 ORU message. This research enables medical instruments to interoperate and exchange medical data with information systems in a standardized way, and is valuable for medical instrument integration, especially for traditional instruments.

  19. Priorities for research on meningococcal disease and the impact of serogroup A vaccination in the African meningitis belt

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    For over 100 years, large epidemics of meningococcal meningitis have occurred every few years in areas of the African Sahel and sub-Sahel known as the African meningitis belt. Until recently, the main approach to the control of these epidemics has been reactive vaccination with a polysaccharide vaccine after an outbreak has reached a defined threshold and provision of easy access to effective treatment but this approach has not prevented the occurrence of new epidemics. Meningococcal conjugate vaccines, which can prevent meningococcal carriage and thus interrupt transmission, may be more effective than polysaccharide vaccines at preventing epidemics. Because the majority of African epidemics have been caused by serogroup A meningococci, a serogroup A polysaccharide/tetanus toxoid protein conjugate vaccine (PsA-TT) has recently been developed. Results from an initial evaluation of the impact of this vaccine on meningococcal disease and meningococcal carriage in Burkina Faso have been encouraging. To review how the research agenda for meningococcal disease in Africa has been changed by the advent of PsA-TT and to define a new set of research priorities for study of meningococcal infection in Africa, a meeting of 41 scientists was held in Dakar, Senegal on April 24th and 25th 2012. The research recommendations developed during the course of this meeting are presented in this paper. The need for enhanced surveillance for meningitis in defined populations with good diagnostic facilities in African countries at risk of epidemics was identified as the highest priority. This is needed to determine the duration of protection against serogroup A meningococcal disease provided by PsA-TT and to determine the risk of disease and carriage caused by meningococci of other serogroups. Other research areas given high priority included identification and validation of serological correlates of protection against meningococcal disease and carriage, development of improved methods for

  20. Reporting bias in medical research - a narrative review

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Reporting bias represents a major problem in the assessment of health care interventions. Several prominent cases have been described in the literature, for example, in the reporting of trials of antidepressants, Class I anti-arrhythmic drugs, and selective COX-2 inhibitors. The aim of this narrative review is to gain an overview of reporting bias in the medical literature, focussing on publication bias and selective outcome reporting. We explore whether these types of bias have been shown in areas beyond the well-known cases noted above, in order to gain an impression of how widespread the problem is. For this purpose, we screened relevant articles on reporting bias that had previously been obtained by the German Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care in the context of its health technology assessment reports and other research work, together with the reference lists of these articles. We identified reporting bias in 40 indications comprising around 50 different pharmacological, surgical (e.g. vacuum-assisted closure therapy), diagnostic (e.g. ultrasound), and preventive (e.g. cancer vaccines) interventions. Regarding pharmacological interventions, cases of reporting bias were, for example, identified in the treatment of the following conditions: depression, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, anxiety disorder, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, Alzheimer's disease, pain, migraine, cardiovascular disease, gastric ulcers, irritable bowel syndrome, urinary incontinence, atopic dermatitis, diabetes mellitus type 2, hypercholesterolaemia, thyroid disorders, menopausal symptoms, various types of cancer (e.g. ovarian cancer and melanoma), various types of infections (e.g. HIV, influenza and Hepatitis B), and acute trauma. Many cases involved the withholding of study data by manufacturers and regulatory agencies or the active attempt by manufacturers to suppress publication. The ascertained effects of reporting bias included the overestimation of

  1. Research priorities in medical education at Shiraz University of Medical Sciences:categories and subcategories in the Iranian context

    PubMed Central

    NABEIEI, PARISA; AMINI, MITRA; GHANAVATI, SHIRIN; MARHAMATI, SAADAT

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Research in education is a globally significant issue without a long history. Due to the importance of the issue in Health System Development programs, this study intended to determine research priorities in medical education, considering their details and functions. By determining barriers existing in research in education progress, it is tried to make research priorities more functional by recommending acceptable strategies. Methods This is a qualitative-descriptive study in two descriptive phases. The goal of these phases was to determine research priorities subcategories in medical education by Nominal Group Technique (NGT) and two rounds of Delphi method. Through the first phase, subcategories of research priorities were determined, using Nominal Group Technique under medical education experts’ supervision. Through two rounds of Delphi, a questionnaire was constructed based on the subcategories. Eventually, research priorities were determined based on their highest score (scores more than 7 out of 10). Results In the first phase (NGT), 35 priorities in 5 major fields of medical education were presented. In the second phase, priorities were scored, using Delphi method. Medical Ethics and professionalism gained the highest scores (7.63±1.26) and educational evaluation the lowest (7.28±1.52). In this stage, 7 items were omitted but 2 of them were added again after experts’ revision in the third round of Delphi. Conclusion According to the results of the present study and based on previous studies, it really seems that the fields of “Learning and Teaching Approaches” and “Medical Ethics and Professionalism” were more important. Because of financial and resource limitations in our country and the importance of research priorities, it is recommended to frequently study “research priorities determination program” at universities. PMID:26793723

  2. Clinician scientist training program: a proposal for training medical students in clinical research.

    PubMed

    Mark, A L; Kelch, R P

    2001-11-01

    There is national alarm about a decline in the number of clinician scientists. Most of the proposed solutions have focused on housestaff and junior faculty. We propose a new national program for training medical students in clinical research. This program, coined "Clinician Scientist Training Program" (CSTP), would consist of a combined degree program in medicine (MD) and clinical research (eg, masters in translational research or masters in clinical epidemiology). Students could enroll in the program at any stage during medical school. After 3 years of medical school, students would spend at least 2 years in a combined didactic and mentored clinical research training program and then complete medical school. Students could elect to pursue more prolonged clinical research training toward a combined PhD and MD. The CSTP is designed to meet six critical challenges: 1) engage students early in clinical research training; 2) provide a didactic clinical research curriculum; 3) expose students to several years of mentored clinical research training; 4) promote debt prevention by providing tuition payments during medical education and a stipend during clinical research training; 5) facilitate prolonged exposure to a community of peers and mentors in a program with national and institutional identity and respect; and 6) permit enrollment in the program as students enter medical school or at any stage during medical school. If the success of the Medical Scientist Training Program in training medical students in basic research is a guide, the CSTP could become a linchpin for training future generations of clinician scientists.

  3. Affirming our commitment to research: the Medical Library Association's research policy statement: the process and findings*

    PubMed Central

    Grefsheim, Suzanne F.; Rankin, Jocelyn A.; Perry, Gerald J.; McKibbon, K. Ann

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: Building on its 1995 research policy statement, the Medical Library Association (MLA) has issued a new research policy, The Research Imperative. This paper shares the background research that informed the new policy. Methods: Semi-structured interviews were conducted with fifty-one key informants representing various library types, functions, geographic locations, ages, and ethnicities. The grounded theory approach was used to analyze the resulting textual database. Additionally, to gather input from the membership as a whole, two open forums were held at MLA annual meetings. Results: Key informant data indicated that the policy should provide roles for MLA in leadership, advocacy, collaboration, services, education, publishing, and development of a research agenda. Evidence-based library and information practice was emphasized. Six themes emerged to center the new policy: creation of a research culture, challenges, domains of research, research skills set, roles of stakeholders, and measurement of progress. Conclusion: Reflecting the interests and beliefs of the membership, The Research Imperative challenges MLA members to build a supportive culture that values and contributes to a research base that is recognized as an essential tool for future practice. PMID:18379666

  4. The role of consent in medical research: breaking or building walls? A call for legislative reform.

    PubMed

    Dangata, Yohanna Yanshiyi

    2011-12-01

    Research has been integral to the practice of medicine for almost as long as the discipline has existed. Until fairly recently research used to be conducted on human subjects without mandatory requirement for their consent. However, over time medical research became associated with significant cruelty resulting in an outcry for regulation of research actives. This resulted in significant legislation in place for monitoring. Today it is mandatory to obtain consent from subjects before embarking on medical research, and indeed treatment. Its significant regulatory role notwithstanding, the issue of consent at times becomes a hindrance to research. This paper examines the issue of consent in relation to medical research in the context of present legislation. It lays out the background to medical research with respect to purpose, scope, standard protocol and related issues; it then addresses the issue of consent in various scenarios, highlighting problems and the need for legislative reform. It is maintained that while regulatory measures have brought a lot of sanity to medical research and the medical profession, some measures are building walls inhibitory to research activities. Research being integral to the development and growth of healthcare delivery, there is need for reformation of current medical law for balance between patient protectionism and progress in medical research for effective patient care.

  5. 77 FR 41431 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request: Impact of Clinical Research Training and Medical Education...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-13

    ... Research Training and Medical Education at the Clinical Center on Physician Careers in Academia and... Collection Title: The Impact of Clinical Research Training and Medical Education at the Clinical Center on... of the value of the training provided by the Office of Clinical Research Training and...

  6. Symposium 'Methodology in Medical Education Research' organised by the Methodology in Medical Education Research Committee of the German Society of Medical Education May, 25th to 26th 2013 at Charité, Berlin.

