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Sample records for african middle eastern

  1. Northwest African and Middle Eastern food and dietary change of indigenous peoples.

    PubMed

    Kuhnlein, Harriet V; Johns, Timothy

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes cultural and ecological characteristics of Northwest African and Middle Eastern food patterns and discusses the forces contributing to rapid dietary change. Focus is given to indigenous/tribal/ethnic/minorities in these areas with contributions to definitions of these groups, the extent of their diversity, and the importance of their traditional knowledge of local food resources. Urbanization, particularly for those facing extreme poverty in the urban environment, is recognized as a significant force to dietary change and consequent poor nutrition, especially for children. Examples of food systems are given for the coastal zone of West Africa and the semi-arid and desert zones of North Africa and the Middle East, also including the food system of Pharaonic times. Trends in dietary change are presented as data derived from FAO Food Balance Sheets.

  2. Through Middle Eastern Eyes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearson, Robert P.; Clark, Leon E., Ed.

    This book, intended for use with secondary and college students, presents a Middle Eastern view of the Middle East and the world. Most of the material in the book has been written by Middle Easterners, and it comes from a variety of sources including autobiographies, fiction, poetry, newspaper and magazine articles, letters, diaries,…

  3. An Annotated Partial Bibliography of Contemporary Middle Eastern and North African Poets, Novelists, Dramatists and Short Story Writers with Some Background Titles and Folk Tales.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thacher, Jean Louise N., Comp.

    Titles of 152 books of Middle Eastern and North African literature are listed in this annotated bibliography. Contents of the bibliography include: (1) 3 anthologies; (2) 24 collections of poetry; (3) 31 contemporary novels; (4) 23 collections of contemporary short stories; (5) 3 collections of plays and 3 single plays; (6) 10 collections of…

  4. The Impact of a Geographic Technologies Professional Development Institute on Middle Eastern and North African Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benimmas, Aicha; Kerski, Joseph; Solis, Patricia

    2011-01-01

    Basic education in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) seems to be characterized by lecture methods of instruction, a lack of interdisciplinary approaches and a disconnection with local community problems. During 2008, a "My Community, Our Earth" (MyCOE) workshop was organized in the MENA region and involved teachers of geography, math and…

  5. Y-Chromosome and mtDNA Genetics Reveal Significant Contrasts in Affinities of Modern Middle Eastern Populations with European and African Populations

    PubMed Central

    Badro, Danielle A.; Youhanna, Sonia C.; Salloum, Angélique; Ghassibe-Sabbagh, Michella; Johnsrud, Brian; Khazen, Georges; Matisoo-Smith, Elizabeth; Soria-Hernanz, David F.; Wells, R. Spencer; Tyler-Smith, Chris; Platt, Daniel E.; Zalloua, Pierre A.

    2013-01-01

    The Middle East was a funnel of human expansion out of Africa, a staging area for the Neolithic Agricultural Revolution, and the home to some of the earliest world empires. Post LGM expansions into the region and subsequent population movements created a striking genetic mosaic with distinct sex-based genetic differentiation. While prior studies have examined the mtDNA and Y-chromosome contrast in focal populations in the Middle East, none have undertaken a broad-spectrum survey including North and sub-Saharan Africa, Europe, and Middle Eastern populations. In this study 5,174 mtDNA and 4,658 Y-chromosome samples were investigated using PCA, MDS, mean-linkage clustering, AMOVA, and Fisher exact tests of FST's, RST's, and haplogroup frequencies. Geographic differentiation in affinities of Middle Eastern populations with Africa and Europe showed distinct contrasts between mtDNA and Y-chromosome data. Specifically, Lebanon's mtDNA shows a very strong association to Europe, while Yemen shows very strong affinity with Egypt and North and East Africa. Previous Y-chromosome results showed a Levantine coastal-inland contrast marked by J1 and J2, and a very strong North African component was evident throughout the Middle East. Neither of these patterns were observed in the mtDNA. While J2 has penetrated into Europe, the pattern of Y-chromosome diversity in Lebanon does not show the widespread affinities with Europe indicated by the mtDNA data. Lastly, while each population shows evidence of connections with expansions that now define the Middle East, Africa, and Europe, many of the populations in the Middle East show distinctive mtDNA and Y-haplogroup characteristics that indicate long standing settlement with relatively little impact from and movement into other populations. PMID:23382925

  6. Migration as a turning point in food habits: the early phase of dietary acculturation among women from South Asian, African, and Middle Eastern Countries living in Norway.

    PubMed

    Terragni, Laura; Garnweidner, Lisa M; Pettersen, Kjell Sverre; Mosdøl, Annhild

    2014-01-01

    This article explores the early phase of dietary acculturation after migration. South Asian, African and Middle Eastern women (N = 21) living in Norway were interviewed about their early experiences with food in a new context. The findings pointed to abrupt changes in food habits in the first period after migration. To various degrees, women reported unfamiliarity with foods in shops, uncertainty about meal formats and food preparation and fear of eating food prohibited by their religion. Their food consumption tended to be restricted to food items perceived as familiar or safe. Our findings indicate that the first period after migration represents a specific phase in the process of dietary acculturation. Early initiatives aimed at enhancing confidence in food and familiarity with the new food culture are recommended.

  7. The Prevalence of Extreme Middle Eastern Ideologies around the World

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loza, Wagdy; Abd-El-Fatah, Youssef; Prinsloo, Johan; Hesselink-Louw, Anni; Seidler, Katie

    2011-01-01

    The Belief Diversity Scale (BDS) was administered to Australian, Canadian, Egyptian, and South African participants of different religious backgrounds. The BDS is a 33-item, six subscale instrument that is designed to quantitatively measure Middle Eastern extremist ideologies on risk areas that are reported in the literature. Results demonstrated…

  8. Educational Film Guide for Middle Eastern Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenman, Joseph; Joachim, Ann

    This annotated guide lists 16mm. films on the Middle East for use in grades K-12 and with adults. The Middle East refers to a vast area extending from eastern Afghanistan and the northern Caucasus to the western coast of Morocco and the southern periphery of the Sahara. The guide does not list films according to their merits. Rather, it includes…

  9. Culture and Language Learning: Middle Eastern Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magrath, Douglas

    Middle Eastern students face cultural conflicts in adapting to the western value system. While feeling obligated to maintain their native culture they also need to feel comfortable with the culture of their target language. In attempting to identify with a new group, ESL students may sense a loss of membership in their native group. Culture stress…

  10. The effect of neutralizing antibodies on the sustainable efficacy of biologic therapies: what's in it for African and Middle Eastern rheumatologists.

    PubMed

    Alawadhi, Adel; Alawneh, Khaldoon; Alzahrani, Zeyad Ahmed

    2012-09-01

    Over the last decade, biologic therapeutic proteins have advanced the treatment of diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Therapeutic antibodies such as infliximab, adalimumab, rituximab, tocilizumab, golimumab, certolizumab pegol, the receptor construct etanercept, and abatacept, an anticluster of differentiation (CD)80/anti-CD86 fusion protein, are used as treatment for RA and ankylosing spondylitis (AS). Infliximab, adalimumab, golimumab, certolizumab pegol, and etanercept are inhibitors of tumor necrosis factor (TNF), a key regulator of inflammation. Left untreated, progression of rheumatic diseases due to inflammation can lead to irreversible joint damage and serious disability. One limitation for the use of therapeutic antibodies is immunogenicity, the induction of antibodies by the adaptive immune system in response to foreign substances. The development of antidrug antibodies (ADAs) has a varying impact on the clinical efficacy of biologic agents for the treatment of RA and AS, depending on whether the ADAs are neutralizing or non-neutralizing. Studies have indicated that neutralizing ADAs are associated with a reduced efficacy, decreased drug survival, increased instances of dose escalation, and adverse events. Comparison studies of anti-TNF biologics have demonstrated that each drug has a different sustained efficacy profile depending on immunogenicity. The purpose of this review is to provide rheumatologists with information regarding the effect of neutralizing antibodies on the sustainable efficacy of anti-TNF biologic therapies. This information will be of value to practicing rheumatologists in Africa and the Middle East who should take into account the potential for changes in the efficacy and safety of biologic therapies and closely monitor patients under their care.

  11. Middle Holocene thermal maximum in eastern Beringia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaufman, D. S.; Bartlein, P. J.

    2015-12-01

    A new systematic review of diverse Holocene paleoenvironmental records (Kaufman et al., Quat. Sci. Rev., in revision) has clarified the primary multi-centennial- to millennial-scale trends across eastern Beringia (Alaska, westernmost Canada and adjacent seas). Composite time series from midges, pollen, and biogeochemical indicators are compared with new summaries of mountain-glacier and lake-level fluctuations, terrestrial water-isotope records, sea-ice and sea-surface-temperature analyses, and peatland and thaw-lake initiation frequencies. The paleo observations are also compared with recently published simulations (Bartlein et al., Clim. Past Discuss., 2015) that used a regional climate model to simulate the effects of global and regional-scale forcings at 11 and 6 ka. During the early Holocene (11.5-8 ka), rather than a prominent thermal maximum as suggested previously, the newly compiled paleo evidence (mostly sensitive to summer conditions) indicates that temperatures were highly variable, at times both higher and lower than present, although the overall lowest average temperatures occurred during the earliest Holocene. During the middle Holocene (8-4 ka), glaciers retreated as the regional average temperature increased to a maximum between 7 and 5 ka, as reflected in most proxy types. The paleo evidence for low and variable temperatures during the early Holocene contrasts with more uniformly high temperatures during the middle Holocene and agrees with the climate simulations, which show that temperature in eastern Beringia was on average lower at 11 ka and higher at 6 ka than at present (pre-industrial). Low temperatures during the early Holocene can be attributed in part to the summer chilling caused by flooding the continental shelves, whereas the mid-Holocene thermal maximum was likely driven by the loss of the Laurentide ice sheet, rise in greenhouse gases, higher-than-present summer insolation, and expansion of forest over tundra.

  12. Issues in health care of Middle Eastern patients.

    PubMed

    Lipson, J G; Meleis, A I

    1983-12-01

    Relationships between Middle Eastern patients and Western health care professionals are often troubled by mutual misunderstanding of culturally influenced values and communication styles. Although Middle Easterners vary ethnically, they do share a core of common values and behavior that include the importance of affiliation and family, time and space orientations, interactional style and attitudes toward health and illness. Problems in providing health care involve obtaining adequate information, "demanding behavior" by a patient's family, conflicting beliefs about planning ahead and differing patterns of communicating grave diagnoses or "bad news." There are guidelines that will provide an understanding of the cultural characteristics of Middle Easterners and, therefore, will improve rather than impede their health care. A personal approach and continuity of care by the same health care professional help to bridge the gap between Middle Eastern cultures and Western medical culture. In addition, periodic use of cultural interpreters helps ameliorate the intensity of some cultural issues. PMID:6364575

  13. The late Middle Pleistocene hominin fossil record of eastern Asia: synthesis and review.

    PubMed

    Bae, Christopher J

    2010-01-01

    Traditionally, Middle Pleistocene hominin fossils that cannot be allocated to Homo erectus sensu lato or modern H. sapiens have been assigned to different specific taxa. For example, in eastern Asia, these hominin fossils have been classified as archaic, early, or premodern H. sapiens. An increasing number of Middle Pleistocene hominin fossils are currently being assigned to H. heidelbergensis. This is particularly the case for the African and European Middle Pleistocene hominin fossil record. There have been suggestions that perhaps the eastern Asian late Middle Pleistocene hominins can also be allocated to the H. heidelbergensis hypodigm. In this article, I review the current state of the late Middle Pleistocene hominin fossil record from eastern Asia and examine the various arguments for assigning these hominins to the different specific taxa. The two primary conclusions drawn from this review are as follows: 1) little evidence currently exists in the eastern Asian Middle Pleistocene hominin fossil record to support their assignment to H. heidelbergensis; and 2) rather than add to the growing list of hominin fossil taxa by using taxonomic names like H. daliensis for northeast Asian fossils and H. mabaensis for Southeast Asian fossils, it is better to err on the side of caution and continue to use the term archaic H. sapiens to represent all of these hominin fossils. What should be evident from this review is the need for an increase in the quality and quantity of the eastern Asian hominin fossil data set. Fortunately, with the increasing number of large-scale multidisciplinary paleoanthropological field and laboratory research projects in eastern Asia, the record is quickly becoming better understood.

  14. Some issues in Middle Eastern international migration.

    PubMed

    Sirageldin, I

    1983-01-01

    2 controversial issues related to the consequences of Middle Eastern international migration were examined: its effect on the development policies of the labor importing countries with a special reference to the case of Kuwait; and its effect on the growth potential of the labor exporting countries with special reference to recent development in Egypt's agricultural reproductivity. A preliminary note comments on the analytical nature of international labor migration in the Middle East and on the public view of emigrants as export commodities. The basic parameters of a desired population parity are interrelated. It is possible to influence the labor ratio (R2) as well as the nonKuwait crude labor participation rate (R3) through a migration policy. Thus, given a policy objective of some desired balance stated in trms of 1 or more of the identified parameters, it is possible to analyze the consequences of alternative migration strategies. It is important to consider the role of relative productivity (R6). An attempt to change R6 has implications for both the design of a migration policy and a national policy of human capital formation. Other factors may not be immediately related to a migration policy. The question then is whether these ratios are sensitive to policy intervention. In a simulation exercise it was assumed that the Kuwaiti crude labor force participation rate (R4) will increase by 13% during a period of 10 years. R4 increases if relatively more people work. Women are 1 segment of the labor force that is not adequately represented, partly because of traditions, lack of skills, and the presence of high fertility. None of these can change in the short run without an active policy of social reform. Yet, the assumption seems to be in the right direction. A policy that attempts to reduce R4 through increasing fertility in Kuwait is clearly against the tide. In sum, the labor importing countries faced with recent unfavorable demographic realities will actively

  15. Some issues in Middle Eastern international migration.

    PubMed

    Sirageldin, I

    1983-01-01

    2 controversial issues related to the consequences of Middle Eastern international migration were examined: its effect on the development policies of the labor importing countries with a special reference to the case of Kuwait; and its effect on the growth potential of the labor exporting countries with special reference to recent development in Egypt's agricultural reproductivity. A preliminary note comments on the analytical nature of international labor migration in the Middle East and on the public view of emigrants as export commodities. The basic parameters of a desired population parity are interrelated. It is possible to influence the labor ratio (R2) as well as the nonKuwait crude labor participation rate (R3) through a migration policy. Thus, given a policy objective of some desired balance stated in trms of 1 or more of the identified parameters, it is possible to analyze the consequences of alternative migration strategies. It is important to consider the role of relative productivity (R6). An attempt to change R6 has implications for both the design of a migration policy and a national policy of human capital formation. Other factors may not be immediately related to a migration policy. The question then is whether these ratios are sensitive to policy intervention. In a simulation exercise it was assumed that the Kuwaiti crude labor force participation rate (R4) will increase by 13% during a period of 10 years. R4 increases if relatively more people work. Women are 1 segment of the labor force that is not adequately represented, partly because of traditions, lack of skills, and the presence of high fertility. None of these can change in the short run without an active policy of social reform. Yet, the assumption seems to be in the right direction. A policy that attempts to reduce R4 through increasing fertility in Kuwait is clearly against the tide. In sum, the labor importing countries faced with recent unfavorable demographic realities will actively

  16. Middle East and North African Oil.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Quazzaz, Ayad

    1981-01-01

    Traces the history of oil and natural gas in the Middle East and relates the importance of the Middle East's current stores of oil to economic development. Information is presented on the relationship of major oil companies and local governments, OPEC, rate of production, and the impact of oil on the societies of the Middle East and North Africa.…

  17. Uterine Transplantation: Ethical Considerations within Middle Eastern Perspectives.

    PubMed

    Altawil, Zaid; Arawi, Thalia

    2016-08-01

    The field of reproductive medicine witnessed a breakthrough in September 2014 with the first successful live birth post uterine transplantation. This success represents the culmination of decades' worth of research on infertility and reproductive medicine. This subject of infertility gathers special attention in the Middle East, as childbearing is given paramount importance in the family unit. And as with any new medical advancement, Middle Eastern people look to their religious authorities for guidance. This paper describes the various ethical quandaries related to uterine transplantation, from a perspective of the religious and societal factors that are unique to the Middle East, and embeds them within the conversation of its alternative solutions.

  18. Competent Counseling for Middle Eastern American Clients: Implications for Trainees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soheilian, Sepideh S.; Inman, Arpana G.

    2015-01-01

    The authors used a factorial multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) to determine whether counselor trainees' group differences on measures of multicultural competence, empathy, and multicultural counseling self-efficacy (CSE) when working with Middle Eastern American (MEA) clients were moderated by trainee race. Two hundred and fifty-six…

  19. Long-range transport of North African dust to the eastern United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perry, Kevin D.; Cahill, Thomas A.; Eldred, Robert A.; Dutcher, Dabrina D.; Gill, Thomas E.

    1997-05-01

    The long-range transport of North African dust to the Middle East, Europe, South America, and the Caribbean has been well documented during the past 25 years. With the advent of routine collection and analysis of fine aerosols at national parks, monuments, and wilderness areas in the continental United States, these North African dust incursions can now be tracked, characterized, and quantified across much of the eastern half of the United States. Identification of the North African source of these dust episodes is confirmed by mass distribution measurements, a characteristic Al/Ca ratio, isentropic backward air mass trajectories, and sequential plots of the spatial distribution of the dust plumes. North African dust incursions into the continental United States persist for ˜10 days and occurred, on average, 3 times per year from 1992 to 1995. Fine soil mass usually exceeds 10 μg m-3 during these dust episodes and dominates local fine soil dust by an order of magnitude or more, even in the so-called "dust bowl" states of the central United States. Size-resolved measurements of elemental composition taken during July 1995 indicate that the mass mean diameter of the transported North African dust is <1 μm. The high mass scattering efficiency and abundant particle surface area associated with these submicron soil aerosols could have important consequences for both the radiative balance of the region and the chemistry of the local aerosols during summer when the long-range transport of North African dust to the United States is most common.

  20. Middle Eastern power systems; Present and future developments

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-06-01

    Middle Eastern Power systems have evolved independently of each other over many decades. The region covers a wide geographical area of over 4 million square kilometers with an estimated population in 1990 of over 120 million people. This paper discusses the present status and future power system developments in the Middle East with emphasis on the Mashrequ Arab Countries (MAC). MAC consists of Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, Lebanon, Syria, Yemen, and the six Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries, namely, Bahrain, Kuwait, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Oman, and the United Arab Emirates (UAE). Interconnections within MAC and possible extensions to Turkey, Europe, and Central Africa are discussed. A common characteristic of the MAC power systems is that they are all operated by government or semi-government bodies. The energy resources in the region are varied. Countries such as Iraq, Egypt, and Syria have significant hydro power resources. On the other hand, the GCC countries and Iraq have abundant fossil fuel reserves.

  1. The Relationship between African American Middle School Students' Attitudes toward Reading and Their Reading Comprehension Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, LeCharle Webb

    2009-01-01

    There are numerous strongly held views and myths about African American students in general and middle school students in particular. This study investigated widely held views about African American middle school students' attitudes toward reading and about how positive attitudes toward reading affect reading performances. In this study, four…

  2. Reservoir modeling and simulation of a middle eastern carbonate reservoir

    SciTech Connect

    Sibley, M.J.; Bent, J.V.; Davis, D.W.

    1996-12-31

    A giant Middle Eastern reservoir was modeled and history matched during reservoir simulation. The model was used to help predict reservoir performance under various scenarios and to evaluate the impact on production rates, ultimate recovery and economics. Implementation of an infill, extension, and pressure maintenance plan is in progress. This model overcame shortcomings of previous models of this reservoir through detailed integration of geologic, geophysical, and engineering data. Among the data incorporated were slabbed core, thin sections, core analyses, seismic, isotope, open-hole logs, TDTs, RFTs, field pressure surveys, oil and water production data, and production tests. Significant modifications were made to internal and external reservoir architecture, and a diagenetic barrier was discovered that is the primary barrier to aquifer support. Results of the study include increased booked reserves and production rates, additional infill wells, two reservoir extension area discoveries, and the design and implementation of a pressure maintenance program.

  3. Watermarks within the Middle Eastern Manuscript Collection of the Baillieu Library

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewincamp, Sophie

    2012-01-01

    The University of Melbourne's Middle Eastern Manuscript collection housed at the Baillieu Library was acquired by Professor John Bowman in the 1950s as part of a teaching collection to promote greater learning of Middle Eastern culture and civilisation (Pryde 2007, 3). The collection is a rare example within Australia and represents many different…

  4. Quantity, Type, and Correlates of Physical Activity among American Middle Eastern University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahan, David

    2009-01-01

    The prevalence of hypokinetic disease among persons of Middle Eastern heritage is higher than whites and research on American young adults of this population is limited. Therefore 214 tertiary students of Middle Eastern descent self-reported their physical activity (PA) over a 1-week monitoring period using pedometers and daily activity logs.…

  5. PIK3CA alterations in Middle Eastern ovarian cancers

    PubMed Central

    Abubaker, Jehad; Bavi, Prashant; Al-Haqawi, Wael; Jehan, Zeenath; Munkarah, Adnan; Uddin, Shahab; Al-Kuraya, Khawla S

    2009-01-01

    Background PI3K/AKTsignaling pathway plays an important role in cell growth, proliferation, and tumorgenesis of various malignancies. This signaling pathway has been shown to be frequently altered in several human cancers including ovarian cancers. However the role of this oncogenic signaling pathway has not been explored in the Middle Eastern epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). Therefore, we investigated PI3K/AKT genetic alterations such as PIK3CA amplification, PIK3CA mutation, PTEN protein loss and their relationships with various clinicopathological characteristics in 156 EOCs. Results Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) technique and DNA sequencing were used to analyze PIK3CA amplification and mutation respectively. Expression of PIK3CA protein expression (p110 α), PTEN, p-AKT and Ki-67 was analyzed by immunohistochemistry. PIK3CA amplification was seen in 54 of 152 (35.5%) EOC cases analyzed; PIK3CA gene mutations in 6/153 EOC (3.9%); KRAS mutations in 3/154 EOC (1.9%), BRAF mutations in 3/156 EOC (1.9%), p53 mutation in 50/154 EOC (32.5%), and loss of PTEN protein expression in 33/144 EOC (22.9%). p110 α overexpression was associated with increased phosphorylation of AKT-Ser 473 and with the proliferation marker Ki-67. Conclusion Our data showed mutual exclusivity between the molecular event of PIK3CA amplification and mutations in PIK3CA, KRAS, BRAF genes, which suggests that each of these alterations may individually be sufficient to drive ovarian tumor pathogenesis independently. High prevalence of genetic alterations in PI3K/AKT pathway in a Middle Eastern ovarian carcinoma provides genetic evidence supporting the notion that dysregulated PI3K/AKT pathways play an important role in the pathogenesis of ovarian cancers. PMID:19638206

  6. Current obstacles to organ transplant in Middle Eastern countries.

    PubMed

    Shaheen, Faissal A M; Souqiyyeh, Muhammad Ziad

    2015-04-01

    The Middle Eastern map includes all the Arab countries, Iran, Turkey, Pakistan, and countries of Central Asia. There are common features of organ transplant in these countries such as inadequate preventive medicine, uneven health infrastructure, poor awareness of the medical community and public about the importance of organ donation and transplant, high level of ethnicity, poor government support of organ transplant, and political unrest. In addition, there is inadequate team spirit among transplant physicians, lack of planning for organ procurement and transplant centers, and lack of effective health insurance. Living-donor organ transplant is the most widely practiced type of transplant in the Middle East. Deceased-donor organ donation is not used properly because of continued debate in the medical community about the concept of death according to neurologic criteria (brain death) and inadequate awareness of the public about the importance of organ donation and transplant in many countries in this region. Continuous work is needed to provide solutions to overcome the current obstacles.

  7. Current obstacles to organ transplant in Middle Eastern countries.

    PubMed

    Shaheen, Faissal A M; Souqiyyeh, Muhammad Ziad

    2015-04-01

    The Middle Eastern map includes all the Arab countries, Iran, Turkey, Pakistan, and countries of Central Asia. There are common features of organ transplant in these countries such as inadequate preventive medicine, uneven health infrastructure, poor awareness of the medical community and public about the importance of organ donation and transplant, high level of ethnicity, poor government support of organ transplant, and political unrest. In addition, there is inadequate team spirit among transplant physicians, lack of planning for organ procurement and transplant centers, and lack of effective health insurance. Living-donor organ transplant is the most widely practiced type of transplant in the Middle East. Deceased-donor organ donation is not used properly because of continued debate in the medical community about the concept of death according to neurologic criteria (brain death) and inadequate awareness of the public about the importance of organ donation and transplant in many countries in this region. Continuous work is needed to provide solutions to overcome the current obstacles. PMID:25894118

  8. Phylogenetic distinctiveness of Middle Eastern and Southeast Asian village dog Y chromosomes illuminates dog origins.

    PubMed

    Brown, Sarah K; Pedersen, Niels C; Jafarishorijeh, Sardar; Bannasch, Danika L; Ahrens, Kristen D; Wu, Jui-Te; Okon, Michaella; Sacks, Benjamin N

    2011-01-01

    Modern genetic samples are commonly used to trace dog origins, which entails untested assumptions that village dogs reflect indigenous ancestry or that breed origins can be reliably traced to particular regions. We used high-resolution Y chromosome markers (SNP and STR) and mitochondrial DNA to analyze 495 village dogs/dingoes from the Middle East and Southeast Asia, along with 138 dogs from >35 modern breeds to 1) assess genetic divergence between Middle Eastern and Southeast Asian village dogs and their phylogenetic affinities to Australian dingoes and gray wolves (Canis lupus) and 2) compare the genetic affinities of modern breeds to regional indigenous village dog populations. The Y chromosome markers indicated that village dogs in the two regions corresponded to reciprocally monophyletic clades, reflecting several to many thousand years divergence, predating the Neolithic ages, and indicating long-indigenous roots to those regions. As expected, breeds of the Middle East and East Asia clustered within the respective regional village dog clade. Australian dingoes also clustered in the Southeast Asian clade. However, the European and American breeds clustered almost entirely within the Southeast Asian clade, even sharing many haplotypes, suggesting a substantial and recent influence of East Asian dogs in the creation of European breeds. Comparison to 818 published breed dog Y STR haplotypes confirmed this conclusion and indicated that some African breeds reflect another distinct patrilineal origin. The lower-resolution mtDNA marker consistently supported Y-chromosome results. Both marker types confirmed previous findings of higher genetic diversity in dogs from Southeast Asia than the Middle East. Our findings demonstrate the importance of village dogs as windows into the past and provide a reference against which ancient DNA can be used to further elucidate origins and spread of the domestic dog.

  9. Phylogenetic distinctiveness of Middle Eastern and Southeast Asian village dog Y chromosomes illuminates dog origins.

    PubMed

    Brown, Sarah K; Pedersen, Niels C; Jafarishorijeh, Sardar; Bannasch, Danika L; Ahrens, Kristen D; Wu, Jui-Te; Okon, Michaella; Sacks, Benjamin N

    2011-01-01

    Modern genetic samples are commonly used to trace dog origins, which entails untested assumptions that village dogs reflect indigenous ancestry or that breed origins can be reliably traced to particular regions. We used high-resolution Y chromosome markers (SNP and STR) and mitochondrial DNA to analyze 495 village dogs/dingoes from the Middle East and Southeast Asia, along with 138 dogs from >35 modern breeds to 1) assess genetic divergence between Middle Eastern and Southeast Asian village dogs and their phylogenetic affinities to Australian dingoes and gray wolves (Canis lupus) and 2) compare the genetic affinities of modern breeds to regional indigenous village dog populations. The Y chromosome markers indicated that village dogs in the two regions corresponded to reciprocally monophyletic clades, reflecting several to many thousand years divergence, predating the Neolithic ages, and indicating long-indigenous roots to those regions. As expected, breeds of the Middle East and East Asia clustered within the respective regional village dog clade. Australian dingoes also clustered in the Southeast Asian clade. However, the European and American breeds clustered almost entirely within the Southeast Asian clade, even sharing many haplotypes, suggesting a substantial and recent influence of East Asian dogs in the creation of European breeds. Comparison to 818 published breed dog Y STR haplotypes confirmed this conclusion and indicated that some African breeds reflect another distinct patrilineal origin. The lower-resolution mtDNA marker consistently supported Y-chromosome results. Both marker types confirmed previous findings of higher genetic diversity in dogs from Southeast Asia than the Middle East. Our findings demonstrate the importance of village dogs as windows into the past and provide a reference against which ancient DNA can be used to further elucidate origins and spread of the domestic dog. PMID:22194840

  10. Urban Middle School African American Girls' Attitudes toward Physical Education and Out-of-School Physical Activity Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramsey, Victor

    2012-01-01

    The purposes of this two-part study were (1) to investigate urban middle school African American girls' physical activity levels and their relationships to attitudes and, (2) to explore urban middle school African American girls' attitude toward physical education. A total of (N = 649) African American girls from 14 New York City middle…

  11. Initiation of the western branch of the East African Rift coeval with the eastern branch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, E. M.; Stevens, N. J.; O'Connor, P. M.; Dirks, P. H. G. M.; Gottfried, M. D.; Clyde, W. C.; Armstrong, R. A.; Kemp, A. I. S.; Hemming, S.

    2012-04-01

    The East African Rift System transects the anomalously high-elevation Ethiopian and East African plateaux that together form part of the 6,000-km-long African superswell structure. Rifting putatively developed as a result of mantle plume activity that initiated under eastern Africa. The mantle activity has caused topographic uplift that has been connected to African Cenozoic climate change and faunal evolution. The rift is traditionally interpreted to be composed of two distinct segments: an older, volcanically active eastern branch and a younger, less volcanic western branch. Here, we show that initiation of rifting in the western branch began more than 14 million years earlier than previously thought, contemporaneously with the eastern branch. We use a combination of detrital zircon geochronology, tephro- and magnetostratigraphy, along with analyses of past river flow recorded in sedimentary rocks from the Rukwa Rift Basin, Tanzania, to constrain the timing of rifting, magmatism and drainage development in this part of the western branch. We find that rift-related volcanism and lake development had begun by about 25million years ago. These events were preceded by pediment development and a fluvial drainage reversal that we suggest records the onset of topographic uplift caused by the African superswell. We conclude that uplift of eastern Africa was more widespread and synchronous than previously recognized.

  12. The Lower Jurassic of the Eastern Caspian region and the Middle Caspian Basin: Lithology, facies, taphonomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiritchkova, A. I.; Nosova, N. V.

    2014-09-01

    Lithofacies of the productive Upper Triassic-Lower Jurassic deposits of the Eastern Caspian region, studied in wells on the Caspian coast and exposed in the outcrops of the Mountainous Mangyshlak, are described and analyzed. The similarity of the structure of the Mesozoic sedimentary beds of the Middle Caspian Basin and of those of the land adjacent to its eastern coast is confirmed. Comparative analysis of lithofacies allowed the reconstruction of the paleogeographic setting and depositional environments in the studied region during the Early Jurassic. A unique fossil plant occurrence is discovered in the upper part of the Lower Jurassic series (in the lower subformation of the Kokala Formation; Eastern Caspian region). Fossil plant taphonomy and the lithology of host rocks in the occurrence resulted from unusual paleogeographic settings that existed in the Middle Caspian Basin at the time of the Early-Middle Jurassic boundary.

  13. Teachers' Perception of African American Middle School Girls' Interest in Mathematics and Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Best, Bonnie M.

    Research into African American female underrepresentation in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields has become an area of interest due to the fact that a majority of African American middle school females do not possess the high levels of mathematics and science knowledge because of social and cultural barriers both inside and outside school that challenge their academic success. The purpose of this qualitative interpretative phenomenological study was to explore teachers' shared, lived experiences of teaching mathematics and science to African American middle school girls. Delgado and Stefancic's critical race theory, Pratt-Clarke's critical race feminism, and Baker-Miller's relational-cultural theory were used to guide this study. Research questions focused on the perceptions and experiences of teachers' lived experiences teaching mathematics and science to African American middle school females. Criterion, purposive, and maximum variation sampling techniques were used to recruit 10 teachers who have 3 or more years' experience teaching African American middle school girls. Semistructured face-to-face interviews were the primary data collection source. First cycle and second cycle coding methods were used to support the analysis of this study. Findings suggest that there is a connection between a positive student-teacher relationship and academic success. The results of this study contribute to positive social change by providing empirical evidence policymakers and teachers can use to improve the mathematics and science instruction and practices that are needed to meet the needs of African American middle school females and reduce the underrepresentation and underachievement of African American females in mathematics and science.

  14. The Learning Environment and the Reading Achievement of Middle School African American Male Students in a Suburban School Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frazier, Nicole Denise

    2012-01-01

    The reading achievement of African American males might be impacted by a host of variables. This study was undertaken to determine if there was a difference in the culturally responsive characteristics present in the learning environment of a middle school and the reading achievement of middle school African American males. The purpose of this…

  15. Digital Muslimas: ICT Skills of Females in Middle Eastern Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Primo, L. Heidi

    2010-01-01

    This article examines women in Islamic countries with regard to sustainable futures, equity, and social justice. Some barriers to ICT use for women in the Middle East include access to computers, gender discrimination by employers, marginalized political participation, high rates of illiteracy, and lack of independence. Distance education offers a…

  16. Dire need for a Middle Eastern science spring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zewail, Ahmed H.

    2014-04-01

    The Middle East is rich in human and natural resources, but many of its countries need a cultural and scientific transformation to reach worldwide recognition in education, research and economic productivity. Several institutions are making a positive impact, kindling hope for a successful 'science spring'.

  17. David Haynes: Chronicler of the African American Middle Class.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barron, Ronald

    1997-01-01

    Profiles writer David Haynes, and discusses his four novels (an award-winning young adult book and three novels for the adult market). Concludes that Haynes' success as a novelist is due to his characters, a healthy dose of humor, and his realistic depiction of a wide range of African American characters without resorting to sensationalism or…

  18. Middle Eastern Students Shut Out of the U.S. Turn to Australia and New Zealand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, David

    2007-01-01

    This article reports on the increase of Middle Eastern students in universities in Australia and New Zealand because of difficulties in getting visas for the United States and Britain. Difficulties in securing visas, combined with more aggressive recruiting by higher-education institutions in New Zealand and Australia, have led a growing number of…

  19. Uncovering Problems and Identifying Coping Strategies of Middle Eastern University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alazzi, Khaled; Chiodo, John J.

    2006-01-01

    For international college students, the failure to achieve their educational goals regarding their program of study creates a large amount of stress. These international students experience pressure to succeed from their families, sponsoring agencies, or even the communities from their home country. For Middle Eastern students who come to study at…

  20. The Prevalence of Middle Eastern Extremist Ideologies among Some Canadian Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loza, Wagdy

    2010-01-01

    The Belief Diversity Scale (BDS) was administered to 89 male Canadian offenders of different religious backgrounds. The BDS is a 33-item, six-subscale instrument designed to quantitatively measure the religious attitudes, beliefs, and ideologies of Middle Eastern extremists on risk areas described in the literature. Results indicated that the…

  1. The Prevalence of the Middle-Eastern Extreme Ideologies among Some Canadians

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loza, Wagdy

    2011-01-01

    A total of 183 Canadian participants of different religious backgrounds completed the Belief Diversity Scale (BDS). The BDS is an 80-item, 6-subscale instrument designed to quantitatively measure the religious attitudes, beliefs, and ideologies of Middle-Eastern extremists' on risk areas that are reported in the literature. The results…

  2. The Importance of "Wasta" in the Career Success of Middle Eastern Managers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tlaiss, Hayfaa; Kauser, Saleema

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Frequently used in fostering the career progression of individuals this paper aims to explore the concept of "wasta" and its significance in the career advancement of individuals in the Middle Eastern region. The paper also seeks to compare "wasta" with networking and mentoring. Design/methodology/approach: The argument is based on…

  3. Marlboro and Other Usual Brand Choices by Youth Smokers in Middle Eastern Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Page, Randy M.

    2012-01-01

    This study analyzed data from 118,743 adolescents completing 30 different Global Youth Tobacco Surveys conducted in 15 different Middle Eastern countries between 1999 and 2007 to determine the proportion of young smokers who usually smoked Marlboro, other cigarette brands, or no usual brand smoked in these countries. Marlboro was the most…

  4. The Middle Eastern Regional Irrigation Management Information Systems project-update

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Middle Eastern Regional Irrigation Management Information Systems Project (MERIMIS) was formulated at a meeting of experts from the region in Jordan in 2003. Funded by the U.S. Department of State, it is a cooperative regional project bringing together participants from Israel, Jordan, Palestini...

  5. Middle-Aged Independent-Living African Americans' Selections for Advance Directives: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDaniel, Brenda J.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this collective embedded qualitative case study was to examine the perspectives of three middle-aged independent-living African Americans who had participated in the process of advance care planning (ACP) and completed at least two advance directives (ADs), a Durable Power of Attorney for Health Care (DPAHC) and a Living Will (LW).…

  6. The Relationship between Principals' Leadership Characteristics and Academic Achievement of African American Males in Middle School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Landeau, Reginald H., Jr.

    2012-01-01

    The study evaluates the relationship between middle school principals' leadership characteristics and academic achievement of African American male students in grades 6, 7, and 8 in a large urban school district. Academic achievement is typically defined as the cognitive knowledge, skills, and abilities that are measured by achievement tests. The…

  7. Examining Parent Involvement in Reversing the Underachievement of African American Students in Middle-Class Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, Tyrone C.; Reynolds, Rema

    2008-01-01

    In this study, the authors examined the school experiences of middle-class African American parents and students, because they are largely overlooked in the professional literature when it comes to underachievement and parent involvement. Although No Child Left Behind (NCLB) highlights parent involvement and school accountability through the use…

  8. Mentoring and Standardized Achievement of African American Males in the Elementary and Middle Grades

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Kenneth A.

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the effects of mentoring on standardized achievement for African American males in the elementary and middle grades. Mentoring has been deemed effective regarding social development and various academic indicators, but scant empirical data is available regarding the effects of mentoring on standardized testing. Thus,…

  9. Problematic Situations in the Lives of Urban African American Middle School Students: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farrell, Albert D.; Erwin, Elizabeth H.; Allison, Kevin W.; Meyer, Aleta; Sullivan, Terri; Camou, Suzanne; Kliewer, Wendy; Esposito, Layla

    2007-01-01

    Qualitative methods were used to identify problem situations encountered by adolescents in urban middle schools serving a predominantly African American student population. Interviews focusing on identifying problem situations and the context in which they occur were conducted with 60 adolescents including students and peer mediators at middle…

  10. Construction and validation of a list of common Middle Eastern surnames for epidemiological research

    PubMed Central

    Nasseri, Kiumarss

    2007-01-01

    Purpose Middle Eastern (ME) population is rapidly growing in the US but cannot be easily identified in cancer registry or other databases for epidemiological research. The purpose of this study was to develop a list of common Middle Eastern surnames and validate it by linking with a cancer registry incidence files. Methods Surnames and place of birth in the Middle East were obtained from various sources. After exclusion of the non-specific entries, the final combined list included 49,610 surnames and was matched with the California Cancer Registry incidence file for 1988-2003. Results Overall, 1.4% of all registered cases were positively identified as ME that is similar to the proportion of ME population in California. Two third of the identified cases had known place of birth in the Middle East and of those, 70% were non-Arabs. The sensitivity of the list in detecting ME birth in men and women are 91% and 86%, respectively. The positive predictive values for men and women are 72% and 65%. The specificity and negative predictive values are universally over 99 percent. Conclusion The high accuracy reported for this Middle Eastern surname list (MESL) makes it a valuable tool for epidemiological studies of this ethnic population. PMID:18023539

  11. Nitrogen fixation by U.S. and Middle Eastern chickpeas with commercial and wild Middle Eastern inocula

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chickpeas (Cicer arietinum L.) are native to the Middle East (ME), and must be inoculated with symbiotic bacteria in order to fix nitrogen (N) in North American soils. Commercial inocula for chickpea contain several strains of the known N-fixing symbiont Mesorhizobium ciceri. It is not known whethe...

  12. Invisible in aging research: Arab Americans, Middle Eastern immigrants, and Muslims in the United States.

    PubMed

    Salari, Sonia

    2002-10-01

    Recent worldwide events have focused greater attention on the Middle East. Little is known about the diverse populations of older persons living in the United States who have Middle Eastern origins and/or practice Islam. Stereotypes and backlash can negatively influence the quality of life for mid- and later-life individuals and their families. Gerontologists can improve conditions by incorporating new knowledge of these groups into research, policy, and practice to dispel stereotypes and provide appropriate services. This article focuses on the demographic characteristics and diversity among mid- and later-life Arab Americans, Muslims, and Middle Eastern immigrants and their descendants. Further research is needed to shed light on the family support, social patterns, housing environments, health care needs, service utilization, and quality of life among immigrants and their descendants across the life course. PMID:12351793

  13. Blunt traumatic injury in the Arab Middle Eastern populations

    PubMed Central

    Asim, Mohammad; El-Menyar, Ayman; Al-Thani, Hassan; Abdelrahman, Husham; Zarour, Ahmad; Latifi, Rifat

    2014-01-01

    Background: Trauma represents a global public health concern with an estimated 5 million deaths annually. Moreover, the incidence of blunt traumatic injuries (BTI) particularly road traffic accidents (RTAs) and workplace-related injuries are rising throughout the world-wide. Objectives: We aimed to review the epidemiology and prevention of BTI, in the Arab Middle East. Materials and Methods: A traditional narrative literature review was carried out using PubMed, MEDLINE and EMBASE search engines. We used the keywords “traumatic injuries”, “blunt” “epidemiology”, “Arab Middle East” between December 1972 and March 2013. Results: The most common mechanisms of BTI in our region are RTAs, falls from height, struck by heavy objects and pedestrian motor vehicle trauma crashes. The rate of RTA and occupational injuries are markedly increased in the region due to rapid industrial development, extreme climatic conditions and unfamiliar working environment. However, lack of reliable information on these unintentional injuries is mainly responsible for the underestimation of this trauma burden. This knowledge deficit shields the extent of the problem from policy makers, leading to continued fatalities. These preventable injuries in turn add to the overall financial burden on the society through loss of productivity and greater need of medical and welfare services. Conclusion: In the Arab Middle East, population-based studies on the incidence, mechanism of injury, prevention and outcome of BTI are not well-documented. Therefore, region-specific BTI studies would strengthen surveillance to better understand the burden of these injuries in the region. PMID:24812453

  14. Cenozoic extension, volcanism and plateau uplift in eastern Africa and the African Superplume

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nyblade, A.; O'Donnell, J.; Mulibo, G. D.; Adams, A. N.

    2013-12-01

    Recent body and surface wave studies combine to image mantle velocity structure to a depth of 1200 km beneath eastern Africa using teleseismic earthquake data recorded by the AfricaArray East African Seismic Experiment in conjunction with permanent stations and previously deployed temporary stations. The combined network spans Kenya, Uganda, Tanzania, Zambia and Malawi. The 3-D shear wave velocity structure of the uppermost mantle was imaged using fundamental-mode Rayleigh wave phase velocities measured at periods ranging from 20 to 182 s, subsequently inverted for shear velocity structure. When considered in conjunction with mapped seismicity, the shear velocity model supports a secondary western rift branch striking southwestwards from Lake Tanganyika, likely exploiting the relatively weak lithosphere of the southern Kibaran Belt between the Bangweulu Block and the Congo Craton. In eastern Tanzania a low-velocity region suggests that the eastern rift branch trends southeastwards offshore eastern Tanzania coincident with the purported location of the northern margin of the proposed Ruvuma microplate. The results suggest that existing lithospheric structures exert a significant governing influence on rift development. Sub-lithospheric mantle wave speed variations extending to a depth of 1200 km were tomographically imaged from the inversion of P and S wave relative arrival time residuals. The images shows a low wave speed anomaly (LWA) well developed at shallow depths (100-200 km) beneath the Eastern and Western branches of the rift system and northwestern Zambia, and a fast wave speed anomaly at depths greater than 350 km beneath the central and northern parts of the East African Plateau and the eastern and central parts of Zambia. At depths below 350 km the LWA is most prominent under the central and southern parts of the East African Plateau and dips to the southwest beneath northern Zambia, extending to a depth of at least 900 km. The amplitude of the LWA is

  15. Evolution and creationism in Middle Eastern education: a new perspective.

    PubMed

    Burton, Elise K

    2011-01-01

    Statements made in a recent outcry against a creationist in the Israeli Ministry of Education starkly illuminated Western misconceptions about Iranian science education. These misconceptions are perpetuated not only among the general public but also within the international scientific community, where investigations of "Islamic creationism" often incorporate misleading assumptions regarding Islamic religious attitudes toward science as well as the nature of secularism in non-Western states. In turn, these assumptions have led to superficial analyses that overly rely on state religiosity to explain the treatment of evolution in national science education. Therefore, a new framework accounting for local political and social circumstances is crucial and urgently needed to effectively analyze science education in the Middle East.

  16. Evolution and creationism in Middle Eastern education: a new perspective.

    PubMed

    Burton, Elise K

    2011-01-01

    Statements made in a recent outcry against a creationist in the Israeli Ministry of Education starkly illuminated Western misconceptions about Iranian science education. These misconceptions are perpetuated not only among the general public but also within the international scientific community, where investigations of "Islamic creationism" often incorporate misleading assumptions regarding Islamic religious attitudes toward science as well as the nature of secularism in non-Western states. In turn, these assumptions have led to superficial analyses that overly rely on state religiosity to explain the treatment of evolution in national science education. Therefore, a new framework accounting for local political and social circumstances is crucial and urgently needed to effectively analyze science education in the Middle East. PMID:20812978

  17. Sexual protective strategies and condom use in middle-age African American women: A qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Tanyka K.

    2015-01-01

    The heterosexual transmission of HIV has affected middle-age African American women at alarming rates; yet there is a paucity of research and interventions focused on this population. This study used a qualitative approach to understand middle-age urban African American women’s experiences with HIV-related sexual risk behaviors and to identify the sexual protective strategies they employed to reduce their risk for HIV infection. Ten African American women, ages 45 to 56, were recruited from low-income neighborhoods in New York City. Data were collected using in-depth interviews and analyzed using content analysis. Investigator triangulation and member checking were used to ensure rigor. Five salient themes emerged that highlighted the individual, gender/relationship power factors, and the sociocultural elements that influenced sexual protection or risk-taking behavior. Findings provide new insight into the complexities of HIV sexual risk behavior and can guide future HIV prevention interventions for middle-age, African American, urban women. PMID:26194973

  18. Gender differences in immigrant health: the case of Mexican and Middle Eastern immigrants.

    PubMed

    Read, Jen'nan Ghazal; Reynolds, Megan M

    2012-03-01

    This article draws on theories of gender inequality and immigrant health to hypothesize differences among the largest immigrant population, Mexicans, and a lesser known population of Middle Easterners. Using data from the 2000-2007 National Health Interview Surveys, we compare health outcomes among immigrants to those among U.S.-born whites and assess gender differences within each group. We find an immigrant story and a gender story. Mexican and Middle Eastern immigrants are healthier than U.S.-born whites, and men report better health than women regardless of nativity or ethnicity. We identify utilization of health care as a primary mechanism that contributes to both patterns. Immigrants are less likely than U.S.-born whites to interact with the health care system, and women are more likely to do so than men. Thus, immigrant and gender health disparities may partly reflect knowledge of health status rather than actual health.

  19. Vertically deflected mantle flow at the eastern edge of the African Large Low Shear Velocity Province

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ford, H. A.; Long, M. D.; He, X.; Lynner, C.

    2014-12-01

    Despite the abundantly clear evidence for the existence of two Large Low Shear Velocity Provinces (LLSVPs) in the lower mantle, the origin, composition, and dynamics are still not well understood, nor is the relationship of the LLSVPs to the greater mantle. Observations of seismic anisotropy are often used to better understand flow in the mantle, but their utility is limited in the mostly isotropic lower mantle. An exception to this is in the lowermost mantle (D") where observations of seismic anisotropy are numerous; however, the interpretation of such measurements in terms of dynamic processes remains challenging. Here we use observations of seismic anisotropy at the eastern edge of the African LLSVP beneath the Afar hotspot to 1) test the consistency of different mechanisms for D" anisotropy with observations, and 2) constrain the geometry of mantle flow at an LLSVP edge. Our observational data set consists of measurements of differential S-ScS and discrepant SKS-SKKS splitting, totaling 22 SKS, SKKS and ScS phases, corrected for upper mantle anisotropy. By utilizing different raypath combinations, we are able to sample the edge structure of the African LLSVP from five distinct raypath orientations, an improvement over previous work. Through forward modeling using mineral physics constraints, we find that our splitting observations are best fit by a model of crystallographically aligned post-perovskite, with the [100] axis oriented either vertically, or highly oblique to the horizontal plane. Such an alignment suggests that mantle flow at the eastern edge of the African LLSVP has an upward component, consistent with either the vertical deflection of material at the LLSVP or with sheet-like upwellings. Placing our preferred flow scenario(s) in context with other recent work, we propose that the edge of the African LLSVP acts as a barrier to mantle flow, ultimately deflecting flow upwards along the margins.

  20. The Nubian Complex of Dhofar, Oman: An African Middle Stone Age Industry in Southern Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Rose, Jeffrey I.; Usik, Vitaly I.; Marks, Anthony E.; Hilbert, Yamandu H.; Galletti, Christopher S.; Parton, Ash; Geiling, Jean Marie; Černý, Viktor; Morley, Mike W.; Roberts, Richard G.

    2011-01-01

    Despite the numerous studies proposing early human population expansions from Africa into Arabia during the Late Pleistocene, no archaeological sites have yet been discovered in Arabia that resemble a specific African industry, which would indicate demographic exchange across the Red Sea. Here we report the discovery of a buried site and more than 100 new surface scatters in the Dhofar region of Oman belonging to a regionally-specific African lithic industry - the late Nubian Complex - known previously only from the northeast and Horn of Africa during Marine Isotope Stage 5, ∼128,000 to 74,000 years ago. Two optically stimulated luminescence age estimates from the open-air site of Aybut Al Auwal in Oman place the Arabian Nubian Complex at ∼106,000 years ago, providing archaeological evidence for the presence of a distinct northeast African Middle Stone Age technocomplex in southern Arabia sometime in the first half of Marine Isotope Stage 5. PMID:22140561

  1. Implementation and evaluation of critical thinking strategies to enhance critical thinking skills in Middle Eastern nurses.

    PubMed

    Simpson, Elaine; Courtney, Mary

    2008-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop, implement and evaluate critical thinking strategies to enhance critical thinking skills in Middle Eastern nurses. Critical thinking strategies such as questioning, debate, role play and small group activity were developed and used in a professional development programme, which was trialled on a sample of Middle Eastern nurses (n = 20), to promote critical thinking skills, encourage problem solving, development of clinical judgment making and care prioritization in order to improve patient care and outcomes. Classroom learning was transformed from memorization to interaction and active participation. The intervention programme was successful in developing critical thinking skills in both the nurse educators and student nurses in this programme. This programme successfully integrated critical thinking strategies into a Middle Eastern nursing curriculum. Recommendations are as follows: (1) utilize evidence-based practice and stem questions to encourage the formulation of critical thinking questions; (2) support the needs of nurse educators for them to effectively implement teaching strategies to foster critical thinking skills; and (3) adopt creative approaches to (i) transform students into interactive participants and (ii) open students' minds and stimulate higher-level thinking and problem-solving abilities.

  2. Eastern South African hydroclimate over the past 270,000 years

    PubMed Central

    Simon, Margit H.; Ziegler, Martin; Bosmans, Joyce; Barker, Stephen; Reason, Chris J.C.; Hall, Ian R.

    2015-01-01

    Processes that control the hydrological balance in eastern South Africa on orbital to millennial timescales remain poorly understood because proxy records documenting its variability at high resolution are scarce. In this work, we present a detailed 270,000 year-long record of terrestrial climate variability in the KwaZulu-Natal province based on elemental ratios of Fe/K from the southwest Indian Ocean, derived from X-ray fluorescence core scanning. Eastern South African climate variability on these time scales reflects both the long-term effect of regional insolation changes driven by orbital precession and the effects associated with high-latitude abrupt climate forcing over the past two glacial-interglacial cycles, including millennial-scale events not previously identified. Rapid changes towards more humid conditions in eastern South Africa as the Northern Hemisphere entered phases of extreme cooling were potentially driven by a combination of warming in the Agulhas Current and shifts of the subtropical anticyclones. These climate oscillations appear coherent with other Southern Hemisphere records but are anti-phased with respect to the East Asian Monsoon. Numerical modelling results reveal that higher precipitation in the KwaZulu-Natal province during precession maxima is driven by a combination of increased local evaporation and elevated moisture transport into eastern South Africa from the coast of Mozambique. PMID:26686943

  3. Eastern South African hydroclimate over the past 270,000 years.

    PubMed

    Simon, Margit H; Ziegler, Martin; Bosmans, Joyce; Barker, Stephen; Reason, Chris J C; Hall, Ian R

    2015-01-01

    Processes that control the hydrological balance in eastern South Africa on orbital to millennial timescales remain poorly understood because proxy records documenting its variability at high resolution are scarce. In this work, we present a detailed 270,000 year-long record of terrestrial climate variability in the KwaZulu-Natal province based on elemental ratios of Fe/K from the southwest Indian Ocean, derived from X-ray fluorescence core scanning. Eastern South African climate variability on these time scales reflects both the long-term effect of regional insolation changes driven by orbital precession and the effects associated with high-latitude abrupt climate forcing over the past two glacial-interglacial cycles, including millennial-scale events not previously identified. Rapid changes towards more humid conditions in eastern South Africa as the Northern Hemisphere entered phases of extreme cooling were potentially driven by a combination of warming in the Agulhas Current and shifts of the subtropical anticyclones. These climate oscillations appear coherent with other Southern Hemisphere records but are anti-phased with respect to the East Asian Monsoon. Numerical modelling results reveal that higher precipitation in the KwaZulu-Natal province during precession maxima is driven by a combination of increased local evaporation and elevated moisture transport into eastern South Africa from the coast of Mozambique. PMID:26686943

  4. Algebra Matters: An Ethnographic Study of Successful African American Male Algebra 1 Students in a Suburban Middle School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirkwood, Kirk

    2012-01-01

    Alarming statistics reveal that African American male students are encountering long-standing challenges in K-12 mathematics. However, few studies have explored the phenomena associated with African American males and K-12 mathematics education, particularly at the middle school level in the context of an Algebra 1 course of study. The purpose of…

  5. Patients’ management of type 2 diabetes in Middle Eastern countries: review of studies

    PubMed Central

    Alsairafi, Zahra Khalil; Taylor, Kevin Michael Geoffrey; Smith, Felicity J; Alattar, Abdulnabi T

    2016-01-01

    The increased prevalence of diabetes in Middle Eastern countries is a health policy priority. Important risk factors for diabetes have been identified. Lifestyle interventions and adherence to medications are central to disease prevention and management. This review focuses on the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus in Middle Eastern countries. The aim is to identify the ways in which knowledge, health beliefs, and social and cultural factors influence adherence to medication and lifestyle measures. Thirty-four studies were identified following a systematic search of the literature. The studies describe the influence of knowledge, health beliefs, culture, and lifestyle on the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus in the Middle East. Findings indicate a lack of health knowledge about diabetes among populations, which has implications for health behaviors, medication adherence, and treatment outcomes. Many identified health beliefs and cultural lifestyle factors, such as religious beliefs, beliefs about fasting during Ramadan, and sedentary lifestyles played a role in patients’ decisions. For better management of this disease, a collaborative approach between patients, their families, health care professionals, and governments should be adopted. Implementing behavioral strategies and psychological interventions that incorporate all health care professionals in the management process have been shown to be effective methods. Such services help patients change their behavior. However, the utilization of such services and interventions is still limited in Arabian countries. Physicians in the Middle East are the health care professionals most involved in the care process. PMID:27354775

  6. Globalization and gametes: reproductive 'tourism,' Islamic bioethics, and Middle Eastern modernity.

    PubMed

    Inhorn, Marcia C

    2011-04-01

    'Reproductive tourism' has been defined as the search for assisted reproductive technologies (ARTs) and human gametes (eggs, sperm, embryos) across national and international borders. This article conceptualizes reproductive tourism within 'global reproscapes,' which involve the circulation of actors, technologies, money, media, ideas, and human gametes, all moving in complicated manners across geographical landscapes. Focusing on the Muslim countries of the Middle East, the article explores the Islamic 'local moral worlds' informing the movements of Middle Eastern infertile couples. The ban on third-party gamete donation in Sunni Muslim-majority countries and the recent allowance of donor technologies in the Shia Muslim-majority countries of Iran and Lebanon have led to significant movements of infertile couples across Middle Eastern national borders. In the new millennium, Iran is leading the way into this 'brave new world' of high-tech, third-party assisted conception, with Islamic bioethical discourses being used to justify various forms of technological assistance. Although the Middle East is rarely regarded in this way, it is a key site for understanding the intersection of technoscience, religious morality, and modernity, all of which are deeply implicated in the new world of reproductive tourism. PMID:21563005

  7. Phylogenetic Patterns of Extinction Risk in the Eastern Arc Ecosystems, an African Biodiversity Hotspot

    PubMed Central

    Yessoufou, Kowiyou; Daru, Barnabas H.; Davies, T. Jonathan

    2012-01-01

    There is an urgent need to reduce drastically the rate at which biodiversity is declining worldwide. Phylogenetic methods are increasingly being recognised as providing a useful framework for predicting future losses, and guiding efforts for pre-emptive conservation actions. In this study, we used a reconstructed phylogenetic tree of angiosperm species of the Eastern Arc Mountains – an important African biodiversity hotspot – and described the distribution of extinction risk across taxonomic ranks and phylogeny. We provide evidence for both taxonomic and phylogenetic selectivity in extinction risk. However, we found that selectivity varies with IUCN extinction risk category. Vulnerable species are more closely related than expected by chance, whereas endangered and critically endangered species are not significantly clustered on the phylogeny. We suggest that the general observation for taxonomic and phylogenetic selectivity (i.e. phylogenetic signal, the tendency of closely related species to share similar traits) in extinction risks is therefore largely driven by vulnerable species, and not necessarily the most highly threatened. We also used information on altitudinal distribution and climate to generate a predictive model of at-risk species richness, and found that greater threatened species richness is found at higher altitude, allowing for more informed conservation decision making. Our results indicate that evolutionary history can help predict plant susceptibility to extinction threats in the hyper-diverse but woefully-understudied Eastern Arc Mountains, and illustrate the contribution of phylogenetic approaches in conserving African floristic biodiversity where detailed ecological and evolutionary data are often lacking. PMID:23056587

  8. 60,000 years of interactions between Central and Eastern Africa documented by major African mitochondrial haplogroup L2

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Marina; Alshamali, Farida; Silva, Paula; Carrilho, Carla; Mandlate, Flávio; Jesus Trovoada, Maria; Černý, Viktor; Pereira, Luísa; Soares, Pedro

    2015-01-01

    Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroup L2 originated in Western Africa but is nowadays spread across the entire continent. L2 movements were previously postulated to be related to the Bantu expansion, but L2 expansions eastwards probably occurred much earlier. By reconstructing the phylogeny of L2 (44 new complete sequences) we provide insights on the complex net of within-African migrations in the last 60 thousand years (ka). Results show that lineages in Southern Africa cluster with Western/Central African lineages at a recent time scale, whereas, eastern lineages seem to be substantially more ancient. Three moments of expansion from a Central African source are associated to L2: (1) one migration at 70–50 ka into Eastern or Southern Africa, (2) postglacial movements (15–10 ka) into Eastern Africa; and (3) the southward Bantu Expansion in the last 5 ka. The complementary population and L0a phylogeography analyses indicate no strong evidence of mtDNA gene flow between eastern and southern populations during the later movement, suggesting low admixture between Eastern African populations and the Bantu migrants. This implies that, at least in the early stages, the Bantu expansion was mainly a demic diffusion with little incorporation of local populations. PMID:26211407

  9. 60,000 years of interactions between Central and Eastern Africa documented by major African mitochondrial haplogroup L2.

