Background Sub-Saharan Africa suffers a disproportionate share of the world's burden of disease while having some of the world's greatest health care workforce shortages. Doctors are an important component of any high functioning health care system. However, efforts to strengthen the doctor workforce in the region have been limited by a small number of medical schools with limited enrolments, international migration of graduates, poor geographic distribution of doctors, and insufficient data on medical schools. The goal of the Sub-Saharan African Medical Schools Study (SAMSS) is to increase the level of understanding and expand the baseline data on medical schools in the region. Methods The SAMSS survey is a descriptive survey study of Sub-Saharan African medical schools. The survey instrument included quantitative and qualitative questions focused on institutional characteristics, student profiles, curricula, post-graduate medical education, teaching staff, resources, barriers to capacity expansion, educational innovations, and external relationships with government and non-governmental organizations. Surveys were sent via e-mail to medical school deans or officials designated by the dean. Analysis is both descriptive and multivariable. Results Surveys were distributed to 146 medical schools in 40 of 48 Sub-Saharan African countries. One hundred and five responses were received (72% response rate). An additional 23 schools were identified after the close of the survey period. Fifty-eight respondents have been founded since 1990, including 22 private schools. Enrolments for medical schools range from 2 to 1800 and graduates range from 4 to 384. Seventy-three percent of respondents (n = 64) increased first year enrolments in the past five years. On average, 26% of respondents' graduates were reported to migrate out of the country within five years of graduation (n = 68). The most significant reported barriers to increasing the number of graduates, and improving
Morgan, Adrienne L.
The history of African Americans seeking medical education in the United States is rooted in a legacy of racial segregation, cultural constructs, and legal doctrine that differs from other ethnic and racial groups. The disturbing results of this legacy are that while African Americans account for 12.9% of the U.S. population, they only account for…
Walubo, Andrew; Burch, Vanessa; Parmar, Paresh; Raidoo, Deshandra; Cassimjee, Mariam; Onia, Rudy; Ofei, Francis
Introduction of more effective and standardized assessment methods for testing students' performance in Africa's medical institutions has been hampered by severe financial and personnel shortages. Nevertheless, some African institutions have recognized the problem and are now revising their medical curricula, and, therefore, their assessment methods. These institutions, and those yet to come, need guidance on selecting assessment methods so as to adopt models that can be sustained locally. The authors provide a model for selecting assessment methods for testing medical students' performance in African medical institutions. The model systematically evaluates factors that influence implementation of an assessment method. Six commonly used methods (the essay examinations, short-answer questions, multiple-choice questions, patient-based clinical examination, problem-based oral examination [POE], and objective structured clinical examination) are evaluated by scoring and weighting against performance, cost, suitability, and safety factors. In the model, the highest score identifies the most appropriate method. Selection of an assessment method is illustrated using two institutional models, one depicting an ideal situation in which the objective structured clinical examination was preferred, and a second depicting the typical African scenario in which the essay and short-answer-question examinations were best. The POE method received the highest score and could be recommended as the most appropriate for Africa's medical institutions, but POE assessments require changing the medical curricula to a problem-based learning approach. The authors' model is easy to understand and promotes change in the medical curriculum and method of student assessment.
Olopade, Funmilayo Eniola; Adaramoye, Oluwatosin Adekunle; Raji, Yinusa; Fasola, Abiodun Olubayo; Olapade-Olaopa, Emiola Oluwabunmi
The College of Medicine of the University of Ibadan recently revised its MBBS and BDS curricula to a competency-based medical education method of instruction. This paper reports the process of revising the methods of instruction and assessment in the core basic medical sciences directed at producing medical and dental graduates with a sound knowledge of the subjects sufficient for medical and dental practice and for future postgraduate efforts in the field or related disciplines. The health needs of the community and views of stakeholders in the Ibadan medical and dental schools were determined, and the "old" curriculum was reviewed. This process was directed at identifying the strengths and weaknesses of the old curricula and the newer competences required for modern-day medical/dental practice. The admission criteria and processes and the learning methods of the students were also studied. At the end of the review, an integrated, system-based, community-oriented, person-centered, and competency-driven curriculum was produced and approved for implementation. Four sets of students have been admitted into the curriculum. There have been challenges to the implementation process, but these have been overcome by continuous faculty development and reorientation programs for the nonteaching staff and students. Two sets of students have crossed over to the clinical school, and the consensus among the clinical teachers is that their knowledge and application of the basic medical sciences are satisfactory. The Ibadan medical and dental schools are implementing their competency-based medical education curricula successfully. The modifications to the teaching and assessment of the core basic medical science subjects have resulted in improved learning and performance at the final examinations. PMID:27486351
Olopade, Funmilayo Eniola; Adaramoye, Oluwatosin Adekunle; Raji, Yinusa; Fasola, Abiodun Olubayo; Olapade-Olaopa, Emiola Oluwabunmi
The College of Medicine of the University of Ibadan recently revised its MBBS and BDS curricula to a competency-based medical education method of instruction. This paper reports the process of revising the methods of instruction and assessment in the core basic medical sciences directed at producing medical and dental graduates with a sound knowledge of the subjects sufficient for medical and dental practice and for future postgraduate efforts in the field or related disciplines. The health needs of the community and views of stakeholders in the Ibadan medical and dental schools were determined, and the “old” curriculum was reviewed. This process was directed at identifying the strengths and weaknesses of the old curricula and the newer competences required for modern-day medical/dental practice. The admission criteria and processes and the learning methods of the students were also studied. At the end of the review, an integrated, system-based, community-oriented, person-centered, and competency-driven curriculum was produced and approved for implementation. Four sets of students have been admitted into the curriculum. There have been challenges to the implementation process, but these have been overcome by continuous faculty development and reorientation programs for the nonteaching staff and students. Two sets of students have crossed over to the clinical school, and the consensus among the clinical teachers is that their knowledge and application of the basic medical sciences are satisfactory. The Ibadan medical and dental schools are implementing their competency-based medical education curricula successfully. The modifications to the teaching and assessment of the core basic medical science subjects have resulted in improved learning and performance at the final examinations. PMID:27486351
Olopade, Funmilayo Eniola; Adaramoye, Oluwatosin Adekunle; Raji, Yinusa; Fasola, Abiodun Olubayo; Olapade-Olaopa, Emiola Oluwabunmi
The College of Medicine of the University of Ibadan recently revised its MBBS and BDS curricula to a competency-based medical education method of instruction. This paper reports the process of revising the methods of instruction and assessment in the core basic medical sciences directed at producing medical and dental graduates with a sound knowledge of the subjects sufficient for medical and dental practice and for future postgraduate efforts in the field or related disciplines. The health needs of the community and views of stakeholders in the Ibadan medical and dental schools were determined, and the "old" curriculum was reviewed. This process was directed at identifying the strengths and weaknesses of the old curricula and the newer competences required for modern-day medical/dental practice. The admission criteria and processes and the learning methods of the students were also studied. At the end of the review, an integrated, system-based, community-oriented, person-centered, and competency-driven curriculum was produced and approved for implementation. Four sets of students have been admitted into the curriculum. There have been challenges to the implementation process, but these have been overcome by continuous faculty development and reorientation programs for the nonteaching staff and students. Two sets of students have crossed over to the clinical school, and the consensus among the clinical teachers is that their knowledge and application of the basic medical sciences are satisfactory. The Ibadan medical and dental schools are implementing their competency-based medical education curricula successfully. The modifications to the teaching and assessment of the core basic medical science subjects have resulted in improved learning and performance at the final examinations.
The Morehouse School of Medicine in Atlanta, Georgia, is one of only four predominantly Black medical schools in the United States. Among its illustrious alumni are surgeons general of the United States, medical school presidents, and numerous other highly regarded medical professionals. This book tells the engrossing history of this venerable…
Epps, C H
The historically African American medical schools have been at the center of medical education for African American physicians in the United States since the Howard University College of Medicine opened in 1868. Although there were more than a dozen African American medical schools established during the next few decades, as propriety or church affiliated schools, only two survived the Flexner Report in 1910. Howard University (1868) and Meharry (1876) survived and trained generations of African Americans. These two schools educated approximately 85% of all African American physicians whereas the majority medical schools educated 15% for more than half of the twentieth century. As the result of a series of lawsuits filed by the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, civil rights legislation and affirmative action programs, the numbers of the schools that now admitted African Americans increased and the total numbers of African American medical students increased when discrimination was prohibited in 1966. The percentage of African American medical students attending predominantly white institutions increased by 25% in 1948, by 47% in 1968, by 61% in 1983 and to 84% in 1990. Two additional predominantly African American medical schools were established: the Charles R. Drew Medical School, Los Angeles (affiliated with the University of California, Los Angeles) in 1966, and Morehouse Medical School, Atlanta, which admitted its first class in 1978. Recent court decisions prohibiting schools from considering race as factor in admission and the end of affirmative action programs have resulted in a drop in total minority enrollment. The historically African American medical schools, that admitted approximately 15% of the African American medical students during the era of affirmative action programs, will see this percentage decrease as the majority institutions admit fewer African American medical students and minority students. In the United States
Some time ago a flyer on "Medics in Primary School" came the author's way. It described a programme for making placements in primary schools available to medical students. The benefits of the program to medical students and participating schools were highlighted, including opportunities to develop communication skills and demystify medicine. It…
The African American community's response to the AIDS epidemic has reflected the profound mistrust of the medical establishment which many African Americans feel. Among African Americans, the belief that the epidemic originated in a genocidal plot is widespread. It is thought that organized medicine has been significantly involved in this plot. If we look at African Americans' historical relationship to the medical establishment from the era of slavery to the recent past, the suspicious attitudes which make such beliefs possible can be seen as an intelligible response to a new disease which disproportionately affects African Americans. Successful medical and public health responses to the epidemic have depended and will continue to depend upon overcoming the historical legacy of suspicion and gaining the trust of the community.
Lee, Winona K
This article is part of an ongoing series describing various components of the John A. Burns School of Medicine (JABSOM) medical education curricula, activities, and initiatives relevant to the Liaison Committee on Medical Education (LCME) accreditation standards.1 JABSOM's LCME visit will take place in early 2017. This article provides an overview of JABSOM's diversity/pipeline programs and partnerships. PMID:27437165
Bean, Glynis; Kidder, Louise H.
Research on the characteristics of women in non-traditional fields, e.g., medicine, has yielded complex information in terms of adherence to sex-role stereotypes. To determine whether students' attitudes toward helping and achieving followed sex-role typing and were different at various stages in medical school, 384 male and female oncology…
Bombi, Josep Antoni
Assesses the current situation of medical teaching, available healthcare facilities, and teaching staff employed at Spanish medical schools. Response rate was 100% from 27 schools surveyed. (Author/NB)
Thompson, Ethel E.
This article presents a comprehensive study of the methods, practices, equipment, and paraphernalia of African witch doctors in carrying out primitive medical practices. The chief tribes studied are the Azandes of the Sudan, the Manos of Liberia, the Congo tribes, the Bundas of Angola, and the Zulus and other Bantu tribes of South Africa. Primitive beliefs and customs are discussed only insofar as they have a direct bearing on medical practices. The medical practices considered deal mainly with the application of general remedies for ailments and diseases, but certain specialized fields such as obstetrics, surgery, treatment for fractures, and dentistry are also included. Primitive medicaments are presented with reference to their application for various illnesses. An alphabetical list of these medicaments is given at the end of the article. PMID:14223742
Kuwabara, Norimitsu; Yamashita, Miu; Yee, Keolamau; Kurahara, David
The Japanese Medical Education system has been influenced by political events throughout the country's history. From long periods of isolation from the western world to the effect of world wars, Japan's training system for physicians has had to adapt in many ways and will continue to change. The Japanese medical education system was recently compared to the “Galapagos Islands” for its unusual and singular evolution, in a speech by visiting professor Dr. Gordon L. Noel at the University of Tokyo International Research center.1 Japanese medical schools are currently working to increase their students' clinical hours or else these students may not be able to train in the United States for residencies. Knowing the history of the Japanese Medical education system is paramount to understanding the current system in place today. Studying the historical foundation of this system will also provide insight on how the system must change in order to produce better clinicians. This article provides a glimpse into the medical system of another nation that may encourage needed reflection on the state of current healthcare training in the United States. PMID:25821652
Physicians that are faculty members in medical schools receive new students every year, and they are expected to prepare those students to become professionals. They usually appeal to their experience to meet that challenge. However, newer generations of students are different, and experience, with no formal training for teaching them, can be insufficient. New characteristics of students can be related to their early contact in life with information technology. Their brain has been somehow modified by stimuli offered by this technology, and the way they learn has also been modified. This paper is a reflection about how students have changed and it analyzes how their learning experience needs to be modified accordingly. Teaching based only on experience might be insufficient to fulfill the expectations of young students that have chosen the medical profession for their future.
van der Vyver, Cornelius P.; van der Westhuizen, Philip C.; Meyer, L. W.
The research pivoted on the question whether South African school principals fulfilled their caring role towards teachers. The aims of the study were threefold. First, to determine how principals rated their care-giving, secondly to determine whether significant discrepancies existed between principals' rating of their care-giving and…
Johnson, Bernadeia H.
Six African American female superintendents who had served as superintendents in at least 2 school districts were interviewed to understand ways in which they responded to barriers and adversity in their roles, with a particular emphasis on issues related to sexism and racism. Study participants shared that they work to engage the community and…
Baker, Robert B; Washington, Harriet A; Olakanmi, Ololade; Savitt, Todd L; Jacobs, Elizabeth A; Hoover, Eddie; Wynia, Matthew K; Blanchard, Janice; Boulware, L Ebony; Braddock, Clarence; Corbie-Smith, Giselle; Crawley, LaVera; LaVeist, Thomas A; Maxey, Randall; Mills, Charles; Moseley, Kathryn L; Williams, David R
An independent panel of experts, convened by the American Medical Association (AMA) Institute for Ethics, analyzed the roots of the racial divide within American medical organizations. In this, the first of a 2-part report, we describe 2 watershed moments that helped institutionalize the racial divide. The first occurred in the 1870s, when 2 medical societies from Washington, DC, sent rival delegations to the AMA's national meetings: an all-white delegation from a medical society that the US courts and Congress had formally censured for discriminating against black physicians; and an integrated delegation from a medical society led by physicians from Howard University. Through parliamentary maneuvers and variable enforcement of credentialing standards, the integrated delegation was twice excluded from the AMA's meetings, while the all-white society's delegations were admitted. AMA leaders then voted to devolve the power to select delegates to state societies, thereby accepting segregation in constituent societies and forcing African American physicians to create their own, separate organizations. A second watershed involved AMA-promoted educational reforms, including the 1910 Flexner report. Straightforwardly applied, the report's population-based criterion for determining the need for phySicians would have recommended increased training of African American physicians to serve the approximately 9 million African Americans in the segregated south. Instead, the report recommended closing all but 2 African American medical schools, helping to cement in place an African American educational system that was separate, unequal, and destined to be insufficient to the needs of African Americans nationwide. PMID:19585918
Pringle, Beverley E.; Lyons, James E.; Booker, Keonya C.
African American high school students are performing behind their White classmates regardless of whether they are in majority or minority populations at school. Teacher expectations, among school-related factors that can impact the academic achievement of African American high school students, are the focus of this study. Interviews were conducted…
Schwartz, Robert A
The New Jersey Medical School (NJMS) was the first medical school in the state of New Jersey. Its creation required the vision and support of many, including a group of leaders at the Jersey City Medical Center, century old Seton Hall University and the Archdiocese of Newark. Chartered in 1954 as Seton Hall College of Medicine, it opened its doors in Jersey City in 1956. It was renamed as the New Jersey College of Medicine (1965-1970), and since 1970 as New Jersey Medical School.
In Chile there are six established medical schools at public (Chile, Valparaiso and Temuco) or private (Catholic, Concepción and Austral) universities created between 1833 and 1971. Since 1990, three new medical schools (two private) were created and a fourth is projected, concerning the chilean medical corps. We present three position articles on the subject written by Dean Pedro Rosso, from the Catholic University, Dr Pedro Castillo, Chief of Human Resources of the Ministry of Health and Dean Alejandro Goic from the University of Chile. Dean Rosso emphasizes the need to have assessment procedures that guarantee quality standards in the new medical schools. Dr Castillo attracts attention on preserving the compromise with the society, inherent to chilean medicine. Dean Goic analyzes systematically the reasons to prevent the proliferation of medical schools in the country, maintaining an equilibrium between freedom of teaching and public faith protection.
In Chile there are six established medical schools at public (Chile, Valparaiso and Temuco) or private (Catholic, Concepción and Austral) universities created between 1833 and 1971. Since 1990, three new medical schools (two private) were created and a fourth is projected, concerning the chilean medical corps. We present three position articles on the subject written by Dean Pedro Rosso, from the Catholic University, Dr Pedro Castillo, Chief of Human Resources of the Ministry of Health and Dean Alejandro Goic from the University of Chile. Dean Rosso emphasizes the need to have assessment procedures that guarantee quality standards in the new medical schools. Dr Castillo attracts attention on preserving the compromise with the society, inherent to chilean medicine. Dean Goic analyzes systematically the reasons to prevent the proliferation of medical schools in the country, maintaining an equilibrium between freedom of teaching and public faith protection. PMID:7809525
Objective: The author proposes courses of action for medical schools to increase positive health promotion among medical students. Method: This article will review the current literature on medical student health care. Strategies of action for medical schools are proposed for increasing student wellness. Results: Medical schools can positively…
Holt, Kenneth C.
The traditional U.S. classroom's milieu has distorted and refused to recognize the language and cultural richness of African-American students. Milwaukee's two immersion schools, Victor Berger Elementary School and Parkman Middle School, place the African-American students and their culture at the center of the educational process. Results have…
Petersdorf, Robert G.
Issues in the relationship between the Veterans' Administration (VA) and medical schools are discussed, including VA faculty recruitment and retention, ambulatory care in VA teaching hospitals, governance and growth of research within VA medical centers, and effects of cost containment and competition on teaching and training in VA hospitals. (MSE)
Morgan, R C
The nation's medical, dental and health profession school admissions of African American and other under-represented minority students needs reassessment in view of recent challenges to anti-affirmative action policies. Data suggest that low-income and medically underserved communities are more likely to be cared for by minority physicians. Experts project that the U.S. will need about twice as many African-American physicians as it now has to serve future patient needs. Currently, African Americans comprise 3% of the physician workforce. Decisive actions and policies--such as the recommendations made by the National Medical Association--are needed to ensure parity and cultural diversity in the medical workforce. PMID:12653394
Matthews, Alicia K; Sellergren, Sarah A; Manfredi, Clara; Williams, Maryann
Qualitative research methods were used to explore factors that may affect medical information seeking, treatment engagement, and emotional adjustment among African American cancer patients. Focus group findings suggest that an array of cultural and socioeconomic factors plays important roles in the behavior of African American cancer patients. Participants described a number of important barriers and facilitators of medical information seeking and treatment participation. Factors linked to the health care-related behaviors and adjustment of African American cancer patients included limited knowledge and misinformation about cancer, mistrust of the medical community, concerns about privacy, lack of insurance, religious beliefs, and emotional issues such as fear and stigma associated with seeking emotional support. Recommendations are made that may assist mental and physical health providers in improving patient information and mental and physical health outcomes of African American cancer patients.
New federal policies on student aid favor guaranteed loans rather than direct government aid. Private medical schools may find themselves at a growing competitive disadvantage, and better financial-aid staffing will be needed by all schools. Trustees and administrators should encourage banks to participate in loan programs. (Author/LBH)
Dale, Sannisha K; Bogart, Laura M; Wagner, Glenn J; Galvan, Frank H; Klein, David J
African-Americans living with HIV show worse health behaviors (e.g. medication adherence) and outcomes (e.g. viral suppression) than do their White counterparts. In a 6-month longitudinal study, we investigated whether medical mistrust among African-American males with HIV (214 enrolled, 140 with longitudinal data) predicted lower electronically monitored antiretroviral medication adherence. General medical mistrust (e.g. suspicion toward providers), but not racism-related mistrust (e.g. belief that providers treat African-Americans poorly due to race), predicted lower continuous medication adherence over time (b = -.08, standard error = .04, p = .03). Medical mistrust may contribute to poor health outcomes. Intervention efforts that address mistrust may improve adherence among African-Americans with HIV.
The long road of slavery from generation to generation has left a legacy in the mind of African American students that has impacted their achievements in schools. In this project, the struggle of African American students in the public school education will be analyzed from the historical standpoint of view and its impact on their achievements.…
Espino, J. U.; Levine, M. G.
As medical schools incorporate medical informatics into their curriculum the problems of implementation arise. Because there are no standards regarding a medical informatics curriculum, medical schools are implementing the subjects in various ways. A survey was undertaken to amass an overview of the medical informatics curriculum nationally. Of the responding schools, most have aspects of medical informatics incorporated into current courses and utilize existing faculty. Literature searching, clinical decision-making, and Internet are the basic topics in the current curricula. The trend is for medical informatics to be incorporated throughout all four years of medical school. Barriers are the difficulties in faculty training, and slow implementation. PMID:9929263
Howard, Lionel C.
Drawing on interview and informal observation data collected from eight adolescent African-American boys residing in an urban community and attending an urban charter school, this paper describes and explores their relationships with African-American male school personnel. This paper highlights how adolescent African-American boys' experience and…
Owens, Delila; Simmons, Robert W., III; Bryant, Rhonda M.; Henfield, Malik
Using a qualitative framework, researchers explored urban African American male students' perceptions of their school counselors and the ways to improve school counseling services. While participants reported positive feelings toward their school counselors, they identified specific services school counselors can offer them to optimize academic…
Boyd, Carol J.; Cranford, James A.; McCabe, Sean Esteban
The non-medical use of prescription medications has been identified as a major public health problem among youth, although few longitudinal studies have examined non-medical use of prescription medications in the context of other drug use. Previous cross-sectional studies have shown gender and race differences in non-medical use of prescription medications. It was hypothesized that (1) non-medical use of prescription medications increases with age, and (2) these increases will be stronger in magnitude among female and Caucasian adolescents. Changes in non-medical use of prescription medications across 4 years were examined and compared with changes in other drug use (e.g., alcohol and marijuana). Middle and high school students enrolled in 5 schools in southeastern Michigan completed web-based surveys at 4 annual time points. The cumulative sample size was 5,217. The sample ranged from 12 to 18 years, 61% were Caucasian, 34% were African American, and 50% were female. Using a series of repeated measures latent class analyses, the trajectories of non-medical use of prescription medications were examined, demonstrating a 2-class solution: (1) the no/low non-medical use of prescription medications group had low probabilities of any non-medical use of prescription medications across all grades, and (2) the any non-medical use of prescription medications group showed a roughly linear increase in the probability of non-medical use of prescription medications over time. The probability of any non-medical use of prescription medications increased during the transition from middle school to high school. Results from this longitudinal study yielded several noteworthy findings: Participants who were classified in the any/high non-medical use of prescription medications group showed a discontinuous pattern of non-medical use of prescription medications over time, indicating that non-medical use of prescription medications is a relatively sporadic behavior that does not persist
Tyler, Kenneth; Brown-Wright, Lynda; Stevens-Watkins, Danelle; Thomas, Deneia; Stevens, Ruby; Roan-Belle, Clarissa; Gadson, Nadia; Smith, La Toya
The current study examined associations between home-school dissonance and several academic and psychological variables among 239 African American high school students. Regression analyses revealed that home-school dissonance significantly predicted multiple academic and psychological variables, including academic cheating, disruptive classroom…
Butler, Barbara Marie
The focus of this study was to explore factors influencing the disparity in the acceptance rate for African American students into medical school as compared to their white counterparts. This study compared the college environment of Historically Black Colleges and Universities and Principally White Institutions, with respect to African American…
Eltorai, Adam EM; Daniels, Alan H
The medical school admissions process is inefficient and costly to both applicants and medical schools. For the many rejected applicants, this process represents a costly, unproductive use of time. For medical schools, numerous applications are reviewed that ultimately do not yield matriculants, representing a substantial inefficiency. In order to streamline the process and reduce costs, we propose the development of a national medical school matching program. PMID:27445512
This mixed, causal-comparative study was an investigation of culture infusion methods and AYP of two different public schools in Chicago, a school that infuses African culture and a school that does not. The purpose of the study was to identify if there was a significant causative relationship between culture infusion methods and Adequate Yearly…
Bowers, John Z., Ed.; Purcell, Elizabeth F., Ed.
The emphasis, scope area, and development of new medical schools at home and abroad are examined in these papers presented at the Macy Foundation Conference in October 1977. Representatives from new medical schools were present from the United States, Britain, Canada, and Hong Kong. Medical schools and agencies presenting papers include: Eastern…
Taras, Howard; Haste, Nina M.; Berry, Angela T.; Tran, Jennifer; Singh, Renu F.
Background: This project quantified and categorized medications left unclaimed by students at the end of the school year. It determined the feasibility of a model medication disposal program and assessed school nurses' perceptions of environmentally responsible medication disposal. Methods: At a large urban school district all unclaimed…
The aim of this study was to explore the curricula of medical schools in Europe in order to establish a formal representation of physics in the study of medicine. Information on the curricular representation of physics was gathered from the Internet presentations of medical schools. It was intended to explore at least 25% of medical schools in…
"Abraham Flexner and the Black Medical Schools" first appeared in Beyond Flexner: Medical Education in the Twentieth Century, Barbara Barzansky and Norman Gevitz, eds. Copyright 1992 by Barbara Barzansky and Norman Gevitz. Reproduced with permission of Greenwood Publishing Group Inc., Westport, CT. The article will be reprinted in a collection of the author's writings on African-American medical history called Race and Medicine in Nineteenth- and Early-Twentieth-Century America, to be published in December 2006 by Kent State University Press and published here with permission of the Kent State University Press. PMID:17019906
Foster, Esau, II
The focus of this research investigation was to examine school attitudes and self-esteem among 48 African-American elementary school children. Based on achievement data on standardized testing, administered by a school district located within the Mid-Atlantic region of the United States, African-American children were stratified in order to…
DeCuir-Gunby, Jessica T.; Martin, Pamela P.; Cooper, Shauna M.
Although much research has focused on the public school experiences of African American students, few studies exist that explore their race-related experiences within an independent, private school context. Studies have suggested that, while private, independent schools may elevate the quality of African American students' education, many of these…
Gaigher, Estelle; Lederman, Norman; Lederman, Judith
This paper reports a study on South African learners' knowledge about scientific inquiry using the Views About Scientific Inquiry (VASI) Questionnaire. The sample consisted of 105 grade 11 learners from 7 schools across the socio-economic spectrum in a South African city. A rubric for scoring the VASI Questionnaire was developed and refined…
Ficca, Michelle; Welk, Dorette
As a result of various health concerns, children are receiving an increased number of medications while at school. In Pennsylvania, the School Code mandates a ratio of 1 certified school nurse to 1,500 students, which may mean that 1 school nurse is covering 3-5 buildings. This implies that unlicensed personnel are administering medications, a…
Sorrel, Amy Lynn
With lifestyle-related diseases on the rise, some medical schools help to arm future doctors with the nutrition knowledge they'll need. Texas medical schools and residency programs are getting ahead of the curve in addressing this public-health-meets-medical-education issue, with medical students often leading the charge. PMID:26536515
Sorrel, Amy Lynn
With lifestyle-related diseases on the rise, some medical schools help to arm future doctors with the nutrition knowledge they'll need. Texas medical schools and residency programs are getting ahead of the curve in addressing this public-health-meets-medical-education issue, with medical students often leading the charge.
Maryland State Dept. of Health and Mental Hygiene, Baltimore.
These guidelines present standards for administering medication in Maryland schools, both prescribed and over-the-counter medications. In general, medication during school hours is discouraged unless necessary. The guidelines recommend that, whenever possible, children administer their own medication under appropriate supervision. Specifically,…
Weeks, William B; Wallace, Tanner A
We wanted to determine whether the type of medical school attended--private US, public US, or foreign medical school--is associated with practice characteristics or incomes of physicians. Therefore, we used survey responses obtained during the 1990s from 10,436 actively practicing white male physicians who worked in one of 13 medical specialties and who graduated from a public US (5,702), private US (3,797), or international (937) medical school. We used linear regression modeling to determine the association between type of medical school attended and physicians' annual incomes after controlling for specialty, work hours, provider characteristics, and practice characteristics. We found that, for most specialties, international medical school graduates worked longer hours, were less likely to be board certified, had practiced medicine for fewer years, and were less likely to work in rural settings than US medical school graduates. After controlling for key variables, international medical school graduates' annual incomes were 2.6 percent higher (95% CI: 0.1%, 4.4%, p = .043) and public US medical school graduates' were 2.2 percent higher (95% CI: -0.9% -6.1%, p = 0.2) than private US medical school graduates' incomes. Because of their lower tuition expenses, international and public US medical school graduates may experience higher returns on educational investment than their counterparts who graduated from private US medical schools. PMID:18468377
McEwen, Melanie; Johnson, Pauline; Neatherlin, Jacque; Millard, Mark W.; Lawrence, Gretchen
Examined the efficacy of a school-based asthma management program to prevent exacerbation of symptoms in inner-city, African-American students. Students visited the school clinic twice daily for treatment with inhaled anti-inflammatory medication and measurement of respiratory peak flow rates. Regular use of inhaled anti-inflammatory medication…
Perry, Sylvia P; Hardeman, Rachel; Burke, Sara E; Cunningham, Brooke; Burgess, Diana J; van Ryn, Michelle
Positive psychological well-being is an important predictor of and contributor to medical student success. Previous work showed that first-year African American medical students whose self-concept was highly linked to their race (high racial identity centrality) were at greater risk for poor well-being. The current study extends this work by examining (a) whether the psychological impact of racial discrimination on well-being depends on African American medical students' racial identity centrality and (b) whether this process is explained by how accepted students feel in medical school. This study used baseline data from the Medical Student Cognitive Habits and Growth Evaluation (CHANGE) Study, a large national longitudinal cohort study of 4732 medical students at 49 medical schools in the USA (n = 243). Regression analyses were conducted to test whether medical student acceptance mediated an interactive effect of discrimination and racial identity centrality on self-esteem and well-being. Both racial identity centrality and everyday discrimination were associated with negative outcomes for first-year African American medical students. Among participants who experienced higher, but not lower, levels of everyday discrimination, racial identity centrality was associated with negative outcomes. When everyday discrimination was high, but not low, racial identity was negatively related to perceived acceptance in medical school, and this in turn was related to increased negative outcomes. Our results suggest that discrimination may be particularly harmful for African American students who perceive their race to be central to their personal identity. Additionally, our findings speak to the need for institutional change that includes commitment and action towards inclusivity and the elimination of structural racism.
Perry, Sylvia P; Hardeman, Rachel; Burke, Sara E; Cunningham, Brooke; Burgess, Diana J; van Ryn, Michelle
Positive psychological well-being is an important predictor of and contributor to medical student success. Previous work showed that first-year African American medical students whose self-concept was highly linked to their race (high racial identity centrality) were at greater risk for poor well-being. The current study extends this work by examining (a) whether the psychological impact of racial discrimination on well-being depends on African American medical students' racial identity centrality and (b) whether this process is explained by how accepted students feel in medical school. This study used baseline data from the Medical Student Cognitive Habits and Growth Evaluation (CHANGE) Study, a large national longitudinal cohort study of 4732 medical students at 49 medical schools in the USA (n = 243). Regression analyses were conducted to test whether medical student acceptance mediated an interactive effect of discrimination and racial identity centrality on self-esteem and well-being. Both racial identity centrality and everyday discrimination were associated with negative outcomes for first-year African American medical students. Among participants who experienced higher, but not lower, levels of everyday discrimination, racial identity centrality was associated with negative outcomes. When everyday discrimination was high, but not low, racial identity was negatively related to perceived acceptance in medical school, and this in turn was related to increased negative outcomes. Our results suggest that discrimination may be particularly harmful for African American students who perceive their race to be central to their personal identity. Additionally, our findings speak to the need for institutional change that includes commitment and action towards inclusivity and the elimination of structural racism. PMID:27294743
Does the medical school library in the United States operate more commonly under the university library or the medical school administration? University-connected medical school libraries were asked to indicate (a) the source of their budgets, whether from the central library or the medical school, and (b) the responsibility for their acquisitions and cataloging. Returns received from sixtyeight of the seventy eligible institutions showed decentralization to be much the most common: 71 percent of the libraries are funded by their medical schools; 79 percent are responsible for their own acquisitions and processing. The factor most often associated with centralization of both budget and operation is public ownership. Decentralization is associated with service to one or two rather than three or more professional schools. Location of the medical school in a different city from the university is highly favorable to autonomy. Other factors associated with these trends are discussed. PMID:5945568
McCarthy, Ann Marie; Kelly, Michael W.; Reed, David
Assessed medication administration practices among school nurses, surveying members of the National Association of School Nurses. Respondents were extremely concerned about medication administration. Errors in administering medications were reported by 48.5 percent of respondents, with missed doses the most common error. Most nurses followed…
Hoover, Mary Eleanor Rhodes
Describes the Nairobi Day School in East Palo Alto (California), an independent African-American institution. Its history is traced from its founding in 1966 to its closing in 1984. The Nairobi method and model are proposed as solutions to several contemporary educational problems that African Americans face in public schools. (SLD)
Hoadley, Ursula; Christie, Pam; Ward, Catherine L.
This article reports on an empirical study of the management of curriculum and instruction in South African secondary schools. Drawing on data collected from 200 schools in 2007, a series of regression analyses tested the relationship between various dimensions of leadership and student achievement gains over time. Whilst the research confirms…
For children at Victor Berger Elementary School, in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, African-American culture is the foundation of all instruction. Attempting to bring quality education to a de facto segregated student population, this immersion program features an integrated curriculum, high expectations for staff, school uniforms, and newfound pride among…
Graves, Scott L., Jr.
Albert Sidney Beckham was the first African American to hold the title school psychologist. This article examines the life and professional career of Beckham in the context of his contributions to the field of school psychology. It explores his graduate education, the founding of Howard University's Psychological Laboratory and his research and…
Kosik, Russell Oliver; Huang, Lei; Cai, Qiaoling; Xu, Guo-Tong; Zhao, Xudong; Guo, Li; Tang, Wen; Chen, Qi; Fan, Angela Pei-Chen
Today's doctor is as much a humanist as a scientist. Medical schools have responded to this change by introducing a variety of courses, most notably those concerning the humanities and ethics. Thus far, no one has examined the extent of use of these subjects in Chinese medical schools. The goal of this study is to determine how many and in…
Moletsane, Relebohile; Juan, Andrea; Prinsloo, Cas; Reddy, Vijay
Research increasingly points to the negative impacts of teacher absence from school on access to schooling and success in learning in schools, in particular in schools in areas of multiple-deprivation (including rural schools). South African schools are no exception. In this regard, like any other employer, the South African Department of Basic…
A total of 102 school counselors who worked in predominantly African American urban schools in Michigan were surveyed to ascertain how frequently they engaged in school counseling activities as conceptualized by the American School Counseling Association. Additionally, this exploratory study sought to determine whether there were differences in…
Goldenberg, D; Beyar, R
There are few technological advancements that have had as much impact on the dissemination of information as the Internet, and especially the worldwide web. It is not surprising then that this tool is also changing the way medicine is studied, taught and practiced today. This impressive infrastructure enables us to teach and study medicine in an entirely different way. The web provides medical students and physicians with access to continuing medical education, patient education services, telemedicine, and unparalleled communication between colleagues via email. The medical school web site may be used as a dynamic newspaper or bulletin board to disseminate information internally among the faculty as well as to the outside world. It can also be the vehicle for virtual learning modules that enhance the medical school core curriculum by including lectures, exercises, tests, etc. In addition, the web allows the student access to medical literature, medical software applications and medical resource depots. To date no work has been published on the medical school web site, its construction process, and its advantages, drawbacks and future. The purpose of this article is to examine the evolution of the web as a tool for medical schools, medical students and associated physicians. We discuss the building of a web site for a medical faculty, and look to the future.