    PubMed

    Schüttpelz-Brauns, Katrin; Kiessling, Claudia; Ahlers, Olaf; Hautz, Wolf E

    2015-01-01

    In 2013, the Methodology in Medical Education Research Committee ran a symposium on "Research in Medical Education" as part of its ongoing faculty development activities. The symposium aimed to introduce to participants educational research methods with a specific focus on research in medical education. Thirty-five participants were able to choose from workshops covering qualitative methods, quantitative methods and scientific writing throughout the one and a half days. The symposium's evaluation showed participant satisfaction with the format as well as suggestions for future improvement. Consequently, the committee will offer the symposium again in a modified form in proximity to the next annual Congress of the German Society of Medical Education.

  7. Case reports and research productivity among Syrian medical students: Review, reality, and suggested solutions.

    PubMed

    Alhamid, Naji; Almounayer, Nawar; Alsabbagh, Bana; Atassi, Baseel

    2015-01-01

    Medical students are precious seeds for better future medical research. Case reports writing may represent a relatively simple first step for beginners. Only 47 case reports are published in the literature by Syrian Medical Institutions compared to more than 500 case reports in a comparable country in the last 5 years. Many obstacles stand against developing fruitful research environment in Syria. Increasing awareness to research productivity in Syria along with comparative analysis is discussed in this article.

  8. Case reports and research productivity among Syrian medical students: Review, reality, and suggested solutions

    PubMed Central

    Alhamid, Naji; Almounayer, Nawar; Alsabbagh, Bana; Atassi, Baseel

    2015-01-01

    Medical students are precious seeds for better future medical research. Case reports writing may represent a relatively simple first step for beginners. Only 47 case reports are published in the literature by Syrian Medical Institutions compared to more than 500 case reports in a comparable country in the last 5 years. Many obstacles stand against developing fruitful research environment in Syria. Increasing awareness to research productivity in Syria along with comparative analysis is discussed in this article. PMID:26629463

  9. Underrepresented Minorities in Medical School Admissions: A Qualitative Study.

    PubMed

    Hadinger, Margaret A

    2017-01-01

    Phenomenon: This study explored Black/African American and Hispanic/Latino medical students' perceptions of the medical school admissions process. Previous research has explored other elements of the medical education continuum. However, little is known regarding minorities' perceptions of navigating the medical school admissions process. To address this gap in the literature, this exploratory study suggests a conceptual model describing why minorities apply to medical school and the influences affecting their admissions experience.

  10. Evaluation of medical research performance – position paper of the Association of the Scientific Medical Societies in Germany (AWMF)

    PubMed Central

    Herrmann-Lingen, Christoph; Brunner, Edgar; Hildenbrand, Sibylle; Loew, Thomas H.; Raupach, Tobias; Spies, Claudia; Treede, Rolf-Detlef; Vahl, Christian-Friedrich; Wenz, Hans-Jürgen

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The evaluation of medical research performance is a key prerequisite for the systematic advancement of medical faculties, research foci, academic departments, and individual scientists’ careers. However, it is often based on vaguely defined aims and questionable methods and can thereby lead to unwanted regulatory effects. The current paper aims at defining the position of German academic medicine toward the aims, methods, and consequences of its evaluation. Methods: During the Berlin Forum of the Association of the Scientific Medical Societies in Germany (AWMF) held on 18 October 2013, international experts presented data on methods for evaluating medical research performance. Subsequent discussions among representatives of relevant scientific organizations and within three ad-hoc writing groups led to a first draft of this article. Further discussions within the AWMF Committee for Evaluation of Performance in Research and Teaching and the AWMF Executive Board resulted in the final consented version presented here. Results: The AWMF recommends modifications to the current system of evaluating medical research performance. Evaluations should follow clearly defined and communicated aims and consist of both summative and formative components. Informed peer reviews are valuable but feasible in longer time intervals only. They can be complemented by objective indicators. However, the Journal Impact Factor is not an appropriate measure for evaluating individual publications or their authors. The scientific “impact” rather requires multidimensional evaluation. Indicators of potential relevance in this context may include, e.g., normalized citation rates of scientific publications, other forms of reception by the scientific community and the public, and activities in scientific organizations, research synthesis and science communication. In addition, differentiated recommendations are made for evaluating the acquisition of third-party funds and the

  11. Radiation exposure of fertile women in medical research studies

    SciTech Connect

    Vetter, R.J.

    1988-08-01

    Fertile women may be exposed to ionizing radiation as human subjects in medical research studies. If the woman is pregnant, such exposures may result in risk to an embryo/fetus. Fertile women may be screened for pregnancy before exposure to ionizing radiation by interview, general examination, or pregnancy test. Use of the sensitive serum pregnancy test has become common because it offers concrete evidence that the woman is not pregnant (more specifically, that an embryo is not implanted). Evidence suggests that risk to the embryo from radiation exposure before organogenesis is extremely low or nonexistent. Further, demonstrated effects on organogenesis are rare or inconclusive at fetal doses below 50 mSv (5 rem). Therefore, there may be some level of radiation exposure below which risk to the fetus may be considered essentially zero, and a serum pregnancy test is unnecessary. This paper reviews the fetal risks and suggests that consideration be given to establishing a limit to the fetus of 0.5 mSv (50 mrem), below which pregnancy screening need not include the use of a serum pregnancy test.

  12. Sports genetics moving forward: lessons learned from medical research.

    PubMed

    Mattsson, C Mikael; Wheeler, Matthew T; Waggott, Daryl; Caleshu, Colleen; Ashley, Euan A

    2016-03-01

    Sports genetics can take advantage of lessons learned from human disease genetics. By righting past mistakes and increasing scientific rigor, we can magnify the breadth and depth of knowledge in the field. We present an outline of challenges facing sports genetics in the light of experiences from medical research. Sports performance is complex, resulting from a combination of a wide variety of different traits and attributes. Improving sports genetics will foremost require analyses based on detailed phenotyping. To find widely valid, reproducible common variants associated with athletic phenotypes, study sample sizes must be dramatically increased. One paradox is that in order to confirm relevance, replications in specific populations must be undertaken. Family studies of athletes may facilitate the discovery of rare variants with large effects on athletic phenotypes. The complexity of the human genome, combined with the complexity of athletic phenotypes, will require additional metadata and biological validation to identify a comprehensive set of genes involved. Analysis of personal genetic and multiomic profiles contribute to our conceptualization of precision medicine; the same will be the case in precision sports science. In the refinement of sports genetics it is essential to evaluate similarities and differences between sexes and among ethnicities. Sports genetics to date have been hampered by small sample sizes and biased methodology, which can lead to erroneous associations and overestimation of effect sizes. Consequently, currently available genetic tests based on these inherently limited data cannot predict athletic performance with any accuracy.

  13. Optimize Use of Space Research and Technology for Medical Devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minnifield, Nona K.

    2012-01-01

    systems, and cutting-edge component technologies to conduct a wide range of scientific observations and measurements. These technologies are also considered for practical applications that benefit society in remarkable ways. At NASA Goddard, the technology transfer initiative promotes matching technologies from Earth and space science needs to targeted industry sectors. This requires clear knowledge of industry needs and priorities and social demands. The process entails matching mature technologies where there are known innovation challenges and good opportunities for matching technology needs. This requires creative thinking and takes commitment of time and resources. Additionally, we also look at applications for known hot industry or societal needs. Doing so has given us occasion to host discussions with representatives from industry, academia, government organizations, and societal special interest groups about the application of NASA Goddard technologies for devices used in medical monitoring and detection tools. As a result, partnerships have been established. Innovation transpired when new products were enabled because of NASA Goddard research and technology programs.

  14. Purification and uses of /sup 90/Y for medical research

    SciTech Connect

    Wike, J.S.; Haff, K.W.; Phillips, B.P.

    1985-11-01

    Medical researchers are utilizing two new products recently developed for a new attack on some forms of human cancer. One development in the early 1980s was the monoclonal antibody. A second product for liver cancer therapy is being developed. A radioactive isotope must meet rigid criteria to be used for labeling of these products. It must have a short half-life (days), be free of other long-lived radionuclides, and emit rays with energy that have a short path length in flesh. One isotope that meets these criteria is /sup 90/Y, which is the decay daughter of /sup 90/Sr. It has a 63.4-h half-life, a 2.25-MeV beta energy with no gamma energy, and decays to stable /sup 90/Zr. When /sup 90/Y is to be used with human patients, it is necessary to remove the /sup 90/Sr precursor to the lowest possible levels. A 50-Ci strontium cow was prepared at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) for the production of ultra-pure /sup 90/Y chloride. This cow was placed in a remote cell with master/slave manipulators for processing the /sup 90/Y. No other radionuclides are processed in this cell, thus eliminating the possibility of contamination of the finished product with alpha- and gamma-emitting nuclides. The 50-Ci source of /sup 90/Sr was selected for the production of /sup 90/Y in multicurie quantities. Large quantities of /sup 90/Y will be needed if research programs demonstrate that it is effective in the treatment of cancer.