    PubMed

    Silva, Marina; Alshamali, Farida; Silva, Paula; Carrilho, Carla; Mandlate, Flávio; Jesus Trovoada, Maria; Černý, Viktor; Pereira, Luísa; Soares, Pedro

    2015-01-01

    Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroup L2 originated in Western Africa but is nowadays spread across the entire continent. L2 movements were previously postulated to be related to the Bantu expansion, but L2 expansions eastwards probably occurred much earlier. By reconstructing the phylogeny of L2 (44 new complete sequences) we provide insights on the complex net of within-African migrations in the last 60 thousand years (ka). Results show that lineages in Southern Africa cluster with Western/Central African lineages at a recent time scale, whereas, eastern lineages seem to be substantially more ancient. Three moments of expansion from a Central African source are associated to L2: (1) one migration at 70-50 ka into Eastern or Southern Africa, (2) postglacial movements (15-10 ka) into Eastern Africa; and (3) the southward Bantu Expansion in the last 5 ka. The complementary population and L0a phylogeography analyses indicate no strong evidence of mtDNA gene flow between eastern and southern populations during the later movement, suggesting low admixture between Eastern African populations and the Bantu migrants. This implies that, at least in the early stages, the Bantu expansion was mainly a demic diffusion with little incorporation of local populations.

  10. The seismotectonics of Southeastern Tanzania: Implications for the propagation of the eastern branch of the East African Rift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mulibo, Gabriel D.; Nyblade, Andrew A.

    2016-04-01

    Seismicity patterns and focal mechanisms in southeastern Tanzania, determined from data recorded on temporary and permanent AfricaArray seismic stations, have been used to investigate the propagation direction of the Eastern branch of the East African Rift System southward from the Northern Tanzania Divergence Zone (NTDZ). Within the NTDZ, the rift zone is defined by three segments, the Eyasi segment to the west, the Manyara segment in the middle, and the Pangani segment to the east. Results show that most of the seismicity (~ 75%) extends to the south of the Manyara segment along the eastern margin of the Tanzania Craton, and at ~ 6-7° S latitude trends to the SE along the northern boundary of the Ruvuma microplate, connecting with a N-S zone of seismicity offshore southern Tanzania and Mozambique. A lesser amount of seismicity (~ 25%) is found extending from the SE corner of the Tanzania Craton at ~ 6-7° S latitude southwards towards Lake Nyasa. This finding supports a model of rift propagation via the Manyara segment to the southeast of the Tanzania Craton along the northern boundary of the Ruvuma microplate. However, given the limited duration of the seismic recordings used in this study, the possibility of another zone of extension developing to the south towards Lake Nyasa (Malawi) cannot be ruled out. Focal mechanisms along the boundary between the Victoria and the Ruvuma microplates and offshore southeastern Tanzania show a combination of normal and strike slip faulting indicating mainly extension with some sinistral motion, consistent with the mapped geologic faults and a clockwise rotation of the Ruvuma microplate.

  11. Distribution and clinal trends of the ABO and Rh genes in select Middle Eastern countries.

    PubMed

    AlSuhaibani, E S; Kizilbash, N A; Afshan, K; Malik, S

    2015-01-01

    An understanding of the ABO and Rh blood group systems is important for blood transfusions and is also pertinent due to their potential association with certain morbidities and susceptibilities to infections. To investigate the diversity and differentiation of the ABO and Rh loci in Middle Eastern populations, data from twelve representative Middle Eastern populations were analyzed. Six populations were in conformity with Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium at the ABO locus. The pooled heterozygosity at both loci was calculated to be highest in the sample from Jordan and lowest in Bahrain. Heterogeneity was pronounced in the Northern compared to the Southern Middle Eastern populations. Overall, the absolute gene diversity was 0.0046 and gene differentiation was calculated to be 0.0100. Genetic diversity of the studied loci across all populations (HT) was estimated to be 0.4594, while the diversity within the populations (HS) was 0.4548. Nei's genetic distance analyses revealed highest affinities between the populations of Kuwait and Qatar, Oman and Yemen, and between Qatar and the United Arab Emirates. These results were displayed through a UGPMA dendrogram and principal component analyses, which established clustering of certain populations. Clinal trends of the allelic systems were observed by generating contour maps that allow a detailed appreciation of the distributions of alleles across the geography of the Arabian Peninsula and the Middle East. Taken together, these analyses are helpful in understanding the differentiation of blood group loci and for designing prospective studies for establishing the associations of these loci with health variables in the populations studied.

  12. Complete Mitochondrial Genome Sequence of the Eastern Gorilla (Gorilla beringei) and Implications for African Ape Biogeography

    PubMed Central

    Das, Ranajit; Hergenrother, Scott D.; Soto-Calderón, Iván D.; Dew, J. Larry; Anthony, Nicola M.

    2014-01-01

    The Western and Eastern species of gorillas (Gorilla gorilla and Gorilla beringei) began diverging in the mid-Pleistocene, but in a complex pattern with ongoing gene flow following their initial split. We sequenced the complete mitochondrial genomes of 1 Eastern and 1 Western gorilla to provide the most accurate date for their mitochondrial divergence, and to analyze patterns of nucleotide substitutions. The most recent common ancestor of these genomes existed about 1.9 million years ago, slightly more recent than that of chimpanzee and bonobo. We in turn use this date as a calibration to reanalyze sequences from the Eastern lowland and mountain gorilla subspecies to estimate their mitochondrial divergence at approximately 380000 years ago. These dates help frame a hypothesis whereby populations became isolated nearly 2 million years ago with restricted maternal gene flow, followed by ongoing male migration until the recent past. This process of divergence with prolonged hybridization occurred against the backdrop of the African Pleistocene, characterized by intense fluctuations in temperature and aridity, while at the same time experiencing tectonic uplifting and consequent shifts in the drainage of major river systems. Interestingly, this same pattern of introgression following divergence and discrepancies between mitochondrial and nuclear loci is seen in fossil hominins from Eurasia, suggesting that such processes may be common in hominids and that living gorillas may provide a useful model for understanding isolation and migration in our extinct relatives. PMID:25189777

  13. Complete mitochondrial genome sequence of the Eastern gorilla (Gorilla beringei) and implications for african ape biogeography.

    PubMed

    Das, Ranajit; Hergenrother, Scott D; Soto-Calderón, Iván D; Dew, J Larry; Anthony, Nicola M; Jensen-Seaman, Michael I

    2014-01-01

    The Western and Eastern species of gorillas (Gorilla gorilla and Gorilla beringei) began diverging in the mid-Pleistocene, but in a complex pattern with ongoing gene flow following their initial split. We sequenced the complete mitochondrial genomes of 1 Eastern and 1 Western gorilla to provide the most accurate date for their mitochondrial divergence, and to analyze patterns of nucleotide substitutions. The most recent common ancestor of these genomes existed about 1.9 million years ago, slightly more recent than that of chimpanzee and bonobo. We in turn use this date as a calibration to reanalyze sequences from the Eastern lowland and mountain gorilla subspecies to estimate their mitochondrial divergence at approximately 380000 years ago. These dates help frame a hypothesis whereby populations became isolated nearly 2 million years ago with restricted maternal gene flow, followed by ongoing male migration until the recent past. This process of divergence with prolonged hybridization occurred against the backdrop of the African Pleistocene, characterized by intense fluctuations in temperature and aridity, while at the same time experiencing tectonic uplifting and consequent shifts in the drainage of major river systems. Interestingly, this same pattern of introgression following divergence and discrepancies between mitochondrial and nuclear loci is seen in fossil hominins from Eurasia, suggesting that such processes may be common in hominids and that living gorillas may provide a useful model for understanding isolation and migration in our extinct relatives.

  14. Complete mitochondrial genome sequence of the Eastern gorilla (Gorilla beringei) and implications for african ape biogeography.

    PubMed

    Das, Ranajit; Hergenrother, Scott D; Soto-Calderón, Iván D; Dew, J Larry; Anthony, Nicola M; Jensen-Seaman, Michael I

    2014-01-01

    The Western and Eastern species of gorillas (Gorilla gorilla and Gorilla beringei) began diverging in the mid-Pleistocene, but in a complex pattern with ongoing gene flow following their initial split. We sequenced the complete mitochondrial genomes of 1 Eastern and 1 Western gorilla to provide the most accurate date for their mitochondrial divergence, and to analyze patterns of nucleotide substitutions. The most recent common ancestor of these genomes existed about 1.9 million years ago, slightly more recent than that of chimpanzee and bonobo. We in turn use this date as a calibration to reanalyze sequences from the Eastern lowland and mountain gorilla subspecies to estimate their mitochondrial divergence at approximately 380000 years ago. These dates help frame a hypothesis whereby populations became isolated nearly 2 million years ago with restricted maternal gene flow, followed by ongoing male migration until the recent past. This process of divergence with prolonged hybridization occurred against the backdrop of the African Pleistocene, characterized by intense fluctuations in temperature and aridity, while at the same time experiencing tectonic uplifting and consequent shifts in the drainage of major river systems. Interestingly, this same pattern of introgression following divergence and discrepancies between mitochondrial and nuclear loci is seen in fossil hominins from Eurasia, suggesting that such processes may be common in hominids and that living gorillas may provide a useful model for understanding isolation and migration in our extinct relatives. PMID:25189777

  15. Middle Proterozoic age for the Montpelier Anorthosite, Goochland terrane, eastern Piedmont, Virginia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Aleinikoff, J.N.; Horton, J.W.; Walter, M.

    1996-01-01

    Uranium-lead dating of zircons from the Montpelier Anorthosite confirms previous interpretations, based on equivocal evidence, that the Goochland terrane in the eastern Piedmont of Virginia contains Grenvillian basement rocks of Middle Proterozoic age. A very few prismatic, elongate, euhedral zircons, which contain 12-29 ppm uranium, are interpreted to be igneous in origin. The vast majority of zircons are more equant, subangular to anhedral, contain 38-52 ppm uranium, and are interpreted to be metamorphic in origin. One fraction of elongate zircon, and four fragments of a very large zircon (occurring in a nelsonite segregation) yield an upper intercept age of 1045 ?? 10 Ma, interpreted as the time of anorthosite crystallization. Irregularly shaped metamorphic zircons are dated at 1011 ?? 2 Ma (weighted average of the 207Pb/206Pb ages). The U-Pb isotopic systematics of metamorphic titanite were reset during the Alleghanian orogeny at 297 ?? 5 Ma. These data provide a minimum age for gneisses of the Goochland terrane that are intruded by the anorthosite. Middle Proterozoic basement rocks of the Goochland terrane may be correlative with those in the Shenandoah massif of the Blue Ridge tectonic province, as suggested by similarities between the Montpelier Anorthosite and the Roseland anorthosite. Although the areal extent of Middle Proterozoic basement and basement-cover relations in the eastern Piedmont remain unresolved, results of this investigation indicate that the Goochland terrane is an internal massif of Laurentian crust rather than an exotic accreted terrane.

  16. Characterizing the learning styles and testing the science-related attitudes of African American middle school students: Implications for the underrepresentation of African Americans in the sciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perine, Donald Ray

    African Americans, Hispanics, Native Americans and women are underrepresented among the population of scientists and science teachers in the United States. Specifically, the shortage of African Americans teaching math and science at all levels of the educational process and going into the many science-related fields is manifested throughout the entire educational and career structure of our society. This shortage exists when compared to the total population of African Americans in this country, the population of African American students, and to society's demand for more math and science teachers and professionals of all races. One suggestion to address this problem is to update curricular and instructional programs to accommodate the learning styles of African Americans from elementary to graduate school. There is little in the published literature to help us understand the learning styles of African American middle school students and how they compare to African American adults who pursue science careers. There is also little published data to help inform us about the relationship between learning styles of African American middle school students and their attitudes toward science. The author used a learning styles inventory instrument to identify the learning style preferences of the African American students and adults. The preferences identified describe how African American students and African American adult science professionals prefer to function, learn, concentrate, and perform in their educational and work activities in the areas of: (a) immediate environment, (b) emotionality, (c) sociological needs, and (d) physical needs. The learning style preferences for the students and adults were not significantly different in key areas of preference. A Test of Science-Related Attitudes (TOSRA) was used to measure seven distinct science-related attitudes of the middle school students. A comparison of the profile of the mean scores for the students in this study

  17. The P and S wave velocity structure of the mantle beneath eastern Africa and the African superplume anomaly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mulibo, Gabriel D.; Nyblade, Andrew A.

    2013-08-01

    P and S relative arrival time residuals from teleseismic earthquakes recorded on over 60 temporary AfricaArray broadband seismic stations deployed in Uganda, Tanzania, and Zambia between 2007 and 2011 have been inverted, together with relative arrival time residuals from earthquakes recorded by previous deployments, for a tomographic image of mantle wave speed variations extending to a depth of 1200 km beneath eastern Africa. The image shows a low-wave speed anomaly (LWA) well developed at shallow depths (100-200 km) beneath the Eastern and Western branches of the Cenozoic East African rift system and northwestern Zambia, and a fast wave speed anomaly at depths ≤ 350 km beneath the central and northern parts of the East African Plateau and the eastern and central parts of Zambia. At depths ≥350 km the LWA is most prominent under the central and southern parts of the East African Plateau and dips to the southwest beneath northern Zambia, extending to a depth of at least 900 km. The amplitude of the LWA is consistent with a ˜150-300 K thermal perturbation, and its depth extent indicates that the African superplume, originally identified as a lower mantle anomaly, is likely a whole mantle structure. A superplume extending from the core-mantle boundary to the surface implies an origin for the Cenozoic extension, volcanism, and plateau uplift in eastern Africa rooted in the dynamics of the lower mantle.

  18. A focused ethnographic assessment of Middle Eastern mothers' infant feeding practices in Canada.

    PubMed

    Jessri, Mahsa; Farmer, Anna P; Olson, Karin

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the barriers to following complementary feeding guidelines among Middle Eastern mothers and the cultural considerations of practitioners from an emic perspective. This is a two-phase focused ethnographic assessment of infant feeding among 22 Middle Eastern mothers in Western Canada who had healthy infants aged <1 year. Data were collected through four focus groups conducted in Arabic/Farsi, and were further complemented by comprehensive survey data collected in the second phase of study. Mothers' main criterion for choosing infant foods was whether or not foods were Halal, while food allergens were not causes for concern. Vitamin D supplements were not fed to 18/22 of infants, and mashed dates (Halawi), rice pudding (Muhallabia/Ferni) and sugared water/tea were the first complementary foods commonly consumed. Through constant comparison of qualitative data, three layers of influence emerged, which described mothers' process of infant feeding: socio-cultural, health care system and personal factors. Culture was an umbrella theme influencing all aspects of infant feeding decisions. Mothers cited health care professionals' lack of cultural considerations and lack of relevance and practicality of infant feeding guidelines as the main reasons for ignoring infant feeding recommendations. Early introduction of pre-lacteal feeds and inappropriate types of foods fed to infants among immigrant/refugee Middle Eastern mothers in Canada is cause of concern. Involving trained language interpreters in health teams and educating health care staff on cultural competency may potentially increase maternal trust in the health care system and eventually lead to increased awareness of and adherence to best practices with infant feeding recommendations.

  19. Heavy metals in different fishes from the middle eastern coast in Tunisia

    SciTech Connect

    Hamza-Chaffai, A.; Romeo, M.; Abed, E.A.

    1996-05-01

    Considerable information has been reported on trace metal concentrations of various fishes in the Mediterranean area, but there is a lack of data in the concentrations of trace metals in fishes from the southern Mediterranean. For this reason, work was done to establish a baseline of heavy metal concentrations on fishes from the coast of Sfax (middle eastern coast of Tunisia). This coast has been industrialized for many years. Nevertheless, touristic activities have been developing for the last years. This study examines the accumulation pattern of copper, cadmium, and zinc in individual organs (muscle, liver and gonad) of fishes. 18 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  20. Basin development and tectonic history of the Llanos Basin, Eastern Cordillera, and Middle Magdalena Valley, Colombia

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, M.A.; Addison, F.T.; Alvarez, R.

    1995-10-01

    The Middle Magdalena Valley, Eastern Cordillera, and Llanos basin constituted a major regional sedimentary basin from the Triassic to the middle Miocene. Basin development began during the Triassic to the earliest Cretaceous with a synrift megasequence related to the separation of North and South America in the proto-Caribbean. The synrift megasequence began with deposition in a continental environment that became paralic and shallow marine in the Early Cretaceous. Basin development continued into the Cretaceous in a back-arc setting east of the Andean subduction zone. The back-arc megasequence was dominated by shallow-marine sedimentation and produced an excellent regional source rock during the Turonian-Coniacian. Marine deposition was abruptly terminated during the early Maastrichtian due to the final accretion of the Western Cordillera.

  1. Examining science achievement of African American females in suburban middle schools: A mixed methods study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Topping, Kecia C.

    This dissertation examined factors that affected the science achievement of African American females in suburban middle schools. The research literature informed that African American females are facing the barriers of race, gender, socioeconomic status, and cultural learning style preferences. Nationally used measurements of science achievement such as the Standardized Achievement Test, Tenth edition (SAT-10), National Assessment for Educational Progress, and National Center for Educational Statistics showed that African American females are continuing to falter in the areas of science when compared to other ethnic groups. This study used a transformative sequential explanatory mixed methods design. In the first, quantitative, phase, the relationships among the dependent variables, science subscale SAT-10 NCE scores, yearly averages, and the independent variables, attitude toward science scores obtained from the Modified Fennema-Sherman Attitudes toward Science Scale, socioeconomics, and caregiver status were tested. The participants were 150 African American females in grades 6 through 8 in four suburban middle schools located in the Southeastern United States. The results showed a positive, significant linear relationship between the females' attitude and their science subscale SAT-10 NCE scores and a positive, significant linear relationship between the females' attitudes and their yearly averages in science. The results also confirmed that attitude was a significant predictor of science subscale SAT-10 NCE scores for these females and that attitude and socioeconomics were significant predictors of the females' yearly averages in science. In the second, qualitative, phase, nine females purposefully selected from those who had high and low attitude towards science scores on the scale in the quantitative phase were interviewed. The themes that emerged revealed seven additional factors that impacted the females' science achievement. They were usefulness of science

  2. Motor vehicle injuries in Qatar: time trends in a rapidly developing Middle Eastern nation.

    PubMed

    Mamtani, Ravinder; Al-Thani, Mohammed H; Al-Thani, Al-Anoud Mohammed; Sheikh, Javaid I; Lowenfels, Albert B

    2012-04-01

    Despite their wealth and modern road systems, traffic injury rates in Middle Eastern countries are generally higher than those in Western countries. The authors examined traffic injuries in Qatar during 2000-2010, a period of rapid population growth, focusing on the impact of speed control cameras installed in 2007 on overall injury rates and mortality. During the period 2000-2006, prior to camera installation, the mean (SD) vehicular injury death rate per 100,000 was 19.9±4.1. From 2007 to 2010, the mean (SD) vehicular death rates were significantly lower: 14.7±1.5 (p=0.028). Non-fatal severe injury rates also declined, but mild injury rates increased, perhaps because of increased traffic congestion and improved notification. It is possible that speed cameras decreased speeding enough to affect the death rate, without affecting overall injury rates. These data suggest that in a rapidly growing Middle Eastern country, photo enforcement (speed) cameras can be an important component of traffic control, but other measures will be required for maximum impact.

  3. Triple Plane Dissection in Open Primary Rhinoplasty in Middle Eastern Noses

    PubMed Central

    Elshahat, Ahmed

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Rhinoplasty started as a closed technique and then the open technique gained popularity. Open technique gave surgeons the opportunity to visualize and manipulate the cartilaginous skeleton at the tip of the nose precisely. The dissection planes in open rhinoplasty technique may be subcutaneous, submuscular (under the superficial musculoaponeurotic system), or subpericondrial subperiosteal. Each plane has advantages and disadvantages. The aim of this study was to combine planes to get the maximal benefit of each plane. Method: The study was performed on 38 Middle Eastern patients, among whom 23 were females and 15 were males. All patients presented for primary rhinoplasty. They were divided into 5 groups on the basis of their skin thickness. Dissection started subcutaneous at the area of the lower lateral cartilages and then shifted subsuperficial musculoaponeurotic system over the upper lateral cartilages and ended subperiosteal over the bony skeleton. Results: This triple plane of dissection gave acceptable results without any complication. Subcutaneous dissection allowed thinning of the thick sebaceous skin at the tip and alar region, subsuperficial musculoaponeurotic system dissection allowed direct exposure of the upper lateral cartilage without thinning skin at an area where it is thin, and subperiosteal dissection helped masking any bony irregularities resulted from osteotomies. Conclusion: The triple plane dissection in open primary rhinoplasty in Middle Eastern patients maximized the advantages of each plane and minimized the disadvantages and resulted in safe cosmetic results. PMID:23967367

  4. Comparison of men and women with acute coronary syndrome in six Middle Eastern countries.

    PubMed

    El-Menyar, Ayman; Zubaid, Mohammad; Rashed, Wafa; Almahmeed, Wael; Al-Lawati, Jawad; Sulaiman, Kadhim; Al-Motarreb, Ahmed; Amin, Haitham; R, Singh; Al Suwaidi, Jassim

    2009-10-15

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the gender differences in baseline characteristics, therapy, and outcomes in patients with acute coronary syndromes in 6 Middle Eastern countries. Over a 6-month period in 2007, 8,169 consecutive patients (74% men, 24% women) presenting with acute coronary syndromes were enrolled in a prospective, multicenter study from 6 adjacent Middle Eastern countries. Women were 9 years older than men and more likely to have diabetes, hypertension, and dyslipidemia. Women were more likely to present with unstable angina and more often had atypical presentations of ST elevation myocardial infarction. Compared to men, women were significantly less treated with beta blockers and antiplatelet therapy, whereas reperfusion therapy was nonsignificantly less used in women. In all patients with acute coronary syndromes, women not only ranked higher on Global Registry of Acute Coronary Events risk score but also had increased in-hospital mortality, 1.75 times that of men. This mortality difference persisted after adjusting for all confounders (odds ratios 1.76, 95% confidence interval 1.1 to 2.8, p <0.01). In conclusion, in addition to presentation with higher risk factors, female gender also independently predicted poorer outcomes in patients with ST elevation myocardial infarction.

  5. Konzo outbreak among refugees from Central African Republic in Eastern region, Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Ciglenečki, I; Eyema, R; Kabanda, C; Taafo, F; Mekaoui, H; Urbaniak, V

    2011-03-01

    Konzo is a spastic paraparesis of sudden onset, linked to the exclusive consumption of insufficiently processed bitter cassava as staple food combined with low protein intake. Around 60,000 refugees from the Central African Republic sought refuge in villages in eastern Cameroon between 2005 and 2007. Médecins Sans Frontières was providing nutritional and medical assistance in the villages affected by displacement. We describe cases of konzo seen at the mobile clinics organized in these villages. Basic information including demographic data, history and clinical presentation was recorded for each konzo patient. All patients were given nutritional supplements, and selected cases were referred for physiotherapy to a rehabilitation center. A total of 469 patients were diagnosed with konzo. The majority (80%) were refugees. Children and women of reproductive age predominated. Most of the patients developed symptoms after 2007 in a seasonal pattern with most of the cases occurring during the dry winter season. Most of the patients complained about walking difficulties and weight loss and had exaggerated lower limb reflexes and muscle wasting on observation. Eastern Cameroon is an area with konzo. More effort needs to be put into preventive and educational measures. In addition, timely balanced food rations have to be provided to refugees.

  6. Post-middle Miocene origin of modern landforms in the eastern Piedmont of Virginia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Weems, R.E.; Edwards, L.E.

    2007-01-01

    Diverse late middle Miocene dinoflagellate floras, obtained from two sites along the western edge of the Atlantic Coastal Plain in central Virginia, indicate that the eastern Virginia Piedmont was covered by marine waters about 12-13 Ma. This transgression extended farther westward across the Virginia Piedmont than any other transgression that has been documented. Extensive fluvial deposits that may be associated with this transgression covered earlier stream patterns in the eastern Piedmont and buried them beneath a thin (probably less than 100 foot-thick) veneer of sand and gravel. During the subsequent regression, a linear down-slope stream-drainage pattern developed. Although it has been somewhat modified by later stream captures, it still is easily recognizable. This interval of marine inundation and deposition explains why modern stream patterns in the eastern Piedmont of Virginia strongly resemble the stream patterns in the Coastal Plain and differ from the structurally adjusted trellis stream patterns typical of the western Piedmont, Blue Ridge, and Valley and Ridge regions. Uplift of the modern Southern Appalachian Mountains began at the time of this transgression and was largely completed by the late Pliocene.

  7. Eastern Termination of the Subducting African Lithosphere Beneath Anatolia Imaged by Teleseismic P-Wave Tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biryol, C. B.; Zandt, G.; Beck, S. L.; Ozacar, A.; Schmandt, B.

    2009-12-01

    A variety of complex tectonic processes are active in Anatolia. Collision related plateau formation dominates the present lithospheric deformation toward the east and slab roll-back related back-arc extension takes place toward the west. The two zones are connected at the northern part of the region by strike-slip faulting along the right-lateral North Anatolian Fault. Recent seismological studies show that the Eastern Anatolian Plateau (EAP) is supported by hot asthenosphereric material that was emplaced beneath the plateau following the detachment of subducted Arabian lithosphere. The westward continuation of the deeper structure of Anatolia is less well constrained due to the lack of geophysical observations. In order to study how the deeper lithosphere and mantle structure evolves spatially from east to west, we used teleseismic P-wave tomography and data from several temporary and permanent seismic networks deployed in the region. A major part of the data comes from the North Anatolian Fault passive seismic experiment (NAF) that consists of 39 broadband seismic stations operated at the north central part of Anatolia between 2005 - 2008. We also used data collected from permanent seismic stations of the National Earthquake Monitoring Center (NEMC) and stations from the Eastern Turkey Seismic Experiment (ETSE). Approximately 15,000 P-wave travel time residuals, measured in multiple frequency bands, are inverted using approximate finite-frequency sensitivity kernels. Our tomographic model reveals a fast anomaly that corresponds to the subducted portion of the African lithosphere along the Cyprean Arc. This fast anomaly dips northward beneath central Anatolia with an angle of approximately 45 degrees. However, the anomaly disappears rather sharply east of 36 degree longitude. This eastern edge of the slab also marks the western boundary of the EAP and Arabia-Eurasia collision zone. Beneath EAP our model reveals distributed slow anomalies down to 400 km and upper

  8. Climatic change and the history of the Middle East: Did major climatic changes alter the course of Middle Eastern history during the past 5,000 years?

    SciTech Connect

    Issar, A.S.

    1995-07-01

    This article explores the influence of climatic change on history, specifically that of the Middle Eastern regions. The Middle east may provide a unique model and opportunity to assess the impact of climatic change on human evenst. The climatic history of the Middle East varied considerably during the past 10,000 years (after the beginning of the agricultural revolution) and there is a rich archeological and historical record. The author looks at the conventional reasons for upheavels in the region and then superimposes the climatic changes to find another explanation which better fits the archeological and historical facts. 15 refs., 6 figs.

  9. The influence of functional social support on executive functioning in middle-aged African Americans

    PubMed Central

    Sims, Regina C.; Levy, Shellie-Anne; Mwendwa, Denée T.; Callender, Clive O.; Campbell, Alfonso L.

    2012-01-01

    Social support has a positive influence on cognitive functioning and buffers cognitive decline in older adults. This study examined the relations between social support and executive functioning in middle-aged adults. A community-based sample of African Americans completed the Interpersonal Support Evaluation List, a measure of functions of social support, and two measures of executive functioning, the Stroop Color Word Test and the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST). Hierarchical regression analyses were used to explore the hypothesis that different facets of perceived social support influence performance on measures of executive functioning. After controlling for age, gender, and education, social support facets including belonging support, self-esteem support, appraisal support, and tangible support were significant predictors of Stroop performance. In addition, tangible support significantly predicted WCST performance. These findings add to previous literature on social support and cognition; however, findings for middle-aged adults are unique and suggest that social support has a positive influence on some executive functions in African Americans prior to old age. PMID:21614697

  10. Comparison of personal characteristics, tobacco use, and health states in Chaldean, Arab American, and non-Middle Eastern White adults.

    PubMed

    Jamil, H; Templin, T; Fakhouri, M; Rice, V H; Khouri, R; Fakhouri, H; Al-Omran, Hasan; Al-Fauori, Ibrahim; Baker, Omar

    2009-08-01

    This study compared and contrasted personal characteristics, tobacco use (cigarette and water pipe smoking), and health states in Chaldean, Arab American and non-Middle Eastern White adults attending an urban community service center. The average age was 39.4 (SD = 14.2). The three groups differed significantly (P < .006) on ethnicity, age, gender distribution, marital status, language spoken, education, employment, and annual income. Current cigarette smoking was highest for non-Middle Eastern White adults (35.4%) and current water pipe smoking was highest for Arab Americans (3.6%). Arab Americans were more likely to smoke both cigarettes and the narghile (4.3%). Health problems were highest among former smokers in all three ethnic groups. Being male, older, unmarried, and non-Middle Eastern White predicted current cigarette smoking; being Arab or Chaldean and having less formal education predicted current water pipe use. PMID:18311586

  11. Additional evidence for bone technology in the southern African Middle Stone Age.

    PubMed

    d'Errico, Francesco; Henshilwood, Christopher S

    2007-02-01

    Few Middle Stone Age sites have yielded convincing evidence for a complex bone technology, a behavior often associated with the emergence of modern cultures. Here, we review the published evidence for Middle Stone Age bone tools from southern Africa, analyze an additional nine bone artifacts recently recovered from Middle Stone Age levels at Blombos Cave, describe an unpublished bone tool from probable Middle Stone Age levels at Peers Cave, examine a single bone awl found at Blombosch Sands (an open site near Blombos Cave), and reappraise marked bone artifacts and a bone point recovered from Klasies River. To determine the chronological and cultural attribution of these artifacts, document bone-manufacturing techniques associated with the southern African MSA, and discuss the symbolic significance of the markings present on some of these objects we use (1) available contextual information; (2) morphometric comparison of Later Stone Age, Modern San, and purported Middle Stone Age projectile points; (3) analysis of the carbon/nitrogen content of bone tools and faunal remains from Peers and Blombos caves; and (4) microscopic analysis of traces of manufacture and use. Previously undescribed bone artifacts from Blombos Cave include a massive point manufactured on weathered bone, two complete awls and two awl tips manufactured on small-sized mammal and bird bone, a probable projectile point with a tang manufactured by knapping and scraping, a shaft fragment modified by percussion, used as retoucher and bearing a set of incised lines on the middle of the periosteal surface, and two fragments with possible engravings. The point from Peers Cave can be assigned to the Middle Stone Age and bears tiny markings reminiscent of those recorded on projectile points from Blombos and used as marks of ownership on San arrow points. The awl from Blombosch Sands and the bone point from Klasies River can be attributed to the Later Stone Age. Two notched objects from Klasies are

  12. Exploring Middle-Eastern mothers' perceptions and experiences of breastfeeding in Canada: an ethnographic study.

    PubMed

    Jessri, Mahsa; Farmer, Anna P; Olson, Karin

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore from the Middle-Eastern mothers' perspective, the experience of breastfeeding and their perceptions of attributes of the health care system, community and society on their feeding decisions after migration to Canada. New immigrant mothers from the Middle East (n = 22) were recruited from community agencies in Edmonton, Canada. Qualitative data were collected through four focus groups using an ethnographic approach to guide concurrent data collection and analysis. Survey data were collected on socio-demographic characteristics via pre-tested questionnaires. All mothers, but one who was medically exempt, breastfed their infants from birth and intended to continue for at least 2 years. Through constant comparison of data, five layers of influence emerged which described mothers' process of decision making: culture/society, community, health care system, family/friends and mother-infant dyad. Religious belief was an umbrella theme that was woven throughout all discussions and it was the strongest determining factor for choosing to breastfeed. However, cultural practices promoted pre-lacteal feeding and hence, jeopardising breastfeeding exclusivity. Although contradicted in Islamic tradition, most mothers practised fasting during breastfeeding because of misbeliefs about interpretations regarding these rules. Despite high rates of breastfeeding, there is a concern of lack of breastfeeding exclusivity among Middle-Eastern settlers in Canada. To promote successful breastfeeding in Muslim migrant communities, interventions must occur at different levels of influence and should consider religious beliefs to ensure cultural acceptability. Practitioners may support exclusive breastfeeding through cultural competency, and respectfully acknowledging Islamic beliefs and cultural practices.

  13. Exploring Middle-Eastern mothers' perceptions and experiences of breastfeeding in Canada: an ethnographic study.

    PubMed

    Jessri, Mahsa; Farmer, Anna P; Olson, Karin

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore from the Middle-Eastern mothers' perspective, the experience of breastfeeding and their perceptions of attributes of the health care system, community and society on their feeding decisions after migration to Canada. New immigrant mothers from the Middle East (n = 22) were recruited from community agencies in Edmonton, Canada. Qualitative data were collected through four focus groups using an ethnographic approach to guide concurrent data collection and analysis. Survey data were collected on socio-demographic characteristics via pre-tested questionnaires. All mothers, but one who was medically exempt, breastfed their infants from birth and intended to continue for at least 2 years. Through constant comparison of data, five layers of influence emerged which described mothers' process of decision making: culture/society, community, health care system, family/friends and mother-infant dyad. Religious belief was an umbrella theme that was woven throughout all discussions and it was the strongest determining factor for choosing to breastfeed. However, cultural practices promoted pre-lacteal feeding and hence, jeopardising breastfeeding exclusivity. Although contradicted in Islamic tradition, most mothers practised fasting during breastfeeding because of misbeliefs about interpretations regarding these rules. Despite high rates of breastfeeding, there is a concern of lack of breastfeeding exclusivity among Middle-Eastern settlers in Canada. To promote successful breastfeeding in Muslim migrant communities, interventions must occur at different levels of influence and should consider religious beliefs to ensure cultural acceptability. Practitioners may support exclusive breastfeeding through cultural competency, and respectfully acknowledging Islamic beliefs and cultural practices. PMID:22909247

  14. Causal Modes in the Low-frequency variability of Mediterranean and Middle-Eastern climates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casagrande, Erik; Zampieri, Matteo; Artale, Vincenzo; Gualdi, Silvio; Molini, Annalisa

    2015-04-01

    In the last three decades, the Mediterranean and the Middle East experienced a phase of warming larger than the one that could be expected from global warming, and largely ascribable to natural (e.g. internal) climate variability. To better understand this process we explore here the presence of causal relationships among the diverse modes of variability of the climate system, focusing in particular on inter-annual and decadal scales of variability, influencing the climate of Mediterranean and Middle-Eastern regions. Causality measures used in this study include time and frequency-domain Granger causality (GC) and the phase slope index (Ψ), a directional coupling statistic developed by Nolte et. al. in 2007. GC metrics are applied to signals before and after the filtering of high frequency (inter-annual) components, while Ψ is designed to discern between low-frequency causal flow and higher frequency components. To assure the necessary sample size, the analysis is based on the preindustrial runs of the Fifth Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5), which are free from external perturbation and last some hundred years. We selected the runs based on ENSO stationarity - to ensure that the simulations reached the equilibrium - and the consistent representation of the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO), which is considered one of the main drivers for the low-frequency (decadal) climate variability of the Mediterranean and the Middle East in summer. Finally, we discuss the potential of causality metrics for the predictability of future decadal variability in these regions.

  15. How African American, Middle Class Parents Learn and Enact a Racism Resistant Critical Race Achievement Ideology in Their Adolescents in Gifted and AP Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Tracey Simmons

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to examine African American, middle class parents' facilitation of an academic achievement ideology that is racism-resistant in their adolescent offspring in AP and Gifted Education classrooms. Three research questions guided the study: (1) how do African American, middle class parents come to acquire or…

  16. Schooling Experiences and Perceptions of Resettled Sub-Saharan African Refugee Middle School Students in a Southwest U.S. State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sallu, Adama

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the schooling experiences and perceptions of resettled sub-Saharan African middle school refugee students in a metropolitan area of the United States Southwest. The research questions underpinning this study included: What are the schooling experiences and perceptions of resettled sub-Saharan African middle school refugee…

  17. A Descriptive Qualitative Study Exploring Teacher and Parental Perceptions of African-American Middle School Male Students Related to Mathematics Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fowler, Crystal Nicole

    2013-01-01

    This qualitative descriptive case study explored the perceptions of parents and teachers of the academic achievement gap in mathematics between African-American middle school males and their White counterparts. Ten parents, both African-American and White, with students attending middle school in the Cherokee County School District and 5 teachers…

  18. Hominin teeth from the Middle Pleistocene site of Yiyuan, Eastern China.

    PubMed

    Xing, Song; Sun, Chengkai; Martinón-Torres, María; Bermúdez de Castro, José María; Han, Fei; Zhang, Yingqi; Liu, Wu

    2016-06-01

    In 1981-1982, some hominin fossils, including a relatively complete skull and seven isolated teeth, were recovered from the Middle Pleistocene site of Yiyuan in Eastern China. In the present study we provide a detailed metric and morphological comparison of the Yiyuan dental sample in order to characterize better the variability of the human populations that inhabited China during the Middle Pleistocene. Aside from taxonomic and phylogenetic questions, the lack of understanding and/or knowledge about the morphological variability of these populations have caused concern about the human versus non-human nature of some of the hominin dental remains found in East Asia during the Early and the Middle Pleistocene. Thus, our study aims to present a detailed description and comparison of the Yiyuan isolated teeth to 1) discuss and support their human nature and 2) to explore their taxonomic affinities with regard to other penecontemporaneous populations from Asia. Our results clearly differentiate the Yiyuan sample from Pongo specimens and support a human attribution for the Yiyuan material. Our analyses also suggest that the Yiyuan teeth form a morphologically coherent group together with samples from Zhoukoudian, Chaoxian and Hexian. They are different from the more derived specimens from Panxian Dadong, suggesting a pattern of biogeographic isolation and different evolutionary trends between northern and southern China during the Middle Pleistocene. In addition, and despite sharing a common morphological bauplan with Homo erectus sensu stricto (s.s.), the Yiyuan, Zhoukoudian and Hexian teeth are also different from the Indonesian Early Pleistocene samples. In particular, the expression of a highly crenulated or dendritic enamel-dentine surface could be unique to these groups. Our study supports the notion that the taxonomy of the Pleistocene hominins from Asia may have been oversimplified. Future studies should explore the variability of the Asian specimens and

  19. Hominin teeth from the Middle Pleistocene site of Yiyuan, Eastern China.

    PubMed

    Xing, Song; Sun, Chengkai; Martinón-Torres, María; Bermúdez de Castro, José María; Han, Fei; Zhang, Yingqi; Liu, Wu

    2016-06-01

    In 1981-1982, some hominin fossils, including a relatively complete skull and seven isolated teeth, were recovered from the Middle Pleistocene site of Yiyuan in Eastern China. In the present study we provide a detailed metric and morphological comparison of the Yiyuan dental sample in order to characterize better the variability of the human populations that inhabited China during the Middle Pleistocene. Aside from taxonomic and phylogenetic questions, the lack of understanding and/or knowledge about the morphological variability of these populations have caused concern about the human versus non-human nature of some of the hominin dental remains found in East Asia during the Early and the Middle Pleistocene. Thus, our study aims to present a detailed description and comparison of the Yiyuan isolated teeth to 1) discuss and support their human nature and 2) to explore their taxonomic affinities with regard to other penecontemporaneous populations from Asia. Our results clearly differentiate the Yiyuan sample from Pongo specimens and support a human attribution for the Yiyuan material. Our analyses also suggest that the Yiyuan teeth form a morphologically coherent group together with samples from Zhoukoudian, Chaoxian and Hexian. They are different from the more derived specimens from Panxian Dadong, suggesting a pattern of biogeographic isolation and different evolutionary trends between northern and southern China during the Middle Pleistocene. In addition, and despite sharing a common morphological bauplan with Homo erectus sensu stricto (s.s.), the Yiyuan, Zhoukoudian and Hexian teeth are also different from the Indonesian Early Pleistocene samples. In particular, the expression of a highly crenulated or dendritic enamel-dentine surface could be unique to these groups. Our study supports the notion that the taxonomy of the Pleistocene hominins from Asia may have been oversimplified. Future studies should explore the variability of the Asian specimens and

  20. Latest Oligocene through early middle Miocene diatom biostratigraphy of the eastern tropical Pacific

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barron, J.A.

    1983-01-01

    Study of DSDP Sites 71, 77, and 495 has allowed the development of a refined diatom biostratigraphy for the latest Oligocene through early middle Miocene of the eastern tropical Pacific which is well correlated to the low-latitude zonations for planktonic foraminifers, coccoliths, and radiolarians. Six zones and 7 subzones are proposed, and correlation with high-latitude diatoms zonations for the North Pacific, the Norwegian Sea, and the Southern Ocean is suggested by the discovery of selected diatoms in these tropical sediments which were previously thought to be restricted to high latitudes. Six new species and one new variety of diatoms which are stratigraphically useful are proposed: Actinocyclus hajosiae, n. sp., A. radionovae, n. sp., Coscinodiscus blysmos, n. sp., C. praenodulifer, n. sp., Craspedodiscus rydei, n. sp., Thalassiosira bukryi, n. sp., and Coscinodiscus lewisianus var. robustus n. var. ?? 1983.

  1. Sporotrichosis of Maxillary Sinuses in a Middle Aged Female Patient from Rural Area of Eastern India

    PubMed Central

    Das, Saumik; Sinha, Ramanuj; Aggarwal, Neeraj; Chakravorty, Sriparna

    2016-01-01

    Sporotrichosis is commonly a chronic infection caused by Sporothrix schenckii, a saprophytic fungus and is usually limited to cutaneous and subcutaneous tissues. Disseminated systemic, osteoarticular or pulmonary sporotrichosis have been reported but nasal sinusitis by this fungus is extremely infrequent. Earlier report from southern India documented a case of maxillary sinusitis by Sporothrix schenckii. Here we report a similar case of bilateral maxillary sinusitis in a middle aged female from a village of Bihar, a state in eastern India. She underwent endoscopic maxillary sinus surgery for nasal symptoms and diagnosed to have sporotrichotic infection of maxillary sinuses. The diagnosis was done by mycological and histopathological examination and patient improved under antifungal chemotherapy. PMID:27134873

  2. A framework guiding critical thinking through reflective journal documentation: a Middle Eastern experience.

    PubMed

    Simpson, Elaine; Courtney, Mary

    2007-08-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present a framework to guide critical thinking through reflective journaling, and describe how a group of 20 Middle Eastern nurses used reflective journaling to enhance their practice. Journal documentation was used during clinical practicum to foster the development of critical thinking in order to assist nurses when analysing and evaluating their clinical experiences. The findings from this study demonstrated that nurses accepted the framework for journal documentation because it provided structure for reflection, speculation, synthesis and metacognition of events experienced during clinical practice. Journaling gave nurses the opportunity to transfer thoughts onto paper and write down subjective and objective data, and created dialogue between the nurse educators and nurses. They were engaged in productive and positive activity to enhance their nursing practice. Nurses also commented that writing helped to develop their confidence in writing English.

  3. Epidemiology of Primary Brain Tumors in the Middle Eastern Population in California, 2001–2005

    PubMed Central

    Nasseri, Kiumarss; Mills, John R.

    2009-01-01

    Background The fast growing Middle Eastern (ME) population has rarely been studied in the US. The purpose of this study was to compare the epidemiology of primary brain tumors in this ethnic population with the non-Hispanic, non-Middle Eastern White (NHNMW) in California. Methods ME cases were identified by surname in the California cancer registry and ME population estimates were based on ancestry. Data for 683 cases of primary brain tumors (429 benign, 238 malignant, 16 uncertain) in the ME and 15,589 cases (8,352 benign, 6,812 malignant, 425 uncertain) in the NHNMW were available for this study. Results ME patients were significantly (p<0.05) younger and their age-adjusted incidence rates per 100,000 for benign tumors of 10.0 in men and 17.6 in women were higher than similar rates of 7.3 and 10.6 in the NHNMW group (p<0.05). Rates for malignant tumors were similar. Meningioma was the main histology responsible for the observed increase in patients over 40 years of age. Also increased were benign tumors of the pituitary and pineal glands. The overall mortality in patients with benign tumors was significantly lower than malignant tumors. Conclusions This study presents a significantly high incidence of benign meningioma in the ME population in California. This may be due to higher susceptibility or exposure of this ethnic group to the risk factor(s) for this neoplasm. Considering the reported causal association of benign meningioma with childhood radiation exposure from Israel, exposure to this risk factor in this ethnic group needs to be evaluated in future studies. PMID:19588542

  4. Correction of the Middle Eastern M712T mutation causing GNE myopathy by trans-splicing.

    PubMed

    Tal-Goldberg, Tzukit; Lorain, Stéphanie; Mitrani-Rosenbaum, Stella

    2014-06-01

    GNE myopathy is a rare neuromuscular autosomal recessive disease, resulting from mutations in the gene UDP N-acetylglucosamine 2-epimerase/N-acetylmannosamine kinase (GNE). The most frequent mutation is the single homozygous missense mutation, M712T-the Middle Eastern mutation-located ten amino acids before the end of the protein. We have used an adeno-associated virus (AAV)-based trans-splicing (TS) vector as a gene therapy tool to overcome this mutation by replacing the mutated last exon of GNE by the wild-type exon while preserving the natural endogenous regulatory machinery. We have designed relevant plasmids directed either to mouse or to human GNE. Following transfection of C2C12 murine muscle cells with the mouse TS vectors, we have been able to detect by nested RT-PCR trans-spliced molecules carrying the wild-type exon 12 of GNE. Similarly, transfection of HEK293 human cells with the human-directed TS vectors resulted in the generation of trans-spliced human GNE RNA molecules. Furthermore, infection of primary muscle cells from a GNE myopathy patient carrying the homozygous M712T mutation, with an AAV8-based viral vector carrying a human-directed TS construct, resulted in the generation of wild-type GNE transcripts in addition to the mutated ones. These studies provide a proof of concept that the TS approach could be used to partially correct the Middle Eastern mutation in GNE myopathy patients. These results provide the basis for in vivo research in animal models using the AAV platform with TS plasmids as a potential genetic therapy for GNE myopathy. PMID:24264357

  5. The nature of culturally responsive pedagogy in two urban African American middle school science classrooms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bondima, Michelle Harris

    This ethnographic in nature study explores how two middle school science teachers who have classes populated by urban African Americans teach their students and how their students perceive their teaching. Since urban African American students continue to perform lower than desired on measures of science achievement, there is an urgent need to understand what pedagogical methodologies assist and hinder urban African American students in achieving higher levels of success in science. A pedagogical methodology that theorists posit assists subordinated school populations is culturally responsive pedagogy. Culturally responsive pedagogy is defined as a teaching methodology concerned with preparing students to question inequality, racism, and injustice. Teachers who use culturally responsive pedagogy respect the culture students bring to the class, and require that the teachers willingly do whatever is necessary to educate students (Nieto, 2000). The teacher participants were two female African Americans who were identified by their school supervisors as being highly effective with urban African American students. The researcher presented the teachers in separate case studies conducted over a data collection period of nine months. Data were collected by participant observation, interviews, and artifact collection. Data were analyzed by application of grounded theory techniques. Findings of the teachers' (and the students') beliefs about pedagogy that both assisted and hindered the students' performance in science were reported in a rich and nuanced storytelling manner based on multiple perspectives (teachers', students', and the researcher's). Pedagogical methodologies that the teachers used that assisted their students were the use of cultural metaphors and images in science and applications of motivational techniques that encouraged a nurturing relationship between the teacher and her students. Pedagogical methodologies that hindered students varied by teacher

  6. Lower and middle Guadalupian shelf carbonates, eastern margin of Central Basin platform, Permian basin, west Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, R.F.; Chalcraft, R.G.

    1988-01-01

    Lower and middle Guadalupian shelf carbonates serve as the reservoir for a nearly continuous band of oil fields extending 100 mi along the eastern margin of the Central Basin platform of west Texas. Approximately 5 billion bbl of oil have been produced from stratigraphic-structural traps within the Upper Permian (Gaudalupian Series) dolomites of the San Andrea and Grayburg Formations in Upton, Crane, Ector, Pecos, and Andrews Counties, Texas. The San Andrea and Grayburg Formations are cyclical shallowing-upward carbonate sequences of open shelf through sabkha facies whose depositional strike parallels the eastern margin of the Central Basin platform. Porosity and permeability of reservoir rock are governed by diagenetic processes such as dolomitization, anhydrite porosity occlusion, leaching, silicification, and authigenic clay formation. Self sediments are primarily burrowed wackestones and packstones that locally contain pelletal, skeletal, and ooid grainstones. Typical subtidal shelf sediments are capped by algal-laminated dolomite, nodular anhydritic dolomite, and bedded anhydrite. The fauna is normally sparse and dominated by foraminifera and algae. Less common faunal components include pelecypods, crinoids, sponges, Bryozoa, brachiopods, gastropods, and coral that are associated with the development of small scattered patch reefs. Lowering the sea level during the early Guadalpian initiated basinward progradation of San Andres carbonate facies with hydrocarbon reservoirs best developed in shallow self fusulinid wackestones to packstone and oolitic grainstone. Reservoir dolomites of the Grayburg formation are present east of San Andres fields with optimal reservoir properties occurring near the San Andreas outer shelf margin.

  7. Climatology and dynamics of summer tropopause folds over the eastern Mediterranean and the Middle East

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tyrlis, E.; Skerlak, B.; Sprenger, M.; Wernli, H.; Zittis, G.; Lelieveld, J.

    2013-12-01

    A climatology of tropopause folds is presented that focus on the summer events occurring over the Eastern Mediterranean and the Middle East (EMME) based on the ERA-Interim dataset. The methodology employs an algorithm that detects folds as areas featuring multiple crossings of the dynamical tropopause and allows their classification according to their vertical extent. Our results confirm the findings of an earlier 1-year climatology that recognized a global ';hot spot' of fold activity over a sector extending from the eastern Mediterranean to Afghanistan, in the vicinity of the subtropical jet. Two distinct maxima of activity are recognized over Turkey and Iran-Afghanistan where fold occurrence exceeds 25%. Rarely, deep folds form over the Levantine Basin and Iran at surprising low latitudes. This summertime increase in fold activity defies the zonal mean seasonal cycle over the subtropics and it is driven by the South Asian Monsoon. From late spring, the EMME is gradually brought under the influence of the zonally asymmetric background state induced by the monsoon, which features an elevated tropopause and depression of isentropic surfaces. As areas of sharply sloping isentropes develop especially over the eastern Mediterranean and Iran-Afghanistan, subsidence and fold formation are favored. The monsoon also drives the interannual variability of EMME fold activity. An upward trend in fold activity is identified, especially during May that can be attributed to the recent advanced monsoon onset and the deeper convective activity throughout summer. This stronger upper level monsoon signature promotes enhanced upper level baroclinicity over the EMME that favors folding.

  8. Middle-Class African American Adolescents' and Parents' Conceptions of Parental Authority and Parenting Practices: A Longitudinal Investigation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smetana, Judith G.

    2000-01-01

    Examined longitudinally conceptions of parental authority and ratings of parental rules and decision-making among middle- class African American adolescents and their parents. Found that nearly all subjects affirmed parents' legitimate authority to regulate and children's obligation to comply regarding oral, conventional, prudential, friendship,…

  9. Dating Violence and Sexual Assault Prevention with African American Middle Schoolers: Does Group Gender Composition Impact Dating Violence Attitudes?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, Beverly M.; Weisz, Arlene N.; Jayasundara, Dheeshana S.

    2012-01-01

    A dating violence and sexual assault prevention program was presented to 396, predominately African American, middle schoolers in two inner city schools in the United States. In one school the program was offered with a same-gender group composition; in the other school, the same program was offered with mixed-gender group composition. A…

  10. From Victory to Freedom: The African American Experience. Curriculum Guide: Elementary and Middle School Course of Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio Historical Society, Columbus.

    This elementary and middle school curriculum guide contains three sections of instructional materials about three areas of African American life. The section "Community Life" includes detailed lessons on family, the church, education, business, and organizations. The section "Public Life" provides in-depth lessons on media, science and medicine,…

  11. Mother-Daughter Communication about Sex and Sexual Intercourse among Middle- to Upper-Class African American Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Usher-Seriki, Kimberly K.; Bynum, Mia Smith; Callands, Tamora A.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated linkages between various dimensions of mother-daughter communication about sex and sexual intercourse in a sample of 274 middle- to upper-income African American adolescent girls, drawn from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Logistic regression analysis revealed that girls who reported closer…

  12. The Role of Ethnicity and Grade Level on the Motivational Orientation in Urban African American Middle School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warner, Cheryl B.

    2008-01-01

    This study's purpose was to pair motivational orientation and ethnicity in a sample of urban African American middle school students (n = 213). Through multivariate analyses, the results revealed differences in motivational orientation between eighth graders when compared to their younger peers. The study supports the hypotheses of: a) the…

  13. Middle Jurassic to early Cretaceous igneous rocks along eastern North American continental margin

    SciTech Connect

    Jansa, L.F.; Pe-Piper, G.

    1988-03-01

    Late Middle Jurassic and Early Cretaceous mafic dikes, sills, flows, and local volcaniclastic sediments are intercalated within continental shelf sediments from the Baltimore Canyon Trough northward to the Grand Banks of Newfoundland. The igneous rocks on the eastern North American margin are mainly alkali basalts of intraplate affinity. The late Middle Jurassic igneous activity was of short duration, at about 140 Ma, and was restricted to Georges Bank where it led to construction of several volcanic cones. The main period of igneous activity was concentrated at about 120 Ma in the Aptian/Berremian. The activity consists of dike swarms in Baltimore Canyon, occasional dikes on the Scotian Shelf, and the growth of stratovolcanoes on the Scotian Shelf and Grand Banks. Younger dikes (approx. 95 Ma) also are present on the Grand Banks. With regard to oil exploration on the continental margin, care must be taken to properly identify igneous and volcaniclastic rocks on mechanical logs, drill cuttings, and cores. Reflection seismic profiles can be used to map the areal extent of sills, flows, and low-angle dikes, which commonly show distinctive seismic responses. However, steeply dipping dikes generally produce little, if any, seismic response. Isotopic-age determinations of igneous rocks, combined with biostratigraphic-age determinations of adjacent strata, are invaluable for stratigraphic correlation, establishing chronology of seismic sequences, and analysis of basin sedimentation and tectonic history. 9 figures, 2 tables.

  14. Eastern equine encephalitis in a flock of African penguins maintained at an aquarium.

    PubMed

    Tuttle, Allison D; Andreadis, Theodore G; Frasca, Salvatore; Dunn, J Lawrence

    2005-06-15

    Eastern equine encephalitis (EEE) was diagnosed in a flock of African penguins. Diagnosis was based on history and clinical signs and confirmed via serologic testing, virus isolation, reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay, and histologic examination. Clinical signs in penguins included anorexia, behavior changes, depression, regurgitation, ataxia, recumbency, and seizures, and some penguins did not have any clinical signs. Mean +/- SD number of days that affected penguins had clinical signs was 12 +/- 5 days. Abnormalities initially detected on CBC included heterophilic leukocytosis and anemia; lymphocytosis and monocytosis were detected later. Plasma biochemical abnormalities included high activities of aspartate amino-transferase and creatine kinase, hyponatremia, hypochloremia, hyperglycemia, and high concentrations of globulin, triglycerides, and cholesterol. Mean +/- SD number of days required for resolution of CBC and plasma biochemical abnormalities was 67 +/- 24 days after the onset of clinical signs. Treatment consisted of supportive therapy. All penguins survived with the exception of one that was euthanatized; histopathologic findings were consistent with encephalitis. Results of RT-PCR assays performed on tissue from the right cerebrum of the penguin that was euthanatized were positive for EEE viral RNA. An inability to isolate virus several weeks after illness suggested successful viral clearance in recovered penguins. To the authors' knowledge, EEE infection in any penguin species has not been reported. PMID:15989191

  15. Eastern equine encephalitis in a flock of African penguins maintained at an aquarium.

    PubMed

    Tuttle, Allison D; Andreadis, Theodore G; Frasca, Salvatore; Dunn, J Lawrence

    2005-06-15

    Eastern equine encephalitis (EEE) was diagnosed in a flock of African penguins. Diagnosis was based on history and clinical signs and confirmed via serologic testing, virus isolation, reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay, and histologic examination. Clinical signs in penguins included anorexia, behavior changes, depression, regurgitation, ataxia, recumbency, and seizures, and some penguins did not have any clinical signs. Mean +/- SD number of days that affected penguins had clinical signs was 12 +/- 5 days. Abnormalities initially detected on CBC included heterophilic leukocytosis and anemia; lymphocytosis and monocytosis were detected later. Plasma biochemical abnormalities included high activities of aspartate amino-transferase and creatine kinase, hyponatremia, hypochloremia, hyperglycemia, and high concentrations of globulin, triglycerides, and cholesterol. Mean +/- SD number of days required for resolution of CBC and plasma biochemical abnormalities was 67 +/- 24 days after the onset of clinical signs. Treatment consisted of supportive therapy. All penguins survived with the exception of one that was euthanatized; histopathologic findings were consistent with encephalitis. Results of RT-PCR assays performed on tissue from the right cerebrum of the penguin that was euthanatized were positive for EEE viral RNA. An inability to isolate virus several weeks after illness suggested successful viral clearance in recovered penguins. To the authors' knowledge, EEE infection in any penguin species has not been reported.

  16. East African pigs have a complex Indian, Far Eastern and Western ancestry.

    PubMed

    Noce, A; Amills, M; Manunza, A; Muwanika, V; Muhangi, D; Aliro, T; Mayega, J; Ademun, R; Sànchez, A; Egbhalsaied, S; Mercadé, A; Masembe, C

    2015-08-01

    In this study, we have characterized the mitochondrial diversity of 81 swine from Uganda. Median-joining network analysis of D-loop sequences from these individuals and others characterized in previous studies allowed us to determine that Ugandan pigs cluster with populations from the West (Europe/North Africa), Far East and India. In addition, partial sequencing of the Y-chromosome UTY locus in 18 Ugandan domestic pigs revealed the segregation of a single HY1 lineage that has a cosmopolitan distribution. A Western and Far Eastern ancestry for East African pigs had been already reported, but this is the first study demonstrating an additional contribution from the Indian porcine gene pool. This result is consistent with the high frequency of zebuine alleles in cattle from East Africa. The geographic coordinates of East Africa, at the crossroads of many trading routes that, through the ages, linked Europe, Africa and Asia, might explain the rich and complex genetic heritage of livestock native to this area. PMID:26011180

  17. The treatment pathways followed by cases of human African trypanosomiasis in western Kenya and eastern Uganda.

    PubMed

    Bukachi, S A; Wandibba, S; Nyamongo, I K

    2009-04-01

    Although early diagnosis and treatment are key factors in the effective control of human African trypanosomiasis (HAT), many cases of the disease delay taking appropriate action, leading to untold suffering. As a better understanding of treatment-seeking behaviour should help in identifying the obstacles to early diagnosis and effective treatment, the treatment pathways followed by 203 former HAT cases in western Kenya and eastern Uganda have recently been explored. About 86% of the HAT cases had utilized more than two different healthcare options before being correctly diagnosed for HAT, with about 70% each using more than three different health facilities. Only about 8% of the cases reported that they had been correctly diagnosed the first time they sought treatment. Just over half (51%) of the HAT cases had been symptomatic for >2 months before being correctly diagnosed for HAT, and such time lags in diagnosis contributed to 72% of the cases receiving their first appropriate treatment only in the late stage of the disease. The likelihood of a correct diagnosis increased with the time the case had been symptomatic. These observations indicate an urgent need to build the diagnostic capacity of the primary healthcare facilities in the study area, so that all HAT cases can be identified and treated in the early stage of the disease.

  18. Gender differences in motivational pathways to college for middle class African American youths.

    PubMed

    Wood, Dana; Kurtz-Costes, Beth; Copping, Kristine E

    2011-07-01

    Using a sample of predominantly middle-class African American adolescents and parents (N = 424), the authors tested a path model linking parental expectations for children's future educational attainment, youths' motivation during Grade 11, and youths' subsequent on-time postsecondary educational progress. Parents' expectations were positively related to adolescents' educational attainment aspirations, attainment expectations, utility values (i.e., beliefs about the usefulness of education), and perceptions of racial barriers to upward mobility. Relationships between parents' expectations and youths' aspirations and expectations were mediated by youths' perceptions of parents' expectations. For boys, but not girls, Grade 11 educational expectations and utility values each uniquely predicted college attendance 1 year after high school graduation. In addition, boys' perceptions of racial barriers were negatively related to subsequent postsecondary progress through their influence on values. Findings underscore the importance of academic achievement motivation as a developmental resource for African American boys and suggest that boys are especially likely to benefit from interventions promoting positive motivational beliefs.