Medical school tuition and medical student debt have increased dramatically during the past two decades, but loans are available on favorable terms, which makes it possible for students without personal or family means to get a medical education. As an investment, medical education is an excellent choice; its net present value is more than a million dollars. Cost is nevertheless a strong deterrent to potential applicants, especially minority applicants. If tuition and indebtedness continue to increase while physician incomes do not, there may come a time when only the wealthy can finance a medical education, and medical schools may have increasing difficulty recruiting qualified students. PMID:15757940
Medical school tuition and medical student debt have increased dramatically during the past two decades, but loans are available on favorable terms, which makes it possible for students without personal or family means to get a medical education. As an investment, medical education is an excellent choice; its net present value is more than a million dollars. Cost is nevertheless a strong deterrent to potential applicants, especially minority applicants. If tuition and indebtedness continue to increase while physician incomes do not, there may come a time when only the wealthy can finance a medical education, and medical schools may have increasing difficulty recruiting qualified students.
Hammond, Wizdom Powell
The current study proposed and tested a conceptual model of medical mistrust in a sample of African American men (N = 216) recruited primarily from barbershops in the Midwest and Southeast regions of the United States. Potential psychosocial correlates were grouped into background factors, masculine role identity/socialization factors, recent healthcare experiences, recent socioenvironmental experiences (e.g., discrimination), and healthcare system outcome expectations (e.g., perceived racism in healthcare). Direct and mediated relationships were assessed. Results from the hierarchical regression analyses suggest that perceived racism in healthcare was the most powerful correlate of medical mistrust even after controlling for other factors. Direct effects were found for age, masculine role identity, recent patient-physician interaction quality, and discrimination experiences. Also, perceived racism in healthcare mediated the relationship between discrimination experiences and medical mistrust. These findings suggest that African American men's mistrust of healthcare organizations is related to personal characteristics, previous negative social/healthcare experiences, and expectations of disparate treatment on the basis of race. These findings also imply that aspects of masculine role identity shape the tone of patient-physician interactions in ways that impede trust building processes.
Association of American Medical Colleges, Washington, DC.
The Association of American Medical Colleges presents the results of their Annual Salary Questionnaire for medical school faculties for the fiscal year 1971-72. Ninety-five schools submitted returns and salaries of 4,930 basic scientists and 11,941 clinical scientists are reported in the survey. The areas covered include strict full-time faculty…
Association of American Medical Colleges, Washington, DC.
The Association of American Medical Colleges conducted a survey by means of a questionnaire in 1970-71 to determine the salaries of medical school faculties. Ninety-three schools submitted returns; salaries for 4,366 basic scientists and 12,701 clinical scientists are reported. The areas covered include strict full-time faculty by department, and…
Association of American Medical Colleges, Washington, DC.
The Association of American Medical Colleges presents the results of their Annual Salary Questionnaire for medical school faculties for the fiscal year 1972-73. One hundred five schools submitted returns and salaries of 4,925 basic scientists and 11,567 clinical scientists are reported in the survey. The areas covered include strict full-time…
Baskin, Thomas W.; Russell, Jaquaye L.; Sorenson, Carey L.; Ward, Earlise C.
The authors describe how practicing school counselors can appropriately and effectively work with African American youth regarding forgiveness. Further, the authors discuss the challenges that African American youth face. They illuminate how school counselors can help emotionally injured African American youth. As a school counseling intervention…
Whenever gender violence and schooling have been the topic of South African research, the investigations focus on African boys in secondary schools. In contrast, this paper focuses on the ways in which violence is mobilized by African schoolgirls in a working-class primary school context. By drawing on selected elements of an ethnographic study of…
Schweiker, R S
Medical schools are discriminating against prospective students who do not support abortion on demand. Abortion is an important issue concerning the question of when life begins, the power of the goverment to protect the unborn, and a woman's decision to terminate her pregnancy. Congress enacted legislation that guaranteed freedom of conscience of medical practitioners. Dr. Eugene Diamond reported that on a survey of medical schools he found that a large number asked students their views on abortion and sterilization. Some reported that opposition to abortion would be a detriment to admission. Medical schools are discriminating on the basis of a person's opinion founded on religious or moral grounds. Medical schools may "by the actions they take today, eliminate...dissent" of many doctors who do not approve of the current state of the law on abortion. Senator Schweiker has introduced S 784 "to prevent any school or other institution that receives federal funds from inquiring into the abortion views of prospective students."
Kelly, Michael W.; McCarthy, Ann Marie; Mordhorst, Matthew J.
This article reports school nurses' experiences with medication administration through qualitative analyses of a written survey and focus groups. From a random sample of 1,000 members of the National Association of School Nurses, 649 (64.9%) school nurses completed the survey. The quantitative data from the survey were presented previously.…
Griffith, Derek M.; Allen, Julie Ober; Gunter, Katie
Objective: To examine the factors that influenced African American men's medical help seeking. Method: Thematic analysis of 14 focus groups with 105 older, urban African American men. Results: African American men described normative expectations that they did not go to the doctor and that they were afraid to go, with little explanation. When they…
Libbrecht, Nele; Lievens, Filip; Carette, Bernd; Côté, Stéphane
Accumulating evidence suggests that effective communication and interpersonal sensitivity during interactions between doctors and patients impact therapeutic outcomes. There is an important need to identify predictors of these behaviors, because traditional tests used in medical admissions offer limited predictions of "bedside manners" in medical practice. This study examined whether emotional intelligence would predict the performance of 367 medical students in medical school courses on communication and interpersonal sensitivity. One of the dimensions of emotional intelligence, the ability to regulate emotions, predicted performance in courses on communication and interpersonal sensitivity over the next 3 years of medical school, over and above cognitive ability and conscientiousness. Emotional intelligence did not predict performance on courses on medical subject domains. The results suggest that medical schools may better predict who will communicate effectively and show interpersonal sensitivity if they include measures of emotional intelligence in their admission systems.
Libbrecht, Nele; Lievens, Filip; Carette, Bernd; Côté, Stéphane
Accumulating evidence suggests that effective communication and interpersonal sensitivity during interactions between doctors and patients impact therapeutic outcomes. There is an important need to identify predictors of these behaviors, because traditional tests used in medical admissions offer limited predictions of "bedside manners" in medical practice. This study examined whether emotional intelligence would predict the performance of 367 medical students in medical school courses on communication and interpersonal sensitivity. One of the dimensions of emotional intelligence, the ability to regulate emotions, predicted performance in courses on communication and interpersonal sensitivity over the next 3 years of medical school, over and above cognitive ability and conscientiousness. Emotional intelligence did not predict performance on courses on medical subject domains. The results suggest that medical schools may better predict who will communicate effectively and show interpersonal sensitivity if they include measures of emotional intelligence in their admission systems. PMID:24219393
Presents cubism as metaphor to think about medical humanities curriculum in medical school curriculum. Uses Kafka's "The Metamorphosis," Tolstoy's "The Death of Ivan Ilych," and Olsen's "Tell Me a Riddle" to illustrate how literary inquiry might enable medical students and other health care providers to think about lives of dying patients from…
ALBashtawy, Mohammed; Batiha, Abdul-Monim; Tawalbeh, Loai; Tubaishat, Ahmad; AlAzzam, Manar
Self-medication, usually with over-the-counter (OTC) medication, is reported as a community health problem that affects many people worldwide. Most self-medication practice usually begins with the onset of adolescence. A school-based cross-sectional study was conducted in Mafraq Governorate, Jordan, using a simple random sampling method to select…
Dotterer, Aryn M.; McHale, Susan M.; Crouter, Ann C.
The connection between out-of-school activities and school engagement was examined in 140, 6th through 9th grade African American adolescents. Youth's out-of-school activities were measured with a series of 7 nightly phone calls and focused on time in structured (homework, academically-oriented, extracurricular/sports) and unstructured (watching…
Brown-Wright, Lynda; Tyler, Kenneth Maurice
The current study examined associations between home-school dissonance and several academic and psychological variables among 80 African American male high school students. Regression analyses revealed that home-school dissonance significantly predicted multiple academic and psychological variables, including amotivation, academic cheating,…
Lee, Erika C.
Throughout history, parents have sought to find the ideal school environment for their children in various educational settings, including public school alternatives. African-American parents in particular have been utilizing private school options for more than 150 years, having been denied the right to a free, equal, public education. School…
Pressley, Michael; Raphael, Lisa; Gallagher, J. David; DiBella, Jeanette
A portrait, using grounded theory qualitative methodologies, was constructed of a K-12 school serving urban, African American students, one producing high achievement. The primary data were observations complemented by questionnaire responses and document analyses. Consistent with conclusions in the effective schooling literature, this school has…
Makoe, Pinky; McKinney, Carolyn
Existing research on language in South African schooling frequently draws attention to the problematic hegemony of English and the lack of access to quality education in the home language of the majority of learners, often drawing on the metaphor of a gap or a disjuncture between post-apartheid language in education policy (LiEP) and its…
Downer, Jason T.; Mendez, Julia L.
A developmental ecological model was used to identify child attributes, father characteristics, and familial factors associated with multidimensional father involvement with preschool children enrolled in Head Start. The relations between father involvement and children's school readiness were also investigated. Eighty-five African American…
Rust, Jonathan P.; Jackson, Margo A.; Ponterotto, Joseph G.; Blumberg, Fran C.
Biculturalism was examined as a factor that may positively affect the academic achievement of African American high school students, beyond cultural identity and self-esteem. Hierarchical regression analyses determined that cultural identity and academic self-esteem were important factors for academic achievement, but not biculturalism.…
Ethington, Corinna A.; Wilson, Tracey
Designed to examine the effect of various factors on the mathematics achievement of African-American students attending urban schools, this study analyzed the importance of seven constructs that are believed to either directly or indirectly impact student success. Based on factors identified by research as essential to mathematics achievement, all…
Simmons-Reed, Evette A.; Cartledge, Gwendolyn
Exclusionary policies are practiced widely in schools despite being associated with extremely poor outcomes for culturally and linguistically diverse students, particularly African American males with and without disabilities. This article discusses zero tolerance policies, the related research questioning their basic assumptions, and the negative…
Proctor, Sherrie L.; Truscott, Stephen D.
This phenomenological study used a series of three in-depth interviews with seven African American participants, for a total of 21 interviews, to explore their experiences in the specialist and doctoral level school psychology programs they left prior to obtaining a professional entry-level degree. The study's purpose was to investigate what…
Tesch, Bonnie; And Others
A telephone survey of 42 medical schools in areas of high, medium, and low incidence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) investigated school policies concerning prevention and reporting of HIV infection, confidentiality, screening, limiting clinical activities, counseling, vaccination, prophylactic drug administration, and disability and health…
Dreer, Laura E.; Girkin, Christopher A.; Campbell, Lisa; Wood, Andy; Gao, Liyan; Owsley, Cynthia
Purpose To elucidate barriers and facilitators related to glaucoma medication adherence among African Americans (AA) with glaucoma and to elicit input from a community-based participatory research team in order to guide the development of a culturally informed, health promotion program for improving glaucoma medication adherence among AA’s. Methods The nominal group technique (NGT), a highly structured focus group methodology, was implemented with 12 separate groups of AA’s patients with glaucoma (N = 89) to identify barriers and facilitators related to glaucoma medication usage. Participant rank-ordering votes were summed across groups and categorized into themes. Next, an individually and culturally targeted health promotion program promoting appropriate medication adherence was developed based on focus group results and input from a community-based participatory research team. Results The top five barriers included problems with 1) forgetfulness, 2) side effects, 3) cost/affordability, 4) eye drop administration, and 5) the eye drop schedule. The most salient top five facilitators were 1) fear or thoughts about the consequences of not taking eye drops, 2) use of memory aids, cues, or strategies, 3) maintaining a regular routine or schedule for eye drop administration, 4) ability to afford eye drops, and 5) keeping eye drops in the same area. The resulting health promotion program was based on a multi-component empowerment framework that included glaucoma education, motivational interviewing, and problem-solving training to improve glaucoma medication adherence. Conclusions Barriers and facilitators related to glaucoma medication adherence among AA’s are multifactorial. Based on the NGT themes and input from the community-based participatory research team, a culturally informed, health promotion program was designed and holds great promise for improving medication adherence among this vulnerable population. PMID:23873033
Thomas, Sheila L
The purpose of this study was to assess the websites of American Association of Medical Colleges (AAMC)-member medical schools for the presence of library links. Sixty-one percent (n = 92) of home pages of the 150 member schools of the AAMC contain library links. For the 58 home pages not offering such links, 50 provided a pathway of two or three clicks to a library link. The absence of library links on 39% of AAMC medical school home pages indicates that the designers of those pages did not consider the library to be a primary destination for their visitors.
Quirk, Shannon K; Riemer, Christie; Beers, Paula J; Browning, Richard J; Correa, Mark; Fawaz, Bilal; Lehrer, Michael; Mounessa, Jessica; Lofgreen, Seth; Oetken, Tara; Saley, Taylor P; Tinkey, Katherine; Tracey, Elisabeth H; Dellavalle, Robert; Dunnick, Cory
Involvement in a Dermatology Interest Group (DIG) allows students to learn about dermatology, partake in service projects, get involved in research, and ask questions about the application process for residency programs. In this article, we review the activities and member involvement of DIGs from 11 medical schools. To our knowledge, this is the first descriptive analysis of DIGs across the United States. This comparison of DIGs is not only potentially helpful for medical schools interested in establishing a DIG, but it also offers insight into how previously established DIGs could improve and have a greater impact both in individual medical schools and in the community at-large. PMID:27617719
The purposes of this two-part study were (1) to investigate urban middle school African American girls' physical activity levels and their relationships to attitudes and, (2) to explore urban middle school African American girls' attitude toward physical education. A total of (N = 649) African American girls from 14 New York City middle…
Estrada-Martinez, Lorena; Colin, Rosa J.; Jones, Brittni D.
Little scholarship explores how adolescents’ beliefs about school and peers influence the academic outcomes of African American boys and girls. The sample included 612 African American boys (N=307, Mage=16.84) and girls (N=305, Mage=16.79). Latent class analysis (LCA) revealed unique patterns for African American boys and girls. Findings indicate that for African American boys, school attachment was protective, despite having peers who endorsed negative achievement values. Furthermore, socio-economic (SES) status was associated with higher grade point averages (GPA) for African American girls. Overall, these findings underscore the unique role of school, peer, and gendered experiences in lives of African American adolescents. PMID:26277404
The South African State is mandated by Sections 28(2) and 29(1) of the South African Constitution to make provision for the education of a South African child in fulfilment of the child's constitutional rights. Teacher Unions (TUs) and provincial Departments of Basic Education (DBEs) have often promised South African high school student body,…
Kusnoor, Anita V; Falik, Ruth
The reported prevalence of cheating among US medical students ranges from 0% to 58%. Cheating behaviors include copying from others, using unauthorized notes, sharing information about observed structured clinical encounters, and dishonesty about performing physical examinations on patients. Correlates of cheating in medical school include prior cheating behavior, burnout, and inadequate understanding about what constitutes cheating. Institutional responses include expulsion, reprimands, counseling, and peer review. Preventing cheating requires establishing standards for acceptable behavior, focusing on learning rather than assessment, involving medical students in peer review, and creating a culture of academic integrity. Cheating in medical school may have serious long-term consequences for future physicians. Institutions should develop environments that promote integrity.
The large number of suspensions of African American high school males is one of the primary concerns facing high school administrators nationwide. At high schools in the southern United States, African American males are suspended at greater rates than their counterparts. Suspensions affect their levels of achievement, attitudes towards school,…
Botha, R. J.
As countries struggle to transform their education systems to equip learners with the knowledge and skills needed to function in rapidly changing societies, the roles and expectations for school leaders have also changed. School reform initiatives that are continually taking place necessitate new ways of thinking with regard to our concept of…
Giubilini, Alberto; Milnes, Sharyn; Savulescu, Julian
In this review article we describe the current scope, methods, and contents of medical ethics education in medical schools in Western English speaking countries (mainly the United Kingdom, the United States, and Australia). We assess the strengths and weaknesses of current medical ethics curricula, and students' levels of satisfaction with different teaching approaches and their reported difficulties in learning medical ethics concepts and applying them in clinical practice. We identify three main challenges for medical ethics education: counteracting the bad effects of the "hidden curriculum," teaching students how to apply ethical knowledge and critical thinking to real cases in clinical practice, and shaping future doctors' right character through ethics education. We suggest ways in which these challenges could be addressed. On the basis of this analysis, we propose practical guidelines for designing, implementing, teaching, and assessing a medical ethics program within a four-year medical course.
Giubilini, Alberto; Milnes, Sharyn; Savulescu, Julian
In this review article we describe the current scope, methods, and contents of medical ethics education in medical schools in Western English speaking countries (mainly the United Kingdom, the United States, and Australia). We assess the strengths and weaknesses of current medical ethics curricula, and students' levels of satisfaction with different teaching approaches and their reported difficulties in learning medical ethics concepts and applying them in clinical practice. We identify three main challenges for medical ethics education: counteracting the bad effects of the "hidden curriculum," teaching students how to apply ethical knowledge and critical thinking to real cases in clinical practice, and shaping future doctors' right character through ethics education. We suggest ways in which these challenges could be addressed. On the basis of this analysis, we propose practical guidelines for designing, implementing, teaching, and assessing a medical ethics program within a four-year medical course. PMID:27333063
Jackson, Alicia D.
African American women represented a growing proportion within the field of education in attaining leadership roles as school principals. As the numbers continued to rise slowly, African American women principals found themselves leading in diverse or even predominately White school settings. Leading in such settings encouraged African American…
Juergensen, Miyoshi B.
This study explores African American educators' ideas about school completion in the 1920s and 1930s as a way to begin to understand their contributions to the historical discourse on school completion. Using publications from African American professional teaching organizations, the author elevates and examines how African American educators both…
Rappaport, Nancy; Kulick, Deborah; Phelps, LeAdelle
This article provides an overview of medications used frequently in the treatment of pediatric depression, anxiety, and bipolar disorder. The need for a collaborative relationship between the prescribing physician, school personnel, and the family is outlined. School psychologists can play crucial roles by providing the physician with information…
McCarthy, Ann Marie; Kelly, Michael W.; Johnson, Shella; Roman, Jaclyn; Zimmerman, M. Bridget
The purpose of this descriptive, cross-sectional study was to determine if there have been changes in the type and number of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (AD/HD) medications administered in schools since the introduction of long-acting stimulants. A survey was sent to 1,000 school nurses randomly selected from the National Association…
A century after the Flexner Report on medical education in North America, which revolutionised the training of medical doctors all over the world, it is time to revisit this famous document and analyse symptoms and signs of a return to pre-Flexnerian conditions. With the ongoing mushroom growth over the last decades of small, proprietary educational institutions of low quality and driven by for-profit purposes, medical education is in a threatened position. This trend is of general international interest because of the increasing migration of medical doctors. There is a need for discussion of what should be the rational criteria and basic requirements for establishing new medical schools. PMID:21509225
LaVeist, T A; Nickerson, K J; Bowie, J V
The authors examine determinants of satisfaction with medical care among 1,784 (781 African American and 1,003 white) cardiac patients. Patient satisfaction was modeled as a function of predisposing factors (gender, age, medical mistrust, and perception of racism) and enabling factors (medical insurance). African Americans reported less satisfaction with care. Although both black and white patients tended not to endorse the existence of racism in the medical care system, African American patients were more likely to perceive racism. African American patients were significantly more likely to report mistrust. Multivariate analysis found that the perception of racism and mistrust of the medical care system led to less satisfaction with care. When perceived racism and medical mistrust were controlled, race was no longer a significant predictor of satisfaction.
Gaigher, Estelle; Lederman, Norman; Lederman, Judith
This paper reports a study on South African learners' knowledge about scientific inquiry using the Views About Scientific Inquiry (VASI) Questionnaire. The sample consisted of 105 grade 11 learners from 7 schools across the socio-economic spectrum in a South African city. A rubric for scoring the VASI Questionnaire was developed and refined during the process of coding and is presented. Results showed that the learners held more informed views than that reported in previous international studies, except for particularly naive views regarding multiple methods of investigation. The results are discussed in terms of the Revised National Curriculum Statement (RNCS) that was taught from 2003 to 2010 in South African schools. This curriculum was founded on outcomes-based principles, valuing process skills rather than content. The study found that examples provided in the RNCS document correspond closely to the aspects of inquiry as described by the National Research Council. It is argued that the RNCS contributed to the more informed views about inquiry found among South African learners in this study.
Wingate, Crystal Nicole
This dissertation will focus on the lived experiences of African-American school counselors in majority school districts and the lack of retention among this population. The lack of retention and representation of ethnic minorities in the workforce has been the subject of much discussion throughout the United States (Ingersoll, 2004). The…
Campbell, Amy T
Law is now routinely included in the medical school curriculum, often incorporated into bioethics and/or practice of medicine coursework. There seems to lack, however, a systematic understanding of what works in terms of getting across an effective depth and breadth of legal knowledge for medical students - or what such would even look like. Moreover, and more critically, while some literature addresses these what, when, how, and who questions, a more fundamental question is left unanswered: why teach law in medical school? This article suggests a process to reveal a more consensual understanding of this latter question. The author highlights findings and recommendations of some of the leading literature to date related to teaching law in medical schools, and also recent U.K. projects addressing legal teaching in medical schools. Reflecting on these materials and activities, the author suggests that we take a "pause" before we argue for more or different legal topics within the medical curriculum. Before we alter the curricula for more and/or different "law," first, it is critical to have a meaningful, stakeholder-driven, consensus-seeking discussion of the goals of legal education: why do we think it matters that medical students learn about "the law"?
Grant, Andrea Barnes; Seixas, Azizi; Frederickson, Keville; Butler, Mark; Tobin, Jonathan N; Jean-Louis, Girardin; Ogedegbe, Gbenga
Novel ideas are needed to increase adherence to antihypertensive medication. The current study used data from the Counseling African Americans to Control Hypertension (CAATCH) study, a sample of 442 hypertensive African Americans, to investigate the mediating effects of expectation of hypertension care, social support, hypertension knowledge, and medication adherence, adjusting for age, sex, number of medications, diabetes, education, income, employment, insurance status, and intervention. Sixty-six percent of patients had an income of $20,000 or less and 56% had a high school education or less, with a mean age of 57 years. Greater expectation of care was associated with greater medication adherence (P=.007), and greater social support was also associated with greater medication adherence (P=.046). Analysis also showed that expectation of care mediated the relationship between hypertension knowledge and medication adherence (P<.05). Expectation of care and social support are important factors for developing interventions to increase medication adherence among blacks. PMID:26593105
Rodriguez, Andrea B.
This study compared the number of special education referrals for African American boys before and after the implementation of the training program, "Schools Attuned". The purpose of the research was to ascertain if the number of special education referrals for African American boys generated in schools with teachers trained in "Schools Attuned"…
Newcomb, Whitney Sherman; Niemeyer, Arielle
African American women leaders are often found in urban schools that have been exhausted of resources and lack support. However, due to their disproportionate representation in urban schools, African American women principals have become adept at uniting and engaging stakeholders in marginalized school settings into action. The intent for this…
Background A global effort has been made in the last years to establish a set of core competences that define the essential professional competence of a physician. Regardless of the environment, culture or medical education conditions, a set of core competences is required for medical practice worldwide. Evaluation of educational program is always needed to assure the best training for medical students and ultimately best care for patients. The aim of this study was to determine in what extent medical students in Portugal and Portuguese speaking African countries, felt they have acquired the core competences to start their clinical practice. For this reason, it was created a measurement tool to evaluate self-perceived competences, in different domains, across Portuguese and Portuguese-speaking African medical schools. Methods The information was collected through a questionnaire that defines the knowledge, attitudes and skills that future doctors should acquire. The Cronbach's Alpha and Principal Components Analysis (PCA) were used to evaluate the reliability of the questionnaire. In order to remove possible confounding effect, individual scores were standardized by country. Results The order of the domain's scores was similar between countries. After standardization, Personal Attitudes and Professional Behavior showed median scores above the country global median and Knowledge alone showed median score below the country global median. In Portugal, Clinical Skills showed score below the global median. In Angola, Clinical Skills and General Skills showed a similar result. There were only significant differences between countries in Personal Attitudes (p < 0.001) and Professional Behavior (p = 0.043). Conclusions The reliability of the instrument in Portuguese and Portuguese-speaking African medical schools was confirmed. Students have perceived their level of competence in personal attitudes in a high level and in opposite, knowledge and clinical skills with some
Razali, S M
This study investigates the reasons for entry to medicine and the career perspectives of phase III medical students of the Universiti Sains Malaysia (USM). The majority of the students were Malays from low socio-economic backgrounds who entered medical school after completing a 2-year matriculation course. An interest in medicine and helping people were the two main stated reasons for entry to medical school. A group of students wishing to work in private practice was identified. In comparison to the rest of the study body, students in the group were: not well prepared to enter medical school; dissatisfied with the course; and subject to family influences. A desire for monetary gain motivated their choice of medicine as a career. Overall, 13% of the students wished to change career because they were dissatisfied with their experience of medicine as undergraduates. The study did not find a significant difference in career intentions between female and male medical students. However, women were less likely to seek entrance into private practice or pursue formal postgraduate education. The choice of surgery as a career was confined to men. About 90% of the students had already decided on their future specialty. Four well-established specialties were their most popular choices. The gender of the students had no significant influences of the decision to continue into postgraduate education. The proportion of female students who wished to marry doctors was significantly higher than for male students.
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate medical school applicants’ involvements in extracurricular activities including medical volunteering/community services, nonmedical community services, club activities, leadership role, and research. Methods: Extracurricular characteristics were compared for 448 applicants (223 males and 225 females) who applied to Kangwon Medical School in 2013 to 2014. Frequency analysis, chi-square test, and simple correlation were conducted with the collected data. Results: The 448 applicants participated in medical volunteer/community services (15.3%), nonmedical community services (39.8%), club activities (22.9%), club officials (10%), and research (13.4%). On average, applicants from foreign universities participated in 0.9 medical volunteer/community service, 0.8 nonmedical community service, 1.7 club activities, and 0.6 research work. On the other hand, applicants from domestic universities reported 0.2 medical volunteer/community service, 1.0 nonmedical community service, 0.7 club activity, and 0.3 research. Conclusion: Involvement in extracurricular activities was extensive for medical school applicants. Participation in extracurricular activities differed between applicants from foreign and domestic universities. Females consistently reported greater participation in extracurricular activities than males. The data can be helpful for admission committees to recruit well-rounded applicants and compare between applicants with similar academic backgrounds. PMID:26996435
Sawyer, Debra T.
Problems resulting from pollution and the destruction of Earth's natural environments have prompted initiatives to educate individuals on the importance of participating in environmental education related activities. These activities are generally constructed to help individuals become aware of how their activity, or the lack thereof, could affect the state of the natural environment in the near and distant futures. This knowledge and activity are especially critical for the nation's youth - as they are the future caretakers of Earth. Present efforts, however, depict that, even though there are visible efforts that cater to children, there is little presence of African American elementary school students. Some have assumed that the lack of role models was a contributing factor, while others have asserted that African Americans were too consumed with problems of everyday survival and have little time to be concerned with environmental issues. There was little research and evidence, though, to substantiate those suppositions. This study utilized qualitative case study interviews to gather authentic data from parents of African American elementary school-aged children (ages 6-10) regarding their views about the natural environment and participation in environmentally related activities. Results of this study helped to support and alleviate some assumptions and laid a foundation for further studies on the topic.
Perkins, H S; Geppert, C M; Hazuda, H P
Modern medical ethics has effected dramatic changes in medicine. Yet teaching medical ethics still presents many challenges. The main teaching methods used--inpatient ethics consultations, courses, and case conferences--have notable weaknesses. In addition, the attitudes and knowledge gaps of some learners may hamper these methods further. To encourage open discussion of the challenges, we outline our current approach to teaching medical ethics. We teach with the conviction that ethics instruction gives physicians vital knowledge not available from science. Our teaching addresses ethical issues directly relevant to residents and students, emphasizes a few important concepts, and nurtures learners' critical reasoning skills. Our teaching also tries to use scarce faculty time efficiently. However, we believe successful medical ethics teaching requires medical schools to commit significant material and moral support. We hope the discussion here encourages medical ethics teachers everywhere to describe the challenges they face and to collaborate on finding solutions.
Frazer, Ricardo A
Legal challenges to affirmative action are growing, a trend suggesting that a proactive stance is needed to maintain a policy that still has viability, legitimacy, and utility. Medical schools admissions offices in the United States emphasize the Medical College Admissions Test (MCAT), even though many studies have found that grade point averages are better single predictors of future academic achievement, regardless of the student's socioeconomic or racial category. The current essay suggests there is an overreliance on the MCAT in medical school admissions. Medical colleges should encourage the development of additional applicant selection criteria, while continuing to use affirmative action programs, in part to address the need for increased community-oriented health care. PMID:15741705
Annane, Djillali; Annane, Frédérique
The plagiarism has become very common in universities and medical school. Undoubtedly, the easy access to a huge amount of electronic documents is one explanation for the increasing prevalence of plagiarism among students. While most of universities and medical school have clear statements and rules about plagiarism, available tools for the detection of plagiarism remain inefficient and dedicate training program for students and teachers too scarce. As lack of time is one reason for students to choose plagiarism, it should be one main target for educational programs.
Walker, Vanessa Siddle
The history of the public schooling of African Americans during legalized segregation has focused almost exclusively on the inferior education that African American students received. In the national memory, African Americans have been victims of Whites who questioned the utility of providing Blacks with anything more than a rudimentary education…
Proctor, Sherrie L.; Truscott, Stephen D.
Since the mid 1960s, there has been a noticeable decrease in the percentage of African American educators. Although a sizeable literature is dedicated to understanding how to recruit African American teachers, fewer studies focus on recruiting and retaining African American school psychologists. Therefore, this exploratory qualitative study…
Nettles, Michael T.; Perna, Laura W.
This executive summary introduces Volume II of the "African American Education Data Book," which brings together information about the educational status of African American preschool, elementary, and secondary school children. Like Volume I, Volume II records the African American educational progress that has previously existed as part of…
Squire, Michelle Suzette
This research study is a case study of the development of an African-centered school over a 20-year period. The study describes how the kindergarten-through-eighth-grade institution was established. Interview questions focused on: 1. Establishment of an African-centered institution 2. Challenges of setting up an African-centered institution 3.…
Zacharski, Susan; Kain, Carole A.; Fleming, Robin; Pontius, Deborah
It is the position of the National Association of School Nurses (NASN) that school districts develop written medication administration policies and procedures that focus on safe and efficient medication administration at school by a registered professional school nurse (hereinafter referred to as school nurse). Policies should include prescription…
Frazier, Nicole Denise
The reading achievement of African American males might be impacted by a host of variables. This study was undertaken to determine if there was a difference in the culturally responsive characteristics present in the learning environment of a middle school and the reading achievement of middle school African American males. The purpose of this…
Braude, Hillel David
This paper examines the principle of beneficence in the light of moral and epistemological concerns that have crystallized in the South African context around clinical care. Three examples from the South African experience affecting the development of bioethics are examined: medical colonialism, the death in detention of Steve Biko, and the HIV/AIDS epidemic. Michael Gelfand's book [(1948). The sick African: a clinical study. Cape Town: Stewart Printing Company.] on African medical conditions captures the ambiguous nature of colonial medicine that linked genuine medical treatment with the civilizing mission. Biko's death was a key historical event that deeply implicated the medical profession under apartheid. The present HIV/AIDS epidemic presents the gravest social and political crisis for South African society. All three experiences influence the meaning and relevance of beneficence as a bioethics principle in the South African context. This paper argues for a South African bioethics informed by a critical humanism that takes account of the colonial past, and that does not model itself on an "original wound" or negation, but on positive care-giving practices.
The current efforts of the Association of American Medical Colleges to test the feasibility of broadening the application, utility, and scope of the cost-finding studies conducted by many academic health centers and individual schools of the health professions are examined. The current effort is an outgrowth of the existing foundations of cost…
Krause, R.G.; Stephens, M.C.C.
This article describes the Special Premedical Studies Program at the University of Manitoba and results of interviews with its graduates. This program prepares aboriginal students for admission to medical school. Six physicians and several other health professionals have graduated from the program. Respondents noted similarities in the needs of rural students and those of aboriginal students. PMID:21221337
Neese, Randolph M.; Schiffman, Joshua D.
Presents a study in which a questionnaire was given to deans at North American medical schools to determine which aspects of evolutionary biology are included in the curricula and the factors that influence this. Suggests that most future physicians should learn evolutionary biology as undergraduates if they are to learn it at all. (Author/NB)
Shimura, Toshiro; Yoshimura, Akinobu; Saito, Takuya; Aso, Ryoko
In an attempt to improve the content of the educational programs offered by Nippon Medical School and to better prepare our students to work in the rapidly changing world of medicine, the school has recently revamped its teaching methodology. Particular emphasis has been placed on 1) simulator-based education involving the evaluation of students and residents in a new clinical simulation laboratory; 2) improving communication skills with the extensive help of simulated patients; 3) improving medical English education; 4) providing early clinical exposure with a one-week clinical nursing program for the first year students to increase student motivation at an early stage in their studies; 5) a new program called Novel Medical Science, which aims to introduce first-year students to the schools fundamental educational philosophy and thereby increase their motivation to become ideal physicians. The programs have been designed in line with 2006 guidelines issued by the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology to allow flexibility for students to take part in education outside their own departments and year groups as part of the Ministry's program to encourage distinctive education at Japanese universities.
Farris, Karen B; McCarthy, Ann Marie; Kelly, Michael W; Clay, Daniel; Gross, Jami N
Who is responsible for medication administration at school? To answer this question, a descriptive, self-administered survey was mailed to a random sample of 850 school principals in Iowa. The eight-page, 57-item, anonymous survey was mailed first class, and a follow-up reminder post card was mailed two weeks later. Descriptive analyses were conducted, with type of respondent (principal versus school nurse), grade level, and size of school examined to explore differences. A 46.6% response rate was obtained; 97% of respondents indicated their schools had written guidelines for medication administration. Principals (41%) and school nurses (34%) reported that they have the ultimate legal responsibility for medication administration. Policies for medication administration on field trips were available in schools of 73.6% of respondents. High schools were more likely to allow self-medication than other grade levels. "Missed dose" was the most common medication error. The main reasons contributing to medication administration errors included poor communication among school, family, and healthcare providers, and the increased number of students on medication. It remains unclear who holds ultimate responsibility for medication administration in schools. Written policies typically exist for medication administration at school, but not field trips. Communicating medication changes to schools, and ensuring medications are available at school, likely can reduce medication administration errors.
African American Parent Involvement: An Examination of the Characteristics That Determine the Most Successful School and Parent Relationships between Lower Socioeconomic, African American Parents, and Highly Effective Schools
Williams, Marcheta Ganther
The literature contains extensive research that focuses on parent involvement and parent involvement programs. The past decade and a half has warranted some parent involvement programs that focused on the student populations of African American students and lower socioeconomic status students. In schools in which the African American student…
Spellman, M W; Meiklejohn, G
Advantages and disadvantages of academic tenure for clinical faculties, including an appraisal of its financial burdens, the utility of modified or alternative systems, and the issue of abolition of tenure, were examined through a questionnaire to which deans and faculty representatives of 106 American medical schools responded during 1975-76. Tenure is valued by most deans and faculty members. A flexible tenure policy permitting appointment of some faculty members to senior academic posts without tenure was endorsed by the deans of 10 selected medical schools who were interviewed. Growth of medical faculties is decelerating; a steady state has not been attained but is imminent. Financial pressures and demands for change will increasingly challenge the tenure system. PMID:886568
Tucker, Catherine; Dixon, Andrea; Griddine, Ke'Shana
Mattering to others has been shown to be a key construct of mental health and wellness. Emerging research links interpersonal mattering and school climate. In this study, the authors use transcendental phenomenology to explore how interpersonal mattering impacts the academic achievement of urban African American males who are academically…
Gunasekera, Sashya; Houghton, Stephen; Glasgow, Kenneth; Boyle, Christopher
Setting clear achievable goals that enhance reputational status has been shown to direct the energies of adolescents into socially conforming or non-conforming activities. It appears to be the case that following transition from Intensive English Centres (IECs) into mainstream schooling, students from African refugee backgrounds experience…
Duren Green, Tonika; McIntosh, Angela Stephens; Cook-Morales, Valerie J; Robinson-Zaartu, Carol
Despite the promise of "Brown v. Board of Education," segregation is alive and well in today's schools. African American students are overrepresented in special education, have higher dropout rates, are suspended and expelled at higher rates, and are subject to persistent educational inequity. The role of psychoeducational assessment at the…
Sanchez, Melaney M.