  15. Medical Research Activities Cumulative Report for Period Ending 31 December 1975.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    MEDICAL RESEARCH, *TROPICAL MEDICINE, CLINICAL MEDICINE, INFECTIOUS DISEASES, PARASITOLOGY, ECOLOGY, VENEREAL DISEASES, VETERINARY MEDICINE , YELLOW FEVER, ARBOVIRUSES, CLINICAL LABORATORIES, ENTOMOLOGY, ETHIOPIA, VIROLOGY.

  16. Reflections on efforts to improve medical publishing in Africa.

    PubMed

    Gondwe, Mzamose

    2010-12-01

    Over the last five years several scholarly publishing associations have been launched in Africa - the Forum for African Medical Editors (FAME), the Society of African Journals (SAJE), the Consortium of African Scholarly Publishers (CASP), the Africa Journals Partnership Project and the African Association of Science Editors (AASE). What, if any, has been the impact of these initiatives? This paper reviews the most notable of these associations, FAME, which was established in 2003 with the support of the World Association of Medical Editors, the Council of Science Editors and the Special Program for Research and Training in Tropical Diseases (TDR). FAME is evaluated in relation to two other international scholarly publishing associations - the Scientific Electronic Library Online (SciELO) in South America and the Eastern Mediterranean Association of Medical Editors (EMAME). The article also discusses the future of FAME with regards to new developments in open access publishing through African Journals Online.

  17. Impact of elective versus required medical school research experiences on career outcomes.

    PubMed

    Weaver, Alice N; McCaw, Tyler R; Fifolt, Matthew; Hites, Lisle; Lorenz, Robin G

    2017-03-07

    Many US medical schools have added a scholarly or research requirement as a potential intervention to increase the number of medical students choosing to become academic physicians and physician scientists. We designed a retrospective qualitative survey study to evaluate the impact of medical school research at the University of Alabama at Birmingham (UAB) on career choices. A survey tool was developed consisting of 74 possible questions with built-in skip patterns to customize the survey to each participant. The survey was administered using the web-based program Qualtrics to UAB School of Medicine alumni graduating between 2000 and 2014. Alumni were contacted 3 times at 2-week intervals during the year 2015, resulting in 168 completed surveys (11.5% response rate). MD/PhD graduates were excluded from the study. Most respondents completed elective research, typically for reasons relating to career advancement. 24 per cent said medical school research increased their desire for research involvement in the future, a response that positively correlated with mentorship level and publication success. Although completion of medical school research was positively correlated with current research involvement, the strongest predictor for a physician scientist career was pre-existing passion for research (p=0.008). In contrast, students motivated primarily by curricular requirement were less likely to pursue additional research opportunities. Positive medical school research experiences were associated with increased postgraduate research in our study. However, we also identified a strong relationship between current research activity and passion for research, which may predate medical school.

  18. [Medical research in the US Armed Forces. (Report 5). The US Air Force and Coast Guard].

    PubMed

    Agapitov, A A; Aleĭnikov, S I; Bolekhan, V N; Ivchenko, E V; Krassiĭ, A B; Nagibovich, O A; Petrov, S V; Rezvantsev, M V; Soldatov, E A; Shalakhin, R A; Sheppli, E V

    2013-02-01

    The present article is the last part of the review dedicated to organization and management of medical research in the US Armed Forces. The first through fourth parts were published in the previous issues of the journal. Specifically this article is dedicated to organization and management of medical research in the US Air Force and Coast Guard. It is shown that in the US Air Force the medical research is conducted in the Air Force Research Laboratory and in the US Coast Guard--in its Research and Development Center. The particular research programs conducted in the above mentioned units are discussed.

  19. Medical Direction in Skilled Nursing Facilities. NCHSR Research Summary Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ricci, Edmund; Tessaro, Edward

    Regulations instituted by the Department of Health, Education, and Welfare effective in 1976 require skilled nursing facilities (SNF) to provide either a physician serving as medical director, or to have an organized medical staff. This report describes how SNFs responded, and what the effects were on their operations. Descriptive data were…

  20. "Disappearance" and Feminist Research in the South African Academy of Humanities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Jane

    2016-01-01

    Following a global trend in humanities since the mid-1970s, South African humanities faculties began to include formal programmes in gender and sexualities studies from the mid-1990s on. While the immediate post-flag democratic era encouraged intellectual concentration on diverse questions of power and knowledge, the new century saw a decline in…

  1. The African Ethic of "Ubuntu/Botho": Implications for Research on Morality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Metz, Thaddeus; Gaie, Joseph B. R.

    2010-01-01

    In this article we provide a theoretical reconstruction of sub-Saharan ethics that we argue is a strong competitor to typical Western approaches to morality. According to our African moral theory, actions are right roughly insofar as they are a matter of living harmoniously with others or honouring communal relationships. After spelling out this…

  2. Social Work Research on African Americans and Suicidal Behavior: A Systematic 25-Year Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joe, Sean; Niedermeier, Danielle M.

    2008-01-01

    Suicide among African Americans is a neglected topic. Social workers practice in both clinical and nonclinical settings, and as the largest occupational group of mental health professionals, they have a unique opportunity to reach this underserved group. However, little is known about social work's empirical knowledge base for recognition and…

  3. African American Women Scholars and International Research: Dr. Anna Julia Cooper's Legacy of Study Abroad

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Stephanie Y.

    2009-01-01

    EIn this article, the author presents a little-known but detailed history of Black women's tradition of study abroad. Specifically, she situates Dr. Anna Julia Cooper within the landscape of historic African American students who studied in Japan, Germany, Jamaica, England, Italy, Haiti, India, West Africa, and Thailand, in addition to France. The…

  4. Roles of Medical Record and Statistic Staff on Research at the Tawanchai Center.

    PubMed

    Pattaranit, Rumpan; Chantachum, Vasana; Lekboonyasin, Orathai; Pradubwong, Suteera

    2015-08-01

    The medical record and statistic staffs play a crucial role behind the achievements of treatment and research of physicians, nurses and other health care professionals. The medical record and statistic staff are in charge of keeping patient medical records; creating databases; presenting information; sorting patient's information; providing patient medical records and related information for various medical teams and researchers; Besides, the medical record and statistic staff have collaboration with the Center of Cleft Lip-Palate, Khon Kaen University in association with the Tawanchai Project. The Tawanchai Center is an organization, involving multidisciplinary team which aims to continuing provide care for patients with cleft lip and palate and craniofacial deformities who need a long term of treatment since newborns until the age of 19 years. With support and encouragement from the Tawanchai team, the medical record and statistic staff have involved in research under the Tawanchai Centre since then and produced a number of publications locally and internationally.

  5. New research progressing of surface modification of medical 316L stainless steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Lin; Ba, Dechun; Wang, Qing; Guo, Deyu

    2013-12-01

    316L stainless steels are widely used in clinical and medical fields because of their comprehensive performance. This paper analyses the current development situation and major existing problems of medical 316L stainless steels. The new methods and research achievement of surface modification in recent years are described in detail. It indicates that surface modification is an effective way to solve clinical application problems, and provides new opportunities for medical 316L stainless steels in medical applications.

  6. Plagiarism in the article Emphysematous cystitis and emphysematous pyelitis: a clinically misleading association. Mustapha Ahsaini et al. The Pan African Medical Journal. 2013;16:18. (doi:10.11604/pamj.2013.16.18.2505)

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    This retracts article Emphysematous cystitis and emphysematous pyelitis: a clinically misleading association. Mustapha Ahsaini, Amadou Kassogue, Mohammed Fadl Tazi, Anas Zaougui, Jalal Edine Elammari, Abdelhak Khallouk, Mohammed Jamal El Fassi, My Hassan Farih. The Pan African Medical Journal. 2013;16:18. (doi:10.11604/pamj.2013.16.18.2505). PMID:26328003

  7. Role of non-government organizations in engaging medical students in research.

    PubMed

    Manoranjan, Branavan; Dey, Ayan K; Wang, Xin; Kuzyk, Alexandra; Petticrew, Karen; Carruthers, Chris; Arnold, Ian

    2017-03-01

    The continued decline in medical trainees entering the workforce as clinician-scientists has elevated the need to engage medical students in research. While past studies have shown early exposure to generate interest among medical students for research and academic careers, financial constraints have limited the number of such formal research training programs. In light of recent government budget cuts to support research training for medical students, non-government organizations (NGOs) may play a progressively larger role in supporting the development of clinician-scientists. Since 2005, the Mach-Gaensslen Foundation has sponsored 621 Canadian medical student research projects, which represents the largest longitudinal data set of Canadian medical students engaged in research. We present the results of the pre- and post-research studentship questionnaires, program evaluation survey and the 5-year and 10-year follow-up questionnaires of past recipients. This paper provides insight into the role of NGOs as stakeholders in the training of clinician-scientists and evaluates the impact of such programs on the attitudes and career trajectory of medical students. While the problem of too few physicians entering academic and research-oriented careers continues to grow, alternative-funding strategies from NGOs may prove to be an effective approach in developing and maintaining medical student interest in research.