  19. Gender differences in motivational pathways to college for middle class African American youths.

    PubMed

    Wood, Dana; Kurtz-Costes, Beth; Copping, Kristine E

    2011-07-01

    Using a sample of predominantly middle-class African American adolescents and parents (N = 424), the authors tested a path model linking parental expectations for children's future educational attainment, youths' motivation during Grade 11, and youths' subsequent on-time postsecondary educational progress. Parents' expectations were positively related to adolescents' educational attainment aspirations, attainment expectations, utility values (i.e., beliefs about the usefulness of education), and perceptions of racial barriers to upward mobility. Relationships between parents' expectations and youths' aspirations and expectations were mediated by youths' perceptions of parents' expectations. For boys, but not girls, Grade 11 educational expectations and utility values each uniquely predicted college attendance 1 year after high school graduation. In addition, boys' perceptions of racial barriers were negatively related to subsequent postsecondary progress through their influence on values. Findings underscore the importance of academic achievement motivation as a developmental resource for African American boys and suggest that boys are especially likely to benefit from interventions promoting positive motivational beliefs. PMID:21574704

  20. Urban African-American middle school science students: Does standards-based teaching make a difference?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butler Kahle, Jane; Meece, Judith; Scantlebury, Kathryn

    2000-11-01

    The current reform movement in science education promotes standards-based teaching, including the use of inquiry, problem solving, and open-ended questioning, to improve student achievement. This study examines the influence of standards-based teaching practices on the achievement of urban, African-American, middle school science students. Science classes of teachers who had participated in the professional development (n = 8) of Ohio's statewide systemic initiative (SSI) were matched with classes of teachers (n = 10) who had not participated. Data were gathered using group-administered questionnaires and achievement tests that were specifically designed for Ohio's SSI. Analyses indicate that teachers who frequently used standards-based teaching practices positively influenced urban, African-American students' science achievement and attitudes, especially for boys. Additionally, teachers' involvement in the SSI's professional development was positively related to the reported use of standards-based teaching practices in the classroom. The findings support the efficacy of high-quality professional development to change teaching practices and to enhance student learning.

  1. Preliminary comparative study of middle Anisian vertebrate ichnoassociation from South-Eastern Alps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valdiserri, D.; Todesco, R.; Avanzini, M.

    2009-04-01

    Anisian vertebrate tracks from the south-eastern Alps are known since the first decades of 1900s (Abel, 1926). The sedimentary units yielding footprints are characterized by the alternation of limestone influenced by terrigenous supply with mere marine and volcanic layers allowing a precise dating. In this study, we compare four different ichnoassociations from three different outcrops in the South-Eastern Alps correlating them chronologically and sedimentologically. They were found to be subsequent in time from Lower Pelsonian (Bad Gfrill-Voltago Conglomerate; Todesco, 2007) through middle Pelsonian (Bad Gfrill- Giovo Formation) (Valdiserri et al., 2006) and basal Illyrian (Piz da Peres- Richthofen Conglomerate; Todesco et al., 2008) to the middle Illyrian (Val Duron-Morbiac Limestone; Avanzini et al., 2007). In all these ichno-associations, Rhynchosauroides, an ichno-genus referable to a lizard - like trackmaker well known in the European Anisian, is dominant. Within this group at least four different morphotypes are known, probably reflecting both intraspecific variation (i.e. sexual dimorphism) and different ichnospecies. Although the Chirotheridae group, referred to Archosaurian trackmakers Synaptichnium is represented in both Pelsonian ichnoassociation of the Bad Gfrill outcrop, while Chirotherium , Isochirotherium and Brachichirotherium are recognized both in Pelsonian and in Illyrian ichnosites with a incremental presence in the Illyrian The ichofamiliae Rotodactylidae und Procolophonidae seem well represented in the Pelsonian strata but absent in the Illyrian ones. The preliminarly comparative analysis of these four correlated ichnosites and the comparision with the yet known ones (Avanzini and Mietto 2008) pointed out the expected predominance of the Lepidosaurian-Archosaurian association typical for the middle Triassic ichnofauna. The incremental presence of the Chirotherian track in Illyrian and the presence of the Procolophonichium just in the

  2. Multi-method chronological investigation of a Middle Paleolithic stratigraphic context in Eastern Transylvania, Romania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veres, Daniel; Cosac, Marian; Muratoreanu, George; Niţǎ, Loredana; Schmidt, Christoph; Hambach, Ulrich; Hubay, Katalin; Alexandru, Radu; Cuculici, Roxana; Lucian Buzea, Dan; Dumitraşcu, Valentin

    2016-04-01

    The Middle to Upper Paleolithic transition is one of the crucial periods of change in the prehistory of Europe due to the full emergence, continent-wide, of modern human technologies, detrimental of Neanderthal survival. Knowledge about the transition is vast, however, the evidence for cultural and technological developments in the Carpathian - Lower Danube area is still rather sparse. Here we discuss latest results arising from an archaeological-chronological investigation of a Middle Paleolithic context within the Varghis karst, eastern Transylvania, Romania. Combining our results with these of previous excavations, we can distinguish several stages of habitation in the area comprising a rock shelter connected to a newly discovered filled-in cave entrance. Reanalysis of the deeper stratigraphy previously unexcavated shows that at least two main habitation levels have been preserved. In both levels, the bone assemblages (Bos/Bison, Capra, Canis lupus, Ursus spaeleus) directly associated with lithics point to human-accumulation of material. In order to augment the typological cultural considerations, we applied direct radiocarbon dating on bones from within the occupation layers and on scattered charcoal, for the latter following a two-step combustion protocol (1). Radiocarbon dating on bones suggests the lowermost occupation layer is >43.4 radiocarbon kyr BP old, whereas the preliminary infrared stimulated luminescence (IRSL) ages on the lowermost productive layer and above it indicate surprisingly old ages of ca. 120 kyr and respectively, ca. 70 kyr. Multiple-protocol dating of charcoal found within the two habitation layers produced ages >38 radiocarbon kyr BP, suggesting that the lowermost habitation layer unequivocally pertains to the Middle Paleolithic industries. For the upper productive layer, radiocarbon dating of charcoal found 20 cm above it produced a surprisingly young age of 17.4 radiocarbon kyr BP. However, as the carbon content of this sample was

  3. The HBsAg Prevalence Among Blood Donors From Eastern Mediterranean and Middle Eastern Countries: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Babanejad, Mehran; Izadi, Neda; Najafi, Farid; Alavian, Seyed Moayed

    2016-01-01

    Context The world health organization (WHO) recommends that all blood donations should be screened for evidence of infections, such as hepatitis B. The present study aimed to determine the prevalence of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) in blood donors at the eastern Mediterranean region office (EMRO) of the WHO and middle eastern countries. Evidence Acquisition A meta-analysis was carried out based on the results of an electronic literature search of PubMed, Ovid, Scopus, and Google Scholar for articles published from January 1, 2000, to August 31, 2015. In accordance with a significant homogeneity test and a large value of I2, the random effects model was used to aggregate data from the studies and produce the pooled estimates using the “Metan” command. Results We included 66 eligible studies. The pooled prevalence of HBsAg in blood donors of both EMRO and middle eastern (E and M) countries was 2.03% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.79 – 2.26). In addition, the prevalence rates in the EMRO countries was 1.99% (95% CI: 1.84 – 2.14) and 1.62% in the Middle Eastern countries (95% CI: 1.36 – 1.88). The prevalence among blood donors with more than one study was 1.58% in Egypt, 0.58% in Iran, 0.67% in Iraq, 2.84% in Pakistan, 3.02% in Saudi Arabia, 1.68% in Turkey, and 5.05% in Yemen. Conclusions Based on the WHO classification of hepatitis B virus (HBV) prevalence, the prevalence of HBsAg in blood donors from E and M countries reached an intermediate level. However, there were low prevalence levels in some E and M countries. PMID:27226804

  4. Middle Miocene climate cooling linked to intensification of eastern equatorial Pacific upwelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holbourn, A. E.; Kuhnt, W.; Lyle, M. W.; Schneider, L. J.; Romero, O. E.; Andersen, N.

    2013-12-01

    During the middle Miocene, Earth's climate transitioned from a relatively warm phase (Miocene climatic optimum, ~17-15 Ma) into a colder mode with re-establishment of permanent ice sheets on Antarctica. Carbon sequestration and atmospheric CO2 drawdown through increased terrigenous and/or marine productivity have been proposed as the main drivers of this fundamental transition. However, comparatively little is known about the processes initially sustaining global warmth and about the chain of climate events that reversed this trend and promoted ice growth on Antarctica after ~15 Ma. We integrate high-resolution (1-3 kyr) benthic stable isotope data with XRF-scanner derived biogenic silica and carbonate accumulation estimates in an exceptionally well-preserved sedimentary archive to reconstruct variations in eastern equatorial Pacific upwelling and to investigate temporal linkages between high- and low-latitude climate change over the interval 16-13 Ma. Our records show that the climatic optimum (16.8-14.7 Ma) was characterized by high amplitude climate variations, marked by intense perturbations of the carbon cycle. Episodes of peak warmth at (southern hemisphere) insolation maxima coincided with transient shoaling of the carbonate compensation depth and enhanced carbonate dissolution in the deep ocean. A switch to obliquity-paced climate variability after 14.7 Ma concurred with a general improvement in carbonate preservation and the onset of stepwise global cooling, culminating with extensive ice growth over Antarctica at ~13.8 Ma (Mi3 event). We find that two massive increases in opal accumulation at ~14.0 and ~13.8 Ma occurred just before and during the final and most prominent cooling step, supporting the hypothesis that increased primary productivity due to enhancement of the eastern equatorial Pacific cold tongue contributed to CO2 drawdown and promoted global cooling.

  5. Identification of novel BRCA founder mutations in Middle Eastern breast cancer patients using capture and Sanger sequencing analysis.

    PubMed

    Bu, Rong; Siraj, Abdul K; Al-Obaisi, Khadija A S; Beg, Shaham; Al Hazmi, Mohsen; Ajarim, Dahish; Tulbah, Asma; Al-Dayel, Fouad; Al-Kuraya, Khawla S

    2016-09-01

    Ethnic differences of breast cancer genomics have prompted us to investigate the spectra of BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations in different populations. The prevalence and effect of BRCA 1 and BRCA 2 mutations in Middle Eastern population is not fully explored. To characterize the prevalence of BRCA mutations in Middle Eastern breast cancer patients, BRCA mutation screening was performed in 818 unselected breast cancer patients using Capture and/or Sanger sequencing. 19 short tandem repeat (STR) markers were used for founder mutation analysis. In our study, nine different types of deleterious mutation were identified in 28 (3.4%) cases, 25 (89.3%) cases in BRCA 1 and 3 (10.7%) cases in BRCA 2. Seven recurrent mutations identified accounted for 92.9% (26/28) of all the mutant cases. Haplotype analysis was performed to confirm c.1140 dupG and c.4136_4137delCT mutations as novel putative founder mutation, accounting for 46.4% (13/28) of all BRCA mutant cases and 1.6% (13/818) of all the breast cancer cases, respectively. Moreover, BRCA 1 mutation was significantly associated with BRCA 1 protein expression loss (p = 0.0005). Our finding revealed that a substantial number of BRCA mutations were identified in clinically high risk breast cancer from Middle East region. Identification of the mutation spectrum, prevalence and founder effect in Middle Eastern population facilitates genetic counseling, risk assessment and development of cost-effective screening strategy.

  6. Hominin diversity in the Middle Pliocene of eastern Africa: the maxilla of KNM-WT 40000.

    PubMed

    Spoor, Fred; Leakey, Meave G; Leakey, Louise N

    2010-10-27

    The 3.5-Myr-old hominin cranium KNM-WT 40000 from Lomekwi, west of Lake Turkana, has been assigned to a new hominin genus and species, Kenyanthropus platyops, on the basis of a unique combination of derived facial and primitive neurocranial features. Central to the diagnosis of K. platyops is the morphology of the maxilla, characterized by a flat and relatively orthognathic subnasal region, anteriorly placed zygomatic processes and small molars. To study this morphology in more detail, we compare the maxillae of African Plio-Pleistocene hominin fossils and samples of modern humans, chimpanzees and gorillas, using conventional and geometric morphometric methods. Computed tomography scans and detailed preparation of the KNM-WT 40000 maxilla enable comprehensive assessment of post-mortem changes, so that landmark data characterizing the morphology can be corrected for distortion. Based on a substantially larger comparative sample than previously available, the results of statistical analyses show that KNM-WT 40000 is indeed significantly different from and falls outside the known range of variation of species of Australopithecus and Paranthropus, contemporary Australopithecus afarensis in particular. These results support the attribution of KNM-WT 40000 to a separate species and the notion that hominin taxonomic diversity in Africa extends back well into the Middle Pliocene. PMID:20855311

  7. Hominin diversity in the Middle Pliocene of eastern Africa: the maxilla of KNM-WT 40000

    PubMed Central

    Spoor, Fred; Leakey, Meave G.; Leakey, Louise N.

    2010-01-01

    The 3.5-Myr-old hominin cranium KNM-WT 40000 from Lomekwi, west of Lake Turkana, has been assigned to a new hominin genus and species, Kenyanthropus platyops, on the basis of a unique combination of derived facial and primitive neurocranial features. Central to the diagnosis of K. platyops is the morphology of the maxilla, characterized by a flat and relatively orthognathic subnasal region, anteriorly placed zygomatic processes and small molars. To study this morphology in more detail, we compare the maxillae of African Plio-Pleistocene hominin fossils and samples of modern humans, chimpanzees and gorillas, using conventional and geometric morphometric methods. Computed tomography scans and detailed preparation of the KNM-WT 40000 maxilla enable comprehensive assessment of post-mortem changes, so that landmark data characterizing the morphology can be corrected for distortion. Based on a substantially larger comparative sample than previously available, the results of statistical analyses show that KNM-WT 40000 is indeed significantly different from and falls outside the known range of variation of species of Australopithecus and Paranthropus, contemporary Australopithecus afarensis in particular. These results support the attribution of KNM-WT 40000 to a separate species and the notion that hominin taxonomic diversity in Africa extends back well into the Middle Pliocene. PMID:20855311

  8. Large sequence divergence among mitochondrial DNA genotypes within populations of eastern African black-backed jackals.

    PubMed

    Wayne, R K; Meyer, A; Lehman, N; Van Valkenburgh, B; Kat, P W; Fuller, T K; Girman, D; O'Brien, S J

    1990-03-01

    In discussions about the relative rate of molecular evolution, intraspecific variability in rate is rarely considered. An underlying assumption is that intraspecific sequence differences are small, and thus variations in rate would be difficult to detect or would not affect comparisons among distantly related taxa. However, several studies on mammalian mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) have revealed considerable intraspecific sequence divergence. In this report, we test for differences in the rate of intraspecific evolution by comparing mtDNA sequences, as inferred from restriction site polymorphisms and direct sequencing, between mtDNA genotypes of the eastern African black-backed jackal, Canis mesomelas elongae, and those of two other sympatric jackal species. Our results are unusual for several reasons. First, mtDNA sequence divergence within several contiguous black-backed jackal populations is large (8.0%). Previous intraspecific studies of terrestrial mammals have generally found values of less than 5% within a single population, with larger divergence values most often occurring among mtDNA genotypes from geographically distant or isolated localities. Second, only 4 mtDNA genotypes were present in our sample of 64 jackals. The large sequence divergence observed among these mtDNA genotypes suggests there should be many more genotypes of intermediate sequence divergence if they had evolved in sympatry. Finally, estimates of the rate of mtDNA sequence evolution differ by approximately 2- to 4-fold among black-backed jackal mtDNA genotypes, thus indicating a substantial heterogeneity in the rate of sequence evolution. The results are difficult to reconcile with ideas of a constant molecular clock based on random fixation of selectively neutral or nearly neutral mtDNA sequence mutations.

  9. Establishing of cancer units in low or middle income african countries: angolan experience - a preliminary report

    PubMed Central

    Miguel, Fernando; Conceição, Ana Vaz; Lopes, Lygia Vieira; Bernardo, Dora; Monteiro, Fernando; Bessa, Fernanda; Santos, Cristina; Oliveira, João Blasques; Santos, Lúcio Lara

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The number of cancer cases and related deaths worldwide is expected to double over the next 20-30 years. African countries will be the most affected by the burden of cancer. The improving economic situation of Angola creates conditions for an increase in life expectancy which by itself is associated with an increased risk of oncological diseases. Because cancer therapy requires a multidisciplinary approach, trained health professionals, satisfactory infrastructure and appropriate facilities, the availability of effective cancer therapy is a difficult task that requires support. The aim of this article is to share our experience achieved in the establishment of cancer units in Angola and to validate our checklist for this action. Methods The survey method was a questionnaire addressed to Angolan cancer units, in order to evaluate the usefulness and feasibility of a checklist developed by the authors - The Cancer Units Assessment Checklist for low or middle income African countries - which was used previously in the establishment of those units. Afterwards, the crucial steps taken for the establishing of the main sites of each cancer unit considering, facilities, resources and professionals, were also recorded. Results All cancer units reported that the checklist was a useful tool in the development of the cancer program for the improvement of the unit or the establishing of cancer unit sites. This instrument helped identifying resources, defining the best practice and identifying barriers. Local experts, who know the best practices in oncology and who are recognized by the local heads, are also important and they proved to be the major facilitators. Conclusion The fight against cancer has just started in Angola. The training, education, advocacy and legislation are ongoing. According to our results, the assessment checklist for the establishment of cancer units is a useful instrument. PMID:25883719

  10. Adverse Housing and Neighborhood Conditions and Inflammatory Markers among Middle-Aged African Americans

    PubMed Central

    Andresen, Elena M.; Wolinsky, Fredric D.; Malmstrom, Theodore K.; Morley, John E.; Miller, Douglas K.

    2010-01-01

    Adverse housing and neighborhood conditions are independently associated with an increased risk of various diseases and conditions. One possible explanation relates to systemic inflammation, which is associated with these adverse health outcomes. The authors investigated the association between housing and neighborhood conditions with inflammatory markers using data about 352 persons aged 49–65 years from the African American Health study. Participants were identified by a multistage random selection process in 2000 to 2001(response rate, 76%). Blood was analyzed for soluble cytokine receptors (interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor α), C-reactive protein, and adiponectin. Neighborhood and housing characteristics consisted of five observed block face conditions (external appearance of the block on which the subject lived), four perceived neighborhood conditions, four observed housing conditions (home assessment by the interviewers rating the interior and exterior of the subject’s building), and census-tract level poverty rate from the 2000 census. Differences in some inflammatory markers were found by age, gender, chronic conditions, and body mass index (all Bonferroni-adjusted p < 0.0034). There was no association between any of the housing/neighborhood conditions and the pro-inflammatory markers and potential associations between some housing/neighborhood conditions and adiponectin (p < 0.05, Bonferroni-adjusted p > 0.0034). Inflammation does not appear to be a mediator of the association between poor housing/neighborhood conditions and adverse health outcomes in middle-aged African Americans. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s11524-009-9426-8) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users. PMID:20186494

  11. A Call to Honesty: Extending Religious Priming of Moral Behavior to Middle Eastern Muslims

    PubMed Central

    Aveyard, Mark E.

    2014-01-01

    Two experiments with Middle Eastern participants explored the generalizability of prior research on religious priming and moral behavior to a novel cultural and religious context. Participants in Experiment 1 completed a sentence unscrambling task with religious or non-religious content (in Arabic) before taking an unsupervised math test on which cheating was possible and incentivized. No difference in honesty rates emerged between the two groups, failing to extend findings from previous research with similar stimuli. Experiment 2 tested the effects of the athan, the Islamic call to prayer, using the same design. This naturalistic religious prime produced higher rates of honesty (68%) compared to controls who did not hear the call to prayer (53%).These results raise the possibility that the psychological mechanisms used by religion to influence moral behavior might differ between religions and cultures, highlighting an avenue of exploration for future research. The experiments here also address two growing concerns in psychological science: that the absence of replications casts doubt on the reliability of original research findings, and that the Westernized state of psychological science casts doubt on the generalizability of such work. PMID:24992091

  12. Peripheral Arterial Disease in Patients Presenting with Acute Coronary Syndrome in Six Middle Eastern Countries

    PubMed Central

    Al-Thani, Hassan A.; El-Menyar, Ayman; Zubaid, Mohammad; Rashed, Wafa A.; Ridha, Mustafa; Almahmeed, Wael; Sulaiman, Kadhim; Al-Motarreb, Ahmed; Amin, Haitham; Al Suwaidi, Jassim

    2011-01-01

    To describe prevalence and impact of peripheral arterial disease (PAD) in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS), data were collected over 5 months from 6 Middle Eastern countries. Patients were divided into 2 groups (with and without PAD). Out of 6705 consecutive ACS patients, PAD was reported in 177 patients. In comparison to non-PAD, PAD patients were older and more likely to have cardiovascular risk factors. They were more likely to have high Killip class, high GRACE risk score, and non-ST elevation ACS (NSTEACS) at presentation. Thrombolytics, antiplatelet use, and coronary intervention were comparable in both groups. When presented with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI), patients with PAD had worse outcomes, while in NSTEACS; PAD was associated with higher rate of heart failure in comparison to non-PAD patients. In diabetics, PAD was associated with 2-fold increase in mortality when compared to non-PAD (P = 0.028). After adjustment, PAD was associated with high mortality in STEMI (adjusted OR 2.6; 95% CI 1.23–5.65, P = 0.01). Prevalence of PAD in ACS in the Gulf region is low. Patients with PAD and ACS constitute a high risk group and require more attention. PAD in patients with STEMI is an independent predictor of in-hospital death. PMID:22220279

  13. Physicians' Attitudes to Clinical Pain Management and Education: Survey from a Middle Eastern Country.

    PubMed

    Nasser, Soumana C; Nassif, Jeanette G; Saad, Aline Hanna

    2016-01-01

    Despite promising initiatives to advance the practice of pain management in Middle Eastern countries, their pain care lags behind developed countries. The objectives of this study are to evaluate physicians' assessment of their own competency in pain management, to assess physicians' practice related to pain management, and to identify physician-related barriers to effective pain control. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 3 teaching medical centers in Lebanon targeting the above-mentioned outcomes and assessing the impact of physicians' years in practice on the studied end-points. A total of 69 physicians were surveyed. Fifty-seven percent reported "very good to excellent" pain management skills; only 25% of them described the need for continuing professional development. When treating patients with pain, 52% of physicians refer to updated international guidelines, whereas 43% rely on their own judgment. Physicians were more likely to consult with another physician (65%) rather than a pharmacist (12%) when treating patients with pain. Fear of adverse effects of analgesics was the most commonly reported barrier (45%) to pain control among physicians from different career stages. Based on these survey findings, national pain management and practice policies are needed to optimize this area of deficiency in patient care. PMID:27445596

  14. Capacity Building and Financing Oral Health in the African and Middle East Region.

    PubMed

    Mumghamba, E G; Joury, E; Fatusi, O; Ober-Oluoch, J; Onigbanjo, R J; Honkala, S

    2015-07-01

    Many low- and middle-income countries do not yet have policies to implement effective oral health programs. A reason is lack of human and financial resources. Gaps between resource needs and available health funding are widening. By building capacity, countries aim to improve oral health through actions by oral health care personnel and oral health care organizations and their communities. Capacity building involves achieving measurable and sustainable results in training, research, and provision of care. Actions include advancement of knowledge, attitudes and skills, expansion of support, and development of cohesiveness and partnerships. The aim of this critical review is to review existing knowledge and identify gaps and variations between and within different income levels in relation to the capacity building and financing oral health in the African and Middle East region (AMER). A second aim is to formulate research priorities and outline a research agenda for capacity building and financing to improve oral health and reduce oral health inequalities in the AMER. The article focuses on capacity building for oral health and oral health financing in the AMER of the IADR. In many communities in the AMER, there are clear and widening gaps between the dental needs and the existing capacity to meet these needs in terms of financial and human resources. Concerted efforts are required to improve access to oral health care through appropriate financing mechanisms, innovative health insurance schemes, and donor support and move toward universal oral health care coverage to reduce social inequality in the region. It is necessary to build capacity and incentivize the workforce to render evidence-based services as well as accessing funds to conduct research on equity and social determinants of oral health while promoting community engagement and a multidisciplinary approach.

  15. Validation of a shed skin corticosterone enzyme immunoassay in the African House Snake (Lamprophis fuliginosus) and its evaluation in the Eastern Massasauga Rattlesnake (Sistrurus catenatus catenatus).

    PubMed

    Berkvens, Charlene N; Hyatt, Crystal; Gilman, Christine; Pearl, David L; Barker, Ian K; Mastromonaco, Gabriela F

    2013-12-01

    This study investigates the use of an enzyme immunoassay to measure keratin glucocorticoid concentrations in reptilian shed skins. Keratin glucocorticoid concentrations were compared to fecal glucocorticoid concentrations during the period of keratin growth in the African House Snake (Lamprophis fuliginosus) and the Eastern Massasauga Rattlesnake (Sistrurus catenatus catenatus). Biochemical validation was performed for the shed skin and fecal corticosterone enzyme immunoassays in the African House Snake. Biological and physiological validations were attempted in the African House Snake. A statistically significant positive association was detected between shed skin corticosterone and the mean fecal corticosterone metabolites from 3 weeks before to 1 week after the previous ecdysis in the African House Snake. A statistically significant difference was not detected between the shed skin corticosterone concentrations of the minimally handled control and the weekly handled (or experimentally stressed) African House Snakes. Adrenocorticotropic hormone stimulation did not result in the physiological validation anticipated for shed skin corticosterone concentrations in the African House Snake.

  16. Retired African American female urban middle school science teachers' beliefs and practices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitney, Frances M.

    The purpose of this paper is to give a voice to a dedicated group of professionals who unselfishly labored twenty-five plus years educating the children of America's poorest taxpaying citizens. These retired African American female urban middle school science teachers (RAAFUMSST) explain the experiences that gave them the fortitude to stay in the urban school system until their retirement. The goal is to give you a glimpse into the distractions, challenges, and victories the teachers encountered as they strove to teach science in an overcrowded, underserviced, and depressed urban school district of a major city. Most times sacrificing self for service, the participants of this study held fast to their beliefs that all of America's children, regardless of their parents' socioeconomic status, deserve a quality education. It is through individual interviews that the five retired science teachers of this project share their reflections on the events and circumstances that altered their labor of love. Critical Race Theory (CRT) serves as the theoretical frame for this study.

  17. Cross-Sectional and Longitudinal Risk Factors for Falls, Fear of Falling, and Falls Efficacy in a Cohort of Middle-Aged African Americans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Elena M.; Wolinsky, Fredric D.; Miller, J. Phillip; Wilson, Margaret-Mary G.; Malmstrom, Theodore K.; Miller, Douglas K.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to cross-sectionally and longitudinally identify risk factors for falls, fear of falling, and falls efficacy in late-middle-aged African Americans. Design and Methods: We performed in-home assessments on a probability sample of 998 African Americans and conducted two annual follow-up interviews. Multiple…

  18. It Is Not Just the Poor Kids: The Use of AAE Forms by African-American School-Aged Children from Middle SES Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horton-Ikard, RaMonda; Miller, Jon F.

    2004-01-01

    This study examined the production of African-American English (AAE) forms produced by 69 school-aged African-American children from middle socio-economic status (SES) communities to determine if age would influence: (a) the number of different types of AAE tokens and (b) the rate of dialect. Descriptive data revealed that there were more than 20…

  19. Recent faulting and active shortening of the Middle Atlas Mountains, Morocco, within the diffuse African-Eurasian plate boundary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rigby, M.; Gomez, F.; Zakir, A.; Hahou, Y.; Jabour, N.

    2007-12-01

    The NE-SW trending Middle Atlas Mountains are an active intracontinental mountain belt within the diffuse African - Eurasian plate boundary. The mountain belt is obliquely oriented to the NNW-SSE direction of Late Cenozoic plate convergence. Both shear and compressional features are exhibited with apparent slip partitioning: Folding and thrusting is concentrated in the Folded Middle Atlas, whereas strike-slip dominates in the Tabular Middle Atlas. In the central part of the Folded Middle Atlas, fault scarps of Quaternary alluvium, including a 4.5 meter (probably composite) scarp and a 1 meter (possibly single event) scarp, attest to recent faulting along the mountain front. Detailed topographic mapping of the scarps provides a basis for geomorphic analysis and degradation modeling. Furthermore, the reconstruction of longitudinal stream terrace profiles helps constrain a long term deformation history. Radiocarbon and pending cosmogenic dates provide age constraints on the faulted surfaces and the multiple stream terraces in the area. To place these active tectonic observations in a larger context, the fault and fold geometry has been assessed by completing a 10 km structural transect across the frontal thrust, providing basis for the construction of a balanced cross-section. By combining the structural geometry with the uplift rate, a minimum estimate of the rate of horizontal shortening in the Middle Atlas can be evaluated. Preliminary results suggest the Middle Atlas may accommodate 5 - 10 percent of the total 4.5 mm/yr convergence between the African and Eurasian plates. These results demonstrate that the Middle Atlas Mountains are a integral part of the diffuse plate boundary, as well as suggesting a modest level of earthquake hazard in the region.

  20. Lifting the Voices of High-Achieving, Middle-Class, African American Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Stacey Marvetta

    2012-01-01

    The state of African American education is complex. Beginning in the 17th century, African Americans fought for an education that allowed them to read and write. During the 21st century, African Americans value on education extends beyond only reading and writing to using these skills and other skills to maintain strong academic and leadership…

  1. Long-term effects of organized violence on young Middle Eastern refugees' mental health.

    PubMed

    Montgomery, Edith

    2008-11-01

    The pre- and post-displacement factors associated with psychological problems among young refugees are not clear. From the existing research it appears that refugee children and adolescents are vulnerable to the effects of pre-migration exposure to trauma, but the long-term effects of such exposure are mediated by certain risk and protective factors at the individual, family and community level. The aim of the present study was to assess the influence of traumatic experiences before emigration, as well as social life after immigration, on the mental health of young Middle Eastern refugees 8-9 years after immigration into Denmark. The study group comprises 131 young refugees (76 girls and 55 boys; mean age 15.3 years) from 67 families. They were assessed in 2000-2001 as part of a follow-up study of 311 children, who in 1992-1993 were consecutively registered in Denmark as asylum seekers with at least one parent. Predictors of more externalizing behaviour were: witnessing attack on others after arrival, more schools attended, less attending school or work, lower mother's education in the home country and lower age. Predictors of more internalizing behaviour were: numbers of types of traumatic events before arrival, numbers of types of stressful events after arrival, and numbers of types of experiences of discrimination, lower mother's education in the home country, fewer Danish friends, not Muslim or Christian religion, less Danish proficiency and female gender. It is concluded that aspects of social life in Denmark, including mother's education and indicators of adaptation, as well as a stressful life context in exile, including discrimination, predicted psychological problems 8-9 years after arrival, more than traumatic experiences before arrival. Thus, the prevention of psychopathology in young refugees depends to a large extent on the political will to make provision for the necessary changes regarding reception and treatment of refugees. PMID:18755530

  2. Long-term effects of organized violence on young Middle Eastern refugees' mental health.

    PubMed

    Montgomery, Edith

    2008-11-01

    The pre- and post-displacement factors associated with psychological problems among young refugees are not clear. From the existing research it appears that refugee children and adolescents are vulnerable to the effects of pre-migration exposure to trauma, but the long-term effects of such exposure are mediated by certain risk and protective factors at the individual, family and community level. The aim of the present study was to assess the influence of traumatic experiences before emigration, as well as social life after immigration, on the mental health of young Middle Eastern refugees 8-9 years after immigration into Denmark. The study group comprises 131 young refugees (76 girls and 55 boys; mean age 15.3 years) from 67 families. They were assessed in 2000-2001 as part of a follow-up study of 311 children, who in 1992-1993 were consecutively registered in Denmark as asylum seekers with at least one parent. Predictors of more externalizing behaviour were: witnessing attack on others after arrival, more schools attended, less attending school or work, lower mother's education in the home country and lower age. Predictors of more internalizing behaviour were: numbers of types of traumatic events before arrival, numbers of types of stressful events after arrival, and numbers of types of experiences of discrimination, lower mother's education in the home country, fewer Danish friends, not Muslim or Christian religion, less Danish proficiency and female gender. It is concluded that aspects of social life in Denmark, including mother's education and indicators of adaptation, as well as a stressful life context in exile, including discrimination, predicted psychological problems 8-9 years after arrival, more than traumatic experiences before arrival. Thus, the prevention of psychopathology in young refugees depends to a large extent on the political will to make provision for the necessary changes regarding reception and treatment of refugees.

  3. Particle Size Distribution of Airborne Microorganisms and Pathogens during an Intense African Dust Event in the Eastern Mediterranean

    PubMed Central

    Polymenakou, Paraskevi N.; Mandalakis, Manolis; Stephanou, Euripides G.; Tselepides, Anastasios

    2008-01-01

    Background The distribution of microorganisms, and especially pathogens, over airborne particles of different sizes has been ignored to a large extent, but it could have significant implications regarding the dispersion of these microorganisms across the planet, thus affecting human health. Objectives We examined the microbial quality of the aerosols over the eastern Mediterranean region during an African storm to determine the size distribution of microorganisms in the air. Methods We used a five-stage cascade impactor for bioaerosol collection in a coastal city on the eastern Mediterranean Sea during a north African dust storm. Bacterial communities associated with aerosol particles of six different size ranges were characterized following molecular culture–independent methods, regardless of the cell culturability (analysis of 16S rRNA genes). Results All 16S rDNA clone libraries were diverse, including sequences commonly found in soil and marine ecosystems. Spore-forming bacteria such as Firmicutes dominated large particle sizes (> 3.3 μm), whereas clones affiliated with Actinobacteria (found commonly in soil) and Bacteroidetes (widely distributed in the environment) gradually increased their abundance in aerosol particles of reduced size (< 3.3 μm). A large portion of the clones detected at respiratory particle sizes (< 3.3 μm) were phylogenetic neighbors to human pathogens that have been linked to several diseases. Conclusions The presence of aerosolized bacteria in small size particles may have significant implications to human health via intercontinental transportation of pathogens. PMID:18335093

  4. Identification of novel BRCA founder mutations in Middle Eastern breast cancer patients using capture and Sanger sequencing analysis.

    PubMed

    Bu, Rong; Siraj, Abdul K; Al-Obaisi, Khadija A S; Beg, Shaham; Al Hazmi, Mohsen; Ajarim, Dahish; Tulbah, Asma; Al-Dayel, Fouad; Al-Kuraya, Khawla S

    2016-09-01

    Ethnic differences of breast cancer genomics have prompted us to investigate the spectra of BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations in different populations. The prevalence and effect of BRCA 1 and BRCA 2 mutations in Middle Eastern population is not fully explored. To characterize the prevalence of BRCA mutations in Middle Eastern breast cancer patients, BRCA mutation screening was performed in 818 unselected breast cancer patients using Capture and/or Sanger sequencing. 19 short tandem repeat (STR) markers were used for founder mutation analysis. In our study, nine different types of deleterious mutation were identified in 28 (3.4%) cases, 25 (89.3%) cases in BRCA 1 and 3 (10.7%) cases in BRCA 2. Seven recurrent mutations identified accounted for 92.9% (26/28) of all the mutant cases. Haplotype analysis was performed to confirm c.1140 dupG and c.4136_4137delCT mutations as novel putative founder mutation, accounting for 46.4% (13/28) of all BRCA mutant cases and 1.6% (13/818) of all the breast cancer cases, respectively. Moreover, BRCA 1 mutation was significantly associated with BRCA 1 protein expression loss (p = 0.0005). Our finding revealed that a substantial number of BRCA mutations were identified in clinically high risk breast cancer from Middle East region. Identification of the mutation spectrum, prevalence and founder effect in Middle Eastern population facilitates genetic counseling, risk assessment and development of cost-effective screening strategy. PMID:27082205

  5. Understanding the Breast Cancer Experience of Survivors: a Qualitative Study of African American Women in Rural Eastern North Carolina.

    PubMed

    Torres, Essie; Dixon, Crystal; Richman, Alice R

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this study is to gain an in-depth understanding of African American breast cancer survivors' experiences, barriers and facilitators in accessing breast cancer treatment, and challenges in adherence to follow-up care. We conducted seven focus groups with 32 African American women with breast cancer in three rural counties in eastern North Carolina during August-November 2013. Surveys were also utilized to gather basic demographic and breast health history information. Thematic analysis was performed using the immersion crystallization approach. Several common areas of life affected by breast cancer included faith and support networks, psychosocial well-being, and quality of care issues. Faith in God was an important coping mechanism essential to all women in the study and a critical facilitator in survivorship. Support networks consisted of family, church-family, friends, and co-workers. The concept of fear included the discovery of breast cancer and fear of death, negative side effects of treatment, and social stigma of having breast cancer. Factors that influenced provider-patient relationship were age of provider, perceived lack of empathy, and providers leaving during treatment. Participants also expressed their lack of knowledge regarding a number of the side effects they were experiencing during and after their treatment. Results of this study contribute to the assessment of potential coping mechanisms used by African American breast cancer survivors (i.e., spirituality, positive attitudes, and support networks) that can potentially be effective and have a positive impact on the adjustment of life for survivors.

  6. The economic dimensions of Middle Eastern history: Essays in honor of Charles Issawi

    SciTech Connect

    Esfandiari, H.; Udovitch, A.L.

    1993-12-31

    Twelve articles give historical prespectives of the middle east and its economic development. Trends and prospects of the middle east oil industry cover the historical aspects and beginnings of the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC).

  7. Oral Health Inequalities between Rural and Urban Populations of the African and Middle East Region.

    PubMed

    Ogunbodede, E O; Kida, I A; Madjapa, H S; Amedari, M; Ehizele, A; Mutave, R; Sodipo, B; Temilola, S; Okoye, L

    2015-07-01

    Although there have been major improvements in oral health, with remarkable advances in the prevention and management of oral diseases, globally, inequalities persist between urban and rural communities. These inequalities exist in the distribution of oral health services, accessibility, utilization, treatment outcomes, oral health knowledge and practices, health insurance coverage, oral health-related quality of life, and prevalence of oral diseases, among others. People living in rural areas are likely to be poorer, be less health literate, have more caries, have fewer teeth, have no health insurance coverage, and have less money to spend on dental care than persons living in urban areas. Rural areas are often associated with lower education levels, which in turn have been found to be related to lower levels of health literacy and poor use of health care services. These factors have an impact on oral health care, service delivery, and research. Hence, unmet dental care remains one of the most urgent health care needs in these communities. We highlight some of the conceptual issues relating to urban-rural inequalities in oral health, especially in the African and Middle East Region (AMER). Actions to reduce oral health inequalities and ameliorate rural-urban disparity are necessary both within the health sector and the wider policy environment. Recommended actions include population-specific oral health promotion programs, measures aimed at increasing access to oral health services in rural areas, integration of oral health into existing primary health care services, and support for research aimed at informing policy on the social determinants of health. Concerted efforts must be made by all stakeholders (governments, health care workforce, organizations, and communities) to reduce disparities and improve oral health outcomes in underserved populations. PMID:26101336

  8. The complete mitochondrial genome of a gecko and the phylogeneticposition of the Middle Eastern teratoscincus keyserlingii

    SciTech Connect

    Macey, J. Robert; Fong, Jonathan J.; Kuehl, Jennifer V.; Shafiei,Soheila; Ananjeva, Natalia B.; Papenfuss, Theodore J.; Boore, Jeffrey L.

    2005-04-22

    Sqamate reptiles are traditionally divided into six groups: Iguania, Anguimorpha, Scincomorpha, Gekkota (these four are lizards), Serpentes (snakes), and Amphisbaenia (the so-called worm lizards). Currently there are complete mitochondrial genomes from two representatives of the Iguania (Janke et al., 2001; Kumazawa, 2004), three from the Anguimorpha (Kumazawa, 2004; Kumazawa and Endo, 2004), two from the Scincomorpha (Kumazawa and Nishida, 1999; Kumazawa, 2004), two from Serpentes (Kumazawa et al., 1998; Kumazawa, 2004) and 12 from Amphisbaenia (Macey et al., 2004). The only traditional group of Squamata from which a complete mitochondrial genome has not been sequenced is the Gekkota. Here we report the complete mitochondrial genome of Teratoscincus keyserlingii, a Middle Eastern representative of the Gekkota. The gekkonid lizard genus Teratoscincus is distributed throughout the deserts of central and southwest Asia as shown in figure 1, with five species currently recognized (Macey et al. 1997a, 1999b). Included in this figure are the positions of mountain ranges discussed in the text; see also figure 1 in Macey et al. (1999b). Two species, T. bedriagai and T. microlepis, are restricted to Southwest Asia south of the Kopet Dagh and Hindu Kush in Iran, Afghanistan, and Pakistan (Anderson, 1999). Two species are found in the deserts of western China and Mongolia, with T. przewalskii occurring in the Taklimakan and lowland Gobi deserts, and T. roborowskii restricted to the Turpan Depression. The fifth species, T. scincus, is sometimes considered to be restricted to the Caspian Basin in Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzistan, Tadjikistan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan. Alternatively, Teratoscincus populations in Southwest Asia, primarily on the Iranian Plateau, situated directly north of the Arabian Plate, are sometimes considered to be a subspecies of T. scincus or, otherwise, to constitute a sixth species, T. keyserlingii. Macey et al. (1999b) assessed the phylogenetic

  9. Automated inter-station phase velocity measurements across the eastern Mediterranean and Middle East

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Sharkawy, Amr; Weidle, Christian; Christiano, Luigia; Soomro, Riaz; Lebedev, Sergi; Meier, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    The structure of the lithosphere in northeastern Africa, eastern Mediterranean and the Middle East is highly variable. It ranges from young oceanic lithosphere in the Red Sea to what is considered the oldest oceanic lithosphere on Earth in the Mediterranean Sea north of Libya, and from highly deformed continental lithosphere at the east-Mediterranean margins to more stable continental lithosphere of Phanerozoic origin and to cratonic lithosphere beneath the Arabian Peninsula. Details of the lithospheric structure are, however, poorly known. Surface waves are ideally suited for studies of the lithosphere and the sublithospheric mantle. Our goal is to better define the 3D lithospheric shear-wave velocity structure within this region by surface wave tomography. Using regional to teleseismic Rayleigh and Love waves that traverse the area we can obtain information about its seismic structure by examining phase velocities as a function of frequency. A newly developed algorithm for automated inter-station phase velocity measurements (Soomro et al. 2016) is applied here to obtain both Rayleigh and Love fundamental mode phase velocities. We utilize a database consisting of more than 3800 regional and teleseismic earthquakes recorded by more than 1850 broadband seismic stations within the area, provided by the European Integrated Data Archive (WebDc/EIDA) and IRIS. Moreover, for the first time, data from the Egyptian National Seismological Network (ENSN), recorded by up to 25 broad band seismic stations, is also included in the analysis. For each station pair approximately located on the same great circle path, the recorded waveforms are cross correlated and the dispersion curves of fundamental modes are calculated from the phase of the weighted cross correlation functions. Path average dispersion curves are obtained by averaging the smooth parts of single-event dispersion curves. Parameters tests and preliminary results of automatically measured phase velocities are

  10. Recruiting Secondary Mathematics Teachers: Characteristics That Add Up for African American Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ragland, Tamra C.; Harkness, Shelly Sheats

    2014-01-01

    In this article, the authors provide portraits of three mathematics teachers: one European American man, one African American man, and one Middle Eastern woman. All three taught in secondary schools with predominantly African American student populations. Semi-structured interviews and observations were conducted to create a comparative case study…

  11. Has the middle-level anaesthesia manpower training program of the West African College of Surgeons fulfilled its objectives?

    PubMed

    Bode, C O; Olatosi, J; Amposah, G; Desalu, I

    2013-05-01

    An audit of the West African College of Surgeons' middle-level Diploma in Anaesthesia program was carried out to determine the current status of the diplomates. Using the West African College of Surgeons' database, social media and personal communications, the current status of Diploma in Anaesthesia graduates spanning 20 years was determined. A total of 303 (97%) out of 311 of graduates were traced. Eighty percent were still practising anaesthesia, while 5% were now in other disciplines. Two hundred and four (67.3%) still resided in West Africa (183 in Nigeria, 50 in Ghana, one in Sierra Leone), while 69 (22.7%) were abroad: 35 (11.5%) in the United Kingdom, 21 (6.9%) in the United States of America and four (1.3%) in Canada. More Ghanaian than Nigerian graduates had emigrated (41 vs 14%, respectively). Only 9% of diplomates remained in rural communities (as originally envisaged), while 31% were now consultants (as fellows) and 30% were registrars in fellowship training. These findings indicate that most diplomates moved on to acquire further qualifications and a significant proportion migrated. The program did not appear to have achieved the objectives of meeting rural middle-level manpower needs in anaesthesia as envisaged. It has, however, boosted the recruitment drive for residency training in anaesthesia. Perhaps a less migrant cadre such as nurses may better serve this function if recruited into a suitably designed training program in countries desiring to use middle-level manpower in anaesthesia.

  12. The Middle Neoproterozoic Sidi Flah Group (Anti-Atlas, Morocco): synrift deposition in a Pan-African continent/ocean transition zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fekkak, A.; Pouclet, A.; Benharref, M.

    2003-08-01

    The Middle Neoproterozoic (Cryogenian) Sidi Flah Group rocks are located in the Saghro inlier of the Eastern Anti-Atlas and consists of siliciclastic detrital sediment, interbedded basaltic lavas and small ultramafic bodies. Sediment deposition occurred in three turbiditic formations of a deep-sea fan environment and was controlled by synsedimentary collapses. The composition of sandstones and typological study of zircons indicate that detrital material came from the gneisses and granites of a proximal craton. The lavas are synsedimentary subaqueous flows. They show chemical signatures of initial rift tholeiites and of plume-related alkaline intraplate basalts. The ultramafic rocks are serpentinized peridotites that were emplaced along N160° synsedimentary faults as numerous bodies 20-50 m in size. Their petrographical (Cr-spinel signature) and chemical features correspond to intracontinental ultramafic cumulates. The emplacement of the ultramafic rocks was associated with hydrothermal activity that generated calcareous and siliceous rocks such as ophicalcites and jaspers. All the features of the sediments, the lavas and the ultramafic bodies strongly suggest a continent-ocean transition geotectonic context, in an advanced stage of continental rifting that we attribute to the pre-Pan-African ocean passive margin extension.

  13. Hyaluronic acid used for the correction of nasal deviation in an 18-year-old Middle Eastern man

    PubMed Central

    Piggott, JR; Yazdani, A

    2011-01-01

    The use of fillers for nonsurgical rhinoplasty has advanced in both materials and methods, and continues to gain popularity in North America. This technique is most often used for secondary revisions, although reports of fillers used in primary rhinoplasty in selected patients have been recently described. The present report details the use of a hyaluronic acid dermal filler in a young Middle Eastern man for a post-traumatic crooked nose deformity. Primary correction of the patient’s right-sided nasal bone deviation using hyaluronic acid as a soft tissue filler was achieved with excellent results and patient satisfaction. The current use of fillers in nasal contouring is reviewed. PMID:23204891

  14. Israeli-born offspring of Jewish immigrants of Middle Eastern origin have a lower incidence of multiple myeloma than those of European origin: a cohort study of 746 200 Israeli men followed from late adolescence.

    PubMed

    Leiba, Merav; Afek, Arnon; Derazne, Estela; Keinan-Boker, Lital; Leiba, Adi; Nagler, Arnon; Shamiss, Ari; Kark, Jeremy D

    2014-10-01

    Differences in the prevalence of multiple myeloma across races have been observed, with a two- to three-fold greater prevalence in African Americans compared with Caucasians. Little is known about the incidence or prevalence of multiple myeloma in other populations. The association between father's country of origin and the incidence of multiple myeloma was examined in a nationwide population-based cohort. Health-related data on 746 200 16-19-year-old Jewish males examined between 1967 and 1998 were linked to the Israel National Cancer Registry to derive multiple myeloma incidence up to 2006. During 17 352 349 person-years of follow-up, 109 examinees developed plasma cell dyscrasias. Middle Eastern origin was protective compared to European origin (hazard ratio [HR] 0.39; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.22-0.68; p = 0.001, adjusted for year of birth), and also when restricted to Israeli-born males (HR 0.44; 95% CI 0.24-0.82; p = 0.01). In conclusion, second-generation adolescents of Middle Eastern origin are at persistently lower risk of developing multiple myeloma compared to those of European origin, supporting a genetic component in the pathogenesis of multiple myeloma.

  15. Understanding the Breast Cancer Experience of Survivors: a Qualitative Study of African American Women in Rural Eastern North Carolina.

    PubMed

    Torres, Essie; Dixon, Crystal; Richman, Alice R

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this study is to gain an in-depth understanding of African American breast cancer survivors' experiences, barriers and facilitators in accessing breast cancer treatment, and challenges in adherence to follow-up care. We conducted seven focus groups with 32 African American women with breast cancer in three rural counties in eastern North Carolina during August-November 2013. Surveys were also utilized to gather basic demographic and breast health history information. Thematic analysis was performed using the immersion crystallization approach. Several common areas of life affected by breast cancer included faith and support networks, psychosocial well-being, and quality of care issues. Faith in God was an important coping mechanism essential to all women in the study and a critical facilitator in survivorship. Support networks consisted of family, church-family, friends, and co-workers. The concept of fear included the discovery of breast cancer and fear of death, negative side effects of treatment, and social stigma of having breast cancer. Factors that influenced provider-patient relationship were age of provider, perceived lack of empathy, and providers leaving during treatment. Participants also expressed their lack of knowledge regarding a number of the side effects they were experiencing during and after their treatment. Results of this study contribute to the assessment of potential coping mechanisms used by African American breast cancer survivors (i.e., spirituality, positive attitudes, and support networks) that can potentially be effective and have a positive impact on the adjustment of life for survivors. PMID:25877467

  16. Position of the Patella among Emirati Adult Knees. Is Insall-Salvati Ratio Applicable to Middle-Easterners?

    PubMed Central

    Althani, Saeed; Shahi, Alisina; Tan, Timothy L.; Al-Belooshi, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Background: Abnormal patellar height is associated with anterior knee pain and several conditions that affect the patellofemoral joint. The aim of this study was to 1) report the incidence of patella alta and patella baja and 2) investigate whether the normal limits of the Insall-Salvati ratio is applicable in adult Middle-Easterners. Methods: A radiographic review of the lateral radiographs of 736 Middle-Eastern knees were performed. Patellar tendon length (TL) and the patellar length (TP) was digitally measured and the ratios of these measures was used to calculate the Insall-Salvati ratio. Results: The overall mean TL/PL ratio was 1.20±0.17. The Insall-Salvati ratio was higher (p=0.0013) in males (1.22± 0.12) than in females (1.18±0.17). According to our measurement, the recommended levels for defining abnormal patellar position should be 0.86 for patella baja and 1.54 for patella alta. Conclusion: The use of TL/PL ratio demonstrated a higher incidence of patella alta and a higher mean TL/PL ratio compared to other techniques. The normal ranges for the TL/PL differs from western populations and may be attributed to lifestyle differences. PMID:27200391

  17. Effect of culture on acceptance of telemedicine in Middle Eastern countries: case study of Jordan and Syria.

    PubMed

    Alajlani, Mohannad; Clarke, Malcolm

    2013-04-01

    We investigated issues that affect the use and adoption of telemedicine in Middle Eastern countries, taking the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan and the Syrian Arab Republic as case studies. Our study is based on interviews with key stakeholders (including doctors, technicians, engineers, and decision makers) and questionnaires administered to key stakeholders (including patients), ensuring opinion was gained from people from a full range of backgrounds and roles in the healthcare system. We found doctor and patient resistance was a major issue preventing the adoption of telemedicine in both countries, followed by poor infrastructure, lack of funding, and lack of information technology training. Our research identifies that culture is a greater issue than technical matters for the adoption of telemedicine in Middle Eastern countries. Based on our preliminary results we developed a guideline framework for each country that might be applied to telemedicine projects at the pre-implementation phase. The proposed guideline framework was validated through a return visit to the stakeholders and seeking further opinion.

  18. A Qualitative Study to Understand Nativity Differences in Breastfeeding Behaviors Among Middle-Class African American and African-Born Women.

    PubMed

    Fabiyi, Camille; Peacock, Nadine; Hebert-Beirne, Jennifer; Handler, Arden

    2016-10-01

    Objective To explore nativity differences and the role of attitudes, social norms, and behavioral control perceptions surrounding breastfeeding initiation and duration among middle-class African-American (AA) and African-born (AB) mothers in the US. Methods Semi-structured individual interviews were conducted with 20 middle-class AA and AB mothers in central Ohio from December 2012 to February 2013. Interview questions were developed based on the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB). Interviews were analyzed for salient themes by TPB constructs. Differences in themes were examined by nativity status. Results All study participants had initiated breastfeeding or bottle-feeding with expressed breast milk, noting the benefits it conferred as well as the persuasive encouragement they received from others. Persistent encouragement was often cited as a factor for sustaining breastfeeding. More AA mothers had discontinued breastfeeding by the time of the interview, which was often attributed to health, lactation, and work challenges. Inconsistent support from health providers, dissuasive remarks from others, ambivalent breastfeeding attitudes, and diminished family support led some mothers to begin formula supplementation. Analysis of maternal narratives revealed nativity differences across sources of encouragement. Specifically, important sources of encouragement were health providers for AA mothers and family, friends, partners and culture for AB mothers. Only AB mothers expressed concerns about difficulty they encountered with breastfeeding due to the lack of proximal family support. Conclusions Findings reveal that both groups of mothers may be susceptible to unsupportive breastfeeding norms in the US and also highlight the need for intervention in health care settings and workplaces to improve AA women's breastfeeding rates.

  19. A Qualitative Study to Understand Nativity Differences in Breastfeeding Behaviors Among Middle-Class African American and African-Born Women.

    PubMed

    Fabiyi, Camille; Peacock, Nadine; Hebert-Beirne, Jennifer; Handler, Arden

    2016-10-01

    Objective To explore nativity differences and the role of attitudes, social norms, and behavioral control perceptions surrounding breastfeeding initiation and duration among middle-class African-American (AA) and African-born (AB) mothers in the US. Methods Semi-structured individual interviews were conducted with 20 middle-class AA and AB mothers in central Ohio from December 2012 to February 2013. Interview questions were developed based on the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB). Interviews were analyzed for salient themes by TPB constructs. Differences in themes were examined by nativity status. Results All study participants had initiated breastfeeding or bottle-feeding with expressed breast milk, noting the benefits it conferred as well as the persuasive encouragement they received from others. Persistent encouragement was often cited as a factor for sustaining breastfeeding. More AA mothers had discontinued breastfeeding by the time of the interview, which was often attributed to health, lactation, and work challenges. Inconsistent support from health providers, dissuasive remarks from others, ambivalent breastfeeding attitudes, and diminished family support led some mothers to begin formula supplementation. Analysis of maternal narratives revealed nativity differences across sources of encouragement. Specifically, important sources of encouragement were health providers for AA mothers and family, friends, partners and culture for AB mothers. Only AB mothers expressed concerns about difficulty they encountered with breastfeeding due to the lack of proximal family support. Conclusions Findings reveal that both groups of mothers may be susceptible to unsupportive breastfeeding norms in the US and also highlight the need for intervention in health care settings and workplaces to improve AA women's breastfeeding rates. PMID:27334637

  20. On the linkage between the Asian summer monsoon and tropopause fold activity over the eastern Mediterranean and the Middle East

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tyrlis, Evangelos; Å kerlak, Bojan; Sprenger, Michael; Wernli, Heini; Zittis, George; Lelieveld, Jos

    2014-03-01

    A climatology of tropopause folds occurring over the Eastern Mediterranean and the Middle East (EMME) has been established using the ERA-Interim reanalyses for the years 1979-2012. The methodology employs an algorithm that detects folds at grid points where the vertical profile features multiple crossings of the dynamical tropopause and allows their classification according to their vertical extent. Our results confirm the findings of an earlier 1 year climatology that recognized a global "hot spot" of summertime fold activity between the eastern Mediterranean and central Asia, in the vicinity of the subtropical jet. Two distinct maxima of activity are identified over Turkey and Iran-Afghanistan where fold frequency exceeds 25%. Occasionally, medium and deep folds form over the two regions at surprisingly low latitudes. This summertime peak in fold activity diverges from the zonal mean seasonal cycle over the subtropics and is driven by the South Asian Monsoon. Starting in late spring, the EMME is gradually brought under the influence of the zonally asymmetric background state induced by the monsoon. As areas of sharply sloping isentropes develop especially over the eastern Mediterranean and Iran-Afghanistan, subsidence and fold formation are favored. Further investigation of the reanalysis data provided empirical evidence that the monsoon also drives the interannual variability of EMME fold activity. An upward trend in fold activity is identified, especially in May, attributed to the recent advanced monsoon onset and the deepening convective activity throughout summer, which promotes upper-level baroclinicity over the EMME and favors folding.

  1. Middle-class African American adolescents' and parents' conceptions of parental authority and parenting practices: a longitudinal investigation.

    PubMed

    Smetana, J G

    2000-01-01

    Conceptions of parental authority and ratings of parental rules and decision making were examined longitudinally among 82 middle-class African American adolescents and their parents (82 mothers and 52 fathers), who were divided into two groups according to family income. Adolescents were, on average, 13.14 years of age at Time 1 and 15.05 years of age at Time 2. Nearly all adolescents and parents affirmed parents' legitimate authority to regulate (and children's obligation to comply with) rules regarding moral, conventional, prudential, friendship, and multifaceted issues, but they were more equivocal in their judgments regarding personal issues. With age, adolescents increasingly judged personal issues to be beyond the bounds of legitimate parental authority, but judgments differed by family income. Adolescents from upper income families rejected parents' legitimate authority to regulate personal issues more at Time 1 than did adolescents from middle income families, but no differences were found at Time 2. Authority to regulate adolescents' behavior did not extend to other adults or to schools, churches, and the law. With adolescents' increasing age, African American families became less restrictive in regulating prudential, friendship, multifaceted, and personal issues. Adolescents', mothers', and fathers' judgments demonstrated significant continuity over time, but few cross- or within-generation associations in judgments were found. Conceptions of legitimate parental authority at Time 1 were found to predict family rules at Time 2.

  2. Middle proterozoic tectonic activity in west Texas and eastern New Mexico and analysis of gravity and magnetic anomalies

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, D.C.; Keller, G.R. )

    1994-03-01

    The Precambrian history of west Texas and eastern New Mexico is complex, consisting of four events: Early Proterozoic orogenic activity (16309-1800 Ma), formation of the western granite-rhyolite province (WGRP) (1340-1410 Ma), Grenville age tectonics (1116-1232 Ma), and middle Proterozoic extension possibly related to mid-continent rifting (1086-1109 Ma). Pre-Grenville tectonics, Grenville tectonics, and mid-continent rifting are represented in this area by the Abilene gravity minimum (AGM) and bimodal igneous rocks, which are probably younger. We have used gravity modeling and the comparison of gravity and magnetic anomalies with rock types reported from wells penetrating Precambrian basement to study the AGM and middle Proterozoic extension in this area. The AGM is an east-northeast-trending, 600 km long, gravity low, which extends from the Texas-Oklahoma border through the central basin platform (CBP) to the Delaware basin. This feature appears to predate formation of the mafic body in the CBP (1163 Ma) and is most likely related to Pre-Grenville tectonics, possibly representing a continental margin arc batholith. Evidence of middle Proterozoic extension is found in the form of igneous bodies in the CBP, the Van Horn uplift, the Franklin Mountains, and the Sacramento Mountains. Analysis of gravity and magnetic anomalies shows that paired gravity and magnetic highs are related to mafic intrusions in the upper crust. Mapping of middle Proterozoic igneous rocks and the paired anomalies outlines a 530 km diameter area of distributed east-west-oriented extension. The Debaca-Swisher terrain of shallow marine and clastic sedimentary rocks is age correlative with middle Proterozoic extension. These rocks may represent the lithology of possible Proterozoic exploration targets. Proterozoic structures were reactivated during the Paleozoic, affecting both the structure and deposition in the Permian basin.