This study sought to learn about African American community members' perceptions regarding their satisfaction with local elementary schools in predominantly white, rural school districts in Maryland. The research was conducted in rural counties because much of the attention about the achievement gap has focused on urban areas, where necessary…
Molina, Yamile; Hempstead, Bridgette H; Thompson-Dodd, Jacci; Weatherby, Shauna Rae; Dunbar, Claire; Hohl, Sarah D; Malen, Rachel C; Ceballos, Rachel M
African-American women experience disproportionately adverse outcomes relative to non-Latina White women after an abnormal mammogram result. Research has suggested medical advocacy and staff support may improve outcomes among this population. The purpose of the study was to understand reasons African-American women believe medical advocacy to be important and examine if and how staff can encourage and be supportive of medical advocacy. A convenience-based sample of 30-74-year-old women who self-identified as African-American/Black/of African descent and who had received an abnormal mammogram result was recruited from community-based organizations, mobile mammography services, and the local department of health. This qualitative study included semi-structured interviews. Patients perceived medical advocacy to be particularly important for African-Americans, given mistrust and discrimination present in medical settings and their own familiarity with their bodies and symptoms. Respondents emphasized that staff can encourage medical advocacy through offering information in general in a clear, informative, and empathic style. Cultural competency interventions that train staff how to foster medical advocacy may be a strategy to improve racial disparities following an abnormal mammogram.
Molina, Yamile; Hempstead, Bridgette H.; Thompson-Dodd, Jacci; Weatherby, Shauna Rae; Dunbar, Claire; Hohl, Sarah D.; Malen, Rachel C.; Ceballos, Rachel M.
African American women experience disproportionately adverse outcomes relative to non-Latina White women after an abnormal mammogram result. Research has suggested medical advocacy and staff support may improve outcomes among this population. The purpose of the study was to understand reasons African American women believe medical advocacy to be important and examine if and how staff can encourage and be supportive of medical advocacy. A convenience-based sample of 30–74 year old women who self-identified as African American/Black/of African descent and who had received an abnormal mammogram result was recruited from community-based organizations, mobile mammography services, and the local department of health. This qualitative study included semi-structured interviews. Patients perceived medical advocacy to be particularly important for African Americans, given mistrust and discrimination present in medical settings and their own familiarity with their bodies and symptoms. Respondents emphasized staff can encourage medical advocacy through offering information in general in a clear, informative, and empathic style. Cultural competency interventions that train staff how to foster medical advocacy may be a strategy to improve racial disparities following an abnormal mammogram. PMID:25270556
Vega, Desireé; Moore, James L., III; Miranda, Antoinette H.
Drawing on a larger study, this qualitative investigation explored the factors that African American and Latino high school students perceived as barriers to positive educational opportunities. Eighteen African American and Latino urban high school students comprised the sample. The findings indicated that perceived barriers to positive…
Harris, LeCharle Webb
There are numerous strongly held views and myths about African American students in general and middle school students in particular. This study investigated widely held views about African American middle school students' attitudes toward reading and about how positive attitudes toward reading affect reading performances. In this study, four…
Allen, Tyrone J.
Low performance of African American male students in high school math is an ongoing concern of Maryland's public schools. Because disproportionately large numbers of African American male students enroll in Algebra 2 in Grade 11, the use of early academic counseling to promote enrollment in Algebra 2 in Grade 9 and to increase self-regulation may…
Rury, John L.; Hill, Shirley A.
This is the first comprehensive account of African American secondary education in the postwar era. Drawing on quantitative datasets, as well as oral history, this compelling narrative examines how African Americans narrowed the racial gap in high school completion. The authors explore regional variations in high school attendance across the…
Somers, Cheryl L.; Owens, Delila; Piliawsky, Monte
The purpose of this study was to examine factors related to the academic success of urban, African American youth. Participants were 118 African American male and female ninth graders from a large urban high school in the Midwest. A majority of students at the school receive free or reduced lunch. Factors studied were social support from five…
Gregory, A.; Weinstein, R. S.
African Americans are over-represented in school suspensions, yet little is known about the underlying contributing dynamics. Study 1 reviewed a high school's annual discipline data and 442 students referred for defiance. African Americans were over-represented in referrals for defiance and most students received referrals from one or several…
Stephens, Lowndes F.; And Others
To identify factors motivating African Americans to attend graduate or professional schools, questionnaires were mailed to nearly 1,600 African American journalism or mass communication students at historically Black colleges and universities (HBCUs). A second objective was to determine locations and schools from which the University of South…
Braddock, Jomills Henry, II; Hua, Lv
A study prolongs research on college choice by analyzing what African American students state about the importance of the college's athletic reputation when choosing which school to attend. Descriptive results indicate that roughly one out of every three African American respondents believe that a school's athletic reputation is at least a…
Although there is a growing body of literature on students' transition from middle school to high school, much of the literature fails to take into consideration the distinctive racial and environmental circumstances of African American students. This article reviews literature related to the transitioning of African American students and…
Strubbe, Linda; Okere, Bonaventure I.; Chibueze, James; Lepo, Kelly; White, Heidi; Zhang, Jielai; Izuikedinachi Okoh, Daniel; Reid, Michael; Hunter, Lisa; EKEOMA Opara, Fidelis
In October 2013 over 75 undergraduate science students and teachers from Nigeria and Ghana attended the week-long West African International Summer School for Young Astronomers. We expect an even broader audience for the second offering of the school (to be held July 2015), supported by a grant from the OAD (TF1). These schools are organized by a collaboration of astronomers from the University of Toronto, the University of Nigeria, and the Nigerian National Space Research and Development Agency. We design and lead activities that teach astronomy content, promote students' self-identity as scientists, and encourage students to think critically and figure out solutions themselves. Equally important, we design intertwined evaluation strategies to assess the effectiveness of our programs. We will describe the broader context for developing astronomy in West Africa, the inquiry-based and active learning techniques used in the schools, and results from the qualitative and quantitative evaluations of student performance. We will also describe longer-term plans for future schools, supporting our alumni, and building a sustainable partnership between North American and Nigerian universities.
Barbarin, Oscar A; Chinn, Lisa; Wright, Yamanda F
African American (AA) boys face serious barriers to academic success, many of which are uncommon--or absent--in the lives of AA girls, other children of color, and European American children. In this chapter, we identify nine critical challenges to the successful education of AA boys and review possible solutions. In addition, we evaluate one particular reform, public single-sex schooling, as a possible solution to the challenges facing AA boys. Considering the evidence, we argue that recent efforts to expand the existence of public single-sex schools are rarely grounded in empirical findings. Given the lack of compelling evidence and the high stakes for AA boys, we call for more rigorous evaluations of the outcomes of sex-segregated programs that specifically target AA boys. PMID:25345001
Monteiro, J M; Matos, E; Calheiros, J M
Medical students of the Instituto de Ciências Biomédicas 'Abel Salazar' at the University of Oporto were interviewed using a structured headache questionnaire in order to assess the prevalence and characteristics of headaches in a young adult university population. This was the first population-based study of headaches in Portugal. 491 students were questioned. The parameters evaluated included age, sex, headache characteristics (frequency, localization, severity, duration), premonitory and associated symptoms and family history. Headaches were classified using the Ad Hoc Committee (1962) and the International Headache Society (1988) criteria. There was a high prevalence of overall headaches in this young population. The results of the application of these two types of criteria to the same population showed for the most prevalent forms, migraine and tension-type headaches, a prevalence that depends on the classification adopted and the number of criteria items considered. If all (9 items) were used, the statistics obtained for migraine were 6.9% (Ad Hoc) and 6.1% (IHS), an insignificant difference, and for tension-type headache 14.3% (Ad Hoc) and 16.0% (IHS), which corresponds to a significant difference (p = 0.0129, McNemar test). It is concluded that IHS classification criteria identify less cases of migraine and more cases of tension-type headaches, which means a higher specificity for migraine and a higher sensitivity for tension-type headache.
Cordova, J A; Aguirre, E; Hernández, A; Hidalgo, V; Domínguez, F; Durante, I; Jesús, R; Castillo, O
With the objective of evaluating and accrediting the quality of medical education in the country, the Mexican Association of Medical Schools initiated the National Programme for the Strengthening of the Quality of Medical Education (PNFCE). This programme led to the establishment of the National System of Accreditation. Medical school deans in Mexico determined the criteria for the evaluation of quality and its subsequent standards through a consensus process. The following 10 criteria resulted: general basis and educational objectives; government and institutional orientation; educational programme and academic structure; educational process assessment; students; teaching staff; institutional coherence; resources; clinical sites; and administration. Eighty-eight standards were developed in the instrument designed for the self-evaluation phase. The information resulting from the self-evaluation will be verified by a group of experts during a survey visit, which will be finalized with a report to serve as the basis for the decision to be made by the Accreditation Commission. The self-evaluation phase started in 1994. In 1996 four schools submitted their request for accreditation. As of July 1996, one survey visit has been completed and three more are programmed for the second half of the year.
Mangan, Katherine S.
Two foreign medical schools plan to open branch campuses in the United States. Opponents, including the American Medical Association and a physician group, argue that allowing unaccredited medical schools to operate here could jeopardize health care. The two institutions are distinctly different: a for-profit school in the West Indies, and a…
Tresolini, Carol P.; And Others
This study examined five representative medical schools for approaches to teaching integrated approaches to health care. Traditionally medical schools have taught from a biomedical, technological approach. The study used a qualitative, multiple case study design to explore which medical schools were attempting integrated health care education. On…
McCally, Michael; And Others
Several medical schools have sponsored courses on medical aspects of nuclear war, and faculties of medical schools conducting or considering such courses have many questions about the organization of their teaching. A survey of U.S. schools of medicine presentations of nuclear war-related subject matter is discussed. (MLW)
Thomas, Kevin J A
This study examines whether previous findings of an immigrant schooling advantage among Blacks in the United States reflect a declining significance of race in the enrollment patterns of immigrants’ children. Using data from the 2000 US census, the study finds that, despite their advantage within the Black population, the children of Black Africans are collectively disadvantaged relative to the children of White Africans. Disparate enrollment trajectories are found among children in Black and White African families. Specifically, between the first and second generations, enrollment outcomes improved among the children of White Africans but declined among Black Africans’ children. The results also suggest that among immigrants from African multi-racial societies, pre-migration racial schooling disparities do not necessarily disappear after immigration to the United States. Additionally, the children of Black Africans from these contexts have worse outcomes than the children of other Black African immigrants and their relative disadvantage persists even after other factors are controlled.
Majumder, Md. Anwarul Azim; Rahman, Sayeeda; D’Souza, Urban JA; Elbeheri, Gad; Abdulrahman, Khalid Bin; Huq, M Muzaherul
Learning disabilities (LDs) represent the largest group of disabilities in higher education (HE) institutes, including medical schools, and the numbers are continuing to rise. The worrying concern is that two-thirds to half of these students with LDs remain undiagnosed when they start their undergraduate education and may even graduate without having their disabilities diagnosed. These students struggle with their academic abilities, receive poor grades and, as a result, develop lower perceptions of their intellectual abilities than do those students without LDs. All these ultimately hamper their professional practice, employment, and career progression. Appropriate and adequate educational policies, provisions, and practices help students to progress satisfactorily. In Asian countries, public and professional awareness about LDs is low, supportive provisions are limited, legislations are inadequate, data are scarce, and equal-opportunity/widening-participation policies are not implemented effectively in the HE sector. This article discusses the issues related to LDs in medical education and draws policy, provision, and practice implications to identify, assess, and support students with LDs in medical schools, particularly in an Asian context. PMID:23745060
Butler-Barnes, Sheretta T; Estrada-Martinez, Lorena; Colin, Rosa J; Jones, Brittni D
Little scholarship explores how adolescents' beliefs about school and peers influence the academic outcomes of African American boys and girls. The sample included 612 African American boys (N = 307, Mage = 16.84) and girls (N = 305, Mage = 16.79). Latent class analysis (LCA) revealed unique patterns for African American boys and girls. Findings indicate that for African American boys, school attachment was protective, despite having peers who endorsed negative achievement values. Furthermore, socio-economic (SES) status was associated with higher grade point averages (GPA) for African American girls. Overall, these findings underscore the unique role of school, peer, and gendered experiences in lives of African American adolescents.
Fornari, Alice; Murray, Thomas S.; Menzin, Andrew W.; Woo, Vivian A.; Clifton, Maurice; Lombardi, Marion; Shelov, Steven
Purpose Mentoring is considered a valuable component of undergraduate medical education with a variety of programs at established medical schools. This study presents how new medical schools have set up mentoring programs as they have developed their curricula. Methods Administrators from 14 US medical schools established since 2006 were surveyed regarding the structure and implementation of their mentoring programs. Results The majority of new medical schools had mentoring programs that varied in structure and implementation. Although the programs were viewed as valuable at each institution, challenges when creating and implementing mentoring programs in new medical schools included time constraints for faculty and students, and lack of financial and professional incentives for faculty. Conclusions Similar to established medical schools, there was little uniformity among mentoring programs at new medical schools, likely reflecting differences in curriculum and program goals. Outcome measures are needed to determine whether a best practice for mentoring can be established. PMID:24962112
Robinson, Theresa Y.; Jeremiah, Maxine
As part of the Small Schools movement in Chicago Public Schools, a high school dedicated to African-centered education was chartered. The virtues of Ma'at and the Nguzo Saba, otherwise known as the seven principles of Kwanza, were the foundational principles of the school and were to be integrated into all of the practices and policies of the…
Dee, Cheryl R
An increasing number of medical school libraries offer chat service to provide immediate, high quality information at the time and point of need to students, faculty, staff, and health care professionals. Part 2 of Chat Reference Service in Medical Libraries presents a snapshot of the current trends in chat reference service in medical school libraries. In late 2002, 25 (21%) medical school libraries provided chat reference. Trends in chat reference services in medical school libraries were compiled from an exploration of medical school library Web sites and informal correspondence from medical school library personnel. Many medical libraries are actively investigating and planning new chat reference services, while others have decided not to pursue chat reference at this time. Anecdotal comments from medical school library staff provide insights into chat reference service.
Fried, R A
In a modest way, our medical school department has succeeded in applying continuous quality improvement and TQM methods to its ambulatory practice. We are close enough to our experience not to have forgotten what Rosabeth Moss Kanter calls the "messy, mistake-ridden, muddling stage." This article is a narrative of some of our stumbling attempts to change the way our practice works. The lessons we have learned are relevant to other ambulatory practices, both inside and outside the academic world.
Butler, Barbara Marie
The focus of this study was to explore factors influencing the disparity in the acceptance rate for African American students into medical school as compared to their white counterparts. This study compared the college environment of Historically Black Colleges and Universities and Principally White Institutions, with respect to African American students' perceptions regarding their college experiences and the extent to which they perceived that their experiences enhanced or diminished their success in gaining access to medical school. The community cultural wealth framework was used to explore whether the HBCU or the PWI is the better environment for undergraduate science majors. By use of the CCW framework the study explored which college environment nurtured students to be successful as a biology major, obtain a competitive MCAT score and ultimately secure acceptance into medical school. A qualitative research design served as the best approach to explore the object of inquiry in this study: the students' perception of their college environment, and their perceptions of their college experiences. The findings suggest that both the HBCU and the PWI reveal characteristics that enhanced and diminished the potential for success in the biology pre-med program. The results of this study specifically addressed barriers to access as factors which may be contributing to the disparities in the number of African American students admitted to medical school. These barriers are related to differences in the social dynamics of the university. In this study both groups of students perceived that there were the negative faculty attitudes, but these seemed to have little impact on access to medical school. Student motivation and identification with a supportive community seemed to have more impact on the potential for career success.
Gurdasani, Deepti; Carstensen, Tommy; Tekola-Ayele, Fasil; Pagani, Luca; Tachmazidou, Ioanna; Hatzikotoulas, Konstantinos; Karthikeyan, Savita; Iles, Louise; Pollard, Martin O.; Choudhury, Ananyo; Ritchie, Graham R. S.; Xue, Yali; Asimit, Jennifer; Nsubuga, Rebecca N.; Young, Elizabeth H.; Pomilla, Cristina; Kivinen, Katja; Rockett, Kirk; Kamali, Anatoli; Doumatey, Ayo P.; Asiki, Gershim; Seeley, Janet; Sisay-Joof, Fatoumatta; Jallow, Muminatou; Tollman, Stephen; Mekonnen, Ephrem; Ekong, Rosemary; Oljira, Tamiru; Bradman, Neil; Bojang, Kalifa; Ramsay, Michele; Adeyemo, Adebowale; Bekele, Endashaw; Motala, Ayesha; Norris, Shane A.; Pirie, Fraser; Kaleebu, Pontiano; Kwiatkowski, Dominic; Tyler-Smith, Chris; Rotimi, Charles; Zeggini, Eleftheria; Sandhu, Manjinder S.
Given the importance of Africa to studies of human origins and disease susceptibility, detailed characterisation of African genetic diversity is needed. The African Genome Variation Project (AGVP) provides a resource to help design, implement and interpret genomic studies in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) and worldwide. The AGVP represents dense genotypes from 1,481 and whole genome sequences (WGS) from 320 individuals across SSA. Using this resource, we find novel evidence of complex, regionally distinct hunter-gatherer and Eurasian admixture across SSA. We identify new loci under selection, including for malaria and hypertension. We show that modern imputation panels can identify association signals at highly differentiated loci across populations in SSA. Using WGS, we show further improvement in imputation accuracy supporting efforts for large-scale sequencing of diverse African haplotypes. Finally, we present an efficient genotype array design capturing common genetic variation in Africa, showing for the first time that such designs are feasible. PMID:25470054
Page, Kathleen Raquel; Castillo-Page, Laura; Wright, Scott M.
Purpose To describe diversity programs for racial and ethnic minority faculty in U.S. medical schools and identify characteristics associated with higher faculty diversity. Method The authors conducted a cross-sectional survey study of leaders of diversity programs at 106 U.S. MD-granting medical schools in 2010. Main outcome measures included African American and Latino faculty representation, with correlations to diversity program characteristics, minority medical student representation, and state demographics. Results Responses were obtained from 82 of the 106 institutions (77.4%). The majority of the respondents were deans, associate and assistant deans (68.3%), members of minority ethnic/racial background (65.9% African American, 14.7% Latino), and women (63.4%). The average time in the current position was 6.7 years, with approximately 50% effort devoted to the diversity program. Most programs targeted medical trainees and faculty (63.4%). A majority of programs received monetary support from their institutions (82.9%). In bivariate analysis, none of the program characteristics measured were associated with higher than the mean minority faculty representation in 2008 (3% African American and 4.2% Latino faculty). However, minority state demographics in 2008, and proportion of minority medical students a decade earlier, were significantly associated with minority faculty representation. Conclusions Medical student diversity ten years earlier was the strongest modifiable factor associated with faculty diversity. Our results support intervening early to strengthen the minority medical student pipeline to improve faculty diversity. Schools located in states with low minority representation may need to commit additional effort to realize institutional diversity. PMID:21869663
Sifuna, Daniel N.
The paper discusses some African experiences in the diversification of secondary education, which is taken to mean curriculum change in a practical or vocational direction. This approach is intended to provide a wider set of future career options than is offered in the more uniform academic curriculum. The diversification policy has generally been seen as a solution to a number of economic and social problems facing the independent African countries, notably the increasing youth unemployment and the escalating costs of formal education. Studies which have so far been carried out have, however, revealed that diversification programmes have not met the intended objectives, although there is sustained interest in vocationalising formal education. Problems which commonly face these programmes include high unit costs, an absence of clarity in aims and objectives, a shortage of qualified teachers and the low status of vocational subjects as viewed by the students and the community. For future development, it is suggested that diversification programmes be reorganised to relate to more realistic goals through wider community participation and through the work-orientation of post-school training programmes.
Walker, A R; Walker, B F
In 1984-1985, prevalences of appendectomy in inter-ethnic series of South African school pupils of 16-18 yr were: rural blacks, 0.5%; urban blacks, 1.0%; Indians, 2.6%; coloreds (Eur-African-Malay), 2.2%; Afrikaans whites, 13.4%; and English whites, 9.9%. Corresponding respective annual incidences per 1000 pupils of 10-19 yr were: 0.3, 0.6, 1.9, 1.7, 9.8, and 7.8. Thus, appendectomy is rare or infrequent in all except the white populations. Peak occurrence was postpubertal. There was no consistent sex bias. Dietarily, mean daily fiber intake was relatively low in all groups, 17.9-26.1 g. While the percentage of energy from fat intake was low in blacks, 16.3-22.3%, it was much higher in the other populations, 32.7-39.5%. Clearly, factors other than diet are involved in regulating frequency of appendectomy. While mortality is negligible and morbidity slight, elucidation of causation and prevention of the disease is desirable since subsequently appendectomy patients are at greater than average risk to certain cancers. PMID:3030094
Lynn, Marvin; Bacon, Jennifer Nicole; Totten, Tommy L.; Bridges, Thurman L., III; Jennings, Michael E.
Background/Context: The study examines teachers' and administrators' perspectives on the persistent academic failure of African American male high school students. The study took place between 2003 and 2005 in a low-performing high school in Summerfield County, a Black suburban county in the Mid-Atlantic region of the United States with a poverty…
Gurdasani, Deepti; Carstensen, Tommy; Tekola-Ayele, Fasil; Pagani, Luca; Tachmazidou, Ioanna; Hatzikotoulas, Konstantinos; Karthikeyan, Savita; Iles, Louise; Pollard, Martin O; Choudhury, Ananyo; Ritchie, Graham R S; Xue, Yali; Asimit, Jennifer; Nsubuga, Rebecca N; Young, Elizabeth H; Pomilla, Cristina; Kivinen, Katja; Rockett, Kirk; Kamali, Anatoli; Doumatey, Ayo P; Asiki, Gershim; Seeley, Janet; Sisay-Joof, Fatoumatta; Jallow, Muminatou; Tollman, Stephen; Mekonnen, Ephrem; Ekong, Rosemary; Oljira, Tamiru; Bradman, Neil; Bojang, Kalifa; Ramsay, Michele; Adeyemo, Adebowale; Bekele, Endashaw; Motala, Ayesha; Norris, Shane A; Pirie, Fraser; Kaleebu, Pontiano; Kwiatkowski, Dominic; Tyler-Smith, Chris; Rotimi, Charles; Zeggini, Eleftheria; Sandhu, Manjinder S
Given the importance of Africa to studies of human origins and disease susceptibility, detailed characterization of African genetic diversity is needed. The African Genome Variation Project provides a resource with which to design, implement and interpret genomic studies in sub-Saharan Africa and worldwide. The African Genome Variation Project represents dense genotypes from 1,481 individuals and whole-genome sequences from 320 individuals across sub-Saharan Africa. Using this resource, we find novel evidence of complex, regionally distinct hunter-gatherer and Eurasian admixture across sub-Saharan Africa. We identify new loci under selection, including loci related to malaria susceptibility and hypertension. We show that modern imputation panels (sets of reference genotypes from which unobserved or missing genotypes in study sets can be inferred) can identify association signals at highly differentiated loci across populations in sub-Saharan Africa. Using whole-genome sequencing, we demonstrate further improvements in imputation accuracy, strengthening the case for large-scale sequencing efforts of diverse African haplotypes. Finally, we present an efficient genotype array design capturing common genetic variation in Africa.
Gurdasani, Deepti; Carstensen, Tommy; Tekola-Ayele, Fasil; Pagani, Luca; Tachmazidou, Ioanna; Hatzikotoulas, Konstantinos; Karthikeyan, Savita; Iles, Louise; Pollard, Martin O.; Choudhury, Ananyo; Ritchie, Graham R. S.; Xue, Yali; Asimit, Jennifer; Nsubuga, Rebecca N.; Young, Elizabeth H.; Pomilla, Cristina; Kivinen, Katja; Rockett, Kirk; Kamali, Anatoli; Doumatey, Ayo P.; Asiki, Gershim; Seeley, Janet; Sisay-Joof, Fatoumatta; Jallow, Muminatou; Tollman, Stephen; Mekonnen, Ephrem; Ekong, Rosemary; Oljira, Tamiru; Bradman, Neil; Bojang, Kalifa; Ramsay, Michele; Adeyemo, Adebowale; Bekele, Endashaw; Motala, Ayesha; Norris, Shane A.; Pirie, Fraser; Kaleebu, Pontiano; Kwiatkowski, Dominic; Tyler-Smith, Chris; Rotimi, Charles; Zeggini, Eleftheria; Sandhu, Manjinder S.
Given the importance of Africa to studies of human origins and disease susceptibility, detailed characterization of African genetic diversity is needed. The African Genome Variation Project provides a resource with which to design, implement and interpret genomic studies in sub-Saharan Africa and worldwide. The African Genome Variation Project represents dense genotypes from 1,481 individuals and whole-genome sequences from 320 individuals across sub-Saharan Africa. Using this resource, we find novel evidence of complex, regionally distinct hunter-gatherer and Eurasian admixture across sub-Saharan Africa. We identify new loci under selection, including loci related to malaria susceptibility and hypertension. We show that modern imputation panels (sets of reference genotypes from which unobserved or missing genotypes in study sets can be inferred) can identify association signals at highly differentiated loci across populations in sub-Saharan Africa. Using whole-genome sequencing, we demonstrate further improvements in imputation accuracy, strengthening the case for large-scale sequencing efforts of diverse African haplotypes. Finally, we present an efficient genotype array design capturing common genetic variation in Africa.
Currie, Delvon Denise
The purpose of this study was to investigate African American parents' perception of school leaders as it relates to parent engagement and the African American male student. Specifically, this study addressed African American parents' perceptions of the quality of their child's education and the quality of communication they received from their…
Shefer, Tamara; Bhana, Deevia; Morrell, Robert
South African national education policy is committed to promoting gender equality at school and to facilitating the successful completion of all young people's schooling, including those who may become pregnant and parent while at school. However, the experience of being pregnant and parenting while being a learner is shaped by broader social and…
Mohamed, Roslyn J. F. Billy
With the signing of the No Child Left Behind Act in 2001, much emphasis has been placed on the accountability of schools and school districts to ensure higher academic achievement of all students. The achievement gap remains among African American male students in urban school districts. This purposed quantitative study explored the relationship…
Ojwang, S B
Obstetrical and gynaecological articles related to safe motherhood published in the East African Medical Journal between 1924 and 1989 were reviewed. A total of 133 topics were published. Out of these, 84 (63.2%) were obstetrical and 49 (36.8%) gynaecological. Out of the obstetrical topics, 66 were pregnancy related, 12 were public health and the rest medical topics. A rapid increase in the number of the relevant topics is seen especially after 1970. This is probably due to the increase in the number of of obstetricians training locally in the African region and the international nature of the Journal during the last two decades. PMID:8261963
Rutledge, Anthony B.
This study examined the relationship of the achievement of African American male students enrolled in an early college high school to those enrolled in a performing arts high school. The Georgia High School Graduation Test (GHSGT) scores of the 11th-grade African American male students from an early college high school were compared to the GHSGT…
Moore, James L., III, Ed.; Lewis, Chance W., Ed.
"African American Students in Urban Schools" offers readers a critical yet comprehensive examination of the issues affecting African American students' outcomes in urban school systems and beyond. Across disciplines including teacher education, school counseling, school psychology, gifted education, career and technical education, higher…
Hsu, Jiann-wien; Hsu, Roy
We describe and analyze the statistics of general physics and laboratory courses in the medical schools of Taiwan. We explore the development of the general physics curriculum for medical students of Taiwan. Also, an approach to designing a general physics course in combination with its application to medical sciences is proposed. We hope this preliminary study can provide a useful reference for physics colleagues in the medical schools of Taiwan to revolutionize the dynamics of teaching physics to the medical students of Taiwan.
de Klerk, A
In this article an investigation is undertaken into the right in South African law of a patient to have access to medical records concerning himself or herself, and the ownership of medical records in South African law is also discussed. It is argued that record accessibility by patients is to be favoured. The author is of the opinion that the South African legislature should consider legislation in this regard.
White, Casey B; Dey, Eric L; Fantone, Joseph C
Academic achievement indices including GPAs and MCAT scores are used to predict the spectrum of medical student academic performance types. However, use of these measures ignores two changes influencing medical school admissions: student diversity and affirmative action, and an increased focus on communication skills. To determine if GPA and MCAT predict performance in medical school consistently across students, and whether either predicts clinical performance in clerkships. A path model was developed to examine relationships among indices of medical student performance during the first three years of medical school for five cohorts of medical students. A structural equation approach was used to calculate the coefficients hypothesized in the model for majority and minority students. Significant differences between majority and minority students were observed. MCAT scores, for example, did not predict performance of minority students in the first year of medical school but did predict performance of majority students. This information may be of use to medical school admissions and resident selection committees. PMID:18030590
Henry, Paul; And Others
Examined impact of Medical Education Preparatory Program, structured career planning program, on career maturity scores of 61 African-American premedical students as measured by Medical Career Development Inventory (MCDI). Results revealed significant increases in career development levels, as measured by MCDI, of African-American students after…
Bates, Richard D.; Nahata, Milap C.
Noting the lack of reference sources available on the use of medications in schools and day care centers, this book was created to help school and day care center personnel become more aware of the medicine being given to children at home and at school. Using detailed medication charts, the book answers questions about how to administer medicines…
Mangan, Katherine S.
Reports that prominent medical professors are being solicited away from medical schools by large honoraria or high remuneration offered by commercial companies that provide continuing education services to physicians on the Internet. Suggests that medical schools consider potential partnerships with dot-com companies to develop continuing…
Das, Mandira; And Others
This study sought to evaluate faculty opinion of existing medical curricula in two medical schools in different countries in terms of six educational strategies using the "SPICES continuum." Significant differences between existing educational plans of the two medical schools were identified. (LZ)
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine how the parental involvement perceptions, practices, and influences of low-income African Americans in an intermediate school setting are affected by low-incomes. Although involving African American parents in the educational process is a difficult task for educators (Alldred & Edwards, 2000;…
This study sought to improve our understanding of factors that influence the career paths of African American female school principals in North Carolina. Three pertinent research questions were addressed in this study: (1) What formative experiences influence the career path decisions of African American females who want to become school…
Githembe, Purity Kanini
The purpose of this study was to examine involvement of African refugee parents in the education of their elementary school children. The setting of the study was Northern and Southern Texas. African refugee parents and their children's teachers completed written surveys and also participated in interviews. In the study's mixed-method design,…
Uys, Daniël Wilhelm; Alant, Edward John Thomas
A new procedure for estimating promotion, repetition and dropout rates for learners in South African schools is proposed. The procedure uses three different data sources: data from the South African General Household survey, data from the Education Management Information Systems, and data from yearly reports published by the Department of Basic…
Royle, Jonathan; Brown, Casey Graham
This study included an analysis of principal perceptions of the achievement gap between African American and White students. School administrators from campuses with a substantial number of African American students within the subgroup were interviewed to explore their perceptions of the achievement gap. The study revealed factors within the…
Mayes, Renae D.; Hines, Erik M.
Current literature on college and career readiness highlights the role of educators in promoting the success of all students. However, few studies have focused on the specific needs of gifted African American girls. This article discusses the school experiences and career development of gifted African American girls and it provides a culturally…
Scheuerell, Scott; Jaeger, Matt
The authors discuss how high school students participated in a unit in which they learned about African American history in a 1:1 computer classroom--in particular, how they were able to use digital history to learn about a variety of African American leaders who are not frequently covered in the traditional American History textbook. In addition,…
Lloyd, Stacey W.; Ferguson, Yvonne Owens; Corbie-Smith, Giselle; Ellison, Arlinda; Blumenthal, Connie; Council, Barbara J.; Youmans, Selena; Muhammad, Melvin R.; Wynn, Mysha; Adimora, Adaora; Akers, Aletha
Though African-American youth in the South are at high risk for HIV infection, abstinence until marriage education continues to be the only option in some public schools. Using community-based participatory research methods, we conducted 11 focus groups with African-American adults and youth in a rural community in North Carolina with high rates…
Colbert, Daveda Jean
There is a leadership crisis that exists in our schools creating an urgent need for effective leadership. Even though African American women have made slight gains, throughout the country people of color and women are dramatically underrepresented in the superintendency. Therefore, the primary purpose of this study is to provide African American…
Archer-Banks, Diane A. M.; Behar-Horenstein, Linda S.
How African American girls cope and excel amidst the discriminations and inequities they experience within U.S. educational systems has not been widely discussed in the body of research about African Americans' schooling experiences. In this study, the researchers examined the applicability of Ogbu's cultural-ecological theory to the…
Duncan, Susan C.; Strycker, Lisa A.; Chaumeton, Nigel R.
Background: The purpose of this research was to examine the impact of school-related variables on the physical activity (PA) levels of early adolescent African American, Latino, and White girls. Methods: Data were collected from 353 African American (N?=?123), Latino (N?=?118), and White (N?=?112) girls. Physical activity levels included a PA…
Marashe, Joel; Ndamba, Gamuchirai Tsitsiozashe; Chireshe, Excellent
Zimbabwe's Education Ministry recommended the teaching of African Traditional Religion in recognition of its multi-religious society. This study sought to establish the extent to which African Traditional Religion is taught in primary schools, the challenges faced by teachers, and opportunities for promoting its teaching. A descriptive survey…
Patton, Desmond Upton; Hong, Jun Sung; Williams, Abigail B.; Allen-Meares, Paula
School bullying and peer victimization are social problems that affect African American youth across various environmental contexts. Regrettably, many of the empirical research on bullying and peer victimization among African American youth has examined individual and direct level influences in silos rather than a constellation of factors…
Wasserberg, Martin J.
This study investigated whether a diagnostic testing condition leads to stereotype threat effects for African American children (n = 198) at an urban elementary school. Results indicated that presenting a reading test as diagnostic of abilities hindered the performance of African American children aware of racial stereotypes but not of those…
Purpose: This study explored the type and adequacy of cohesive devices that are produced by school-age children who use African American English (AAE). Method: The language samples of 33 African American children, ages 7, 9, and 11 years, were transcribed, analyzed, and coded for AAE use and cohesive adequacy (e.g., personal reference,…
Racially diverse schools are often presented as places where students can learn to challenge racist discourse and practice. Yet there are a variety of processes through which such schools reproduce the very hierarchies they are meant to dismantle. Drawing on 18 months of fieldwork in two racially diverse South African high schools, I add to the…
Schwartz, Wendy, Ed.
Many schools employ varied strategies to ensure equitable treatment of African American students and fair and educative disciplinary procedures. This digest reviews successful disciplinary practices. Cross-cultural competence has a role in student-school relationships. Many negative perceptions of difference exist in today's society. Schools can…
Hungi, Njora; Thuku, Florence W.