  8. Setting priorities for research in medical nutrition education: an international approach

    PubMed Central

    Ball, Lauren; Barnes, Katelyn; Laur, Celia; Crowley, Jennifer; Ray, Sumantra

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To identify the research priorities for medical nutrition education worldwide. Design A 5-step stakeholder engagement process based on methodological guidelines for identifying research priorities in health. Participants 277 individuals were identified as representatives for 30 different stakeholder organisations across 86 countries. The stakeholder organisations represented the views of medical educators, medical students, doctors, patients and researchers in medical education. Interventions Each stakeholder representative was asked to provide up to three research questions that should be deemed as a priority for medical nutrition education. Main outcome measures Research questions were critically appraised for answerability, sustainability, effectiveness, potential for translation and potential to impact on disease burden. A blinded scoring system was used to rank the appraised questions, with higher scores indicating higher priority (range of scores possible 36–108). Results 37 submissions were received, of which 25 were unique research questions. Submitted questions received a range of scores from 62 to 106 points. The highest scoring questions focused on (1) increasing the confidence of medical students and doctors in providing nutrition care to patients, (2) clarifying the essential nutrition skills doctors should acquire, (3) understanding the effectiveness of doctors at influencing dietary behaviours and (4) improving medical students' attitudes towards the importance of nutrition. Conclusions These research questions can be used to ensure future projects in medical nutrition education directly align with the needs and preferences of research stakeholders. Funders should consider these priorities in their commissioning of research. PMID:27974369

  9. Use of cyclotrons in medical research: Past, present, future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smathers, James B.; Myers, Lee T.

    1985-05-01

    The use of cyclotrons in medical research started in the late 1930s with the most prominent use being neutron irradiation in cancer therapy. Due to a lack of understanding of the biological effect of neutrons, the results were less than encouraging. In the 1940s and 1950s, small cyclotrons were used for isotope production and in the mid 60s, the biological effect of neutrons was more thoroughly studied, with the result that a second trial of neutron therapy was initiated at Hammersmith Hospital, England. Concurrent with this, work on the use of high energy charged particles, initially protons and alphas, was initiated in Sweden and Russia and at Harvard and Berkeley. The English success in neutron therapy led to some pilot studies in the USA using physics cyclotrons of various energies and targets. These results in turn lead to the present series of machines presently being installed at M.D. Anderson Hospital (42 MeV), Seattle (50 MeV) and UCLA (46 MeV). The future probably bodes well for cyclotrons at the two extremes of the energy range. For nuclear medicine the shift is away from the use of multiple isotopes, which requires a large range of particles and energies to 11C, 13N, 15O, and 18F, which can be incorporated in metabolic specific compounds and be made with small 8-10 MeV p+ "table top" cyclotrons. For tumor therapy machines of 60 MeV or so will probably be the choice for the future, as they allow the treatment of deep seated tumors with neutrons and the charged particles have sufficient range to allow the treatment of ocular tumors.

  10. [Publication of research projects for certification as medical specialists at a Peruvian university, 2007-2010].

    PubMed

    Ticse, Ray; Ygreda, Patricia; Samalvides, Frine

    2014-04-01

    In order to determine the frequency of publication in a scientific journal of the research projects done for medical specialty certification, a search was conducted in Google Scholar, Pubmed, biomedical databases and Peruvian medical society journals. These publications were research projects carried out by medical residents graduated from the Faculty of Medicine at the Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia, to obtain the certification of medical specialist. Of 351 medical residents graduated between the years 2007-2010, 199 (65.5%) completed their research project and 47 (23.6%) published it in a scientific journal. The "medicine" (non-surgical) specialty area had the highest frequency of publications. All publications were in Spanish journals, the majority in indexed journals in regional databases. We conclude that 23.6% of the research projects for certification as medical specialists are published, most often in low visibility journals.

  11. Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Populations in Medical Research: Perceptions and Experiences of Older Italians, Their Families, Ethics Administrators and Researchers

    PubMed Central

    Woodward-Kron, Robyn; Hughson, Jo-anne; Parker, Anna; Bresin, Agnese; Hajek, John; Knoch, Ute; Phan, Tuong Dien; Story, David

    2016-01-01

    Background Low-participation of culturally and linguistically diverse (CALD) patients in medical research remains a problem in migrant and refugee destination countries such as Australia. The aims of this study were to explore i) CALD persons’ perceptions and experiences of the medical system and medical research, in this case, older Italian Australians; and ii) the views of research professionals on CALD patient participation in medical research. Design and Methods A qualitative study was conducted in Melbourne, Australia, in 2015 utilising in-depth interviews and focus groups with four stakeholder groups: older Italian Australians (n=21); adult children of older Italian Australians (n=10); hospital Human Research Ethics Committee administrators (n=4); and clinical researchers (n=4). The data were analysed for content and thematic analysis. Results Themes for the CALD and family group were getting by in medical interactions; receptivity to medical research: testing the waters; and, receptivity to technology for support: passive versus active. Themes for the researcher and HREC groups about CALD patient participation in research were: exclusion; cultural factors; and e-consent. Conclusions Our findings from four stakeholder perspectives and experiences confirm that there were considerable cultural, linguistic, and resourcing barriers hindering the participation of older Italian-Australians in medical research. Furthermore, our findings showed that in this study setting there were few enabling strategies in place to address these barriers despite the national ethics guidelines for equitable participation in research. The findings informed the creation of a multimedia tool whose purpose is to address and improve representation of CALD groups in clinical research. Significance for public health Many people from culturally and linguistically diverse (CALD) backgrounds remain excluded from medical research such as clinical trials due to a range of language and

  12. New NIH Director Dr. Francis Collins on Medical Research That Benefits Everyone's Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... version of this page please turn Javascript on. New NIH Director Dr. Francis Collins on Medical Research ... Our goal is to advance biomedical research in new, innovative ways that will benefit everyone's health." — NIH ...

  13. [Medical practice and clinical research: keys to generate knowledge and improve care].

    PubMed

    Martínez Castuera-Gómez, Carla; Talavera, Juan O

    2013-01-01

    The increased quality in medical care may be immediately accomplished if clinical research is integrated into daily clinical practice. In the generation of medical knowledge are four steps: an unanswered question awakened from clinical practice, the critical analysis of specialized literature, the development of a research protocol, and, finally, the publication of outcomes. Decision making and continuous training are becoming part of an effective strategy of medical attention improvement.

  14. Association of Learning Styles with Research Self-Efficacy: Study of Short-Term Research Training Program for Medical Students

    PubMed Central

    Dumbauld, Jill; Black, Michelle; Depp, Colin A.; Daly, Rebecca; Curran, Maureen A.; Winegarden, Babbi; Jeste, Dilip V.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose With a growing need for developing future physician scientists, identifying characteristics of medical students who are likely to benefit from research training programs is important. This study assessed if specific learning styles of medical students, participating in federally funded short-term research training programs, were associated with research self-efficacy, a predictor of research career success. Method Seventy-five first-year medical students from 28 medical schools, selected to participate in two competitive NIH-supported summer programs for research training in aging, completed rating scales to evaluate learning styles at baseline, and research self-efficacy before and after training. We examined associations of individual learning styles (visual-verbal, sequential-global, sensing-intuitive, and active-reflective) with students’ gender, ranking of medical school, and research self-efficacy. Results Research self-efficacy improved significantly following the training programs. Students with a verbal learning style reported significantly greater research self-efficacy at baseline, while visual, sequential, and intuitive learners demonstrated significantly greater increases in research self-efficacy from baseline to post-training. No significant relationships were found between learning styles and students’ gender or ranking of their medical school. Conclusions Assessments of learning styles may provide useful information to guide future training endeavors aimed at developing the next generation of physician-scientists. PMID:25079678

  15. [The textual research on the medical work of Wang tao].

    PubMed

    Song, Zhen-min

    2009-03-01

    Wang tao began to learn TCM as soon as he grew up, his teachers were proficient and famous doctors. He traveled and learned from them for several times and grasped their medical thoughts and technologies, therefore achieved profound medical accomplishments. Taking advantage of his medical background and occupation, he collected fifty and sixty kinds of medical data in prescription books of Jin and Tang dynasty from treasured books of Hong wen museum in Tianbao fifth to sixth years (746 -747) , when he served as Jishizhong of Ministry of Counseling and Functionary Management and administrated Hongwen museum. He then sorted them and compiled the famous work: Waitai Miyao (Arcane Essentials from the Imperial Library) in Tianbao 11th year (752).

  16. Proceedings of the 2010 AFMS Medical Research Symposium. Volume 5. Nursing Track: Abstracts and Presentations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-03-15

    will include hematocrit, hemoglobin , mean corpuscle volume, iron , total iron binding capacity, Ferritin , and soluble transferring receptor. The...Iraq/Afghanistan ........ 2  Iron Status of Deployed Military Members...2010 AFMS Medical Research Symposium Volume 5 Nursing 8 Proceedings of the 2010 AFMS Medical Research Symposium Volume 5 Nursing 9 Iron

  17. Molecules, magic and forgetful fruit flies: the supernatural science of medical gas research.

    PubMed

    Mychaskiw, George

    2011-09-06

    Medical gas research often involves the study of molecules under extraphysiologic conditions, that is, conditions that do not exist in nature. This "supernatural" nature of medical gas research sometimes produces results that appear to be almost "magic" to those schooled in traditional physiology"Any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic".-Arthur C. Clarke.