  3. Report of the First Meeting of the Middle East and Eastern Europe Rabies Expert Bureau, Istanbul, Turkey (June 8-9, 2010)

    PubMed Central

    Aylan, Orhan; El-Sayed, Aly Fahmy Mohamed; Farahtaj, Firouzeh; Janani, Ali R.; Lugach, Olga; Tarkhan-Mouravi, Olgha; Usluer, Gaye; Vodopija, Rodovan; Vranjes, Nenad; Tordo, Noël; Dodet, Betty

    2011-01-01

    Rabies is a threat in all parts of the world where animal reservoirs persists, including Eastern Europe and the Middle East. Rabies experts from seven Middle East and Eastern European countries (Croatia, Egypt, Georgia, Iran, Serbia, Turkey, and Ukraine) met for two days in Istanbul, Turkey (June 8-9, 2010), to exchange information on the epidemiological situation concerning human and animal rabies in their respective countries and to discuss strategies for rabies elimination and control. They decided to establish a regional network, the Middle East and Eastern Europe Rabies Expert Bureau (MEEREB), a regional network of experts, to increase collaboration in rabies prevention and control at the local, regional, and global levels. PMID:21991443

  4. From pen pals to chat rooms: the impact of social media on Middle Eastern Society.

    PubMed

    Hatfield, Elaine; Rapson, Richard L

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we will discuss what is known about a surprisingly popular phenomenon in the Middle East-the use of social media to communicate. We will begin with a discussion of what "social media" sites are (sites such as Facebook, Your Middle East, YouTube, Flickr, Muslima.com, chat rooms, and instant messaging) and point out how common they are in the Middle East. Next, we will discuss the reasons why men and women are currently using Internet and social media. Finally, we will discuss what impact social media have had on politics, political dissent, education, and men's and women's relationships-and the impact they might be expected to have in future years. Finally, we will focus on the impact of such media on men's and women's relationships-including cross-gender friendships, romantic relationships, and sexual relationships.

  5. From pen pals to chat rooms: the impact of social media on Middle Eastern Society.

    PubMed

    Hatfield, Elaine; Rapson, Richard L

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we will discuss what is known about a surprisingly popular phenomenon in the Middle East-the use of social media to communicate. We will begin with a discussion of what "social media" sites are (sites such as Facebook, Your Middle East, YouTube, Flickr, Muslima.com, chat rooms, and instant messaging) and point out how common they are in the Middle East. Next, we will discuss the reasons why men and women are currently using Internet and social media. Finally, we will discuss what impact social media have had on politics, political dissent, education, and men's and women's relationships-and the impact they might be expected to have in future years. Finally, we will focus on the impact of such media on men's and women's relationships-including cross-gender friendships, romantic relationships, and sexual relationships. PMID:26090303

  6. African Homo erectus: Old radiometric ages and young Oldowan assemblages in the middle Awash Valley, Ethiopia

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, J.D.; White, T.D.; Selassie, Y.H. ); Heinzelin, J. de ); Schick, K.D. ); Hart, W.K. ); WoldeGabriel, G. ); Walter, R.C. ); Suwa, G. ); Asfaw, B. )

    1994-06-24

    Fossils and artifacts recovered from the middle Awash Valley of Ethiopia's Afar depression sample the Middle Pleistocene transition from Homo erectus to Homo sapiens. Ar/Ar ages, biostratigraphy, and tephrachronology from this area indicate that the Pleistocene Bodo hominid cranium and newer specimens are approximately 0.6 million years old. Only Oldowan chopper and flake assemblages are present in the lower stratigraphic units but Acheulean bifacial artifacts are consistently prevalent and widespread in directly overlying deposits. This technological transition is related to a shift in sedimentary regime, supporting the hypothesis that Middle Pleistocene Oldowan assemblages represent a behavioral facies of the Acheulean industrial complex.

  7. Phylogenetic implications of the first African Middle Miocene hominoid frontal bone from Otavi, Namibia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pickford, Martin; Sola, Salvador Moya; Köhler, Meike

    1997-09-01

    The discovery of a hominoid frontal at Berg Aukas, Namibia, aged 13-12 Ma, permits an analysis of the phylogenetic relations between fossil and extant great apes. The Namibian specimen is closer morphologically to African apes and humans (AAH), whereas all fossil Eurasian great apes differ markedly from AAH but are closer to the Pongo clade.

  8. Student Perceptions of Teacher Characteristics on Math Achievement for Middle School African American Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clayton, Otis, Jr.

    2013-01-01

    This causal-comparative research explored how African American students' perceptions of their math teachers affected their academic performance on the Math Tennessee Comprehensive Assessment Program (TCAP) Test during 2009-2010 academic year. When considering possible measures of teacher effectiveness in K-12 education, it can be argued that…

  9. Project-Based Learning about Nutrition with Technology in an African-American Middle School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banks, Sibyl

    2010-01-01

    In the last few years, there has been a growing problem with the prevalence of being overweight. This is becoming an accepted lifestyle in the African American community, and has begun to impact not just adults, but also adolescents and young children. There are problems associated with being overweight or obese that could have lifetime…

  10. Racial Identity, Social Context, and Race-Related Social Cognition in African Americans during Middle Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowley, Stephanie J.; Burchinal, Margaret R.; Roberts, Joanne E.; Zeisel, Susan A.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the effect of changes in racial identity, cross-race friendships, same-race friendships, and classroom racial composition on changes in race-related social cognition from 3rd to 5th grade for 73 African American children. The goal of the study was to determine the extent to which preadolescent racial identity and social context…

  11. Latent Patterns of Risk Behavior in Urban African-American Middle School Students in Baltimore City

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hedden, Sarra L.; Whitaker, Damiya E.; von Thomsen, Sarah; Severtson, S. Geoffrey; Latimer, William W.

    2011-01-01

    Students who engage in high-risk behaviors, including early initiation of sexual intercourse, alcohol use, marijuana use, tobacco use, and externalizing behavior are vulnerable to a broad range of adverse outcomes as adults. Latent class analysis was used to determine whether varying patterns of risk behavior existed for 212 urban African-American…

  12. Opinions about breastfeeding amongst middle-income African and Indian women in Nairobi.

    PubMed

    Lakhani, S; Jansen, A A

    1984-04-01

    Attitudes troward breastfeeding were assessed among 100 African and Asian women who attended the prenatal clinic of a private hospital in Nairobi, Kenya. The women were subjects in an ongoing nutrition study, but the present study was based only on their responses to 11 questions on breastfeeding. The investigators sought to identify factors which either encouraged or discouraged breastfeeding. The results were expected to be of use in developing strategies to reverse the current trend toward bottle feeding. The women delivered at the hospital and were interviewed shortly after discharge, either in their home or during a postpartum clinic visit. The subjects ranged in age from 16-35 years, and the majority were primaparous. Both the Asian and African women had similar educational backgrounds. Most of the Asian women were housewives, and most of the Africa women were employed as clerks or secretaries. At the time of discharge from the hospital, only 44% of the infants of the African women and only 13% of the infants born to the Asian women were being exclusively breastfed. 9% of the African mothers and 18% of rthe Asian women did not breastfeed at all. The remaining infants either received bottle feeds after each breastfeed or were given bottle feeds in place of breastfeeds at least once a day. Hospital routines unintentionally promoted bottle feeding, made it difficult for the women to establish breastfeeding, and may have given the women the impression that breastfeeding should be supplemented with bottle feeding. The women were separated from their infants, breastfeeding times were rigidly scheduled, the infants were bottle fed prior to the 1st breastfeeding, supplemental feeds were provided, and bottles were presented to the women each time their infants were brought to them. The women were poorly informed about the value of breastfeeding. Only 52% of the African women and 33% of the Asian women were aware that breast milk by itself provided infants with

  13. When Culture and Learning Styles Matter: A Canadian University with Middle-Eastern Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lemke-Westcott, Tracey; Johnson, Brad

    2013-01-01

    Transnational branch campuses of universities are a growing phenomenon, particularly in the Middle-East. The cultures of home institutions and host countries are often foreign to each other. The result is a cultural and learning style gap between faculty and students impacting students' learning and teachers' effectiveness. A pilot study of the…

  14. Succession of rugose coral faunas in the Lower and Middle Devonian of eastern North America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Oliver, William Albert

    1967-01-01

    The late Onesquethaw (Onondaga) faunas are the largest and most widely distributed of all those under review. Succeeding faunas of the Cazenovia, Tioughnioga and Taghanic Stage (Hamilton-Tully sequence) are less widespread and are clearly derivatives of the late Onesquethaw fauna. The Taghanic fauna is the latest Middle Devonian rugose coral fauna in the area

  15. Supergroup stratigraphy of the Atlantic and Gulf Coastal Plains (Middle? Jurassic through holocene, Eastern North America)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Weems, R.E.; ,; Edwards, L.E.

    2004-01-01

    An inclusive supergroup stratigraphic framework for the Atlantic and Gulf Coastal Plains is proposed herein. This framework consists of five supergroups that 1) are regionally inclusive and regionally applicable, 2) meaningfully reflect the overall stratigraphic and structural history of the Coastal Plains geologic province of the southeastern United States, and 3) create stratigraphic units that are readily mappable and useful at a regional level. Only the Marquesas Supergroup (Lower Cretaceous to lowest Upper Cretaceous) has been previously established. The Trent Supergroup (middle middle Eocene to basal lower Miocene) is an existing name here raised to supergroup rank. The Minden Supergroup (Middle? through Upper Jurassic), the Ancora Supergroup (Upper Cretaceous to lower middle Eocene), and the Nomini Supergroup (lower Miocene to Recent) are new stratigraphic concepts proposed herein. In order to bring existing groups and formations into accord with the supergroups described here, the following stratigraphic revisions are made. 1) The base of the Shark River Formation (Trent Supergroup) is moved upward. 2) The Old Church Formation is removed from the Chesapeake Group (Nomini Supergroup) and moved to the Trent Supergroup without group placement. 3) The Tiger Leap and Penney Farms formations are removed from the Hawthorn Group (Nomini Supergroup) and moved to the Trent Supergroup without group placement. 4) The Piney Point and Chickahominy formations are removed from the Pamunkey Group (Ancora Supergroup) and moved to the Trent Supergroup without group placement. 5) the Tallahatta Formation is removed from the Claiborne Group (Trent Supergroup) and placed within the Ancora Supergroup without group placement.

  16. "When You Come Here, It Is Still Like It Is Their Space": Exploring the Experiences of Students of Middle Eastern Heritages in Post-9/11 U.S. Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neider, Xyanthe Nicole

    2010-01-01

    The aftermath of September 11, 2001 complicated how students of Middle Eastern heritages are perceived, treated, and constructed in U.S. institutions of higher education. However, research and scholarship has ignored how students of Middle Eastern heritages experience higher education in the current socio-political United States context. Borrowing…

  17. A Comparative Study of Parental Involvement and Its Effect on African-American Male and Overall Student Achievement at Single Gender and Coeducational Middle Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nellums, Michael W.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if Parental Involvement influenced academic performance at single gender and co-educational schools. This study also compared African American male academic achievement with all students enrolled in two single gender, and one coeducational, middle school programs. Although all three schools reflected a…

  18. Uniparental genetic heritage of belarusians: encounter of rare middle eastern matrilineages with a central European mitochondrial DNA pool.

    PubMed

    Kushniarevich, Alena; Sivitskaya, Larysa; Danilenko, Nina; Novogrodskii, Tadeush; Tsybovsky, Iosif; Kiseleva, Anna; Kotova, Svetlana; Chaubey, Gyaneshwer; Metspalu, Ene; Sahakyan, Hovhannes; Bahmanimehr, Ardeshir; Reidla, Maere; Rootsi, Siiri; Parik, Jüri; Reisberg, Tuuli; Achilli, Alessandro; Hooshiar Kashani, Baharak; Gandini, Francesca; Olivieri, Anna; Behar, Doron M; Torroni, Antonio; Davydenko, Oleg; Villems, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Ethnic Belarusians make up more than 80% of the nine and half million people inhabiting the Republic of Belarus. Belarusians together with Ukrainians and Russians represent the East Slavic linguistic group, largest both in numbers and territory, inhabiting East Europe alongside Baltic-, Finno-Permic- and Turkic-speaking people. Till date, only a limited number of low resolution genetic studies have been performed on this population. Therefore, with the phylogeographic analysis of 565 Y-chromosomes and 267 mitochondrial DNAs from six well covered geographic sub-regions of Belarus we strove to complement the existing genetic profile of eastern Europeans. Our results reveal that around 80% of the paternal Belarusian gene pool is composed of R1a, I2a and N1c Y-chromosome haplogroups - a profile which is very similar to the two other eastern European populations - Ukrainians and Russians. The maternal Belarusian gene pool encompasses a full range of West Eurasian haplogroups and agrees well with the genetic structure of central-east European populations. Our data attest that latitudinal gradients characterize the variation of the uniparentally transmitted gene pools of modern Belarusians. In particular, the Y-chromosome reflects movements of people in central-east Europe, starting probably as early as the beginning of the Holocene. Furthermore, the matrilineal legacy of Belarusians retains two rare mitochondrial DNA haplogroups, N1a3 and N3, whose phylogeographies were explored in detail after de novo sequencing of 20 and 13 complete mitogenomes, respectively, from all over Eurasia. Our phylogeographic analyses reveal that two mitochondrial DNA lineages, N3 and N1a3, both of Middle Eastern origin, might mark distinct events of matrilineal gene flow to Europe: during the mid-Holocene period and around the Pleistocene-Holocene transition, respectively. PMID:23785503

  19. Uniparental Genetic Heritage of Belarusians: Encounter of Rare Middle Eastern Matrilineages with a Central European Mitochondrial DNA Pool

    PubMed Central

    Kushniarevich, Alena; Sivitskaya, Larysa; Danilenko, Nina; Novogrodskii, Tadeush; Tsybovsky, Iosif; Kiseleva, Anna; Kotova, Svetlana; Chaubey, Gyaneshwer; Metspalu, Ene; Sahakyan, Hovhannes; Bahmanimehr, Ardeshir; Reidla, Maere; Rootsi, Siiri; Parik, Jüri; Reisberg, Tuuli; Achilli, Alessandro; Hooshiar Kashani, Baharak; Gandini, Francesca; Olivieri, Anna; Behar, Doron M.; Torroni, Antonio; Davydenko, Oleg; Villems, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Ethnic Belarusians make up more than 80% of the nine and half million people inhabiting the Republic of Belarus. Belarusians together with Ukrainians and Russians represent the East Slavic linguistic group, largest both in numbers and territory, inhabiting East Europe alongside Baltic-, Finno-Permic- and Turkic-speaking people. Till date, only a limited number of low resolution genetic studies have been performed on this population. Therefore, with the phylogeographic analysis of 565 Y-chromosomes and 267 mitochondrial DNAs from six well covered geographic sub-regions of Belarus we strove to complement the existing genetic profile of eastern Europeans. Our results reveal that around 80% of the paternal Belarusian gene pool is composed of R1a, I2a and N1c Y-chromosome haplogroups – a profile which is very similar to the two other eastern European populations – Ukrainians and Russians. The maternal Belarusian gene pool encompasses a full range of West Eurasian haplogroups and agrees well with the genetic structure of central-east European populations. Our data attest that latitudinal gradients characterize the variation of the uniparentally transmitted gene pools of modern Belarusians. In particular, the Y-chromosome reflects movements of people in central-east Europe, starting probably as early as the beginning of the Holocene. Furthermore, the matrilineal legacy of Belarusians retains two rare mitochondrial DNA haplogroups, N1a3 and N3, whose phylogeographies were explored in detail after de novo sequencing of 20 and 13 complete mitogenomes, respectively, from all over Eurasia. Our phylogeographic analyses reveal that two mitochondrial DNA lineages, N3 and N1a3, both of Middle Eastern origin, might mark distinct events of matrilineal gene flow to Europe: during the mid-Holocene period and around the Pleistocene-Holocene transition, respectively. PMID:23785503

  20. Magnetic fabrics and Pan-African structural evolution in the Najd Fault corridor in the Eastern Desert of Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdeen, Mamdouh M.; Greiling, Reinhard O.; Sadek, Mohamed F.; Hamad, Sayed S.

    2014-11-01

    dykes dissecting it, the highest susceptibilities exceed 7 × 10-2 SI units in magnetite-bearing serpentinite. Early orogenic rocks are characterized by relatively high anisotropies (P‧ up to 1.7) and are deformed in numerous shear zones. Most of these shear zones can be related to the Najd Fault System. In contrast, late orogenic sediments and intrusives show mostly low anisotropies. However, magnetic lineations are still distinctly oriented parallel with the Najd Fault trend. The very latest Pan-African intrusives, the broadly N-S trending dykes crosscutting the Kadabora pluton, imply c. E-W directed extension. Such an extension is consistent with the magnetic fabric in some of the dykes. Therefore, the Kadabora dykes mark the end of Najd wrenching and a late stage of extension in this part of the Eastern Desert of Egypt. The other dykes display mostly primary fabrics, related to magma flow during their intrusion and are thus post-deformational with regard to the Pan-African orogeny.

  1. One for All and All for One: Using Multiple Identification Theory Simulations to Build Cooperative Attitudes and Behaviors in a Middle Eastern Conflict Scenario

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Robert Howard; Williams, Alexander Jonathan

    2010-01-01

    The authors previously developed multiple identification theory (MIT) as a system of simulation game design intended to promote attitude change. The present study further tests MIT's effectiveness. The authors created a game (CULTURE & CREED) via MIT as a complex simulation of Middle Eastern conflict resolution, designed to change attitudes and…

  2. Creating a virtual community of practice to investigate legitimate peripheral participation by African American middle school girls in science activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edwards, Leslie D.

    How do teenage girls develop an interest in science? What kinds of opportunities can science teachers present to female students that support their engagement with learning science? I studied one aspect of this issue by focusing on ways students could use science to enhance or gain identities that they (probably) already valued. To do that I created technology-rich activities and experiences for an after school class in science and technology for middle school girls who lived in a low socio-economic urban neighborhood. These activities and experiences were designed to create a virtual community of practice whose members used science in diverse ways. Student interest was made evident in their responses to the activities. Four conclusions emerged. (1) Opportunities to learn about the lives and work of admired African American business women interested students in learning by linking it to their middle-class aspirations and their interest in things that money and status can buy. (2) Opportunities to learn about the lives and work of African American women experts in science in a classroom context where students then practiced similar kinds of actual scientific tasks engaged students in relations of legitimate peripheral participation in a virtual and diverse community of practice focused on science which was created in the after-school classes. (3) Opportunities where students used science to show off for family, friends, and supporters of the after-school program, identities they valued, interested them enough that they engaged in long-term science and technology projects that required lots of revisions. (4) In response to the opportunities presented, new and enhanced identities developed around becoming a better student or becoming some kind of scientist.

  3. Effect of street connectivity on incidence of lower-body functional limitations among middle-aged African Americans

    PubMed Central

    Schootman, Mario; Andresen, Elena M.; Wolinsky, Fredric D.; Malmstrom, Theodore K.; Miller, J. Philip; Miller, Douglas K.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose We hypothesize that lower street connectivity increases the risk of incident lower-body functional limitations (LBFL) among urban African Americans aged 49–65 years. Methods This population-based cohort was interviewed in-home. Five items measuring LBFL were obtained at baseline and after 3 years. Participants were considered to have LBFL if they reported difficulty on at least 2 of the 5 tasks. Census-tract street connectivity was measured as the ratio of the number of street intersections to the maximum possible number of intersections. Results Of 563 subjects with zero or one LBFL at baseline, 109 (19.4 %) experienced two or more LBFL at the 3-year follow-up. Adjusted logistic regression showed that persons who lived in census tracts with the lowest quartile of street connectivity were 3.45 times (95% confidence interval: 1.21 – 9.78) more likely to develop two or more LBFL than those who lived in census tracts with the highest quartile of street connectivity independent of other important environmental factors. Conclusions Areas with low street connectivity appear to be an independent contributor to the risk of incident LBFL in middle-aged African Americans. PMID:22658823

  4. The Effect of Adverse Housing and Neighborhood Conditions on the Development of Diabetes Mellitus among Middle-aged African Americans

    PubMed Central

    Schootman, Mario; Andresen, Elena M.; Wolinsky, Fredric D.; Malmstrom, Theodore K.; Miller, J. Philip; Yan, Yan; Miller, Douglas K.

    2015-01-01

    The authors examined the associations of observed neighborhood (block face) and housing conditions with the incidence of diabetes by using data from 644 subjects in the African-American Health Study (St. Louis area, Missouri). They also investigated five mediating pathways (health behavior, psychosocial, health status, access to medical care, and sociodemographic characteristics) if significant associations were identified. The external appearance of the block the subjects lived on and housing conditions were rated as excellent, good, fair, or poor. Subjects reported about neighborhood desirability. Self-reported diabetes was obtained at baseline and 3 years later. Of 644 subjects without self-reported diabetes, 10.3% reported having diabetes at the 3-year follow-up. Every housing condition rated as fair-poor was associated with an increased risk of diabetes, with odds ratios ranging from 2.53 (95% confidence interval: 1.47, 4.34 for physical condition inside the building) to 1.78 (95% confidence interval: 1.03, 3.07 for cleanliness inside the building) in unadjusted analyses. No association was found between any of the block face conditions or perceived neighborhood conditions and incident diabetes. The odds ratios for the five housing conditions were unaffected when adjusted for the mediating pathways. Poor housing conditions appear to be an independent contributor to the risk of incident diabetes in urban, middle-aged African Americans. PMID:17625220

  5. Maps showing distribution of the Middle Cretaceous unconformity in the eastern Gulf of Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Massingill, L.M.; Wells, R.H.

    1987-01-01

    This report emphasizes the salt diapirs, pillows, and ridges in the northeastern Gulf of Mexico because of the profound effect these geologic structures have on the MCU. Salt locations are shown on the isopach of post-MCU sediments (fig. 1). A second map shows pre-middle Cretaceous outcrops terminated by the MCU along the Florida Escarpment, the southeastern Gulf, and the Campeche Escarpment (fig. 2).

  6. The basement of the Punta del Este Terrane (Uruguay): an African Mesoproterozoic fragment at the eastern border of the South American Río de La Plata craton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basei, Miguel A. S.; Peel, Elena; Sánchez Bettucci, Leda; Preciozzi, Fernando; Nutman, Allen P.

    2011-04-01

    The Punta del Este Terrane (eastern Uruguay) lies in a complex Neoproterozoic (Brasiliano/Pan-African) orogenic zone considered to contain a suture between South American terranes to the west of Major Gercino-Sierra Ballena Suture Zone and eastern African affinities terranes. Zircon cores from Punta del Este Terrane basement orthogneisses have U-Pb ages of ca. 1,000 Ma, which indicate an lineage with the Namaqua Belt in Southwestern Africa. U-Pb zircon ages also provide the following information on the Punta del Este terrane: the orthogneisses containing the ca. 1,000 Ma inheritance formed at ca. 750 Ma; in contrast to the related terranes now in Africa, reworking of the Punta del Este Terrane during Brasiliano/Pan-African orogenesis was very intense, reaching granulite facies at ca. 640 Ma. The termination of the Brasiliano/Pan-African orogeny is marked by formation of acid volcanic and volcanoclastic rocks at ca. 570 Ma (Sierra de Aguirre Formation), formation of late sedimentary basins (San Carlos Formation) and then intrusion at ca. 535 Ma of post-tectonic granitoids (Santa Teresa and José Ignacio batholiths). The Punta del Este Terrane and unrelated western terranes represented by the Dom Feliciano Belt and the Río de La Plata Craton were in their present positions by ca. 535 Ma.

  7. Controls on Middle Pennsylvanian peat-forming floras in the Eastern United States

    SciTech Connect

    Eble, C.F. )

    1992-01-01

    Middle Pennsylvanian strata in the Central Appalachian Basin contain numerous coal beds that provide an opportunity to study changes in coal-spore floras on an intra- and inter-bed scale. Vertical spore abundance patterns within individual coal beds record the ecological dynamics, both biologic and edaphic, of peat-forming systems in this interval. Coal palynofloras of this interval show a stratigraphic change in composition. Early to Middle Pennsylvanian spore floras are largely dominated by Lycospora. Species of Densosporites, a small lycopsid genus, Granulatisporites, a fern/pteridosperm( )-allied genus, and Laevigatosporites, a calamite-related genus, commonly displace Lycospora vertically within these beds, reflecting patterns of ecological succession. Spore floras from stratigraphically younger coal beds in this sequence exhibit similar intra-bed spore variation, but contain increased percentages of tree-fern spores, and tend to be more florally heterogeneous overall. Areas of clastic deposition within the swamps are also marked by changes in spore composition. These changes in coal palynology are paralleled by stratigraphic changes in coal appearance and associated strata composition. The proportion of dull'' coal lithotypes, frequency of clastic partings, and amount of coarse clastics in the enclosing strata all increase toward the top of this sequence. Climate may have been more important in determining the floral composition of Early through mid-Middle Pennsylvanian peat swamps, whereas climate, tectonics, and eustasy interacted to determine sediment volume and type in this interval.

  8. Palliative cancer care in Middle Eastern countries: accomplishments and challenges †

    PubMed Central

    Silbermann, M.; Arnaout, M.; Daher, M.; Nestoros, S.; Pitsillides, B.; Charalambous, H.; Gultekin, M.; Fahmi, R.; Mostafa, K.A.H.; Khleif, A.D.; Manasrah, N.; Oberman, A.

    2012-01-01

    Background In larger parts of the Middle East palliative care is still misunderstood among health professionals, cancer patients and the public at large. One reason to that is because the term does not obviously communicate the intent of this clinical discipline, which is lending better quality of life while combating cancer. Further, culture, tradition and religion have contributed to this misgiving and confusion especially at the terminal stage of the disease. Methods The Middle East Cancer Consortium jointly with the American Society of Clinical Oncology, the American Oncology Nursing Society, the San Diego Hospice Center for Palliative Medicine and the Children's Hospital & Clinics of Minnesota initiated a series of training courses and workshops in the Middle East to provide updated training to physicians, nurses, social workers and psychologists from throughout the region with basic concepts of palliative care and pain managements in adults and children cancers. Results During the past 6 years hundreds of professionals took part in these educational and training activities, thereby creating the core of trained caregivers who start to make the change in their individual countries. Conclusions The outcome of consecutive training activities can overcome geopolitical instabilities, and yield a genuine change in approach of both regulators, medical administrators, medical staff and the public; as to the important contribution of palliative care services to the welfare of the patient and his/her family. PMID:22628412

  9. Increasing trend of African dust, over 49 years, in the eastern Mediterranean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganor, Eliezer; Osetinsky, Isabella; Stupp, Amnon; Alpert, Pinhas

    2010-04-01

    Dust observations in Israel were carried out since 1958. During 1958-2006, 966 dust days were observed. The dust days have been analyzed through their association with the regional eastern Mediterranean synoptic types, as classified by the Tel Aviv University method. Among the synoptic types, the most contributing were winter lows (with 368 days), Red Sea Troughs (214 days), and highs (211 dust days). Association of dust with highs is a new result, not found in the literature to date. Out of the total occurrences of Sharav lows, 36% are associated with dust, out of total winter lows 13%, with a winter low south to Cyprus having a 30% probability to produce a dust day, and of Red Sea Trough days 6% were associated with dust. Annual occurrence of dust days follows the changes in the occurrence of the regional synoptic systems: the number of dust days associated with Red Sea Troughs has increased by 2.3 d/10 yr, and with highs by 0.9 d/10 yr. The total incidence of dust days has increased with an average rate of 2.7 days per decade. This increasing trend in dust storm occurrence fits with previous results for the eastern Mediterranean and south Europe. Since dust storms are a regional phenomenon and reach south, central, and western Europe, this increase has implications for the entire Mediterranean and European regions. The results show potential for statistical forecasting of dust 1 day in advance. Such forecasts are important for public health warnings and for air transportation.

  10. The Hominin Sites and Paleolakes Drilling Project: inferring the environmental context of human evolution from eastern African rift lake deposits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen, A.; Campisano, C.; Arrowsmith, R.; Asrat, A.; Behrensmeyer, A. K.; Deino, A.; Feibel, C.; Hill, A.; Johnson, R.; Kingston, J.; Lamb, H.; Lowenstein, T.; Noren, A.; Olago, D.; Owen, R. B.; Potts, R.; Reed, K.; Renaut, R.; Schäbitz, F.; Tiercelin, J.-J.; Trauth, M. H.; Wynn, J.; Ivory, S.; Brady, K.; O'Grady, R.; Rodysill, J.; Githiri, J.; Russell, J.; Foerster, V.; Dommain, R.; Rucina, S.; Deocampo, D.; Russell, J.; Billingsley, A.; Beck, C.; Dorenbeck, G.; Dullo, L.; Feary, D.; Garello, D.; Gromig, R.; Johnson, T.; Junginger, A.; Karanja, M.; Kimburi, E.; Mbuthia, A.; McCartney, T.; McNulty, E.; Muiruri, V.; Nambiro, E.; Negash, E. W.; Njagi, D.; Wilson, J. N.; Rabideaux, N.; Raub, T.; Sier, M. J.; Smith, P.; Urban, J.; Warren, M.; Yadeta, M.; Yost, C.; Zinaye, B.

    2016-02-01

    The role that climate and environmental history may have played in influencing human evolution has been the focus of considerable interest and controversy among paleoanthropologists for decades. Prior attempts to understand the environmental history side of this equation have centered around the study of outcrop sediments and fossils adjacent to where fossil hominins (ancestors or close relatives of modern humans) are found, or from the study of deep sea drill cores. However, outcrop sediments are often highly weathered and thus are unsuitable for some types of paleoclimatic records, and deep sea core records come from long distances away from the actual fossil and stone tool remains. The Hominin Sites and Paleolakes Drilling Project (HSPDP) was developed to address these issues. The project has focused its efforts on the eastern African Rift Valley, where much of the evidence for early hominins has been recovered. We have collected about 2 km of sediment drill core from six basins in Kenya and Ethiopia, in lake deposits immediately adjacent to important fossil hominin and archaeological sites. Collectively these cores cover in time many of the key transitions and critical intervals in human evolutionary history over the last 4 Ma, such as the earliest stone tools, the origin of our own genus Homo, and the earliest anatomically modern Homo sapiens. Here we document the initial field, physical property, and core description results of the 2012-2014 HSPDP coring campaign.

  11. Continental environment variations (climate, erosion) recorded by Marine quaternary sediments of the northwestern and eastern African margins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faugères, J. C.; Pujol, Cl.

    Samples collected from 4 sites on the northwestern and eastern African margins were used to test the reliability of marine sedimentary record of continental environmental variations, during the last Glacial and Interglacial climatic cycle. On the northwestern margin which is passive and stable (between Cape Verde and Cape Blanc), climatic variations are marked by parameters such as sedimentary facies, sedimentary dynamics, sedimentation rates or faunal assemblages. These parameters are controlled by climatic changes that modify continental environments (erosion conditions, rate of terrigenous supplies) and marine environments as well (sea-level, currents and biogenic sediment productivity). On the opposite, in the Gulf of Aden, 3 sites show the extent to which tectonics may affect the record of environment modifications due to climatic changes. In the East of the Gulf, on the Sukra margin that is passive but with young and still active structures, the continental slope is uneven with tectonic basins acting as sediment traps. Here, several parameters like sedimentation rates become unreliable for they no longer reflect the importance of terrigenous inputs nor that of primary productivity. Further to the West, the deep narrow trough of Alula Fartak and the epicontinental domain belonging to the Assal rift (Ghubbet el Kharab), are part of highly active tectonic and volcanic margins. Continental environment variations cease to be recorded through sedimentological parameters which are closely related to morpho-structural and volcanic factors.

  12. Basin Dynamics and Sedimentary Infilling of Miocene Sandstone Reservoir Systems In Eastern Tunisian African Margin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bédir, Mourad; Khomsi, Sami

    2015-04-01

    Most of hydrocarbon accumulations and aquifers within the Cap Bon, Gulf of Hammamet and Sahel basins in eastern tunisian foreland are reservoired within the Upper Miocene Birsa and Saouaf sandstones and shales Formations. In the gulf of Hammamet, these sandstones constitutes oil and gas fields and are exploited on anticline highs and described as varying from shoreface to shallow marine and typically exhibit excellent reservoir quality of 30% to 35% porosity and good permeability from 500 to 1100 md. In addition, the fracturing of faults enhanced the reservoir quality potential. In contrary, the same hydrocarbon reservoirs are important hydrogeologic ones in the Cap Bon and Sahel basins with huge amount of hundred millions of cubic meters of water only partially exploited. Integrated wire line logging correlations, seismic sequence stratigraphic, tectonics and outcrop geologic analogue studies had permitted to highlight the basin structuring and sedimentary environments of sequence deposits infilling of the reservoir distribution between high platforms to subsiding graben and syncline basins bounded by deep-seated transtensive and transpressive flower faults. Seven third order sequence deposits limited by downlap prograding and onlap/toplap aggrading/retrograding system tracts extend along the eastern margin around the three basins by facies and thickness variances. System tracts exhibit around high horst and graben a channelized and levee infillings extending from 100 meters to more than a kilometer of width. They present a stacked single story and multistory channels types showing space lateral and vertical migrations along NE-SW, E-W and N-S directions. Paleogeographic depositional reservoir fair maps distribution highlight deltaic horst domain with floodplain and incised valley of fluvial amalgamed and braided sandstones distributary channels that occupy the high folded horsts. Whereas folded horst-graben and syncline borders domain of Shelf prodelta are

  13. Natural and anthropogenic aerosols in the Eastern Mediterranean and Middle East: possible impacts.

    PubMed

    Kallos, G; Solomos, S; Kushta, J; Mitsakou, C; Spyrou, C; Bartsotas, N; Kalogeri, C

    2014-08-01

    The physical and chemical properties of airborne particles have significant implications on the microphysical cloud processes. Maritime clouds have different properties than polluted ones and the final amounts and types of precipitation are different. Mixed phase aerosols that contain soluble matter are efficient cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) and enhance the liquid condensate spectrum in warm and mixed phase clouds. Insoluble particles such as mineral dust and black carbon are also important because of their ability to act as efficient ice nuclei (IN) through heterogeneous ice nucleation mechanisms. The relative contribution of aerosol concentrations, size distributions and chemical compositions on cloud structure and precipitation is discussed in the framework of RAMS/ICLAMS model. Analysis of model results and comparison with measurements reveals the complexity of the above links. Taking into account anthropogenic emissions and all available aerosol-cloud interactions the model precipitation bias was reduced by 50% for a storm simulation over eastern Mediterranean. PMID:24630589

  14. Natural and anthropogenic aerosols in the Eastern Mediterranean and Middle East: possible impacts.

    PubMed

    Kallos, G; Solomos, S; Kushta, J; Mitsakou, C; Spyrou, C; Bartsotas, N; Kalogeri, C

    2014-08-01

    The physical and chemical properties of airborne particles have significant implications on the microphysical cloud processes. Maritime clouds have different properties than polluted ones and the final amounts and types of precipitation are different. Mixed phase aerosols that contain soluble matter are efficient cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) and enhance the liquid condensate spectrum in warm and mixed phase clouds. Insoluble particles such as mineral dust and black carbon are also important because of their ability to act as efficient ice nuclei (IN) through heterogeneous ice nucleation mechanisms. The relative contribution of aerosol concentrations, size distributions and chemical compositions on cloud structure and precipitation is discussed in the framework of RAMS/ICLAMS model. Analysis of model results and comparison with measurements reveals the complexity of the above links. Taking into account anthropogenic emissions and all available aerosol-cloud interactions the model precipitation bias was reduced by 50% for a storm simulation over eastern Mediterranean.

  15. Sequence stratigraphy and a revised sea-level curve for the Middle Devonian of eastern North America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brett, Carlton E.; Baird, G.C.; Bartholomew, A.J.; DeSantis, M.K.; Ver Straeten, C.A.

    2011-01-01

    The well-exposed Middle Devonian rocks of the Appalachian foreland basin (Onondaga Formation; Hamilton Group, Tully Formation, and the Genesee Group of New York State) preserve one of the most detailed records of high-order sea-level oscillation cycles for this time period in the world. Detailed examination of coeval units in distal areas of the Appalachian Basin, as well as portions of the Michigan and Illinois basins, has revealed that the pattern of high-order sea-level oscillations documented in the New York-Pennsylvania section can be positively identified in all areas of eastern North America where coeval units are preserved. The persistence of the pattern of high-order sea-level cycles across such a wide geographic area suggests that these cycles are allocyclic in nature with primary control on deposition being eustatic sea-level oscillation, as opposed to autocylic controls, such as sediment supply, which would be more local in their manifestation. There is strong evidence from studies of cyclicity and spectral analysis that these cycles are also related to Milankovitch orbital variations, with the short and long-term eccentricity cycles (100. kyr and 405. kyr) being the dominant oscillations in many settings. Relative sea-level oscillations of tens of meters are likely and raise considerable issues about the driving mechanism, given that the Middle Devonian appears to record a greenhouse phase of Phanerozoic history. These new correlations lend strong support to a revised high-resolution sea-level oscillation curve for the Middle Devonian for the eastern portion of North America. Recognized third-order sequences are: Eif-1 lower Onondaga Formation, Eif-2: upper Onondaga and Union Springs formations; Eif-Giv: Oatka Creek Formation; Giv-1: Skaneateles, Giv-2: Ludlowville, Giv-3: lower Moscow, Giv-4: upper Moscow-lower Tully, and Giv-5: middle Tully-Geneseo formations. Thus, in contrast with the widely cited eustatic curve of Johnson et al. (1985), which

  16. Middle Eastern strategic deployment - oasis or mirage. Master's thesis, August 1985-June 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Howard, S.B.

    1986-06-06

    This study assesses the feasibility of the United States deploying its planned military forces for the protection of its national interests in the Middle East, within time constraints previously established in our Southwest Asian contingency plans. The actual deployment feasibility was determined based upon comparisons of historical and current-day, transportation-related strategic military deployments. Past deployments by the United States to Europe in 1944 (Normandy Invasion), to Lebanon in 1958, to Grenada in 1983, and by the United Kingdom to the Falkland Islands in 1982, as well as recent Joint Readiness Exercises, were analyzed. Thus, common transportation-related problems served to identify the general causes for delays in the smooth movement of American military forces. This study identified three consistent causes of delays in strategic deployments; (1) Lack of adequate deployment training, (2) Inadequate coordination of operational requirements, and (3) Failure to execute specific details in pre-established contingency plans and procedures. The study concludes that the United States is not capable of successfully deploying its combat forces to the Middle East within the time schedules contained in our current contingency plans. This lack of force projection capability is attributed to delays that will be encountered because of unanticipated transportation-related problems. This study cites a weakness in the structure of Army and Joint Commands at Division level and above. The weakness, as identified, shows that the contingency planning function is separated from contingency execution/operations functions within these command structures.

  17. Gut Microbiota Dynamics during Dietary Shift in Eastern African Cichlid Fishes

    PubMed Central

    Baldo, Laura; Riera, Joan Lluís; Tooming-Klunderud, Ave; Albà, M. Mar; Salzburger, Walter

    2015-01-01

    The gut microbiota structure reflects both a host phylogenetic history and a signature of adaptation to the host ecological, mainly trophic niches. African cichlid fishes, with their array of closely related species that underwent a rapid dietary niche radiation, offer a particularly interesting system to explore the relative contribution of these two factors in nature. Here we surveyed the host intra- and interspecific natural variation of the gut microbiota of five cichlid species from the monophyletic tribe Perissodini of lake Tanganyika, whose members transitioned from being zooplanktivorous to feeding primarily on fish scales. The outgroup riverine species Astatotilapia burtoni, largely omnivorous, was also included in the study. Fusobacteria, Firmicutes and Proteobacteria represented the dominant components in the gut microbiota of all 30 specimens analysed according to two distinct 16S rRNA markers. All members of the Perissodini tribe showed a homogenous pattern of microbial alpha and beta diversities, with no significant qualitative differences, despite changes in diet. The recent diet shift between zooplantkon- and scale-eaters simply reflects on a significant enrichment of Clostridium taxa in scale-eaters where they might be involved in the scale metabolism. Comparison with the omnivorous species A. burtoni suggests that, with increased host phylogenetic distance and/or increasing herbivory, the gut microbiota begins differentiating also at qualitative level. The cichlids show presence of a large conserved core of taxa and a small set of core OTUs (average 13–15%), remarkably stable also in captivity, and putatively favoured by both restricted microbial transmission among related hosts (putatively enhanced by mouthbrooding behavior) and common host constraints. This study sets the basis for a future large-scale investigation of the gut microbiota of cichlids and its adaptation in the process of the host adaptive radiation. PMID:25978452

  18. Gut Microbiota Dynamics during Dietary Shift in Eastern African Cichlid Fishes.

    PubMed

    Baldo, Laura; Riera, Joan Lluís; Tooming-Klunderud, Ave; Albà, M Mar; Salzburger, Walter

    2015-01-01

    The gut microbiota structure reflects both a host phylogenetic history and a signature of adaptation to the host ecological, mainly trophic niches. African cichlid fishes, with their array of closely related species that underwent a rapid dietary niche radiation, offer a particularly interesting system to explore the relative contribution of these two factors in nature. Here we surveyed the host intra- and interspecific natural variation of the gut microbiota of five cichlid species from the monophyletic tribe Perissodini of lake Tanganyika, whose members transitioned from being zooplanktivorous to feeding primarily on fish scales. The outgroup riverine species Astatotilapia burtoni, largely omnivorous, was also included in the study. Fusobacteria, Firmicutes and Proteobacteria represented the dominant components in the gut microbiota of all 30 specimens analysed according to two distinct 16S rRNA markers. All members of the Perissodini tribe showed a homogenous pattern of microbial alpha and beta diversities, with no significant qualitative differences, despite changes in diet. The recent diet shift between zooplantkon- and scale-eaters simply reflects on a significant enrichment of Clostridium taxa in scale-eaters where they might be involved in the scale metabolism. Comparison with the omnivorous species A. burtoni suggests that, with increased host phylogenetic distance and/or increasing herbivory, the gut microbiota begins differentiating also at qualitative level. The cichlids show presence of a large conserved core of taxa and a small set of core OTUs (average 13-15%), remarkably stable also in captivity, and putatively favoured by both restricted microbial transmission among related hosts (putatively enhanced by mouthbrooding behavior) and common host constraints. This study sets the basis for a future large-scale investigation of the gut microbiota of cichlids and its adaptation in the process of the host adaptive radiation. PMID:25978452

  19. Impact of middle Cretaceous (Albian to Turonian) climatic changes in the eastern sub-equatorial marginal Pacific region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Navarro Ramirez, Juan Pablo; Bodin, Stéphane; Heimhofer, Ulrich; Immenhauser, Adrian

    2015-04-01

    A new Albian-Turonian carbon isotope (δ13Ccarb and δ13Corg) curve based on epeiric-neritic carbonate successions from Peru is reported. The study was carried out to test the hypothesis that mid-Cretaceous OAEs, which are well-documented in the Tethys and Atlantic realm, are equally recorded in the epeiric-neritic realm of the eastern sub-equatorial Pacific as exposed in Northern and Central Peru. Depositional environments range from shallow subtidal inner ramp to outer ramp settings. For this purpose, we combined chemostratigraphic and sedimentological information from expanded and well-exposed sections in NW Peru. The geochemical data provide evidence for the record of the OAE1b set, the OAE1c, the OAE1d, as well as the Cenomanian-Turonian Boundary Event (OAE2), known as one of the most extreme carbon cycle perturbation. The new δ13C record is constrained by biostratigraphic evidence and 87Sr/86Sr isotope stratigraphy using well-preserved oyster shells. Sedimentological observations, combined with the δ13C stratigraphic record, were used to elucidate the complex interplay of climate changes, nutrient supply and platform drowning. These observations indicate: (1) A late Aptian-early Albian change from siliciclastic- to carbonate-dominated sedimentation that may be coeval with the placement of the Kilian event. (2) Incipient platform-drowning during the early Albian probably linked to the impact of the Paquier event. (3) An early middle Albian demise of neritic carbonate production that coincides with the Leenhardt Level, followed by middle Albian condensed sedimentation that reports prominent negative values in δ13Ccarb. (4) Renewed carbonate ramp production during the late Albian-middle Cenomanian. (5) An upper Cenomanian-middle Turonian transition interval with the OAE2 represented by a 44-m-thick sedimentary succession characterized by rhythmically bedded marls, marly limestones and limestones. Despite the scarcity of significant amount of organic matter (a

  20. Mountain-front recharge along the eastern side of the Middle Rio Grande Basin, central New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anderholm, Scott K.

    2000-01-01

    Mountain-front recharge, which generally occurs along the margins of alluvial basins, can be a large part of total recharge to the aquifer system in such basins. Mountain-front recharge occurs as the result of infiltration of flow from streams that have headwaters in the mountainous areas adjacent to alluvial basins and ground- water flow from the aquifers in the mountainous areas to the aquifer in the alluvial basin. This report presents estimates of mountain-front recharge to the basin-fill aquifer along the eastern side of the Middle Rio Grande Basin in central New Mexico. The basin is a structural feature that contains a large thickness of basin-fill deposits, which compose the main aquifer in the basin. The basin is bounded along the eastern side by mountains composed of crystalline rocks of Precambrian age and sedimentary rocks of Paleozoic age. Precipitation is much larger in the mountains than in the basin; many stream channels debouch from the mountainous area to the basin. Chloride-balance and water-yield regression methods were used to estimate mountain-front recharge. The chloride-balance method was used to calculate a chloride balance in watersheds in the mountainous areas along the eastern side of the basin (subareas). The source of chloride to these watersheds is bulk precipitation (wet and dry deposition). Chloride leaves these watersheds as mountain-front recharge. The water-yield regression method was used to determine the streamflow from the mountainous watersheds at the mountain front. This streamflow was assumed to be equal to mountain-front recharge because most of this streamflow infiltrates and recharges the basin-fill aquifer. Total mountain-front recharge along the eastern side of the Middle Rio Grande Basin was estimated to be about 11,000 acre- feet per year using the chloride-balance method and about 36,000 and 38,000 acre-feet per year using two water-yield regression equations. There was a large range in the recharge estimates in a

  1. Delayed Graft Function in Living-Donor Kidney Transplant: A Middle Eastern Perspective.

    PubMed

    Al Otaibi, Torki; Ahmadpoor, Pedram; Allawi, Ali Abdulmajid Dyab; Habhab, Wael Taher; Khatami, Mohammad Reza; Nafar, Mohsen; Glotz, Denis

    2016-02-01

    With an increased incidence of living-donor kidney transplants, in response to increasing unmet needs for renal transplant, a clear understanding of determinants of posttransplant outcomes is essential. The importance of delayed graft function in deceased-donor kidney transplant is now part of conventional medical wisdom, due to the large amount of evidence focused on this aspect. However, the same is not true for living-donor kidney transplant, partly due to lack of evidence on this crucial clinical question and partly due to lack of awareness about this issue. The current review aims to highlight the importance of delayed graft function as a crucial determinant of outcomes in living-donor kidney transplant. An exhaustive search of online medical databases was performed with appropriate search criteria to collect evidence about delayed graft function after living-donor kidney transplant, with a special focus on studies from the Middle East. Data on incidence, impact, risk factors, and possible prevention modalities of delayed graft function in patients undergoing living-donor kidney transplant are presented. A key finding of this review is that contemporary incidence rates reported from the Middle East are comparatively higher than those reported from outside the region. Although in absolute terms the incidence is lower than deceased donor kidney transplant, the effects of delayed graft function on graft rejection and graft and patient survival are sufficiently large to warrant the formulation of specific treatment protocols. Key to formulating prevention and treatment strategies is identifying discrete risk factors for delayed graft function. Although this evidence is scant, an overview has been provided. Further studies examining different aspects of delayed graft function incidence after living-donor kidney transplant are urgently needed to address a so far little known clinical question.

  2. Child physical abuse: prevalence, characteristics, predictors, and beliefs about parent-child violence in South Asian, Middle Eastern, East Asian, and Latina women in the United States.

    PubMed

    Maker, Azmaira H; Shah, Priti V; Agha, Zia

    2005-11-01

    The present study examined the prevalence, characteristics, beliefs, and demographic predictors of parent-child physical violence among South Asian, Middle Eastern, East Asian, and Latina women in the United States. Two hundred fifty-one college-educated women from a middle to high SES (South Asian/Middle Eastern, n = 93; East Asian,n = 72; Latina,n = 86) completed a self-report survey on childhood experiences and beliefs regarding physical abuse. Seventy-three percent of the South Asian and Middle Eastern sample, 65% of the East Asian sample, and 78% of the Latina sample reported experiencing at least one type of physical abuse. Significant differences in characteristics and perpetrators of abuse were found across groups. Demographic factors did not predict physical abuse. Experiencing physical abuse was the only predictor for acceptance of physical discipline and as a parental privilege or right across groups. Implications of alternate cultural models of family violence based on beliefs and exposure to violence are discussed.

  3. Traces of sub-Saharan and Middle Eastern lineages in Indian Muslim populations.

    PubMed

    Eaaswarkhanth, Muthukrishnan; Haque, Ikramul; Ravesh, Zeinab; Romero, Irene Gallego; Meganathan, Poorlin Ramakodi; Dubey, Bhawna; Khan, Faizan Ahmed; Chaubey, Gyaneshwer; Kivisild, Toomas; Tyler-Smith, Chris; Singh, Lalji; Thangaraj, Kumarasamy

    2010-03-01

    Islam is the second most practiced religion in India, next to Hinduism. It is still unclear whether the spread of Islam in India has been only a cultural transformation or is associated with detectable levels of gene flow. To estimate the contribution of West Asian and Arabian admixture to Indian Muslims, we assessed genetic variation in mtDNA, Y-chromosomal and LCT/MCM6 markers in 472, 431 and 476 samples, respectively, representing six Muslim communities from different geographical regions of India. We found that most of the Indian Muslim populations received their major genetic input from geographically close non-Muslim populations. However, low levels of likely sub-Saharan African, Arabian and West Asian admixture were also observed among Indian Muslims in the form of L0a2a2 mtDNA and E1b1b1a and J(*)(xJ2) Y-chromosomal lineages. The distinction between Iranian and Arabian sources was difficult to make with mtDNA and the Y chromosome, as the estimates were highly correlated because of similar gene pool compositions in the sources. In contrast, the LCT/MCM6 locus, which shows a clear distinction between the two sources, enabled us to rule out significant gene flow from Arabia. Overall, our results support a model according to which the spread of Islam in India was predominantly cultural conversion associated with minor but still detectable levels of gene flow from outside, primarily from Iran and Central Asia, rather than directly from the Arabian Peninsula.

  4. Traces of sub-Saharan and Middle Eastern lineages in Indian Muslim populations

    PubMed Central

    Eaaswarkhanth, Muthukrishnan; Haque, Ikramul; Ravesh, Zeinab; Romero, Irene Gallego; Meganathan, Poorlin Ramakodi; Dubey, Bhawna; Khan, Faizan Ahmed; Chaubey, Gyaneshwer; Kivisild, Toomas; Tyler-Smith, Chris; Singh, Lalji; Thangaraj, Kumarasamy

    2010-01-01

    Islam is the second most practiced religion in India, next to Hinduism. It is still unclear whether the spread of Islam in India has been only a cultural transformation or is associated with detectable levels of gene flow. To estimate the contribution of West Asian and Arabian admixture to Indian Muslims, we assessed genetic variation in mtDNA, Y-chromosomal and LCT/MCM6 markers in 472, 431 and 476 samples, respectively, representing six Muslim communities from different geographical regions of India. We found that most of the Indian Muslim populations received their major genetic input from geographically close non-Muslim populations. However, low levels of likely sub-Saharan African, Arabian and West Asian admixture were also observed among Indian Muslims in the form of L0a2a2 mtDNA and E1b1b1a and J*(xJ2) Y-chromosomal lineages. The distinction between Iranian and Arabian sources was difficult to make with mtDNA and the Y chromosome, as the estimates were highly correlated because of similar gene pool compositions in the sources. In contrast, the LCT/MCM6 locus, which shows a clear distinction between the two sources, enabled us to rule out significant gene flow from Arabia. Overall, our results support a model according to which the spread of Islam in India was predominantly cultural conversion associated with minor but still detectable levels of gene flow from outside, primarily from Iran and Central Asia, rather than directly from the Arabian Peninsula. PMID:19809480

  5. Climate aberrations during the middle Miocene: evidence from the eastern North Atlantic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quaijtaal, W.; Donders, T.; Schouten, S.; Louwye, S.

    2013-12-01

    During the Middle Miocene Climatic Optimum (MMCO; 17-14.5 Ma) the relatively warm climate of the Miocene reached peak temperatures. After the MMCO, the global climate started cooling through several short-lived cooling events, represented by positive oxygen isotope excursions: the Mi-events (Miocene isotope events). One of the more severe events, Mi-3, is associated with East Antarctic Ice Sheet growth and potential Northern Hemisphere ice expansion, as well as marine and terrestrial species turnover and aridification. The causes and consequences of the Mi-events are not well constrained yet. CO2 reconstructions combined with the abovementioned consequences suggest that a drawdown of CO2 and/or changes in ocean led to the changes surrounding Mi-3. A minimum node in both eccentricity and obliquity amplitude modulation, an orbital configuration creating favourable conditions for ice growth, has been suggested as a possible triggering mechanism as well. However, an exact cause cannot be pinpointed yet and more high-resolution records are needed in order to investigate the impact and order of events surrounding the Mi-events. Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Leg 307 recovered such a high resolution record from the middle Miocene of the Porcupine Basin (offshore south-western Ireland). We have analyzed well-preserved palynomorphs (mainly organic-walled dinoflagellate cysts, acritarchs and pollen) and organic molecules for paleothermometry (e.g. TEX86 and UK'37) from site U1318. With these proxies, the development of the Mi-3 event and following Mi-4 have been reconstructed in high resolution (ca. 13 kyr), by assessing e.g. temperature, sea level, thermocline depth and productivity. A pronounced cooling can be observed at Mi-3, and to a lesser degree in Mi-4 as well, together with a sea-level fall and a turnover in the dinocyst record. Our findings also include indications of aridification and a change in wind patterns during Mi-3. This confirms the dramatic

  6. Characterization of Greater Middle Eastern genetic variation for enhanced disease gene discovery.

    PubMed

    Scott, Eric M; Halees, Anason; Itan, Yuval; Spencer, Emily G; He, Yupeng; Azab, Mostafa Abdellateef; Gabriel, Stacey B; Belkadi, Aziz; Boisson, Bertrand; Abel, Laurent; Clark, Andrew G; Alkuraya, Fowzan S; Casanova, Jean-Laurent; Gleeson, Joseph G

    2016-09-01

    The Greater Middle East (GME) has been a central hub of human migration and population admixture. The tradition of consanguinity, variably practiced in the Persian Gulf region, North Africa, and Central Asia, has resulted in an elevated burden of recessive disease. Here we generated a whole-exome GME variome from 1,111 unrelated subjects. We detected substantial diversity and admixture in continental and subregional populations, corresponding to several ancient founder populations with little evidence of bottlenecks. Measured consanguinity rates were an order of magnitude above those in other sampled populations, and the GME population exhibited an increased burden of runs of homozygosity (ROHs) but showed no evidence for reduced burden of deleterious variation due to classically theorized 'genetic purging'. Applying this database to unsolved recessive conditions in the GME population reduced the number of potential disease-causing variants by four- to sevenfold. These results show variegated genetic architecture in GME populations and support future human genetic discoveries in Mendelian and population genetics. PMID:27428751

  7. Paleogeography of a Middle Pennsylvanian coal seam in the eastern Kentucky coal field

    SciTech Connect

    Jamal, M.A. . Allied Geophysical Labs.); Kusky, T.M. . Dept. of Geology)

    1992-01-01

    The middle Pennsylvanian Upper Elkhorn No.3 coal bed of the Breathitt Formation represents a swamp facies of a fluvial/deltaic complex eroded from the Appalachian hinterland. Geologic conditions during the peat formation and burial stages of the coal were determined by correlating measured sections, using maps of the thickness, number of partings, roof lithologies, and sulfur- ash-, and Btu-content of the Upper Elkhorn No. 3 coal. A paleogeographic reconstruction of the peat stage shows areas of marine-influence, in addition to well-protected and poorly-protected swamps. The peat swamp which deposited the coal developed on a very broad coastal plain consisting of deltaic-type sediments with increasing terrestrial conditions to the east and increasing marine conditions to the west. Prograding fluvial systems buried peat initially deposited in brackish to marine environments of the flood-basin. Pre-mining basin analysis leads to more effective exploration and exploitation, in particular coal quality (including sulfur and ash content), mineability, roof lithology and locations of channels can be predicted before mining.

  8. Environmental margin and island evolution in Middle Eastern populations of the Egyptian fruit bat.

    PubMed

    Hulva, P; Marešová, T; Dundarova, H; Bilgin, R; Benda, P; Bartonička, T; Horáček, I

    2012-12-01

    Here, we present a study of the population genetic architecture and microevolution of the Egyptian fruit bat (Rousettus aegyptiacus) at the environmental margins in the Middle East using mitochondrial sequences and nuclear microsatellites. In contrast to the rather homogenous population structure typical of cave-dwelling bats in climax tropical ecosystems, a relatively pronounced isolation by distance and population diversification was observed. The evolution of this pattern could be ascribed to the complicated demographic history at higher latitudes related to the range margin fragmentation and complex geomorphology of the studied area. Lineages from East Africa and Arabia show divergent positions. Within the northwestern unit, the most marked pattern of the microsatellite data set is connected with insularity, as demonstrated by the separate status of populations from Saharan oases and Cyprus. These demes also exhibit a reduction in genetic variability, which is presumably connected with founder effects, drift and other potential factors related to island evolution as site-specific selection. Genetic clustering indicates a semipermeability of the desert barriers in the Sahara and Arabian Peninsula and a corridor role of the Nile Valley. The results emphasize the role of the island environment in restricting the gene flow in megabats, which is also corroborated by biogeographic patterns within the family, and suggests the possibility of nascent island speciation on Cyprus. Demographic analyses suggest that the colonization of the region was connected to the spread of agricultural plants; therefore, the peripatric processes described above might be because of or strengthened by anthropogenic changes in the environment. PMID:23094994

  9. Characterization of Greater Middle Eastern genetic variation for enhanced disease gene discovery.

    PubMed

    Scott, Eric M; Halees, Anason; Itan, Yuval; Spencer, Emily G; He, Yupeng; Azab, Mostafa Abdellateef; Gabriel, Stacey B; Belkadi, Aziz; Boisson, Bertrand; Abel, Laurent; Clark, Andrew G; Alkuraya, Fowzan S; Casanova, Jean-Laurent; Gleeson, Joseph G

    2016-09-01

    The Greater Middle East (GME) has been a central hub of human migration and population admixture. The tradition of consanguinity, variably practiced in the Persian Gulf region, North Africa, and Central Asia, has resulted in an elevated burden of recessive disease. Here we generated a whole-exome GME variome from 1,111 unrelated subjects. We detected substantial diversity and admixture in continental and subregional populations, corresponding to several ancient founder populations with little evidence of bottlenecks. Measured consanguinity rates were an order of magnitude above those in other sampled populations, and the GME population exhibited an increased burden of runs of homozygosity (ROHs) but showed no evidence for reduced burden of deleterious variation due to classically theorized 'genetic purging'. Applying this database to unsolved recessive conditions in the GME population reduced the number of potential disease-causing variants by four- to sevenfold. These results show variegated genetic architecture in GME populations and support future human genetic discoveries in Mendelian and population genetics.

  10. Mortality Trends in Patients Hospitalized with the Initial Acute Myocardial Infarction in a Middle Eastern Country over 20 Years

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Emad; Al Suwaidi, Jassim; El-Menyar, Ayman; AlBinali, Hajar A. H.; Gehani, A. A.