In this study the authors employed a multilevel analysis procedure in order to examine the pupil and school levels factors that contributed to variation in reading achievement among Grade 6 primary school pupils in 14 southern African school systems (Botswana, Kenya, Lesotho, Malawi, Mauritius, Mozambique, Namibia, Seychelles, South Africa,…
Land, A'Lesia; Mixon, Jason R.; Butcher, Jennifer; Harris, Sandra
This qualitative, narrative study explored experiences of six successful African American male high school students. Findings suggested that barriers prior to high school were negative elements in the home and community. To be successful in high school, they overcame barriers of absent fathers, disruptive homes, negative community, and peers, and…
Three generations of children have passed through the Baton Rouge (Louisiana) school system since the "Brown" decision (1954) and one generation since the federal court's 1981 desegregation order. The impact of school desegregation on African American children was studied in the East Baton Rouge School District. For the student body as a whole,…
Bhana, Deevia; Pillay, Nalini
In the context of the calamitous effects of gender violence on the experience of schooling for South African girls, single-sex schools have been advanced as a strategy to protect girls from violence. In this paper, the experiences of a selected group of girls in a single-sex school in Durban, South Africa are illustrated to provide a counter…
This study examined the schooling experiences and perceptions of resettled sub-Saharan African middle school refugee students in a metropolitan area of the United States Southwest. The research questions underpinning this study included: What are the schooling experiences and perceptions of resettled sub-Saharan African middle school refugee…
Sedlacek, W E; Prieto, D O
Despite recent attention to minority student recruitment and retention, data on predicting the success of minority medical students are scarce. Traditional predictors (college grades and scores on the Medical College Admission Test) have modest correlations with medical school grades and scores on the National Board of Medical Examiners examination for minority students. Nonetheless, admission committees also consider nontraditional variables when selecting minority students. Measures of nontraditional variables seem to assess types of intelligence not covered by traditional means. A system of organizing nontraditional or noncognitive variables into eight dimensions is proposed. The dimensions are self-concept, realistic, self-appraisal, understanding and dealing with racism, long-range goals, having a strong support person, showing leadership, having community involvement, and nontraditional knowledge acquired. Further, assessment should place more emphasis on recognizing and defining problems and on performance rather than knowledge. Combining traditional and nontraditional methods is best in selecting minority students, and sufficiently well developed measures exist in each area to make this a practical recommendation for any admission program.
Solomon, Abida; Schoenthaler, Antoinette; Seixas, Azizi; Ogedegbe, Gbenga; Jean-Louis, Girardin; Lai, Dejian
Poor adherence to prescribed medication regimens remains an important challenge preventing successful treatment of cardiovascular diseases such as hypertension. While studies have documented differences in the time of day or weekday vs weekend on medication adherence, no study has examined whether having a medication-taking routine contributes to increased medication adherence. The purpose of this study was to: (1) identify patients’ sociodemographic factors associated with consistent medication-taking routine; (2) examine associations between medication-taking consistency, medication adherence, and blood pressure (BP) control. The study included black patients with hypertension (n = 190; 22 men and 168 women; age, mean±standard deviation 54 ± 12.08 years) who completed a practice-based randomized controlled trial. Findings showed that medication-taking consistency was significantly associated with better medication adherence (F = 9.54, P = .002). Associations with the consistency index were not statistically significant for diastolic BP control (odds ratio, 1.319; 95% confidence interval, 0.410–4.246; P = .642) and systolic BP control (odds ratio, 0.621; 95% confidence interval, 0.195–1.974; P = .419). PMID:25952495
Fashola, Olatokunbo S.
This article presents the results of the 2nd-year evaluation of an after-school program designed for an extended school day program serving African American middle school students in the city of Baltimore, Maryland (ACCESS-West). This study describes the effects of schoolwide reform especially as it relates to single-gender schools, educating…
Marishane, Ramodikoe Nylon
This study examines the management of school infrastructure in the context of the "no-fee schools" policy introduced in the South African education delivery system. Focusing on four rural schools, the study applied a qualitative method, which involved observation of infrastructure conditions prevailing at four selected schools and…
Bachman, Ronet; Randolph, Antonia; Brown, Bethany L.
This article uses the School Crime Supplement of the National Crime Victimization Survey to investigate the factors related to White and African American students' perceived levels of fear of harm, while at school and while commuting to and from school. Of particular interest were the effects of school security measures, including metal detectors,…
Rothenberg, Julia Johnson; Holland, Errol
This paper describes a 2-month project developed by the Sage Colleges (New York) and the University of Capetown Medical School in South Africa to help the medical faculty at the Capetown Medical School teach its newly diverse student body. The program is intended to improve student retention and it emphasizes the need for faculty to assure…
Smith, Eva C.
African American educational leadership has long been part of American education and African American activism to resist oppression. However, the field of educational leadership has rarely included the contributions of African American leaders, particularly women leaders, into mainstream leadership theory and practices. This omission is difficult…
Lomotey, Kofi, Ed.
This volume presents the views of a range of African-American educators on questions related to African-American academic achievement. The concern in this volume is with the persistent, pervasive, and disproportionate underachievement of African-American students. The book is divided into four parts. Part 1, "Problem Identification," comprises the…
Corbie-Smith, Giselle; Thomas, Stephen B; Williams, Mark V; Moody-Ayers, Sandra
OBJECTIVE To describe barriers to participation of African Americans in research. DESIGN Focus group interviews conducted in 1997. PATIENTS Thirty-three African-American adults presenting to an urban public hospital for outpatient medical care participated in one of five focus groups. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS African-American patients' attitudes toward medical research were measured. Mistrust of doctors, scientists, and the government was reported consistently by the participants. Many participants described concerns about the ethical conduct of clinicians and investigators when poor or minority patients are involved and cited examples of exploitation as supporting evidence for their mistrust of the medical establishment. While participants were clear about the violation of human rights in the Tuskegee Syphilis Study, all were misinformed of the historical facts of the study. Few participants understood the concept of informed consent. Participants saw signing the document as relinquishing their autonomy and as a legal protection for physicians. Despite these concerns, participants gave recommendations to improve minority participation in research. CONCLUSIONS African-American participants in this study described distrust of the medical community as a prominent barrier to participation in clinical research. Participants described real and perceived examples of exploitation to support their distrust of researchers. The goal of the consent process, to inform patients of risks and benefits so as to facilitate self-determination, was misinterpreted by these participants. Understanding the importance of interpersonal trust within the clinical relationship may prove to be a significant factor in enhancing participation in clinical trials. PMID:10491242
Richmond, R.; Debono, D.; Larcos, D.; Kehoe, L.
OBJECTIVES—To determine the extent of teaching about tobacco, tobacco-related diseases, and smoking cessation techniques in medical schools around the world; and to ascertain the problems of getting the teaching about tobacco onto the medical curriculum. DESIGN—Cross-sectional survey. Questionnaires were sent to the 1353 medical schools in 143 countries around the world using the World Health Organization's Directory of Medical Schools. The questionnaire was translated from English into French, Russian, Mandarin, and Japanese. SUBJECTS—Deans of medical schools worldwide, or their nominees. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES—Extent and format of teaching about tobacco in the medical curriculum, objectives and content of the courses on tobacco, and problems encountered in introducing the topic of tobacco. RESULTS—493 medical schools responded, representing 64% of countries and 36% of schools. Only 12% of medical schools did not cover the topic of tobacco in the medical curriculum. 58% of medical schools taught about tobacco during the teaching of other subjects. 40% taught tobacco by systematically integrating teaching with other modules. 11% had a specific module on tobacco. The medical schools reported on the objectives and content of their courses on tobacco, which commonly included knowledge about tobacco-related diseases and pharmacological issues. Only a third taught about smoking cessation techniques. 22% had encountered problems in introducing the topic of tobacco, and respondents offered solutions to overcome these problems. CONCLUSIONS—Medical schools need continued encouragement to include tobacco issues in their curricula, with particular emphasis on teaching about smoking cessation techniques. Keywords: smoking cessation; medical schools; tobacco education PMID:9825419
Dudley, L; Selebano, T E; Nathan, R; Kirsten, R; Ciapparelli, P; Mutshekwane, M N; Basu, D
Medical management is a recognised specialty in many developing and developed countries, including Australia, India, New Zealand, Pakistan and Sri Lanka. In South Africa it was recognised as a sub-specialty in the 1990s, but this is no longer the case. The South African Society of Medical Managers, in close collaboration with the Division of Medical Management of the College of Public Health Medicine of South Africa, has been working to re-establish the specialty of medical management in South Africa. Well-trained specialist medical managers would play a significant role in the effective and efficient implementation of National Health Insurance and primary healthcare re-engineering through the practice of evidence-based health care, clinical economics and administrative medicine. PMID:23237117
Weller, Lawrence; Fredrickson, Doren D.; Burbach, Cindy; Molgaard, Craig A.; Ngong, Lolem
Anecdotal reports suggest school nurses and staff treat increasing numbers of public school students with chronic diseases. However, professionals know little about actual disease burden in schools. This study measured prevalence of chronic disease medication administration rates in a large, urban midwestern school district. Data from daily…
Ramey, David M.
In this article, the author examines how school- and district-level racial/ethnic and socioeconomic compositions influence schools' use of different types of criminalized and medicalized school discipline. Using a large data set containing information on over 60,000 schools in over 6,000 districts, the authors uses multilevel modeling and a…
Bell, Ronny A.; Grzywacz, Joseph G.; Quandt, Sara A.; Neiberg, Rebecca; Lang, Wei; Nguyen, Ha; Altizer, Kathryn P.; Arcury, Thomas A.
Purpose This study documents demographic, health, and complementary therapy (CT) correlates of medical skepticism among rural older adults. Methods Older (≥65 years) African Americans and Whites in rural North Carolina (N=198) were interviewed. Medical skepticism was assessed using the four items from the Medical Expenditure Survey. Bivariate associations between medical skepticism and demographic and health characteristics and CT use were assessed, and independent effects on CT use. Findings Positive responses to medical skepticism questions ranged from 19.7% (can overcome illness without help) to 59.6% (believes own behavior determines their health). Medical skepticism indicators were associated with few demographic and health characteristics, and one CT category. Conclusions This study shows a high degree of medical skepticism among rural older adults, but limited associations with demographic and health characteristics and CT use. Further research is needed to understand relationships of attitudes towards conventional care and CT use in this population. PMID:23728044
Tamir, Pinchas; Cohen, Sabina
The Medical Cognitive Preference Inventory was used to determine the preferred cognitive styles of medical school professors and students. The most important results indicate a general similarity in the cognitive preferences of teachers and students. (CJ)
Stroupe, Nancy; McClure, Leslie A.; Wheeler, Lani; Gerald, Lynn B.
Objectives This paper documents individual asthma action plan presence and quick relief medication (albuterol) availability for elementary students enrolled in five Alabama school systems. Patients and Methods Data were obtained during baseline data collection (fall 2005) of a school-based supervised asthma medication trial. All students attended 1 of 36 participating elementary schools across five school systems in Jefferson County, Alabama. In addition, they had to have physician-diagnosed asthma requiring daily controller medication. Each school system had its own superintendent and elected school board. Asthma action plan presence and albuterol availability was confirmed by study personnel. Asthma action plans had to contain daily and acute asthma management instructions. Predictors of asthma action plan presence and albuterol availability were also investigated. Associations between albuterol availability and self-reported characteristics including health care utilization prior to study enrollment and outcomes during the study baseline period were also investigated. Results Enrolled students had a mean (SD) age of 11.0 (2.1) years, 91% were African American, and 79% had moderate persistent asthma. No student had a complete asthma action plan on file and only 14% had albuterol physically available at school. Albuterol availability was not predicted by gender, race, insurance status, second-hand smoke exposure, need for pre-exercise albuterol, asthma severity, or self-reported health care utilization prior to study enrollment. Albuterol availability did not predict school absences, red/yellow peak flow recordings, or medication adherence during the study's baseline period. Conclusion Despite policies permitting students to possess albuterol, few elementary students across five independent school systems in Alabama actually had it readily available at school. PMID:22454787
Gerald, Joe K; Stroupe, Nancy; McClure, Leslie A; Wheeler, Lani; Gerald, Lynn B
OBJECTIVES: This paper documents individual asthma action plan presence and quick relief medication (albuterol) availability for elementary students enrolled in five Alabama school systems. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Data were obtained during baseline data collection (fall 2005) of a school-based supervised asthma medication trial. All students attended 1 of 36 participating elementary schools across five school systems in Jefferson County, Alabama. In addition, they had to have physician-diagnosed asthma requiring daily controller medication. Each school system had its own superintendent and elected school board. Asthma action plan presence and albuterol availability was confirmed by study personnel. Asthma action plans had to contain daily and acute asthma management instructions. Predictors of asthma action plan presence and albuterol availability were also investigated. Associations between albuterol availability and self-reported characteristics including health care utilization prior to study enrollment and outcomes during the study baseline period were also investigated. RESULTS: Enrolled students had a mean (SD) age of 11.0 (2.1) years, 91% were African American, and 79% had moderate persistent asthma. No student had a complete asthma action plan on file and only 14% had albuterol physically available at school. Albuterol availability was not predicted by gender, race, insurance status, second-hand smoke exposure, need for pre-exercise albuterol, asthma severity, or self-reported health care utilization prior to study enrollment. Albuterol availability did not predict school absences, red/yellow peak flow recordings, or medication adherence during the study's baseline period. CONCLUSION: Despite policies permitting students to possess albuterol, few elementary students across five independent school systems in Alabama actually had it readily available at school.
Bullock, S C; Houston, E
Thirty-one black medical students attending five white medical schools were seen in individual interviews of one to two hours to evaluate their perceptions of racism in their medical school education. The interviews focused on racism experienced in high school, college, and medical school. Over one half of the population experienced racism during their high school and college education, while 30 of 31 subjects reported racist experiences in their medical school education. The students reported a variety of methods of coping with racist experiences and emphasized the importance of fellow minority students, faculty, and the minority office in coping with the stresses of racist experiences. Those offering counseling services to minority students should recognize the reality of racist experiences in medical education.
Mitsch, Peter; Jensen, Allison Campbell
The authors describe the events and restructuring efforts of the 1990s that led the University of Minnesota Medical School leadership to advocate a new administrative model for its clinical departments. This new streamlined model established six administrative centers, each serving a cluster of two to four clinical departments. Each administrative center was charged with managing functions of finance, human resources, information technology, clinical service unit operations, research support, and education support for its departments. These centers, first proposed in 1993 when an outside firm analyzed the medical school's administration, were initially seen by most medical school department heads as too radical. Yet, after a campaign of one-on-one persuasion by medical school dean's office leadership, combined with a successful example of clustering that occurred spontaneously among three medical school departments, the administrative centers were launched in late 1998 to serve clustered clinical departments. The administrative centers were intended to improve departmental responsiveness to the dean of the medical school; improve internal medical school controls; improve on administrative services traditionally provided by outside units, such as grants management and information systems; and reduce administrative costs. Since their establishment, these administrative centers have evolved into a flexible, efficient system of administration. In a 2005 evaluation, ECG Management Consultants found the administrative center model appropriate and effective in managing the school's clinical departments. In addition, the consultants estimated that if the medical school still had stand-alone departmental administrative units, annual administrative costs would be $3 million higher.
Post-Traumatic Stress Syndrome (PTSD) is found more frequently in inner-city African American and Latino youth than in European American youth. Previous research on PTSD and its relationship with inner-city violence, minority youth, school violence and institutionalized oppression is examined. School counselor's roles and possible interventions…
The Japanese medical education program has radically improved during the last 10 years. In 1999, the Task Force Committee on Innovation of Medical Education for the 21st Century proposed a tutorial education system, a core curriculum, and a medical student evaluation system for clinical clerkship. In 2001, the Model Core Curriculum of medical education was instituted, in which medical ethics became part of the core material. Since 2005, a nationwide medical student evaluation system has been applied for entrance to clinical clerkship. Within the Japan Society for Medical Education, the Working Group of Medical Ethics proposed a medical ethics education curriculum in 2001. In line with this, the Japanese Association for Philosophical and Ethical Research in Medicine has begun to address the standardization of the curriculum of medical ethics. A medical philosophy curriculum should also be included in considering illness, health, life, death, the body, and human welfare.
Castillo, Manuel; Hawes, Gustavo; Castillo, Silvana; Romero, Luis; Rojas, Ana María; Espinoza, Mónica; Oyarzo, Sandra
This paper reports the reflections of a group of members of the University of Chile Faculty of Medicine, about the changes in teaching methods that medical schools should incorporate. In a complex scenario, not only new and better knowledge should be transmitted to students but also values, principles, critical reasoning and leadership, among others. In the first part, a proposal to understand this educational development in the context of complex universities, incorporating pedagogical skills and reviewing institutional leadership, is carried out. In the second part, the training of teaching physicians, as part of the changes, is extensively discussed. Physicians hired as academics in the University should have the opportunity to work mainly as teachers and be relieved of research obligations. For them, teaching should become a legitimate area of academic development. PMID:25424678
Rosenbaum, James T; Martin, Tammy M; Farris, Kendra H; Rosenbaum, Richard B; Neuwelt, Edward A
The preeminence of science in the United States is endangered for multiple reasons, including mediocre achievement in science education by secondary school students. A group of scientists at Oregon Health and Science University has established a class to teach the process of scientific inquiry to local high school students. Prominent aspects of the class include pairing of the student with a mentor; use of a journal club format; preparation of a referenced, hypothesis driven research proposal; and a "hands-on" laboratory experience. A survey of our graduates found that 73% were planning careers in health or science. In comparison to conventional science classes, including chemistry, biology, and algebra, our students were 7 times more likely to rank the scientific inquiry class as influencing career or life choices. Medical schools should make research opportunities widely available to teenagers because this experience dramatically affects one's attitude toward science and the likelihood that a student will pursue a career in science or medicine. A federal initiative could facilitate student opportunities to pursue research.
Korszun, Ania; Dinos, Sokratis; Ahmed, Kamran; Bhui, Kamaldeep
Background: Reducing stigma associated with mental illness is an important aim of medical education, yet evidence indicates that medical students' attitudes toward patients with mental health problems deteriorate as they progress through medical school. Objectives: Authors examined medical students' attitudes to mental illness, as compared with…
Ali, Imran I.; Isaacson, Richard S.; Safdieh, Joseph E.; Finney, Glen R.; Sowell, Michael K.; Sam, Maria C.; Anderson, Heather S.; Shin, Robert K.; Kraakevik, Jeff A.; Coleman, Mary; Drogan, Oksana
Objective: To survey all US medical school clerkship directors (CDs) in neurology and to compare results from a similar survey in 2005. Methods: A survey was developed by a work group of the American Academy of Neurology Undergraduate Education Subcommittee, and sent to all neurology CDs listed in the American Academy of Neurology database. Comparisons were made to a similar 2005 survey. Results: Survey response rate was 73%. Neurology was required in 93% of responding schools. Duration of clerkships was 4 weeks in 74% and 3 weeks in 11%. Clerkships were taken in the third year in 56%, third or fourth year in 19%, and fourth year in 12%. Clerkship duration in 2012 was slightly shorter than in 2005 (fewer clerkships of ≥4 weeks, p = 0.125), but more clerkships have moved into the third year (fewer neurology clerkships during the fourth year, p = 0.051). Simulation training in lumbar punctures was available at 44% of schools, but only 2% of students attempted lumbar punctures on patients. CDs averaged 20% protected time, but reported that they needed at least 32%. Secretarial full-time equivalent was 0.50 or less in 71% of clerkships. Eighty-five percent of CDs were “very satisfied” or “somewhat satisfied,” but more than half experienced “burnout” and 35% had considered relinquishing their role. Conclusion: Trends in neurology undergraduate education since 2005 include shorter clerkships, migration into the third year, and increasing use of technology. CDs are generally satisfied, but report stressors, including inadequate protected time and departmental support. PMID:25305155
Cannon Poindexter, Cynthia
Recent changes in New Zealand's HIV and immigration situations have sparked a need to understand the experiences of HIV-positive African newcomers there. Here a narrative lens was brought to a previous qualitative study to harvest stories about discrimination in medical settings in New Zealand, told by four HIV-positive African women. Despite describing positive experiences with specialist HIV providers, their accounts shed light on weaknesses within the health care system regarding the rights and treatment of immigrants living with HIV. Participants reported inappropriate use of universal precautions, violations of confidentiality rights, discriminatory comments about Africans or persons with HIV, and misinformation about HIV transmission. Interventions must include enforcement of The Privacy Law and consistent training and monitoring of employee behavior in health care organizations. PMID:24028736
Cannon Poindexter, Cynthia
Recent changes in New Zealand's HIV and immigration situations have sparked a need to understand the experiences of HIV-positive African newcomers there. Here a narrative lens was brought to a previous qualitative study to harvest stories about discrimination in medical settings in New Zealand, told by four HIV-positive African women. Despite describing positive experiences with specialist HIV providers, their accounts shed light on weaknesses within the health care system regarding the rights and treatment of immigrants living with HIV. Participants reported inappropriate use of universal precautions, violations of confidentiality rights, discriminatory comments about Africans or persons with HIV, and misinformation about HIV transmission. Interventions must include enforcement of The Privacy Law and consistent training and monitoring of employee behavior in health care organizations.
Two years ago, the only historically black medical school west of the Mississippi faced a grim prognosis after county officials pulled the plug on its relationship with a troubled hospital. Today the medical school that has reportedly trained about a third of Los Angeles County's black and Hispanic physicians is back on its feet and planning an…
Candler, Christopher Scott
The definition and nature of scholarship is undergoing a transformation across North American medical schools. Some medical schools have adopted broadened views of scholarship that recognize and reward nontraditional scholarly works. This study investigated whether nontraditional scholarly works such as MedEdPORTAL publications contribute to…
Graber, David R.; Bellack, Janis P.; Musham, Catherine; O'Neil, Edward H.
A survey of academic deans (n=100) in universities associated with medical and osteopathy schools found that administrators' attitudes about curriculum content are being influenced by changes in health care delivery and an increasingly generalist orientation. There appears to be support for medical school curricula fostering a broader, more…
Beckers, Stefan K; Timmermann, Arnd; Müller, Michael P; Angstwurm, Matthias; Walcher, Felix
Background Since June 2002, revised regulations in Germany have required "Emergency Medical Care" as an interdisciplinary subject, and state that emergency treatment should be of increasing importance within the curriculum. A survey of the current status of undergraduate medical education in emergency medical care establishes the basis for further committee work. Methods Using a standardized questionnaire, all medical faculties in Germany were asked to answer questions concerning the structure of their curriculum, representation of disciplines, instructors' qualifications, teaching and assessment methods, as well as evaluation procedures. Results Data from 35 of the 38 medical schools in Germany were analysed. In 32 of 35 medical faculties, the local Department of Anaesthesiology is responsible for the teaching of emergency medical care; in two faculties, emergency medicine is taught mainly by the Department of Surgery and in another by Internal Medicine. Lectures, seminars and practical training units are scheduled in varying composition at 97% of the locations. Simulation technology is integrated at 60% (n = 21); problem-based learning at 29% (n = 10), e-learning at 3% (n = 1), and internship in ambulance service is mandatory at 11% (n = 4). In terms of assessment methods, multiple-choice exams (15 to 70 questions) are favoured (89%, n = 31), partially supplemented by open questions (31%, n = 11). Some faculties also perform single practical tests (43%, n = 15), objective structured clinical examination (OSCE; 29%, n = 10) or oral examinations (17%, n = 6). Conclusion Emergency Medical Care in undergraduate medical education in Germany has a practical orientation, but is very inconsistently structured. The innovative options of simulation technology or state-of-the-art assessment methods are not consistently utilized. Therefore, an exchange of experiences and concepts between faculties and disciplines should be promoted to guarantee a standard level of education
Landeau, Reginald H., Jr.
The study evaluates the relationship between middle school principals' leadership characteristics and academic achievement of African American male students in grades 6, 7, and 8 in a large urban school district. Academic achievement is typically defined as the cognitive knowledge, skills, and abilities that are measured by achievement tests. The…
Shujaa, Mwalimu J., Ed.
School desegregation strategies are examined in political contexts to focus on the politics of quality schooling for African Americans. Through this approach, racialized uses of power in white self-interest are shown to influence policy making and policy implementation related to education. Essays include: (1) "Reclaiming Historical Visions of…
This article examines the representation of female education in Qur'anic schools in a selection of West African francophone novels. I argue that in being the earliest form of education for most Muslim women and also a neglected topic of scholarly interest, the Qur'anic school shapes their feminisms in more significant ways than has been…
In 2007 the Department of Education introduced the standards-based Advanced Certificate in Education: School Management and Leadership. The standardisation of leadership and management development in South African schools has been uncritically accepted by most academics and professionals. The purpose of this article is to problematise the…
Jonson-Reid, Melissa; Davis, Larry; Saunders, Jeanne; Williams, Trina; Williams, James Herbert
School performance among African American youths continues to be a major concern. The promotion of self-esteem remains a major focus of school-based intervention programs designed to improve children's academic performance and behavior. Empirical data suggest that academic self-efficacy rather than self-esteem is the critical factor for school…
Moore-Thomas, Cheryl; Day-Vines, Norma L.
Emerging literature on school-family-community partnerships suggests positive educational and social outcomes for students (Koonce & Harper, 2005; Mitchell & Bryan, 2007). This article discusses the historical and contemporary factors and barriers that affect African American students and their families as they partner with schools and…
Mayes, Renae D.; Hines, Erik M.; Harris, Paul C.
This qualitative study examined the perceptions, attitudes, and experiences of eight twice-exceptional African American gifted students who attended the same K-12 urban school district in the Midwest. Four major themes emerged--academic supports, personal and social challenges, career worries, and experience with school counselors. Findings…
Corby, Richard A.
Sierra Leone's Bo School was established in 1906 by British colonial officials to educate chiefs' sons for subordinate positions. Nevertheless, the school contributed to creation of the postindependence ruling class. Enrollment, curriculum, student life, responsibilities of British and African teachers, and alumni networks are examined. Contains…
Rowley, Stephanie J.; Helaire, Lumas J.; Banerjee, Meeta
The relationships among maternal perceptions of racial discrimination, mother-teacher relationship quality, and school involvement were examined in this sample of 73 African American mothers of kindergarteners and first graders. Mothers reported time spent in school-related activities at home, their attitudes about the importance of school…
This article talks about the future of family involvement in schools in African-American communities. The future of family involvement in the schools rests with today's teachers and parents who will take what they learned from the past, establish the philosophical foundations to guide their interactions, incorporate child and family theory and…
Taole, Matshidiso Joyce
Different sectors of society register complaints about schooling in South Africa. Given that curriculum reform has such a poor record of implementation in the country, there is clearly a need for research that identifies factors that hinder or facilitate curriculum implementation in South African schools and identifies strategies to address the…
Means, Darris R.; Clayton, Ashley B.; Conzelmann, Johnathan G.; Baynes, Patti; Umbach, Paul D.
This qualitative case study explores the career and educational aspirations, college choice process, and college barriers and opportunities of 26 rural, African American high school students. Data included interviews with 26 students and 11 school staff members. Findings suggest that the students' rural context shapes aspirations. In addition,…
Howard, Tyrone C.; Reynolds, Rema
In this study, the authors examined the school experiences of middle-class African American parents and students, because they are largely overlooked in the professional literature when it comes to underachievement and parent involvement. Although No Child Left Behind (NCLB) highlights parent involvement and school accountability through the use…
McGee, Ebony O.
This study investigated the risk and protective factors of 11 high-achieving African American males attending 4 urban charter high schools in a Midwestern city to determine what factors account for their resilience and success in mathematics courses, and in high school more generally. This research was guided by a Phenomenological Variant of…
Jones, Linda D.
Research indicates there are significant differences in the academic performance of minorities and whites, particularly at the high school level. On average, Latino and African American high school students read and perform math on the same level as 13-year-old white students and trail their white peers by an average of 20 test points on math and…
Sailors, Misty; Hoffman, James V.; Matthee, Bertus
This interpretive study explored the qualities of six high-performing schools that served low-income South African students. The theoretical framework and methodology derived from research on effective schools conducted, for the most part, in the United States. Data consisted of interviews and classroom observations over the course of two…
Sailors, Misty; Hoffman, James V.; Pearson, P. David; Beretvas, S. Natasha; Matthee, Bertus
In this article, we report on the results of a project devoted to improving literacy in South Africa's rural schools; specifically we report the results of an intervention study that centered on improving mother-tongue literacy instruction offered to learners in Grades 1 and 2 in South African schools. Our findings demonstrate that there are…
Hamm, Jill V.; Coleman, Hardin L. K.
Examined 3 strategies used by 77 African American and 138 White high school students to manage cultural diversity: multicultural, separation, and assimilation strategies. Discusses results in relation to forces supporting adolescents' strategy development and the implications of strategy use for adjustment in predominantly white schools. (SLD)
Smith-McKeever, Chedgzsey; Gao, Weihua
School social workers are often responsible for developing and implementing programs to prevent school suspension, particularly for African American students, who are overrepresented among all students suspended. This article uses data from the National Longitudinal Survey to examine the relative roles of maternal substance and alcohol abuse,…
Abdul-Adil, Jaleel K.; Farmer, Alvin David, Jr.
Parental involvement in schools is a national priority for both educators and researchers to promote the successful schooling of contemporary youth. Contemporary parental involvement research has produced some promising findings, but parental involvement efforts with inner-city African Americans are currently limited by problems of research…
Develops a taxonomy of four kinds of situations in which race and other grounds for discrimination become the focus of school-level controversy surrounding equality and equity. Examines the kinds of responses and discourses South African schools use to engage with the policy discourse of desegregation and human rights and establishes an agenda for…
Thompson, Gail L.; Warren, Susan R.; Foy, Tami; Dickerson, Carol
This study contrasted the perspectives of 101 K-12 public school teachers and 271 African American high school seniors regarding the characteristics of outstanding teachers. Data from surveys were analyzed using univariate and bivariate statistics. The results revealed six qualities that both teachers and students agree are characteristics of…
Loder, Tondra L.
Emphasizing the salience of social and historical contexts in understanding contemporary urban school leadership, this article presents reflections from a subset of African American women principals who came of age during the Civil Rights era and assumed leadership subsequent to the enactment of the Chicago School Reform Act of 1988. The main…
Biputh, Barath; McKenna, Sioux
This paper tracks the development of the Integrated Quality Management System in South African schools after the dismantling of apartheid in 1994. We argue that the quality processes that are now in place emerged in response to the autocratic school inspection systems that preceded them but did not sufficiently address the impact of educators'…
Robinson, Armentress D.
The purpose of this phenomenological study was to explore and gain an in-depth understanding of the personal, professional, and sociocultural experiences of ten African American female school leaders serving as assistant principals, principals, and central office administrators in four suburban school districts in the southeast region of the…
West-Olatunji, Cirecie; Shure, Lauren; Pringle, Rose; Adams, Thomasenia; Lewis, Dadria; Cholewa, Blaire
The underrepresentation of low-income African American girls in science-related careers is of concern. Applying the concept of positionality, the authors explored how three school counselors at low-resourced schools view this population of learners to either support or discourage mathematics and science careers. The results of this study suggest…
Pitchford-Nicholas, Gloria Jean
The preparedness of students to enter college is an ongoing issue of national concern. The purpose of the study was to conduct a mixed method descriptive case study to answer the question: "How African-American and Hispanic High School Students in an Urban Charter High School may benefit from the Early College High School Model of receiving…
McIlwraith, Robert D
Comments on the original article by Robiner et al. (see record 2014-07939-001) regarding psychologists in medical schools and academic medical center settings. Robiner et al. reported that their extensive review "revealed no independent departments of psychology in U.S. medical schools." The current authors note north of the border in Canada there is one department of psychology in a medical school. The Department of Clinical Health Psychology has been a department within the Faculty of Medicine of the University of Manitoba since 1995. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).
Artinian, Nancy T; Schwiebert, Loren; Yarandi, Hossein; Levy, Phillip D
Background Hypertension (HTN) is a major public health concern in the United States, with almost 78 million Americans age 20 years and over suffering from the condition. Moreover, HTN is a key risk factor for health disease and stroke. African Americans disproportionately shoulder the burdens of HTN, with greater prevalence, disease severity, earlier onset, and more HTN-related complications than age-matched whites. Medication adherence for the treatment of HTN is poor, with estimates indicating that only about half of hypertensive patients are adherent to prescribed medication regimens. Although no single intervention for improving medication adherence has emerged as superior to others, text message medication reminders have the potential to help improve medication adherence in African Americans with uncontrolled HTN as mobile phone adoption is very high in this population. Objective The purpose of this two-phased study was to develop (Phase I) and test in a randomized controlled trial (RCT) (Phase II) a text message system, BPMED, to improve the quality of medication management through increasing medication adherence in African Americans with uncontrolled HTN. Methods In Phase I, we recruited 16 target end-users from a primary care clinic, to assist in the development of BPMED through participating in one of three focus groups. Focus groups sought to gain patient perspectives on HTN, medication adherence, mobile phone use, and the use of text messaging to support medication adherence. Potential intervention designs were presented to participants, and feedback on the designs was solicited. In Phase II, we conducted two pilot RCTs to determine the feasibility, acceptability, and preliminary efficacy of BPMED in primary care and emergency department settings. Both pilot studies recruited approximately 60 participants, who were randomized equally between usual care and the BPMED intervention. Results Although data collection is now complete, data analysis from the
Cole, Leonard A.; Wagner, Katherine; Scott, Sandra; Connell, Nancy D.; Cooper, Arthur; Kennedy, Cheryl Ann; Natal, Brenda; Lamba, Sangeeta
Terror medicine, a field related to emergency and disaster medicine, focuses on medical issues ranging from preparedness to psychological manifestations specifically associated with terrorist attacks. Calls to teach aspects of the subject in American medical schools surged after the 2001 jetliner and anthrax attacks. Although the threat of terrorism persists, terror medicine is still addressed erratically if at all in most medical schools. This paper suggests a template for incorporating the subject throughout a 4-year medical curriculum. The instructional framework culminates in a short course for fourth year students, such as one recently introduced at Rutgers New Jersey Medical School, Newark, NJ, USA. The proposed 4-year Rutgers curriculum serves as a model that could assist other medical schools contemplating the inclusion of terror medicine in pre-clerkship and clerkship training. PMID:25309891
Cole, Leonard A; Wagner, Katherine; Scott, Sandra; Connell, Nancy D; Cooper, Arthur; Kennedy, Cheryl Ann; Natal, Brenda; Lamba, Sangeeta
Terror medicine, a field related to emergency and disaster medicine, focuses on medical issues ranging from preparedness to psychological manifestations specifically associated with terrorist attacks. Calls to teach aspects of the subject in American medical schools surged after the 2001 jetliner and anthrax attacks. Although the threat of terrorism persists, terror medicine is still addressed erratically if at all in most medical schools. This paper suggests a template for incorporating the subject throughout a 4-year medical curriculum. The instructional framework culminates in a short course for fourth year students, such as one recently introduced at Rutgers New Jersey Medical School, Newark, NJ, USA. The proposed 4-year Rutgers curriculum serves as a model that could assist other medical schools contemplating the inclusion of terror medicine in pre-clerkship and clerkship training.
Day-Vines, Norma L.; Barto, Heather H.; Booker, Beverly L.; Smith, Kim V.; Barna, Jennifer; Maiden, Brian S.; Zegley, Linda; Felder, Monique T.