  18. 10 CFR 50.21 - Class 104 licenses; for medical therapy and research and development facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Class 104 licenses; for medical therapy and research and...; for medical therapy and research and development facilities. A class 104 license will be issued, to an..., manufacture, produce, transfer, acquire, possess, or use. (a) A utilization facility for use in...

  19. 10 CFR 50.21 - Class 104 licenses; for medical therapy and research and development facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Class 104 licenses; for medical therapy and research and...; for medical therapy and research and development facilities. A class 104 license will be issued, to an..., manufacture, produce, transfer, acquire, possess, or use. (a) A utilization facility for use in...

  20. 10 CFR 50.21 - Class 104 licenses; for medical therapy and research and development facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Class 104 licenses; for medical therapy and research and...; for medical therapy and research and development facilities. A class 104 license will be issued, to an..., manufacture, produce, transfer, acquire, possess, or use. (a) A utilization facility for use in...

  1. 21 CFR 801.125 - Medical devices for use in teaching, law enforcement, research, and analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Directions for Use § 801.125 Medical devices for use in teaching, law enforcement, research, and analysis. A... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Medical devices for use in teaching, law enforcement, research, and analysis. 801.125 Section 801.125 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG...

  2. 21 CFR 801.125 - Medical devices for use in teaching, law enforcement, research, and analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Directions for Use § 801.125 Medical devices for use in teaching, law enforcement, research, and analysis. A... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Medical devices for use in teaching, law enforcement, research, and analysis. 801.125 Section 801.125 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG...

  3. 21 CFR 801.125 - Medical devices for use in teaching, law enforcement, research, and analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Directions for Use § 801.125 Medical devices for use in teaching, law enforcement, research, and analysis. A... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Medical devices for use in teaching, law enforcement, research, and analysis. 801.125 Section 801.125 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG...

  4. 10 CFR 50.21 - Class 104 licenses; for medical therapy and research and development facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Class 104 licenses; for medical therapy and research and...; for medical therapy and research and development facilities. A class 104 license will be issued, to an..., manufacture, produce, transfer, acquire, possess, or use. (a) A utilization facility for use in...

  5. 76 FR 59407 - Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research Report of Scientific and Medical Literature and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-26

    ... ``Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research Report of Scientific and Medical Literature and Information... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research Report of Scientific and Medical Literature and Information on Non-Standardized Allergenic Extracts in the...

  6. 21 CFR 801.125 - Medical devices for use in teaching, law enforcement, research, and analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Directions for Use § 801.125 Medical devices for use in teaching, law enforcement, research, and analysis. A... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Medical devices for use in teaching, law enforcement, research, and analysis. 801.125 Section 801.125 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG...

  7. 10 CFR 50.21 - Class 104 licenses; for medical therapy and research and development facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Class 104 licenses; for medical therapy and research and...; for medical therapy and research and development facilities. A class 104 license will be issued, to an..., manufacture, produce, transfer, acquire, possess, or use. (a) A utilization facility for use in...

  8. 21 CFR 801.125 - Medical devices for use in teaching, law enforcement, research, and analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Directions for Use § 801.125 Medical devices for use in teaching, law enforcement, research, and analysis. A... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Medical devices for use in teaching, law enforcement, research, and analysis. 801.125 Section 801.125 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG...

  9. HIV Prevention Research: Are We Meeting the Needs of African American Men Who Have Sex With Men?1

    PubMed Central

    Mays, Vickie M.; Cochran, Susan D.; Zamudio, Anthony

    2009-01-01

    Two decades of HIV prevention efforts with men who have sex with men (MSM) have not eliminated the risk of new HIV infections in this vulnerable population. Indeed, current incidence rates in African American MSM are similar to those usually only seen in developing countries. A review of the existing literature suggests that the prevention research agenda for Black MSM could benefit from reframing conceptualization of risk as a function of individual properties to a broad consideration of social and interpersonal determinants. Studies that investigate dyadic and social-level influences on African American MSM’s relationships are needed. This includes research explicating the diversity existing within the categorizations of Black MSM with respect to perceived identity (gay, bisexual, “men on the down low,” “homo thugz”), constructions of masculinity, sexual scripts, sources of social support, and perceived norms and expectations. Recommendations are proposed for a research agenda focusing on linkages between interpersonal and social-structural determinants of HIV risk. PMID:20041036

  10. The Strong African American Families Program: translating research into prevention programming.

    PubMed

    Brody, Gene H; Murry, Velma McBride; Gerrard, Meg; Gibbons, Frederick X; Molgaard, Virginia; McNair, Lily; Brown, Anita C; Wills, Thomas A; Spoth, Richard L; Luo, Zupei; Chen, Yi-Fu; Neubaum-Carlan, Eileen

    2004-01-01

    A randomized prevention trial contrasted families who took part in the Strong African American Families Program (SAAF), a preventive intervention for rural African American mothers and their 11-year-olds, with control families. SAAF is based on a contextual model positing that regulated, communicative parenting causes changes in factors protecting youths from early alcohol use and sexual activity. Parenting variables included involvement-vigilance, racial socialization, communication about sex, and clear expectations for alcohol use. Youth protective factors included negative attitudes about early alcohol use and sexual activity, negative images of drinking youths, resistance efficacy, a goal-directed future orientation, and acceptance of parental influence. Intervention-induced changes in parenting mediated the effect of intervention group influences on changes in protective factors over a 7-month period.

  11. Child consent in South African law: implications for researchers, service providers and policy-makers.

    PubMed

    Strode, Ann; Slack, Catherine; Essack, Zaynab

    2010-03-30

    Children under 18 are legal minors who, in South African law, are not fully capable of acting independently without assistance from parents/legal guardians. However, in recognition of the evolving capacity of children, there are exceptional circumstances where the law has granted minors the capacity to act independently. We describe legal norms for child consent to health-related interventions in South Africa, and argue that the South African parliament has taken an inconsistent approach to: the capacity of children to consent; the persons able to consent when children do not have capacity; and restrictions on the autonomy of children or their proxies to consent. In addition, the rationale for the differing age limitations, capacity requirements and public policy restrictions has not been specified. These inconsistencies make it difficult for stakeholders interacting with children to ensure that they act lawfully.

  12. Compensation for subjects of medical research: the moral rights of patients and the power of research ethics committees.

    PubMed Central

    Guest, S

    1997-01-01

    Awareness of the morally significant distinction between research and innovative therapy reveals serious gaps in the legal provision for compensation in the UK for injured subjects of medical research. Major problems are limitations inherent in negligence actions and a culture that emphasises indemnifying researchers before compensating victims. Medical research morally requires compensation on a no-fault basis even where there is proper consent on the part of the research subject. In particular, for drug research, there is insufficient provision in the current patient guidelines of the Association of the British Pharmaceutical Industry, since they make "no legal commitment" to paying compensation for injury to patient subjects. There is a need for the provision of both adequate insurance and contractual arrangements for making payments. The solution is for Local Research Ethics Committees (LRECs) to make use of their power to withhold approval of medical research where compensation is not legally enforceable. PMID:9220333

  13. An international basic science and clinical research summer program for medical students.

    PubMed

    Ramjiawan, Bram; Pierce, Grant N; Anindo, Mohammad Iffat Kabir; Alkukhun, Abedalrazaq; Alshammari, Abdullah; Chamsi, Ahmad Talal; Abousaleh, Mohannad; Alkhani, Anas; Ganguly, Pallab K

    2012-03-01

    An important part of training the next generation of physicians is ensuring that they are exposed to the integral role that research plays in improving medical treatment. However, medical students often do not have sufficient time to be trained to carry out any projects in biomedical and clinical research. Many medical students also fail to understand and grasp translational research as an important concept today. In addition, since medical training is often an international affair whereby a medical student/resident/fellow will likely train in many different countries during his/her early training years, it is important to provide a learning environment whereby a young medical student experiences the unique challenges and value of an international educational experience. This article describes a program that bridges the gap between the basic and clinical research concepts in a unique international educational experience. After completing two semester curricula at Alfaisal University in Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, six medical students undertook a summer program at St. Boniface Hospital Research Centre, in Winnipeg, MB, Canada. The program lasted for 2 mo and addressed advanced training in basic science research topics in medicine such as cell isolation, functional assessment, and molecular techniques of analysis and manipulation as well as sessions on the conduct of clinical research trials, ethics, and intellectual property management. Programs such as these are essential to provide a base from which medical students can decide if research is an attractive career choice for them during their clinical practice in subsequent years. An innovative international summer research course for medical students is necessary to cater to the needs of the medical students in the 21st century.