    2014-01-01

    We aimed to define the temporal trend in the initial Acute Myocardial Infarction (AMI) management and outcome during the last two decades in a Middle Eastern country. A total of 10,915 patients were admitted with initial AMI with mean age of 53 ± 11.8 years. Comparing the two decades (1991–2000) to (2001–2010), the use of antiplatelet drugs increased from 84% to 95%, β-blockers increased from 38% to 56%, and angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEI) increased from 12% to 36% (P < 0.001 for all). The rates of PCI increased from 2.5% to 14.6% and thrombolytic therapy decreased from 71% to 65% (P < 0.001 for all). While the rate of hospitalization with Initial MI increased from 34% to 66%, and the average length of hospital stay decreased from 6.4 ± 3 to 4.6 ± 3, all hospital outcomes parameters improved significantly including a 39% reduction in in-hospital Mortality. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that higher utilization of antiplatelet drugs, β-blockers, and ACEI were the main contributors to better hospital outcomes. Over the study period, there was a significant increase in the hospitalization rate in patients presenting with initial AMI. Evidence-based medical therapies appear to be associated with a substantial improvement in outcome and in-hospital mortality. PMID:24868481

  11. Molecular Genotyping of Anisakis Larvae in Middle Eastern Japan and Endoscopic Evidence for Preferential Penetration of Normal over Atrophic Mucosa

    PubMed Central

    Arai, Toshio; Akao, Nobuaki; Seki, Takenori; Kumagai, Takashi; Ishikawa, Hirofumi; Ohta, Nobuo; Hirata, Nobuto; Nakaji, So; Yamauchi, Kenji; Hirai, Mitsuru; Shiratori, Toshiyasu; Kobayashi, Masayoshi; Fujii, Hiroyuki; Ishii, Eiji; Naito, Mikio; Saitoh, Shin-ichi; Yamaguchi, Toshikazu; Shibata, Nobumitsu; Shimo, Masamune; Tokiwa, Toshihiro

    2014-01-01

    Background Anisakiasis is a parasitic disease caused primarily by Anisakis spp. larvae in Asia and in Western countries. The aim of this study was to investigate the genotype of Anisakis larvae endoscopically removed from Middle Eastern Japanese patients and to determine whether mucosal atrophy affects the risk of penetration in gastric anisakiasis. Methods In this study, 57 larvae collected from 44 patients with anisakiasis (42 gastric and 2 colonic anisakiasis) were analyzed retrospectively. Genotyping was confirmed by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis of ITS regions and by sequencing the mitochondrial small subunit (SSU) region. In the cases of gastric anisakiasis, correlation analyses were conducted between the frequency of larval penetration in normal/atrophic area and the manifestation of clinical symptoms. Results Nearly all larvae were A. simplex seusu stricto (s.s.) (99%), and one larva displayed a hybrid genotype. The A. simplex larvae penetrated normal mucosa more frequently than atrophic area (p = 0.005). Finally, patients with normal mucosa infection were more likely to exhibit clinical symptoms than those with atrophic mucosa infection (odds ratio, 6.96; 95% confidence interval, 1.52–31.8). Conclusions In Japan, A. simplex s.s. is the main etiological agent of human anisakiasis and tends to penetrate normal gastric mucosa. Careful endoscopic examination of normal gastric mucosa, particularly in the greater curvature of the stomach will improve the detection of Anisakis larvae. PMID:24586583

  12. A Record of Early to Middle Holocene Hydroclimate Variability from the West African Sahel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McIntosh, R.; Douglas, P. M.; Warren, C.; Meyers, S. R.; Coutros, P.; Park, D. P.

    2011-12-01

    The African Humid Period (ca. 14.8 to 5.5 ka) is an interval of wet climates across northwest Africa, with evidence for widespread lake basins and savannah vegetation in areas that are now desert. There are few high-resolution continental records of hydrologic variability during the African humid period however. In particular, it remains uncertain how periods of north Atlantic climate variability were expressed in northwest Africa. We present results from a 5.4 meter sediment core from Lake Fati in northern Mali (16.29° N, 3.71° W), which represents the first lake sediment core from the western Sahel. The Lake Fati core contains a continuous record of lake mud from 10.43 to 4.66 kyr BP. Centimeter scale XRF scanning indicates strong covariation between iron, calcium, manganese and phosphorous abundance due to enrichment of these elements during periods of enhanced deposition of authigenic siderite. Preliminary oxygen isotope measurements indicate that authigenic siderite δ18O values are positively correlated with Fe counts, suggesting that siderite deposition increased during drier periods with greater evaporation of lake waters. These drying events occurred on decadal to centennial time scales, with higher-frequency variability during the early Holocene. Peaks in zirconium and titanium abundance coincide with some of the inferred dry periods, suggesting that deposition of aeolian silt coincided with periods of increased evaporation of lake water. A roughly 30 year interval of sand deposition at ~8.33 kyr BP suggests major drying and activation of aeolian sand deposition. This abrupt climate change could be related to the 8.2 ka event in the North Atlantic; further efforts to refine the sediment core age model will constrain the relationship of this rapid drying to abrupt climate change in the North Atlantic. Aluminum and silicon counts co-vary for much of the lake Fati record, and are related to input of terrigenous sediment, primarily during seasonal flooding

  13. Daytime twin-peak structures observed at southern African and European middle latitudes on 8-13 April 2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katamzi, Zama T.; Bosco Habarulema, John; Giday, Nigussie M.

    2016-07-01

    Daytime twin-peak structures, also known as bite-out or diurnal double-maxima structures, are ionospheric phenomena in which the diurnal ionospheric trend shows two peaks (instead of the normal one) during the daytime. This study reports on first simultaneous observations of these structures in the Global Positioning System and ionosonde measurements from the southern African and European middle-latitude stations during a mostly quiet geomagnetic condition period of 8-13 April 2012, which indicates that their occurrence and therefore driving mechanism(s) may not be localised. It is found that the daytime twin-peak structures generally appear later in the Northern Hemisphere with a 1-3 h latency although they propagate mostly equatorward in both hemispheres. Proxies of meridional neutral winds were calculated from available manually scaled ionosonde measurements and used to explore their potential as drivers of the structures. Bite-out events were linked to downward drifts of the vertical component of equivalent neutral winds causing plasma depletions. In addition, evidence of sporadic E layers at the same time as enhancements of daytime twin-peak structures suggests that the tides had influence via the meridional wind shear in generating these structures through the dynamo electric field which resulted in upward E × B drifts.

  14. Virtual industrial water usage and wastewater generation in the Middle East/North African region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakhel, S. R.; Geissen, S.-U.; Vogelpohl, A.

    2013-01-01

    This study deals with the quantification of volumes of water usage, wastewater generation, virtual water export, and wastewater generation from export for eight export relevant industries present in the Middle East/North Africa (MENA). It shows that about 3400 million m3 of water is used per annum while around 793 million m3 of wastewater is generated from products that are meant for domestic consumption and export. The difference between volumes of water usage and wastewater generation is due to water evaporation or injecting underground (oil wells pressure maintenance). The wastewater volume generated from production represents a population equivalent of 15.5 million in terms of wastewater quantity and 30.4 million in terms of BOD. About 409 million m3 of virtual water flows from MENA to EU27 (resulting from export of eight commodities) which is equivalent to 12.1% of the water usage of those industries and Libya is the largest virtual water exporter (about 87 million m3). Crude oil and refined petroleum products represent about 89% of the total virtual water flow, fertilizers represent around 10% and 1% remaining industries. EU27 poses the greatest indirect pressure on the Kuwaiti hydrological system where the virtual water export represents about 96% of the actual renewable water resources in this country. The Kuwaiti crude oil water use in relation to domestic water withdrawal is about 89% which is highest among MENA countries. Pollution of water bodies, in terms of BOD, due to production is very relevant for crude oil, slaughterhouses, refineries, olive oil, and tanneries while pollution due to export to EU27 is most relevant for crude oil industry and olive oil mills.

  15. Middle and Late Weichselian (Devensian) glaciation history of south-western Norway, North Sea and eastern UK

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sejrup, H. P.; Nygård, A.; Hall, A. M.; Haflidason, H.

    2009-02-01

    Data from eastern England, Scotland, the northern North Sea and western Norway have been compiled in order to outline our current knowledge of the Middle and Late Weichselian glacial history of this region. Radiometric dates and their geological context from key sites in the region are presented and discussed. Based on the available information the following conclusions can be made: (i) Prior to 39 cal ka and most likely after ca 50 cal ka Scotland and southern Norway were extensively glaciated. Most likely the central North Sea was not glaciated at this time and grounded ice did not reach the shelf edge. (ii) During the time interval between 29 and 39 ka periods with ameliorated climate (including the Ålesund, Sandnes and Tolsta Interstadials) alternated with periods of restricted glaciation in Scotland and western Norway. (iii) Between 29 and 25 ka maximum Weichselian glaciation of the region occurred, with the Fennoscandian and British ice sheets coalescing in the central North Sea. (iv) Decoupling of the ice sheets had occurred at 25 ka, with development of a marine embayment in the northern North Sea (v) Between 22 and 19 ka glacial ice expanded westwards from Scandinavia onto the North Sea Plateau in the Tampen readvance. (vi) The last major expansion of glacial ice in the offshore areas was between 17.5 and 15.5 ka. At this time ice expanded in the north-western part of the region onto the Måløy Plateau from Norway and across Caithness and Orkney and to east of Shetland from the Moray Firth. The Norwegian Channel Ice Stream (NCIS), which drained major parts of the south-western Fennoscandian Ice Sheet, was active at several occasions between 29 and 18 ka.

  16. A Scopus-based examination of tobacco use publications in Middle Eastern Arab countries during the period 2003–2012

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Tobacco smoking is the main health-care problem in the world. Evaluation of scientific output in the field of tobacco use has been poorly explored in Middle Eastern Arab (MEA) countries to date, and there are few internationally published reports on research activity in tobacco use. The main objectives of this study were to analyse the research output originating from 13 MEA countries on tobacco fields and to examine the authorship pattern and the citations retrieved from the Scopus database. Methods Data from 1 January 2003 through 31 December 2012 were searched for documents with specific words regarding the tobacco field as 'keywords’ in the title in any 1 of the 13 MEA countries. Research productivity was evaluated based on a methodology developed and used in other bibliometric studies. Results Five hundred documents were retrieved from 320 peer-reviewed journals. The greatest amount of research activity was from Egypt (25.4%), followed by the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) (23.2%), Lebanon (16.3%), and Jordan (14.8%). The total number of citations for the 560 documents, at the time of data analysis (27 August 2013), was 5,585, with a mean ± SD of 9.95 ± 22.64 and a median (interquartile range) of 3(1–10). The h-index of the retrieved documents was 34. This study identified 232 (41.4%) documents from 53 countries in MEA-foreign country collaborations. By region, MEA collaborated most often with countries in the Americas (29.6%), followed by countries in the same MEA region (13.4%), especially KSA and Egypt. Conclusions The present data reveal a promising rise and a good start for research productivity in the tobacco field in the Arab world. Research output is low in some countries, which can be improved by investing in more international and national collaborative research projects in the field of tobacco. PMID:24885706

  17. Trends in Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors in People with and without Diabetes Mellitus: A Middle Eastern Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Jahangiri-Noudeh, Younes; Akbarpour, Samaneh; Lotfaliany, Mojtaba; Zafari, Neda; Khalili, Davood; Tohidi, Maryam; Mansournia, Mohammad Ali; Azizi, Fereidoun; Hadaegh, Farzad

    2014-01-01

    Aims/Hypothesis To investigate secular trends in cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors during a decade of follow-up in a Middle Eastern cohort, and to compare observed trends between diabetic and non-diabetic populations. Methods In a population of 6181 participants (2622 males and 3559 females), diabetes status and CVD risk factors were evaluated in 4 study phases from 1999–2011. 1045 subjects had type 2 diabetes mellitus at baseline and 5136 participants were diabetes-free. To examine the trends of CVD risk factors, generalized estimation equation models were constructed. The interaction between the diabetes status and each phase of the study was checked in a separate model. Results During the follow-up period diabetic females significantly gained better control of their blood pressure, serum low density lipoprotein cholesterol and general and central obesity measures compared to non-diabetic counterparts, although 60% of them had high BP and 64% had high serum LDL-C levels till the end of the study. Diabetic males however, experienced significantly better control on their serum LDL-C and general and central obesity measures compared to their non-diabetic controls; but 24% of them were still smoker, 63% had high BP and 60% had high serum LDL-C levels at the end of the follow-up (all Ps interaction <0.05). Use of lipid-lowering and antihypertensive medications increased consistently in both diabetic and non-diabetic populations. Conclusions/Interpretation Although CVD risk factors have been controlled to some extent among diabetic population in Iran, still high numbers of people with diabetes have uncontrolled CVD risk factors that prompt more attention. PMID:25461381

  18. Minimal influence of recrystallization on middle Miocene benthic foraminiferal stable isotope stratigraphy in the eastern equatorial Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voigt, Janett; Hathorne, Ed C.; Frank, Martin; Holbourn, Ann

    2016-01-01

    Stable carbon and oxygen isotopes (δ13C and δ18O) of foraminiferal tests are amongst the most important tools in paleoceanography, but the extent to which recrystallization can alter the isotopic composition of the tests is not well known. Here we compare three middle Miocene (16-13 Ma) benthic foraminiferal stable isotope records from eastern equatorial Pacific sites with different diagenetic histories to investigate the effect of recrystallization. To test an extreme case, we analyzed stable isotope compositions of benthic foraminifera from Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Site U1336, for which the geochemistry of bulk carbonates and associated pore waters indicates continued diagenetic alteration in sediments > 14.7 Ma. Despite this diagenetic overprinting, the amplitudes and absolute values of the analyzed U1336 stable isotopes agree well with high-resolution records from better preserved Sites U1337 and U1338 nearby. Our results suggest that although benthic foraminiferal tests of all three sites show some degree of textural changes due to recrystallization, they have retained their original stable isotope signatures. The good agreement of the benthic foraminiferal stable isotope records demonstrates that recrystallization occurred extremely rapidly (< 100 kyr) after deposition. This is confirmed by the preservation of orbital cyclicities in U1336 stable isotope data and δ18O values being different to inorganic calcite that would precipitate from U1336 pore waters during late recrystallization. The close similarity of the benthic foraminiferal stable isotope records between the sites allows the well-resolved paleomagnetic results of Site U1336 to be transferred to Sites U1337 and U1338 improving the global geological timescale.

  19. Describing the Situational Contexts of Sweetened Product Consumption in a Middle Eastern Canadian Community: Application of a Mixed Method Design

    PubMed Central

    Moubarac, Jean-Claude; Cargo, Margaret; Receveur, Olivier; Daniel, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Little is known about the situational contexts in which individuals consume processed sources of dietary sugars. This study aimed to describe the situational contexts associated with the consumption of sweetened food and drink products in a Catholic Middle Eastern Canadian community. A two-stage exploratory sequential mixed-method design was employed with a rationale of triangulation. In stage 1 (n = 62), items and themes describing the situational contexts of sweetened food and drink product consumption were identified from semi-structured interviews and were used to develop the content for the Situational Context Instrument for Sweetened Product Consumption (SCISPC). Face validity, readability and cultural relevance of the instrument were assessed. In stage 2 (n = 192), a cross-sectional study was conducted and exploratory factor analysis was used to examine the structure of themes that emerged from the qualitative analysis as a means of furthering construct validation. The SCISPC reliability and predictive validity on the daily consumption of sweetened products were also assessed. In stage 1, six themes and 40-items describing the situational contexts of sweetened product consumption emerged from the qualitative analysis and were used to construct the first draft of the SCISPC. In stage 2, factor analysis enabled the clarification and/or expansion of the instrument's initial thematic structure. The revised SCISPC has seven factors and 31 items describing the situational contexts of sweetened product consumption. Initial validation of the instrument indicated it has excellent internal consistency and adequate test-retest reliability. Two factors of the SCISPC had predictive validity for the daily consumption of total sugar from sweetened products (Snacking and Energy demands) while the other factors (Socialization, Indulgence, Constraints, Visual Stimuli and Emotional needs) were rather associated to occasional consumption of these products. PMID:23028597

  20. Kinematic evolution of Andean fold-thrust structures along the boundary between the Eastern Cordillera and Middle Magdalena Valley basin, Colombia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    SáNchez, Javier; Horton, Brian K.; Tesón, Eliseo; Mora, AndréS.; Ketcham, Richard A.; Stockli, Daniel F.

    2012-06-01

    Surface and subsurface data support a kinematic reconstruction of Cenozoic fold-thrust deformation along the Eastern Cordillera-Magdalena Valley transition in Colombia. The La Salina fault (LSF) marks the boundary between west-vergent Eastern Cordillera structures and hinterland deposits of the Middle Magdalena Valley basin. Apatite fission track and (U-Th)/He thermochronological results for the west-directed LSF reveal initial hanging wall exhumation during middle Eocene-early Oligocene (45-30 Ma) shortening, renewed exhumation in the early middle Miocene (18-12 Ma), and accelerated late Miocene-Pliocene (12-3 Ma) exhumation. Vitrinite reflectance data suggest maximum burial of 4-6 km, helping constrain Cenozoic basin architecture. Mapping of the LSF reveals hanging wall Cretaceous-Eocene rocks in a broad anticline-syncline pair with limited faulting and footwall Eocene-Quaternary basin fill in a complex series of tight thrust-related folds. Limited displacement along the westernmost (frontal) thrust suggests that shortening is largely accommodated by east-directed thrusting within a broader triangle zone of a passive-roof duplex (and probable minor strike-slip deformation). In the preferred kinematic restoration, the most recent phase of shortening to transpressional deformation represents out-of-sequence reactivation of the LSF consistent with irregular crosscutting relationships among footwall structures. Earliest exhumation by 45-30 Ma in the Eastern Cordillera fold-thrust belt is correlated with increased sedimentary lithic fragments and high compositional maturity in sandstones of the adjacent Magdalena Valley basin. Exhumation since ˜15 Ma coincided with decreased compositional maturity and elevated accumulation rates for the Real Group. The compositional provenance shifts are attributed to westward advance of fold-thrust deformation into the proximal (eastern) segments of the Magdalena Valley basin.

  1. Signatures of solar event at middle and low latitudes in the Europe-African sector, during geomagnetic storms, October 2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azzouzi, I.; Migoya-Orué, Y.; Amory Mazaudier, C.; Fleury, R.; Radicella, S. M.; Touzani, A.

    2015-11-01

    This paper presents the variability of the total electron content, VTEC, the ROTI index (proxy of the scintillation index) and the transient variations of the Earth's magnetic field associated to the impacts of solar events during October 2013. The observations are from middle and low latitudes in European African longitude sector. During October 2013, there are four solar events reaching the Earth. The two first events, on October 2 and October 8 are CME, the third event on October 14, is a jet of fast solar wind flowing from a solar coronal hole, and the last event on October 30 is a slow solar wind with southward excursions of the Bz component of the interplanetary magnetic field, associated to CME passing near the Earth. For the four events, the variation of VTEC at middle latitudes is the same and presents an increase of VTEC at the time of the impact followed by a decrease of VTEC, lasting one or several days. At low latitudes, no clear common pattern for all the events appears. For the four events the variation of the ROTI index over Africa is different showing the asymmetry between West and East Africa. For the first event, on October 2, the scintillations are not inhibited, for the second and the fourth events on October 8 and 30, the scintillations are inhibited on East Africa and for the third event (high speed solar wind stream), on October 14, the scintillations are inhibited over the whole Africa. The available data allow the full explanation of the observations of October 14, indeed, on this day, there is no post sunset increase of the virtual height h‧F2 at Ascension Island. There is no Pre Reversal Enhancement (PRE) of the eastward electric field; it is this electric field which moves up the F layer, the necessary condition for the existence of scintillation. The analysis of the variations of the Earth's magnetic field at low latitudes highlights the presence of the ionospheric disturbance dynamo on October 14, which produces a decrease of the

  2. A bibliometric analysis of toxicology research productivity in Middle Eastern Arab countries during a 10-year period (2003–2012)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Bibliometric studies are increasingly being used for research assessment by involving the application of statistical methods to scientific publications to obtain the bibliographics for each country. The main objective of this study was to analyse the research productivity originating from 13 Middle Eastern Arab (MEA) countries with articles published in toxicology journals. Methods Data from January 1, 2003 till December 31, 2012 were searched for documents with specific words in the toxicology field as a “source title” in any one of the 13 MEA countries. Research productivity was evaluated based on a methodology developed and used in other bibliometric studies. Research productivity was adjusted to the national population and nominal gross domestic product (GDP) per capita. Results Documents (n = 1,240) were retrieved from 73 international peer-reviewed toxicology journals. The h-index of the retrieved documents was 39. Of the 73 journal titles, 52 (69.9%) have their IF listed in the ISI Journal Citation Reports 2012; 198 documents (16.0%) were published in journals that had no official IF. After adjusting for economy and population power, Egypt (193.6), Palestine (18.1), Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) (13.0), and Jordan (11.5) had the highest research productivity. Countries with large economies, such as the Kuwait, United Arab Emirates (UAE), and Oman, tended to rank relatively low after adjustment of GDP. The total number of citations at the time of data analysis (August 4, 2013) was 10,991, with a median (interquartile range) of 4 (1–11). MEA collaborated more with countries in the MEA regions (16.7%), especially KSA, Egypt, and UAE, followed by Europe (14.4%), especially with the United Kingdom and Germany. Conclusions The present data show a promising rise and a good start for toxicology research activity in toxicology journals in the Arab world. Research output is low in some countries, which can be improved by investing in more

  3. Poor reproductive health among a group of socially damaged Middle Eastern women: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Mohammadi, Gohar; Amiraliakbari, Sedigheh; Ramezankhani, Ali; Majd, Hamid Alavi

    2011-01-01

    . Contraception was completely ignored in 44.6% of participants. Among eligible women, 53.3% never participated in cervical cancer screening examination. Mean sexual performance scale score was 21.9 (5.5) and 75 (83.3%) participants scored less than 28. Conclusion A high prevalence of poor reproductive health was documented among a group of Middle Eastern socially damaged women. PMID:22140328

  4. Middle Stone Age (MSA) site distributions in eastern Africa and their relationship to Quaternary environmental change, refugia and the evolution of Homo sapiens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basell, Laura S.

    2008-12-01

    This paper considers the evolution of Homo sapiens in eastern Africa in relation to refugia and bottlenecks around ˜200 ka BP, at a macro scale. Middle Stone Age (MSA) lithics, site distributions and locations are analysed in relation to palaeovegetation maps of the last glacial/interglacial cycle, which are used as a proxy for earlier climate cycles. A "push and pull" model is then postulated for the spread of Homo sapiens out of refugia in eastern Africa, involving both volcanism (push) and habitat availability (pull). A date within OIS 5 is suggested for this expansion to other parts of the continent, and potentially further afield, contrary to a frequently proposed expansion within OIS 3.

  5. Participation in Extracurricular Activities in the Middle School Years: Are There Developmental Benefits for African American and European American Youth?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fredricks, Jennifer A.; Eccles, Jacquelynne S.

    2008-01-01

    In this study, we examined the associations between organized activity participation during early adolescence and adjustment in a large and economically diverse sample of African American and European American youth. The sample included 1,047 youth (51% female and 49% male and 67% African American and 33% European American). We used analysis of…

  6. The Effect of Using Rapping To Teach Selected Musical Forms to Urban African American Middle School Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akintunde, Omowale

    A study determined the effects of a pedagogical approach using rap music on the learning of musical forms among urban African American youth and whether there were differential effects among students of different levels of self-esteem. Urban African American youth (n=66) from the St. Louis County Public Schools who were enrolled in general music…

  7. The Relationship between Body Size and Depressed Mood: Findings from a Sample of African American Middle School Girls

    PubMed Central

    Granberg, Ellen M.; Simons, Ronald L.; Gibbons, Frederick X.; Melby, Janet Nieuwsma

    2009-01-01

    The relationship between body weight and depression among adolescent females has been the subject of considerable attention from researchers. The risk of experiencing this distress, however, is not equally distributed across members of all racial groups. African American girls are generally more satisfied with their bodies and thus may be less vulnerable to experiencing depression as a result of weight concerns. Several scholars have suggested that membership in African American culture provides social resources that protect black females from experiencing high levels of weight-based psychological distress. We examine the relationship between body size and depression and the potentially moderating role of African American cultural experiences using data from the Family and Community Health Study (FACHS). Assessing a cohort of 342 African American girls ages 12-14, we found support for a link between weight and depression. There was no evidence, however, that exposure to African American culture moderated this relationship. PMID:19834569

  8. The karyotype of the middle-African hedgehog Atelerix albiventris Wagner, 1841 and its cytotaxonomical relationships to other Erinaceinae (Insectivora: Erinaceidae).

    PubMed

    Hübner, R; Maddalena, T; Poduschka, W

    1991-01-01

    Like other hedgehog species investigated hitherto, also the Middle African species Atelerix albiventris has a diploid number of 48 chromosomes. However, Aethechinus and Atelerix display quite distinct cytogenetic characteristics compared to the hedgehog genera Erinaceus, Hemiechinus and Paraechinus. Individual chromosome structures and reactivities permit the recognition of similarities to the Algerian hedgehog Aethechinus algirus and indicate their close relationship. Nevertheless, the proposal by Corbet (1988) to merge the two taxa into one genus, which is contrary to Robbins and Setzer (1985) remains to be clarified by further investigations.

  9. Blood vitamins and trace elements in Northern-East African cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus soemmeringii) in captivity in the Middle East.

    PubMed

    Beckmann, Katie M; O'Donovan, Declan; McKeown, Sean; Wernery, Ulli; Basu, Puja; Bailey, Tom A

    2013-09-01

    There are few published data regarding the endangered Northern-East African cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus soemmeringii), held in captivity in the Middle East and Europe. Studies have demonstrated a high incidence of disease in captive cheetahs, in which vitamin and trace element imbalances have often been implicated. Blood vitamin and trace element reference values in cheetahs merit further investigation. In this study, blood samples were opportunistically collected from apparently healthy A. j. soemmeringii from two collections (A and B) with successful breeding programs in the United Arab Emirates. The cheetahs were fed whole prey of mixed species (and, in Collection B, goat muscle and bone as well) dusted with vitamin and mineral supplements. Mean serum vitamin and trace element values (for cheetahs > 4 mo in age) were as follows: vitamin A (retinol), 2.20 microM/L (n = 27); vitamin B1, 0.0818 microM/L (n = 45); vitamin C, 28.6 microM/L (n=10); vitamin E (alpha-tocopherol), 35.6 microM/L (n = 27); copper (Cu), 12.53 microM/L (n = 27); selenium (Se), 3.10 microM/L (n = 27); and zinc (Zn), 10.87 microM/L (n = 27). Mean values of vitamin A, vitamin E, Cu, and Zn fell within ranges of published cheetah mean values, and mean Se was lower than range values for cheetahs presented in one previous study; blood vitamin B1 and vitamin C values of cheetahs have not previously been published. The values were taken to indicate that the cheetahs' nutritional status was adequate with regard to those nutrients analyzed. Serum vitamin E was particularly high in cheetahs fed fresh whole prey, and on this basis vitamin E supplementation of fresh whole prey appeared to have been unnecessary. There were differences (P < 0.05) between collections in serum vitamin B1, vitamin E, Cu, and 10 other hematologic and biochemical parameters. Nine hematologic and blood biochemical parameters differed among age categories.

  10. Privacy, privatization, and the politics of patronage: ethnographic challenges to penetrating the secret world of Middle Eastern, hospital-based in vitro fertilization.

    PubMed

    Inhorn, Marcia C

    2004-11-01

    In recent years, in vitro fertilization (IVF) has spread around the globe, including to the Middle East. Privacy, privatization, and the politics of patronage are all key issues affecting anthropological research in Middle Eastern hospital-based IVF clinics. IVF-seeking patients generally desire privacy, even total secrecy, when pursuing these treatments, due to cultural issues of stigmatization, particularly regarding male infertility. Thus, ethical issues surrounding the informed consent process are of prime importance. Furthermore, privatization of medical services in the Middle East has left patients--and anthropologists--with few choices other than private IVF clinic settings in which to pursue treatment and research. Both the ethos of patient privacy and medical privatization affect the ability of anthropologists to "penetrate" the secret world of IVF. Permission to conduct ethnography in private hospital IVF clinics may be difficult to obtain without the help of highly motivated physician patrons, who are willing to recruit their private IVF patients for ethnographic interviewing. This article provides a personal account of some of these challenges as faced by a medical anthropologist during a 15-year career of hospital-based IVF research in the Middle East.

  11. Regional, racial, and gender differences in colorectal cancer screening in middle-aged African-Americans and Whites.

    PubMed

    Wallace, Phyllis M; Suzuki, Rie

    2012-12-01

    African-Americans have higher incidence and mortality from colorectal cancer than non-African-Americans. Early detection with colorectal cancer (CRC) screening reduces untimely death because the test can detect abnormalities and precancerous polyps in the colon and rectum. However, African-Americans aged 50 and older continue to have low CRC screening adherence. A retrospective analysis was conducted on data from the 2010 National Health Interview Survey to examine trends in self-reported CRC screening by geographic region, race, and gender. African-Americans, particularly men, were less likely to have been screened for colon cancer compared to all races and genders in this study. Individuals in the south were more likely to receive CRC screening than other regions. Colon cancer education and interventions are needed among low-adherent groups to promote the benefits of early detection with CRC screening.

  12. Fighting rabies in Eastern Europe, the Middle East and Central Asia--experts call for a regional initiative for rabies elimination.

    PubMed

    Aikimbayev, A; Briggs, D; Coltan, G; Dodet, B; Farahtaj, F; Imnadze, P; Korejwo, J; Moiseieva, A; Tordo, N; Usluer, G; Vodopija, R; Vranješ, N

    2014-05-01

    MEEREB is an informal network of rabies experts from the Middle East, Eastern Europe and Central Asia, seeking to eliminate rabies from the region. They met for the second time to review the current rabies situation, both globally and in their respective countries, highlighting current rabies control problems and potential solutions. Success stories in Latin America, in Western Europe, in some Asian countries, as well as in Croatia and Serbia prove that elimination of human rabies is achievable in the MEEREB region. It requires political willingness and cooperation of all stakeholders, including Ministries of Health and of Agriculture; adequate management of animal bites through post-exposure prophylaxis; pre-exposure prophylaxis for populations at high risk of rabies exposure, animal vaccination and humane control of stray dog populations. MEEREB members called for a regional initiative for rabies elimination in Eastern Europe and the Middle East. They are confident that the elimination of human rabies of canine origin can be achieved in the region through adopting a One Health approach, and that campaigns for rabies elimination will have significant benefit for public health, including strengthening the structure for control of other zoonoses. PMID:23782901

  13. Using Data Assimilation to Investigate the Effect of African Easterly Waves, Mesoscale Convective Systems, and Orography on Tropical Cyclogenesis over Eastern Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terkper, Gregory N.

    This study examines the association of tropical cyclogenesis and tropical wave activities such as African Easterly Waves (AEWs) in the Northeast Pacific Ocean. The impact of Central and Mexico Mountains on hurricane genesis, intensification and track is also studied in this paper. Eight numerical simulations using Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF-ARW) model are conducted to investigate the genesis, track and intensification of Hurricane Jimena (2009) a category 4 (on the Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Scale) hurricane during the 2009 eastern Pacific hurricane season. In addition, this study also analyzes the impact of three dimensional variational data assimilation of (3DVAR) of NCEP FNL data on WRF simulations. Based on satellite imagery and WRF analysis of Hurricane Jimena 2009, we find that the formation of Jimena on August 28, 2009 was trigged by a tropical wave from off the coast of Africa and propagated west-ward, across the Atlantic, Caribbean and into eastern Pacific on August 25. The study also reveals that initial time (or initial conditions) and microphysics scheme play an important role on WRF-ARW model simulation.

  14. Transition from a localized to wide deformation along Eastern branch of Central East African Rift: Insights from 3D numerical models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leroy, S. D.; Koptev, A.; Burov, E. B.; Calais, E.; Gerya, T.

    2015-12-01

    The Central East African Rift (CEAR) bifurcates in two branches (eastern, magma-rich and western, magma-poor) surrounding strong Tanzanian craton. Intensive magmatism and continental flood basalts are largely present in many of the eastern rift segments, but other segments, first of all the western branch, exhibit very small volcanic activity. The Eastern rift is characterized by southward progression of the onset of volcanism, the extensional features and topographic expression of the rift vary significantly north-southward: in northern Kenya the deformation is very wide (some 150-250 km in E-W direction), to the south the rift narrows to 60-70 km, yet further to the south the deformation widens again in the so-called Tanzania divergence zone. Widening of the Eastern branch within its southern part is associated with the impingement of the southward-propagating rift on the strong Masai block situated to east of the Tanzanian craton. To understand the mechanisms behind this complex deformation distribution, we implemented a 3Dl ultra-high resolution visco-plastic thermo-mechanical numerical model accounting for thermo-rheological structure of the lithosphere and hence captures essential features of the CEAR. The preferred model has a plume seeded slightly to the northeast of the craton center, consistent with seismic tomography, and produces surface strain distribution that is in good agreement with observed variation of deformation zone width along eastern side of Tanzanian craton: localized above bulk of mantle material deflected by cratonic keel narrow high strain zone (Kenia Rift) is replaced by wide distributed deformations within areas situated to north (northern Kenya, Turkana Rift) and to south (Tanzania divergence, Masai block) of it. These results demonstrate significant differences in the impact of the rheological profile on rifting style in case of dominant active rifting compared to dominant passive rifting. Narrow rifting, conventionally attributed to

  15. Late Pan-African granite emplacement during regional deformation, evidence from magnetic fabric and structural studies in the Hammamat-Atalla area, Central Eastern Desert of Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greiling, R. O.; de Wall, H.; Sadek, M. F.; Dietl, C.

    2014-11-01

    Field investigations, microstructural observations, and magnetic fabric analyses revealed a polyphase, late Pan-African deformational evolution in the Um Sheqila-Um Had (595 Ma) composite pluton and in the Hammamat and Atalla areas of the Central Eastern Desert of Egypt in Ediacaran times. Major stages are early shortening (NNW-SSE), subsequent strike-slip (NW-SE shear zones), and late shortening (NW-SE). Strain studies on pebbles and xenoliths together with AMS data show a predominance of shallow, NW-SE trending X axes or magnetic lineations, associated with steep, NW-SE striking magnetic foliations. Magnetic fabrics and microstructures indicate a tectonic fabric in the Um Sheqila-Um Had granitoid plutons, which is dominated by steep NW-SE striking foliations and shallow NW-SE trending lineations, similar to those in the high-angle Atalla Shear Zone. There is a change of lineation directions from ESE-WNW at Um Sheqila (oldest) to NW-SE to Um Had II (youngest). This pattern may indicate an influence of strike-slip and is also consistent with NE-SW compression. This holds also true for the asymmetry of the contact aureole, which is extended towards NW, parallel with the trend of the magnetic lineation. The character and orientation of the deformation pattern in the Um Sheqila-Um Had plutons and the Atalla Shear Zone is thus similar to the pattern of the late shortening phase. The intrusion of the Um Sheqila-Um Had granitoid rocks, therefore, took place before the late shortening stage, but postdates early deformation, which, according to published data, was associated with lithospheric thinning in the Central Eastern Desert. Therefore, these Pan-African plutons do not represent the earliest post-deformational intrusions but a late stage of syn-deformational magmatic activity. At a regional scale, this deformation with steep foliations and shallow lineations may also be related with lateral escape tectonics. The pluton emplacement, the importance of transcurrent

  16. Determinants of Women's Education in the Middle East and North Africa: Illustrations from Seven Countries. PHREE Background Paper Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    El-Sanabary, Nagat

    Despite considerable progress by Middle Eastern and North African countries in improving opportunities for women to access and attain education at all levels, much remains to be done. This report focuses on three sets of highly inter-related determinants of access, achievement, and outcome--macro-level societal determinants, school…

  17. Benefits, barriers, self-efficacy and knowledge regarding healthy foods; perception of African Americans living in eastern North Carolina

    PubMed Central

    Colby, Sarah

    2009-01-01

    African Americans in the United States suffer from many health disparities such as obesity, diabetes or hypertension. Lifestyle factors including diet and physical activity play an important role in prevention of these health conditions. The purpose of this research project was to assess beliefs, barriers and self-efficacy of eating a healthy diet and self efficacy of shopping for foods such as whole grains or foods designated as low fat or low sodium. Additionally, the objective was to assess beliefs about healthfulness, appropriate consumption, and protective aspect of specific foods including fruits, vegetables, and whole grains. The assessment was done using a survey instrument developed for this study. Data collection took place at two church locations. Data were obtained from 57 African Americans, mean age 50 years old (SD 12.70) completed the survey. The majority of respondents (58.1%) were females and most (75%) had at least some college education. Generally, benefits of eating healthy foods received considerably higher scores compared to barriers of eating healthy. A belief that healthy foods would help to take care of one's body received the highest mean score while a belief that healthy foods are too expensive had the highest score from all barriers. The results showed high self-efficacy of eating and purchasing healthy foods, high awareness of knowledge regarding foods associated with disease prevention but low awareness of recommendations for fruits and vegetables. The high scores for benefits, self-efficacy and knowledge regarding eating healthy foods did not translate into the perception of intake of such foods. Most participants believed that they do not eat enough of healthy foods. Interventions design to help African Americans make dietary changes should be culturally relevant and should involved working on a community level utilizing messages that are familiar and relevant to African Americans. PMID:20016703

  18. Under the Sun or in the Shade? Jua Kali in African Countries. National Policy Definition in Technical and Vocational Education: Beyond the Formal Sector. A Subregional Seminar for Eastern and Southern African Countries (Nairobi, Kenya, September 15-19, 1997). International project on Technical and Vocational Education (UNEVOC).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Berlin (Germany).

    This document is a comprehensive report a subregional seminar for eastern and southern African countries on the Jua Kali movement. (Jua Kali, "hot sun" in Swahili, refers to the informal or nonformal sector of the economy.) Section 1 explains the role of the International Project on Technical and Vocational Education (UNEVOC) in the development of…

  19. The Palisades is a key reference site for the middle Pleistocene of eastern Beringia: new evidence from paleomagnetics and regional tephrostratigraphy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jensen, Britta J. L.; Reyes, Alberto V.; Froese, Duane G.; Stone, David B.

    2013-03-01

    The Palisades, in central Alaska, is one of the most prominent exposures of Quaternary sediments on the Yukon River. Perennially-frozen silt and sand at the Palisades are presently thought to preserve paleoenvironmental records from the Holocene to ˜Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 8 and, beneath a major unconformity, the earliest Pleistocene (˜2 Ma). We present new paleomagnetic and tephrochronologic constraints that substantially revise the age of the sediments at the Palisades. We describe 15 new tephra beds, including five beds below the prominent PAL tephra that correlate to known tephra with independent age control from other sites in eastern Beringia. These five known tephra include Chester Bluff tephra, which is present in east-central Alaska and the Yukon, and the newly named Alyeska Pipeline and Taylor Highway tephra from central Alaska; all are constrained to the middle Pleistocene. Paleomagnetic transects from the base of the bluff to the MIS 5e forest bed yield normal polarity, with the exception of a brief reversal event between Old Crow tephra (124 ± 10 ka) and the MIS 5e forest bed that is likely the first documentation of the Blake paleomagnetic event in Alaskan loess. The detailed tephrostratigraphy and paleomagnetic data collectively suggest that most of the sedimentary record at the Palisades is middle Pleistocene in age. The Palisades thus preserves a rare record of late to middle Pleistocene paleoenvironments with multiple regionally distributed tephra beds.

  20. Mesozoic magmatism in an upper- to middle-crustal section through the Cordilleran continental margin arc, eastern Transverse Ranges, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Needy, S.K.; Anderson, J.L.; Wooden, J.L.; Fleck, R.J.; Barth, A.P.; Paterson, S.R.; Memeti, V.; Pignotta, G.S.

    2009-01-01

    The eastern Transverse Ranges provide essentially continuous exposure for >100 km across the strike of the Mesozoic Cordilleran orogen. Thermobarometric calculations based on hornblende and plagioclase compositions in Mesozoic plutonic rocks show that the fi rst-order distribution of rock units resulted from differential Laramide exhumation. Mesozoic supracrustal rocks are preserved in the relatively little exhumed eastern part of the eastern Transverse Ranges and south-central Mojave Desert, and progressively greater rock uplift and exhumation toward the west exposed rocks originating at mid-crustal depths. The eastern Transverse Ranges thus constitute a tilted, nearly continuously exposed crustal section of the Mesozoic magmatic arc and framework rocks from subvolcanic levels to paleodepths as great as ??22 km. The base of this tilted arc section is a moderately east-dipping sheeted magmatic complex >10 km in width by 70 km in length, constructed structurally beneath, yet synchronous with Late Jurassic and Cretaceous upper-crustal plutons. Geochronology and regional structural relations thus suggest that arc magmas generated in the lower crust of this continental arc interacted in a complex mid-crustal zone of crystallization and mixing; products of this zone were parental magmas that formed relatively homogeneous upper crustal felsic plutons and fed lavas and voluminous ignimbrites. ?? 2009 The Geological Society of America.

  1. The African superswell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nyblade, Andrew A.; Robinson, Scott W.

    1994-01-01

    Maps of residual bathymetry in the ocean basins around the African continent reveal a broad bathymetric swell in the southeastern Atlantic Ocean with an amplitude of about 500 m. We propose that this region of anomalously shallow bathymetry, together with the contiguous eastern and southern African plateaus, form a superswell which we refer to as the African superswell. The origin of the African superswell is uncertain. However, rifting and volcanism in eastern Africa, as well as heat flow measurements in southern Africa and the southeastern Atlantic Ocean, suggest that the superswell may be attributed, at least in part, to heating of the lithosphere.

  2. North African Jewish and non-Jewish populations form distinctive, orthogonal clusters

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Christopher L.; Palamara, Pier F.; Dubrovsky, Maya; Botigué, Laura R.; Fellous, Marc; Atzmon, Gil; Oddoux, Carole; Pearlman, Alexander; Hao, Li; Henn, Brenna M.; Burns, Edward; Bustamante, Carlos D.; Comas, David; Friedman, Eitan; Pe'er, Itsik; Ostrer, Harry

    2012-01-01

    North African Jews constitute the second largest Jewish Diaspora group. However, their relatedness to each other; to European, Middle Eastern, and other Jewish Diaspora groups; and to their former North African non-Jewish neighbors has not been well defined. Here, genome-wide analysis of five North African Jewish groups (Moroccan, Algerian, Tunisian, Djerban, and Libyan) and comparison with other Jewish and non-Jewish groups demonstrated distinctive North African Jewish population clusters with proximity to other Jewish populations and variable degrees of Middle Eastern, European, and North African admixture. Two major subgroups were identified by principal component, neighbor joining tree, and identity-by-descent analysis—Moroccan/Algerian and Djerban/Libyan—that varied in their degree of European admixture. These populations showed a high degree of endogamy and were part of a larger Ashkenazi and Sephardic Jewish group. By principal component analysis, these North African groups were orthogonal to contemporary populations from North and South Morocco, Western Sahara, Tunisia, Libya, and Egypt. Thus, this study is compatible with the history of North African Jews—founding during Classical Antiquity with proselytism of local populations, followed by genetic isolation with the rise of Christianity and then Islam, and admixture following the emigration of Sephardic Jews during the Inquisition. PMID:22869716

  3. The Effect of Tutoring and Mentoring on Student Success in Single-Parent Middle Class African American Households

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Lachelle Yavette

    2013-01-01

    Evidence suggests that African American male students from single mother households may face more challenges than white male students in obtaining educational success in terms of graduation and test performance. This association has been generated from previous studies that identified themes of poverty, parents' lack of education, absent…

  4. Cultural Learning Context as It Relates to Efficacy and the Mathematics Performance of African-American Middle School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burrell, Jennifer O.

    2012-01-01

    Nearly 20 years of empirical work has demonstrated that cultural-asset focused learning environments can improve the academic performance of African-American students. One example is communal learning context, which shifts students' motivational primacy from the individual to the social group. Considering the critical role of efficacy beliefs in…

  5. The Identity Status of African Americans in Middle Adolescence: A Replication and Extension of Forbes and Ashton (1998).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Branch, Curtis W.; Boothe, Barrington

    2002-01-01

    This study is a replication and extension of the work of Forbes and Ashton (1998). Seventy-seven African American high school students completed the revised version of the Extended Objective Measure of Ego Identity Status. Most of the students were found to be in uncommitted identity statuses. Similar results were found in both ideological and…

  6. Effects of Racial Discrimination and Health Behaviors on Mental and Physical Health of Middle-Class African American Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sellers, Sherrill L.; Bonham, Vence; Neighbors, Harold W.; Amell, James W.

    2009-01-01

    This research is an examination of the effects of racial discrimination and health-promoting behaviors on the physical and mental health of a sample of 399 well-educated African American men. One would think that the attainment of higher education would increase health-promoting behaviors and might decrease discriminatory experiences that impact…

  7. Operating in the Middle: The Experiences of African American Female Transfer Students in STEM Degree Programs at HBCUs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Dimitra Jackson

    2016-01-01

    Increasing the representation of African American females is essential to ensure the United States (U.S.) remains a viable competitor in the STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) workforce. With minorities anticipated to represent half of the resident U.S population by 2050, fostering STEM talent among this population is vital.…

  8. The Relationship between Body Size and Depressed Mood: Findings from a Sample of African American Middle School Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Granberg, Ellen M.; Simons, Ronald L.; Gibbons, Frederick X.; Melby, Janet Nieuwsma

    2008-01-01

    The relationship between body weight and depression among adolescent females has been the subject of considerable attention from researchers. The risk of experiencing this distress, however, is not equally distributed across members of all racial groups. African American girls are generally more satisfied with their bodies and thus may be less…

  9. Media influence on pre-middle school African Americans' perceptions toward science, mathematics, and technology courses and careers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waters, Sharon Campbell

    2005-07-01

    A variety of previous studies have suggested that inaccurate, stereotypical or missing media depictions of science, engineering, and technology (SET) workers and fields have contributed to a growing shortage of youth interested in pursuing careers within the scientific endeavor. However, studies on the perceptions of African American youth have not usually been the focus of such research. In this exploratory study, in-depth interviews were conducted with 34 fifth grade African American students to determine the relative influence television and film portrayals of SET workers had on these children's perceptions of roles in SET fields and careers and school coursework related to them. Framed within the theoretical perspectives of cultivation analysis and the construction of social reality, results indicated the majority of participants perceived scientists as ambiguous, possessing either mythic characteristics of the fantastic persona or they saw them as altruistically inclined figures that saved the world from disease, destruction, and decay. Television and film portrayals of SET workers were found in varying degrees and ways to shape these African American children's perceptions toward SET careers. While children exhibited self-concepts about SET workers that were sometimes idealistic, distorted, or unrealistic, most had favorable perceptions toward math and science courses in school. However, it was the absence of television and film portrayals of African Americans in SET roles that was problematic for the majority of students. Recommendations for media producers, educators, scientific research foundations, and parents were suggested to dispel some of these commonly found media stereotypes of SET workers and African Americans in these roles and their effects.

  10. Negotiating the Confluence: Middle-Eastern, Immigrant, Sexual-Minority Men and Concerns for Learning and Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eichler, Matthew A.; Mizzi, Robert C.

    2013-01-01

    Sexual-minority male immigrants re-locating from the Middle East to the United States and Canada have particular experiences upon entry and integration into their new societies. The needs of learning and identity are highlighted through a multiple case approach involving three men. Interviews were conducted with the three participants, which were…

  11. Portrait of a pragmatic conservative: Senator James A. McClure of Idaho and the politics of United States energy and Middle Eastern affairs, 1967--1990

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woods-Davis, Wilma

    This dissertation examines the political career of Senator James A. McClure as it relates to United States energy policy and Middle Eastern affairs, 1967-1990 and within the context of the modern (post-World War II) conservative movement. A pragmatic conservative, McClure sought a balance between the extremes of issues, especially as they related to energy and United States foreign policy toward the Arab-Israeli conflict in the Middle East. More often than not, this quiet senator from Idaho was the voice of reason and moderation, carefully analyzing all sides of the issue before submitting his views on the subject. His approach to energy policy represents his conservative expression of policy, while his approach to the Arab-Israeli conflict in the Middle East demonstrates his moderation, reason, and pragmatism. He called for a national energy plan that would promote domestic production of natural energy resources, energy conservation, and peace in the Middle East. He early warned that if the United States did not develop a comprehensive energy policy, the nation would soon face energy shortages. His cautionary statements went unnoticed until the first energy crisis in 1973 and 1974. Although McClure did not support reliance on imported oil to meet energy demand, he did advocate a change in direction in foreign policy. The United States must take a more even-handed approach to the Arab-Israeli conflict and consider the Arab position too in the historic debate. He continually urged a pro-Israeli congress to rethink its policies in this area. In addition to his senate duties, McClure acted as an unofficial goodwill ambassador to many of the Arab leaders in the Middle East. He made at least nine trips to the Middle East to discuss issues of energy, trade, peace, and war. He developed a working rapport with some Arab leaders, and did much to enhance the United States image in the region. He did this at a time in American history when Congress and the public were slow to

  12. First data on the environment and climate change within the Zhom-Bolok volcanic field (Eastern Sayan Mountains) in the Middle-Late Holocene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bezrukova, E. V.; Shchetnikov, A. A.; Kuzmin, M. I.; Sharova, O. G.; Kulagina, N. V.; Letunova, P. P.; Ivanov, E. V.; Kraynov, M. A.; Kerber, E. V.; Filinov, I. A.; Levina, O. V.

    2016-05-01

    This paper considers the results of comprehensive lithological, biostratigraphic, and geochemical investigation of sediments in Khara-Nur Lake (Eastern Sayan Mountains) situated in the area of the greatest Holocene eruptions in the Central Asia Region. The age of the basal sediment layer is estimated at 6881 ± 53 years. The local natural environment and climate have undergone great changes since that time. The Holocene volcanic events did not exert a catastrophic impact on the regional landscape, but they caused dramatic changes in the local vegetation. The well-defined correlation of the regional events with the well-known records of the natural environment in the Northern Hemisphere is indicative of the decisive influence of global atmospheric circulation on restructuring the landscape and climate system in the Zhom-Bolok Region in the Middle-Late Holocene.

  13. African American Girls' Perceptions of Their Adjustment from Coeducational Elementary Schools to a Single-Gender Middle School, and How They Believe Educators Can Best Support This Transition: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Presley, Christal L.

    2009-01-01

    his qualitative and quantitative study investigated student perceptions of seventh-grade African American females who transitioned from a coeducational elementary school to a single-gender middle school. This study was conducted by surveying students, having them answer writing prompts, and interviewing them. Data furnished by the respondents was…

  14. Cross-cultural challenges for assessing medical professionalism among clerkship physicians in a Middle Eastern country (Bahrain): feasibility and psychometric properties of multisource feedback

    PubMed Central

    Al Ansari, Ahmed; Al Khalifa, Khalid; Al Azzawi, Mohamed; Al Amer, Rashed; Al Sharqi, Dana; Al-Mansoor, Anwar; Munshi, Fadi M

    2015-01-01

    Background We aimed to design, implement, and evaluate the feasibility and reliability of a multisource feedback (MSF) system to assess interns in their clerkship year in the Middle Eastern culture, the Kingdom of Bahrain. Method The study was undertaken in the Bahrain Defense Force Hospital, a military teaching hospital in the Kingdom of Bahrain. A total of 21 interns (who represent the total population of the interns for the given year) were assessed in this study. All of the interns were rotating through our hospital during their year-long clerkship rotation. The study sample consisted of nine males and 12 females. Each participating intern was evaluated by three groups of raters, eight medical intern colleagues, eight senior medical colleagues, and eight coworkers from different departments. Results A total of 21 interns (nine males and 12 females) were assessed in this study. The total mean response rates were 62.3%. A factor analysis was conducted that found that the data on the questionnaire grouped into three factors that counted for 76.4% of the total variance. These three factors were labeled as professionalism, collaboration, and communication. Reliability analysis indicated that the full instrument scale had high internal consistency (Cronbach’s α 0.98). The generalizability coefficients for the surveys were estimated to be 0.78. Conclusion Based on our results and analysis, we conclude that the MSF tool we used on the interns rotating in their clerkship year within our Middle Eastern culture provides an effective method of evaluation because it offers a reliable, valid, and feasible process. PMID:26316836

  15. Science self-efficacy of African American middle school students: Relationship to motivation self-beliefs, achievement, gender, and gender orientation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Britner, Shari Lynn

    Motivation researchers have established that students' self-efficacy beliefs, the confidence they have in their academic capabilities, are related to academic outcomes. Self-efficacy has been amply researched in mathematics and language arts and nearly exclusively with White students. African American students and the area of science have each received scant attention. Typically, gender differences favor boys in mathematics and girls in language arts. Researchers have also found that these differences may be a function of gender orientation beliefs. The purpose of this study was to extend findings in science self-efficacy and to African American middle school students. I sought to determine whether self-efficacy assessed at differing levels of specificity (lab skills versus science grades) would each predict science achievement assessed at corresponding levels, to discover whether mean scores in academic motivation and achievement would differ by gender, and to determine whether these differences are a function of gender orientation (N = 268). Science grade self-efficacy was positively associated with the grades obtained by boys and by girls. For girls, grades were also associated positively with science self-concept and negatively with value of science. For reasons resulting from problematic instructional practices, lab skills self-efficacy was not associated with lab grades. Girls reported stronger science self-efficacy and received higher grades in science class. Gender orientation beliefs did not account for these differences, but masculinity and femininity were each associated with science grade self-efficacy, suggesting that androgyny is an adaptive orientation for the science self-efficacy beliefs of African American students. Findings are interpreted within the framework of A. Bandura's (1986) social cognitive theory.

  16. Oncology pharmacy units: a safety policy for handling hazardous drugs and related waste in low- and middle-income African countries—Angolan experience

    PubMed Central

    da Conceição, Ana Vaz; Bernardo, Dora; Lopes, Lygia Vieira; Miguel, Fernando; Bessa, Fernanda; Monteiro, Fernando; Santos, Cristina; Oliveira, Blasques; Santos, Lúcio Lara

    2015-01-01

    In African countries, higher rates of late-stage cancers at the time of first diagnosis are a reality. In this context, hazardous drugs (HDs), such as chemotherapy, play an important role and have immense benefits for patients’ treatment. HDs should be handled under specific conditions. At least a class 5 environment primary engineering control (PEC), physically located in an appropriate buffer area, is mandatory for sterile HDs compounding, as well as administrative control, personal protective equipment, work practices and other engineering and environmental controls, in order to protect the environment, patient, and worker. The aim of this study is to describe the Angolan experience regarding the development of oncology pharmacy units and discuss international evidence-based guidelines on handling HDs and related waste. Measures to incorporate modern and economical solutions to upgrade or build adequate and safe facilities and staff training, in order to comply with international guidelines in this area, are crucial tasks for African countries of low and middle income. PMID:26557873

  17. Is Giving Up Traditional Religious Culture Part of the Price to be Paid for Acquiring Higher Education? Adaptation of Academic Western Culture by Jewish Israeli University Students of Middle Eastern Origin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kedem, Peri; Bar-Lev, Mordechai

    1983-01-01

    A study of whether the Middle Eastern student feels that attaining the status of "Western modern man" is incompatible with maintaining a traditional, religious way of life is reported. Some loosening of extreme religious practices was found among college students, but there was no evident revolt against home or tradition. (MSE)

  18. Impacts of climate change on Middle Eastern societies over the last 2700 years: new results from the Gejkar speleothem, Iraq

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flohr, Pascal; Fleitmann, Dominik; Bosomworth, Matt; Cheng, Hai; Sadekov, Aleksey; Matthews, Roger; Matthews, Wendy; Black, Stuart; Edwards, Lawrence

    2016-04-01

    Climatic and environmental changes are often cited as a major factor for past social, economic, and political changes. This is especially relevant in the semi-arid to arid Middle East, where, however, only few precisely dated, high-resolution climate records are available. Here we present new results from an up to annually resolved stalagmite from Gejkar Cave in the Kurdish Regional Government of Iraq region. Based on Uranium-series dating and annual layer counts, the record dates back ~2700 years, and its annual layer thickness and carbon and oxygen isotope profile appear indicative of precipitation and effective moisture. We also assess if observed decadal to multi-decadal shifts in precipitation are synchronous with socio-economic changes as observed in the archaeological and historical record in the wider Middle East over the last 2000 years, such as the largely prosperous Roman and Byzantine periods, the Seljuq invasion, and the decline of the Ottoman Empire.

  19. Vertical profiles of CO and CH4 in the lower and middle troposphere over the Eastern United States January 1978

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reichle, H. G., Jr.; Condon, E. P.

    1979-01-01

    Samples of tropospheric air were obtained over the Eastern United States during January of 1978. These samples were analyzed by gas chromatography using flame ionization detection to produce vertical profiles of carbon monoxide and methane from the surface to 8 km. The carbon monoxide mixing ratios at 35 deg N and 45 deg N agree with previously published values; however, the mixing ratio at 25 deg N was significantly lower than most published values. The methane mixing ratio was weakly dependent on latitude and has an average value of 1.64 ppm.

  20. Arsenic-safe alternate aquifers and their hydraulic characteristics in contaminated areas of Middle Ganga Plain, Eastern India.

    PubMed

    Saha, Dipankar; Sahu, S; Chandra, P C

    2011-04-01

    Arsenic groundwater contamination exceeding 0.05 mg/l affecting the Newer Alluvial tracts of Patna and Bhojpur, the two worst affected districts located in the Middle Ganga Plain in the Bihar state, has been studied The area is underlain by two-tier Quaternary aquifer systems within a depth of 300 m below ground level, separated by a 15-32-m-thick clay/sandy clay aquitard. The upper part (<50 m depth) of the shallow aquifer system is arsenic-contaminated. The deeper aquifer system (lying below 120-130 m depth) exhibits low arsenic load (max 0.0035 mg/l), having hydraulic conductivity between 64.88 and 82.04 m/day. Groundwater in the deeper aquifer occurs under semi-confined to confined condition due to poor hydraulic conductivity of the middle clay (4.7×10(-2)-7.2×10(-3) m/day). Hydraulic head of the deeper aquifer remains close to the surface than the shallow aquifer. The two aquifer systems in the Newer Alluvium are replaced by a thick single aquifer system in the adjoining Older Alluvium, within a depth of 330 m below ground. In the arsenic-contaminated area, deeper aquifer is protected by a middle clay, which may be developed for community drinking water supply by deep tube wells having a yield capacity of 150 m3/h.

  1. Permian and Triassic Meliata-related rift and drift processes in Eastern Alps: middle and lower crust and its potential correlation with sedimentary units

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neubauer, Franz

    2016-04-01

    The poorly studied middle and lower crust (MLC) of passive continental margins, a key plate tectonic element, is often preserved in thick-skinned tectonic wedges of mountain belts. We studied the Permian to early Norian Meliata Ocean-related rift-characteristics of MLC and detached upper crust (UC) of the Austroalpine nappes of Eastern Alps (and Western Carpathians) with the aim to assess rift models, composition and temporal and spatial distribution of magmatism. We also compare the development of UC sedimentary units with similar successions of the eastern Southalpine unit. There, rifting started already during Early Permian, and a major extensional event occurred during late Early Permian separating Lower and Upper Permian carbonate platforms. In Austroalpine units, rifting occurred later, and the response of LMC to rifting includes acidic and subordinate, mostly earlier mafic magmatism, high-temperature/low-pressure metamorphism (ca. 0.46 GPa, 540 °C), and pure and simple shear deformation in shallow parts of MLC. In UC, the poorly dated rift-onset unconformity formed in Early or Middle Permian and resulted in N-S to NE-SW striking halfgrabens filled with up to 1.5 km thick terrestrial clastics. First marine ingressions occurred during latest Permian, since Anisian carbonate deposition dominated (loss of the clastic hinterland). We recently detected a break-up angular unconformity in central Northern Calcareous Alps (NCA) on top of tilted Lower Anisian Gutenstein Limestone and wedge-shaped Middle Triassic carbonates covered by Norian Dachstein Reef Limestone indicating the break-off and spreading in the Meliata oceanic tract. In Permian evaporites, polyhalite veins and grains crystallized between 235 and 225 Ma and at ca. 210 Ma testifying intense fluid flow along normal faults similar as Anisian/Ladinian strata-bound iron and Pb-Zn-Ba-F mineralizations do. In the underlying basement, we detected similar Permian to Triassic ductile shear zones with Ar

  2. Geochronology and petrogenesis of Middle Permian S-type granitoid in southeastern Guangxi Province, South China: Implications for closure of the eastern Paleo-Tethys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yan-Jun; Wei, Jun-Hao; Santosh, M.; Tan, Jun; Fu, Le-Bing; Zhao, Shao-Qing

    2016-07-01

    The Bangxi-Chenxing suture zone is an important region to address the history of closure of the eastern Paleo-Tethys ocean. Among the widespread S-type granite batholiths in the SE Guangxi Province adjacent to this suture is the Nali granodiorite. Here we report zircon U-Pb ages, major and trace element geochemistry, and Sr-Nd-Hf isotope geochemistry of a newly found Middle Permian S-type granite in this region. LA-ICP-MS zircon U-Pb geochronology yields emplacement ages of 265 ± 2 to 262 ± 2 Ma for the Nali granodiorite. Both the inner and outer phases are characterized by variable SiO2 (66.91-71.39 wt.%), high Al2O3 (12.99-14.04 wt.%), K2O + Na2O (4.78-5.98 wt.%), and A/CNK values (1.11-1.50), resembling those of typical S-type granites. The rocks are enriched in Rb, Th, U and light rare earth elements with weak negative Eu anomalies, and show depletion in Nb, Ta, Ti, with typical arc-like affinity. They have relatively high (87Sr/86Sr)i ratios of 0.7228 to 0.7331, low εNd(t) values of - 13.6 to - 11.9, and low zircon εHf(t) values (- 21.9 to - 8.8). High whole-rock Nd isotopic model ages (2.00-2.02 Ga) and zircon Hf isotopic model ages (1.59-2.20 Ga), indicate that they might have been generated by partial melting of ancient lower crust with minor contribution from mantle sources. The granodiorite shows continental arc affinity and likely formed within a subduction setting. By combining previously extant data for Permo-Triassic arc-/collision-related magmatism in the Jinshajiang-Ailaoshan-Song Ma and Bangxi-Chenxing suture zones, we propose that the subduction of the eastern Paleo-Tethys might have started during Middle Permian triggered by the northward subduction of the Indochina Block (ICB) beneath the South China Block (SCB) and closure during Middle Triassic.