African American English (AAE) refers to the systematic, rule-governed linguistic patterns of found among African Americans. This article provides an overview of AAE. More specifically, the article enumerates the historical underpinnings associated with AAE, identifies a representative set of AAE characteristics, reviews relevant research, and…
Neufeld, Stewart; Berry, Rico; Luborsky, Mark
Abstract To date, only modest gains have been achieved in explaining adherence to medical regimens, limiting effective interventions. This is a particularly important issue for African Americans who are disproportionately affected by the HIV epidemic. Few studies have focused on intragroup variation among African Americans in adherence to ART. The aim of this study was to identify and describe the cultural rationales guiding African American patients' formulation and evaluation of adherence. Rationales are key features of purposeful human action. In-depth interviews with 80 seropositive African Americans were tape recorded, transcribed, and analyzed. Participant CD4, viral load and medical histories were collected at each data point. Analysis of four waves of panel data identified three types of adherence rationales: Authoritative Knowledge Rationale (AKR; n=29, 36.3%), Following Doctors' Orders Rationale (DOR; n=24, 30.0%) and Individualized Adherence Rationale (IAR; n=27, 33.8%). Differences in mean reported adherence between the rationale groups did not achieve statistical significance. However, the fraction reporting low adherence (<70%), although not different by rationale group at the first interview (T1), was significantly higher for the IAR group by the fourth interview (T4). Objective clinical markers (CD4 and viral load) improved over time (from T1 to T4) for AKR and DOR groups, but remained unchanged for the IAR group, yet self-reported adherence declined for all groups over the course of the four interviews. PMID:21777141
Andreae, Susan; Luke, Elizabeth; Safford, Monika M.
Introduction Using generic medications for chronic diseases provides efficacy similar to that of brand-name medication use, but at a lower price, potentially enhancing adherence. However, previous studies show that disadvantaged people, who may particularly benefit from cost savings, have low trust of generics and increased reluctance to switch to generics. The rural South includes areas of high poverty and minority communities whose members are at high risk for poor health outcomes; however, whether such beliefs exist in these communities has not been reported. We sought to obtain qualitative insight into beliefs about generic medication use among African Americans in the rural South. Methods Investigators conducted 4 focus groups with 30 community members from Alabama’s Black Belt area. Transcribed discussions were analyzed and common themes identified. Results Participants were primarily unemployed middle-aged women, one-fourth of whom were uninsured and more than half of whom had a high school education or less. Barriers to generic medication use included perceptions that generics are less potent than brand-name medications, require higher doses, and, therefore, result in more side effects; generics are not “real” medicine; generics are for minor but not serious illnesses; the medical system cannot be trusted; and poor people are forced to “settle” for generics. Conclusion Although education about generics could rectify misinformation, overcoming views such as mistrust of the medical system and the sense of having to settle for generics because of poverty may be more challenging. Policy makers and providers should consider these perspectives when working to increase generic drug use in these populations. PMID:22935144
Cuts in government funding mean that Canada's medical schools have to seek new ways to raise funds. Susan Thorne examines some of the ways faculties of medicine are coping with change. In the brave new world of medical education, schools are combining classes for medical students and other health professionals, seeking business alliances, encouraging attendance by full-tuition students from other countries and diversifying revenue bases through new programs, such as McGill's new 5-year MD-MBA degree.
Diekema, Daniel J.; And Others
A survey of student affairs deans at 108 medical schools found most schools required hepatitis vaccination, evidence of immunity, or waiver refusing vaccination. Nearly all required health insurance, and usually offered a plan, but fewer offered disability insurance. Schools often held students responsible for costs of vaccination, serologic…
Unlike the schools of old, where students spent two years focused on science and theory before they set foot in a hospital, new medical schools are integrating clinical care into the first two years. Existing schools have taken steps in this direction. But, says John E. Prescott, chief academic officer of the Association of American Medical…
Edwards, Anntwanique DeVonne
African-American males are overwhelmingly represented in the nation's dropout rates. Dropping out of school has serious social and economic consequences for our society. The dropout rate is overwhelmingly represented by African-American male students, but limited attention is given to student voice. This study examines African-American male…
Grimes, Lee Edmondson; Haizlip, Breyan; Rogers, Tiffany; Brown, Kimberly D.
Adolescent African American females face multiple obstacles that hinder their educational success. High school completion and college attendance rates remain lower for African American females than those for other racial and gender groups, while pregnancy rates for African American teens are higher. Group work holds promise for meeting the…
Bruton, Chantrell Anita
African American boys are the lowest achieving academic group in public schools. Current research has delved into why this occurs and into implications for African American boys and communities. However, current research has focused on this in urban populations and has not looked at length at the status of African American boys in rural…
Nicks, Myrick Lamon
African American students make up 17% of the public school population nationwide. Ironically, 41% percent of students in special education are African American (Kunjufu, 2005). The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of teacher demographics on the overrepresentation of African American males in special education in a coastal school…
Lease, Suzanne H.
This study assesses factors predictive of the range of possible occupations considered by 166 African American high school students. There are no differences in the number of African American representative occupations (those in which 13.5% or more employees were African American) considered compared to nonrepresentative occupations (those with…
Best, Bonnie M.
Research into African American female underrepresentation in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields has become an area of interest due to the fact that a majority of African American middle school females do not possess the high levels of mathematics and science knowledge because of social and cultural barriers both inside and outside school that challenge their academic success. The purpose of this qualitative interpretative phenomenological study was to explore teachers' shared, lived experiences of teaching mathematics and science to African American middle school girls. Delgado and Stefancic's critical race theory, Pratt-Clarke's critical race feminism, and Baker-Miller's relational-cultural theory were used to guide this study. Research questions focused on the perceptions and experiences of teachers' lived experiences teaching mathematics and science to African American middle school females. Criterion, purposive, and maximum variation sampling techniques were used to recruit 10 teachers who have 3 or more years' experience teaching African American middle school girls. Semistructured face-to-face interviews were the primary data collection source. First cycle and second cycle coding methods were used to support the analysis of this study. Findings suggest that there is a connection between a positive student-teacher relationship and academic success. The results of this study contribute to positive social change by providing empirical evidence policymakers and teachers can use to improve the mathematics and science instruction and practices that are needed to meet the needs of African American middle school females and reduce the underrepresentation and underachievement of African American females in mathematics and science.
Pohl, Lynn Marie
Much of what scholars know about race and medicine in the late-nineteenth-and early-twentieth-century South relates to the racial beliefs of white physicians and the segregated and exploitative treatment of black patients in hospitals and public health programs. This article shifts scholarly attention to the ways African American patients and their families took part in medical practice in commonplace settings of the home and office. The author examines how African Americans called upon local physicians in the rural and small-town South, how white physicians responded, and how they interacted in cases of serious illness, injury, and surgery. The claims of black southerners to physicians' treatments, in combination with small-town physicians' continuing reliance on interpersonal practices of medical care, made for an erratic but potentially distinctive cross-racial encounter-one involving a greater degree of negotiated authority and personal care than what generally has been recognized for this time and place.
Balon, Richard; Heninger, George; Belitsky, Richard
Objective: The authors discuss the importance of introducing research training in psychiatry and neurosciences to medical students. Methods: A review of existing models of research training in psychiatry with focus on those providing research training to medical students is presented. Results: Two research-training models for medical students that…
Gregory, Anne; Weinstein, Rhona S
African Americans are over-represented in school suspensions, yet little is known about the underlying contributing dynamics. Study 1 reviewed a high school's annual discipline data and 442 students referred for defiance. African Americans were over-represented in referrals for defiance and most students received referrals from one or several teachers. This suggests that defiance referrals are specific to the classroom situation. Examining the situational specificity of referrals, Study 2 used repeated measures and multilevel modeling with a sub-sample of 30 African American students. Attendance, grades, and teacher reports showed that students behaved more defiantly and less cooperatively with teachers perceived as having untrustworthy authority. Predictors of African American student trust in teacher authority included teacher caring and high expectations, offering implications for lowering the discipline gap.
Gonnella, Joseph S.; Hojat, Mohammadreza
The hypothesis that the relationship between medical school achievement and postgraduate performance would vary by specialty was confirmed in a comparison of grades, standardized medical exams, and ratings in four areas of competence (medical knowledge, data-gathering skills, clinical judgment, and professional attitudes) in internal medicine,…
Brennen, P W; Blackwelder, M B; Kirkali, M
This paper gives a brief overview of medical education in Turkey and shows the impact of established social, educational, and economic patterns upon current medical library services. Current statistical information is given on the twenty-two medical school libraries in Turkey. Principal problems and chief accomplishments with library services are highlighted and discussed. PMID:3676535
Haubert, Lisa M.; Way, David; DePhilip, Robert; Tam, Marty; Bishop, Julie; Jones, Kenneth; Moffatt-Bruce, Susan D.
Despite extensive experience teaching residents, surgeons are an untapped resource for educating medical students. We hypothesized that by involving surgeons as teachers earlier in the medical school curriculum, medical students' interest in surgery will increase and their opinions of surgeons will improve. Five programs designed to involve…
Strycker, Lisa A.; Chaumeton, Nigel R.
BACKGROUND The purpose of this research was to examine the impact of school-related variables on the physical activity (PA) levels of early adolescent African-American, Latino, and white girls. METHODS Data were from 353 African-American (N = 123), Latino (N = 118), and white (N = 112) girls. PA levels included a PA latent factor and minutes per day of moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA). School variables included hours of physical education (PE), PE enjoyment, school physical environment, recess activity, and active transport to/from school. Multiple-group structural equation modeling examined relations between school variables and PA across ethnic groups. RESULTS Hours of PE were positively related to higher PA factor scores. Active transport was related to higher PA factor scores for white girls only, and to greater MVPA for African-American girls only. Hours of PE were related to PE enjoyment and the school physical environment for some ethnic groups. PE enjoyment was related to more recess activity among African-American and Latino girls, and PE enjoyment was associated with more active transport to school for all girls. CONCLUSIONS PE participation and active transport significantly contribute to girls’ levels of PA, with differences across ethnic groups. PMID:25440452
Miller, Lynn E; Weiss, Richard M
Abraham Flexner's 1910 exposé on medical education recommended that only two of the seven extant medical schools for blacks be preserved and that they should train their students to "serve their people humbly" as "sanitarians." Addressing charges of racism, this article traces the roots of the recommendation that blacks serve a limited professional role to the schools themselves and presents evidence that, in endorsing the continuance of Howard's and Meharry's medical programs, Flexner exhibited greater leniency than he had toward comparable schools for white students. Whether his recommendations to eliminate the other five schools were key factors in their extinction is addressed here by examining 1901-30 enrollment patterns. Those patterns suggest that actions of the American Medical Association and state licensing boards, combined with the broader problem of limited premedical educational opportunities for blacks, were more consequential than was the Flexner report both for the extinction of the schools and for the curtailed production of black doctors.
Barzansky, B; Etzel, S I
We used data from the 2000-2001 Liaison Committee on Medical Education Annual Medical School Questionnaire, which had a 100% response rate, and other sources to describe the status of medical education programs in the United States. In 2000-2001, the number of full-time medical school faculty members was 103, 553, a 1.1% increase from 1999-2000. The 37, 092 applicants for the class entering in 2000 represented a 3.7% decrease from the number of applicants in 1999. The majority of medical schools (58%) were in the process of major curriculum review and change during 2000-2001. In 72 schools (58%), students were required to pass both Steps 1 and 2 of the United States Medical Licensing Examinations to advance or graduate. The availability of patients to participate in clinical teaching during 2000-2001 decreased in almost half of schools compared with 1999-2000. Many schools reported difficulty in recruiting or retaining volunteer faculty members to provide clinical education in the community. Forty medical schools provided monetary payment to some or all community volunteer faculty members. PMID:11559289
Barzansky, B; Etzel, S I
We used data from the 2000-2001 Liaison Committee on Medical Education Annual Medical School Questionnaire, which had a 100% response rate, and other sources to describe the status of medical education programs in the United States. In 2000-2001, the number of full-time medical school faculty members was 103, 553, a 1.1% increase from 1999-2000. The 37, 092 applicants for the class entering in 2000 represented a 3.7% decrease from the number of applicants in 1999. The majority of medical schools (58%) were in the process of major curriculum review and change during 2000-2001. In 72 schools (58%), students were required to pass both Steps 1 and 2 of the United States Medical Licensing Examinations to advance or graduate. The availability of patients to participate in clinical teaching during 2000-2001 decreased in almost half of schools compared with 1999-2000. Many schools reported difficulty in recruiting or retaining volunteer faculty members to provide clinical education in the community. Forty medical schools provided monetary payment to some or all community volunteer faculty members.
Ohba, Hisateru; Ogasawara, Katsuhiko; Hoshino, Shuhei; Hosoba, Minoru; Okuda, Yasuo; Konishi, Yasuhiko; Ikeda, Ryuji
The purpose of this study was to clarify actual conditions and problems in medical information education and to propose the educational concept to be adopted in medical information. A questionnaire survey was carried out by the anonymous method in June 2008. The survey was intended for 40 radiological technology schools. The questionnaire items were as follows: (1) educational environment in medical information education, (2) content of a lecture in medical information, (3) problems in medical information education. The response rate was 55.0% (22 schools). Half of the responding schools had a laboratory on medical information. Seventeen schools had a medical information education facility, and out of them, approximately 50% had an educational medical information system. The main problems of the medical information education were as follows: (a) motivation of the students is low, (b) the educational coverage and level for medical information are uncertain, (c) there are not an appropriate textbook and educational guidance. In conclusion, these findings suggest that it is necessary to have a vision of medical information education in the education of radiological technologists.
Barzansky, B; Jonas, H S; Etzel, S I
We present herein data on US medical education programs and describe how medical schools are adapting to a changing health care environment. The data mainly derive from the 1995-1996 Liaison Committee on Medical Education Medical School Questionnaire, which had a 100% response rate. The data indicate that in the 1995-1996 academic year there were 91 451 full-time faculty members in basic science and clinical departments, a 1.6% increase from 1994-1995. In clinical departments, major increases occurred in emergency medicine (a 10.6% increase in full-time faculty) and family medicine (a 13.5% increase). Applicants for the class entering in 1995 numbered 46 591, an increase of 2.7% from 1994; however, the number of first-time applicants decreased slightly (0.6%). Of the 17 357 applicants accepted, 2179 (12.6%) were members of underrepresented minority groups. Health system changes are affecting medical school clinical affiliations. During the past 2 years, 42 schools saw a merger, acquisition, or closure involving medical school-owned or medical school-affiliated hospitals used for core clinical clerkships. At 15 sites, this change affected the distribution of students across clinical sites. In 1995-1996, 40 medical schools or their universities owned a health maintenance organization or other managed care organization, 93 schools contracted with a managed care organization to provide primary care services, and 96 schools contracted with managed care to provide specialty services. During the past year, 57 schools acquired primary care physician practices, and 70 started primary care clinics in the community.
Williams, Wanda M; Berry, Diane C
African-American adolescent girls are less physically active than any other U.S. racial/ethnic group. The school environment may contribute to physical inactivity in this group. The purpose of this study was to explore African-American girls' perceptions offactors that contribute to girls being less physically active in high school. Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis (IPA) was used to identify individual perceptions of girls regarding physical activity. This resulted in four themes: personal appearances, scheduling/timing of classes, environmental/facilities issues, and lack of variety of activities in PE classes. Thefindings from this study indicated that African-American adolescent girls did not feel the physical or social school environment encouraged or supported them to be physically active. PMID:27045158
Introduction Of more than the 2,323 recognized and operating medical schools in 177 countries (world wide) not all are subjected to external evaluation and accreditation procedures. Quality Assurance in medical education is part of a medical school’s ethical responsibility and social accountability. Pushing this agenda in the midst of resource limitation, numerous competing interests and an already overwhelmed workforce were some of the challenges faced but it is a critical element of our medical profession’s social contract. This analysis paper highlights the process of standard defining for Medical Education in a typically low resourced sub Saharan medial school environment. Methods The World Federation for Medical Education template was used as an operating point to define standards. A wide range of stakeholders participated and meaningfully contributed in several consensus meetings. Effective participatory techniques were used for the information gathering process and analysis. Results Standards with a clear intent to enhance education were set through consensus. A cyclic process of continually measuring, judging and improving all standards was agreed and defined. Examples of the domains tackled are stated. Conclusion Our efforts are good for our patients, our communities and for the future of health care in Uganda and the East African region. PMID:23706079
Gioia, Gerard A
Mild traumatic brain injury is recognized as a prevalent and significant risk concern for youth. Appropriate school return is particularly challenging. The medical and school systems must be prepared partners to support the school return of the student with mild traumatic brain injury. Medical providers must be trained in assessment and management skills with a focused understanding of school demands. Schools must develop policies and procedures to prepare staff to support a gradual return process with the necessary academic accommodations. Ongoing communication between the family, student, school, and medical provider is essential to supporting recovery. A systematic gradual return to school process is proposed including levels of recommended activity and criteria for advancement. Targets for intervention are described with associated strategies for supporting recovery. A 10-element Progressive Activities of Controlled Exertion (PACE) model for activity-exertion management is introduced to manage symptom exacerbation. A strong medical-school partnership will maximize outcomes for students with mild traumatic brain injury.
McCurdy, L; Goode, L D; Inui, T S; Daugherty, R M; Wilson, D E; Wallace, A G; Weinstein, B M; Copeland, E M
To gain a better understanding of the effects of medical schools related to transformations in medical practice, science, and public expectations, the Association of American Medical Colleges (AAMC) established the Advisory Panel on the Mission and Organization of Medical Schools (APMOMS) in 1994. Recognizing the privileges academic medicine enjoys as well as the power of and the strain on its special relationship with the American public, APMOMS formed the Working Group on Fulfilling the Social Contract. That group focused on the question: What are the roles and responsibilities involved in the social contract between medical schools and various interested communities and constituencies? This article reports the working group's findings. The group describes the historical and philosophical reasons supporting the concept of a social contract and asserts that medical schools have individual and collective social contracts with various subsets of the public, referred to as "stakeholders." Obligations derive implicitly from the generous public funding and other benefits medical school receive. Schools' primary obligation is to improve the nation's health. This obligation is carried out most directly by educating the next generation of physicians and biomedical scientists in a manner that instills appropriate professional attitudes, values, and skills. Group members identified 27 core stakeholders (e.g., government, patients, local residents, etc.) and outlined the expectations those stakeholders have of medical schools and the expectations medical schools have of those stakeholders. The group conducted a survey to test how leaders at medical schools responded to the notion of a social contract, to gather data on school leaders' perceptions of what groups they considered their schools' most important stakeholders, and to determine how likely it was that the schools' and the stakeholders expectations of each other were being met. Responses from 69 deans suggested that
du Plessis, Andre; Webb, Paul
This case study, involving 30 participating teachers from six previously disadvantaged South African schools, provides data on teacher perceptions of the challenges related to implementing Information and Communication Technology (ICT). The schools had minimal resources as a residual result of the South African apartheid policy prior to 1994 and…
Nasir, Na'ilah Suad; McLaughlin, Milbrey W.; Jones, Amina
In this article, the authors explore variation in the meanings of racial identity for African American students in a predominantly African American urban high school. They view racial identity as both related to membership in a racial group and as fluid and reconstructed in the local school setting. They draw on both survey data and observational…
Welch, Amy L.
The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of poverty on the achievement of African American male high school students attending the same large Midwest urban school district. Cumulative grade point average (GPA) at the tenth grade level were compared to the level of poverty provided through census data of African American male tenth…
Morris, Jerome E.
The scholarly community has been neglectful in its study of those urban and predominantly African American schools that manifest agency in spite of persistent racial inequalities and poverty. Consequently, we are left to wonder whether anything good can come from urban African American schools, or from the communities where they are located. This…
Nesmith, Leo, Jr.
The purpose of this study was to examine and describe the relationship between a school's percentage of African American students enrolled and the placement of an African American principal for all of Florida's K-12 traditional public schools during the academic year 2010-2011. This study also sought to determine if this relationship was moderated…
Thomas, Tonya Chavis
The purpose of this study was to examine the different perceptions that shape African American male high school students' understanding of their academic experiences that lead to their success or lack of success in school. In addition, the study identified factors that explain the underachievement of African American male students who are…
Reed, Latish; Johnson, Les T.
This qualitative case study probes one African American school leader with a conservative religious upbringing as she works in a high school with a self-identified population of African American lesbian, guy, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) students. The findings demonstrate that the participant's leadership practices were guided by her spiritual…
Bethea, Sharon L.
The present investigation considers the program outcomes of one community youth project, Leadership Excellence Inc., Oakland Freedom Schools. Oakland Freedom Schools are culturally relevant 6-week summer Language Arts enrichment programs for primarily inner-city African American youth aged 5 to 14 years. In this study, 79 African American youth…
Ogedegbe, Gbenga O.; Boutin-Foster, Carla; Wells, Martin T.; Allegrante, John P.; Isen, Alice M.; Jobe, Jared B.; Charlson, Mary E.
Background Poor adherence explains poor blood pressure (BP) control; however African Americans suffer worse hypertension-related outcomes. Methods This randomized controlled trial evaluated whether a patient education intervention enhanced with positive-affect induction and self-affirmation (PA) was more effective than patient education (PE) alone in improving medication adherence and BP reduction among 256 hypertensive African Americans followed up in 2 primary care practices. Patients in both groups received a culturally tailored hypertension self-management workbook, a behavioral contract, and bimonthly telephone calls designed to help them overcome barriers to medication adherence. Also, patients in the PA group received small gifts and bimonthly telephone calls to help them incorporate positive thoughts into their daily routine and foster self-affirmation. The main outcome measures were medication adherence (assessed with electronic pill monitors) and within-patient change in BP from baseline to 12 months. Results The baseline characteristics were similar in both groups: the mean BP was 137/82 mm Hg; 36% of the patients had diabetes; 11% had stroke; and 3% had chronic kidney disease. Based on the intention-to-treat principle, medication adherence at 12 months was higher in the PA group than in the PE group (42% vs 36%, respectively; P =.049). The within-group reduction in systolic BP (2.14 mm Hg vs 2.18 mm Hg; P =.98) and diastolic BP (−1.59 mm Hg vs −0.78 mm Hg; P=.45) for the PA group and PE group, respectively, was not significant. Conclusions A PE intervention enhanced with PA led to significantly higher medication adherence compared with PE alone in hypertensive African Americans. Future studies should assess the cost-effectiveness of integrating such interventions into primary care. Trial Registration clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00227175 PMID:22269592
Mileder, Lukas Peter
Junior medical staff provides a large proportion of undergraduate student education. However, despite increasing numbers of resident-as-teacher training programs, junior doctors may still not be sufficiently prepared to teach medical students. Hence, medical schools should consider implementing formal teaching skills training into undergraduate curricula.
Lloyd, Stacey W; Ferguson, Yvonne Owens; Corbie-Smith, Giselle; Ellison, Arlinda; Blumenthal, Connie; Council, Barbara J; Youmans, Selena; Muhammad, Melvin R; Wynn, Mysha; Adimora, Adaora; Akers, Aletha
Though African-American youth in the South are at high risk for HIV infection, abstinence until marriage education continues to be the only option in some public schools. Using community-based participatory research methods, we conducted 11 focus groups with African-American adults and youth in a rural community in North Carolina with high rates of HIV infection with marked racial disparities. Focus group discussions explored participant views on contributors to the elevated rates of HIV and resources available to reduce transmission. Participants consistently identified the public schools' sex education policies and practices as major barriers toward preventing HIV infection among youth in their community. Ideas for decreasing youth's risk of HIV included public schools providing access to health services and sex education. Policymakers, school administrators, and other stakeholders should consider the public school setting as a place to provide HIV prevention education for youth in rural areas.
Gibson, Priscilla A; Haight, Wendy
In this qualitative study, the authors examined the culturally nuanced meanings of out-of-school suspensions for 30 lower income caregivers of African American children suspended from school. Caregivers were invited to describe their experiences of their children's suspensions during in-depth, individual, audiotaped interviews. Caregivers generally valued their children's school success, recognized when their children had misbehaved, and supported educators' imposition of appropriate consequences. Out-of-school suspensions, however, were rarely viewed as appropriate consequences. On the contrary, caregivers produced emotionally laden moral narratives that generally characterized their children's suspensions as unjust; harmful to children; negligent in helping children with underlying problems such as bullying; undermining parents' racial socialization; and, in general, racially problematic. Suspensions also contributed to some families' withdrawal from participation in their schools. Understanding how caregivers experience children's out-of-school suspensions provides important clues to how families and schools can work together to effectively reduce racial disparities in out-of-school suspensions.
Fronteira, Inês; Rodrigues, Amabélia; Pereira, Camilo; Silva, Augusto P; Mercer, Hugo; Dussault, Guilles; Ferrinho, Paulo
In Guinea Bissau, the majority of university level professionals are still being trained abroad and most of them do not return to their country. This was a major incentive for creating Guinea Bissau's Medical School. An observational, cross-sectional, analytic study was conducted on the second trimester of 2007 to characterize the socio-demographic, familial and educational profile of medical students, their satisfaction levels, difficulties and expectations concerning the medicine course. A questionnaire was used and a response rate of 63% achieved (81 students). Data was analyzed using SPSS v.17 for descriptive statistics. Students are very committed to their education. They tend to decide to take the medicine course early in their lives and are influenced by their relatives. They choose to be medical doctors because they like it but also for altruistic reasons and the desire to save lives. Although many face financial and material difficulties, they tend to have success in their academic live. They live with their parents, do not have children and some have side jobs to provide for extra income to help with their education. They expect their education to make them good doctors in any part of the world and want to work simultaneously in the public (to serve their country and pay their debt to the State) and in the private sector (to enhance their income). The large majority wants to work in a hospital, in Bissau, and to be a pediatrician or obstetrician. They have unreasonably high expectations concerning their future income as medical doctors.
American Association of Medical Record Librarians, Chicago, IL.
These guidelines are for the development and operation of approved programs to prepare medical record technicians. "School Approval" discusses the cooperative roles of the American Medical Association (AMA) Council on Medical Education and the American Association of Medical Record Librarians (AAMRL) in connection with program approval, and other…
Ijames, Erika Denise
Research indicates that internal and external factors such as role models, stereotypes, and pressures placed on African American males by their family and friends influence their perceptions of science careers (Assibey-Mensah, 1997; Hess & Leal, 1997; Jacobowitz, 1983; Maple & Stage, 1991; Thomas, 1989; Ware & Lee, 1988). The purpose of this research was to investigate the perceptions of African American high school males about selected science careers based on apparent internal and external factors. Two questions guided this research: (1) What are high school African American males' perceptions of science careers? (2) What influences high school African American males' perceptions of science careers? This research was based on a pilot study in which African American college males perceived a selection of science careers along racial and gender lines. The follow-up investigation was conducted at Rockriver High School in Acorn County, and the participants were three college-bound African American males. The decision to choose males was based on the concept of occupational niching along gender lines. In biology, niching is defined as the role of a particular species regarding space and reproduction, and its interactions with other factors. During the seven-week period of the students' senior year, they met with the researcher to discuss their perceptions of science careers. An ethnographic approach was used to allow a richer and thicker narrative to occur. Critical theory was used to describe and interpret the voices of the participants from a social perspective. The data collected were analyzed using a constant comparative analysis technique. The participants revealed role models, negative stereotypes, peer pressure, social pressures, and misconceptions as some of the factors that influenced their perceptions of science careers. Results of this research suggest that by dispelling the misconceptions, educators can positively influence the attitudes and perceptions of
Derived from a marxist/liberal humanist view of power, conventional critiques of the South African gold mining industry's medical apparatus see only its power to repress and negate the true bodily attributes and authentic person of the African mine worker. In so doing, they ignore the productive capacity of medical practice as a manifestation of what Foucault termed "disciplinary" power, by which the human body is manufactured and made manageable as an object of medical knowledge and industrial utilization. Accordingly, this paper offers just such a Foucaultian reading of South African mining medicine to demonstrate how it has operated to fabricate the bodies of African miners as visible objects possessed of distinct attributes that provoked particular strategies for their surveillance in health and disease. PMID:8928028
Lee, Y K
This article traces briefly the origins of medical education in the early years of the Straits Settlements (Singapore, Penang and Malacca), which culminated in the founding of Medical School in Singapore in 1905. The first attempt was made in the early 19th century, when boys were recruited from local schools as Medical Apprentices to be trained as "assistant doctors". They were to assist the British doctors and doctors from India in running the medical services. This scheme was not successful. There are 3 landmark years in the evolution of medical education in the Straits Settlements, namely 1852, 1867 and 1904. In 1852, the Governor, to relieve the shortage of staff in the Medical Department, instructed the Principal Civil Medical Officer to organise a proper course of training for Medical Apprentices and to establish a local Medical Service. This scheme was also unsuccessful and the Straits Settlements continued to rely on doctors recruited from India. In 1867, the Straits Settlements were transferred from the India Office to the Colonial Office and became a Crown Colony. The Indian Government requested that all its doctors be sent back. This would have led to the collapse of the Straits Settlements Medical Service. As a stop-gap measure, the Governor offered the Indian doctors appointment in the new Straits Settlements Medical Service, and at the same time arranged with the Madras Government for boys from the Straits Settlements to be trained in its Medical Colleges. The first 2 boys were sent in 1869. In 1889, the Principal Civil Medical Officer proposed to the Governor that a Medical School should be founded in Singapore, but not enough candidates passed the preliminary entrance examination. The plan was shelved and boys continued to be sent to Madras for training. In 1902, the Committee on English Education proposed that a Medical School should be started in Singapore, but senior British doctors opposed this. On 8 September 1904, Mr Tan Jiak Kim and other
An increasing trend of noncommunicable diseases is a worldwide phenomenon, also including the developing countries. Few studies focus on adolescents' substance use in relation to mental distress and protective factors in African countries. The purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence and correlates (mental distress and protective factors) of substance use among school-going adolescents in six African countries. The sample included 20,765 students aged from 13 to 15 years from six African countries (Kenya, Namibia, Swaziland, Uganda, Zambia, Zimbabwe), chosen by a two-stage cluster sample design to represent all students in grades 6, 7, 8, 9, and 10 in each country. The measure used was part of the Global School-Based Health Survey (GSHS) questionnaire, including various domains of health behaviour. Results indicate a prevalence of 12.6% tobacco use (past month), 6.6% risky alcohol use (two or more per day for at least 20 days or more in the past month), and 10.5% of illicit drug use (three or more times ever) in school-going adolescents in six African countries. School truancy, loneliness, sleeping problems, sadness, suicidal ideation, suicide plans, and poverty were associated with substance use (tobacco, alcohol, illicit drugs), while school attendance and parental supervision and connectedness were protective factors for substance use, and peer support protective for tobacco use. It is concluded that tobacco use, risky drinking and illicit drug use were common, clustered together and were associated with school truancy, mental distress, and lack of parental and peer support among adolescent African school children. These findings stress the need for early and integrated prevention programmes. PMID:22029616
Barr-Anderson, D J; Singleton, C; Cotwright, C J; Floyd, M F; Affuso, O
Outside-of-school time (OST; i.e. before/after-school hours, summer time), theory-based interventions are potential strategies for addressing increased obesity among African American youth. This review assessed interventions across multiple settings that took place during OST among African American youth aged 5-18 years old. Seven databases were searched for studies published prior to October 2013; 28 prevention and treatment interventions that assessed weight or related behaviours as a primary or secondary outcome were identified. Overall, these studies reported heterogeneous intervention length, theoretical frameworks, methodological quality, outcomes, cultural adaption and community engagement; the latter two attributes have been identified as potentially important intervention strategies when working with African Americans. Although not always significant, generally, outcomes were in the desired direction. When examining programmes by time of intervention (i.e. after-school, summer time, time not specified or multiple time periods), much of the variability remained, but some similarities emerged. After-school studies generally had a positive impact on physical activity, fruit/vegetable consumption and caloric intake, or body composition. The single summer time intervention showed a trend towards reduced body mass index. Overall findings suggest that after-school and summer programmes, alone or perhaps in combination, offer potential benefits for African American youth and could favourably influence diet and physical activity behaviour. PMID:25196405
Barr-Anderson, D J; Singleton, C; Cotwright, C J; Floyd, M F; Affuso, O
Outside-of-school time (OST; i.e. before/after-school hours, summer time), theory-based interventions are potential strategies for addressing increased obesity among African American youth. This review assessed interventions across multiple settings that took place during OST among African American youth aged 5-18 years old. Seven databases were searched for studies published prior to October 2013; 28 prevention and treatment interventions that assessed weight or related behaviours as a primary or secondary outcome were identified. Overall, these studies reported heterogeneous intervention length, theoretical frameworks, methodological quality, outcomes, cultural adaption and community engagement; the latter two attributes have been identified as potentially important intervention strategies when working with African Americans. Although not always significant, generally, outcomes were in the desired direction. When examining programmes by time of intervention (i.e. after-school, summer time, time not specified or multiple time periods), much of the variability remained, but some similarities emerged. After-school studies generally had a positive impact on physical activity, fruit/vegetable consumption and caloric intake, or body composition. The single summer time intervention showed a trend towards reduced body mass index. Overall findings suggest that after-school and summer programmes, alone or perhaps in combination, offer potential benefits for African American youth and could favourably influence diet and physical activity behaviour.
Botha, R. J.
Studies on school restructuring and the leadership role of the principal in this process suggest that what has been the traditional leadership approach of the principal appears to be changing in relation to the substantial changes and school-wide reforms that are continually taking place in schools today. These school reform initiatives…
Nair, Pooja; Barai, Ishani; Prasad, Sunila; Gadhvi, Karishma
Guidelines in the UK require all doctors to actively take part in quality improvement. To ease future doctors into the process, formal quality improvement teaching can be delivered during medical school. PMID:27051330
Barzansky, Barbara; Etzel, Sylvia I
We used data mainly from the 2001-2002 Liaison Committee on Medical Education Annual Medical School Questionnaire, which had a 100% response rate, to describe the status of US medical education programs. In 2001-2002, the number of full-time medical school faculty members was 104 949, a 2.4% increase from 1999-2000. The 34,859 applicants for the class entering in 2001 represented a 9.5% decrease from the number of applicants in 1999-2000. There were 2 applicants for every acceptance, and the academic qualifications of medical students entering in 2001 were unchanged from 1999. Women comprised 47.8% of entering students in 2001, and 13.1% were members of underrepresented minority groups. Of all first-year students, 67% were in-state residents. Most medical schools had mandatory required night call during at least some required clinical clerkships, but only 17 had formal policies on medical student work hours. In 74 schools (60%), medical students were required to pass Steps 1 and 2 of the United States Medical Licensing Examination to advance or graduate.
Williams, Joesph M.; Greenleaf, Arie T.; Albert, Tracey; Barnes, Erin F.
While the educational difficulties of African American students from low-income households are well documented and widely discussed in the literature, far less attention has been paid to students who succeed in school despite significant challenges such as poverty, housing instability, and food insecurity. A review of the literature identifies the…
Simmons, Robert W., III
In a "Multicultural Teaching and Learning" course, racial equity is one of the many issues explored. When discussing racial equity in our schools, teacher education students in the course focus their attention on such issues as the achievement gap, referrals to special education of African American and Latino males, the racism of low expectations.…
Barrett, Christopher A.