  14. African American community leaders' policy recommendations for reducing racial disparities in HIV infection, treatment, and care: results from a community-based participatory research project in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

    PubMed

    Nunn, Amy; Sanders, Julia; Carson, Lee; Thomas, Gladys; Cornwall, Alexandra; Towey, Caitlin; Lee, Hwajin; Tasco, Marian; Shabazz-El, Waheedah; Yolken, Annajane; Smith, Tyrone; Bell, Gary; Feller, Sophie; Smith, Erin; James, George; Shelton Dunston, Brenda; Green, Derek

    2015-01-01

    African Americans account for 45% of new HIV infections in the United States. Little empirical research investigates African American community leaders' normative recommendations for addressing these disparities. Philadelphia's HIV infection rate is 5 times the national average, nearly 70% of new infections are among African Americans, and 2% of African Americans in Philadelphia are living with HIV/AIDS. Using a community-based participatory research approach, we convened focus groups among 52 African American community leaders from diverse backgrounds to solicit normative recommendations for reducing Philadelphia's racial disparities in HIV infection. Leaders recommended that (a) Philadelphia's city government should raise awareness about HIV/AIDS with media campaigns featuring local leaders, (b) local HIV-prevention interventions should address social and structural factors influencing HIV risks rather than focus exclusively on mode of HIV transmission, (c) resources should be distributed to the most heavily affected neighborhoods of Philadelphia, and (d) faith institutions should play a critical role in HIV testing, treatment, and prevention efforts. We developed a policy memo highlighting these normative recommendations for how to enhance local HIV prevention policy. This policy memo led to Philadelphia City Council hearings about HIV/AIDS in October 2010 and subsequently informed local HIV/AIDS prevention policy and development of local HIV prevention interventions. This community-based participatory research case study offers important lessons for effectively engaging community leaders in research to promote HIV/AIDS policy change.

  15. Africentrism--Perspective or Paradigm? Implications for Adult Education. Proceedings of the African American Adult Education Research Pre-Conference (Knoxville, Tennessee, May 18-19, 1994).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guy, Talmadge C., Ed.; And Others

    The following papers were presented at a research preconference on the implications of Afrocentrism for adult education: "The African American Adult Education Pre-Conference: Historical Reflections" (Colin); "The Perspective 'Is' the Paradigm: The Congruence of World View and Research Methodology" (Dozier-Henry);…

  16. Undergraduate research in medical education: a descriptive study of students’ views

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Medical students engage in curricular and extracurricular activities, including undergraduate research (UR). The advantages, difficulties and motivations for medical students pursuing research activities during their studies have rarely been addressed. In Brazil, some medical schools have included undergraduate research into their curriculum. The present study aimed to understand the reality of scientific practice among medical students at a well-established Brazilian medical school, analyzing this context from the students’ viewpoint. Methods A cross-sectional survey based on a questionnaire applied to students from years one to six enrolled in an established Brazilian medical school that currently has no curricular UR program. Results The questionnaire was answered by 415 students, 47.2% of whom were involved in research activities, with greater participation in UR in the second half of the course. Independent of student involvement in research activities, time constraints were cited as the main obstacle to participation. Among students not involved in UR, 91.1% said they favored its inclusion in the curriculum, since this would facilitate the development of such activity. This approach could signify an approximation between the axes of teaching and research. Among students who had completed at least one UR project, 87.7% said they would recommend the activity to students entering the course. Conclusion Even without an undergraduate research program, students of this medical school report strong involvement in research activities, but discussion of the difficulties inherent in its practice is important to future developments. PMID:24636494

  17. National medical research ranking and scientific productivity: Where do we stand?

    PubMed Central

    Aminpour, Farzaneh

    2012-01-01

    Background: Continuous evaluation of research performance is an effective tool for financial and human resource allocation to promote knowledge production by academic institutions. The aim of this study was to evaluate the scientific performance of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences (IUMS) from April 2010 to April 2011 in the national medical research ranking. Methods: This cross sectional study was carried out through running advanced searches in the national, local and international information databases and other websites. Then the data were analyzed in order to demonstrate IUMS scientific production and research status at a national level. Results: From April 2010 to April 2011, about 9% of total Iranian medical articles, 6% of total Iranian ISI indexed articles in medical science and 12% of Iranian PubMed indexed articles affiliated to Isfahan University of Medical Sciences. Although Isfahan University of Medical Sciences stood at the third place in the annual national research ranking, but it was first in the scientific growth among Iranian medical universities. Conclusions: The study indicated that Isfahan University of Medical Sciences witnessed striking improvement in scientific productivity, research performance and national research grade during 2010-2011. PMID:23267404

  18. Patients, privacy and trust: patients' willingness to allow researchers to access their medical records.

    PubMed

    Damschroder, Laura J; Pritts, Joy L; Neblo, Michael A; Kalarickal, Rosemarie J; Creswell, John W; Hayward, Rodney A

    2007-01-01

    The federal Privacy Rule, implemented in the United States in 2003, as part of the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 (HIPAA), created new restrictions on the release of medical information for research. Many believe that its restrictions have fallen disproportionately on researchers prompting some to call for changes to the Rule. Here we ask what patients think about researchers' access to medical records, and what influences these opinions. A sample of 217 patients from 4 Veteran Affairs (VA) facilities deliberated in small groups at each location with the opportunity to question experts and inform themselves about privacy issues related to medical records research. After extensive deliberation, these patients were united in their inclination to share their medical records for research. Yet they were also united in their recommendations to institute procedures that would give them more control over whether and how their medical records are used for research. We integrated qualitative and quantitative results to derive a better understanding of this apparent paradox. Our findings can best be presented as answers to questions related to five dimensions of trust: Patients' trust in VA researchers was the most powerful determinant of the kind of control they want over their medical records. More specifically, those who had lower trust in VA researchers were more likely to recommend a more stringent process for obtaining individual consent. Insights on the critical role of trust suggest actions that researchers and others can take to more fully engage patients in research.

  19. The U.S. Public's Investment in Medical Research: An Evolving Social Contract.

    PubMed

    Heinig, Stephen J; Dev, Anurupa; Bonham, Ann C

    2016-01-01

    Medical researchers and their institutions are operating under extraordinary financial stress. More than a decade after completion of the 5-year doubling of the National Institutes of Health budget, the medical research community must confront a significant loss in National Institutes of Health purchasing power and downward pressures in federal discretionary spending. In part, this trend results from a federal budget stalemate over the growth in entitlement programs, particularly spending on medical care. This article considers the changing nature of the federal investment in medical research and the potential for medical researchers and institutions conducting the full spectrum of research to improve health system performance and health equity. In our view, continued federal investments reflect an evolving social contract for research serving the public good; the term contract is used metaphorically to represent a figurative, implicit agreement between the scientific community and the public's representatives in government. Under this conceptual contract, the American people--who are ultimately the funders of research, research training and infrastructure--expect outcomes that lead to better health, security or other benefits. The evolving contract includes expectations for more accountability, transparency, sharing of results and resources, and better integration of research systems and cultures that used to take pride in boundaries and distinctions. We outline here some of the major movements of organizations realigning to social support, which are increasingly essential to sustain public investment in medical research.

  20. Research for medical illustrators. Part 2: Trial design, protocols, results and reporting.

    PubMed

    Young, S; Bellamy, K

    1997-09-01

    Medical illustrators have long been involved in the research projects of other workers, by providing photographic and other visual records. These illustrations may be used for measurement purposes, in which case it is important that medical illustrators understand the requirements for using tested protocols, which ensure that all variables of the recording medium are controlled. Now that there are degree courses in medical illustration an increasing number of medical illustrators in the UK are instigating their own research projects, making it all the more important that they understand the research process. In this second of a two-part article, consideration is given to: the design of experiments and research trials; the production of research protocols; data analysis and interpretation; the writing of the research report or dissertation; and the role of the supervisor or mentor.

  1. The Neighborhood Voice: evaluating a mobile research vehicle for recruiting African Americans to participate in cancer control studies.

    PubMed

    Alcaraz, Kassandra I; Weaver, Nancy L; Andresen, Elena M; Christopher, Kara; Kreuter, Matthew W

    2011-09-01

    The Neighborhood Voice is a vehicle customized for conducting health research in community settings. It brings research studies into neighborhoods affected most by health disparities and reaches groups often underrepresented in research samples. This paper reports on the experience and satisfaction of 599 African American women who participated in research on board the Neighborhood Voice. Using bivariate, psychometric, and logistic regression analyses, we examined responses to a brief post-research survey. Most women (71%) reported that they had never previously participated in research, and two-thirds (68%) rated their Neighborhood Voice experience as excellent. Satisfaction scores were highest among first-time research participants (p < .05). Women's ratings of the Neighborhood Voice on Comfort (OR = 4.9; 95% CI = 3.0, 7.9) and Convenience (OR = 1.8; 95% CI = 1.2, 2.9) significantly predicted having an excellent experience. Mobile research facilities may increase participation among disadvantaged and minority populations. Our brief survey instrument is a model for evaluating such outreach.

  2. 1997 Accession Medical Standards Analysis & Research Activity (AMSARA) Annual Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-05-01

    Attention - Deficit / Hyperactivity Disorder Armed Forces Qualifying Test Academic Skills Defect Accession Medical Standards Analysis and...Academic Skills Defect: 1995 and 1996: Preliminary Results Attention deficit / hyperactivity disorder is not directly addressed in the DOD Directive for...Genetic Influences in Childhood-Onset Psychiatric Disorders: Autism and Attention - Deficit / Hyperactivity Disorder . Am J Hum Genet

  3. Emergency Medical Technician Performance Evaluation. NCHSR Research Report Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frazier, William H.; Cannon, Joseph F.