  3. Geology and metallogeny of the Ar Rayn terrane, eastern Arabian shield: Evolution of a Neoproterozoic continental-margin arc during assembly of Gondwana within the East African orogen

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Doebrich, J.L.; Al-Jehani, A. M.; Siddiqui, A.A.; Hayes, T.S.; Wooden, J.L.; Johnson, P.R.

    2007-01-01

    characteristics of the Ar Rayn terrane are analogous to the Andean continental margin of Chile, with opposite subduction polarity. The Ar Rayn terrane represents a continental margin arc that lay above a west-dipping subduction zone along a continental block represented by the Afif composite terrane. The concentration of epithermal, porphyry Cu and IOCG mineral systems, of central arc affiliation, along the AAF suggests that the AAF is not an ophiolitic suture zone, but originated as a major intra-arc fault that localized magmatism and mineralization. West-directed oblique subduction and ultimate collision with a land mass from the east (East Gondwana?) resulted in major transcurrent displacement along the AAF, bringing the eastern part of the arc terrane to its present exposed position, juxtaposed across the AAF against a back-arc basin assemblage represented by the Abt schist of the Ad Dawadimi terrane. Our findings indicate that arc formation and accretionary processes in the Arabian shield were still ongoing into the latest Neoproterozoic (Ediacaran), to about 620-600 Ma, and lead us to conclude that evolution of the Ar Rayn terrane (arc formation, accretion, syn- to postorogenic plutonism) defines a final stage of assembly of the Gondwana supercontinent along the northeastern margin of the East African orogen. ?? 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Improvements on Restricted Insecticide Application Protocol for Control of Human and Animal African Trypanosomiasis in Eastern Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Muhanguzi, Dennis; Picozzi, Kim; Hatendorf, Jan; Thrusfield, Michael; Welburn, Susan Christina; Kabasa, John David; Waiswa, Charles

    2014-01-01

    Background African trypanosomes constrain livestock and human health in Sub-Saharan Africa, and aggravate poverty and hunger of these otherwise largely livestock-keeping communities. To solve this, there is need to develop and use effective and cheap tsetse control methods. To this end, we aimed at determining the smallest proportion of a cattle herd that needs to be sprayed on the legs, bellies and ears (RAP) for effective Human and Animal African Trypanosomiasis (HAT/AAT) control. Methodology/Principal finding Cattle in 20 villages were ear-tagged and injected with two doses of diminazene diaceturate (DA) forty days apart, and randomly allocated to one of five treatment regimens namely; no treatment, 25%, 50%, 75% monthly RAP and every 3 month Albendazole drench. Cattle trypanosome re-infection rate was determined by molecular techniques. ArcMap V10.3 was used to map apparent tsetse density (FTD) from trap catches. The effect of graded RAP on incidence risk ratios and trypanosome prevalence was determined using Poisson and logistic random effect models in R and STATA V12.1 respectively. Incidence was estimated at 9.8/100 years in RAP regimens, significantly lower compared to 25.7/100 years in the non-RAP regimens (incidence rate ratio: 0.37; 95% CI: 0.22–0.65; P<0.001). Likewise, trypanosome prevalence after one year of follow up was significantly lower in RAP animals than in non-RAP animals (4% vs 15%, OR: 0.20, 95% CI: 0.08–0.44; P<0.001). Contrary to our expectation, level of protection did not increase with increasing proportion of animals treated. Conclusions/significance Reduction in RAP coverage did not significantly affect efficacy of treatment. This is envisaged to improve RAP adaptability to low income livestock keepers but needs further evaluation in different tsetse challenge, HAT/AAT transmission rates and management systems before adopting it for routine tsetse control programs. PMID:25356758

  5. Educating Urban African American Children Placed at Risk: A Comparison of Two Types of Catholic Middle Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fenzel, L. Mickey; Domingues, Janine

    2009-01-01

    Although the number of urban Catholic schools has declined in recent years, Nativity model middle schools, first developed by the Jesuits over 35 years ago, have appeared throughout the nation to address the need for effective alternative education for urban children placed at risk. The present study compares the effectiveness of two types of…

  6. The curse of wealth – Middle Eastern countries need to address the rapidly rising burden of diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Klautzer, Lisa; Becker, Joachim; Mattke, Soeren

    2014-01-01

    The energy boom of the last decade has led to rapidly increasing wealth in the Middle East, particularly in the oil and gas-rich Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries. This exceptional growth in prosperity has brought with it rapid changes in lifestyles that have resulted in a significant rise in chronic disease. In particular the number of people diagnosed with diabetes has increased dramatically and health system capacity has not kept pace. In this article, we summarize the current literature to illustrate the magnitude of the problem, its causes and its impact on health and point to options how to address it. PMID:24757686

  7. Parasites of South African wildlife. VIII. Helminth and arthropod parasites of warthogs, Phacochoerus aethiopicus, in the eastern Transvaal.

    PubMed

    Boomker, J; Horak, I G; Booyse, D G; Meyer, S

    1991-09-01

    Helminth and arthropod parasites were collected from 41 warthogs, Phacochoerus aethiopicus, in the Hoedspruit Nature Reserve, eastern Transvaal. This reserve consists of a military base, which is a restricted area and is surrounded by a reserve, which is open to the public. Eleven nematode species, 1 or 2 cestode species and the larvae of 2 cestode species were recovered from the animals in the reserve, and 8 nematode species and 1 or 2 cestode species were recovered from those in the military base. Oesophagostomum spp. were generally most abundant in warthogs in the reserve during the cooler months of the year, while Probstmayria vivipara also occurred in peak numbers during the cooler months, with an additional peak in October and November 1988 in warthogs in the reserve and the base, respectively. No pattern of seasonal abundance could be determined for the other helminth species. The warthogs also harboured 8 ixodid and 1 argasid tick species, 3 flea species and 1 louse species. Adult and immature Haematopinus phacochoeri were most numerous during August and September, and the largest numbers of adult Rhipicephalus simus were present from December to April. PMID:1923382

  8. Cigarette smoking in a Middle Eastern country and its association with hospitalisation use: a nationwide cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Sibai, Abla Mehio; Iskandarani, Mohamad; Darzi, Andrea; Nakkash, Rima; Saleh, Shadi; Fares, Souha; Hwalla, Nahla

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Little is known about the distribution of cigarette smoking by place and persons at the national level or its burden on healthcare expenditure in countries of the Middle East. We examine in this study the pattern of cigarette smoking by age, gender and geography and assess its association with hospitalisation use in Lebanon, a small middle-income country in the Middle East. Design Population-based cross-sectional study. Setting The study draws on data collected as part of the nationwide multistage cluster sample Nutrition and Non-Communicable Disease Risk Factor survey conducted in Lebanon in 2009. Participants A total of 2836 Lebanese adults 18 years and over. Measures Hospitalisation, the outcome variable, was measured using one item and recoded as a dichotomous variable. Cigarette smoking, the main exposure variable, was assessed by examining smoking status and pack-years, capturing intensity, frequency and duration of exposure. Results The overall prevalence rate of current smoking in this study was 34.7%, with significantly higher rates in males than females (42.9% and 27.5%, respectively). Close to two-thirds of the study population reported ever being hospitalised (62.8%). Compared to non-smokers, past and current smokers were significantly more likely to be hospitalised, after controlling for sociodemographic and health-related characteristics (OR=2.9, 95% CI 1.26 to 3.34, and OR=1.35, 95% CI 1.12 to 1.63, respectively). Hospitalisation use increased significantly in a dose–response manner with increasing pack-years. Conclusions When compared to regional and international estimates, the prevalence rates of smoking in Lebanon are considerably high, with percentages among women being among the highest in the region. Our findings of increased odds of hospitalisation among ever smokers, net of the effect of comorbidity, underscore the additional burden of smoking on the healthcare bill cost. Continued monitoring of smoking rates and disease

  9. New data on genesis of the crust in the eastern segment of the Middle Urals: Sr-Nd isotopic constraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smirnov, V. N.; Ronkin, Yu. L.; Puchkov, V. N.; Soloshenko, N. G.; Streletskaya, M. V.

    2016-04-01

    The analysis of the Sr and Nd isotopic composition in different granitoids of the Verkhisetsk, Shartash, Krasnopolsk, Petrokamensk, and Shabry massifs, which were successively formed in the island arc, continental marginal, and collisional geodynamic settings during the period from the Middle Devonian to the early Permian, revealed that 87Sr/86Sr0 values in them vary from 0.70331 to 0.70431 and ɛNd( t), from +1.9 to +6.2. The two-stage model Nd age of granitoids (938-629 Ma) indicates that their magma originates from material at least Neoproterozoic in age, not younger. The observed variations in the Nd model ages of granitoids and 87Sr/86Sr0 values provide grounds for assuming the primary heterogeneity of the source of granitoid melts.

  10. Sedimentation and palaeogeography of the eastern part of the Paris Basin (France) at the Middle Upper Jurassic boundary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collin, Pierre-Yves; Courville, Philippe

    2006-10-01

    The Middle-Upper Jurassic boundary corresponds to a period of far-reaching changes in sedimentation patterns related to alterations in the palaeoclimate and in the global carbon cycle. Marl deposits were laid down in the east of the Paris Basin at this time and ANDRA has selected these lithological units as the site for an underground study laboratory. The build-up of these marls is the result, among other things, of the area long having been a shelf and of more rapid subsidence from the Early Callovian to the Early Oxfordian. Changes are detected between areas on either side of the Vittel Fault from the onset of the mid-Oxfordian onwards. To cite this article: P.-Y. Collin, P. Courville, C. R. Geoscience ••• (••••).

  11. Can we overcome the effect of conflicts in rendering palliative care? An introduction to the Middle Eastern Cancer Consortium (MECC).

    PubMed

    Silbermann, Michael; Khleif, Amal; Tuncer, Murat; Pitsillides, Barbara; Shad, Aziza; Oberman, Amitai; Elshami, Mohammad; Gultekin, Murat; Daher, Michel; Tarawneh, Mohammed; Harford, Joe

    2011-08-01

    The Middle East has been experiencing an ongoing political conflict for the past several decades. This situation has been characterized by hostility often leading to violence of all sources. At times, such a conflict led to the outbreak of a military war, which was followed by an enmity between religious, ethnic, cultural, and national populations. In such environmental situations, palliative care professionals often confront major challenges including bias, mistrust, and mutual suspicion between patients and their treating clinicians. In order to overcome such obstacles, while rendering palliative care services, all professionals involved need careful planning and execution of their treatment plans. The latter is however possible, and sometimes successful even across lines of conflict, thereby promoting understanding, mutual respect, and tolerance between the involved communities and individuals.

  12. Warming of the Indian Ocean threatens eastern and southern African food security but could be mitigated by agricultural development

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Funk, C.; Dettinger, M.D.; Michaelsen, J.C.; Verdin, J.P.; Brown, M.E.; Barlow, M.; Hoell, A.

    2008-01-01

    Since 1980, the number of undernourished people in eastern and southern Africa has more than doubled. Rural development stalled and rural poverty expanded during the 1990s. Population growth remains very high, and declining per-capita agricultural capacity retards progress toward Millennium Development goals. Analyses of in situ station data and satellite observations of precipitation have identified another problematic trend: main growing-season rainfall receipts have diminished by ???15% in food-insecure countries clustered along the western rim of the Indian Ocean. Occurring during the main growing seasons in poor countries dependent on rain-fed agriculture, these declines are societally dangerous. Will they persist or intensify? Tracing moisture deficits upstream to an anthropogenically warming Indian Ocean leads us to conclude that further rainfall declines are likely. We present analyses suggesting that warming in the central Indian Ocean disrupts onshore moisture transports, reducing continental rainfall. Thus, late 20th-century anthropogenic Indian Ocean warming has probably already produced societally dangerous climate change by creating drought and social disruption in some of the world's most fragile food economies. We quantify the potential impacts of the observed precipitation and agricultural capacity trends by modeling 'millions of undernourished people' as a function of rainfall, population, cultivated area, seed, and fertilizer use. Persistence of current tendencies may result in a 50% increase in undernourished people by 2030. On the other hand, modest increases in per-capita agricultural productivity could more than offset the observed precipitation declines. Investing in agricultural development can help mitigate climate change while decreasing rural poverty and vulnerability. ?? 2008 by The National Academy of Sciences of the USA.

  13. Perceptions of Parenting Practices as Predictors of Aggression in a Low-Income, Urban, Predominately African American Middle School Sample

    PubMed Central

    MURRAY, KANTAHYANEE W.; HAYNIE, DENISE L.; HOWARD, DONNA E.; CHENG, TINA L.; SIMONS-MORTON, BRUCE

    2011-01-01

    This research examined the relation between early adolescent aggression and parenting practices in an urban, predominately African American sample. Sixth graders (N = 209) completed questionnaires about their overt and relational aggressive behaviors and perceptions of caregivers’ parenting practices. Findings indicated that moderate levels of parental expectations for peaceful solutions at Time 1 were associated with a lower likelihood of overt aggression at Time 2. Furthermore, findings suggest that when caregivers’ support and knowledge of adolescents’ whereabouts were relatively low or when caregivers’ exerted high psychological control, moderate levels of parental expectations for peaceful solutions protected early adolescents against engagement in both overt and relational aggression. The implications of the findings for schools and other youth violence prevention settings are discussed. PMID:26855618

  14. Physical activity among African American and Latino middle school girls: consistent beliefs, expectations, and experiences across two sites.

    PubMed

    Taylor, W C; Yancey, A K; Leslie, J; Murray, N G; Cummings, S S; Sharkey, S A; Wert, C; James, J; Miles, O; McCarthy, W J

    1999-01-01

    Physical inactivity is a major public health concern. Low levels of physical activity are reported in many subgroups of women including adolescent girls. More data are needed to better understand factors related to physical activity participation in adolescent girls. Therefore, we explored adolescent girls' reasons for participating and not participating in physical activity. Two independent samples were taken in California and Texas; the total sample included thirty-four African American and Latino girls. Six focus groups were conducted by trained facilitators. Based on independent qualitative analyses, six replicated themes emerged from the focus groups. Fun, social support, and concern with body image facilitated participation in activity. In contrast, negative experiences in physical education classes, concerns about appearance after activity, and lack of opportunity impeded participation in activity. Overall, the girls showed an interest in physical activity and identified activity motivators and barriers. We discuss the implications of our findings for future research.

  15. Neighborhood conditions, diabetes, and risk of lower-body functional limitations among middle-aged African Americans: A cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The relationship between presence of diabetes and adverse neighborhood and housing conditions and their effect on functional decline is unclear. We examined the association of adverse neighborhood (block face) and housing conditions with incidence of lower-body functional limitations among persons with and those without diabetes using a prospective population-based cohort study of 563 African Americans 49-65 years of age at their 2000-2001 baseline interviews. Methods Participants were randomly sampled African Americans living in the St. Louis area (response rate: 76%). Physician-diagnosed diabetes was self reported at baseline interview. Lower-body functional limitations were self reported based on the Nagi physical performance scale at baseline and the three-year follow-up interviews. The external appearance of the block the respondent lived on and five housing conditions were rated by study interviewers. All analyses were done using propensity score methods to control for confounders. Results 109 (19.4%) of subjects experienced incident lower-body functional limitations at three-year follow-up. In adjusted analysis, persons with diabetes who lived on block faces rated as fair-poor on each of the five conditions had higher odds (7.79 [95% confidence interval: 1.36-37.55] to 144.6 [95% confidence interval: 4.45-775.53]) of developing lower-body functional limitations than the referent group of persons without diabetes who lived on block faces rated as good-excellent. At least 80 percent of incident lower-body functional limitations was attributable to the interaction between block face conditions and diabetes status. Conclusions Adverse neighborhood conditions appear to exacerbate the detrimental effects on lower-body functioning associated with diabetes. PMID:20507573

  16. New Archaeointensity Result from Middle-Eastern China and Its Constraints on the Variation of the Geomagnetic Field during the last 6 kyr

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, S.; Jin, G.; Deng, C.; Tauxe, L.; Qin, H.; Pan, Y.; Zhu, R.

    2015-12-01

    Archaeomagnetic study is an effective way to understand the variation of the geomagnetic field over periods of hundreds to thousands of years. We have carried out archaeointensity studies on archaeological artifacts, including pottery fragments, bricks and baked clay, collected from several sites covering the middle to eastern part of China spanning the past ~6 kyr. We designed detailed rock magnetic and archaeointensity experiments in this study. Rock magnetic results indicate that the main magnetic carriers of these samples are stable magnetite or titanomagnetite with mainly fine particles of SD and SP. About 40% of the specimens in the paleointensity experiment pass the strict selection criteria and are considered to record robust intensity values. The virtual axial dipole moments (VADMs) of our sites range from ~2.5×1022 to ~15.8×1022 Am2. We record three low intensity values with VADMs of less than 3×1022 Am2, two of them comparable to the one reported by Cai et al. (2015) at ~3000 BCE while the other one comparable to those reported by Cai et al. (2014) at ~2200 BCE, which supply further evidence for the existence of 'DIPs' (decreases in paleoinetnsity) in China during the period of ~3000-2000 BCE. A high intensity value of ~16×1022 Am2 is recorded by our new data at ~1300 BCE, which may represent a new spike at this time period. The low and high values recorded by our new data update the six-fold variation between ~2200 BCE and ~1300 BCE discussed in Cai et al. (2014) to eight-fold, which may indicate a stronger geodynamic process during this period. Our new data are generally in good agreement with the published data in China, Japan and Korea at similar time periods, except the extreme low and high values discussed above, which will improve the Eastern Asian model greatly. The new data together with the published data suggest severe fluctuation of the geomagnetic field in Eastern Asia during the last 6 kyr. Vast quantities of reliable data are needed to

  17. Subtle structural influences on coal thickness and distribution: Examples from the Lower Broas-Stockton coal (Middle Pennsylvanian), Eastern Kentucky Coal Field, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Greb, S.F.; Eble, C.F.; Hower, J.C.

    2005-01-01

    The Lower Broas-Stockton coal is a heavily mined coal of the Central Appalachian Basin. Coal thickness, distribution, composition, and stratigraphic position were compared with basement structure, gas and oil field trends, and sequence strat- igraphic and paleoclimate interpretations to better understand the geology of the Stockton coal bed in eastern Kentucky. The thickest coal occurs south of the Warfield structural trend and east of the Paint Creek Uplift, two basement-related structures. Along the Warfield trend, coal beds in the underlying Peach Orchard coal zone locally merge with the Stockton coal to form a seam more than 3 m thick. Other areas of thick coal occur in elongate trends. Two pairs of elongate, conjugate trends in Stockton coal thickness are interpreted as regional paleofractures that influenced paleotopography and groundwater during peat accumulation. Compositional group analyses indicate that the Stockton peat infilled depressions in the paleotopography as a topogenous to soligenous mire codominated by tree ferns and lycopsid trees. Flooding from adjacent paleochannels is indicated by partings and seam splits along the margins of the mineable coal body. One or more increments of low-vitrinite coal, dominated by tree ferns and shrubby, Densosporites-producing lycopsids occur at all sample sites. Similar assemblages have been previously used to identify ombrogenous, domed mire origins for Early and Middle Pennsylvanian coals in which ash yields were less than 10%. It is difficult, however, to reconcile ombrogenous conditions with the partings in the Stockton coal in this area. Low-ash, low-vitrinite increments may have been formed in topogenous to soligenous mires with periodic drying or water-table fluctuations, rather than widespread doming. This is consistent with interpretations of increasingly seasonal paleoclimates in the late Middle and Late Pennsylvanian and fracture-influenced groundwater conditions. ??2005 Geological Society of America.

  18. The Agia Marina Xyliatou Observatory: A remote supersite in Cyprus to monitor changes in the atmospheric composition of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Middle East

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sciare, Jean

    2016-04-01

    The Eastern Mediterranean and Middle East (EMME) region has been identified as one of the hot spot region in the world strongly influenced by climate changes impacts. This region is characterized by rapidly growing population with contrasting economic development, strong environmental gradients and climate extremes. However, long-term observations of the atmospheric constituents (gaseous and particulate) of the atmosphere at a remote site representative of EMME is still missing making difficult to assess current and future impacts on air quality, water resources and climate. In collaboration with the Department of Labour Inspection and in the frame of French research programs (ChArMEx and ENVI-Med "CyAr") and the EU H2020 "ACTRIS-2" (2015-2019) project, CyI and CNRS are putting unprecedented efforts to implement at a rural site of Cyprus (Agia Marina Xyliatou) a unique infrastructure to monitor key atmospheric species relevant to air quality and climate. A large set of real-time instrumentations is currently deployed to characterize reactive gases (incl. O3, CO, NOx, SO2, VOC), in-situ aerosol properties (mass, size distribution, light scatt./absorption/extinction coef. and chemistry) and as well as integrated optical properties (sunphotomer, solar flux). Through Transnational access (H2020 ACTRIS2), this station is offering to (non-)EU partners (Research, SMEs) a new atmospheric facility to monitor long range transported clean/polluted air masses from 3 different continents (Europe, Africa, Middle East) and investigate aerosol-cloud interactions through the use of UAV and a mountain site (Troodos, 1900m asl). We will present here an overview of this new research infrastructure and provide a first glance of key features observed from gas/aerosol measurements obtained in 2015

  19. An update of the tsetse fly (Diptera: Glossinidae) distribution and African animal trypanosomosis prevalence in north-eastern KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa.

    PubMed

    de Beer, Chantel J; Venter, Gert J; Kappmeier Green, Karin; Esterhuizen, Johan; de Klerk, Daniel G; Ntshangase, Jerome; Vreysen, Marc J B; Pienaar, Ronel; Motloang, Makhosazana; Ntantiso, Lundi; Latif, Abdalla A

    2016-06-09

    An unpredicted outbreak of African animal trypanosomosis or nagana in 1990 in north-eastern KwaZulu-Natal necessitated an emergency control programme, utilising the extensive cattledipping system in the area, as well as a reassessment of the tsetse and trypanosomosis problem in the province. Since 1990, sporadic blood sampling of cattle at the dip tanks in the naganainfested areas were undertaken to identify trypanosome species involved and to determine the infection prevalence in cattle. The distribution and species composition of the tsetse populations in the area were also investigated. From November 2005 to November 2007 selected dip tanks were surveyed for trypanosome infection prevalence. During April 2005 to August 2009 the distribution and abundance of tsetse populations were assessed with odour-baited H traps. The tsetse and trypanosome distribution maps were updated and potential correlations between tsetse apparent densities (ADs) and the prevalence of trypanosomosis were assessed. Glossina brevipalpis Newstead and Glossina austeni Newstead were recorded in locations where they have not previously been collected. No significant correlation between tsetse relative abundance and nagana prevalence was found, which indicated complex interactions between tsetse fly presence and disease prevalence. This was epitomised by data that indicated that despite large differences in the ADs of G. austeni and G. brevipalpis, trypanosome infection prevalence was similar in all three districts in the area. This study clearly indicated that both tsetse species play significant roles in trypanosome transmission and that it will be essential that any control strategy, which aims at sustainable management of the disease, should target both species.

  20. Multi-stage emerald formation during Pan-African regional metamorphism: The Zabara, Sikait, Umm Kabo deposits, South Eastern desert of Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grundmann, G.; Morteani, G.

    2008-02-01

    The genesis of gem-quality deep green emeralds of Zabara, Sikait and Umm Kabo (South Eastern Desert, Egypt) is to date a controversial topic. The emerald-bearing biotite schists and quartz lenses are interpreted alternatively as a product of (i) thrust-fault-shear zone - controlled large scale alkali-metasomatism driven by post-magmatic fluid flow or of (ii) a large scale interaction between syntectonic pegmatitic magma or hydrothermal fluids with pre-existing basic to ultrabasic rocks, or of (iii) a syn- to post-tectonic regional metamorphism and small scale blackwall metasomatism. Detailed microstructural and chemical analyses of the Egyptian emeralds and their host rocks show that three generations of beryl can be distinguished: a colourless pegmatitic beryl; a pale green Cr-poor beryl crystallized from pegmatite-related hydrothermal fluids; and a deep green Cr- and Mg-rich emerald. The crystallization of the Cr- and Mg-rich emerald was controlled by the very local availability of Cr, Mg and Be-rich metamorphic fluids during the Pan-African tectono-thermal event. Emerald-rich quartz lenses demonstrate that those fluids locally did mobilize quartz, too. The pale green emeralds found within the pegmatites in association with colourless beryl are the product of a mobilization of colourless pegmatitic beryl and/or phenakite by late pegmatitic fluids slightly enriched in Cr by an interaction with the Cr-rich country rocks. The late pegmatitic fluids are typically Na-rich as is demonstrated by the pervasive albitization of the pegmatites. The complex interplay of magmatic and regional metamorphic events during the genesis of the Egyptian emeralds/beryls makes it impossible through stable oxygen isotope data to relate their genesis to the one or the other event.

  1. The middle Holocene climatic records from Arabia: Reassessing lacustrine environments, shift of ITCZ in Arabian Sea, and impacts of the southwest Indian and African monsoons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enzel, Yehouda; Kushnir, Yochanan; Quade, Jay

    2015-06-01

    A dramatic increase in regional summer rainfall amount has been proposed for the Arabian Peninsula during the middle Holocene (ca. 9-5 ka BP) based on lacustrine sediments, inferred lake levels, speleothems, and pollen. This rainfall increase is considered primarily the result of an intensified Indian summer monsoon as part of the insolation-driven, northward shift of the boreal summer position of the Inter-Tropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) to over the deserts of North Africa, Arabia, and northwest India. We examine the basis for the proposed drastic climate change in Arabia and the shifts in the summer monsoon rains, by reviewing paleohydrologic lacustrine records from Arabia. We evaluate and reinterpret individual lake-basin status regarding their lacustrine-like deposits, physiography, shorelines, fauna and flora, and conclude that these basins were not occupied by lakes, but by shallow marsh environments. Rainfall increase required to support such restricted wetlands is much smaller than needed to form and maintain highly evaporating lakes and we suggest that rainfall changes occurred primarily at the elevated edges of southwestern, southern, and southeastern Arabian Peninsula. These relatively small changes in rainfall amounts and local are also supported by pollen and speleothems from the region. The changes do not require a northward shift of the Northern Hemisphere summer ITCZ and intensification of the Indian monsoon rainfall. We propose that (a) latitudinal and slight inland expansion of the North African summer monsoon rains across the Red Sea, and (b) uplifted moist air of this monsoon to southwestern Arabia highlands, rather than rains associated with intensification of Indian summer monsoon, as proposed before, increased rains in that region; these African monsoon rains produced the modest paleo-wetlands in downstream hyperarid basins. Furthermore, we postulate that as in present-day, the ITCZ in the Indian Ocean remained at or near the equator all

  2. Early-Middle Paleozoic subduction-collision history of the south-eastern Central Asian Orogenic Belt: Evidence from igneous and metasedimentary rocks of central Jilin Province, NE China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pei, Fu-Ping; Zhang, Ying; Wang, Zhi-Wei; Cao, Hua-Hua; Xu, Wen-Liang; Wang, Zi-Jin; Wang, Feng; Yang, Chuan

    2016-09-01

    To constrain the Early-Middle Paleozoic tectonic evolution of the south-eastern segment of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB), we undertook zircon U-Pb dating and analyzed major and trace elements and zircon Hf isotope compositions of Late Cambrian to Middle Devonian igneous and metasedimentary rocks in central Jilin Province, NE China. LA-ICP-MS zircon U-Pb dating indicates that the Early-Middle Paleozoic magmatism in central Jilin Province can be divided into four episodes: Late Cambrian (ca. 493 Ma), Middle Ordovician (ca. 467 Ma), Late Ordovician-Early Silurian (ca. 443 Ma), and Late Silurian-Middle Devonian (425-396 Ma). The progression from subduction initiation to maturity is recorded by Late Cambrian low-K tholeiitic meta-diabase, Middle Ordovician medium-K calc-alkaline pyroxene andesite, and Late Ordovician to Early Silurian low-K tonalite, which all have subduction-related characteristics and formed in an evolving supra-subduction zone setting. Late Silurian to Middle Devonian calc-alkaline igneous rocks, with the lithological association of granodiorite, monzogranite, rhyolite, dacite, and trachydacite, show progressively increasing K2O contents from medium K to shoshonite series. Furthermore, the Early-Middle Devonian monzogranites are characterized by high K2O, Sr/Y, and [La/Yb]N values, indicating they were generated by the melting of thickened lower crust. These results suggest a transition from subduction to post-orogenic setting during the Late Silurian-Middle Devonian. Our interpretation is supported by the maximum age of molasse deposition in the Zhangjiatun member of the Xibiehe Formation. Overall, we suggest that Late Cambrian tholeiitic meta-diabase, Middle Ordovician pyroxene andesite, and Late Ordovician-Early Silurian tonalite formed above the northward-subducting and simultaneously seaward-retreating of Paleo-Asian Ocean plate. Subsequently, the northern arc collided with the North China Craton and post-orogenic extension occurred

  3. Delineation of Holocene-Pleistocene aquifer system in parts of Middle Ganga Plain, Bihar, Eastern India through DC resistivity survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganguli, Shuva Shankha; Singh, Shashikant

    2014-07-01

    The study area forms a part of the Middle Ganga Plain (MGP) and experiences intensive groundwater draft due to domestic, irrigation and industrial purposes. Geoelectrical surveys were carried out in a geomorphic unit of MGP called South Ganga Plain, along the north-south traverse covering a total 50 km stretch. Interpreted results of the total of 17 vertical electrical soundings, carried out, provided information on aquifer and aquitard geometry and sediment nature in different aquifer systems. Bedrock topography is also demarcated along the north-south transect. The estimated dip of massive bedrock is less than 0.5° and dips toward north. The survey results show that a two-tier aquifer system exists in Newer alluvium parts of the study area and it is replaced by a single aquifer system at Older alluvium that occurs under thick clay/sandy clay bed in the southern part. An exponential decay of the aquifer potential is observed from north to south. Paleo channel Sone River is traced and it forms a potential aquifer.

  4. Major controls on architecture, sequence stratigraphy and paleosols of middle Pleistocene continental sediments ("Qc Unit"), eastern central Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Celma, Claudio; Pieruccini, Pierluigi; Farabollini, Piero

    2015-05-01

    Middle Pleistocene continental sediments in central Italy ("Qc Unit") record the oldest fluvial accumulation along the uplifting margin of the Peri-Adriatic basin. The architecture of the sediment body can be divided into two unconformity-bounded, fining-upward cycles interpreted as genetically related depositional sequences. These sequences highlight the systematic adjustment of the fluvial system to changes in the ratio between accommodation space and sediment supply (A/S ratio) and, from base to top, comprise the following surfaces and stratal components: (i) a regionally correlative sequence boundary resulting from an A/S ratio ≤ 0; (ii) a low-accommodation systems tract characterized by conglomerate-rich, amalgamated channel fills and recording an A/S ratio < 1; (iii) an expansion surface marking the turnaround point from low-accommodation systems tract to high-accommodation systems tract deposits; (iv) a high-accommodation systems tract dominated by floodplain fines encasing lens-like, fluvial channel deposits and denoting an A/S ratio > 1; and (v) a mature red argillic paleosol. To constrain the climatic signal for paleosols formation, the two sequence-capping mature paleosols have been investigated. The results of these studies suggest that they were developed under humid and warm climatic conditions associated with interglacial phases, which have been correlatively attributed to Marine Oxygen Isotope Stages 11 and 9.

  5. Prevalence and characteristics of complementary medicine used by pediatric cancer patients in a mixed western and middle-eastern population.

    PubMed

    Weyl Ben Arush, Myriam; Geva, Hana; Ofir, Ruth; Mashiach, Tania; Uziel, Rachel; Dashkovsky, Zana

    2006-03-01

    Complementary alternative medicine (CAM) usage and physicians' attitude was evaluated by interviewing all 100 pediatric cancer patients' parents and adolescents seen in the last half of 2003 at Meyer Children's Hospital in Israel. Sixty-one percent of the patients used CAM, an average of 3 different treatments per patient. CAM use was higher: among parents having previous CAM experience (85% vs. 51%, P=0.001) and higher education (79% vs. 50%, P=0.024), and in nonreligious families (71% vs. 50%). Jews and Arabs had similar CAM use rates as with different types of therapies. Socioeconomic status does not affect the rate of CAM use (P=0.9) but does affect the type of treatments used: patients of the higher socioeconomic level mainly used chemi-biological remedies and homeopathy (24% and 28% of interviewees; P=0.002). Middle or lower socioeconomic patients mostly used traditional Arab treatments (32% and 54%, respectively; P=0.012). Only 36% discussed it with their physicians, and most discussions were initiated by parents (79%). Beneficial effect was reported by 69% of CAM users. Most interviewees were interested in getting CAM information and availability in the hospital. Most pediatric cancer patients, regardless of their ethnic origin, use CAM without informing their physicians. Physicians should be aware and know more about it, to be advisors for better integrated care.

  6. Mushrooms and Truffles: Historical Biofactories for Complementary Medicine in Africa and in the Middle East

    PubMed Central

    El Enshasy, Hesham; Elsayed, Elsayed A.; Aziz, Ramlan; Wadaan, Mohamad A.

    2013-01-01

    The ethnopharmaceutical approach is important for the discovery and development of natural product research and requires a deep understanding not only of biometabolites discovery and profiling but also of cultural and social science. For millennia, epigeous macrofungi (mushrooms) and hypogeous macrofungi (truffles) were considered as precious food in many cultures based on their high nutritional value and characterized pleasant aroma. In African and Middle Eastern cultures, macrofungi have long history as high nutritional food and were widely applied in folk medicine. The purpose of this review is to summarize the available information related to the nutritional and medicinal value of African and Middle Eastern macrofungi and to highlight their application in complementary folk medicine in this part of the world. PMID:24348710

  7. Mushrooms and truffles: historical biofactories for complementary medicine in Africa and in the middle East.

    PubMed

    El Enshasy, Hesham; Elsayed, Elsayed A; Aziz, Ramlan; Wadaan, Mohamad A

    2013-01-01

    The ethnopharmaceutical approach is important for the discovery and development of natural product research and requires a deep understanding not only of biometabolites discovery and profiling but also of cultural and social science. For millennia, epigeous macrofungi (mushrooms) and hypogeous macrofungi (truffles) were considered as precious food in many cultures based on their high nutritional value and characterized pleasant aroma. In African and Middle Eastern cultures, macrofungi have long history as high nutritional food and were widely applied in folk medicine. The purpose of this review is to summarize the available information related to the nutritional and medicinal value of African and Middle Eastern macrofungi and to highlight their application in complementary folk medicine in this part of the world. PMID:24348710

  8. From the Bay of Naples to the River Don: the Campanian Ignimbrite eruption and the Middle to Upper Paleolithic transition in Eastern Europe.

    PubMed

    Hoffecker, John F; Holliday, Vance T; Anikovich, M V; Sinitsyn, A A; Popov, V V; Lisitsyn, S N; Levkovskaya, G M; Pospelova, G A; Forman, Steven L; Giaccio, Biagio

    2008-11-01

    The Campanian Ignimbrite (CI) eruption, dated by 40Ar/39Ar and various stratigraphic methods to ca. 39,000 cal BP, generated a massive ash plume from its source in southern Italy across Southeastern and Eastern Europe. At the Kostenki-Borshchevo open-air sites on the Middle Don River in Russia, Upper Paleolithic artifact assemblages are buried below, within, and above the CI tephra (which is redeposited by slope action at most sites) on the second terrace. Luminescence and radiocarbon dating, paleomagnetism, and soil and pollen stratigraphy provide further basis for correlation with the Greenland and North Atlantic climate stratigraphy. The oldest Upper Paleolithic occupation layers at Kostenki-Borshchevo may be broadly correlated with warm intervals that preceded the CI event and Heinrich Event 4 (HE4; Greenland Interstadial: GI 12-GI 9) dating to ca. 45,000-41,000 cal BP. These layers contain an industry not currently recognized in other parts of Europe. Early Upper Paleolithic layers above the CI tephra are correlated with HE4 and warm intervals that occurred during 38,000-30,000 cal BP (GI 8-GI 5), and include an assemblage that is assigned to the Aurigancian industry, associated with skeletal remains of modern humans. PMID:18937961

  9. A systematic search for linkage with nonsyndromic recessive deafness in two large Middle Eastern inbred kindreds excludes more than 30% of the genome

    SciTech Connect

    Weiss, S.; Korostishevsky, M.; Frydman, M.

    1994-09-01

    It has been estimated that as many as 35 loci may individually cause autosomal recessive non-syndromic deafness. The extreme genetic heterogeneity, limited clinical differentiation and phenotypic assortative mating in many western countries make many families unsuitable for genetic linkage studies. Recently the first of those loci was mapped (to 13q) in two consanguineous families from northern Tunisia. We are studying two large highly consanguineous Middle Eastern kindreds (a total of 26 deaf in 98 sampled individuals). Examination in each family showed no evidence of clinical heterogeneity and indicated an uncomplicated profound bilateral sensorineural deafness. We have been able to exclude the 13q locus as the cause of deafness in each kindred and have also excluded such `candidate` loci as regions as those causing Usher`s syndrome type 1 (11q13)(11p), Usher`s syndrome type II (1q32-q41), Waardenburg syndrome type I (2q37), branchio-oto-renal syndrome (8q12-q13), Monge`s deafness (5q31), and Treacher Collins syndrome (5q31.3-q33.3). To date, no lod scores greater than 1 have been obtained in either kindred using 150 RFLT`s, VNTR`s and highly polymorphic microsatellite markers (CA repeats and tetranucleotides). By Morton`s criterion a minimum of 30% of the autosomal genome can be excluded for each kindred separately.

  10. Differential growth inhibitory effects of highly oxygenated guaianolides isolated from the Middle Eastern indigenous plant Achillea falcata in HCT-116 colorectal cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Tohme, Rita; Al Aaraj, Lamis; Ghaddar, Tarek; Gali-Muhtasib, Hala; Saliba, Najat A; Darwiche, Nadine

    2013-01-01

    Medicinal plants play a crucial role in traditional medicine and in the maintenance of human health worldwide. Sesquiterpene lactones represent an interesting group of plant-derived compounds that are currently being tested as lead drugs in cancer clinical trials. Achillea falcata is a medicinal plant indigenous to the Middle Eastern region and belongs to the Asteraceae family, which is known to be rich in sesquiterpene lactones. We subjected Achillea falcata extracts to bioassay-guided fractionation against the growth of HCT-116 colorectal cancer cells and identified four secotanapartholides, namely 3-β-methoxy-isosecotanapartholide (1), isosecotanapartholide (2), tanaphallin (3), and 8-hydroxy-3-methoxyisosecotanapartholide (4). Three highly oxygenated guaianolides were isolated for the first time from Achillea falcata, namely rupin A (5), chrysartemin B (6), and 1β, 2β-epoxy-3β,4α,10α-trihydroxyguaian-6α,12-olide (7). These sesquiterpene lactones showed no or minor cytotoxicity while exhibiting promising anticancer effects against HCT-116 cells. Further structure-activity relationship studies related the bioactivity of the tested compounds to their skeleton, their lipophilicity, and to the type of functional groups neighboring the main alkylating center of the molecule. PMID:23860275

  11. From the Bay of Naples to the River Don: the Campanian Ignimbrite eruption and the Middle to Upper Paleolithic transition in Eastern Europe.

    PubMed

    Hoffecker, John F; Holliday, Vance T; Anikovich, M V; Sinitsyn, A A; Popov, V V; Lisitsyn, S N; Levkovskaya, G M; Pospelova, G A; Forman, Steven L; Giaccio, Biagio

    2008-11-01

    The Campanian Ignimbrite (CI) eruption, dated by 40Ar/39Ar and various stratigraphic methods to ca. 39,000 cal BP, generated a massive ash plume from its source in southern Italy across Southeastern and Eastern Europe. At the Kostenki-Borshchevo open-air sites on the Middle Don River in Russia, Upper Paleolithic artifact assemblages are buried below, within, and above the CI tephra (which is redeposited by slope action at most sites) on the second terrace. Luminescence and radiocarbon dating, paleomagnetism, and soil and pollen stratigraphy provide further basis for correlation with the Greenland and North Atlantic climate stratigraphy. The oldest Upper Paleolithic occupation layers at Kostenki-Borshchevo may be broadly correlated with warm intervals that preceded the CI event and Heinrich Event 4 (HE4; Greenland Interstadial: GI 12-GI 9) dating to ca. 45,000-41,000 cal BP. These layers contain an industry not currently recognized in other parts of Europe. Early Upper Paleolithic layers above the CI tephra are correlated with HE4 and warm intervals that occurred during 38,000-30,000 cal BP (GI 8-GI 5), and include an assemblage that is assigned to the Aurigancian industry, associated with skeletal remains of modern humans.

  12. Middle-Late Pleistocene marine terraces and fault activity in the Sant'Agata di Militello coastal area (north-eastern Sicily)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giunta, Giuseppe; Gueli, Anna M.; Monaco, Carmelo; Orioli, Silvia; Ristuccia, Gloria M.; Stella, Giuseppe; Troja, Sebastiano O.

    2012-04-01

    The coastal sector of Sant'Agata di Militello (north-eastern Sicily) is characterized by a flight of raised Middle-Upper Pleistocene marine terraces occurring at different heights with respect to present sea level. In particular, the geomorphological survey and the analysis of stereo-pairs of aerial photographs allowed to recognize at least five main orders of well preserved Quaternary surfaces and relative deposits mostly located at the hanging wall and at the footwall of the Pleistocene northwest-dipping Capo d'Orlando normal fault, which controlled the geomorphological evolution of the coastal area. The marine terraces show an overall good morphological continuity and are formed by marine platforms overlain by littoral deposits made up of yellow littoral sand and gravels in a sandy matrix. The continental sedimentary cover of the 3rd order terrace contains mammal-bearing deposits that were previously dated 200 ± 40 ka BP by isoleucine epimerization method, allowing to relate them to MIS 7.1 high-stand. In order to better define the whole terrace chronology, deposit samples were analyzed by Optically Stimulated Luminescence (OSL) methodology, a conventional SAR protocol used with sand-sized quartz. New datings, together with the detailed morphostructural analysis, allow to relate the 2nd and 4th order terraces to MIS 5.5 and 8.5, respectively, and to reconstruct the tectonic evolution of this coastal area, constraining the activity of the Capo d'Orlando fault.

  13. Trace elements and REE geochemistry of Middle Devonian carbonate mounds (Maïder Basin, Eastern Anti-Atlas, Morocco): Implications for early diagenetic processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franchi, Fulvio; Turetta, Clara; Cavalazzi, Barbara; Corami, Fabiana; Barbieri, Roberto

    2016-08-01

    Trace and rare earth elements (REEs) have proven their utility as tools for assessing the genesis and early diagenesis of widespread geological bodies such as carbonate mounds, whose genetic processes are not yet fully understood. Carbonates from the Middle Devonian conical mud mounds of the Maïder Basin (eastern Anti-Atlas, Morocco) have been analysed for their REE and trace element distribution. Collectively, the carbonates from the Maïder Basin mud mounds appear to display coherent REE patterns. Three different geochemical patterns, possibly related with three different diagenetic events, include: i) dyke fills with a normal marine REE pattern probably precipitated in equilibrium with seawater, ii) mound micrite with a particular enrichment of overall REE contents and variable Ce anomaly probably related to variation of pH, increase of alkalinity or dissolution/remineralization of organic matter during early diagenesis, and iii) haematite-rich vein fills precipitated from venting fluids of probable hydrothermal origin. Our results reinforce the hypothesis that these mounds were probably affected by an early diagenesis induced by microbial activity and triggered by abundance of dispersed organic matter, whilst venting may have affected the mounds during a later diagenetic phase.

  14. Liver Fluke Infection and Fish Consumption in Khon Kaen, Thailand: A Case Study on Negotiating the Middle Ground between Western Science and Eastern Culture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samiphak, Sara

    This research investigates why typical strategies for promoting health, prolonging life, and preventing disease do not work in many communities. I use the liver fluke infection endemic in Khon Kaen, Thailand to explore the middle ground between Western science and Eastern culture. Prior work on the O.viverrini infection in Khon Kaen, Thailand has focused almost exclusively on developing effective medical treatment for the liver fluke infection. This dissertation employs a case study designed to explore the conditions that created and perpetuate the problem in the first place. In concrete terms, I analyze how the worldviews of local villagers shape their attitudes toward life (and death), which in turn determine if they engage in the high-risk behavior -- eating undercooked fish -- that makes them vulnerable to the infection. My research focuses on these people in-situ over a three-month period, and includes data from participant-observation, interviews, and video-recordings. This work seeks to illuminate how people's thinking and reasoning skills, and personal/cultural identities affect their abilities to learn and act on new health concepts. This potentially provides a window into future educational strategies in a complex world.

  15. [Potential Source Contribution Analysis of the Particulate Matters in Shanghai During the Heavy Haze Episode in Eastern and Middle China in December, 2013].

    PubMed

    Li, Li; Cai, Jun-lin; Zhou, Min

    2015-07-01

    A heavy haze pollution episode occurred in early December, 2013 in middle and eastern China, which lasted for a long period, and covered a large area. During this episode, the hourly maximum concentrations of PM10 and PM2.5 in Shanghai exceeded 700 µg.m-3 and 600 µg.m-3, respectively. To obtain the major air mass transportation path, trajectories reaching urban Shanghai area were analyzed using HYSPLIT model and cluster analysis. Potential Source Contribution Function (PSCF) and Concentration-Weighted Trajectory (CWT) methods were applied to study the potential source regions and the individual contributions to PM10 in Shanghai in December, 2013. The results showed that the northwest and the north paths were the major air mass transport paths in December, among which 79. 6% of the total trajectories came from mainland, while 20. 4% reached Shanghai through the ocean. These were the main transportation paths causing high PM10 mass concentration in December in Shanghai. The potential regions affecting the heavy haze episode in early December in Shanghai were distributed in the Yangtze River Delta including Jiangsu, Zhejiang and Anhui. Besides, air mass from Shandong, Hebei and Henan also had certain impact. The results showed that regional and even super-regional pollution joint control was of significant importance to reduce the frequent heavy air pollution episodes.

  16. Arsenic-bearing pyrite and marcasite in the Fire Clay coal bed, Middle Pennsylvanian Breathitt Formation, eastern Kentucky

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ruppert, L.F.; Hower, J.C.; Eble, C.F.

    2005-01-01

    Arsenic concentrations determined on 11 lithotype samples from the Middle Pennsylvanian Breathitt Group Fire Clay coal bed, Leslie County, KY, range from 1 to 418 ppm (whole coal basis). The 11 lithotype samples, which vary in thickness from 4 to 18 cm, were sampled from a continuous 1.38 m channel sample, and were selected based on megascopic appearance (vitrain-rich versus attrital-rich). A lithotype that contains 418 ppm As is located near the top of the coal bed and is composed of 10.5 cm of bright clarain bands containing fusain that, within short distances, grade laterally into Fe sulfide bands. To determine the mode of occurrence of As in this lithotype, the coal was examined with scanning electron microscopy and analyzed by energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence. Massive, framboidal, cell filling, cell-wall replacement, and radiating forms of Fe sulfide were observed in the high As lithotype; many of the radiating Fe sulfide forms, and one of the cell-wall replacements contained As. Examination of the grains with optical light microscopy shows that the majority of radiating morphologies are pyrite, the remainder are marcasite. Selected Fe sulfide grains were also analyzed by electron microprobe microscopy. Arsenic concentrations within individual grains range from 0.0 wt.% to approximately 3.5 wt.%. On the basis of morphology, these Fe sulfides are presumed to be of syngenetic origin and would probably be removed from the coal during physical coal cleaning, thus eliminating a potential source of As from the coal combustion process. However, because the grains are radiating and have high surface area, dissolution and release of As could occur if the pyrite is oxidized in refuse ponds.

  17. Mining geology of the Pond Creek seam, Pikeville Formation, Middle Pennsylvanian, in part of the Eastern Kentucky Coal Field, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Greb, S.F.; Popp, J.T.

    1999-01-01

    The Pond Creek seam is one of the leading producers of coal in the Eastern Kentucky Coal Field. The geologic factors that affect mining were investigated in several underground mines and categorized in terms of coal thickness, coal quality, and roof control. The limits of mining and thick coal are defined by splitting along the margin of the coal body. Within the coal body, local thickness variation occurs because of (1) leader coal benches filling narrow, elongated depressions, (2) rider coal benches coming near to or merging with the main bench, (3) overthrust coal benches being included along paleochannel margins, (4) cutouts occuring beneath paleochannels, and (5) very hard and unusual rock partings occuring along narrow, elongated trends. In the study area, the coal is mostly mined as a compliance product: sulfur contents are less than 1% and ash yields are less than 10%. Local increases in sulfur occur beneath sandstones, and are inferred to represent post-depositional migration of fluids through porous sands into the coal. Run-of-mine quality is also affected by several mine-roof conditions and trends of densely concentrated rock partings, which lead to increased in- and out-of-seam dilution and overall ash content of the mined coal. Roof control is largely a function of a heterolithic facies mosaic of coastal-estuarine origin, regional fracture trends, and unloading stress related to varying mine depth beneath the surface. Lateral variability of roof facies is the rule in most mines. The largest falls occur beneath modern valleys and parallel fractures, along paleochannel margins, within tidally affected 'stackrock,' and beneath rider coals. Shale spalling, kettlebottoms, and falls within other more isolated facies also occur. Many of the lithofacies, and falls related to bedding weaknesses within or between lithofacies, occur along northeast-southwest trends, which can be projected in advance of mining. Fracture-related falls occur independently of

  18. Addressing diarrhea prevalence in the West African Middle Belt: social and geographic dimensions in a case study for Benin

    PubMed Central

    Pande, Saket; Keyzer, Michiel A; Arouna, Aminou; Sonneveld, Ben GJS

    2008-01-01

    Background In West Africa, the Northern Sahelian zone and the coastal areas are densely populated but the Middle Belt in between is in general sparsely settled. Predictions of climate change foresee more frequent drought in the north and more frequent flooding in the coastal areas, while conditions in the Middle Belt will remain moderate. Consequently, the Middle Belt might become a major area for immigration but there may be constraining factors as well, particularly with respect to water availability. As a case study, the paper looks into the capacity of the Middle Belt zone of Benin, known as the Oueme River Basin (ORB), to reduce diarrhea prevalence. In Benin it links to the Millennium Development Goals on child mortality and environmental sustainability that are currently farthest from realization. However, diarrhea prevalence is only in part due to lack of availability of drinking water from a safe source. Social factors such as hygienic practices and poor sanitation are also at play. Furthermore, we consider these factors to possess the properties of a local public good that suffers from under provision and requires collective action, as individual actions to prevent illness are bound to fail as long as others free ride. Methods Combining data from the Demographic Health Survey with various spatial data sets for Benin, we apply mixed effect logit regression to arrive at a spatially explicit assessment of geographical and social determinants of diarrhea prevalence. Starting from an analysis of these factors separately at national level, we identify relevant proxies at household level, estimate a function with geo-referenced independent variables and apply it to evaluate the costs and impacts of improving access to good water in the basin. Results First, the study confirms the well established stylized fact on the causes of diarrhea that a household with access to clean water and with good hygienic practices will, irrespective of other conditions, not suffer

  19. "Give a Brotha a Break!": The Experiences and Dilemmas of Middle-Class African American Male Students in White Suburban Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Beverly M.

    2012-01-01

    Background/Context: Today, in the era of the first African American president, approximately one third of all African Americans live in suburban communities, and their children are attending suburban schools. Although most research on the education of African American students, particularly males, focuses on their plight in urban schooling, what…

  20. Inter-annual variability of winter convective precipitation in south-eastern Europe and its connection to middle tropospheric circulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lolis, C. J.

    2010-09-01

    The inter-annual variability of convective precipitation rate in the Italian and Balkan peninsulas and their surrounding areas and its connection to 500hPa geopotential height over Europe during winter is examined by using the multivariate statistical methods Factor Analysis and Canonical Correlation Analysis. The data used are monthly values of: 1) convective precipitation rate (CPR) at 126 grid points (1.875° x1.905° ) in the area of south-eastern Europe (5.625° E to 30° E and 33.333° N to 48.570° N) and 2) 500hPa geopotential height (GPH) at 375 grid points (2.5° x2.5°) in the area of central and southern Europe and north Africa (20° W to 40° E and 25° N to 60° N) for the winter months December, January and February and for the period 1950-2009 (60 years), obtained from the NCEP/NCAR Reanalysis data sets. The seasonal (winter) values are calculated from the monthly ones and two matrices are constructed: one 60x126 matrix for CPR and one 60x375 matrix for GPH. The rows and the columns refer to time (years) and space (grid points) respectively. At first, S-mode Factor Analysis is applied to each one of the above data matrices, as a data reduction tool, leading to 7 factors for CPR (80% of the total variance) and 6 factors for GPH (93% of the total variance). Then, Canonical Correlation Analysis is applied to the factor scores time series of both parameters, leading to two statistically significant (95% confidence level) canonical pairs and the patterns of the correlation coefficients between the canonical variates and the corresponding parameter time series are constructed. The 1st canonical pair (W1,V1) (canonical correlation r1= 0.90) is associated with the typical winter depression activity regime over the Mediterranean Sea. In 500hPa geopotential height field, the canonical variate W1 is highly correlated (high negative correlation coefficients) with GPH over Italy and the Tyrrhenian Sea, while in convective precipitation field, V1 is highly

  1. Monazite stability, composition and geochronology as tracers of Paleoproterozoic events at the eastern margin of the East European Craton (Taratash complex, Middle Urals)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sindern, Sven; Gerdes, Axel; Ronkin, Yuri L.; Dziggel, Annika; Hetzel, Ralf; Schulte, Bernd Aloys

    2012-02-01

    The Precambrian Taratash complex (Middle Urals) is one of the rare windows into the Palaeoproterozoic and earlier history of the eastern margin of the East European Craton. Monazite from intensively deformed rocks within a major amphibolite-facies shear zone in the Taratash complex has been investigated by means of electron-probe microanalysis and laser-ablation SF-ICP-MS. Metamorphic and magmatic cores of monazite from metasedimentary and metagranitoid rocks yield U-Pb ages of 2244 ± 19 and 2230 ± 22 Ma (± 2 σ) and record a previously unknown pre-deformational HT-metamorphic event in the Taratash complex. Subsequent dissolution-reprecipitation of monazite, during shear zone formation under amphibolite-facies conditions, caused patchy zonation and chemical alteration of the recrystallised monazite domains, leading to higher cheralite and huttonite components. This process, which was mediated by a probable (alkali + OH)-bearing metamorphic fluid also caused a total resetting of the U-Pb-system. The patchy domains yield concordant U-Pb-ages between 2052 ± 16 and 2066 ± 22 Ma, interpreted as the age of the shear zone. In line with previously published ages of high grade metamorphism and migmatisation, the data may point to a Palaeoproterozoic orogenic event at the eastern margin of the East European Craton. Post-deformational fluid-induced greenschist-facies retrogression caused partial to complete breakdown of monazite to fluorapatite, REE + Y-rich epidote, allanite and Th-orthosilicate.The retrograde assemblages either form coronas around monazite, or occur as dispersed reaction zones, indicating that the REE, Y, and Th were mobile at least on the thin section scale. The greenschist-facies metamorphic fluid was aqueous and rich in Ca. Monazite affected by advanced breakdown responded to the retrogression by incorporating the cheralite or huttonite components during a fluid-induced dissolution-reprecipitation process. This event did not reset the U

  2. Petrogenesis, geochronology, and tectonic significance of granitoids in the Tongshan intrusion, Anhui Province, Middle-Lower Yangtze River Valley, eastern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhi-Yu; Du, Yang-Song; Teng, Chuan-Yao; Zhang, Jing; Pang, Zhen-Shan

    2014-01-01

    The Tongshan copper deposit in Anhui Province is a typical mid-sized skarn and porphyry type deposit in the Anqing-Guichi district along the Middle-Lower Yangtze River Valley, eastern China. The Tongshan intrusion is closely related to this mineralization. The intrusion mainly comprises rocks that are quartz diorite porphyry, quartz monzonite porphyry, and granodiorite porphyry. Plagioclase in these rocks is mostly andesine (An = 31.0-42.9), along with minor oligoclase. Biotite is magnesium-rich [Mg/(Mg + Fe) = 0.52-0.67] and aluminum-poor (Al2O3 = 12.32-14.09 wt.%), and can be classified as magnesio-biotite. Hornblende is TiO2-poor (<1.96 wt.%) and magnesium-rich [Mg/(Mg + Fe) > 0.60], and is magnesio-hornblende or edenite. The SHRIMP zircon U-Pb age of the quartz monzonite porphyry is 145.1 ± 1.2 Ma, which corresponds to the middle Yanshanian period. Whole-rock geochemical results show that the rocks are silica-rich (SiO2 = 60.23-66.23 wt.%) and alkali-rich (K2O + Na2O = 4.97-8.72 wt.%), and low in calcium (CaO = 2.61-5.66 wt.%). Trace element results show enrichments in large ion lithophile element (e.g., K, Rb, and Ba) and depletions in some high field strength elements (e.g., Nb, Ta, P, and Ti). The total rare earth element (REE) content of the rocks is low (ΣREE < 200 μg/g), and they exhibit light REE enrichment [(La/Yb)N > 10] and small positive Eu anomalies (average δEu = 1.16). These mineralogical, geochronological, and geochemical results show that the intrusion has a mixed crust-mantle source. The Tongshan intrusion was formed by multiple emplacements of crustally contaminated basaltic magma generated by varying degrees of partial melting of enriched lithospheric mantle and lower crust. Hornblende thermobarometry yielded magmatic crystallization temperatures of 652-788 °C and an average crystallization pressure of 1.4 kbar, which corresponds to a depth of approx. 4.7 km. Biotite thermobarometry yielded similar temperatures and lower pressures of 735

  3. A New Chronology for Rhafas, Northeast Morocco, Spanning the North African Middle Stone Age through to the Neolithic

    PubMed Central

    Doerschner, Nina; Fitzsimmons, Kathryn E.; Ditchfield, Peter; McLaren, Sue J.; Steele, Teresa E.; Zielhofer, Christoph; McPherron, Shannon P.; Bouzouggar, Abdeljalil; Hublin, Jean-Jacques

    2016-01-01

    Archaeological sites in northern Africa provide a rich record of increasing importance for the origins of modern human behaviour and for understanding human dispersal out of Africa. However, the timing and nature of Palaeolithic human behaviour and dispersal across north-western Africa (the Maghreb), and their relationship to local environmental conditions, remain poorly understood. The cave of Rhafas (northeast Morocco) provides valuable chronological information about cultural changes in the Maghreb during the Palaeolithic due to its long stratified archaeological sequence comprising Middle Stone Age (MSA), Later Stone Age (LSA) and Neolithic occupation layers. In this study, we apply optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating on sand-sized quartz grains to the cave deposits of Rhafas, as well as to a recently excavated section on the terrace in front of the cave entrance. We hereby provide a revised chronostratigraphy for the archaeological sequence at the site. We combine these results with geological and sedimentological multi-proxy investigations to gain insights into site formation processes and the palaeoenvironmental record of the region. The older sedimentological units at Rhafas were deposited between 135 ka and 57 ka (MIS 6 –MIS 3) and are associated with the MSA technocomplex. Tanged pieces start to occur in the archaeological layers around 109 ka, which is consistent with previously published chronological data from the Maghreb. A well indurated duricrust indicates favourable climatic conditions for the pedogenic cementation by carbonates of sediment layers at the site after 57 ka. Overlying deposits attributed to the LSA technocomplex yield ages of ~21 ka and ~15 ka, corresponding to the last glacial period, and fall well within the previously established occupation phase in the Maghreb. The last occupation phase at Rhafas took place during the Neolithic and is dated to ~7.8 ka. PMID:27654350

  4. Chemistry of serpentine "polymorphs" in the Pan-African serpentinites from the Eastern Desert of Egypt, with an emphasis on the effect of superimposed thermal metamorphism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Surour, Adel A.