The qualitative phenomenological study explored the perceptions of educators and parents of African-American (K-12) school-age children on how the children were using technology. The study was conducted in the Memphis City Public School System (MCS) and was limited to three schools in a school district. Common themes emerged from the analysis of…
Yoshioka, Toshimasa; Nara, Nobuo
An internationalization of practical medicine evoked international migrations of medical professionals. Since basic medical education is different among countries, the internationalization required international quality assurance of medical education. Global trend moves toward establishment of international accreditation system based on international standards. The World Federation for Medical Education proposed Global Standards for Quality Improvement as the international standards. Medical schools in Japan have started to establish program evaluation system. The standards which incorporated international standards have been published. The system for accreditation is being considered. An accreditation body, Japan Accreditation Council for Medical Education, is under construction. The accreditation is expected to enhance quality of education in Japan. PMID:24291905
Medical emergencies can happen in any school at any time. They can be the result of preexisting health problems, accidents, violence, unintentional actions, natural disasters, and toxins. Premature deaths in schools from sudden cardiac arrest, blunt trauma to the chest, firearm injuries, asthma, head injuries, drug overdose, allergic reactions,…
Eliot, John W.; and others
A 1967 survey of 112 Latin American medical school indicates that instruction in fertility regulation was offered in 47 of the 76 responding schools, that 13 more expressed the intention of initiating such teaching, but that clinical facilities were limited. These responses are compared with those from a previous survey of North American medical…
Puhl, Rebecca M.; Burke, Sara E.; Hardeman, Rachel; Dovidio, John F.; Nelson, David B.; Przedworski, Julia; Burgess, Diana J.; Perry, Sylvia; Yeazel, Mark W.; van Ryn, Michelle
Background Healthcare trainees demonstrate implicit (automatic, unconscious) and explicit (conscious) bias against people from stigmatized and marginalized social groups, which can negatively influence communication and decision-making. Medical schools are well positioned to intervene and reduce bias in new physicians. Objective To assess medical school factors that influence change in implicit and explicit bias against individuals from one stigmatized group, people with obesity. Design Prospective cohort study of medical students enrolled at 49 US medical schools randomly selected from all US medical schools within strata of public/private schools and region. Participants 1,795 medical students surveyed at the beginning of their 1st year and end of their 4th year. Measurement Web-based surveys included measures of weight bias, and medical school experiences and climate. We compared bias change to changes in the general public over the same time period. We used linear mixed models to assess the impact of curriculum, contact with people who have obesity, and faculty role-modeling on weight bias change. Results Increased implicit and explicit biases were associated with less positive contact with patients who have obesity and more exposure to faculty role-modeling of discriminatory behavior or negative comments about patients with obesity. Increased implicit bias was associated with training in how to deal with difficult patients. On average, implicit weight bias decreased and explicit bias increased during medical school, over a period of time where implicit weight bias in the general public increased and explicit bias remained stable. Conclusion Medical schools may reduce students’ weight biases by increasing positive contact between students and patients with obesity, eliminating unprofessional role-modeling by faculty and residents, and altering curricula focused on treating difficult patients. PMID:26383070
Introduction: In recent years, an increasing number of medical students have taken time off during medical school in order to conduct research. Schools and students have invested millions of dollars and thousands of person-years on research projects, but little is known as to why students choose to take this time off. We aim to characterize why students take research years during medical school. Methods: The authors distributed an online survey about research in medical school to students at five medical schools that have highly regarded research programs. Results: 328 students responded to the survey. The most common reasons students take years off for research are: “increase competitiveness for residency application” (32%), “time to pursue other opportunities” (24%), and “academic interest” (23%). Students who would still take a research year even if they were already assured a position in a residency program of their choice were at 65%, while 35% would not take a research year. Responses varied based on whether students intended to go into a competitive specialty. Discussion: Medical students take research years for multiple reasons, although they frequently are not motivated by an interest in the research itself. Many student projects consume a substantial amount of time and money despite having little educational value. Medical schools, residency programs, and policymakers should rethink incentives to increase value and help students better pursue their academic interests.
Smego, Raymond A; D'Alessandri, Robert M; Linger, Barry; Hunt, Virginia A; Ryan, James; Monnier, John; Litwack, Gerald; Katz, Paul; Thompson, Wayne
In response to the Association of American Medical Colleges' call for increases in medical school enrollment, several new MD-granting schools have opened in recent years. This article chronicles the development of one of these new schools, The Commonwealth Medical College (TCMC), a private, not-for-profit, independent medical college with a distributive model of education and regional campuses in Scranton, Wilkes-Barre, and Williamsport, Pennsylvania. TCMC is unique among new medical schools because it is not affiliated with a parent university. The authors outline the process of identifying a need for a new regional medical school in northeastern Pennsylvania, the financial planning process, the recruitment of faculty and staff, the educational and research missions of TCMC, and details of the infrastructure of the new school. TCMC's purpose is to increase the number of physicians in northeastern Pennsylvania, and in the next 20 years it is expected to add 425 practicing physicians to this part of the state. TCMC is characterized by autonomy, private and public support, assured resources in good supply, a relatively secure clinical base, strong cultural ties to the northeast, recruiting practices that reflect the dean's convictions, and strong support from its board of directors. TCMC has invested heavily in social and community medicine in its educational programs while still developing a strong research emphasis. Major challenges have centered on TCMC's lack of a parent university in areas of accreditation, infrastructure development, faculty recruitment, and graduate medical education programs. These challenges, as well as solutions and benefits, are discussed.
Introduction: In recent years, an increasing number of medical students have taken time off during medical school in order to conduct research. Schools and students have invested millions of dollars and thousands of person-years on research projects, but little is known as to why students choose to take this time off. We aim to characterize why students take research years during medical school. Methods: The authors distributed an online survey about research in medical school to students at five medical schools that have highly regarded research programs. Results: 328 students responded to the survey. The most common reasons students take years off for research are: “increase competitiveness for residency application” (32%), “time to pursue other opportunities” (24%), and “academic interest” (23%). Students who would still take a research year even if they were already assured a position in a residency program of their choice were at 65%, while 35% would not take a research year. Responses varied based on whether students intended to go into a competitive specialty. Discussion: Medical students take research years for multiple reasons, although they frequently are not motivated by an interest in the research itself. Many student projects consume a substantial amount of time and money despite having little educational value. Medical schools, residency programs, and policymakers should rethink incentives to increase value and help students better pursue their academic interests. PMID:27672532
Miller, Lynn E; Weiss, Richard M
The dramatic decline in the number of US medical schools in the early twentieth century has been traced to a medical education reform movement that gained momentum after the Civil War. The major parties to reform-the universities themselves, the Association of American Medical Colleges (AAMC), state licensing boards, the American Medical Association (AMA), and Flexner-had different interests and strategies, however, and scholars have continued to debate the impact each had on the decline. To isolate the independent effects that the temporally intertwined forces for reform had on medical school failures, this study applies statistical survival analysis to an extensive and unique data set on medical schools operating in the United States between 1870 and 1930. Contrary to the views of some scholars, the results indicate that schools closed in response to critical evaluations published by the Illinois State Board of Health in the nineteenth century and the AMA and Flexner in the twentieth century. Additionally, the results indicate that schools were less likely to have failed if they adopted certain reforms implemented at leading schools or joined the AAMC, and were more likely to have failed if their state's licensing regulations mandated lengthier premedical and medical training. PMID:18276605
Four Native American first-year medical school students from Montana discuss their career choice and their goals for establishing medical practices in Native American communities. A regional program has enabled the students to take their first year of classes at Montana State University-Bozeman and to complete their studies at the University of…
Association of American Medical Colleges, Washington, DC.
Results of the most recent Administrative Salary Survey of the Association of American Medical Colleges are analyzed. The data represent 94 U.S. medical schools, with the number of applicable staff positions ranging from two to 52 per institution. The positions considered included those in which at least 20 percent of the time was spent in…
Powers, Donald E.
A brief survey was conducted of nearly 900 first-year students in 14 U.S. veterinary medical schools in order to gather impressions of the first year of veterinary medical education. Although some students reported that conditions were stressful, the majority did not feel that they were inordinately so. Overall, most students were quite positive…
Saxon, David S.
The aloofness of those in the medical schools from general faculty and students and the still narrow education of medical students are considered to be among the causes of the deep problems facing modern medicine. The current state of American medicine is assessed in this regard. (Author/LBH)
Albanese, Mark A.; Farrell, Philip; Dottl, Susan
In 2001, Dr. Jordan Cohen, President of the AAMC, called for medical schools to consider using an Medical College Admission Test (MCAT) threshold to eliminate high-risk applicants from consideration and then to use non-academic qualifications for further consideration. This approach would seem to be consistent with the recent Supreme Court ruling…
Barzansky, B; Jonas, H S; Etzel, S I
To describe the current status of medical education programs in the United States, we used data from the 1997-1998 Liaison Committee on Medical Education Annual Medical School Questionnaire, which had a 100% response rate, and from other sources. There were 96733 full-time medical school faculty members, a 1.2% increase from 1996-1997. The 43020 applicants for the class entering in 1997 represents an 8.4% decrease from 1996. The number of 1997 applicants who were members of underrepresented minority groups decreased 11.1 % from 1996, and the number of entering underrepresented minority group students decreased 8.4%. More than half of medical schools reported that the number of inpatients available for medical student education had decreased in at least some of their clinical sites or in some disciplines during the past 2 years. Thirty-nine medical schools (31.2%) reported having more difficulty recruiting or retaining volunteer clinical faculty to participate in medical student teaching in 1997 than in 1995.
Bikmoradi, Ali; Brommels, Mats; Shoghli, Alireza; Zavareh, Davoud Khorasani; Masiello, Italo
In Iran, restructuring of medical education and the health care delivery system in 1985 resulted in a rapid shift from elite to mass education, ultimately leading to an increase in the number of medical schools, faculties, and programs and as well as some complications. This study aimed to investigate views on academic culture, values, and…
White, Casey B.; Dey, Eric L.; Fantone, Joseph C.
Academic achievement indices including GPAs and MCAT scores are used to predict the spectrum of medical student academic performance types. However, use of these measures ignores two changes influencing medical school admissions: student diversity and affirmative action, and an increased focus on communication skills. To determine if GPA and MCAT…
Eastaugh, Steven R.
The value of a uniform program of financial assistance to medical education and research is questioned. Medical schools have an uneven ability to compensate for declining federal capitation and research grants. Financial-ratio analysis and cluster analysis are utilized to suggest four adaptive responses to future financial pressures. (Author/MLW)
Csaky, T. Z.
Rudolf Buchheim's thesis on why and how to teach pharmacology to medical students is reexamined in view of the so-called identity crisis. It is suggested that the crisis is not one of identity but one of acceptance of medical school pharmacology by clinical colleagues and professional educators. (LBH)
American Federation of Teachers, Washington, DC.
This guide for teachers whose classes include a medically fragile child considers roles and responsibilities of teachers with these students, teachers' rights as school employees, and possible solutions and protections for local unions to pursue. Chapter 1 provides an overview. It defines "medically fragile," summarizes legal requirements under…
The focus of this basic qualitative study was to explore the lived experiences of Floridian African American women in secondary educational leadership positions. Using critical race theory and Black feminist standpoint theory as a theoretical framework, this narrative analysis serves to increase the understanding of leadership styles among a…
Sailors, Misty; Makalela, Leketi; Hoffman, James V.
Our lead article explores the impact the authors witnessed when they helped South African teachers create culturally relevant books written in their students' languages. Through participation in the Ithuba Writing Project, these teachers were able to relate transformative stories about their lives through books that they subsequently shared in the…
According to the Third National Survey of South African women who attend prenatal clinics, 120,000 more persons are estimated to have become infected with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) since 1991. This paper compares the teacher-student relationship with that of the confidential doctor-patient relationship, and asks whether a teacher should…
Elnicki, D Michael; Gallagher, Susan; Willett, Laura; Kane, Gregory; Muntz, Martin; Henry, Daniel; Cannarozzi, Maria; Stewart, Emily; Harrell, Heather; Aiyer, Meenakshy; Salvit, Cori; Chudgar, Saumil; Vu, Robert
The fourth year of medical school remains controversial, despite efforts to reform it. A committee from the Clerkship Directors in Internal Medicine and the Association of Program Directors in Internal Medicine examined transitions from medical school to internship with the goal of better academic advising for students. In 2013 and 2014, the committee examined published literature and the Web sites of 136 Liaison Committee on Medical Education-accredited schools for information on current course offerings for the fourth year of medical school. The authors summarized temporal trends and outcomes when available.Subinternships were required by 122 (90%) of the 136 schools and allow students to experience the intern's role. Capstone courses are increasingly used to fill curricular gaps. Revisiting basic sciences in fourth-year rotations helps to reinforce concepts from earlier years. Many schools require rotations in specific settings, like emergency departments, intensive care units, or ambulatory clinics. A growing number of schools require participation in research, including during the fourth year. Students traditionally take fourth-year clinical electives to improve skills, both within their chosen specialties and in other disciplines. Some students work with underserved populations or seek experiences that will be henceforth unavailable, whereas others use electives to "audition" at desired residency sites. Fourth-year requirements vary considerably among medical schools, reflecting different missions and varied student needs. Few objective outcomes data exist to guide students' choices. Nevertheless, both medical students and educators value the fourth year of medical school and feel it can fill diverse functions in preparing for residency.
Elnicki, D Michael; Gallagher, Susan; Willett, Laura; Kane, Gregory; Muntz, Martin; Henry, Daniel; Cannarozzi, Maria; Stewart, Emily; Harrell, Heather; Aiyer, Meenakshy; Salvit, Cori; Chudgar, Saumil; Vu, Robert
The fourth year of medical school remains controversial, despite efforts to reform it. A committee from the Clerkship Directors in Internal Medicine and the Association of Program Directors in Internal Medicine examined transitions from medical school to internship with the goal of better academic advising for students. In 2013 and 2014, the committee examined published literature and the Web sites of 136 Liaison Committee on Medical Education-accredited schools for information on current course offerings for the fourth year of medical school. The authors summarized temporal trends and outcomes when available.Subinternships were required by 122 (90%) of the 136 schools and allow students to experience the intern's role. Capstone courses are increasingly used to fill curricular gaps. Revisiting basic sciences in fourth-year rotations helps to reinforce concepts from earlier years. Many schools require rotations in specific settings, like emergency departments, intensive care units, or ambulatory clinics. A growing number of schools require participation in research, including during the fourth year. Students traditionally take fourth-year clinical electives to improve skills, both within their chosen specialties and in other disciplines. Some students work with underserved populations or seek experiences that will be henceforth unavailable, whereas others use electives to "audition" at desired residency sites. Fourth-year requirements vary considerably among medical schools, reflecting different missions and varied student needs. Few objective outcomes data exist to guide students' choices. Nevertheless, both medical students and educators value the fourth year of medical school and feel it can fill diverse functions in preparing for residency. PMID:27002885
Hamilton, Lynnae A.; Aliyu, Muktar H.; Lyons, Paul D.; May, Roberta; Swanson, Charlie L.; Savage, Robert; Go, Rodney C. P.
INTRODUCTION: Ensuring adequate representation of all demographic groups in medical research is necessary in order to ensure that the benefits associated with participation are equitably shared. Mental health research is unique in that the stigma associated with mental illness, such as schizophrenia, further hinders participation. Using focus groups, we set out to explore the attitudes and views of African Americans with regard to schizophrenia and medical research. METHODS: Four focus group discussions were conducted, with 23 participants divided into two groups of working and retired adults, and two groups of full- and part-time students selected from inner-city residents of Birmingham, AL, and surrounding counties. Data obtained were analyzed using the content analysis method. RESULTS: Diverse views were expressed about the cause of mental illness, and much of this was influenced by cultural beliefs. There was considerable misunderstanding of schizophrenia, and the majority of participants described the disease in terms of positive symptoms only. Whereas for older participants the Tuskegee syphilis study experience was an important factor in their reluctance to participate in medical research, younger participants expressed no knowledge of the study. Among younger participants an assumed level of social distrust was evident, with prominent fear of participating in research that employs physically intrusive methods. CONCLUSION: The provision of accurate information through trusted community sources and open dialogue will help to dispel myths, correct faulty assumptions and increase African-American participation in schizophrenia research. PMID:16532974
Jonas, H S; Etzel, S I; Barzansky, B
From the data on faculty, students, and curriculum, is it possible to identify any responses to actual or anticipated health system changes? While one could foresee medical school downsizing in response to a potentially more competitive environment in which income from faculty practice would be reduced, what has occurred, on average, is steady growth in the number of faculty members across departments, with a large increase in the past year. However, expansion is not consistent across states. Between 1992-1993 and 1993-1994, the number of full-time faculty members decreased 1.5% in California medical schools, increased 3% in Minnesota medical schools, increased 6% in North Carolina medical schools, and increased 10% in New York and Pennsylvania medical schools. These differences may reflect the fiscal situation at the state level as well as differences in the practice environment in different areas. For example, managed care has not had a major effect in many markets. It will be important to monitor trends in faculty at both the national and regional levels to understand the full impact of health system changes. There is considerable diversity among US medical schools: in goals, in student profiles, and in curriculum structure. A number of schools have goals or objectives that contain a reference to the training of primary care physicians. The majority of these are public institutions, but a number of private schools have chosen to address the issue as well. Many schools, both public and private, are under external scrutiny related to the performance and specialty and practice location choices of their graduates.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8064985
This article analyses the Integrated Quality Management System (IQMS), an agreement reached in 2003 between the South African Education Department and the major teacher organisations in the country by using discourse analysis. The IQMS was scheduled to be implemented in public schools in 2004. Three discursive tensions are identified and…
In many western countries, corporal punishment has been abolished as a form of punishment in criminal trials and in schools. Under South African common law, persons entitled to enforce discipline may inflict corporal punishment within certain guidelines established by the Supreme Court. For the first time in the Republic of South Africa (RSA), the…
Grant, Dale F.; And Others
This report examines motivational variables and support structures that influenced the success of African American females who graduated with honors from a rural Georgia high school. Case studies focus on the nature of the honor graduates' friendships and the role that friendship may have played in motivating these students to become honor…
Stinson, David W.
This article shows how equity research in mathematics education can be decentered by reporting the "voices" of mathematically successful African American male students as they recount their experiences with school mathematics, illustrating, in essence, how they negotiated the White male math myth. Using post-structural theory, the…
Johnson-Whitt, Eugenia Stacell
In order to inquire into the persistent underrepresentation of urban minority students in the sciences, this study explored three urban African American students' conceptualizations of school science and media science, with emphases on the representation of science in "Crime Scene Investigation" ("CSI"). Based on the data…
Bloom, Collette M.; Erlandson, David A.
Using a naturalistic inquiry approach, analysis of indepth interviews reveals portraits of three African American women administrators emerging from their visible absences, illusionary opportunities, and imaginary schools with stories of strength, identity formation, and a collective consciousness in working for and with the black community in…
Bennett-Smith, Keisha K.
There is a need for research in the area of career choice of minority students in the United States. This descriptive study examined the factors that may influence Native American and African American high school students' career choices. These factors include such variables as parental educational level, family composition, and potential grade…
Baker, Timberly L.
This study addresses the use of suspension and expulsion for defiant behavior. It examines the contributions of student and/or school characteristics and their relationship to suspension and expulsion for defiance, specifically focusing on African Americans. The purpose of this study is to examine factors that lead to students being suspended or…
Steward, Robbie J.; Steward, Astin Devine; Blair, Jonathan; Jo, Hanik; Hill, Martin F.
Urban African American first-year high school students' absenteeism was found to be negatively related to grade point average (GPA) and avoidance as a means of coping (use of substances as a way to escape--food, alcohol, smoking, caffeine, etc.) and positively related to use of social support as a means of coping (efforts to stay emotionally…
Dean, Elizabeth; And Others
Designed to examine the way that different ethnic groups are presented in South African secondary school history textbooks, this study gives special attention to the extent and nature of ethnic stereotyping in texts and the endorsement of particular social and political attitudes relevant to contemporary South Africa. By using a sociological…
Johnston, Ingrid; Mangat, Jyoti
A study explored whether high school readers respond significantly differently to African novels in which unfamiliar cultural elements are presented "aggressively" than to those with an "assimilative" presentation of unfamiliar cultural elements. The three novels are set in Africa: Nancy Farmer's "A Girl Named Disaster," Buchi Emecheta's "The…
Maithufi, I. P.
Education in South Africa underwent major changes with the passage of the South African Schools Act of 1996. The details of this act and some of its consequences are outlined in this report. The paper opens with the particulars of the act and delves into the act's wording, asking "What is basic education?" and "What is meant by 'equal access to…
Alliance for Excellent Education, 2008
This fact sheet highlights the statistics of the status of the African American students living in the continental United States in terms of: population; graduation, dropouts, and preparedness; schools, segregation, and teacher quality; and special, gifted, and college preparatory education. According to the National Center for Education…
Billingsley, Andrew; Caldwell, Cleopatra Howard
Examines the interaction of church, school, and family in the African-American community. Using a holistic perspective and data from an ongoing, nationwide, multiyear study of church-sponsored family-oriented community outreach programs, the results indicate that the church is a powerful ally for the Black family. (JB)
Bhana, Deevia; Nzimakwe, Thokozani; Nzimakwe, Phumzile
Understanding the ways in which young boys and girls give meaning to gender and sexuality is vital, and is especially significant in the light of South Africa's commitment to gender equality. Yet the, gendered cultures of young children in the early years of South African primary schools remains a, marginal concern in debate, research and…
Ndimande, Bekisizwe S.
The dismantling of apartheid in 1994 brought an array of democratic changes in South Africa, including changes in curriculum and educational policies. One of the most momentous changes was the desegregation of public schools. While this was significant in South African education politics, it presented some educational challenges, especially to…
Bains, Ranbir Mangat; Franzen, Carolyn W.; White-Frese', Jesse
African American and Latino males are less likely to seek mental health services and obtain adequate care than their White counterparts. They are more likely to receive mental health services in school-based health centers (SBHCs) than in other community-based setting. The purpose of this article was to understand the issues and reasons these…
Moss, Hilary J.
While white residents of antebellum Boston and New Haven forcefully opposed the education of black residents, their counterparts in slaveholding Baltimore did little to resist the establishment of African American schools. Such discrepancies, Hilary Moss argues, suggest that white opposition to black education was not a foregone conclusion.…
Examined classroom discourse at a southern cosmetology school, noting African American students' language socialization. Highlighted freshmen's and seniors' engagement with formal/textbook scripts about proper communication, analyzing how teachers and students made sense of official metacommunicative scripts about proper salon communication.…
McDuffie, Thomas E.; George, Richard J.
School administrators and food providers need to better understand what factors drive young consumers' food choices in order to keep them as customers and avoid a potential backlash from parents, the community, and public policymakers. This article reports the findings of a study on African American adolescents and food, specifically, their…
Investigates career maturity differences among 133 African American male high school student-athletes. Findings revealed no significant differences between student-athletes and their nonathlete peers on the career maturity attitude and competence variables. Findings further indicated that 94% of student-athletes as compared to 72% of nonathletes…
Lim, Jae Hoon
This article is a cross-case study exploring two young African-American adolescent girls' experiences with school mathematics and the impact of the socio-cultural context upon their motivation and mathematical identity. Based on repeated in-depth interviews and ethnographic observation of their mathematics classroom, the researcher portrays…
Evans, Dwayne E.
This study explored the significance of African American students' trust of teachers and its impact on student engagement in school. It also focused on the potential impact of teachers' race on student-teacher trust relationships. Research for this study used a cross-sectional approach. Interviews were conducted with 22 students of…
Farrell, Albert D.; Erwin, Elizabeth H.; Allison, Kevin W.; Meyer, Aleta; Sullivan, Terri; Camou, Suzanne; Kliewer, Wendy; Esposito, Layla
Qualitative methods were used to identify problem situations encountered by adolescents in urban middle schools serving a predominantly African American student population. Interviews focusing on identifying problem situations and the context in which they occur were conducted with 60 adolescents including students and peer mediators at middle…
Two African American teachers teach English in the same inner-city high school. One teacher is successful--her students read, interact, and strive for success. The other teacher's students are frequently disruptive or are asleep. This book probes deep into the causes of classroom success and failure, as well as other issues that affect American…
McKechnie, Jessica Diaz
This study examined the relationship between college-going self-efficacy and high school students' perceived levels of achievement goal orientations (mastery-approach, performance-approach, performance-avoidance), vocational identity, need for occupational information, and barriers to occupational goals for a sample of African American urban…
House, Laura E.; Fowler, Dawnovise N.; Thornton, Pamela L.; Francis, E. Aracelis
Using survey methods, this study examines demographic and professional characteristics and experiences of participating African American deans and directors of schools of social work in the United States. An examination of deans and directors has implications for the future of social work education in terms of understanding their critical role as…
Ramnarain, Umesh Dewnarain
The apartheid policies in South Africa had a marked influence on the accessibility and quality of school science experienced by the different race groups. African learners in particular were seriously disadvantaged in this regard. The issues of equity and redress were foremost in transformation of the education system, and the accompanying…
Koonce, Nicole M.
The reading underachievement of African American (AA) school-age children has received considerable attention in educational circles. Unfortunately, there are relatively few studies designed to uncover the source or sources of these reading achievement differences, especially in children beyond early elementary grades. Some studies suggest that…
Barzansky, B; Jonas, H S; Etzel, S I
We use data from the 1996-1997 Liaison Committee on Medical Education Annual Medical School Questionnaire, which had a 100% response rate, to describe medical education programs in the United States. In the 1996-1997 academic year, there were 95 568 full-time medical school faculty members, a 4.5% increase from 1995-1996. In clinical departments, the largest increases were in emergency medicine (a 29% increase from 1995-1996) and family medicine (a 13% increase). Of all full-time faculty members in clinical departments, 76.9% have an MD or DO as the highest degree, 4.5% have both an MD and PhD, 13.9% have a PhD, and 4.7% have an academic or professional bachelor's or master's degree as their final degree. The total number of applicants for the class entering in 1996 was 46968 (0.8% increase from 1995), while the number of first-time applicants decreased 1% from 1995. First-year medical students who were members of underrepresented minority groups numbered 2236, a 4% decrease from 1995. In 1996-1997, the total number of medical students was 66712 (0.3% less than in 1995-1996). For students graduating during the 1995-1996 academic year, 13% took longer than 4 years to complete the program. There were 47 medical schools that reported that 1 or more hospitals used for required clinical clerkships had changed ownership, merged, or closed during 1996. Medical schools used an average of 6 (range, 1-36) hospitals for core clinical clerkship. Ninety-five schools required a passing grade on Step 1 of the US Medical Licensing Examination (USMLE) for promotion or graduation; 54 schools required a passing grade on Step 2 of the USMLE.
Rothman, Margaret D; Gugliucci, Marilyn R
End-of-life care curricula in osteopathic medical schools were compared with allopathic school offerings. An 8-question online survey of undergraduate medical education administrators at all United States osteopathic medical schools (n = 26) and 26 allopathic schools geographically closest to them was conducted in 2007. Responses from 80% (n = 21) of osteopathic schools and 77% (n = 20) of allopathic schools revealed that both osteopathic and allopathic medical schools offered end-of-life care education. Of note is that 71% of the osteopathic medical school respondents had a course that concentrates on end-of-life care compared with 37% of allopathic school respondents (P = .03). This disparity in percentages may be due to a number of reasons, 2 of which may include course identification methods and the primary care orientation and philosophy inherent in osteopathic medical schools.
School governance reform in post-apartheid South Africa aimed to democratize schooling while accommodating diverse school histories of underdevelopment or self-management. Analysis of relevant legislation shows the reform was structured to allow representative democracy and partnerships. But two recent studies suggest that governance reforms have…
Barzansky, B; Jonas, H S; Etzel, S I
We used data from the 1999-2000 Liaison Committee on Medical Education Annual Medical School Questionnaire, which had a 100% response rate, and other sources to describe the status of medical education programs in the United States. In 1999-2000, the number of full-time faculty members was 102,446, a 4.3% increase from 1998-1999. The number of basic science faculty increased by less than 0.5%, while the number of clinical faculty increased by about 5%. There were 38,529 medical school applicants in 1999, a 6% decrease from 1998. Women constituted 45.8% and underrepresented minorities made up 12.1% of the 1999-2000 first-year class. New content, such as alternative medicine and cultural competence, and new methods of instruction, such as computer-based learning, are being incorporated by many schools. Seventy schools (56% of the total) require students to pass both Step 1 and Step 2 of the US Medical Licensing Examination for advancement or graduation, an increase from 62 schools (50%) in 1998-1999. The use of standardized methods of assessment, such as objective structured clinical examinations, to evaluate students' clinical performance was highly variable among schools. JAMA. 2000;284:1114-1120
Awbrey, Lucinda Mejdell; Juarez, Sandra M.
Management of medications in school is one of the critical roles that school nurses carry out in the school setting. In recent years, parents have come to question the medication procedures that school districts follow. Parents question why a physician's order is required for school personnel to provide over-the-counter (OTC) medications to their…
Center for Health and Health Care in Schools, 2004
This paper and the invitational meeting for which it has been prepared make certain assumptions about the challenge of strengthening the quality of medication management in school. The participants believe that recent research on improving the safety and quality of patient care has relevance for health services in school, particularly the safety…
Golshani, Seyyed Alireza; Seddigh, Fatemeh; Pirouzan, Hadi; Daneshfard, Babak
In research on the history of medicine, less attention is paid to the subject of historical geography. Considering the importance of this subject in the history of science, this paper discusses one of the most important science centers in the world. This outstanding medical research center was located in Gorganch city, Chorasmia area, in the Eastern part of the Islamic. Chorasmia medical school was one of the important Iranian medical schools before the Mongols’ attack. Its history (305-1231 A.D.) can be divided into three eras; Ale Iraq, Ale Ma'mun, and era of the Khwarazmian dynasty. This geographical area in the Northeast of Iran has escaped the notice of researchers in recent studies. The presence of great Persian physicians and scientists throughout history in this area indicates its scientific importance. The present article focuses on Chorasmia Medical School since its establishment until the Mongols’ attack. PMID:27350864
de Oliveira Vidal, Edison Iglesias; Silva, Vanessa dos Santos; dos Santos, Maria Fernanda; Jacinto, Alessandro Ferrari; Boas, Paulo José Fortes Villas; Fukushima, Fernanda Bono
The exposure to unethical and unprofessional behavior is thought to play a major role in the declining empathy experienced by medical students during their training. We reflect on the reasons why medical schools are tolerant of unethical behavior of faculty. First, there are barriers to reporting unprofessional behavior within medical schools including fear of retaliation and lack of mechanisms to ensure anonymity. Second, deans and directors do not want to look for unethical behavior in their colleagues. Third, most of us have learned to take disrespectful circumstances in health care institutions for granted. Fourth, the accreditation of medical schools around the world does not usually cover the processes or outcomes associated with fostering ethical behavior in students. Several initiatives promise to change that picture. PMID:25755040
Perine, Donald Ray
African Americans, Hispanics, Native Americans and women are underrepresented among the population of scientists and science teachers in the United States. Specifically, the shortage of African Americans teaching math and science at all levels of the educational process and going into the many science-related fields is manifested throughout the entire educational and career structure of our society. This shortage exists when compared to the total population of African Americans in this country, the population of African American students, and to society's demand for more math and science teachers and professionals of all races. One suggestion to address this problem is to update curricular and instructional programs to accommodate the learning styles of African Americans from elementary to graduate school. There is little in the published literature to help us understand the learning styles of African American middle school students and how they compare to African American adults who pursue science careers. There is also little published data to help inform us about the relationship between learning styles of African American middle school students and their attitudes toward science. The author used a learning styles inventory instrument to identify the learning style preferences of the African American students and adults. The preferences identified describe how African American students and African American adult science professionals prefer to function, learn, concentrate, and perform in their educational and work activities in the areas of: (a) immediate environment, (b) emotionality, (c) sociological needs, and (d) physical needs. The learning style preferences for the students and adults were not significantly different in key areas of preference. A Test of Science-Related Attitudes (TOSRA) was used to measure seven distinct science-related attitudes of the middle school students. A comparison of the profile of the mean scores for the students in this study
Bauer, Ann L.; Ingersoll, Elliott; Burns, Laura
This article reports the results of a national survey of school counselors that gathered information about the extent of school children's psychiatric diagnoses and usage of psychotropic medication, school policy issues arising from these practices, and counselors' perceived need for further training. Results support the assertion that…
Koh, Gerald Ch; Lee, Jeremy Ne; Agrawal, Neelima; Tam, John Kc; Samarasekera, Dujeepa; Koh, Dow Rhoon; Wong, John El; Tan, Chay Hoon
This study assessed the effectiveness of education reforms on student-reported learning outcomes at the end of the 5-year medical school (M5) and 1-year internship (HO) in 2006, 2007 and 2008. A self-administered anonymous survey with 17 learning outcomes assessed, derived from Harden's Three-Circle Outcomes Model for outcomes-based education, was administered to 683 students at the end of medical school (M5) and internship (HO) from 2006, 2007 and 2008. We identified learning outcomes which changed significantly for internship (Cohorts A, B and C) and medical school (Cohorts B, C and D) between cohorts from 2006 to 2008, and compared learning outcomes between medical school and internship within cohorts (i.e. Cohort B which was M5 in 2006 and HO in 2007; Cohort C which was M5 in 2007 and HO in 2008). The proportion of students who agreed that medical school helped them achieve learning outcomes increased significantly from 2006 to 2008 for 15 out of 17 learning outcomes assessed. The proportion of students who agreed that internship helped them achieve learning outcomes increased significantly from 2006 to 2008 for 6 learning outcomes assessed. For Cohorts B and C, internship was more effective than medical school in achieving 8 learning outcomes. Cohort C reported that internship was more effective than medical school in 3 additional learning outcomes than Cohort B: patient management, humility and dedication. We conclude that a successful journey of education reform is an ongoing process that needs to comprehensively address multifaceted components such as faculty, administration and curriculum. PMID:27383719
Barzansky, B; Jonas, H S; Etzel, S I
This is a time of considerable uncertainty about the future of medical education. There are threats to medical school finances from state and federal levels. While medical schools derive only an average of about 11% of total revenues from state and local sources, these funds potentially give states the basis for imposing specific mandates on medical schools, in areas such as enrollment levels, curriculum content, and a desired specialty mix of graduates. Medical schools appear to be changing at varying rates in response to the health care system, including the growth of managed care. While the total number of full-time faculty members continues to increase, there are regional differences. It is unclear how the faculty size and composition ultimately will be affected or what implications this will have for educational programs. A number of medical schools are expanding into the community to ensure a patient base, and educational opportunities for medical students appear to be increasing in the community, including some limited use of managed care organizations. as educational settings. Medical school practice sites in the community have the potential to exacerbate "town-gown" tensions in the increasingly competitive health care environment. This, in turn, could jeopardize community-based medical education by the large number of practicing physicians who serve as volunteer faculty members and who are a valuable resource. Care will need to be taken to minimize these tensions as much as possible. As the health care system becomes even more competitive, concerns are being raised about whether volunteer faculty will continue to serve without compensation. The ability to begin to compensate community physicians who serve as teachers could be affected by decreasing medical school revenues from patient care, which, in the past, have been used to support activities such as community-based education. This is a time for strong and visionary academic leadership: medical schools
Mader, Emily M.; Rodríguez, José E.; Campbell, Kendall M.; Smilnak, Timothy; Bazemore, Andrew W.; Petterson, Stephen; Morley, Christopher P.
Background and objectives To assess the impact of medical school location in Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCU) and Puerto Rico (PR) on the proportion of underrepresented minorities in medicine (URMM) and women hired in faculty and leadership positions at academic medical institutions. Method AAMC 2013 faculty roster data for allopathic medical schools were used to compare the racial/ethnic and gender composition of faculty and chair positions at medical schools located within HBCU and PR to that of other medical schools in the United States. Data were compared using independent sample t-tests. Results Women were more highly represented in HBCU faculty (mean HBCU 43.5% vs. non-HBCU 36.5%, p=0.024) and chair (mean HBCU 30.1% vs. non-HBCU 15.6%, p=0.005) positions and in PR chair positions (mean PR 38.23% vs. non-PR 15.38%, p=0.016) compared with other allopathic institutions. HBCU were associated with increased African American representation in faculty (mean HBCU 59.5% vs. non-HBCU 2.6%, p=0.011) and chair (mean HBCU 73.1% vs. non-HBCU 2.2%, p≤0.001) positions. PR designation was associated with increased faculty (mean PR 75.40% vs. non-PR 3.72%, p≤0.001) and chair (mean PR 75.00% vs. non-PR 3.54%, p≤0.001) positions filled by Latinos/Hispanics. Conclusions Women and African Americans are better represented in faculty and leadership positions at HBCU, and women and Latino/Hispanics at PR medical schools, than they are at allopathic peer institutions. PMID:26968254
... a new collection to obtain consumer information from foreign graduate medical institutions that... Agency Information Collection Activities; Comment Request; Foreign Graduate Medical School Consumer... notice will be considered public records. Title of Collection: Foreign Graduate Medical School...
Rippey, Robert M.