    An evaluation was conducted of the diagnostic accuracy and treatment appropriateness of emergency medical technicians (EMTs) in caring for 4,455 consecutive patients during a four-and-one-half month period. Data on EMT diagnosis and treatment and physician diagnosis were collected, and EMT data validated by observers. There were fifty-eight…

  4. Metafunctional Practices in Medical Research Articles: A Comparative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Assadi, Nader; Ghassemi, Mojtaba; Madadi, Alireza

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore any possible difference among the verb types chosen in articles written in English by the non-natives and natives. In so doing, Halliday's Systemic Functional Grammar (1994) was employed. 80 published articles from the medical sciences field of study were chosen from among which 40 were written by native…

  5. Automatic Placement of Genomic Research Results in Medical Records: Do Researchers Have a Duty? Should Participants Have a Choice?

    PubMed

    Prince, Anya E R; Conley, John M; Davis, Arlene M; Lázaro-Muñoz, Gabriel; Cadigan, R Jean

    2015-01-01

    In genomics research, it is becoming common practice to return individualized primary and incidental findings to participants and several ongoing major studies have begun to automatically transfer these results to a participant's clinical medical record. This paper explores who should decide whether to place genomic research findings into a clinical medical record. Should participants make this decision, or does a researcher's duty to place this information in a medical record override the participant's autonomy? We argue that there are no clear ethical, legal, professional, or regulatory duties that mandate placement without the consent of the participant. We conclude that informing participants of results, together with a clear explanation, relevant recommendations and referral sources, and the option to consent to placement in the medical records will best discharge researchers' ethical and legal duties towards participants.

  6. HPV Vaccine Use among African American Girls: Qualitative Formative Research using a Participatory Social Marketing Approach

    PubMed Central

    Hull, Pamela C.; Williams, Elizabeth A.; Khabele, Dineo; Dean, Candace; Bond, Brea; Sanderson, Maureen

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To generate recommendations for framing messages to promote HPV vaccination, specifically for African American adolescents and their parents who have not yet made a decision about the vaccine (the “Undecided” market segment). METHODS Focus groups and interviews were conducted with African American girls ages 11–18 (N=34) and their mothers (N=31), broken into market segments based on daughter’s vaccination status and mother’s intent to vaccinate. RESULTS Findings suggested that the HPV vaccine should be presented to “Undecided” mothers and adolescents as a routine vaccine (just like other vaccines) that helps prevent cancer. Within the “Undecided” segment, we identified two sub-segments based on barriers to HPV vaccination and degree of reluctance. The “Undecided/Ready If Offered” segment would easily accept HPV vaccine if given the opportunity, with basic information and a healthcare provider recommendation. The “Undecided/Skeptical” segment would need more in-depth information to allay concerns about vaccine safety, mistrust of drug companies, and recommended age. Some mothers and girls had the erroneous perception that girls do not need the vaccine until they become sexually active. African American adolescents and their mothers overwhelmingly thought campaigns should target both girls and boys for HPV vaccination. In addition, campaigns and messages may need to be tailored for pre-teens (ages 9–12) versus teens (ages 13–18) and their parents. CONCLUSIONS Findings pointed to the need to “normalize” the perception of HPV vaccine as just another routine vaccine (e.g., part of pre-teen vaccine package). Findings can inform social marketing campaigns targeting Undecided or ethnically diverse families. PMID:24491412

  7. What do Islamic institutional fatwas say about medical and research confidentiality and breach of confidentiality?

    PubMed

    Alahmad, Ghiath; Dierickx, Kris

    2012-08-01

    Protecting confidentiality is an essential value in all human relationships, no less in medical practice and research.(1) Doctor-patient and researcher-participant relationships are built on trust and on the understanding those patients' secrets will not be disclosed.(2) However, this confidentiality can be breached in some situations where it is necessary to meet a strong conflicting duty.(3) Confidentiality, in a general sense, has received much interest in Islamic resources including the Qur'an, Sunnah and juristic writings. However, medical and research confidentiality have not been explored deeply. There are few fatwas about the issue, despite an increased effort by both individuals and Islamic medical organizations to use these institutional fatwas in their research. Infringements on confidentiality make up a significant portion of institutional fatwas, yet they have never been thoroughly investigated. Moreover, the efforts of organizations and authors in this regard still require further exploration, especially on the issue of research confidentiality. In this article, we explore medical and research confidentiality and potential conflicts with this practice as a result of fatwas released by international, regional, and national Islamic Sunni juristic councils. We discuss how these fatwas affect research and publication by Muslim doctors, researchers, and Islamic medical organizations. We argue that more specialized fatwas are needed to clarify Islamic juristic views about medical and research confidentiality, especially the circumstances in which infringements on this confidentiality are justified.

  8. African American community leaders' policy recommendations for reducing racial disparities in HIV infection, treatment and care: results from a community-based participatory research project in Philadelphia, PA

    PubMed Central

    Nunn, Amy; Sanders, Julia; Carson, Lee; Thomas, Gladys; Cornwall, Alexandra; Towey, Caitlin; Lee, Hwajin; Tasco, Marian; Shabazz-El, Waheedah; Yolken, Annajane; Smith, Tyrone; Bell, Gary; Feller, Sophie; Smith, Erin; James, George; Dunston, Brenda Shelton; Green, Derek

    2015-01-01

    African Americans account for 45% of new HIV infections in the United States. Little empirical research investigates African American community leaders' normative recommendations for addressing these disparities. Philadelphia's HIV infection rate is five times the national average, nearly 70% of new infections are among African Americans, and 2% of African Americans in Philadelphia are living with HIV/AIDS. Using a community-based participatory research (CBPR) approach, we convened focus groups among 52 African American community leaders from diverse backgrounds to solicit normative recommendations for reducing Philadelphia's racial disparities in HIV infection. Leaders recommended: 1) Philadelphia's city government should raise awareness about HIV/AIDS with media campaigns featuring local leaders; 2) Local HIV prevention interventions should address social and structural factors influencing HIV risks rather than focus exclusively on mode of HIV transmission; 3) Resources should be distributed to the most heavily impacted neighborhoods of Philadelphia; and 4) Faith institutions should play a critical role in HIV testing, treatment and prevention efforts. We developed a policy memo highlighting these normative recommendations for how to enhance local HIV prevention policy. This policy memo led to Philadelphia City Council hearings about HIV/AIDS in October 2010 and subsequently informed local HIV/AIDS prevention policy and development of local HIV prevention interventions. This CBPR case study offers important lessons for effectively engaging community leaders in research to promote HIV/AIDS policy change. PMID:24879446

  9. Medical staff involvement in nursing homes: development of a conceptual model and research agenda.

    PubMed

    Shield, Renée; Rosenthal, Marsha; Wetle, Terrie; Tyler, Denise; Clark, Melissa; Intrator, Orna

    2014-02-01

    Medical staff (physicians, nurse practitioners, physicians' assistants) involvement in nursing homes (NH) is limited by professional guidelines, government policies, regulations, and reimbursements, creating bureaucratic burden. The conceptual NH Medical Staff Involvement Model, based on our mixed-methods research, applies the Donabedian "structure-process-outcomes" framework to the NH, identifying measures for a coordinated research agenda. Quantitative surveys and qualitative interviews conducted with medical directors, administrators and directors of nursing, other experts, residents and family members and Minimum Data Set, the Online Certification and Reporting System and Medicare Part B claims data related to NH structure, process, and outcomes were analyzed. NH control of medical staff, or structure, affects medical staff involvement in care processes and is associated with better outcomes (e.g., symptom management, appropriate transitions, satisfaction). The model identifies measures clarifying the impact of NH medical staff involvement on care processes and resident outcomes and has strong potential to inform regulatory policies.

  10. Twenty-first Century ethics of medical research involving human subjects: achievements and challenges.

    PubMed

    Tzamaloukas, Antonios H; Konstantinov, Konstantin N; Agaba, Emmanuel I; Raj, Dominic S C; Murata, Glen H; Glew, Robert H

    2008-01-01

    The field of ethics in medical research has seen important developments in the last three decades, but it also faces great challenges in the new century. The purposes of this report are to examine the current status of ethics of medical research involving human subjects and the nature of the ethical challenges facing this research, to identify the weakness of the current system of safeguards for ethical research, and to stress the importance of the ethical character of the researcher, which is the safeguard that has the greatest potential for protecting the research subjects. Researchers appreciate the risks of human medical research that create ethical dilemmas and the need for an ethical compromise in order to proceed with the research. The main elements of the compromise, formulated primarily from experiences in the Second World War, include: (1) the dominant position of the ethical principle of autonomy; (2) the demand for a signed informed consent; (3) the likelihood of improving health with the research protocol, which must be approved by a duly appointed supervising committee; and (4) an acceptable risk/benefit ratio. The main weakness of this set of safeguards is the difficulty with obtaining a truly informed consent. The new challenges to ethical medical research stem from certain types of research, such as genetic and stem cell research, and from the increasing involvement of the industry in planning and funding the research studies. Developing medical researchers with an ethical character and knowledge about ethics in medicine may be the most effective safeguard in protecting participants of medical research experiments.