    2016-08-01

    The present work deals with some Pan-African serpentinites of Neoproterozoic age from five localities in the Eastern Desert of Egypt namely, Abu Fannani, Fawakhir, Barramiya, Ras Shait and Wadi Ghadir that derivedmostly from lherzolite to harzburgite protoliths. The M-value of antigorite is anindicator of the metamorphic grade which is lowest at Fawakhir (greenschist facies) and highest at Abu Fannani (lower amphibolite facies). Antigoritization during progressive regional metamorphism at Fawakhir is limited and its M-value is much higher than 8.52 indicating crystallization temperatures of 220-250 °C whereas it is ≥300 °C in the rest. Antigorite recrystallized at T ≈ 400-450 °C in the contact metamorphic aureoles due to the emplacement of post-orogenic leucogranites at Fawakhir and Gebel Ghadir. Towards the contact with the granites, M-value of antigorite is low (6.48) compared to 8.52 in the least recrystallized antigorite due to the thermal effect. Antigorite that forms in the thermal aureoles is characterized by two types of substitution; Tschermak substitution (Al3+ and Cr3+ for Si4+ in the tetrahedral sites and Mg2+ in the octahedral sites) and non-Tschermak substitutionin the octahedral sites (2R3+ = 3R2+). Generally, both ortho- and clinochrysotiles are common with MgO contents of 41-41.13 wt% and 39.38-40.93 wt%, respectively. In addition to chlorite, high- and low-Al lizardites are present with almost constant total iron (~0.24 cations) as Fe2+(vi) and variable Mg2+. This suggests that significant R3+ in the octahedral sites are mostly occupied by Al3+ and Cr3+ and not iron. In the lizardite structure, there is Tschermak substitution of Si4+ by some trivalent cations in the tetrahedral sites. Using the TEM images, antigorite is distinguishable from chrysotile and they suggest the presence of polyhedral or polygonal serpentine (spherical or circular with alternating sectors of lizardite). Crack-seal microstructures are displayed by chrysotile and

  5. Middle Eocene deformation and sedimentation in the Puna-Eastern Cordillera transition (23°-26°S): Control by preexisting heterogeneities on the pattern of initial Andean shortening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hongn, F.; Del Papa, C.; Powell, J.; Petrinovic, I.; Mon, R.; Deraco, V.

    2007-03-01

    The Quebrada de los Colorados Formation, at the north end of Calchaquí Valley in Salta Province, northwest Argentina, preserves evidence of syndepositional deformation since the middle Eocene (ca. 40 Ma) that includes (1) an angular unconformity with the underlying Salta Group (Paleogene), and (2) internal unconformities and changes in vertical facies succession and provenance. Its fossil record [mammalian (notoungulates), middle Eocene] is correlatable to the Casa Grande Formation, which also unconformably overlies the Salta Group; both units record middle Eocene deformation along the eastern border of the Puna Plateau and outline previous first-order mechanical heterogeneities related to the Cretaceous rift basin border. Along the western margin of the Puna, Eocene deformation coincides with thermal (magmatic arc) and mechanical (basin inversion) heterogeneities. Thus, the distribution of Eocene deformation followed an irregular pattern as a consequence of the heritage of preexisting heterogeneities.

  6. Assessment of prognostic value of semiquantitative parameters on gated single photon emission computed tomography myocardial perfusion scintigraphy in a large middle eastern population

    PubMed Central

    Chavoshi, Maryam; Fard-Esfahani, Armaghan; Fallahi, Babak; Emami-Ardekani, Alireza; Beiki, Davood; Hassanzadeh-Rad, Arman; Eftekhari, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Coronary artery disease is the leading cause of mortality worldwide. The goal of this study is to determine the prognostic value of semiquantitative parameters of electrocardiogram-gated single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) in a large Middle Eastern (Iranian) population. Materials and Methods: This study was a prospective study including all patients referred to our center for myocardial perfusion scan. The patients were followed annually up to 24 months and their survival information was collected. Results: From 1148 patients, 473 (41.2%) men and 675 (58.8%) women, 40.6% had normal MPI, 13.3% near normal and 46.1% abnormal MPI. After follow-up of 929 patients, 97.4% of patients were alive, and 2.6% succumbed to cardiac deaths. Abnormal ejection fraction was related with cardiac events (P = 0.001), but neither transient ischemic dilation (TID) (P = 0.09) nor lung/heart ratio (P = 0.92) showed such relationship. Association between summed difference score (SDS) and soft cardiac events (P < 0.001) was significant. Summed motion score (SMS) and summed thickening score (STS) showed a significant relation with hard cardiac events, including myocardial infarction and cardiac death (P < 0.001 and P = 0.001, respectively). Totally, risk of all cardiac events was significantly higher in abnormal MPI group than normal group (P < 0.001, 0.02, and 0.025, respectively). No significant relationship was found between TID and total cardiac events (P = 0.478). Conclusion: Semiquantitative variables derived from gated SPECT MPI have independent prognostic value. Rate of total cardiac events is higher in patients with higher summed stress score and SDS. Total and hard cardiac events are higher in upper scores of functional parameters (SMS and STS). Total cardiac events are higher in patients with lower left ventricular ejection fraction. PMID:26170566

  7. Verification of Precipitation Forecasts from Two Numerical Weather Prediction Models for the Middle- and North-Eastern Region of the USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siddique, R.; Brown, J.; Reed, S. M.; Mejia, A.

    2014-12-01

    Accurate precipitation and temperature forecasts are the pre-requisites to produce skillful flood forecasts. The structures of different precipitation forecasting systems are constantly evolving, for example, with improvements in the forecasting techniques, increases in spatial and temporal resolution, improvements in model physics and numerical techniques, and better understanding of uncertainty. Hence, routine verification is necessary to understand the quality of forecasts at particular times and locations, and as inputs to hydrologic modeling. Hydrologic forecasters in the National Weather Service are evaluating precipitation and temperature forecasts from a wide range of numerical prediction models to improve the streamflow forecasts. To assist in this effort, our goal here is to verify the operational precipitation forecasts from the National Centers for Environmental Prediction 21-member Short Range Ensemble Forecast (SREF) system, together with precipitation reforecasts from the 11-member Global Ensemble Forecast System (GEFS). The verification is done for the middle- and north-eastern region of the United States and for mean areal precipitation forecasts conditioned on precipitation amounts, lead times, seasonality, and accumulation periods. Multi-sensor precipitation estimates are used as observed data. The effect of different basin sizes on forecast quality is also studied by simply choosing areal extents of varying sizes. Although flood forecasting is the main context of this study, separate analyses are presented for moderate and large precipitation events with a view towards providing additional information to forecasters. The summary of verification statistics indicates similar forecasting performance for both SREF and GEFS reforecasts even though GEFS reforecasts are valid for much longer lead times and coarser grid resolution. Precipitation forecasts from both of these models show greater skill in large basins than in relatively smaller ones

  8. Chemical composition of PM10 and its in vitro toxicological impacts on lung cells during the Middle Eastern Dust (MED) storms in Ahvaz, Iran.

    PubMed

    Naimabadi, Abolfazl; Ghadiri, Ata; Idani, Esmaeil; Babaei, Ali Akbar; Alavi, Nadali; Shirmardi, Mohammad; Khodadadi, Ali; Marzouni, Mohammad Bagherian; Ankali, Kambiz Ahmadi; Rouhizadeh, Ahmad; Goudarzi, Gholamreza

    2016-04-01

    Reports on the effects of PM10 from dust storm on lung cells are limited. The main purpose of this study was to investigate the chemical composition and in vitro toxicological impacts of PM10 suspensions, its water-soluble fraction, and the solvent-extractable organics extracted from Middle Eastern Dust storms on the human lung epithelial cell (A549). Samples of dust storms and normal days (PM10 < 200 μg m(-3)) were collected from December 2012 until June 2013 in Ahvaz, the capital of Khuzestan Province in Iran. The chemical composition and cytotoxicity were analyzed by ICP- OES and Lactase Dehydrogenase (LDH) reduction assay, respectively. The results showed that PM10 suspensions, their water-soluble fraction and solvent-extractable organics from both dust storm and normal days caused a decrease in the cell viability and an increase in LDH in supernatant in a dose-response manner. Although samples of normal days showed higher cytotoxicity than those of dust storm at the highest treated dosage, T Test showed no significant difference in cytotoxicity between normal days and dust event days (P value > 0.05). These results led to the conclusions that dust storm PM10 as well as normal day PM10 could lead to cytotoxicity, and the organic compounds (PAHs) and the insoluble particle-core might be the main contributors to cytotoxicity. Our results showed that cytotoxicity and the risk of PM10 to human lung may be more severe during dust storm than normal days due to inhalation of a higher mass concentration of airborne particles. Further research on PM dangerous fractions and the most responsible components to make cytotoxicity in exposed cells is recommended.

  9. Chemical composition of PM10 and its in vitro toxicological impacts on lung cells during the Middle Eastern Dust (MED) storms in Ahvaz, Iran.

    PubMed

    Naimabadi, Abolfazl; Ghadiri, Ata; Idani, Esmaeil; Babaei, Ali Akbar; Alavi, Nadali; Shirmardi, Mohammad; Khodadadi, Ali; Marzouni, Mohammad Bagherian; Ankali, Kambiz Ahmadi; Rouhizadeh, Ahmad; Goudarzi, Gholamreza

    2016-04-01

    Reports on the effects of PM10 from dust storm on lung cells are limited. The main purpose of this study was to investigate the chemical composition and in vitro toxicological impacts of PM10 suspensions, its water-soluble fraction, and the solvent-extractable organics extracted from Middle Eastern Dust storms on the human lung epithelial cell (A549). Samples of dust storms and normal days (PM10 < 200 μg m(-3)) were collected from December 2012 until June 2013 in Ahvaz, the capital of Khuzestan Province in Iran. The chemical composition and cytotoxicity were analyzed by ICP- OES and Lactase Dehydrogenase (LDH) reduction assay, respectively. The results showed that PM10 suspensions, their water-soluble fraction and solvent-extractable organics from both dust storm and normal days caused a decrease in the cell viability and an increase in LDH in supernatant in a dose-response manner. Although samples of normal days showed higher cytotoxicity than those of dust storm at the highest treated dosage, T Test showed no significant difference in cytotoxicity between normal days and dust event days (P value > 0.05). These results led to the conclusions that dust storm PM10 as well as normal day PM10 could lead to cytotoxicity, and the organic compounds (PAHs) and the insoluble particle-core might be the main contributors to cytotoxicity. Our results showed that cytotoxicity and the risk of PM10 to human lung may be more severe during dust storm than normal days due to inhalation of a higher mass concentration of airborne particles. Further research on PM dangerous fractions and the most responsible components to make cytotoxicity in exposed cells is recommended. PMID:26774778

  10. Reconnaissance studies of potential petroleum source rocks in the Middle Jurassic Tuxedni Group near Red Glacier, eastern slope of Iliamna Volcano

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stanley, Richard G.; Herriott, Trystan M.; LePain, David L.; Helmold, Kenneth P.; Peterson, C. Shaun

    2013-01-01

    Previous geological and organic geochemical studies have concluded that organic-rich marine shale in the Middle Jurassic Tuxedni Group is the principal source rock of oil and associated gas in Cook Inlet (Magoon and Anders, 1992; Magoon, 1994; Lillis and Stanley, 2011; LePain and others, 2012; LePain and others, submitted). During May 2009 helicopter-assisted field studies, 19 samples of dark-colored, fine-grained rocks were collected from exposures of the Red Glacier Formation of the Tuxedni Group near Red Glacier, about 70 km west of Ninilchik on the eastern flank of Iliamna Volcano (figs. 1 and 3). The rock samples were submitted to a commercial laboratory for analysis by Rock-Eval pyrolysis and to the U.S. Geological Survey organic geochemical laboratory in Denver, Colorado, for analysis of vitrinite reflectance. The results show that values of vitrinite reflectance (percent Ro) in our samples average about 2 percent, much higher than the oil window range of 0.6–1.3 percent (Johnsson and others, 1993). The high vitrinite reflectance values indicate that the rock samples experienced significant heating and furthermore suggest that these rocks may have generated oil and gas in the past but no longer have any hydrocarbon source potential. The high thermal maturity of the rock samples may have resulted from (1) the thermaleffects of igneous activity (including intrusion by igneous rocks), (2) deep burial beneath Jurassic, Cretaceous, and Tertiary strata that were subsequently removed by uplift and erosion, or (3) the combined effects of igneous activity and burial.

  11. The pace of East African monsoon evolution during the Holocene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weldeab, Syee; Menke, Valerie; Schmiedl, Gerhard

    2014-03-01

    African monsoon precipitation experienced a dramatic change in the course of the Holocene. The pace with which the African monsoon shifted from a strong early to middle to a weak late Holocene is critical for our understanding of climate dynamics, hydroclimate-vegetation interaction, and shifts of prehistoric human settlements, yet it is controversially debated. On the basis of planktonic foraminiferal Ba/Ca time series from the eastern Mediterranean Sea, here we present a proxy record of Nile River runoff that provides a spatially integrated measure of changes in East African monsoon (EAM) precipitation. The runoff record indicates a markedly gradual middle to late Holocene EAM transition that lasted over 3500 years. The timing and pace of runoff change parallels those of insolation and vegetation changes over the Nile basin, indicating orbitally forced variation of insolation as the main EAM forcing and the absence of a nonlinear precipitation-vegetation feedback. A tight correspondence between a threshold level of Nile River runoff and the timing of occupation/abandonment of settlements suggests that along with climate changes in the eastern Sahara, the level of Nile River and intensity of summer floods were likely critical for the habitability of the Nile Valley (Egypt).

  12. Middle Miocene dispersals of apes.

    PubMed

    Andrews, Peter; Kelley, Jay

    2007-01-01

    The earliest record of fossil apes outside Africa is in the latest early Miocene of Turkey and eastern Europe. There were at least 2, and perhaps 4, species of ape, which were found associated with subtropical mixed environments of forest and more open woodland. Postcranial morphology is similar to that of early Miocene primates and indicates mainly generalized arboreal quadrupedal behaviours similar to those of less specialized New World monkeys such as Cebus. Robust jaws and thick enamelled teeth indicate a hard fruit diet. The 2 best known species of fossil ape are known from the site of Paşalar in Turkey. They have almost identical molar and jaw morphology. Molar morphology is also similar to that of specimens from Germany and Slovakia, but there are significant differences in the anterior teeth of the 2 Paşalar species. The more common species, Griphopithecus alpani, shares mainly primitive characters with early and middle Miocene apes in Africa, and it is most similar phenetically to Equatorius africanus from Maboko Island and Kipsaramon. The second species is assigned to a new species of Kenyapithecus, an African genus from Fort Ternan in Kenya, on the basis of a number of shared derived characters of the anterior dentition, and it is considered likely that there is a phylogenetic link between them. The African sites all date from the middle Miocene, similar in age to the Turkish and European ones, and the earliest emigration of apes from Africa coincides with the closure of the Tethys Sea preceding the Langhian transgression. Environments indicated for the African sites are mixtures of seasonal woodlands with some forest vegetation. The postcrania of both African taxa again indicate generalized arboreal adaptation but lacking specialized arboreal function. This middle Miocene radiation of both African and non-African apes was preceded by a radiation of arboreal catarrhine primates in the early Miocene, among which were the earliest apes. The earliest

  13. Middle Miocene Climate Change and Carbon Cycle: Milankovitch Forcing and Deep Ocean circulation in the Western Pacific and Eastern Indian Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holbourn, A.; Kuhnt, W.; Schulz, M.

    2003-12-01

    The relation of enhanced carbon burial, carbon isotope excursions and global cooling remains an unsolved problem in the Mesozoic and early Neogene climate history of the Earth. The enigmatic long-term positive carbon isotope excursion between 16.4 and 13.6 Ma ("Monterey excursion") coincided initially with a period of extreme warmth and high sea level (mid-Miocene climate optimum) and a subsequent increase in deep-water oxygen isotopic values, related to the cooling of deep water masses and growth of the East Antarctic ice sheet. High resolution reconstruction of the succession of events reveals a complex relationship between orbital forcing, carbon burial and climate cooling, mediated by a major re-organization of ocean circulation patterns. We used high resolution benthic deep water oxygen and carbon isotopes in combination with new age models at critical locations in a West Pacific marginal basin (South China Sea, ODP Site 1146), in the eastern Indian Ocean (NW Australian margin, ODP Site 761) and in the tropical Pacific (Ontong Java Plateau, ODP Site 806) to investigate the frequency and amplitude of deep water isotope fluctuations during the middle Miocene. Benthic stable isotope records document complete recovery of the six main δ 13C maxima of the,Monterey Excursion" between 16.4 and 13.6 Ma and the characteristic stepped increase in δ 18O between 14.5 and 13.1 Ma. At Site 761, the δ 18O curve shows an excellent match with the global sea level curve between 11.5 and 15.1 Ma, and thus closely reflects changes in global ice volume. Prior to 15.1 Ma, the δ 18O curve is mainly driven by bottom water temperature. At Site 1146, a major increase in δ 18O and δ 13C values (1\\permil) at 14.0 Ma, indicates a radical change in the deep water circulation of this marginal West Pacific basin. Spectral analysis of benthic isotopes time series, combined with magnetic susceptibility and color reflectance records, indicate Milankovitch forcing on virtually all proxies

  14. Secular trends in serum lipid levels of a Middle Eastern adult population; 10 years follow up in Tehran lipid and glucose study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background To examine trends in the population levels of serum lipids among a Middle-Eastern adult population with high prevalence of dyslipidemia. Methods A population-based cohort of adult Iranian participants, aged ≥20 years underwent four consecutive examinations between 1999–2001 and 2008–2011. Trends in age and multivariate-adjusted mean lipid levels were calculated using generalized estimating equations. Results At each of the 4 assessments, there were significant decreases in levels of total cholesterol (TC) (multivariate-adjusted means, 5.21 vs. 4.88 mmol/L in men; 5.42 vs. 5.07 mmol/L in women), triglycerides (TGs) (2.11 vs. 1.94 mmol/L in men; 1.88 vs. 1.74 mmol/L in women), and an increase in HDL-C level in both genders (0.95 vs. 1.058 mmol/L in men; 1.103 vs. 1.246 mmol/L in women) in multivariate analyses (all Ps <0.001); however, body mass index (BMI) significantly increased simultaneously (25.92 vs. 27.45 kg/m2 in men; 27.76 vs. 30.02 kg/m2 in women) (P < 0.001). There were significant (P < 0.001) increases in fasting plasma glucose (FPG) levels only among men (5.35 vs. 5.73 mmol/L). Results did not change after excluding participants that had cardiovascular disease or used lipid lowering drugs during follow-up. There were significant decreases in the prevalence of hypercholesterolemia, low HDL-C, hypertriglyceridemia (all Ps <0.001) during follow-up. Furthermore, the consumption of lipid lowering drugs significantly increased (P <0.001). Conclusion During a 10 years follow-up, favorable trends were observed in the population levels of TC, triglycerides, HDL-C, which could not be fully accounted for by the increase observed in the consumption of lipid lowering drugs. These favorable trends were counterbalanced by the progressive increase in general obesity and FPG level. PMID:24456699

  15. The Perceptions of African American Middle School Students about Participation in Gifted Programs: A Qualitative Study to Promote Social Justice in Gifted Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nisly, Jenelle Susan

    2010-01-01

    African American students have been historically underrepresented in gifted programs throughout the United States. Research about retaining identified African American students in gifted programs is limited. This qualitative phenomenological study examined the perceptions of a purposeful sample of seven identified talented and potentially talented…

  16. Population genomic analysis uncovers African and European admixture in Drosophila melanogaster populations from the south-eastern United States and Caribbean Islands.

    PubMed

    Kao, Joyce Y; Zubair, Asif; Salomon, Matthew P; Nuzhdin, Sergey V; Campo, Daniel

    2015-04-01

    Drosophila melanogaster is postulated to have colonized North America in the past several 100 years in two waves. Flies from Europe colonized the east coast United States while flies from Africa inhabited the Caribbean, which if true, make the south-east US and Caribbean Islands a secondary contact zone for African and European D. melanogaster. This scenario has been proposed based on phenotypes and limited genetic data. In our study, we have sequenced individual whole genomes of flies from populations in the south-east US and Caribbean Islands and examined these populations in conjunction with population sequences from the west coast US, Africa, and Europe. We find that west coast US populations are closely related to the European population, likely reflecting a rapid westward expansion upon first settlements into North America. We also find genomic evidence of African and European admixture in south-east US and Caribbean populations, with a clinal pattern of decreasing proportions of African ancestry with higher latitude. Our genomic analysis of D. melanogaster populations from the south-east US and Caribbean Islands provides more evidence for the Caribbean Islands as the source of previously reported novel African alleles found in other east coast US populations. We also find the border between the south-east US and the Caribbean island to be the admixture hot zone where distinctly African-like Caribbean flies become genomically more similar to European-like south-east US flies. Our findings have important implications for previous studies examining the generation of east coast US clines via selection.

  17. Phylogenetic analysis of hepatitis D viruses indicating a new genotype I subgroup among African isolates.

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Y Y; Tsega, E; Hansson, B G

    1996-01-01

    Genetic analysis was performed on 13 hepatitis D virus (HDV) isolates from Ethiopia, Somalia, Jordan, Kuwait, Bulgaria, Moldavia, and Sweden. The complete nucleotide sequence and genomic organization are described for the first time for two African HDV isolates. Phylogenetic analysis showed all the African isolates to be intrarelated and to form a novel group within HDV genotype I; the suggested designation for this group is IC. The genetic distance to previously described type I isolates was about 0.15. The HDV genotype I isolates (total of 22 examined) phylogenetically formed three clusters, each of them corresponding to certain geographic regions; the "western" group consisted of six HDV isolates from western Europe and the United States plus one from Kuwait; the "eastern" group consisted of two isolates from Moldavia and one each from Bulgaria, Nauru, mainland China, and Taiwan; and the "African-Middle East" group consisted of six HDV isolates from Ethiopia and one from Somalia, Jordan, and Lebanon. PMID:8940442

  18. Diversity among African Pygmies

    PubMed Central

    Ramírez Rozzi, Fernando V.; Sardi, Marina L.

    2010-01-01

    Although dissimilarities in cranial and post-cranial morphology among African pygmies groups have been recognized, comparative studies on skull morphology usually pull all pygmies together assuming that morphological characters are similar among them and different with respect to other populations. The main aim of this study is to compare cranial morphology between African pygmies and non-pygmies populations from Equatorial Africa derived from both the Eastern and the Western regions in order to test if the greatest morphological difference is obtained in the comparison between pygmies and non-pygmies. Thirty three-dimensional (3D) landmarks registered with Microscribe in four cranial samples (Western and Eastern pygmies and non-pygmies) were obtained. Multivariate analysis (generalized Procrustes analysis, Mahalanobis distances, multivariate regression) and complementary dimensions of size were evaluated with ANOVA and post hoc LSD. Results suggest that important cranial shape differentiation does occur between pygmies and non-pygmies but also between Eastern and Western populations and that size changes and allometries do not affect similarly Eastern and Western pygmies. Therefore, our findings raise serious doubt about the fact to consider African pygmies as a homogenous group in studies on skull morphology. Differences in cranial morphology among pygmies would suggest differentiation after divergence. Although not directly related to skull differentiation, the diversity among pygmies would probably suggest that the process responsible for reduced stature occurred after the split of the ancestors of modern Eastern and Western pygmies. PMID:21049030

  19. Escaping Poverty and Securing Middle Class Status: How Race and Socioeconomic Status Shape Mobility Prospects for African Americans During the Transition to Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Hardaway, Cecily R.; Mcloyd, Vonnie C.

    2014-01-01

    This article draws on extant research from the disciplines of psychology, sociology, and economics to identify linkages between individual, family, community, and structural factors related to social mobility for African Americans during the transition to adulthood. It considers how race and class together affect opportunities for social mobility through where African Americans live, whom they associate with, and how they are impacted by racial and class-related stigma. Of particular interest is social mobility as accomplished through academic achievement, educational attainment, employment, economic independence, and homeownership. Research on five issues is reviewed and discussed: (a) the unique vulnerabilities of newly upwardly mobile African Americans, (b) wealth as a source of inequality, (c) racism and discrimination, (d) the stigma associated with lower-class status, and (e) social and cultural capital. The article concludes with a summary and directions for future research. PMID:19636721

  20. Escaping poverty and securing middle class status: how race and socioeconomic status shape mobility prospects for African Americans during the transition to adulthood.

    PubMed

    Hardaway, Cecily R; McLoyd, Vonnie C

    2009-02-01

    This article draws on extant research from the disciplines of psychology, sociology, and economics to identify linkages between individual, family, community, and structural factors related to social mobility for African Americans during the transition to adulthood. It considers how race and class together affect opportunities for social mobility through where African Americans live, whom they associate with, and how they are impacted by racial and class-related stigma. Of particular interest is social mobility as accomplished through academic achievement, educational attainment, employment, economic independence, and homeownership. Research on five issues is reviewed and discussed: (a) the unique vulnerabilities of newly upwardly mobile African Americans, (b) wealth as a source of inequality, (c) racism and discrimination, (d) the stigma associated with lower-class status, and (e) social and cultural capital. The article concludes with a summary and directions for future research.

  1. Geology and geochemistry of the Middle Proterozoic Eastern Ghat mobile belt and its comparison with the lower crust of the Southern Peninsular shield

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rao, M. V. Subba

    1988-01-01

    Two prominent rock suites constitute the lithology of the Eastern Ghat mobile belt: (1) the khondalite suite - the metapelites, and (2) the charnockite suite. Later intrusives include ultramafic sequences, anorthosites and granitic gneisses. The chief structural element in the rocks of the Eastern Ghats is a planar fabric (gneissosity), defined by the alignment of platy minerals like flattened quartz, garnet, sillimanite, graphite, etc. The parallelism between the foliation and the lithological layering is related to isoclinal folding. The major structural trend (axial plane foliation trend) observed in the belt is NE-SW. Five major tectonic events have been delineated in the belt. A boundary fault along the western margin of the Eastern Ghats, bordering the low grade terrain has been substantiated by recent gravity and the deep seismic sounding studies. Field evidence shows that the pyroxene granulites (basic granulites) post-date the khondalite suite, but are older than the charnockites as well as the granitic gneisses. Polyphase metamorphism, probably correlatable with different periods of deformation is recorded. The field relations in the Eastern Ghats point to the intense deformation of the terrain, apparently both before, during and after metamorphism.

  2. Geochronology- and Geochemistry of Late Carboniferous-Middle Permian I- and A-Type Granites and Gabro-Diorites in the Eastern Jimausi Massif, NE, China: Implications for a Tectonic Transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bi, Junhui; Ge, Wenchun

    2016-04-01

    The late Paleozoic magmatism in the Jiamusi Massif of northeast China, located in the eastern segment of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB), was dominated by an active continental margin environment due to subduction of the paleo-oceanic plate. Nevertheless, what deep geodynamic processes controlled the late Paleozoic evolution of the Jiamusi Massif are still poorly constrained. In this contribution, we present zircon U-Pb ages and geochemical data of late Carboniferous-middle Permian magmatism in the Jiamusi Massif, aiming to provide constraints on the question. Precise LA-ICP-MS U-Pb zircon ages indicate that the granitoids and gabbro-diorites were emplaced in the late Carboniferous-middle Permian (302-267 Ma). The granites belong to a high-potassium calc-alkaline series, are weakly peraluminous I- and A-type granites, and show high SiO2 and K2O contents; they are depleted in high field strength elements (HFSEs), enriched in light rare earth elements (LREEs) and large ion lithophile elements (LILEs), show weakly to mildly fractionated REE patterns, and on spidergrams show arc-type affinities with strong depletions in Nb, Ta, and Ti. The combination of heterogeneous values of ɛHf(t) for magmatic zircons in all granitoids (ranging from +7.9 to -5.6) and two-stage Hf model ages (TDM2) of 0.8-1.7 Ga suggests that the granites originated from partial melting of a predominantly "old" Meso-Neoproterozoic crustal source. The gabbro-diorites of the Longtouqiao pluton are depleted in Nb, Ta, P, and Ti, and show flat distributions of most LILEs and HFSEs, except for marked large positive anomalies in Ba, K, and Pb. These features reflect limited degrees of crustal contamination associated with subduction-related magma processes. These data, together with previously reported data and the occurrence of arc magmatic rocks along the eastern part of the Jiamusi Massif, suggest that the intrusive rocks formed during westward subduction of the Paleo-Pacific Ocean lithosphere

  3. What Does Africa Have To Do with Being African American? A Microethnographic Analysis of a Middle School Inquiry Unit on Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Jerome E.

    2003-01-01

    Examines how the unfolding events in one classroom lesson brought to the fore the extent to which schools and educators explicitly draw connections between the social and historical relationship of African Americans and foreign-born blacks. A personal accounting of journeys to Africa captures how the author arrived at using a sociopolitical lens…

  4. The Relationship between Verve and the Academic Achievement of African American Students in Reading and Mathematics in an Urban Middle School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Norvella P.; Hawkins, Torrance N.; Natesan, Prathiba

    2008-01-01

    Since its inception, the United States has struggled with its responsibility for educating African American students. Its history of denial and discrimination in the education of Black children has created a national crisis in which academic difficulty and school failure is disproportionately high. In an effort to improve the education of African…

  5. African horse sickness and African carnivores.

    PubMed

    Alexander, K A; Kat, P W; House, J; House, C; O'Brien, S J; Laurenson, M K; McNutt, J W; Osburn, B I

    1995-11-01

    African horse sickness (AHS) is a disease that affects equids, and is principally transmitted by Culicoides spp. that are biological vectors of AHS viruses (AHSV). The repeated spread of AHSV from sub-Saharan Africa to the Middle East, northern Africa and the Iberian peninsula indicate that a better understanding of AHS epizootiology is needed. African horse sickness has long been known to infect and cause mortality among domestic dogs that ingest virus contaminated meat, but it is uncertain what role carnivores play in transmission of the virus. We present evidence of widespread natural AHS infection among a diversity of African carnivore species. We hypothesize that such infection resulted from ingestion of meat and organs from AHS-infected prey species. The effect of AHS on the carnivores is unknown, as is their role in the maintenance cycle of the disease.

  6. Attachment and health care utilization among middle-aged and older African-descent men: dismissiveness predicts less frequent digital rectal examination and prostate-specific antigen screening.

    PubMed

    Consedine, Nathan S; Tuck, Natalie L; Fiori, Katherine L

    2013-09-01

    Although health care utilization occurs in interpersonal contexts, little is known regarding how interpersonal preferences or styles among patients may be relevant. A small body of work has identified links between attachment-a dispositional style of relating to others-and patterns of health care use. The current report examined how attachment characteristics predicted the frequency of digital rectal exam and prostate-specific antigen testing in a sample of African-descent men. Four hundred and fourteen African-descent men aged 45 to 70 years completed measures of prostate screening and attachment, together with measures of traditional predictors of screening (demographics, insurance, family history, physician variables, knowledge, perceived risk, and accessibility). Consistent with predictions, dismissiveness-the most common relational style among older men-predicted less frequent prostate-specific antigen testing and digital rectal examination. However, attachment security-a comfort with intimate relationships-also predicted lower screening frequency. Identifying the interpersonal characteristics predicting screening may help identify men at risk of suboptimal health care use and guide the development of interventions suited to the normative relational preferences of current cohorts of older, African-descent men.

  7. A Fish Assemblage from the Middle Eocene from Libya (Dur At-Talah) and the Earliest Record of Modern African Fish Genera

    PubMed Central

    Otero, Olga; Pinton, Aurélie; Cappetta, Henri; Adnet, Sylvain; Valentin, Xavier; Salem, Mustapha; Jaeger, Jean-Jacques

    2015-01-01

    In the early nineteen sixties, Arambourg and Magnier found some freshwater fish (i.e., Polypterus sp., Siluriformes indet. and Lates sp.) mixed with marine members in an Eocene vertebrate assemblage at Gebel Coquin, in the southern Libyan Desert. This locality, aged ca 37–39Ma and now known under the name of Dur At-Talah, has been recently excavated. A new fish assemblage, mostly composed of teeth, was collected by the Mission Paléontologique Franco-Libyenne. In this paper, we describe freshwater fish members including a dipnoan (Protopterus sp.), and several actinopterygians: bichir (Polypterus sp.), aba fish (Gymnarchus sp.), several catfishes (Chrysichthys sp. and a mochokid indet.), several characiforms (including the tiger fish Hydrocynus sp., and one or two alestin-like fish), and perciforms (including the snake-head fish Parachanna sp. and at least one cichlid). Together with the fossiliferous outcrops at Birket Qarun in Egypt, the Libyan site at Dur At-Talah reduces a 10-Ma chronological gap in the fossil record of African freshwater fish. Their fish assemblages overlap in their composition and thus constitute a rather homogenous, original and significant amount of new elements regarding the Paleogene African ichthyofauna. This supports the establishment of the modern African freshwater fish fauna during this time period because these sites mostly contain the earliest members known in modern genera. PMID:26674637

  8. Ageism and Body Esteem: Associations With Psychological Well-Being Among Late Middle-Aged African American and European American Women

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. Social expectancy theory posits that cultural values shape how individuals perceive and evaluate others, and this influences how others evaluate themselves. Based on this theory, ageism may shape older individuals’ self-evaluations. Given the cultural focus on beauty and youth, perceptions of age discrimination may be associated with lower body esteem, and this may be associated with poor psychological well-being. Because discrimination has been associated with poor health, and perceptions of health can affect body perceptions, subjective health status may also contribute to lower body esteem. Method. These associations are assessed in a structural equation model for 244 African American and European American women in their early 60s. Results. Perceptions of age discrimination and body esteem were associated with lower psychological well-being for both ethnic groups. Body esteem partially mediated the association between age discrimination and psychological well-being among European American women but not among African American women. Discussion. Age-related discrimination is one source of psychological distress for older adults, though ageism’s associations with body esteem, health, and psychological well-being vary significantly for European American and African American women. Examining body perceptions and health in the contexts of ageism and ethnicity is necessary when considering the psychological well-being of older women. PMID:24013801

  9. A Fish Assemblage from the Middle Eocene from Libya (Dur At-Talah) and the Earliest Record of Modern African Fish Genera.

    PubMed

    Otero, Olga; Pinton, Aurélie; Cappetta, Henri; Adnet, Sylvain; Valentin, Xavier; Salem, Mustapha; Jaeger, Jean-Jacques

    2015-01-01

    In the early nineteen sixties, Arambourg and Magnier found some freshwater fish (i.e., Polypterus sp., Siluriformes indet. and Lates sp.) mixed with marine members in an Eocene vertebrate assemblage at Gebel Coquin, in the southern Libyan Desert. This locality, aged ca 37-39Ma and now known under the name of Dur At-Talah, has been recently excavated. A new fish assemblage, mostly composed of teeth, was collected by the Mission Paléontologique Franco-Libyenne. In this paper, we describe freshwater fish members including a dipnoan (Protopterus sp.), and several actinopterygians: bichir (Polypterus sp.), aba fish (Gymnarchus sp.), several catfishes (Chrysichthys sp. and a mochokid indet.), several characiforms (including the tiger fish Hydrocynus sp., and one or two alestin-like fish), and perciforms (including the snake-head fish Parachanna sp. and at least one cichlid). Together with the fossiliferous outcrops at Birket Qarun in Egypt, the Libyan site at Dur At-Talah reduces a 10-Ma chronological gap in the fossil record of African freshwater fish. Their fish assemblages overlap in their composition and thus constitute a rather homogenous, original and significant amount of new elements regarding the Paleogene African ichthyofauna. This supports the establishment of the modern African freshwater fish fauna during this time period because these sites mostly contain the earliest members known in modern genera. PMID:26674637

  10. A Fish Assemblage from the Middle Eocene from Libya (Dur At-Talah) and the Earliest Record of Modern African Fish Genera.

    PubMed

    Otero, Olga; Pinton, Aurélie; Cappetta, Henri; Adnet, Sylvain; Valentin, Xavier; Salem, Mustapha; Jaeger, Jean-Jacques

    2015-01-01

    In the early nineteen sixties, Arambourg and Magnier found some freshwater fish (i.e., Polypterus sp., Siluriformes indet. and Lates sp.) mixed with marine members in an Eocene vertebrate assemblage at Gebel Coquin, in the southern Libyan Desert. This locality, aged ca 37-39Ma and now known under the name of Dur At-Talah, has been recently excavated. A new fish assemblage, mostly composed of teeth, was collected by the Mission Paléontologique Franco-Libyenne. In this paper, we describe freshwater fish members including a dipnoan (Protopterus sp.), and several actinopterygians: bichir (Polypterus sp.), aba fish (Gymnarchus sp.), several catfishes (Chrysichthys sp. and a mochokid indet.), several characiforms (including the tiger fish Hydrocynus sp., and one or two alestin-like fish), and perciforms (including the snake-head fish Parachanna sp. and at least one cichlid). Together with the fossiliferous outcrops at Birket Qarun in Egypt, the Libyan site at Dur At-Talah reduces a 10-Ma chronological gap in the fossil record of African freshwater fish. Their fish assemblages overlap in their composition and thus constitute a rather homogenous, original and significant amount of new elements regarding the Paleogene African ichthyofauna. This supports the establishment of the modern African freshwater fish fauna during this time period because these sites mostly contain the earliest members known in modern genera.

  11. Regional stratigraphy and petroleum geology, North Africa-Middle East

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, J.A. )

    1991-03-01

    The North Africa-Middle East petroleum provinces are part of the broad sedimentary platform that occupied the northern and northeastern borders of the African-Arabian craton adjacent to the ancestral Hercynian (late Paleozoic) and subsequent Tethyan-Alpine oceans. Carbonate-clastic-evaporite sediments of infra-Cambrian through Holocene age were cyclically deposited in a relatively continuous belt around the eastern and northern borders of the craton, mainly on a broad, shallow-water platform adjacent to the proto-Tethys and Tethys seaway. The Paleozoic section reaches a substantial thickness in the subsurface of the Middle East and in northern Africa adjacent to the Mediterranean Sea, but all or part of it is absent because of nondeposition or erosion over much of the region. Post-Paleozoic deposition was more or less continuous across the entire craton border region in the Middle East and along the northern border of the Sahara platform in North Africa and in Somalia and eastern Ethiopia. Similar marine and associated sedimentary rock facies are present in all of these regions, although paleotectonic-stratigraphic interrelationships and continental paleolatitude positions have greatly affected petroleum generation and accumulation in the specific provinces along the craton border. A series of regional stratigraphic-sedimentary environment, and continental position, layer maps illustrates the relative influence of these factors through geologic time with respect to the relationship between petroleum reservoirs, source rocks, and confining rock facies.

  12. PALEODRAINAGES OF THE EASTERN SAHARA - THE RADAR RIVERS REVISITED (SIR - A/B IMPLICATIONS FOR A MID - TERTIARY TRANS - AFRICAN DRAINAGE SYSTEM).

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCauley, John F.; Breed, Carlos S.; Schaber, Gerald G.; McHugh, William P.; Issawi, Bahay; Haynes, C. Vance; Grolier, Maurice J.; El Kilani, Ali

    1986-01-01

    A complex history of Cenozoic fluvial activity in the presently hyperarid eastern Sahara is inferred from Shuttle Imaging Radar (SIR) data and postflight field investigations in southwest Egypt and northwest Sudan. SIR images were coregistered with Landsat and existing maps as a guide to exploration of the buried paleodrainages (radar rivers) first discovered by SIR-A. Field observations explain the radar responses of three types of radar rivers: RR-1, RR-2, and RR-3. A generalized model of the radar rivers, based on field studies and regional geologic relations, shows apparent changes in river regimen since the large valleys were established during the late Paleogene-early Neogene eras. SIR-based mapping of these paleodrainages, although incomplete, reveals missing links in an area once thought to be devoid of master streams.

  13. Integrating South Pacific carbon cycling and climate history from Late Paleocene to Middle Eocene: an upper slope transect from eastern New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slotnick, B. S.; Dickens, G. R.; Hollis, C. J.; Crampton, J. S.; Strong, C.; Zachos, J. C.; Hines, B. R.; Philips, A.

    2013-12-01

    The Late Paleocene to Middle Eocene was characterized by prominent variations in global carbon cycling, which operated on both long (>10e6) and short (<10e5) time scales. The interval from about 58 to 52 Ma is now fairly well documented, and can be described in a general sense as a time when δ13C dropped significantly, and the CCD deepened by several hundred meters. Superimposed on these trends were a series of hyperthermal events, each associated with a rapid drop in δ13C and a shoaling of the CCD. A current issue is whether such hyperthermals, which were likely paced/triggered by orbital variations, occurred during the Late Paleocene (before the PETM) and during the middle Eocene (after the start of EECO). The problem arises in part because the CCD is relatively shallow prior to 58 Ma and after 52 Ma, such that well-resolved, single-site deep-sea records spanning the entire interval are rare. To better understand and constrain Late Paleocene to Middle Eocene carbon cycle changes, we extend well-resolved carbon isotope and carbonate content records from the Mead Stream section, which accumulated on the middle-upper slope of proto-New Zealand. In addition, we generated a new carbon isotope and carbonate content record from Branch Stream, a section up-slope from Mead Stream, for comparison between different settings along the same margin. The new data compliments previous work at these localities, such that detailed records now extend from 58 to 38 Ma. The long-term drop in δ13C from 58-52 Ma was followed by a long-term rise in δ13C. Numerous geologically-brief (<0.2 Myr) but relatively small carbon isotope excursions (CIEs) occur through this interval, although it is not clear if they are hyperthermals. In addition, strata from the late Early Eocene has lower carbonate contents than were measured in beds that span the numerous yet distinct clay-rich Early Eocene hyperthermals, an indication that the flux of carbonate to the seafloor decreased, either because of

  14. Paleodrainages of the Eastern Sahara - The radar rivers revisited (SIR-A/B implications for a mid-tertiary Trans-African drainage system)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccauley, J. F.; Breed, C. S.; Schaber, G. G.; Mchugh, W. P.; Haynes, C. C.

    1986-01-01

    The images obtained by the Shuttle Imaging Radar (SIR)-A and -B systems over the southwestern Egypt and northwestern Sudan were coregistered with the Landsat images and the existing maps to aid in extrapolations of the buried paleodrainages ('radar rivers'), first discovered by SIR-A. Field observations explain the radar responses of three types of radar rivers, RR-1 (broad, aggraded valleys filled with alluvium), RR-2 (braided channels inset in the RR-1 valleys), and RR-3 (narrow, long, bedrock-incised channels). A generalized model of the radar rivers, based on field studies and regional geologic relations, shows inferred changes in river regimen since the large valleys were established during the later Paleogene-early Neogene. It is suggested that a former Trans-African master stream system may have flowed from headwaters in the Red Sea Hills southwestward across North Africa, discharging into the Atlantic at the Paleo-Niger delta, prior to the Neogene domal uplifts and building of volcanic edifices across the paths of these ancient watercourses.

  15. Giant rhinoceros Paraceratherium and other vertebrates from Oligocene and middle Miocene deposits of the Kağızman-Tuzluca Basin, Eastern Turkey.

    PubMed

    Sen, Sevket; Antoine, Pierre-Olivier; Varol, Baki; Ayyildiz, Turhan; Sözeri, Koray

    2011-05-01

    A recent fieldwork in the Kağızman-Tuzluca Basin in northeastern Turkey led us to the discovery of three vertebrate localities which yielded some limb bones of the giant rhino Paraceratherium, a crocodile tooth, and some small mammals, respectively. These discoveries allowed, for the first time to date some parts of the sedimentary units of this basin. This study also shows that the dispersal area of Paraceratherium is wider than it was known before. Eastern Turkey has several Cenozoic sedimentary basins formed during the collision of the Arabian and Eurasian plates. They are poorly documented for vertebrate paleontology. Consequently, the timing of tectonic activities, which led to the formation of the East Anatolian accretionary complex, is not constrained enough with a solid chronological framework. This study provides the first biostratigraphic evidences for the infill under the control of the compressive tectonic regime, which built the East Anatolian Plateau.

  16. Giant rhinoceros Paraceratherium and other vertebrates from Oligocene and middle Miocene deposits of the Kağızman-Tuzluca Basin, Eastern Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sen, Sevket; Antoine, Pierre-Olivier; Varol, Baki; Ayyildiz, Turhan; Sözeri, Koray

    2011-05-01

    A recent fieldwork in the Kağızman-Tuzluca Basin in northeastern Turkey led us to the discovery of three vertebrate localities which yielded some limb bones of the giant rhino Paraceratherium, a crocodile tooth, and some small mammals, respectively. These discoveries allowed, for the first time to date some parts of the sedimentary units of this basin. This study also shows that the dispersal area of Paraceratherium is wider than it was known before. Eastern Turkey has several Cenozoic sedimentary basins formed during the collision of the Arabian and Eurasian plates. They are poorly documented for vertebrate paleontology. Consequently, the timing of tectonic activities, which led to the formation of the East Anatolian accretionary complex, is not constrained enough with a solid chronological framework. This study provides the first biostratigraphic evidences for the infill under the control of the compressive tectonic regime, which built the East Anatolian Plateau.

  17. Giant rhinoceros Paraceratherium and other vertebrates from Oligocene and middle Miocene deposits of the Kağızman-Tuzluca Basin, Eastern Turkey.

    PubMed

    Sen, Sevket; Antoine, Pierre-Olivier; Varol, Baki; Ayyildiz, Turhan; Sözeri, Koray

    2011-05-01

    A recent fieldwork in the Kağızman-Tuzluca Basin in northeastern Turkey led us to the discovery of three vertebrate localities which yielded some limb bones of the giant rhino Paraceratherium, a crocodile tooth, and some small mammals, respectively. These discoveries allowed, for the first time to date some parts of the sedimentary units of this basin. This study also shows that the dispersal area of Paraceratherium is wider than it was known before. Eastern Turkey has several Cenozoic sedimentary basins formed during the collision of the Arabian and Eurasian plates. They are poorly documented for vertebrate paleontology. Consequently, the timing of tectonic activities, which led to the formation of the East Anatolian accretionary complex, is not constrained enough with a solid chronological framework. This study provides the first biostratigraphic evidences for the infill under the control of the compressive tectonic regime, which built the East Anatolian Plateau. PMID:21465174

  18. Transforming attitudes and lives: Liberating African-American elementary and middle school students in out-of-school time STEM education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Charisse F.

    Statistically, African-Americans, women, and the disabled are underrepresented in the fields of Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math (STEM). Historically, these underrepresented students, are described as being unrecognized and underdeveloped in the American STEM circuit. Many experience deficient and inadequate educational resources, are not encouraged to pursue STEM education and careers, and are confronted with copious obstructions. In this quantitative study, the researcher collected pretest and posttest survey data from a group of 4th, 5th, and 6th-grade African-American students in Title I funded schools. The reseacher used quantitative analysis to determine any significant differences in the science related attitudes between and within groups who participated in Out of School-Time Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics programs and those who did not. Results revealed no significant differences in the science related attitudes between the groups of the students who participated in the Out of School Time-Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics programs and those who did not. Results also revealed no significant differences in the science related attitudes within the groups of students who participated in the Out of School Time-Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics programs and those who did not.

  19. Addressing Factors Associated with Arab Women's Socioeconomic Status May Reduce Breast Cancer Mortality: Report from a Well Resourced Middle Eastern Country.

    PubMed

    Donnelly, Tam Truong; Al Khater, Al-Hareth; Al Kuwari, Mohamed Ghaith; Al-Bader, Salha Bujassoum; Abdulmalik, Mariam; Al-Meer, Nabila; Singh, Rajvir; Fung, Tak

    2015-01-01

    Differences in socioeconomic status (SES) such as income levels may partly explain why breast cancer screening (BCS) disparities exist in countries where health care services are free or heavily subsidized. However, factors that contribute to such differences in SES among women living in well resourced Middle East countries are not fully understood. This quantitative study investigated factors that influence SES and BCS of Arab women. Understanding of such factors can be useful for the development of effective intervention strategies that aim to increase BCS uptake among Arab women. Using data from a cross-sectional survey among 1,063 Arabic-speaking women in Qatar, age 35+, additional data analysis was performed to determine the relationship between socioeconomic indicators such as income and other factors in relation to BCS activities. This study found that income is determined and influenced by education level, occupation, nationality, years of residence in the country, level of social activity, self-perceived health status, and living area. Financial stress, unemployment, and unfavorable social conditions may impede women's participation in BCS activities in well resourced Middle East countries.

  20. Effect of waterfalls and the flood pulse on the structure of fish assemblages of the middle Xingu River in the eastern Amazon basin.

    PubMed

    Barbosa, T A P; Benone, N L; Begot, T O R; Gonçalves, A; Sousa, L; Giarrizzo, T; Juen, L; Montag, L F A

    2015-08-01

    The structure of fish assemblages in Neotropical rivers is influenced by a series of environmental, spatial and/or temporal factors, given that different species will occupy the habitats that present the most favourable conditions to their survival. The present study aims to identify the principal factors responsible for the structuring of the fish assemblages found in the middle Xingu River, examining the influence of environmental, spatial, and temporal factors, in addition to the presence of natural barriers (waterfalls). For this, data were collected every three months between July 2012 and April 2013, using gillnets of different sizes and meshes. In addition to biotic data, 17 environmental variables were measured. A total of 8,485 fish specimens were collected during the study, representing 188 species. Total dissolved solids, conductivity, total suspended matter, and dissolved oxygen concentrations were the variables that had the greatest influence on the characteristics of the fish fauna of the middle Xingu. Only the barriers and hydrological periods played a significant deterministic role, resulting in both longitudinal and lateral gradients. This emphasizes the role of the connectivity of the different habitats found within the study area in the structuring of its fish assemblages.

  1. Addressing Factors Associated with Arab Women's Socioeconomic Status May Reduce Breast Cancer Mortality: Report from a Well Resourced Middle Eastern Country.

    PubMed

    Donnelly, Tam Truong; Al Khater, Al-Hareth; Al Kuwari, Mohamed Ghaith; Al-Bader, Salha Bujassoum; Abdulmalik, Mariam; Al-Meer, Nabila; Singh, Rajvir; Fung, Tak

    2015-01-01

    Differences in socioeconomic status (SES) such as income levels may partly explain why breast cancer screening (BCS) disparities exist in countries where health care services are free or heavily subsidized. However, factors that contribute to such differences in SES among women living in well resourced Middle East countries are not fully understood. This quantitative study investigated factors that influence SES and BCS of Arab women. Understanding of such factors can be useful for the development of effective intervention strategies that aim to increase BCS uptake among Arab women. Using data from a cross-sectional survey among 1,063 Arabic-speaking women in Qatar, age 35+, additional data analysis was performed to determine the relationship between socioeconomic indicators such as income and other factors in relation to BCS activities. This study found that income is determined and influenced by education level, occupation, nationality, years of residence in the country, level of social activity, self-perceived health status, and living area. Financial stress, unemployment, and unfavorable social conditions may impede women's participation in BCS activities in well resourced Middle East countries. PMID:26434834

  2. Effect of waterfalls and the flood pulse on the structure of fish assemblages of the middle Xingu River in the eastern Amazon basin.

    PubMed

    Barbosa, T A P; Benone, N L; Begot, T O R; Gonçalves, A; Sousa, L; Giarrizzo, T; Juen, L; Montag, L F A

    2015-08-01

    The structure of fish assemblages in Neotropical rivers is influenced by a series of environmental, spatial and/or temporal factors, given that different species will occupy the habitats that present the most favourable conditions to their survival. The present study aims to identify the principal factors responsible for the structuring of the fish assemblages found in the middle Xingu River, examining the influence of environmental, spatial, and temporal factors, in addition to the presence of natural barriers (waterfalls). For this, data were collected every three months between July 2012 and April 2013, using gillnets of different sizes and meshes. In addition to biotic data, 17 environmental variables were measured. A total of 8,485 fish specimens were collected during the study, representing 188 species. Total dissolved solids, conductivity, total suspended matter, and dissolved oxygen concentrations were the variables that had the greatest influence on the characteristics of the fish fauna of the middle Xingu. Only the barriers and hydrological periods played a significant deterministic role, resulting in both longitudinal and lateral gradients. This emphasizes the role of the connectivity of the different habitats found within the study area in the structuring of its fish assemblages. PMID:26691079

  3. Assessment of African Swine Fever Diagnostic Techniques as a Response to the Epidemic Outbreaks in Eastern European Union Countries: How To Improve Surveillance and Control Programs

    PubMed Central

    Nieto, R.; Soler, A.; Pelayo, V.; Fernández-Pinero, J.; Markowska-Daniel, I.; Pridotkas, G.; Nurmoja, I.; Granta, R.; Simón, A.; Pérez, C.; Martín, E.; Fernández-Pacheco, P.; Arias, M.

    2015-01-01

    This study represents a complete comparative analysis of the most widely used African swine fever (ASF) diagnostic techniques in the European Union (EU) using field and experimental samples from animals infected with genotype II ASF virus (ASFV) isolates circulating in Europe. To detect ASFV, three different PCRs were evaluated in parallel using 785 field and experimental samples. The results showed almost perfect agreement between the Universal ProbeLibrary (UPL-PCR) and the real-time (κ = 0.94 [95% confidence interval {CI}, 0.91 to 0.97]) and conventional (κ = 0.88 [95% CI, 0.83 to 0.92]) World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE)-prescribed PCRs. The UPL-PCR had greater diagnostic sensitivity for detecting survivors and allows earlier detection of the disease. Compared to the commercial antigen enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), good-to-moderate agreement (κ = 0.67 [95% CI, 0.58 to 0.76]) was obtained, with a sensitivity of 77.2% in the commercial test. For ASF antibody detection, five serological methods were tested, including three commercial ELISAs, the OIE-ELISA, and the confirmatory immunoperoxidase test (IPT). Greater sensitivity was obtained with the IPT than with the ELISAs, since the IPT was able to detect ASF antibodies at an earlier point in the serological response, when few antibodies are present. The analysis of the exudate tissues from dead wild boars showed that IPT might be a useful serological tool for determining whether or not animals had been exposed to virus infection, regardless of whether antibodies were present. In conclusion, the UPL-PCR in combination with the IPT was the most trustworthy method for detecting ASF during the epidemic outbreaks affecting EU countries in 2014. The use of the most appropriate diagnostic tools is critical when implementing effective control programs. PMID:26041901

  4. Assessment of African Swine Fever Diagnostic Techniques as a Response to the Epidemic Outbreaks in Eastern European Union Countries: How To Improve Surveillance and Control Programs.

    PubMed

    Gallardo, C; Nieto, R; Soler, A; Pelayo, V; Fernández-Pinero, J; Markowska-Daniel, I; Pridotkas, G; Nurmoja, I; Granta, R; Simón, A; Pérez, C; Martín, E; Fernández-Pacheco, P; Arias, M

    2015-08-01

    This study represents a complete comparative analysis of the most widely used African swine fever (ASF) diagnostic techniques in the European Union (EU) using field and experimental samples from animals infected with genotype II ASF virus (ASFV) isolates circulating in Europe. To detect ASFV, three different PCRs were evaluated in parallel using 785 field and experimental samples. The results showed almost perfect agreement between the Universal ProbeLibrary (UPL-PCR) and the real-time (κ = 0.94 [95% confidence interval {CI}, 0.91 to 0.97]) and conventional (κ = 0.88 [95% CI, 0.83 to 0.92]) World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE)-prescribed PCRs. The UPL-PCR had greater diagnostic sensitivity for detecting survivors and allows earlier detection of the disease. Compared to the commercial antigen enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), good-to-moderate agreement (κ = 0.67 [95% CI, 0.58 to 0.76]) was obtained, with a sensitivity of 77.2% in the commercial test. For ASF antibody detection, five serological methods were tested, including three commercial ELISAs, the OIE-ELISA, and the confirmatory immunoperoxidase test (IPT). Greater sensitivity was obtained with the IPT than with the ELISAs, since the IPT was able to detect ASF antibodies at an earlier point in the serological response, when few antibodies are present. The analysis of the exudate tissues from dead wild boars showed that IPT might be a useful serological tool for determining whether or not animals had been exposed to virus infection, regardless of whether antibodies were present. In conclusion, the UPL-PCR in combination with the IPT was the most trustworthy method for detecting ASF during the epidemic outbreaks affecting EU countries in 2014. The use of the most appropriate diagnostic tools is critical when implementing effective control programs.

  5. Learning to "see" sound: An investigation into the intellectual and linguistic resources that urban middle school African American boys utilize in the practice of representing sound transmission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, Christopher G.

    2011-12-01

    This research examines the intellectual and linguistic resources that a group of African American boys brought to the study of the science of sound and the practice of representation. By taking a resource-rich view of the boys' linguistic and representational practices, my objective is to investigate children's abilities in producing, using, critiquing, and modifying representations. Specifically, this research looks to explore and identify the varieties of resources that African American boys utilize in developing scientific understanding. Using transcripts from group sessions, as well as the drawings produced during these sessions, I utilized a combination of discourse analysis to explore the boys' linguistic interactions during the critique of drawings with a focus on the boys' manipulation of line segments in order to explore their representational competencies. Analysis of the transcripts and the boys' drawings revealed several important findings. First, elements of Signifying were instrumental in the group's collective exploration of each other's drawings, and the ideas of sound transmission being represented in the drawings. Thus, I found that the boys' use of Signifying was key to their engagement win the practice of critique. Second, the boys' ideas regarding sound transmission were not fixed, stable misconceptions that could be "fixed" through instruction. Instead, I believe that their explanations and drawings were generated from a web of ideas regarding sound transmission. Lastly, the boys exhibited a form of meta-representational competency that included the production, modification, and manipulation of notations used to represent sound transmission. Despite this competency, the negotiation process necessary in constructing meaning of a drawing highlighted the complexities in developing a conventional understanding or meaning for representations. Additional research is necessary for exploring the intellectual and lingustic resources that children from

  6. Potassium metasomatism and diffusion in Cretaceous K-bentonites from the disturbed belt, northwestern Montana and in the Middle Devonian Tioga K-bentonite, eastern USA

    SciTech Connect

    Altaner, S.P.

    1985-01-01

    This thesis presents X-ray diffraction, elemental K/Ar, and petrographic data of K-bentonites and enclosing shales from the Marias River Formation (Late Cretaceous) in the disturbed belt of Montana to determine the kind and extent of chemical exchange between bentonite beds and shale host rocks during K-bentonite formation. One 2.5 m thick K-bentonite bed and five thinner K-bentonite beds are zoned mineralogically and chemically, with illite- and potassium-rich upper and lower contacts and a smectite-rich potassium-poor middle. In all case, the formation of smectite-rich clay minerals appears to be due to a deficient supply of K and not lower temperatures. For K-bentonites that were originally vitric tuffs, K appears to be the only major element that is metasomatically derived, however, the exact source of K was not determined. I/S from the 2.5 m thick K-bentonite bed is zoned with respect to K/Ar age, with the contacts giving ages 3-4 m.y. older than the center. This difference in apparent age is interpreted to indicate that K transport in the bentonite was diffusion controlled. Solution of the coupled equations for chemical transport and reaction (illitization) for the 2.5 m thick bentonite yields a diffusion coefficient for K transport of about 5-8 x 10 cm/sec. Solutions assuming this value predict I/S zonation observed in thinner bentonite beds. The Tioga (Middle Devonian) K-bentonite, studied from outcrop localities in New York, Pennsylvania, Virginia. West Virginia, Indiana, and Illinois, shows a broader range in I/S layer composition and stacking order than reported in previous studies of this unit because this study examined rocks from a larger region and therefore from a wider range of thermal grades than previous studies.

  7. Transactional sex and economic exchange with partners among young South African men in the rural Eastern Cape: prevalence, predictors, and associations with gender-based violence

    PubMed Central

    Dunkle, Kristin L; Jewkes, Rachel; Nduna, Mzikazi; Jama, Nwabisa; Levin, Jonathan; Sikweyiya, Yandisa; Koss, Mary P

    2009-01-01

    We explored the prevalence and predictors of transactional sex with casual partners and main girlfriends among 1,288 men aged 15-26 from 70 villages in the rural Eastern Cape province of South Africa. Data were collected through face-to-face interviews with young men enrolling in the Stepping Stones HIV prevention trial. A total of 17.7% of participants reported giving material resources or money to casual sex partners and 6.6% received resources from a casual partner. Transactionally motivated relationships with main girlfriends were more balanced between giving (14.9%) and getting (14.3%). We constructed multivariable models to identify the predictors for giving and for getting material resources in casual and in main relationships. Each model resulted in remarkably similar predictors. All four types of exchange were associated with higher socio-economic status, more adverse childhood experiences, more lifetime sexual partners, and alcohol use. Men who were more resistant to peer pressure to have sex were less likely to report transactional sex with casual partners, and men who reported more equitable gender attitudes were less likely to report main partnerships underpinned by exchange. The most consistent predictor of all four types of transaction was the perpetration of intimate partner violence and rape against women other than a main partner. The strong and consistent association between perpetration of gender-based violence and both giving and getting material goods from female partners suggests that transactional sex in both main and casual relationships can be viewed within a broader continuum of men's exercise of gendered power and control. HIV prevention interventions need to explicitly address transactional sex in the context of ideas about masculinity which place a high emphasis on heterosexual success with, and control of, women. PMID:17560702

  8. Contaminant profiles for surface water, sediment, flora and fauna associated with the mangrove fringe along middle and lower eastern Tampa Bay.