Strengths and weaknesses of systems for evaluating teaching in medical schools are reviewed, and a framework for dealing with issues and critical questions is presented. The model addresses the following areas: goals of the school, the purpose of evaluating teaching, standards that characterize the quality of teaching evaluation measures, measures…
Mangione, Carol M.
Four areas in which a resident felt least prepared by medical school are outlined: teaching medical students; working as an effective ambulatory care doctor; discussing the psycho-social issues that surround terminal illness, death, and dying; and functioning as a cost-conscious health care provider. (MLW)
Anyaehie, U. S. B.; Nwobodo, E.; Oze, G.; Nwagha, U. I.; Orizu, I.; Okeke, T.; Anyanwu, G. E.
The expansion of biomedical knowledge and the pursuit of more meaningful learning have led to world-wide evidence-based innovative changes in medical education and curricula. The recent emphasis on problem-based learning (PBL) and student-centred learning environments are, however, not being implemented in Nigerian medical schools. Traditional…
Peabody, J W
This article calls for medical schools to use a new set of standards to gauge how well they contribute to social welfare. Because medical schools receive public funding and are given the authority to certify that providers are sufficiently trained, they incur an obligation to be socially responsible. In addition to setting and using higher standards, medical schools should call on their credibility and use their scientific expertise to find new policies that promote social welfare. In particular, they should do research on socially oriented policies and participate more actively in debates about health sector reform. Although societies vary and have different values, most countries and peoples probably share the following social objectives: They want to use limited public and private resources rationally to produce the best possible health, they do not want individuals or groups to suffer, and they want to protect people against catastrophic illness and associated financial losses. Although new standards are needed, medical schools should be encouraged to continue producing technically sophisticated providers and conducting high-level basic and clinical research. Available evidence suggests that medical schools can further contribute to the three social objectives noted above by increasing the intensity and relevancy of primary care training, expanding the curriculum beyond its biomedical focus, encouraging research in health services, and assessing the effectiveness of social policy in improving the health of the population. PMID:10495745
Suvarnabhumi, Krishna; Sowanna, Non; Jiraniramai, Surin; Jaturapatporn, Darin; Kanitsap, Nonglak; Soorapanth, Chiroj; Thanaghumtorn, Kanate; Limratana, Napa; Akkayagorn, Lanchasak; Staworn, Dusit; Praditsuwan, Rungnirand; Uengarporn, Naporn; Sirithanawutichai, Teabaluck; Konchalard, Komwudh; Tangsangwornthamma, Chaturon; Vasinanukorn, Mayuree; Phungrassami, Temsak
Objective The Thai Medical School Palliative Care Network conducted this study to establish the current state of palliative care education in Thai medical schools. Methods A questionnaire survey was given to 2 groups that included final year medical students and instructors in 16 Thai medical schools. The questionnaire covered 4 areas related to palliative care education. Results An insufficient proportion of students (defined as fewer than 60%) learned nonpain symptoms control (50.0%), goal setting and care planning (39.0%), teamwork (38.7%), and pain management (32.7%). Both medical students and instructors reflected that palliative care education was important as it helps to improve quality of care and professional competence. The percentage of students confident to provide palliative care services under supervision of their senior, those able to provide services on their own, and those not confident to provide palliative care services were 57.3%, 33.3%, and 9.4%, respectively. Conclusions The lack of knowledge in palliative care in students may lower their level of confidence to practice palliative care. In order to prepare students to achieve a basic level of competency in palliative care, each medical school has to carefully put palliative care content into the undergraduate curriculum. PMID:25278759
Barzansky, B; Jonas, H S; Etzel, S I
To describe the current status of medical education programs in the United States and to trace trends in medical education over this century, we used data from the 1998-1999 Liaison Committee on Medical Education Annual Medical School Questionnaire, which had a 100% response rate, and data from other sources. In 1998-1999, total full-time faculty members numbered 98202, a 1.5% increase from 1997-1998. The number of applicants to medical school declined for the second consecutive year, from 43020 in 1997 to 41004 in 1998, but the academic qualifications of entering students remained steady. The number of applicants from underrepresented minority groups decreased 1.3% from 1997 to 1998, compared with an 11.1% decrease between 1996 and 1997. Women constituted 43.4% of applicants in 1998, slightly more than the 42.5% in 1997. The total number of required hours in the first and second years of the curriculum and the number of scheduled hours per week have declined over the past 15 years, while the average lengths of clinical clerkships remained about the same. The number of schools requiring students to pass Steps 1 and 2 of the United States Medical Licensing Examination continued to increase in 1998-1999, with 50% of schools requiring passing both examinations, compared with 46% in 1997-1998.
Chervenak, Frank A; McCullough, Laurence B
The relationship between medical schools and their teaching hospitals involves a complex and variable mixture of monopoly and monopsony power, which has not been previously been ethically analyzed. As a consequence, there is currently no ethical framework to guide leaders of both institutions in the responsible management of this complex power relationship. The authors define these two forms of power and, using economic concepts, analyze the nature of such power in the medical school-teaching hospital relationship, emphasizing the potential for exploitation. Using concepts from both business ethics and medical ethics, the authors analyze the nature of transparency and co-fiduciary responsibility in this relationship. On the basis of both rational self-interest, drawn from business ethics, and co-fiduciary responsibility, drawn from medical ethics, they argue for the centrality of transparency in the medical school-teaching hospital relationship. Understanding the ethics of monopoly and monopsony power is essential for the responsible management of the complex relationship between medical schools and their teaching hospitals and can assist the leadership of academic health centers in carrying out one of their major responsibilities: to prevent the exploitation of monopoly power and monopsony power in this relationship.
Rumala, Bernice B.; Cason, Frederick D.
Recruitment of more underrepresented minority students (black, Hispanic and native American) to increase racial diversity in the physician workforce is on the agenda for medical schools around the nation. The benefits of having a racially diverse class are indisputable. Minority physicians are more likely to provide care to minority, underserved, disadvantaged and low-income populations. Therefore, medical schools would benefit from diversity through utilizing strategies for recruitment of underrepresented minority (URM) students. Numerous recruitment strategies have been employed to increase the number of underrepresented minority students. However, formal collaboration with minority medical student organizations is an underutilized tool in the recruitment process. Many medical schools have informally used minority medical students and members of various minority organizations on campus in the recruitment process, but a formal collaboration which entails a strategic approach on using minority medical student organizations has yet to be included in the literature. This paper discusses the innovative collaboration between the University of Toledo College of Medicine (UTCOM) chapter of the Student National Medical Association (SNMA) and the college of medicine's admissions office to strategize a recruitment plan to increase the number of underrepresented minority students at the UTCOM. This paper suggests that minority medical student organizations, particularly the SNMA, can be used as a recruiting tool; hence, admissions offices cannot negate the usefulness of having formal involvement of minority medical student organizations as a recruiting tool. This approach may also be applicable to residency programs and other graduate professional fields with a severe shortage of URM students. PMID:17913109
Tanner, Andrea; Kim, Sei-Hill; Friedman, Daniela B; Foster, Caroline; Bergeron, Caroline D
Clinical trials help advance public health and medical research on prevention, diagnosis, screening, treatment, and quality of life. Despite the need for access to quality care in medically underserved areas, clinical trial participation remains low among individuals in rural and African American communities. This study assessed clinical trial research in South Carolina's five main academic medical centers, focusing specifically on clinical trial investigators' perceived barriers to recruitment in the general population and in rural and African American communities. Online survey responses (N = 119) revealed that it was most difficult for investigators to recruit from rural areas and that rural residents were least likely to be represented in medical research, behind both the general public and African Americans. Barriers focusing on communication or awareness proved to be the biggest hurdles to finding potential participants in both the general public and rural communities. Psychological barriers to recruitment were perceived to be most prevalent in African American communities. Study findings provide important insights from the perspective of the clinical trial investigator that will aid in the development of effective communication and education strategies for reaching rural and African American residents with information about clinical trials. PMID:25204763
Greeff, P.; Grobler, A. A.
Bullying in the intermediate school phase was studied, using the Revised Olweus Bully/Victim Questionnaire (R-OBVQ). The total sample comprised 360 grade 4 to 6 pupils from English-medium, single-sex schools in Bloemfontein, South Africa. To ensure a more homogeneous sample, the grade (grades 4 to 6) and race (black and white) of the participants…
Woodruff, Elizabeth A.; Curtner-Smith, Matthew D.
Transferring from elementary to secondary school can be difficult for many children, and students making this transition often suffer from anxiety and stress. One source of stress can be found in the scary stories transitioning pupils hear about their new schools, particularly those about physical education and sport. The purpose of this study was…
Anderson, Kenneth A.; Howard, Keith E.; Graham, Anthony
Associations between reading achievement and behavior, albeit problematic, are empirically supported in the literature. Although well documented, many of the studies were conducted outside of the school context using reading measures not typically aligned with school curricula. Furthermore, previous studies primarily document the existence of…
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to provide a review of an Australian health promoting schools (HPS) project to identify key features of the concept of resilience and how it can be used in a school setting to develop and strengthen protective factors in young people, as a mechanism for improving social functioning and reducing involvement in…
Perry, Kristen H.
This research review examines trends in recent scholarship concerning primary school literacy instruction in Southern Africa. Past scholarship, particularly that which originated from western researchers, focused on technical or structural issues facing literacy instruction in the region, such as language of instruction, school conditions,…
Gordon, Beverly M.
Background/Context: Today, in the era of the first African American president, approximately one third of all African Americans live in suburban communities, and their children are attending suburban schools. Although most research on the education of African American students, particularly males, focuses on their plight in urban schooling, what…
Román A, Oscar
There is concern about the possible consequences caused by the proliferation of private Medical Schools in Chile. Most of these schools have consolidated as health professional training centers, but its presence is changing the scenario of public health and medical profession. The most important consequence is the increase in the number of physicians that will occur, that may exceed the demand of the Chilean population and generate medical unemployment or emigration. There is also concern about the quality of the training process and the preparation and experience of teachers, that derives in the need for accreditation of medical schools. Private Universities are aware of these problems and are working on them. The struggle for clinical fields in the Public Health System has been regulated by an administrative norm of the Ministry of Health.
This study investigated the relationship between an after-school tutorial program for African American high school students at a Title I school and scores on the science portion of the High School Graduation Examination (HSGE). Passing the examination was required for graduation. The target high school is 99% African American and the passing rate of the target high school was 42%---lower than the state average of 76%. The purpose of the study was to identify (a) the relationship between a science tutorial program and scores on the science portion of the HSGE, (b) the predictors of tutoring need by analyzing the relationship between biology grades and scores on the science portion of the HSGE, and (c) the findings between biology grades and scores on the science portion of the HSGE by analyzing the relationship between tutorial attendance and HSGE scores. The study was based on Piaget's cognitive constructivism, which implied the potential benefits of tutorials on high-stakes testing. This study used a 1-group pretest-posttest, quantitative methodology. Results showed a significant relationship between tutoring and scores on the biology portion of the HSGE. Results found no significant relationship between the tutorial attendance and the scores on the biology portion of the HSGE or between the biology grades and scores on the biology portion of the HSGE before tutoring. It has implications for positive social change by providing educational stakeholders with empirically-based guidance in determining the potential benefit of tutorial intervention strategies on high school graduation examination scores.
Gual, Arcadi; Escaneroi, Jesus; Tomás, Inmaculada; Rodríguez de Castro, Felipe; Elorudy, Marta; Virumbrales, Montserrat; Rodríguez, Gerardo; Arce, Victor
Objectives The purpose of this study was to investigate student's perceptions of Educational Climate (EC) in Spanish medical schools, comparing various aspects of EC between the 2nd (preclinical) and the 4th (clinical) years to detect strengths and weaknesses in the on-going curricular reform. Methods This study utilized a cross-sectional design and employed the Spanish version of the "Dundee Ready Education Environment Measure" (DREEM). The survey involved 894 2nd year students and 619 4th year students from five Spanish medical schools. Results The global average score of 2nd year students from the five medical schools was found to be significantly higher (116.2±24.9, 58.2% of maximum score) than that observed in 4th year students (104.8±29.5, 52.4% of maximum score). When the results in each medical school were analysed separately, the scores obtained in the 2nd year were almost always significantly higher than in the 4th year for all medical schools, in both the global scales and the different subscales. Conclusions The perception of the EC by 2nd and 4th year students from five Spanish medical schools is more positive than negative although it is significantly lower in the 4th year. In both years, although more evident in the 4th year, students point out the existence of several important "problematic educational areas" associated with the persistence of traditional curricula and teaching methodologies. Our findings of this study should lead medical schools to make a serious reflection and drive the implementation of the necessary changes required to improve teaching, especially during the clinical period. PMID:26057355
Alarming statistics reveal that African American male students are encountering long-standing challenges in K-12 mathematics. However, few studies have explored the phenomena associated with African American males and K-12 mathematics education, particularly at the middle school level in the context of an Algebra 1 course of study. The purpose of…
Johnson, Kimberly C.
A major concern in the public schools is the low academic achievement of African American males. This mixed methods study examined the classroom experiences of African American male students in an alternative program. The dual purpose was to investigate the teachers' perceptions and their ability to provide best learning environments for…
This paper reports on an initiative to introduce, not the Philosophy for Children (P4C) programme itself, but its principles and some of its practices, into South African schools. The paper points out the conceptual links between P4C and the understanding of human development that underpins the new South African curriculum, and provides a brief…
A study determined the effects of a pedagogical approach using rap music on the learning of musical forms among urban African American youth and whether there were differential effects among students of different levels of self-esteem. Urban African American youth (n=66) from the St. Louis County Public Schools who were enrolled in general music…
Randle, James P.
A recent study by the Council of the Great City Schools reports that "the nation's young African-American males are in a state of crisis" and describes the situation as "a national catastrophe" (Lewis, Simon, Uzzell, Horwitz, & Casserly, 2010; Herbert, 2010). The report indicates that African-American males still lag…
Thompson, LaTasha; Davis, Julius
Many researchers, educators, administrators, policymakers and members of the general public doubt the prevalence of high-achieving African-American males in urban high schools capable of excelling in mathematics. As part of a larger study, the current study explored the educational experiences of four high-achieving African-American males…
Koonce, Nicole M.
This research investigated the expository language of school-age speakers of African American English. Specifically, the study describes the language productivity, syntax, and pragmatic features present in expository language samples produced by African American children and compares their performance with White children in the extant literature.…
Ayers, W R; Stangert, A C; Dennis, M J; Henry, J B
As direct federal support of medical education has been reduced, tuition at U.S. medical schools has increased. Concern has been expressed over a decline in the socioeconomic diversity and the academic qualifications of the applicants. Experience gained at Georgetown University School of Medicine, the medical school with the highest tuition in the United States, indicates that the academic and nonacademic characteristics of the entering class have remained stable over a seven-year period despite a fourfold increase in tuition. Virtually all (98 percent) enrolled students currently receive some form of financial aid, mostly in the form of federally insured loans or federal scholarships with a service commitment. Maintenance of socioeconomic diversity depends on the continued availability of federally supported student loans and scholarships. PMID:7288842
Ayers, W R; Stangert, A C; Dennis, M J; Henry, J B
As direct federal support of medical education has been reduced, tuition at U.S. medical schools has increased. Concern has been expressed over a decline in the socioeconomic diversity and the academic qualifications of the applicants. Experience gained at Georgetown University School of Medicine, the medical school with the highest tuition in the United States, indicates that the academic and nonacademic characteristics of the entering class have remained stable over a seven-year period despite a fourfold increase in tuition. Virtually all (98 percent) enrolled students currently receive some form of financial aid, mostly in the form of federally insured loans or federal scholarships with a service commitment. Maintenance of socioeconomic diversity depends on the continued availability of federally supported student loans and scholarships.
Dillard, Rhonda Cherie Crutchfield
This qualitative case study examined the self-efficacy beliefs of three high school principals in economically disadvantaged high schools with consistently high graduation rates for African American males. With the demand on school systems to perform in a politically driven, assessment-based paradigm, there is a need to describe and analyze the…
This study sought to document the schooling experiences and perceptions of African American students who attended segregated schools in Edgecombe County, North Carolina. Through counter-narratives the participants provided insight into education in Edgecombe County during the 1960s. Findings suggested that schools were social and academic…
Jeffe, Donna B.; Yan, Yan; Andriole, Dorothy A.
Purpose To determine whether post-secondary-education research experiences and other variables mediate racial/ethnic disparities in U.S. medical school graduates’ full-time faculty appointments in academic medicine. Method Individualized, de-identified records for 1994–2000 U.S. medical school matriculants who graduated with MDs before 2005, completed graduate medical education before 2009, and had data for all variables were examined for potential mediators of racial/ethnic disparities in full-time faculty appointments using the SAS macro “MEDIATE” for estimation and statistical inference. Controlling for gender, parents’ occupation, and graduation year, the authors estimated the effects of potential mediators in separate models comparing Asian/Pacific Islander (PI) versus underrepresented minority (URM; including African American, Hispanic, and Native American/Alaska Native) graduates and white versus URM graduates. Results Of 82,758 eligible graduates, 62,749 (75.8%) had complete data; of these, 11,234 (17.9%) had full-time faculty appointments, including 18.4% (7,848/42,733) of white, 18.8% (2,125/11,297) of Asian/PI, and 14.5% (1,261/8,719) of URM graduates. Proportion of total race/ethnicity effect on full-time faculty appointment explained by all mediators was 66.0% (95% CI, 44.7%–87.4%) in a model comparing Asians/PIs with URMs and was 64.8% (95% CI, 52.2%–77.4%) in one comparing whites with URMs. Participation in post-secondary research activities (in college, medical school, residency), authorship during medical school, academic achievement, and faculty career intentions at graduation were among the significant mediators explaining the effect of race/ethnicity on full-time faculty appointment. Conclusions Post-secondary-education research experiences for URM students are among the mediators of racial/ethnic disparities in full-time faculty appointments and therefore may increase academic medicine faculty diversity. PMID:23018339
Wong, Carol A; Eccles, Jacquelynne S; Sameroff, Arnold
Do experiences with racial discrimination at school predict changes in African American adolescents' academic and psychological functioning? Does African American ethnic identity buffer these relations? This paper addresses these two questions using two waves of data from a longitudinal study of an economically diverse sample of African American adolescents living in and near a major East Coast metropolis. The data were collected at the beginning of the 7th grade and after the completion of the 8th grade. As expected, experiences of racial discrimination at school from one's teachers and peers predicts declines in grades, academic ability self-concepts, academic task values, mental health (increases in depression and anger, decreases in self-esteem and psychological resiliency), and increases in the proportion of one's friends who are not interested in school and who have problem behaviors. A strong, positive connection to one's ethnic group (our measure of ethnic identity) reduced the magnitude of the association of racial discrimination experiences with declines in academic self-concepts, school achievement, and perception of friends' positive characteristics, as well as the association of the racial discrimination experiences with increases in problem behaviors. PMID:14633063
Wong, Carol A; Eccles, Jacquelynne S; Sameroff, Arnold
Do experiences with racial discrimination at school predict changes in African American adolescents' academic and psychological functioning? Does African American ethnic identity buffer these relations? This paper addresses these two questions using two waves of data from a longitudinal study of an economically diverse sample of African American adolescents living in and near a major East Coast metropolis. The data were collected at the beginning of the 7th grade and after the completion of the 8th grade. As expected, experiences of racial discrimination at school from one's teachers and peers predicts declines in grades, academic ability self-concepts, academic task values, mental health (increases in depression and anger, decreases in self-esteem and psychological resiliency), and increases in the proportion of one's friends who are not interested in school and who have problem behaviors. A strong, positive connection to one's ethnic group (our measure of ethnic identity) reduced the magnitude of the association of racial discrimination experiences with declines in academic self-concepts, school achievement, and perception of friends' positive characteristics, as well as the association of the racial discrimination experiences with increases in problem behaviors.
Gruppen, Larry D
The Department of Medical Education (DME) at the University of Michigan Medical School has a strong and sustained history of contributing to medical education research. The author identifies several dimensions that contribute to this productivity: (1) the quality of department faculty and the complementary areas of expertise they possess; (2) a critical mass of educational scholars, both within and outside the DME; (3) extensive collaborations of DME faculty with colleagues in other departments on educational innovation; (4) the departmental status of the DME; (5) the separation of the DME from the administration of the curriculum; (6) the need to balance the missions of research and educational support of the medical school; (7) the research-intensive nature of the larger University of Michigan environment; (8) the complex challenge of funding the educational scholarship mission; and (9) the importance of maintaining visibility within the institution. Factors that will affect the health of future educational scholarship include (1) the response to the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education's definition of resident competencies and similar initiatives; (2) the growth of opportunities for advanced training in educational scholarship and the corresponding expansion of medical school faculty with greater interest and skills in educational research; (3) an emerging emphasis on the importance of behavioral science in medical care; (4) demands on the clinical productivity of collaborating faculty; and (5) the paucity of funding for medical education research. PMID:15383363
Straus, Christopher M; Webb, Emily M; Kondo, Kimi L; Phillips, Andrew W; Naeger, David M; Carrico, Caroline W; Herring, William; Neutze, Janet A; Haines, G Rebecca; Dodd, Gerald D
The ACR Task Force on Medical Student Education in Radiology, in partnership with the Alliance of Medical Student Educators in Radiology, investigated the current status of how and to what extent medical imaging was being taught in medical schools. The task force executed a 3-part survey of medical school deans, radiology department chairs, and intern physicians. The results provided an updated understanding of the status of radiology education in medical schools in the United States. This summary includes recommendations about how individual radiology departments and ACR members can assist in advancing the specialty of diagnostic radiology through medical student education. PMID:24713496
Di Paola, M; And Others
Describes a study of medical students' training in orthopedics. Discusss discrepancies between course content and duration and the deficiencies that exist in basic knowledge of anatomy relevant to orthopedics. Recommends that orthopedic courses should appear earlier in the curriculum and practice should be emphasized. (TW)
Blackburn, Robert T.; Fox, Thomas G.
This paper reports the recruitment, socialization, and retention of a faculty of medicine. The study shows the process of M.D. and Ph.D. conversion to academic medicine through socialization and the factors which affect retention and attrition of a medical faculty. The research utilizes Sherlock and Morris' professional development paradigm. As…
Ambrosino, Robert J.; Brading, Paul L.
This document reports the test of an experimental procedure designed by the Albany Medical College (AMC) to systematically reduce a large pool of applicants to one of manageable proportions for interviewing purposes. Data on nine predictor variables were coded and keypunched on 80-column cards for each applicant to September 1972 and 1973…
Juarez, Deborah Taira; Yeboah, Michelle; Castillo, Theresa P
The objective of this systematic review was to investigate the effectiveness of interventions to improve medication adherence in ethnic minority populations. A literature search from January 2000 to August 2012 was conducted through PubMed/Medline, Web of Science, The Cochrane Library, and Google Scholar. Search terms used included: medication (MeSH), adherence, medication adherence (MeSH), compliance (MeSH), persistence, race, ethnicity, ethnic groups (MeSH), minority, African-American, Hispanic, Latino, Asian, Pacific Islander, and intervention. Studies which did not have ≥75% of the sample population comprised of individuals of any one ethnic background were excluded, unless the authors performed sub-group analyses by race/ethnicity. Of the 36 studies identified, 20 studies showed significant post-intervention differences. Sample population sizes ranged from 10 to 520, with a median of 126.5. The studies in this review were conducted with patients of mainly African-American and Latino descent. No studies were identified which focused on Asians, Pacific Islanders, or Native Americans. Interventions demonstrating mixed results included motivational interviewing, reminder devices, community health worker (CHW) delivered interventions, and pharmacist-delivered interventions. Directly observed therapy (DOT) was a successful intervention in two studies. Interventions which did not involve human contact with patients were ineffective. In this literature review, studies varied significantly in their methods and design as well as the populations studied. There was a lack of congruence among studies in the way adherence was measured and reported. No single intervention has been seen to be universally successful, particularly for patients from ethnic minority backgrounds. PMID:24470982
Hu, Daniel; Juarez, Deborah Taira; Yeboah, Michelle; Castillo, Theresa P
The objective of this systematic review was to investigate the effectiveness of interventions to improve medication adherence in ethnic minority populations. A literature search from January 2000 to August 2012 was conducted through PubMed/Medline, Web of Science, The Cochrane Library, and Google Scholar. Search terms used included: medication (MeSH), adherence, medication adherence (MeSH), compliance (MeSH), persistence, race, ethnicity, ethnic groups (MeSH), minority, African-American, Hispanic, Latino, Asian, Pacific Islander, and intervention. Studies which did not have ≥75% of the sample population comprised of individuals of any one ethnic background were excluded, unless the authors performed sub-group analyses by race/ethnicity. Of the 36 studies identified, 20 studies showed significant post-intervention differences. Sample population sizes ranged from 10 to 520, with a median of 126.5. The studies in this review were conducted with patients of mainly African-American and Latino descent. No studies were identified which focused on Asians, Pacific Islanders, or Native Americans. Interventions demonstrating mixed results included motivational interviewing, reminder devices, community health worker (CHW) delivered interventions, and pharmacist-delivered interventions. Directly observed therapy (DOT) was a successful intervention in two studies. Interventions which did not involve human contact with patients were ineffective. In this literature review, studies varied significantly in their methods and design as well as the populations studied. There was a lack of congruence among studies in the way adherence was measured and reported. No single intervention has been seen to be universally successful, particularly for patients from ethnic minority backgrounds.
Daniels, Fernando; Moore, Wayne; Conti, Christopher; Norville Perez, Lucille C.; Gaines, Beverly M.; Hood, Rodney G.; Swain, Ian J. J.; Williams, Rudolph; Burgess, Chaka T.
ISSUE: Traffic-related injuries and fatalities disproportionately affect the African American community. These high rates of traffic-related death and injury among African Americans manifest in multiple areas of traffic safety, including: Failure to use seat belts and child restraints. High incidence of alcohol-impaired driving. Failure to follow child passenger and seat belt safety laws and recommendations. High rates of pedestrian accidents, ofen brought on by impairments of drivers and/or pedestrians. Research indicates that national public information campaigns, with general messages only slightly modified for African American audiences, have not been culturally appropriate or effective in changing traffic safety behavior. In addition, traditional distribution mechanisms for these messages have not effectively reached the target population. Evidence suggests that in the African American community, there is a pervasive lack of knowledge of the devastating impact of traffic-related accidents on the overall health status of the community. This lack of information has resulted in a tragic cycle, in which parents fail to model safe operation of motor vehicles, and generation after generation copy this behavior, increasing the community's vulnerability to serious injuries and untimely deaths. This trend toward improper traffic safety habits among African Americans persists despite federal, state and local laws to enforce and promote sound traffic safety practices. OBJECTIVE: To study the existence of disparities in traffic-related injury and death among African Americans and to determine what kinds of traffic safety messages and campaigns will be effective in encouraging African Americans to respond to safety laws in sufficient numbers to reduce the disproportionately high rate of injury and death. Traffic safety issues were examined to effectively recommend policy, address barriers, best practices, and intervention strategies for the National Medical Association
Reboussin, Beth A; Green, Kerry M; Milam, Adam J; Furr-Holden, C Debra M; Ialongo, Nicholas S
African American male high school students have the highest rates of marijuana use among all racial, ethnic, and gender groups, yet there is limited research examining contextual factors salient to the African American community. The purpose of this study was to examine how neighborhood environment measured in 8th grade is related to longitudinal transitions in marijuana use during high school (9th to 12th grades) in a sample of urban African Americans. Four hundred and fifty-two African American children were interviewed annually beginning in 1st grade as part of a longitudinal field study in Baltimore city. Latent transition analysis indicated early in high school posed the greatest risk for initiation and progression of marijuana use. Community violence exposure was associated with an increased likelihood of transitioning from no marijuana use to infrequent use (adjusted odds ratios (AOR) = 2.40, p < 0.001). Higher perceived neighborhood disorder (AOR = 3.20, p = 0.004), drug activity and sales in the neighborhood (AOR = 2.28, p = 0.028), and community violence exposure (AOR = 4.54, p < 0.001) were associated with an increased risk of transitioning from no use to frequent/problematic marijuana use. There was evidence for partial mediation of these associations by perceptions of harm and depressed mood. Drug activity and sales was associated with progression from infrequent to frequent and problematic use (AOR = 2.87, p = 0.029). African American youth living in urban environments with exposure to drug activity, violence, and neighborhood disorder are at increased risk for both initiation and progression to more frequent and problematic marijuana use during high school. These findings highlight the need to develop interventions for African American youth that are mindful of the impact of the additional stressors of living in a high-risk urban environment during a critical developmental transition period. Reducing exposure
Robinson, L E; Webster, E K; Whitt-Glover, M C; Ceaser, T G; Alhassan, S
This review assessed the effectiveness of pre-school- and school-based obesity prevention and/or treatment interventions targeting healthy eating, physical activity or obesity in African American children and adolescents. Systematic searches were conducted for English-printed research articles published between January 1980 and March 2013. Retained articles included experimental studies conducted in the United States that targeted ≥ 80% African American/black children and adolescents and/or studies whose results were stratified by race/ethnicity, and that were conducted in pre-schools/head start or schools (excluding after-school programmes). Of the 12,270 articles identified, 17 met the inclusion criteria (pre-school, n=2; elementary school, n=7; middle and secondary schools, n=8). Thirteen studies found significant improvements in nutrition (pre-school, n=1; elementary, n=7; secondary, n=5) and three found significant improvements in physical activity (pre-school, n=1; elementary, n=2) variables of interest. Two studies (pre-school, n=1; secondary, n=1) reported significant reductions in obesity in African American children. The evidence available suggests school-based interventions are effective in promoting healthy nutrition behaviours in African American children. Conclusions overall and, particularly, about effects on physical activity and obesity are limited due to the small number of studies, differences in assessment approaches and a lack of follow-up assessments.
Duma, M. A. N.
The aim of this article is to investigate the rural educators' understanding of the legislations that impact on school practice. An argument is presented that the understanding of the legal frameworks that govern school practice begins with the educators' understanding of the Bill of Rights and the South African Schools Act. The article reports on…
Edwards, Anthony L.
The history of education contains many references to the inequities African American children suffered before the era of school integration, but few studies have described the positive interactions that took place in segregated schools. To remember segregated schools only for their poor resources presents an incomplete picture. Booker T.…
Edelin, Kenneth C.; Ugbolue, Augustine
Correlated medical school performance of underrepresented minority students participating in Boston University's Early Medical School Selection Program with their Scholastic Aptitude Test and Medical College Admission Test scores. Found that students with higher scores had more success completing their first two years of medical school and passing…
Spilt, Jantine; Hughes, Jan N.
Previous studies found different trajectories of conflicted relationships with teachers predictive of academic underachievement. However, little is known about what places children at risk for atypical conflict trajectories. This follow-up study examines whether African American ethnicity, IQ, and SES are unique predictors of teacher-student conflict trajectories taking into account sociobehavioral predictors, including aggression and prosocial behavior. The study included the same ethnically diverse sample of 657 academically at-risk children in which previously four latent growth classes of conflict trajectories (grades 1-5) predictive of underachievement were identified. In this follow-up study, 6 predictors were examined: African American ethnicity, SES, IQ (independent assessment), Inhibitory control (performance measure), and Aggression and Prosocial behavior (peer assessment). The results demonstrated that African American ethnicity, but not IQ and SES, uniquely predicted atypical conflict trajectories, while controlling for sociobehavioral predictors. African American children were at risk of increasingly conflicted relationships with elementary school teachers, which has been found to increase the risk of academic underachievement in middle school. PMID:26819492
Dewnarain Ramnarain, Umesh
The apartheid policies in South Africa had a marked influence on the accessibility and quality of school science experienced by the different race groups. African learners in particular were seriously disadvantaged in this regard. The issues of equity and redress were foremost in transformation of the education system, and the accompanying curriculum reform. This paper reports on equity in terms of equality of outputs and equality of inputs in South African school science, with a particular focus on the implementation of practical science investigations. This was a qualitative case study of two teachers on their implementation of science investigations at two schools, one a township school, previously designated for black children, and the other a former Model C school, previously reserved for white children. My study was guided by the curriculum implementation framework by Rogan and Grayson in trying to understand the practice of these teachers at schools located in contextually diverse communities. The framework helped profile the implementation of science investigations and also enabled me to explore the factors which are able to support or hinder this implementation.
Journal of School Nursing, 2004
Many children who take medications require them during the school day. This policy statement is designed to guide prescribing physicians as well as school administrators and health staff on the administration of medications to children at school. The statement addresses over-the-counter products, herbal medications, experimental drugs that are…
The use of zero tolerance discipline in schools in the Mississippi Delta created considerable obstacles for African American students to excel, achieve, and graduate. This study used a qualitative phenomenological method to examine and assess how the application of the 1994 zero-tolerance disciplinary policies in Mississippi Delta public schools…
Batistatou, A; Doulis, E A; Tiniakos, D; Anogiannaki, A; Charalabopoulos, K
Background and Aim: Medical humanities is a multidisciplinary field, consisting of humanities (theory of literature and arts, philosophy, ethics, history and theology), social sciences (anthropology, psychology and sociology) and arts (literature, theater, cinema, music and visual arts), integrated in the undergraduate curriculum of Medical schools. The aim of the present study is to discuss medical humanities and support the necessity of introduction of a medical humanities course in the curriculum of Greek medical schools. Materials, Methods and Results: Through the relevant Pub-Med search as well as taking into account various curricula of medical schools, it is evident that medical education today is characterized by acquisition of knowledge and skills and development of medical values and attitudes. Clinical observation with the recognition of key data and patterns in the collected information, is crucial in the final medical decision, i.e. in the complex process, through which doctors accumulate data, reach conclusions and decide on therapy. All sciences included in medical humanities are important for the high quality education of future doctors. The practice of Medicine is in large an image-related science. The history of anatomy and art are closely related, already from the Renaissance time. Studies have shown that attendance of courses on art critics improves the observational skills of medical students. Literature is the source of information about the nature and source of human emotions and behavior and of narratives of illness, and increases imagination. Philosophy aids in the development of analytical and synthetical thinking. Teaching of history of medicine develops humility and aids in avoiding the repetition of mistakes of the past, and quite often raises research and therapeutic skepticism. The comprehension of medical ethics and professional deontology guides the patient-doctor relationship, as well as the relations between physicians and their
The author maintains that the quality of medical education has been dropping for the last few decades as medical schools become less and less focused on their primary purpose of training physicians. Until the years immediately following World War II, the administration of the medical school was carried out by a small staff headed by a dean whose role was to provide leadership in educational matters. Academic departments managed the educational program, and the faculty were expected to be teachers and to participate in educational planning, preparation of teaching materials, advising of students, assessment of students' performances, admission, and all other tasks associated with having a teaching position. Today, the administration of a typical school includes any number of assistants to the dean and a wide variety of other staff dealing not only with educational functions but with grant management, public relations, fund-raising, personnel policy, budgeting, and an enormous and complex parallel structure designed to manage clinical practice and to respond to market pressures. The role of faculty has also changed greatly; faculty are expected to be researchers and clinicians first, and teaching is usually shortchanged. The author explains why he believes these changes have come about; for example, the strong federal support of research after World War II, which encouraged a growing dependence of medical schools on research grants and consequently raised in importance those faculty who could obtain such grants. He concludes with common-sense proposals for reform (such as having the education of medical students in the hands of a small number of faculty whose prime responsibility is teaching), but admits that there are fundamental barriers to such reforms, especially vested interests and resistance to change. In the end, change will come only when those in power recognize that medical schools must be returned to their primary role of training physicians. PMID:8645396
Seaton, Eleanor K; Douglass, Sara
The study presented here examined school context as a moderator in the relation between daily perceptions of racial discrimination and depressive symptoms. The sample included 75 Black adolescents who completed daily surveys for 14 days. The results indicated that approximately 97% of adolescents reported experiencing at least one discriminatory experience over the 2-week period. During the daily diary period, the 2-week average was 26 discriminatory experiences with a daily average of 2.5 discriminatory events. The results indicated perceptions of racial discrimination were linked to increased depressive symptoms on the following day. This relation was apparent for Black youth attending predominantly Black and White high schools, but not for Black youth attending schools with no clear racial majority.