  11. How Well Establishment of Research Plans Can Improve Scientific Ranking of Medical Universities

    PubMed Central

    Saadat, Seyed Hassan; Izadi, Morteza; Aslani, Jafar; Ghanei, Mostafa

    2015-01-01

    Background: As a developing country, Iran has not had a substantial share in global science production activities; however, this country has recently been the forth country in the world regarding research output publications, and biomedical research has played a crucial role in achieving this honorable position. Objectives: In this paper, we aimed to introduce the strategies employed at Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences of Iran, to enhance scientific research output of this university. Patients and Methods: The present study used the qualitative content analysis technique. The Research deputies and the head of research centers of Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences were the research subjects. The main researcher conducted all the interviews. The participants were all authorities of the university. Sampling continued until data saturation. After speaking with 16 participants, the interviews yielded no new information, and no new categories or subcategories were added to the previous ones. Deep and semi-structured interviews with open-ended questions were used to collect data. Results: Diplomacies employed to promote research, organizing educational classes, and foundation of infrastructural organizations for research and true surveillance of research programs were the main characteristics of Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences research strategies. Conclusions: Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences is a military university of limited resources that has won several awards in the recent years, and has been categorized as one of the leading first ranked medical universities in Iran; a position quite higher than several other larger universities of the country. We recommend more enhanced strategies for other universities. PMID:25793114

  12. Student-Driven Approaches to Undergraduate Medical Research: A Peer-Led Symposium.

    PubMed

    Yee, Claudine; Wu, Annie M; Wu, Connie M; Thakore, Rachel V; Greenberg, Paul B

    2016-08-01

    Exposure to research early in medical school facilitates the development of physician-scientists and competent clinicians. In the last decade, institutions have established programs and policies to address the physician- scientist shortage. However, student-led initiatives to promote medical student engagement in research remain unexplored. This paper presents the design and results of the third iteration of a symposium in which senior medical students provided guidance and advice to preclinical students interested in research. It also reviews the lessons learned from three years of conducting the symposium. [Full article available at http://rimed.org/rimedicaljournal-2016-08.asp, free with no login].

  13. Medication adherence: a review of pharmacy education, research, practice and policy in Finland

    PubMed Central

    Bell, J. Simon; Enlund, Hannes; Vainio, Kirsti

    2010-01-01

    Aims To describe pharmacy education, research, practice and policy related to medication adherence in Finland since the year 2000. Methods The three universities that provide pharmacy education (Åbo Akademi, University of Eastern Finland, and University of Helsinki) completed a structured pro-forma questionnaire regarding education related to medication adherence. A MEDLINE and EMBASE literature search was performed to identify English language peer-reviewed research that reported medication compliance, adherence or persistence. The Ministry of Social Affairs and Health was invited to nominate policies and documents related to medication adherence. A narrative review of medication counselling practices and professional service delivery through Finnish community pharmacies was undertaken. Results Medication adherence was a theme integrated into obligatory and elective courses for bachelors and masters degree students. The literature search identified 33 English language peer-reviewed research articles reporting medication compliance, adherence or persistence published since the year 2000. Policy documents of the Ministry of Social Affairs and Health recognise that poor medication adherence may lead to suboptimal treatment outcomes, and encourage patient participation in treatment decision making. Adherence practice in Finnish pharmacies has been strongly linked to the development of medication counselling services. Conclusions Adherence research and education has focused on understanding and addressing the contextual factors that contribute to medication nonadherence. Adherence practice in community pharmacies has tended to focus on medication counselling and programs specific to particular disease states. Medication adherence is a topic that is integrated into courses for bachelor’s and master’s level pharmacy students in Finland. PMID:25126134

  14. Clinical research challenges in the era of cardiovascular medical devices

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    New therapeutic alternatives, such as innovative medical devices, are frequently the only treatment options left for patients when other efficient medical modalities are lacking or insufficient. Development of novel devices, which are safe and effective, requires understanding of complex premarket and postmarket provisions, including characteristics of clinical trials. Speeding up patient access to new technologies may imply the need to make choices in terms of extent and robustness of clinical evaluation without losing the patient safety perspective. In such situations, some challenges can readily arise due to existing methodological solutions and aspects of current legislation in the field. In this context, some challenges, occurring at various stages of the device lifecycle, will be presented in order to observe the changes and hopefully to contribute to better knowledge and improvements in the area. PMID:27785138

  15. Medical abortion: what does the research tell us?

    PubMed Central

    Ferris, L E; Basinski, A S

    1996-01-01

    Dr. Ellen R. Wiebe's study of the use of methotrexate and misoprostol in combination for early termination of intrauterine pregnancy (see pages 165 to 170 of this issue) is the first Canadian study of the use of this drug combination for medical abortion. The authors compare Wiebe's findings with those of earlier studies on methotrexate and misoprostol, as well as with European findings on the use of mifepristone with prostaglandins. The authors argue that although the methotrexate-misoprostol combination appears to be reasonably safe for the woman, the failure rate and the teratogenicity of methotrexate and misoprosol give cause for concern. The authors conclude that medical abortions ought to be offered only where there is adequate access to laboratory and surgical facilities and where losses to follow-up are systematically minimized to reduce the potential for continued pregnancy resulting in congenital abnormality. PMID:8548707

  16. Accession Medical Standards Analysis & Research Activity (AMSARA) 2013 Annual Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-05-29

    medical disqualification and was replaced by disorders of refraction and accommodation. Overweight/obesity and nondependent abuse of cannabis , both...643 per 100,000 applicants in 2007-2011 to 1,068 per 100,000 applicants in 2012. Disqualifications for Cannabis abuse (3.8% in 2012) continued to...adverse effects not elsewhere classified Abnormal loss of weight and underweight Hyperkinetic syndrome of childhood Nondependent cannabis abuse

  17. Toward a medical anthropology of sensations: definitions and research agenda.

    PubMed

    Hinton, Devon E; Howes, David; Kirmayer, Laurence J

    2008-06-01

    In this article, we outline the importance of a medical anthropology of sensations for theories of psychopathology and psychological healing. We define what is meant by ;sensation' (differentiating monomodal and polymodal sensations) and describe some of the mechanisms that generate and amplify sensations. We propose the heuristic use of the concepts of sensation schemas, sensation interpretants, and sensation scripts. We argue against the naive assumption that sensation experience is the same across cultures. Finally, we consider how healing may occur through 'sensation semiosis.'

  18. Lightweight Portable Plasma Medical Device - Plasma Engineering Research Laboratory

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-10-01

    oxides (NOx) are produced through N2 and O2 reactions [62, 63]. The production of NOx species is mainly dependent on the oxygen (O2) concentration...Federal, $812,594.00. Thiyagarajan, Magesh (Principal), "Plasma Assisted Microbial Decontamination for Food Product Processing Industries...processes and products including processing and preservation of food items such as 86 vegetables, fruits and packaged foods , medical devices and

  19. Assessing the Awareness of Egyptian Medical Students about Responsible Conduct of Research and Research Ethics: Impact of an Educational Campaign.

    PubMed

    El-Shinawi, Mohamed; Mohamed, Karim Osama; Fouad, Yousef Ahmed; Fahmy, Yara Mohamed; Asar, Hadeel Abdulwahed; Khalil, Mohamed Gomaa; Anestidou, Lida; El-Kamary, Samer S; Mohamed, Mona Mostafa

    2016-01-01

    This is a quasi-experimental pre-post assessment study utilizing an anonymous self-administered questionnaire to assess Egyptian medical students' awareness about responsible conduct of research (RCR) and research ethics. Students' were assessed before and after an RCR awareness campaign. Our results showed that most of the pre-campaign respondents were not familiar with the basic principles and terms of RCR. An increase in the awareness about RCR across all discussed topics was noted following the campaign. We concluded that an educational awareness campaign is effective in increasing medical students' awareness about RCR and should be incorporated into current medical school curricula in Egypt.

  20. Caucasion allied health students' attitudes towards African Americans: implications for instruction and research.

    PubMed

    Steed, Robin

    2014-01-01

    In order to determine Caucasian allied health student racial attitudes towards the African American population, students and faculty of a Southern school of allied health professions were surveyed using the Racial Argument Scale (RAS). A one way ANOVA found a significant difference between allied health programs, p = .008, and post hoc testing found the Occupational Therapy Program's scores to be significantly lower (less negative towards Blacks) than the Physical Therapy and Physician Assistant Program's scores (p = .008 and p = .041 respectively). Student scores overall were significantly higher than faculty scores on the RAS (p = .014). The Speech-Language Pathology, Physician Assistant, and Physical Therapy Programs' scores as well the overall allied health student scores were found to be significantly higher than the population mean, thus indicating a higher negativity towards African Americans. The overall results of this study indicate that negative racial bias may be a serious problem in some allied health programs. Future instruction in cultural competency in allied health programs should address racial bias specifically, taking into account cognitive-perceptual errors that may perpetuate negative racial attitudes.