Gaston, Gina B; Alleyne-Green, Binta
Disparities in access to and retention of regular HIV medical treatment persist among African Americans living with HIV. Many scholars believe that the mistrust of health care held by many African Americans stems from a legacy of abuse, from medical experimentation on slaves to the unethical practices with patients in the Tuskegee Syphilis study. We performed a systematic appraisal of the literature, using several key terms, in order to understand how attitudes about HIV-related health care influence African Americans' engagement in care. We examined peer-reviewed studies published during the period January 2001 through May 2012. An initial search generated 326 studies. Sixteen descriptive studies met our inclusion criteria. Experiences of racism, conspiracy beliefs and the quality of provider relationships appeared to impact engagement. Providers should openly investigate personal beliefs that adversely affect their treatment decisions, listen to patient narratives, and share treatment decisions in order to create a transparent environment.
Sa, B; Baboolal, N; Williams, S; Ramsewak, S
Objective: To explore the emotional intelligence (EI) in medical students in a Caribbean medical school and investigate its association with gender, age, year of study and ethnicity. Design and Methods: A cross-sectional design using convenient sampling of 304 years two to five undergraduate medical students at the School of Medicine, The University of the West Indies (UWI), St Augustine campus, was conducted. The Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT-V2.0) was administered to test four branches of EI: perceiving emotions, facilitating thought, understanding emotions and managing emotions. Data were analysed using SPSS version 19. T-test, analysis of variance (ANOVA) and r (product moment correlation) were calculated to establish the effects of selected variables (gender, age, year of study and ethnicity) on total and sub-scales EI scores and tested against 0.05 and 0.01 significance levels. Results: The total mean score for EI fell within the average according to MSCEIT standards. Gender analysis showed significantly higher scores for males and for younger age groups (< 25 years). Year of study and ethnicity did not yield any significant effect. Conclusions: These findings of higher EI scores in males and younger students are unusual, given the well-publicized stereotype of the Caribbean male and the perception that advancing age brings maturity and emotional stability. It would be valuable to widen this study by including other UWI campuses and offshore medical schools in the Caribbean. This preliminary study examined a sample of medical students from a well-established Caribbean medical school. Since EI is considered to be important in the assessment and training of medical undergraduates, consideration should be given to introducing interventions aimed at increasing EI. PMID:25303251
Pettey, Christina M.; McSweeney, Jean C.; Stewart, Katharine E.; Cleves, Mario A.; Price, Elvin T.; Heo, Seongkum; Souder, Elaine
More than 80 million Americans have hypertension (HTN), and African Americans (AAs) are disproportionately affected. AAs also have lower rates of adherence to HTN treatment. It is important to understand AAs’ perceptions of adherence to develop effective interventions. The aim of this study is to examine AAs’ perceptions of adherence to medications and lifestyle changes prescribed to treat HTN. In this qualitative study, we used purposive sampling to recruit Southern AAs with HTN aged 21 and older from a free, faith-based clinic. We recorded individual, in-person interviews about perceptions related to adherence to treatment of HTN and analyzed verbatim transcripts using content analysis and constant comparison. We also conducted medical record audits. Twenty-nine AAs participated (52% female, 38% were <50 years of age, 52% had taken anti-HTN medications for ≥5 years). Audits indicated that 65% had uncontrolled HTN during the previous year. Two main themes included causes of HTN and ways to improve blood pressure. Perceived causes of HTN included diet, stress, unhealthy actions, genes, and obesity. Ways to improve HTN included using cultural treatments “passed down,” increasing exercise, reducing stress, and losing weight. Many reported using home remedies to control HTN, including drinking pickle juice. More than half of this sample had uncontrolled HTN. They identified influences of culture on perceptions of adherence including causes and treatment of HTN, and possibly detrimental home remedies. It is imperative that clinicians identify culturally appropriate interventions for this high-risk group. PMID:27148469
Koehler, John E.; Slighton, Robert L.
There is no unique answer to the question of what an ongoing program costs in medical schools. The estimates of program costs generated by classical methods of cost accounting are unsatisfactory because such accounting cannot deal with the joint production or joint cost problem. Activity analysis models aim at calculating the impact of alternative…
Boulet, John R.; Rebbecchi, Thomas A.; Denton, Elizabeth C.; McKinley, Danette W.; Whelan, Gerald P.
The ECFMG[R] Clinical Skills Assessment (CSA[R]) was developed to evaluate whether graduates of international medical schools (IMGs) are ready to enter graduate training programs in the United States. The patient note (PN) exercise, conducted after a 15-minute interview with a standardized patient (SP), is specifically used to assess a candidate's…
Epstein, Michael H.; Olinger, Ellen
The article presents information on psychotrophic drugs used with behaviorally disordered students (stimulants, antidepressants, antipsychotics, and lithium), including desired effects and side effects. Guidelines for teachers and other school personnel who work with students on medication are also provided. (Author/JW)
Gadow, Kenneth D.
Intended as a primer for school personnel, the book discusses children whose various disorders require them to be on medication, and describes the behavioral effects of these drugs along with their major side effects. Fundamental concepts in pharmacotherapy are reviewed, including dosage adjustment and side effects, and a brief introduction to the…
Culbertson, Richard A.; And Others
Analyzed existing relationships between medical schools and clinical enterprises to develop models of these relationships. Four conceptual models were identified: (1) "single ownership, owned integrated system"; (2) "general partner"; (3) "limited partner"; and (4) "wholly owned, subsidiary." The advantages and disadvantages of each model are…
Benbassat, Jochanan; Baumal, Reuben
Decisions about admissions to medical school are based on assessments of the applicants' cognitive achievements and non-cognitive traits. Admission criteria are expected to be fair, transparent, evidence-based and legally defensible. However, unlike cognitive criteria, which are highly reliable and moderately valid, the reliability and validity of…
Describes a program of the financial aid office at Harvard University Medical School (Massachusetts) that helps students with debt management and personal financial planning through presentations to seniors by professionals in insurance and financial planning and by offering two individual consultations with a physician financial planning…
Stratton, Terry D.; Witzke, Donald B.; Elam, Carol L.; Cheever, Todd R.
The present research examined relationships among medical school applicants' preferred approaches to learning, methods of instruction, and specialty areas (n=912). Based on confidential responses to a progressive series of paired comparisons, applicants' preferences for lecture (L), self-study (SS), group discussion (GD), and computers (C) were…
Al Rukban, Mohammad Othman; Khalil, Mahmoud Salah; Al-Zalabani, Abdulmohsen
Faculty of Medicine, King Fahad Medical City (KFMC) has adopted a problem based learning (PBL) curriculum. This study investigates the educational environment in the school; it also compares the educational environment prevailing in problem based learning curriculum with that of conventional and outcome based curricula. A cross sectional study…
Pindiprolu, Sekhar S.
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is one of the most commonly diagnosed disorders among children today. Stimulants are commonly prescribed to children with ADHD to improve attention span and decrease distractibility, hyperactivity, and impulsivity. Given the increased use of stimulant medication, school personnel need to be aware of…
Describes how the Latin American Medical School in Cuba attracts foreign students, including Americans, with a free course of study. Supporters say it shows Castro's commitment to humanitarian ideals, while critics see it as an attempt to curry favor with Central and Latin America. (EV)
Kreiter, Clarence D.; Yin, Ping; Solow, Catherine; Brennan, Robert L.
Purpose: Determining the valid and fair use of the interview for medical school admissions is contingent upon a demonstration of the reproducibility of interview scores. This study seeks to establish the generalizability of interview scores, first assessing the existing research evidence, and then analyzing data from a non-experimental independent…
Alpert, Jonathan E.; Schlozman, Steve; Badaracco, Mary Anne; Burke, Jay; Borus, Jonathan F.
Objective: The authors summarize efforts to revitalize psychiatry teaching to medical students at Harvard Medical School (HMS) in advance of a major overhaul of the medical school curriculum. Methods: This preliminary report chronicles key challenges and the organization of the reform effort within the departments of psychiatry affiliated with the…
Givens, Melissa L; Verlo, April
Medical Capacity for African Nations-Growing Regional Operability (MEDCAN-GRO) is a framework for addressing healthcare engagements that are intended to provide sustainable capacity building with partner nations. MEDCAN-GRO provides SOF units with a model that can be scaled to partner nation needs and aligned with the goals of the TSOC in an effort to enhance partner nation security.
Carlson, John S.; Thaler, Cara L.; Hirsch, Amanda J.
Assessing, consulting, and intervening with students being treated with psychotropic medications is an increasingly common activity for school psychologists. This article reviews some of the literature providing evidence for the greater need for training in school psychopharmacology. A legal and ethical case study is presented that highlights the…
Bakker, Nelleke; de Beer, Fedor
In this article the authors address the question of why school medical inspection in the Netherlands developed not only considerably slower than the British service but did so also on a more modest scale in terms of the impact on children's lives. In the Netherlands school doctors were not allowed to treat children's illnesses and therefore never…
Winters, Wendy Glasgow
This book explores parental participation in the public schools as an opportunity for personal growth and empowerment and as a source of support for educational goals and needed resources. The first chapter explores developmental, psychological, and sociological theories that deal with human potential and how this is related to participation,…
de Wet, Corene
Since the 1990s there has been increased public interest, debate and research on workplace bullying. Little research has, however, been done on the abuse of educators or on the bullies per se. The aim of this paper is to expand the body of knowledge on workplace bullying by shedding light on the character of a bullying school principal. In 2008 I…
Williams, Brenda Toler
This article examines the role of leadership in establishing a school climate where ethical deliberation undergirds educational decision-making. A major focus is on educational leaders who can facilitate planning for more inclusive educational settings for minority group students, however, shared leadership and empowerment of teachers and…
This article argues that the work of school principals in South Africa is shaped by two major sets of constructs or "landscapes": the literature on leadership and management which provides particular constructions of the field and its changes; and the terrain of new policy frameworks adopted after apartheid to transform the education system. In…
In 2003, York University awarded an honorary doctorate to Phoebe Asiyo, a former Kenyan member of Parliament, in recognition of her impressive human rights work. The author learned at the time that Ms. Asiyo's family provided major support to Wikondiek School (located near their home in western Kenya), many of whose students were AIDS orphans.…
Bush, Tony; Joubert, Rika; Kiggundu, Edith; van Rooyen, Jean
This paper examines the significance of leadership and management in enhancing classroom practice and improving learner outcomes in two provinces of South Africa. It is increasingly recognised, internationally and in South Africa, that managing teaching and learning is one of the most important activities for principals and other school leaders.…
McKay, Mary McKernan; Atkins, Marc S; Hawkins, Tracie; Brown, Catherine; Lynn, Cynthia J
Parents (n = 161) and teachers (n = 18) from an urban elementary school serving primarily African American children completed questionnaires regarding racial socialization, social support, and involvement in activities that support youth educational achievement at home and school. Parental reports of racism awareness, and contact with school staff were significantly correlated with parent reports of at-home involvement and at-school involvement. Parent reports of social support from the parent community were significantly related to at-home involvement only. Relative to teacher reports, parents reported more formal contacts with school staff, and higher levels of racism awareness, religiosity, and African American cultural pride. Teachers and parents agreed on school climate and parental levels of at-home and at-school involvement. The results suggest that racial socialization processes are related to parent involvement in children's schooling and that increased efforts are needed to bridge a cultural gap between parents and teachers in inner-city communities.
Allen, Tim; Parker, Melissa
Recent debates about deworming school-aged children in East Africa have been described as the 'Worm Wars'. The stakes are high. Deworming has become one of the top priorities in the fight against infectious diseases. Staff at the World Health Organization, the Gates Foundation and the World Bank (among other institutions) have endorsed the approach, and school-based treatments are a key component of large-scale mass drug administration programmes. Drawing on field research in Uganda and Tanzania, and engaging with both biological and social evidence, this article shows that assertions about the effects of school-based deworming are over-optimistic. The results of a much-cited study on deworming Kenyan school children, which has been used to promote the intervention, are flawed, and a systematic review of randomized controlled trials demonstrates that deworming is unlikely to improve overall public health. Also, confusions arise by applying the term deworming to a variety of very different helminth infections and to different treatment regimes, while local-level research in schools reveals that drug coverage usually falls below target levels. In most places where data exist, infection levels remain disappointingly high. Without indefinite free deworming, any declines in endemicity are likely to be reversed. Moreover, there are social problems arising from mass drug administration that have generally been ignored. Notably, there are serious ethical and practical issues arising from the widespread practice of giving tablets to children without actively consulting parents. There is no doubt that curative therapy for children infected with debilitating parasitic infections is appropriate, but overly positive evaluations of indiscriminate deworming are counter-productive. PMID:27428063
In American medical schools, the period of time between the announcement of internships and graduation is known as FYBIGMI, for "Fuck You Brother I Got My Internship." At University Medical School (pseudonym), as at most American medical schools, this period culminates in an elaborate musical comedy (attended by faculty and relatives) in which faculty are abused, patients are represented in terms of stigmatized stereotypes, and the students demonstrate a profane familiarity with cultural taboos. Using the analytic methods of cultural anthropology, this examination of the FYBIGMI performance at U.M.S. focuses primarily on the seniors' presentation of their newly acquired professional identity, which is constituted in the skits by recurring oppositions to socially stigmatized, medically self-destructive patients. In this oppositional logic, racial stereotypes play a particularly large role. In addition, the seniors establish their new social status by inverting their relationship to their (former) supervisors on a personal basis, and by confronting the audience with their professional ability to treat cultural taboos with profane familiarity. The FYBIGMI theatrical, and its representation of professional identity, is analyzed in relation to a proposed model of the underlying structure of the process of medical education, that is, an escalating dialectic of intimidation and self-congratulation. PMID:6490261
Mazur-Mosiewicz, Anna; Pierson, Eric E.; McIntosh, David E.
The use of psychoactive medications to augment behavioral and psychosocial interventions in schools has significantly increased within the last few decades. Yet, advising, administrating, and supervising the dispensation of medication (including psychostimulants and psychoactive substances) tend to be some of the most risky tasks of school…
Haugen, Caitlin S.; Klees, Steven J.; Stromquist, Nelly P.; Lin, Jing; Choti, Truphena; Corneilse, Carol
Girls' education has been a high development priority for decades. While some progress has been made, girls are often still at a great disadvantage, especially in developing countries, and most especially in African countries. In sub-Saharan Africa, less than half of primary school teachers and only a quarter of secondary school teachers are women, and enrolment figures for girls are low. One common policy prescription is to increase the number of women teachers, especially in the many countries where teaching remains a predominantly male profession. This policy prescription needs to be backed by more evidence in order to significantly increase and improve its effective implementation. The available research seems to suggest that girls are more likely to enrol in schools where there are female teachers. Moreover, increasing the number of trained teachers in sub-Saharan Africa depends on more girls completing their school education. To date, however, there has been no comprehensive literature review analysing the effects of being taught by women teachers on girls' educational experience. This paper aims to make a start on filling this gap by examining the evidence on the effects in primary schools, especially in African countries. It also identifies and examines the barriers women face in becoming and staying teachers, and considers policies to remedy their situation.
Pais, Sofia Castanheira; Menezes, Isabel; Nunes, João Arriscado
Children and youth reach school with different starting points. It is not known for sure how far these children and youth will go, and what path the school holds for them, particularly at a stage in which teachers are divided in multi-tasking (with some tasks that are merely administrative). Meanwhile, it is increasingly common to explain students' "inappropriate" behavior in biomedical terms. The increasing emergence of disorders and deficits calls for critical reflection on what they actually involve in public health terms. Thisarticle addresses the school's role in the educational achievement and comprehensive development of students flagged for or with clinical indication of medication based on "fuzzy" diagnoses. The concept of medicalization acquires a central position, and the article discusses its implications based on a set of field notes and interviews with parents and teachers in the North of Portugal. PMID:27653203
Reyes B, Humberto
In Chile, undergraduate medical education starts after High School, it lasts seven years, with the final two dedicated to a rotary internship, taking to an M.D. degree that allows the graduate to enter working activities. The country needs more M.D.s in primary care, but there is also a shortage of specialists, mainly out of the main cities. In recent decades, post graduate programs leading to specialty titles have become competitively adopted by a large proportion of medical graduates. This is the case at the Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, stimulating its faculties and medical students to develop a collaborative review of their teaching programs, leading to a curricular reform with a new graduate profile and a new curriculum oriented to learning objectives, that will allow to obtain the M.D. degree in six instead of seven years of undergraduate education. This new program awakened expectations in other universities in Chile, that will have to face the attraction of this shortened program for future candidates to enter medical schools. However, any shortening of medical school careers should first consider the local conditions in quality of applicants, number of accepted students, the training of teachers in integrated teaching programs, the availability of adequate campuses. Furthermore, for students with different academic backgrounds and diverse personal and familial interests, the seven years programs may still be necessary to gain the expertise required to become medical doctors. PMID:26998976
Fowler, Crystal Nicole
This qualitative descriptive case study explored the perceptions of parents and teachers of the academic achievement gap in mathematics between African-American middle school males and their White counterparts. Ten parents, both African-American and White, with students attending middle school in the Cherokee County School District and 5 teachers…
Lewis, Kelly M.; Andrews, Emily; Gaska, Karie; Sullivan, Cris; Bybee, Deborah; Ellick, Kecia L.
Ethnic identity, the extent to which one defines one's self as a member of a particular ethnic group, has been found to be an important predictor of African American adolescents' psychological and behavioral well-being. This study experimentally examined the effects of a school-based emancipatory intervention on the ethnic identity of African…
Rezaee, Rita; Ebrahimi, Sedigheh
Clinical learning occurs in the context of a dynamic environment. Learning environment found to be one of the most important factors in determining the success of an effective teaching program. To investigate, from the attending and resident's perspective, factors that may affect student leaning in the educational hospital setting at Shiraz University of Medical Sciences (SUMS). This study combined qualitative and quantitative methods to determine factors affecting effective learning in clinical setting. Residents evaluated the perceived effectiveness of the university hospital learning environment. Fifty two faculty members and 132 residents participated in this study. Key determinants that contribute to an effective clinical teaching were autonomy, supervision, social support, workload, role clarity, learning opportunity, work diversity and physical facilities. In a good clinical setting, residents should be appreciated and given appropriate opportunities to study in order to meet their objectives. They require a supportive environment to consolidate their knowledge, skills and judgment. PMID:23456587
Phillips, S P; Ferguson, K E
BACKGROUND: Medical school has historically reinforced traditional views of women. This cohort study follows implementation of a revitalized curriculum and examines students' attitudes toward women on entry into an Ontario medical school, and 3 years later. METHODS: Of the 75 students entering first year at Queen's University medical school 70 completed the initial survey in September 1994 and 54 were resurveyed in May 1997. First-year students at 2 other Ontario medical schools were also surveyed in 1994, and these 166 respondents formed a comparison group. Changes in responses to statements about sex-role stereotypes, willingness to control decision-making of female patients, and conceptualization of women as "other" or "abnormal" because they are women were examined. Responses from the comparison group were used to indicate whether the Queen's group was representative. RESULTS: Attitudinal differences between the primary group and the comparison group were not significant. After 3 years of medical education students were somewhat less accepting of sex-role stereotypes and less controlling in the doctor-patient encounter. They continued, however, to equate adults with men and to see women as "not adult" or "other." Female students began and remained somewhat more open-minded in all areas studied. INTERPRETATION: A predicted trend toward conservatism was not seen as students became older, more aware and closer to completion of medical training, although they continued to equate adults with male and to see women as "other." Findings may validate new curricular approaches and increased attention to gender issues in the academic environment. PMID:10065081
Shaw-Perry, Mary; Horner, Charlotte; Treviño, Roberto P.; Sosa, Erica T.; Hernandez, Irene; Bhardwaj, Abhishek
OBJECTIVE: To conduct formative assessment and preliminary biological impact of a school-based diabetes risk prevention program for African-American children during a 14-week study. METHODS: NEEMA is a school-based diabetes prevention program tailored for African-American children. The NEEMA is implemented via four social networks-classroom (Health and Physical Education Class), after school (Health Club), home (Family Fun Fair) and school cafeteria (Food Service Program). Formative assessment data were collected through semistructured interviews with physical education (PE) teachers and a pre-to-post design was used to measure biological impact. Fasting capillary glucose, height, weight, body mass index, percent body fat and fitness data were collected from a sample of 58 fourth-grade students. The six elementary schools had > 40% African-American enrollment and were located in low-income neighborhoods. RESULTS: Face-to-face interview data revealed diabetes, obesity and food insufficiency as major health concerns among PE teachers. Teachers also cited large classes and short PE periods as major challenges for implementing the program. From baseline to follow-up, fitness laps increased from 16.40 (SD = 9.98) to 23.72 (SD = 14.79) (p < 0.000), fasting capillary glucose decreased from 89.17 mg/dl (SD = 10.05) to 83.50 mg/dl (SD = 11.26) (p < 0.000), and percent body fat decreased from 27.26 (SD=12.89) to 26.68 (SD = 11.67) (p < 0.537). CONCLUSION: The NEEMA pilot study provided teacher feedback useful for revising the NEEMA health curricula and positive preliminary impact of the NEEMA PE class on children's fitness and blood glucose levels. PMID:17444425
This essay examines the efforts of social scientists and humanities scholars to teach students at a major US medical school about 'race'. The objectives were to explain that race is no longer considered a biologically legitimate concept and to demonstrate that race remains an influential social classification, causing social and biological harm. That is, these educators sought to reframe the medical significance of race. An examination of the email discussions of those involved in this teaching exercise (which included the author) reveals concerns over the credibility of social scientists and humanities scholars speaking on genetics in the modern medical school. It also indicates the intellectual and curricular marginalization of critiques of racial classification in medical education. In science studies journals one can read convincing deconstructions of the new genetics of race, but it is rare to find an analysis of how ideas about race figure in the mundane practice of educating future medical doctors and researchers. Through examination of an exemplary, wide-ranging discussion of an attempt to teach on race in the medical curriculum, this essay addresses the disciplinary and institutional difficulties of translating critiques of controversial science into pedagogy.
Rohan-Minjares, Felisha; Alfero, Charles; Kaufman, Arthur
The discipline of family medicine is essential to improving quality and reducing the cost of care in an effective health care system. Yet the slow growth of this field has not kept pace with national demand. In their study, Rodríguez and colleagues report on the influence of the social environment and academic discourses on medical students' identification with family medicine in four countries-the United Kingdom, Canada, France, and Spain. They conclude that these factors-the social environment and discursive activity within the medical school-influence students' specialty choices. While the discourses in Canada, France, and Spain were mostly negative, in the United Kingdom, family medicine was considered a prestigious academic discipline, well paying, and with a wide range of practice opportunities. Medical students in the United Kingdom also were exposed early and often to positive family medicine role models.In the United States, academic discourses about family medicine are more akin to those in Canada, France, and Spain. The hidden curriculum includes negative messages about family medicine, and "badmouthing" primary care occurs at many medical schools. National education initiatives highlight the importance of social determinants in medical education and the integration of public health and medicine in practice. Other initiatives expose students to family medicine role models and practice during their undergraduate training and promote primary care practice through new graduate medical education funding models. Together, these initiatives can reduce the negative effects of the social environment and create a more positive discourse about family medicine.
Kidd, M; Modlin, I M
The period until 1745 found the Viennese medical system languishing far behind advances made in other major European centers. This chaotic situation was reversed by the foresight and breadth of vision of the Empress Maria Theresa, who initiated considerable reform in Austria by actively recruiting the best minds of the time to reduce the intellectual and technologic differences. Her ability to entice one of Boerhaave's most eminent pupils, Gerard van Swieten, to leave Leiden for Vienna, particularly benefited the Vienna Medical School. In 1745 van Swieten assumed responsibility for reconfiguration of the patronage and nepotism-ridden medical system of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. As a first task, he swiftly expunged the influence of the Jesuits and other religious orders from medicine and established formal training and examinations, transforming the medical discipline into a meritocracy. Excelling as a physician and an innovative teacher, he also established a close personal relationship with the Empress and became her medical confidante. To a large part, the success of this first great Viennese medical school was owed to de Haen, who left Leiden to implement Boerhaave's method of clinical teaching. As a result of these innovations and with considerable support from the Empress, the University of Vienna, particularly its medical school, within a few decades achieved recognition throughout Europe as a seat of learning and scholarship. Van Swieten would not be remembered today if his contribution had been only scholarly or scientific achievements. He propelled Austrian medicine to a level commensurate with that of other European states of the day by 27 years of dedicated and industrious service.
Hungi, Njora; Thuku, Florence W.
In this study the authors employed a multilevel analysis procedure in order to examine the pupil and school levels factors that contributed to variation in reading achievement among Grade 6 primary school pupils in 14 southern African school systems (Botswana, Kenya, Lesotho, Malawi, Mauritius, Mozambique, Namibia, Seychelles, South Africa, Swaziland, Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia, and Zanzibar). The data for this study were collected in 2002 as part of a major project known as the Southern and Eastern Africa Consortium for Monitoring Educational Quality (SACMEQ) that sought to examine the quality of education offered in primary schools in these countries. The most important factors affecting variation in pupil achievement across most of these school systems were grade repetition, pupil socioeconomic background, speaking the language of instruction at home, and Pupil age. South Africa, Uganda and Namibia were among the school systems with the largest between-school variation while Seychelles and Mauritius had the largest within-school variation. Low social equity in reading achievement was evident in Mauritius, Seychelles and Tanzania. Policy implications of the findings are discussed.
Background Limited information is available regarding sleep medicine education worldwide. Nevertheless, medical education has been blamed for the under-recognition of sleep disorders among physicians. This study was designed to assess the knowledge of Saudi undergraduate medical students about sleep and sleep disorders and the prevalence of education on sleep medicine in medical schools as well as to identify the obstacles to providing such education. Methods We surveyed medical schools that were established more than 10 years ago, asking fourth- and fifth-year medical students (men and women) to participate. Seven medical schools were selected. To assess knowledge on sleep and sleep disorders, we used the Assessment of Sleep Knowledge in Medical Education (ASKME) Survey, which is a validated 30-item questionnaire. The participants were separated into two groups: those who scored ≥60% and those who scored <60%. To assess the number of teaching hours dedicated to sleep medicine in the undergraduate curricula, the organizers of the major courses on sleep disorders were contacted to obtain the curricula for those courses and to determine the obstacles to education. Results A total of 348 students completed the survey (54.9% male). Among the participants, 27.7% had a specific interest in sleep medicine. More than 80% of the study sample had rated their knowledge in sleep medicine as below average. Only 4.6% of the respondents correctly answered ≥60% of the questions. There was no difference in the scores of the respondents with regard to university, gender, grade-point average (GPA) or student academic levels. Only five universities provided data on sleep medicine education. The time spent teaching sleep medicine in the surveyed medical schools ranged from 0-8 hours with a mean of 2.6 ±2.6 hours. Identified obstacles included the following: (1) sleep medicine has a lower priority in the curriculum (53%) and (2) time constraints do not allow the incorporation of
McMillian-Robinson, M. Monique; Frierson, Henry T.; Campbell, Frances A.
The disidentification hypothesis predicts that African-American boys achieve less in school than African-American girls do because boys have less personal investment in doing well academically (i.e., they are disidentified). When do such gender differences emerge? Using self-perception and achievement data from longitudinal studies of children (N = 113) at high-risk for academic problems because they come from low-income families, the authors examined whether elementary school-aged and early adolescent African-American boys are more prone to low achievement and disidentification than African-American girls. Multiple regression analyses indicated no gender differences in reading or mathematics achievement between boys and girls at age 8 or at age 12. At 12, African-American boys’ self-esteem was predicted by academic performance in ways similar to that of African-American girls. Thus, no gender differences emerged in elementary school achievement and no gender-specific disengagement patterns were confirmed among at-risk African-American students. PMID:24790256
Rabinowitz, Howard K.; Paynter, Nina P.
Outcomes data from seven medical schools with successful special programs to increase the rural physician work force identify three core features: a strong institutional mission, targeted selection of students likely to practice in rural areas, and a focus on primary care, especially family practice. Rural residency programs should collaborate…
The Universidad Austral de Chile Medical School was created in 1966. Its general goal was to train a general physician with capacities to integrate biological, psychological and social issues, to deal with prevalent diseases as well as with the non referable casualties, to analyze health situations and to manage health teams. From its beginning, it incorporated anthropological and the public health contents to medical curriculum. Moreover, the formal teaching formation was reduced to 5 years, increasing the internship cycle to 2 years, with an important practice on primary health care in regional hospitals, that included a research project on health administration. A revision of the School curriculum showed the need of a better horizontal and vertical integration of medical education. Consequently, global courses were organized to gather knowledge that, until now, was delivered in a fragmented form. Our Medical School has a major impact in the southern region of the country and over 60% of its graduates have settled in this zone, improving its physician/inhabitant relationship and the number of specialists.
Coria, Alexandra; McKelvey, T Greg; Charlton, Paul; Woodworth, Michael; Lahey, Timothy
The acquisition of skills to recognize and redress adverse social determinants of disease is an important component of undergraduate medical education. In this article, the authors justify and define "social justice curriculum" and then describe the medical school social justice curriculum designed by the multidisciplinary Social Justice Vertical Integration Group (SJVIG) at the Geisel School of Medicine at Dartmouth. The SJVIG addressed five goals: (1) to define core competencies in social justice education, (2) to identify key topics that a social justice curriculum should cover, (3) to assess social justice curricula at other institutions, (4) to catalog institutionally affiliated community outreach sites at which teaching could be paired with hands-on service work, and (5) to provide examples of the integration of social justice teaching into the core (i.e., basic science) curriculum. The SJVIG felt a social justice curriculum should cover the scope of health disparities, reasons to address health disparities, and means of addressing these disparities. The group recommended competency-based student evaluations and advocated assessing the impact of medical students' social justice work on communities. The group identified the use of class discussion of physicians' obligation to participate in social justice work as an educational tool, and they emphasized the importance of a mandatory, longitudinal, immersive, mentored community outreach practicum. Faculty and administrators are implementing these changes as part of an overall curriculum redesign (2012-2015). A well-designed medical school social justice curriculum should improve student recognition and rectification of adverse social determinants of disease.
Sierles, Frederick; Brodkey, Amy; Cleary, Lynn; McCurdy, Frederick A.; Mintz, Matthew; Frank, Julia; Lynn, Deborah Joanne; Chao, Jason; Morgenstern, Bruce; Shore, William; Woodard, John
Objectives: The authors sought to ascertain the details of medical school policies about relationships between drug companies and medical students as well as student affairs deans' attitudes about these interactions. Methods: In 2005, the authors surveyed deans and student affairs deans at all U.S. medical schools and asked whether their schools…
Reed, Wornie L.; Darity, William, Sr.; Roman, Stanford; Baquet, Claudia; Roberson, Norma L.
In 1987 a project was undertaken to assess the status of African Americans in the United States in the topical areas to be addressed by the National Research Council's Study Committee on the Status of Black Americans: education, employment, income and occupations, political participation and the administration of justice, social and cultural…
Choudhry, Shahid; McClinton-Powell, Lori; Solomon, Marla; Davis, Dawnavan; Lipton, Rebecca; Darukhanavala, Amy; Steenes, Althera; Selvaraj, Kavitha; Gielissen, Katherine; Love, Lorne; Salahuddin, Renee; Embil, Frank K.; Huo, Dezheng; Chin, Marshall H.; Quinn, Michael T.; Burnet, Deborah L.
Background Schools represent a key potential venue for addressing childhood obesity. Objective To assess the feasibility of Power-Up, an after-school program to decrease obesity risk among African American children, using community-based participatory research (CBPR) principles. Methods Teachers led 14 weekly nutrition and physical activity sessions during after-school care at the Woodlawn Community School on Chicago’s South Side. Forty African American children ages 5 to 12 participated; their 28 parents discussed similar topics weekly at pickup time, and families practiced relevant skills at home. Pre- and post-intervention anthropometrics, blood pressure, dietary measures, and health knowledge and beliefs for children and parents were compared in univariate analysis. Results At baseline, 26% of children were overweight; 28% were obese. Post-intervention, mean body mass index (BMI) z scores decreased from 1.05 to 0.81 (p < .0001). Changes were more pronounced for overweight (−0.206 z-score units) than for obese children (−0.062 z-score units; p = .01). Girls decreased their combined prevalence of overweight/obesity from 52% to 46%; prevalence across these categories did not change for boys. The prevalence of healthful attitudes rose, including plans to “eat more foods that are good for you” (77% to 90%; p = .027) and “planning to try some new sports” (80% to 88%; p = .007). Conclusion Children in the Power-Up program reduced mean BMI z scores significantly. The after-school venue proved feasible. The use of CBPR principles helped to integrate Power-Up into school activities and contributed to likelihood of sustainability. Engaging parents effectively in the after-school time frame proved challenging; additional strate gies to engage parents are under development. Plans are underway to evaluate this intervention through a randomized study. PMID:22616204
Bayat, Mahomed; Pillay, Basil J.; Cassimjee, Mohammed H.
Objective: The aim of the study was to assess the knowledge, attitude and practice of cigarette smoking behavior (CSB) in a sample of Indian matriculation students. Methodology: All (N=325) Indian matriculation students, at high schools, in Northern Kwa-Zulu Natal, South Africa, were included in the study. A questionnaire was administered to assess knowledge, attitudes and practice of CSB. Results and conclusion: The study showed a prevalence of 16.9%. Most smokers (98.2%) had commenced the practice after the age of 10 years. The most common reason given for CSB was experimentation (83.6%). Main influence was family members followed by teachers and advertisements. The association between smoking and lung cancer was well-known by smokers (90.7%). There was very little awareness of anti-smoking programmes or organizations. Alarmingly, there was little formal health education on the dangers of smoking in schools. The implications of these results are discussed and recommendations on decreasing CSB are made. PMID:23008583
Roberts, Laura A.; Bouknight, Tamisha M.
This case illustrates an example of how one school relied solely on aggregate data and failed to address the college readiness needs of African American students with disabilities. However, the way in which the school counselor identified this opportunity gap may not have been the most ethical approach, and now she is faced with a dilemma. This…
Rury, John L.; Hill, Shirley
This paper considers African-American student protests in secondary schools during the 1960s and early 1970s. Taking a national perspective, it charts a growing sense of independence and militancy among black students as they made the schools a focal point of activism. Activist students challenged established civil rights organisations on a…
Fenzel, L. Mickey; O'Brennan, Lindsey M.
The present study examines the mediating effects of student intrinsic motivation and teacher ratings of student academic engagement on the relation between school climate perceptions and student academic performance among 282 urban African American middle school students. Results provided support for the hypothesized model and suggest the…
Botha, E. M.
Poor learner performance in South African schools raises concerns related to lack of commitment and accountability from school leaders and teachers with no common vision to promote a culture of high learner performance. This paper provides a literature overview of research available on the impact of professional learning communities (PLC) on…
Steyn, G. M.
This study investigates a South African principal's view of implementing invitational education (IE) as an example of a professional development programme (PD) within a particular school setting. Two types of literature inform this study: leadership supportive of school development and the invitational education approach to teaching and learning.…
Archer, Elizabeth; Scherman, Vanessa; Coe, Robert; Howie, Sarah J.
Reform and improvement are imperative in the current South African education system. Monitoring of school and learner achievement is an essential for establishing praxis for school improvement. Diversity of culture and South Africa's 11 official languages make it difficult to develop valid monitoring systems. Limited resources, time constraints…
Waters, Eric L.
Asynchronous online credit recovery programs have been implemented in public schools across the United States for a variety of reasons. In this case, African American female students who are deficient in course credits towards high school graduation have taken advantage of this relatively new e-programming mechanism as a means to capture course…