    PubMed

    Lewis, M A; Russell, M J

    2015-06-15

    Contaminant concentrations are reported for surface water, sediment, flora and fauna collected during 2010-2011 from the mangrove fringe along eastern Tampa Bay, Florida. Concentrations of trace metals, chlorinated pesticides, atrazine, total polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and polychlorinated biphenyls were species-, chemical- and location-specific. Contaminants in sediments did not exceed proposed individual sediment quality guidelines. Most sediment quality assessment quotients were less than one indicating the likelihood of no inhibitory effect based on chemical measurements alone. Faunal species typically contained more contaminants than plant species; seagrass usually contained more chemicals than mangroves. Bioconcentration factors for marine angiosperms were usually less than 10 and ranged between 1 and 31. Mercury concentrations (ppm) in blue crabs and fish did not exceed the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency fish tissue criterion of 0.3 and the U.S. Food and Drug Administration action level of 1.0. In contrast, total mercury concentrations in faunal species often exceeded guideline values for wildlife consumers of aquatic biota.

  9. Contaminant profiles for surface water, sediment, flora and fauna associated with the mangrove fringe along middle and lower eastern Tampa Bay.

    PubMed

    Lewis, M A; Russell, M J

    2015-06-15

    Contaminant concentrations are reported for surface water, sediment, flora and fauna collected during 2010-2011 from the mangrove fringe along eastern Tampa Bay, Florida. Concentrations of trace metals, chlorinated pesticides, atrazine, total polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and polychlorinated biphenyls were species-, chemical- and location-specific. Contaminants in sediments did not exceed proposed individual sediment quality guidelines. Most sediment quality assessment quotients were less than one indicating the likelihood of no inhibitory effect based on chemical measurements alone. Faunal species typically contained more contaminants than plant species; seagrass usually contained more chemicals than mangroves. Bioconcentration factors for marine angiosperms were usually less than 10 and ranged between 1 and 31. Mercury concentrations (ppm) in blue crabs and fish did not exceed the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency fish tissue criterion of 0.3 and the U.S. Food and Drug Administration action level of 1.0. In contrast, total mercury concentrations in faunal species often exceeded guideline values for wildlife consumers of aquatic biota. PMID:25931177

  10. "How can I tell?" Consequences of HIV status disclosure among couples in eastern African communities in the context of an ongoing HIV "test-and-treat" trial.

    PubMed

    Maeri, Irene; El Ayadi, Alison; Getahun, Monica; Charlebois, Edwin; Akatukwasa, Cecilia; Tumwebaze, Dennis; Itiakorit, Harriet; Owino, Lawrence; Kwarisiima, Dalsone; Ssemmondo, Emmanuel; Sang, Norton; Kabami, Jane; Clark, Tamara D; Petersen, Maya; Cohen, Craig R; Bukusi, Elizabeth A; Kamya, Moses; Havlir, Diane; Camlin, Carol S

    2016-01-01

    People living with HIV/AIDS anticipate HIV-related stigma and fear disclosure to intimate partners. Yet, disclosure is critical to reducing HIV transmission and improving care engagement. This qualitative study characterized HIV disclosure experiences and normative beliefs among couples in communities participating in an HIV test-and-treat trial in Kenya and Uganda (Sustainable East Africa Research in Community Health, NCT#01864603). In-depth interviews were conducted with care providers (n = 50), leaders (n = 32) and members (n = 112) of eight communities. Data were analyzed using grounded theoretical approaches and Atlas.ti software. Findings confirmed gender differences in barriers to disclosure: while both men and women feared blame and accusation, women also feared violence and abandonment ("I did not tell my husband because [what if] I tell him and he abandons me at the last moment when I am in labor?"). Positive consequences included partner support for increased care-seeking and adherence ("My husband keeps on reminding me 'have you taken those drugs?'") Yet negative consequences included partnership dissolution, blame, and reports of violence ("some men beat their wives just because of that [bringing HIV medications home]"). Among HIV-infected individuals in discordant relationships, men more often reported supportive spouses ("we normally share [HIV-risk-reduction strategies] since I have been infected and she is HIV negative"), than did women ("my husband refused to use condoms and even threatened to marry another wife"). Care providers lent support for HIV-positive women who wanted to engage partners in testing but feared negative consequences: "They engaged the two of us in a session and asked him if we could all test." Findings demonstrate differing experiences and support needs of women and men living with HIV in eastern Africa, with HIV-positive women in discordant couples particularly vulnerable to negative consequences of disclosure

  11. Refinement of Late Early to Middle Miocene Diatom Biostratigraphy for the Eastern Coast of the United States - Application to IODP 313 Coring on the New Jersey Shallow Shelf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barron, J. A.; Miller, K. G.; Sugarman, P.; Scienceparty, E.; Scientific Team Of Iodp Leg 313

    2010-12-01

    Marine diatoms have been employed for biostratigraphic correlation of lower and middle Miocene sediments deposited on the Atlantic Coastal Plain between Florida and New Jersey for over 50 years. Biotratigraphic zonations developed during the 1970’s and early 1980’s by George W. Andrews and William H. Abbott relied primarily on benthic and shallow shelf-dwelling diatoms ( Actinoptychus, Delphineis, Rhaphoneis, Sceptroneis ) that are common in these deposits. Limited age control was provided by sporadic occurrences of oceanic planktonic diatoms, calcareous nannofossils, and planktonic foraminifera. The transect of holes cored on the shallow New Jersey shelf during IODP Leg 313 provided an opportunity to further develop this east coast diatom biostratigraphy and to refine its correlation with the geologic time scale. In particular, Hole M0029A, at 39°31.170500’N, 73°24.792500’W in 35.97 m of water recovered a nearly continuous sequence of diatom-rich sediments between ~695 and 325 m subbottom depth that preliminary strontium and planktonic microfossil assigned to the late early and middle Miocene. Detailed light microscope study of this sequence revealed the occurrence of numerous oceanic planktonic diatoms (species of Actinocyclus, Annellus, Azpeitia, Crucidenticula, Denticulopsis, Thalassiosira) that have been proven to be useful for diatom biostratigraphy in the equatorial and North Pacific during the past 30 years, where their datum levels (first and last occurrences) have been directly tied to paleomagnetic stratigraphy. Comparison of the stratigraphic positions of these diatom datum levels with calcareous nannofossil, planktonic foraminiferal, and strontium isotope stratigraphy results in a refined age model for Hole M0029A ranging in age between ~19.0 and 13.0 Ma. The continuous occurrence in Hole M0029A of an evolutionary sequence of diatom species of Delphineis (D. ovata, D. lineata, D. penelliptica, D. angustata, D. novacaesarae, D. biseriata) that

  12. Genesis of the Datuanshan stratabound skarn Cu(-Mo) deposit, Middle-Lower Yangtze Valley, Eastern China: constraints from geology, Re-Os geochronology, mineralogy, and sulfur isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Yi; Gao, Fuping; Du, Yangsong; Du, Yilun; Pang, Zhenshan

    2016-07-01

    Stratabound deposits are the most abundant and economically significant ore type in the Middle-Lower Yangtze River Valley, one of the most important metallogenic belts in China. The Datuanshan deposit is one of the largest and most representative stratabound Cu(-Mo) deposits in the Tongling district of the Middle-Lower Yangtze River metallogenic belt. All the orebodies of the Datuanshan deposit occur around Mesozoic quartz monzodiorite and are tabular or semi-tabular bodies along bedding-parallel faults within upper Permian to Lower Triassic strata. However, discordant and crosscutting relationships (e.g., the host rocks crosscut by skarn- and quartz-sulfide veins, with alteration halos around the veins) have also been found, especially along the skarn-host contact and orebody-host contact, indicating that skarnitization and mineralization postdated the deposition of the host sediments. The skarn consists mainly of prograde garnet and pyroxene and retrograde alteration assemblages of amphibole, epidote, and chlorite, as well as quartz and sulfides. Electron microprobe analyses show that the garnets and pyroxenes are grossular-andradite and hedenbergite-diopside series, respectively, and all samples plot in the field of typical skarn copper deposits worldwide. Molybdenite samples from stratiform copper ores yield Re-Os model ages of 138.2-139.9 Ma with a weighted mean age of 139.2 ± 0.9 Ma. This is reasonably consistent with the ages of the stratiform Mo ores (138.0-140.8 Ma) and genetically related quartz monzodiorite (135.2-139.3 Ma) in the Datuanshan deposit, indicating that the stratiform Cu and Mo mineralization was contemporaneous with emplacement of the quartz monzodiorite magmas in the Early Cretaceous. Fifteen δ34S values for sulfides range from -1.8 to +4.7 ‰, with a mean of 0.5 ‰, indicating that the sulfur was derived mainly from a magmatic source. Moreover, the sulfur isotope values of the ores are consistent with those of Mesozoic intermediate

  13. Origin of chert layers associated with some Middle Ordovician K-bentonite beds from the southern Appalachians and the eastern mid-continent

    SciTech Connect

    Krekeler, M.P.S.; McVey, D.E.; Huff, W.D. . Dept. of Geology)

    1994-03-01

    Chert layers associated with the Middle Ordovician Deicke, Millibrig, and V-7 K-bentonite beds have been examined in thin-section to determine their origin. Textural evidence indicate that the chert layers are inorganic in origin. Complex diagenetic features include abundant chalcedony veinlets, replacement textures, and preservation of primary CO[sub 3] cements. The model the authors propose for the formation of these chert layers incorporates both silica release associated with the devitrification of volcanic glass and silica precipitation from a migrating regional brine. Precipitation from a brine is the dominant mechanism of silicification based on stoichiometric calculations of silica release during illite/smectite (I/S) transformations, petrography of the chert layers, and work by previous authors. However, multiple generations of silica observed in the rock suggest that other contributing small scale sources of silica may also exist. Brine derived silica preferentially replaces low Mg calcite that has high surface area, such as micrite and fossil debris. Some dolomite rhombs preserved in the chert may have formed during primary sedimentary dolomitization yet textural comparisons indicate this is unlikely for most samples. Birdseye and brachiopod cements are typically well preserved in the cherts. Cherts that have been subjected to elevated burial temperatures (150--200 C) have significant amounts of authigenic clay minerals. Pyrite mineralization exhibits cross cutting relationships with chert and micrite. Clay and pyrite mineralization suggest the presence of significant porosity early in the history of formation of the chert layers.

  14. Hierarchy of sedimentary discontinuity surfaces and condensed beds from the middle Paleozoic of eastern North America: Implications for cratonic sequence stratigraphy

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McLaughlin, P.I.; Brett, Carlton E.; Wilson, M.A.

    2008-01-01

    Sedimentological analyses of middle Paleozoic epeiric sea successions in North America suggest a hierarchy of discontinuity surfaces and condensed beds of increasing complexity. Simple firmgrounds and hardgrounds, which are comparatively ephemeral features, form the base of the hierarchy. Composite hardgrounds, reworked concretions, authigenic mineral crusts and monomictic intraformational conglomerates indicate more complex histories. Polymictic intraformational conglomerates, ironstones and phosphorites form the most complex discontinuity surfaces and condensed beds. Complexity of discontinuities is closely linked to depositional environments duration of sediment starvation and degree of reworking which in turn show a relationship to stratigraphic cyclicity. A model of cratonic sequence stratigraphy is generated by combining data on the complexity and lateral distribution of discontinuities in the context of facies successions. Lowstand, early transgressive and late transgressive systems tracts are representative of sea-level rise. Early and late transgressive systems tracts are separated by the maximum starvation surface (typically a polymictic intraformational conglomerate or condensed phosphorite), deposited during the peak rate of sea-level rise. Conversely the maximum flooding surface, representing the highest stand of sea level, is marked by little to no break in sedimentation. The highstand and falling stage systems tracts are deposited during relative sea-level fall. They are separated by the forced-regression surface, a thin discontinuity surface or condensed bed developed during the most rapid rate of sea-level fall. The lowest stand of sea level is marked by the sequence boundary. In subaerially exposed areas it is occasionally modified as a rockground or composite hardground.

  15. Inhibition of proprotein convertases abrogates processing of the middle eastern respiratory syndrome coronavirus spike protein in infected cells but does not reduce viral infectivity.

    PubMed

    Gierer, Stefanie; Müller, Marcel A; Heurich, Adeline; Ritz, Daniel; Springstein, Benjamin L; Karsten, Christina B; Schendzielorz, Alexander; Gnirß, Kerstin; Drosten, Christian; Pöhlmann, Stefan

    2015-03-15

    Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) infection is associated with a high case-fatality rate, and the potential pandemic spread of the virus is a public health concern. The spike protein of MERS-CoV (MERS-S) facilitates viral entry into host cells, which depends on activation of MERS-S by cellular proteases. Proteolytic activation of MERS-S during viral uptake into target cells has been demonstrated. However, it is unclear whether MERS-S is also cleaved during S protein synthesis in infected cells and whether cleavage is required for MERS-CoV infectivity. Here, we show that MERS-S is processed by proprotein convertases in MERS-S-transfected and MERS-CoV-infected cells and that several RXXR motifs located at the border between the surface and transmembrane subunit of MERS-S are required for efficient proteolysis. However, blockade of proprotein convertases did not impact MERS-S-dependent transduction of target cells expressing high amounts of the viral receptor, DPP4, and did not modulate MERS-CoV infectivity. These results show that MERS-S is a substrate for proprotein convertases and demonstrate that processing by these enzymes is dispensable for S protein activation. Efforts to inhibit MERS-CoV infection by targeting host cell proteases should therefore focus on enzymes that process MERS-S during viral uptake into target cells.

  16. The U-Pb SIMS zircon age and geodynamic conditions of formation of granitoides of the Verkhisetsk batholith, the eastern slope of the Middle Urals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smirnov, V. N.; Ivanov, K. S.; Larionov, A. N.

    2014-11-01

    The U-Pb SIMS age dating of zircons from different-age granitoid assemblages varying in composition of the Verkhisetsk batholith shows that it comprises rocks of three age groups, formed at different stages of the Ural Mobile Belt. The first age group is represented by quartz diorites (396 ± 5 Ma) with insignificant distribution in area. Their formation was synchronous to island arc volcanism, manifested in the area of study from the second half of the Emsian to late Givetian-early Frasnian. According to this, we could consider these granitoides as comagmatic to island arc volcanites. The second age group includes tonalites and trondhjemites (367 ± 4 Ma), comprising the western part of the batholith. On the basis of similarity between these rocks and granitoides of modern active continental margins in material composition, it is assumed that they formed throughout the island arc-continental stage of development of the Ural Mobile Belt. Granitoides of the third age group, dominating in the Verkhisetsk batholith, formed as a result of several homodrome rhythms of granodiorite-granite intrusions of moderate-potassium composition during a short period of time (315-300 Ma). Their formation is related to the initial stage of the collision stage of development of the region, lasting from the early Bashkirian to Late Permian in the Middle Urals, which is fixed by deposition of flysch and molasse sediments in the Ural Foredeep. The data obtained change our understanding significantly of the character of evolution of granitoid magmatism and the place of rock assemblages studied in the geological history of the Urals.

  17. Onset of "Hudson Strait" Heinrich events in the eastern North Atlantic at the end of the middle Pleistocene transition (˜640 ka)?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hodell, David A.; Channell, James E. T.; Curtis, Jason H.; Romero, Oscar E.; RöHl, Ursula

    2008-12-01

    Heinrich events are well documented for the last glaciation, but little is known about their occurrence in older glacial periods of the Pleistocene. Here we report scanning XRF and bulk carbonate δ18O results from Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Site U1308 (reoccupation of Deep Sea Drilling Project Site 609) that are used to develop proxy records of ice-rafted detritus (IRD) for the last ˜1.4 Ma. Ca/Sr is used as an indicator of IRD layers that are rich in detrital carbonate (i.e., Heinrich layers), whereas Si/Sr reflects layers that are poor in biogenic carbonate and relatively rich in detrital silicate minerals. A pronounced change occurred in the composition and frequency of IRD at ˜640 ka during marine isotope stage (MIS) 16, coinciding with the end of the middle Pleistocene transition. At this time, "Hudson Strait" Heinrich layers suddenly appeared in the sedimentary record of Site U1308, and the dominant period of the Si/Sr proxy shifted from 41 ka prior to 640 ka to 100 ka afterward. The onset of Heinrich layers during MIS 16 represents either the initiation of surging of the Laurentide Ice Sheet (LIS) off Hudson Strait or the first time icebergs produced by this process survived the transport to Site U1308. We speculate that ice volume (i.e., thickness) and duration surpassed a critical threshold during MIS 16 and activated the dynamical processes responsible for LIS instability in the region of Hudson Strait. We also observe a strong coupling between IRD proxies and benthic δ13C variation at Site U1308 throughout the Pleistocene, supporting a link between iceberg discharge and weakening of thermohaline circulation in the North Atlantic.

  18. Structural equation model for estimating risk factors in type 2 diabetes mellitus in a Middle Eastern setting: evidence from the STEPS Qatar

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Faleh Mohamed Hussain; Reka, Husein; Renwick, Matthew J; Roman, Gabriela D; Mossialos, Elias

    2016-01-01

    Aims Understanding type 2 diabetes mellitus is critical for designing effective diabetes prevention policies in Qatar and the Middle East. Methods Using the Qatar 2012 WHO STEPwise approach to surveillance survey, a subsample of 1224 Qatari participants aged 18–64 years was selected. Subjects had their fasting blood glucose levels tested, had not been diagnosed with or treated for diabetes, had a fasting time >12 hours and were not pregnant. We applied a hypothesized structural equation model (SEM) to assess sociodemographic, behavioral, anthropometric and metabolic variables affecting persons with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Results There is a direct effect of triglyceride levels (0.336) and body mass index (BMI) (0.164) on diabetes status. We also found that physical activity levels negatively affect BMI (−0.148) and positively affect high-density lipoprotein (HDL) (0.106); sociodemographic background negatively affects diet (−0.522) and BMI (−0.352); HDL positively affects total cholesterol (0.230) and has a negative effect on BMI (−0.108), triglycerides (−0.128) and waist circumference (−0.104). Diet has a positive effect on triglycerides (0.281) while family history of diabetes negatively affects total cholesterol (−0.104). BMI has a positive effect on waist circumference (0.788) and mediates the effects of physical activity over diabetes status (−0.028). BMI also mediates the effects that sociodemographic factors (−0.058) and physical activity (−0.024) have on diabetes status. BMI and HDL (−0.002) together mediate the effect of physical activity on diabetes status and similarly HDL and tryglycerides (−0.005) also mediate the effect of physical activity on diabetes status. Finally diet and tryglycerides mediate the effects that sociodemographic factors have on diabetes status (−0.049). Conclusions This study's main finding is that triglyceride levels and BMI are the main variables directly affecting diabetes status in the Qatari

  19. Geological, geochronological, and mineralogical constraints on the genesis of the Chengchao skarn Fe deposit, Edong ore district, Middle-Lower Yangtze River Valley metallogenic belt, eastern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Lei; Xie, Guiqing; Mao, Jingwen; Lü, Zhicheng; Zhao, Caisheng; Zheng, Xianwei; Ding, Ning

    2015-04-01

    The Edong ore district is located within the westernmost Middle-Lower Yangtze River Valley metallogenic belt (MLYRB), and hosts the largest concentration of skarn Fe deposits in China, although the origin of these deposits remains controversial. The Chengchao deposit is the largest skarn Fe deposit so far discovered within the MLYRB, and provides a good opportunity to address the debate surrounding the origin of these skarn Fe deposits. Here, we present geological, geochronological, and mineralogical data from the Chengchao skarn deposit and associated intrusions, and discuss the relationships between granitoids and mineralization in the Chengchao deposit. The NW-SE-striking orebodies in the study area have porphyritic quartz monzonite and/or granite footwalls, and Triassic marble or diorite hangingwalls, indicating a spatial relationship between these intrusions and Fe mineralization. Zircon U-Pb data from the granite, porphyritic quartz monzonite, diorite, and porphyritic diabase dike within the deposit show ages of 129 ± 1, 128 ± 1, 140 ± 1, and 126 ± 1 Ma, respectively. These ages and the previously reported ages on the timing of mineralization suggest that the porphyritic quartz monzonite and granite are coeval with the formation of the skarn Fe deposit. Our data confirm that the granitic rocks are temporally associated with Fe mineralization. The prograde substage of skarn development is characterized by two stages of andradite (Adr98-38Grs61-2Prp2-0Sps1-0Alm1-0) and diopside (Di95-61Hd37-5Jo3-0), including an early stage of garnet and pyroxene formation that is genetically associated with the mineralization. The early stage garnets are more andradite-rich (Adr98-50Grs49-2Prp1-0Sps1-0Alm0) than the late veinlet garnets characterized by intermediate grandite compositions (Adr67-37Grs61-31Prp2-0Sps1-0Alm1-0). The early stage pyroxenes (Di95-74Hd26-5Jo1-0) are compositionally distinct from the late stage pyroxenes (Di84-61Hd37-16Jo3-0). Compositional

  20. The early Middle Pleistocene archeopaleontological site of Wadi Sarrat (Tunisia) and the earliest record of Bos primigenius

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez-Navarro, Bienvenido; Karoui-Yaakoub, Narjess; Oms, Oriol; Amri, Lamjed; López-García, Juan Manuel; Zerai, Kamel; Blain, Hugues-Alexandre; Mtimet, Moncef-Saïd; Espigares, María-Patrocinio; Ben Haj Ali, Nebiha; Ros-Montoya, Sergio; Boughdiri, Mabrouk; Agustí, Jordi; Khayati-Ammar, Hayet; Maalaoui, Kamel; El Khir, Maahmoudi Om; Sala, Robert; Othmani, Abdelhak; Hawas, Ramla; Gómez-Merino, Gala; Solè, Àlex; Carbonell, Eudald; Palmqvist, Paul

    2014-04-01

    Here we describe the new, rich lacustrine paleontological and archeological site of Wadi Sarrat (Le Kef, northeastern Tunisia), dated to the beginning of the Middle Pleistocene, ˜0.7 Ma, by a combination of paleomagnetism and biochronology. This locality preserves the earliest record of auroch, Bos primigenius, the ancestor of the worldwide extant domestic cattle species Bos taurus, which is represented by a nearly complete, giant-sized cranium (specimen OS1). Both the cranial anatomy and the size of this specimen reflect the phylogenetic legacy inherited from its ancestor, the late Early Pleistocene African Bos buiaensis, recorded in the eastern African paleoanthropological site of Buia, Eritrea (1.0 Ma). Given that the latter species is an evolved form of the classical Early Pleistocene African buffalo Pelorovis oldowayensis, the finding of B. primigenius at Wadi Sarrat shows that the genus Bos evolved in Africa and dispersed into Eurasia at the beginning of the Middle Pleistocene, which coincides with the spread of the Acheulian technocomplex in northern Africa and Europe. Therefore, the lineage of Pelorovis-Bos has been part of the human ecological landscape since the appearance of the genus Homo in the African Early Pleistocene.

  1. Enriched asthenosphere melting beneath the nascent North African margin: trace element and Nd isotope evidence in middle-late Triassic alkali basalts from central Sicily (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cirrincione, Rosolino; Fiannacca, Patrizia; Lustrino, Michele; Romano, Vanessa; Tranchina, Annunziata; Villa, Igor M.

    2016-03-01

    During the dismembering of the Pangea supercontinent, middle-late Triassic sub-volcanic alkaline rocks were emplaced in central Sicily. These rocks have an alkali basaltic composition and show OIB-like incompatible element patterns in primitive mantle-normalized diagrams (e.g., enrichments in HFSE and LREE coupled with high HFSE/LILE ratios), as well as slightly positive \\varepsilon_{Nd} values. Only subtle effects of crustal contamination at shallow depths emerge from geochemical data. These characteristics are very different compared with the Permian calcalkaline magmas from elsewhere in SW Europe still carrying the geochemical signature of modifications related to the Variscan orogeny. The mineralogical, geochemical and isotopic compositions of the investigated samples from central Sicily are also different from the coeval shoshonitic volcano-plutonic formations of Southern Alps (Dolomites). The incompatible element composition and Nd isotopic ratios are consistent with low-degree partial melting of a moderately depleted asthenospheric mantle source, with a negligible involvement of the thinned continental crust. The studied alkaline basalts represent the only known evidence of a segment of the Triassic rift system associated with early Pangea breakup in central Sicily. The close similarity of the central Sicily Triassic alkali basalts with coeval basalts emplaced along former orogenic sutures across the peri-Mediterranean area suggests a common origin related, at least partly, to asthenospheric passive upwelling following the tectonic collapse of the Variscan Belt. These rocks provide new constraints on the spatial-temporal distribution, magma source evolution and geodynamic meaning of the widespread Permo-Triassic basic magmatism developed after the end of the Variscan Orogeny in southwestern Europe.

  2. Tectonic Uplift and Eastern Africa Aridification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sepulchre, Pierre; Ramstein, Gilles; Fluteau, Frédéric; Schuster, Mathieu; Tiercelin, Jean-Jacques; Brunet, Michel

    2006-09-01

    The history of Eastern African hominids has been linked to a progressive increase of open grassland during the past 8 million years. This trend was explained by global climatic processes, which do not account for the massive uplift of eastern African topography that occurred during this period. Atmosphere and biosphere simulations quantify the role played by these tectonic events. The reduced topographic barrier before 8 million years ago permitted a zonal circulation with associated moisture transport and strong precipitation. Our results suggest that the uplift itself led to a drastic reorganization of atmospheric circulation, engendering the strong aridification and paleoenvironmental changes suggested by the data.

  3. Volcanism in Eastern Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cauthen, Clay; Coombs, Cassandra R.

    1996-01-01

    In 1891, the Virunga Mountains of Eastern Zaire were first acknowledged as volcanoes, and since then, the Virunga Mountain chain has demonstrated its potentially violent volcanic nature. The Virunga Mountains lie across the Eastern African Rift in an E-W direction located north of Lake Kivu. Mt. Nyamuragira and Mt. Nyiragongo present the most hazard of the eight mountains making up Virunga volcanic field, with the most recent activity during the 1970-90's. In 1977, after almost eighty years of moderate activity and periods of quiescence, Mt. Nyamuragira became highly active with lava flows that extruded from fissures on flanks circumscribing the volcano. The flows destroyed vast areas of vegetation and Zairian National Park areas, but no casualties were reported. Mt. Nyiragongo exhibited the same type volcanic activity, in association with regional tectonics that effected Mt. Nyamuragira, with variations of lava lake levels, lava fountains, and lava flows that resided in Lake Kivu. Mt. Nyiragongo, recently named a Decade volcano, presents both a direct and an indirect hazard to the inhabitants and properties located near the volcano. The Virunga volcanoes pose four major threats: volcanic eruptions, lava flows, toxic gas emission (CH4 and CO2), and earthquakes. Thus, the volcanoes of the Eastern African volcanic field emanate harm to the surrounding area by the forecast of volcanic eruptions. During the JSC Summer Fellowship program, we will acquire and collate remote sensing, photographic (Space Shuttle images), topographic and field data. In addition, maps of the extent and morphology(ies) of the features will be constructed using digital image information. The database generated will serve to create a Geographic Information System for easy access of information of the Eastem African volcanic field. The analysis of volcanism in Eastern Africa will permit a comparison for those areas from which we have field data. Results from this summer's work will permit

  4. African dust outbreaks over the Mediterranean Basin during 2001-2011: concentrations, phenomenology and trends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pey, Jorge; Querol, Xavier; Alastuey, Andres; Forastiere, Franceso; Stafoggia, Massimo

    2013-04-01

    Concentrations, phenomenology and trends of African dust outbreaks over the whole Mediterranean Basin werestudied on an 11-year period (2001-2011). This work has been performed in the context of the MED-PARTICLES (LIFE programme, EU) project, devoted to quantify short-term health effects of particulate matter over the Mediterranean region by distinguishing different particle sizes, chemical components and sources, with emphasis in the effects of African dust. In order to evaluate conduct this investigation, PM10 data from 19 regional and suburban background sites West to East in the Mediterranean area were compiled. After identifying the daily occurrence of African dust outbreaks, a methodology for estimating natural dust contributions on daily PM10 concentrations was applied. Our findings point out that African dust outbreaks are sensibly more frequent in southern sitesacross the Mediterranean, from 30 to 37 % of the annual days, whereas they occur less than 20% of the annual days in northern sites. The central Mediterranean emerges as a transitional area, with slightly higher frequency of dust episodes in its lower extreme when compared to similar latitudinal positions in western and eastern sides of the Basin. A decreasing south to north gradient of African dust contribution to PM10, driven by the latitudinal position of the monitoring sites at least 25°E westwards across the Basin,is patent across the Mediterranean. From 25°E eastwards, higher annual dust contributions are encountered due to the elevated annual occurrence of severe episodesof dust but also because of inputs from Middle Eastern deserts. Concerning seasonality patterns and intensity characteristics, a clear summer prevalence is observed in the western part, with low occurrence of severe episodes (daily dust averages over 100 µg m-3 in PM10); no seasonal trend is detected in the central region, with moderate-intensity episodes; and significantly higher contributions are common in autumn

  5. African Swine Fever Virus p72 Genotype IX in Domestic Pigs, Congo, 2009

    PubMed Central

    Anchuelo, Raquel; Pelayo, Virginia; Poudevigne, Frédéric; Leon, Tati; Nzoussi, Jacques; Bishop, Richard; Pérez, Covadonga; Soler, Alejandro; Nieto, Raquel; Martín, Hilario; Arias, Marisa

    2011-01-01

    African swine fever virus p72 genotype IX, associated with outbreaks in eastern Africa, is cocirculating in the Republic of the Congo with West African genotype I. Data suggest that viruses from eastern Africa are moving into western Africa, increasing the threat of outbreaks caused by novel viruses in this region. PMID:21801650

  6. Teaching about the Middle East: Challenges and Resource

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaffee, Cyrisse

    2004-01-01

    Barbara Petzen began working as a part-time outreach coordinator at Harvard University's Center for Middle Eastern Studies (CMES) a week before September 11, 2001. She was finishing her dissertation in Middle Eastern studies, specializing in the Ottoman Empire and Arab history, and thought it would be a good job to have while she completed her…

  7. The Future of Area Studies: The Middle East.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winder, R. B.

    1985-01-01

    Describes problems in Middle Eastern studies, focusing on: (1) the problem of access for students and faculty conducting research due to countries being completely closed or highly restrictive; (2) declines in Middle Eastern and American corporate donations to language and area studies as oil prices decrease; and (3) the difficulties inherent in…

  8. African horse sickness.

    PubMed

    Zientara, S; Weyer, C T; Lecollinet, S

    2015-08-01

    African horse sickness (AHS) is a devastating disease of equids caused by an arthropod-borne virus belonging to the Reoviridae family, genus Orbivirus. It is considered a major health threat for horses in endemic areas in sub-Saharan Africa. African horse sickness virus (AHSV) repeatedly caused large epizootics in the Mediterranean region (North Africa and southern Europe in particular) as a result of trade in infected equids. The unexpected emergence of a closely related virus, the bluetongue virus, in northern Europe in 2006 has raised fears about AHSV introduction into Europe, and more specifically into AHSV-free regions that have reported the presence of AHSV vectors, e.g. Culicoides midges. North African and European countries should be prepared to face AHSV incursions in the future, especially since two AHSV serotypes (serotypes 2 and 7) have recently spread northwards to western (e.g. Senegal, Nigeria, Gambia) and eastern Africa (Ethiopia), where historically only serotype 9 had been isolated. The authors review key elements of AHS epidemiology, surveillance and prophylaxis. PMID:26601437

  9. Two African Saints in Medieval Germany.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grimm, Reinhold

    1992-01-01

    The origin and development of two African saints are discussed: Saint Maurice, patron saint of the eastern empire of Otto I; and Caspar, the youngest of the three Magi. Their representation in German art is described and illustrated. (Author/LB)

  10. Self-reported asthma in Chaldeans, Arabs, and African Americans: factors associated with asthma.

    PubMed

    Jamil, Hikmet; Raymond, Delbert; Fakhouri, Monty; Templin, Thomas; Khoury, Radwan; Fakhouri, Haifa; Arnetz, Bengt B

    2011-06-01

    Although the prevalence of asthma is increasing worldwide, there are striking, and largely unexplained differences across various racial and ethnic groups. The current study looks at the prevalence of asthma and risk factors between Chaldeans, Arabs, and African Americans. We used Health Assessment Survey data representing 3,136 respondents. Prevalence across the three ethnic groups were compared using unadjusted and adjusted odds ratios, accounting for multiple risk factors. There were significant socio-demographic differences across all ethnic groups. Asthma prevalence was significantly lower in Arabs (9.4%) and Chaldeans (5.4%) than in Non-Middle Eastern Whites (14.4%). African American prevalence was 14.4%. The significantly lower prevalence of asthma among Chaldean and Arabs, as compared to African Americans, were not explained by traditional risk factors included in our models. We therefore, suggest that future studies should explore the possible role of ethnic-specific differences in gene × environmental interactions in the precipitation and/or exacerbation of asthma.

  11. Lithospheric Response of the Anatolian Plateau in the Realm of the Black Sea and the Eastern Mediterranean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ergun, Mustafa

    2016-04-01

    The Eastern Mediterranean and the Middle East make up the southern boundary of the Tethys Ocean for the last 200 Ma by the disintegration of the Pangaea and closure of the Tethys Ocean. It covers the structures: Hellenic and Cyprus arcs; Eastern Anatolian Fault Zone; Bitlis Suture Zone and Zagros Mountains. The northern boundary of the Tethys Ocean is made up the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea, and it extends up to Po valley towards the west (Pontides, Caucasus). Between these two zones the Alp-Himalayan orogenic belt is situated where the Balkan, Anatolia and the Iran plateaus are placed as the remnants of the lost Ocean of the Tethys. The active tectonics of the eastern Mediterranean is the consequences of the convergence between the Africa, Arabian plates in the south and the Eurasian plate in the north. These plates act as converging jaws of vise forming a crustal mosaic in between. The active crustal deformation pattern reveals two N-S trending maximum compression or crustal shortening syntaxes': (i) the eastern Black Sea and the Arabian plate, (ii) the western Black Sea and the Isparta Angle. The transition in young mountain belts, from ocean crust through the agglomeration of arc systems with long histories of oceanic closures, to a continental hinterland is well exemplified by the plate margin in the eastern Mediterranean. The boundary between the African plate and the Aegean/Anatolian microplate is in the process of transition from subduction to collision along the Cyprus Arc. Since the Black Sea has oceanic lithosphere, it is actually a separate plate. However it can be considered as a block, because the Black Sea is a trapped oceanic basin that cannot move freely within the Eurasian Plate. Lying towards the northern margin of orogenic belts related to the closure of the Tethys Ocean, it is generally considered to be a result of back-arc extension associated with the northward subduction of the Tethyan plate to the south. Interface oceanic lithosphere at

  12. "Workin' on the Railroad": African American Labor History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maher, Rebecca

    2004-01-01

    In the spring of 2003, the author worked with a team of eighth grade teachers at Asheville Middle School in North Carolina on a project that combined fine art, music, the history of the railroads, and the African American experience in the state and nation. In her classroom, students interviewed a retired train conductor, who was African American,…

  13. A Rationale for Creating African-American Immersion Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holt, Kenneth C.

    1991-01-01

    The traditional U.S. classroom's milieu has distorted and refused to recognize the language and cultural richness of African-American students. Milwaukee's two immersion schools, Victor Berger Elementary School and Parkman Middle School, place the African-American students and their culture at the center of the educational process. Results have…

  14. Discrimination, Mastery, and Depressive Symptoms among African American Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watkins, Daphne C.; Hudson, Darrell L.; Caldwell, Cleopatra Howard; Siefert, Kristine; Jackson, James S.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This study examines the influence of discrimination and mastery on depressive symptoms for African American men at young (18-34), middle (35-54), and late (55+) adulthood. Method: Analyses are based on responses from 1,271 African American men from the National Survey of American Life (NSAL). Results: Discrimination was significantly…

  15. Support Needs of Overweight African American Women for Weight Loss

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Janet L.; Stewart, Diana W.; Lynam, Ian M.; Daley, Christine M.; Befort, Christie; Scherber, Robyn M.; Mercurio, Andrea E.; Okuyemi, Kolawole S.; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: To examine social support needs of obese and overweight African American women for weight loss. Methods: Focus groups were conducted with overweight and obese African American women. Data were analyzed using standard grounded theory text analysis. Results: Our middle-aged (45.7 years; SD = 12.6) women (N = 66) were interested in…

  16. Family Factors Associated with Language Competence among Toddlers in French, North African, and African Families in France.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Honig, Alice Sterling; Park, Kyung-Ja

    Language adequacy was coded for 403 toddlers 24 months of age who had received medical and psychological examinations in a Bilan de Sante clinic in Paris, France. The children were from three cultures: native French middle class, immigrant North African Moslem, and immigrant Black African. Demographic, socioeconomic, medical, biological,…

  17. Gastrointestinal Infections in Deployed Forces in the Middle East Theater: An Historical 60 Year Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Riddle, Mark S.; Savarino, Stephen J.; Sanders, John W.

    2015-01-01

    Infectious diarrhea has been among the most common maladies of military deployments throughout time. The U.S. military experienced a significant burden from this disease in the middle eastern and north African campaigns of World War II (WWII). This article compares patterns of disease experienced in WWII with the recent military deployments to the same region for Operation Iraqi Freedom and Operation Enduring Freedom (OIF/OEF). Remarkable similarities in the prevalence and risk factors were noted, which belie the assumed improvements in prevention against these infections. In both campaigns, peaks of diarrhea occurred shortly after arrival of new personnel, which were seasonally associated and were linked to initial lapses in field sanitation and hygiene. It is important to reassess current strategies, especially, in light of emerging evidence of the chronic sequelae of these common infections to include a reemphasis on or reexamination of vaccine development, rapid field diagnostics, treatment algorithms, and antimicrobial prophylaxis. PMID:26350450

  18. Gastrointestinal Infections in Deployed Forces in the Middle East Theater: An Historical 60 Year Perspective.

    PubMed

    Riddle, Mark S; Savarino, Stephen J; Sanders, John W

    2015-11-01

    Infectious diarrhea has been among the most common maladies of military deployments throughout time. The U.S. military experienced a significant burden from this disease in the middle eastern and north African campaigns of World War II (WWII). This article compares patterns of disease experienced in WWII with the recent military deployments to the same region for Operation Iraqi Freedom and Operation Enduring Freedom (OIF/OEF). Remarkable similarities in the prevalence and risk factors were noted, which belie the assumed improvements in prevention against these infections. In both campaigns, peaks of diarrhea occurred shortly after arrival of new personnel, which were seasonally associated and were linked to initial lapses in field sanitation and hygiene. It is important to reassess current strategies, especially, in light of emerging evidence of the chronic sequelae of these common infections to include a reemphasis on or reexamination of vaccine development, rapid field diagnostics, treatment algorithms, and antimicrobial prophylaxis.

  19. African Aesthetics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abiodun, Rowland

    2001-01-01

    No single traditional discipline can adequately supply answers to the many unresolved questions in African art history. Because of the aesthetic, cultural, historical, and, not infrequently, political biases, already built into the conception and development of Western art history, the discipline of art history as defined and practiced in the West…

  20. "African Connection."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adelman, Cathy; And Others

    This interdisciplinary unit provides students in grades kindergarten through seventh grade an opportunity to understand diversity through a study of Africa as a diverse continent. The project is designed to provide all elementary students with cultural enrichment by exposing them to African music, art, storytelling, and movement. This project can…

  1. The Eastern Arc Mountains and coastal forests of East Africa-an archive to understand large-scale biogeographical patterns: Pseudotomias, a new genus of African Pseudophyllinae (Orthoptera: Tettigoniidae).

    PubMed

    Hemp, Claudia

    2016-06-21

    A new genus of Pseudophyllinae restricted to East Africa is described. Data on the ecology, and the habitat are provided. The biogeographical pattern and morphology suggests an old radiation since Tomias from Central and West Africa is the closest relative to Pseudotomias. The old forests of East Africa could hereby be the source of representatives of this old radiation since venation is less reduced in East African taxa of Phyllomimini.

  2. Founder mutations in Tunisia: implications for diagnosis in North Africa and Middle East

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Tunisia is a North African country of 10 million inhabitants. The native background population is Berber. However, throughout its history, Tunisia has been the site of invasions and migratory waves of allogenic populations and ethnic groups such as Phoenicians, Romans, Vandals, Arabs, Ottomans and French. Like neighbouring and Middle Eastern countries, the Tunisian population shows a relatively high rate of consanguinity and endogamy that favor expression of recessive genetic disorders at relatively high rates. Many factors could contribute to the recurrence of monogenic morbid trait expression. Among them, founder mutations that arise in one ancestral individual and diffuse through generations in isolated communities. Method We report here on founder mutations in the Tunisian population by a systematic review of all available data from PubMed, other sources of the scientific literature as well as unpublished data from our research laboratory. Results We identified two different classes of founder mutations. The first includes founder mutations so far reported only among Tunisians that are responsible for 30 genetic diseases. The second group represents founder haplotypes described in 51 inherited conditions that occur among Tunisians and are also shared with other North African and Middle Eastern countries. Several heavily disabilitating diseases are caused by recessive founder mutations. They include, among others, neuromuscular diseases such as congenital muscular dystrophy and spastic paraglegia and also severe genodermatoses such as dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa and xeroderma pigmentosa. Conclusion This report provides informations on founder mutations for 73 genetic diseases either specific to Tunisians or shared by other populations. Taking into account the relatively high number and frequency of genetic diseases in the region and the limited resources, screening for these founder mutations should provide a rapid and cost effective tool for

  3. Eastern Kentucky Teacher and Administrative Stress: Part II

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Sam; Ballestero, Victor

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to survey selected Eastern Kentucky Teachers (Elementary, Middle, and High School) to collect data about stress in public schools. This was a continuation study for Eastern Kentucky that collected data on how men and women teachers and men and women administrators handle stress. A stress survey (Appendix C) was…

  4. Ideal Body Size as a Mediator for the Gender-Specific Association between Socioeconomic Status and Body Mass Index: Evidence from an Upper-Middle-Income Country in the African Region

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yepes, Maryam; Maurer, Jürgen; Stringhini, Silvia; Viswanathan, Barathi; Gedeon, Jude; Bovet, Pascal

    2016-01-01

    Background: While obesity continues to rise globally, the associations between body size, gender, and socioeconomic status (SES) seem to vary in different populations, and little is known on the contribution of perceived ideal body size in the social disparity of obesity in African countries. Purpose: We examined the gender and socioeconomic…

  5. Promotive Parenting Practices among African American Mothers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams-Wheeler, Meeshay

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine communication/reasoning, behavioral control, and trust as predictors of resourcefulness among African American children during middle childhood (6-12 years of age). Mothers who practice promotive socialization strategies are more likely to rear children who are socially competent and well adjusted. Multiple…

  6. Polymorphic sites in the African population detected by sequence analysis of the glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase gene outline the evolution of the variants A and A-.

    PubMed Central

    Vulliamy, T J; Othman, A; Town, M; Nathwani, A; Falusi, A G; Mason, P J; Luzzatto, L

    1991-01-01

    The human X chromosome-linked gene encoding glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD; EC 1.1.1.49) is known to be highly polymorphic from the biochemical characterization of enzyme variants. The variant A (with enzyme activity in the normal range) and the variant A- (associated with enzyme deficiency) each have a frequency of about 0.2 in several African populations. Two restriction fragment length polymorphisms have also been found in people of African descent, but not in other populations, whereas a silent mutation has been shown to be polymorphic in Mediterranean, Middle Eastern, African, and Indian populations. We report now on two additional polymorphisms that we have detected by sequence analysis, one in intron 7 and one in intron 8. The analysis of 54 African male subjects for the seven polymorphic sites, clustered within 3 kilobases of the G6PD gene, has revealed only 7 of the 128 possible haplotypes, indicating marked linkage disequilibrium. These data have enabled us to suggest an evolutionary pathway for the different mutations, with only a single ambiguity. The mutation underlying the A variant is the most ancient and the mutation underlying the A- variant is the most recent. Since it seems reasonable that the A- allele is subject to positive selection by malaria, whereas the other alleles are neutral, G6PD may lend itself to the analysis of the role of random genetic drift and selection in determining allele frequencies within a single genetic locus in human populations. Images PMID:1924316

  7. African climate variability and organic carbon accumulation in the Coniacian-Satonian eastern tropical Atlantic: Insights how insolation-cycles in the Cretaceous were transformed to marine black shales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofmann, P.; Wagner, T.; Beckmann, B.; Floegel, S.

    2003-12-01

    There is increasing evidence from marine proxy records that tropical regions during the late Cretaceous were hotter than previously reported and were by far exceeding modern average temperatures. Tropical sea surface temperatures in the range of 32-36° C apparently lasted from the latest Cenomanian to the early Campanian. A fundamental consequence of superheated Cretaceous tropics is a vigorous hydrological cycle operating in equatorial regions. Geological evidence supporting such an enhanced hydrological cycle and a direct link to the formation of marine black shale cycles was recently reported for ODP Site 959 from the Deep Ivorian Basin (DIB) off equatorial West-Africa. Millennial-scale marine and terrigenous proxy records from that site provide a unique opportunity to investigate short-term variability of the ocean-climate system, to discuss the role of orbital forcing and to assess the primary mechanisms how cyclic marine deposits are formed in the geological record. In the Deep Ivorian Basin formation of cyclic OAE3 black shales was favoured by the paleogeographic position of the drill site in the partly sheltered early Ivory Basin south of the paleo-equator and, most important, was directly linked to orbital-driven fluctuations in atmospheric and oceanic circulation. Dramatic changes in redox sensitive trace metal accumulation as well as the occurrence of molecular fossils of green sulfur bacteria provide evidence for extreme variations in redox conditions, with euxinic conditions occasionally even extending into the lower photic zone. The temporal establishment of a continuous euxinic water column about 200 km offshore the West-African coastline supports the conclusion that redox conditions in the Coniacian-Santonian tropical ocean at least occasionally were as extreme as during the Cenomanian-Turonian OAE-2, although much smaller in extent and restricted to short but repetitive periods. It has also been demonstrated that the terrigenous fraction

  8. Carnivorous dinocephalian from the Middle Permian of Brazil and tetrapod dispersal in Pangaea.

    PubMed

    Cisneros, Juan Carlos; Abdala, Fernando; Atayman-Güven, Saniye; Rubidge, Bruce S; Şengörc, A M Celâl; Schultz, Cesar L

    2012-01-31

    The medial Permian (~270-260 Ma: Guadalupian) was a time of important tetrapod faunal changes, in particular reflecting a turnover from pelycosaurian- to therapsid-grade synapsids. Until now, most knowledge on tetrapod distribution during the medial Permian has come from fossils found in the South African Karoo and the Russian Platform, whereas other areas of Pangaea are still poorly known. We present evidence for the presence of a terrestrial carnivorous vertebrate from the Middle Permian of South America based on a complete skull. Pampaphoneus biccai gen. et sp. nov. was a dinocephalian "mammal-like reptile" member of the Anteosauridae, an early therapsid predator clade known only from the Middle Permian of Russia, Kazakhstan, China, and South Africa. The genus is characterized, among other features, by postorbital bosses, short, bulbous postcanines, and strongly recurved canines. Phylogenetic analysis indicates that the Brazilian dinocephalian occupies a middle position within the Anteosauridae, reinforcing the model of a global distribution for therapsids as early as the Guadalupian. The close phylogenetic relationship of the Brazilian species to dinocephalians from South Africa and the Russian Platform suggests a closer faunistic relationship between South America and eastern Europe than previously thought, lending support to a Pangaea B-type continental reconstruction.

  9. Carnivorous dinocephalian from the Middle Permian of Brazil and tetrapod dispersal in Pangaea

    PubMed Central

    Cisneros, Juan Carlos; Abdala, Fernando; Atayman-Güven, Saniye; Rubidge, Bruce S.; Şengör, A. M. Celâl; Schultz, Cesar L.

    2012-01-01

    The medial Permian (∼270–260 Ma: Guadalupian) was a time of important tetrapod faunal changes, in particular reflecting a turnover from pelycosaurian- to therapsid-grade synapsids. Until now, most knowledge on tetrapod distribution during the medial Permian has come from fossils found in the South African Karoo and the Russian Platform, whereas other areas of Pangaea are still poorly known. We present evidence for the presence of a terrestrial carnivorous vertebrate from the Middle Permian of South America based on a complete skull. Pampaphoneus biccai gen. et sp. nov. was a dinocephalian “mammal-like reptile” member of the Anteosauridae, an early therapsid predator clade known only from the Middle Permian of Russia, Kazakhstan, China, and South Africa. The genus is characterized, among other features, by postorbital bosses, short, bulbous postcanines, and strongly recurved canines. Phylogenetic analysis indicates that the Brazilian dinocephalian occupies a middle position within the Anteosauridae, reinforcing the model of a global distribution for therapsids as early as the Guadalupian. The close phylogenetic relationship of the Brazilian species to dinocephalians from South Africa and the Russian Platform suggests a closer faunistic relationship between South America and eastern Europe than previously thought, lending support to a Pangaea B-type continental reconstruction. PMID:22307615

  10. The Plio-Pleistocene evolution of the Southern Middle Atlas Fault Zone (SMAFZ) front of Morocco

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laville, E.; Delcaillau, B.; Charroud, M.; Dugué, O.; Ait Brahim, L.; Cattaneo, G.; Deluca, P.; Bouazza, A.

    2007-06-01

    The South Middle Atlas front constitutes a northeast-trending shear zone, located north of the Neogene Missour basin and east of the Taza Guercif basin. This paper analyses the Southern Middle Atlas Fault Zone (SMAFZ) deformation since the Pliocene. The set of structures observed suggests that reverse and thrust faulting along the central part of the SMAFZ are combined with left-lateral slip along N S striking faults of its south-western termination and right-lateral faulting along E NE striking faults of the east northeast termination. Thrusts and oblique thrust-related anticlines of the two lateral ramps partly accommodate north-west directed motion of the African plate. The Thrusts probably resulted from rejuvenation of Jurassic normal faults; they were active during the Upper Miocene Pliocene and the Pleistocene. The geometries of positive inversion structures and buttressing effects are clearly dependent on the geometry and sedimentology of the original basin-controlling fault system and on the presence of a décollement level. Field mapping is integrated with Landsat imagery and a digital elevation model to investigate the morphotectonic evolution of the south-eastern range front of the Middle Atlas. Geomorphological features provide significant information on the processes that govern lateral propagation of active anticlines. Both suggest that the deformation front may have been active since Pliocene.

  11. Carnivorous dinocephalian from the Middle Permian of Brazil and tetrapod dispersal in Pangaea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cisneros, Juan Carlos; Abdala, Fernando; Atayman-Güven, Saniye; Rubidge, Bruce S.; Celâl Şengör, A. M.; Schultz, Cesar L.

    2012-01-01

    The medial Permian (∼270-260 Ma: Guadalupian) was a time of important tetrapod faunal changes, in particular reflecting a turnover from pelycosaurian- to therapsid-grade synapsids. Until now, most knowledge on tetrapod distribution during the medial Permian has come from fossils found in the South African Karoo and the Russian Platform, whereas other areas of Pangaea are still poorly known. We present evidence for the presence of a terrestrial carnivorous vertebrate from the Middle Permian of South America based on a complete skull. Pampaphoneus biccai gen. et sp. nov. was a dinocephalian "mammal-like reptile" member of the Anteosauridae, an early therapsid predator clade known only from the Middle Permian of Russia, Kazakhstan, China, and South Africa. The genus is characterized, among other features, by postorbital bosses, short, bulbous postcanines, and strongly recurved canines. Phylogenetic analysis indicates that the Brazilian dinocephalian occupies a middle position within the Anteosauridae, reinforcing the model of a global distribution for therapsids as early as the Guadalupian. The close phylogenetic relationship of the Brazilian species to dinocephalians from South Africa and the Russian Platform suggests a closer faunistic relationship between South America and eastern Europe than previously thought, lending support to a Pangaea B-type continental reconstruction.

  12. Discrimination, Mastery, and Depressive Symptoms Among African American Men

    PubMed Central

    Watkins, Daphne C.; Hudson, Darrell L.; Caldwell, Cleopatra Howard; Siefert, Kristine; Jackson, James S.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose This study examines the influence of discrimination and mastery on depressive symptoms for African American men at young (18–34), middle (35–54), and late (55+) adulthood. Method Analyses are based on responses from 1,271 African American men from the National Survey of American Life (NSAL). Results Discrimination was significantly related to depressive symptoms for men ages 35 to 54 and mastery was found to be protective against depressive symptoms for all men. Compared to African American men in the young and late adult groups, discrimination remained a statistically significant predictor of depressive symptoms for men in the middle group once mastery was included. Implications Findings demonstrate the distinct differences in the influence of discrimination on depressive symptoms among adult African American males and the need for future research that explores the correlates of mental health across age groups. Implications for social work research and practice with African American men are discussed. PMID:24436576

  13. A SNP test to identify Africanized honeybees via proportion of 'African' ancestry.

    PubMed

    Chapman, Nadine C; Harpur, Brock A; Lim, Julianne; Rinderer, Thomas E; Allsopp, Michael H; Zayed, Amro; Oldroyd, Benjamin P

    2015-11-01

    The honeybee, Apis mellifera, is the world's most important pollinator and is ubiquitous in most agricultural ecosystems. Four major evolutionary lineages and at least 24 subspecies are recognized. Commercial populations are mainly derived from subspecies originating in Europe (75-95%). The Africanized honeybee is a New World hybrid of A. m. scutellata from Africa and European subspecies, with the African component making up 50-90% of the genome. Africanized honeybees are considered undesirable for bee-keeping in most countries, due to their extreme defensiveness and poor honey production. The international trade in honeybees is restricted, due in part to bans on the importation of queens (and semen) from countries where Africanized honeybees are extant. Some desirable strains from the United States of America that have been bred for traits such as resistance to the mite Varroa destructor are unfortunately excluded from export to countries such as Australia due to the presence of Africanized honeybees in the USA. This study shows that a panel of 95 single nucleotide polymorphisms, chosen to differentiate between the African, Eastern European and Western European lineages, can detect Africanized honeybees with a high degree of confidence via ancestry assignment. Our panel therefore offers a valuable tool to mitigate the risks of spreading Africanized honeybees across the globe and may enable the resumption of queen and bee semen imports from the Americas.

  14. Adiposity and hyperglycaemia in pregnancy and related health outcomes in European ethnic minorities of Asian and African origin: a review

    PubMed Central

    Jenum, Anne Karen; Sommer, Christine; Sletner, Line; Mørkrid, Kjersti; Bærug, Anne; Mosdøl, Annhild

    2013-01-01

    Background Ethnic minorities in Europe have high susceptibility to type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and, in some groups, also cardiovascular disease (CVD). Pregnancy can be considered a stress test that predicts future morbidity patterns in women and that affects future health of the child. Objective To review ethnic differences in: 1) adiposity, hyperglycaemia, and pre-eclampsia during pregnancy; 2) future risk in the mother of obesity, T2DM and CVD; and 3) prenatal development and possible influences of maternal obesity, hyperglycaemia, and pre-eclampsia on offspring's future disease risk, as relevant for ethnic minorities in Europe of Asian and African origin. Design Literature review. Results Maternal health among ethnic minorities is still sparsely documented. Higher pre-pregnant body mass index (BMI) is found in women of African and Middle Eastern descent, and lower BMI in women from East and South Asia compared with women from the majority population. Within study populations, risk of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is considerably higher in many minority groups, particularly South Asians, than in the majority population. This increased risk is apparent at lower BMI and younger ages. Women of African origin have higher risk of pre-eclampsia. A GDM pregnancy implies approximately seven-fold higher risk of T2DM than normal pregnancies, and both GDM and pre-eclampsia increase later risk of CVD. Asian neonates have lower birth weights, and mostly also African neonates. This may translate into increased risks of later obesity, T2DM, and CVD. Foetal overgrowth can promote the same conditions. Breastfeeding represents a possible strategy to reduce risk of T2DM in both the mother and the child. Conclusions Ethnic minority women in Europe with Asian and African origin and their offspring seem to be at increased risk of T2DM and CVD, both currently and in the future. Pregnancy is an important window of opportunity for short and long-term disease prevention. PMID:23467680

  15. Obesity and African Americans

    MedlinePlus

    ... Data > Minority Population Profiles > Black/African American > Obesity Obesity and African Americans African American women have the ... ss6304.pdf [PDF | 3.38MB] HEALTH IMPACT OF OBESITY More than 80 percent of people with type ...

  16. Predicting Early Adolescent Gang Involvement from Middle School Adaptation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dishion, Thomas J.; Nelson, Sarah E.; Yasui, Miwa

    2005-01-01

    This study examined the role of adaptation in the first year of middle school (Grade 6, age 11) to affiliation with gangs by the last year of middle school (Grade 8, age 13). The sample consisted of 714 European American (EA) and African American (AA) boys and girls. Specifically, academic grades, reports of antisocial behavior, and peer relations…

  17. Media and Teaching about the Middle East

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaviani, Khodadad

    2009-01-01

    This qualitative study was conducted in 2006-2007 and found that teachers relied on a variety of readily available media to stay informed about the Middle East and used some of them in their teaching. Teachers tried to explain to their students that every Middle Eastern Muslim is not a terrorist and Iraq was not behind the 9/11 terrorist attacks.…

  18. For People of African, Mediterranean, or Southeast Asian Heritage: Important Information about Diabetes Blood Tests

    MedlinePlus

    ... p.m. eastern time, M-F For More Information American Diabetes Association National Heart, Lung, and Blood ... of African, Mediterranean, or Southeast Asian Heritage: Important Information about Diabetes Blood Tests Page Content On this ...

  19. Continental Island Formation and the Archaeology of Defaunation on Zanzibar, Eastern Africa.

    PubMed

    Prendergast, Mary E; Rouby, Hélène; Punnwong, Paramita; Marchant, Robert; Crowther, Alison; Kourampas, Nikos; Shipton, Ceri; Walsh, Martin; Lambeck, Kurt; Boivin, Nicole L

    2016-01-01

    With rising sea levels at the end of the Pleistocene, land-bridge or continental islands were formed around the world. Many of these islands have been extensively studied from a biogeographical perspective, particularly in terms of impacts of island creation on terrestrial vertebrates. However, a majority of studies rely on contemporary faunal distributions rather than fossil data. Here, we present archaeological findings from the island of Zanzibar (also known as Unguja) off the eastern African coast, to provide a temporal perspective on island biogeography. The site of Kuumbi Cave, excavated by multiple teams since 2005, has revealed the longest cultural and faunal record for any eastern African island. This record extends to the Late Pleistocene, when Zanzibar was part of the mainland, and attests to the extirpation of large mainland mammals in the millennia after the island became separated. We draw on modeling and sedimentary data to examine the process by which Zanzibar was most recently separated from the mainland, providing the first systematic insights into the nature and chronology of this process. We subsequently investigate the cultural and faunal record from Kuumbi Cave, which provides at least five key temporal windows into human activities and faunal presence: two at the end of the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM), one during the period of post-LGM rapid sea level rise and island formation, and two in the late Holocene (Middle Iron Age and Late Iron Age). This record demonstrates the presence of large mammals during the period of island formation, and their severe reduction or disappearance in the Kuumbi Cave sequence by the late Holocene. While various limitations, including discontinuity in the sequence, problematize attempts to clearly attribute defaunation to anthropogenic or island biogeographic processes, Kuumbi Cave offers an unprecedented opportunity to examine post-Pleistocene island formation and its long-term consequences for human and animal

  20. Continental Island Formation and the Archaeology of Defaunation on Zanzibar, Eastern Africa

    PubMed Central

    Prendergast, Mary E.; Rouby, Hélène; Punnwong, Paramita; Marchant, Robert; Crowther, Alison; Kourampas, Nikos; Shipton, Ceri; Walsh, Martin; Lambeck, Kurt; Boivin, Nicole L.

    2016-01-01

    With rising sea levels at the end of the Pleistocene, land-bridge or continental islands were formed around the world. Many of these islands have been extensively studied from a biogeographical perspective, particularly in terms of impacts of island creation on terrestrial vertebrates. However, a majority of studies rely on contemporary faunal distributions rather than fossil data. Here, we present archaeological findings from the island of Zanzibar (also known as Unguja) off the eastern African coast, to provide a temporal perspective on island biogeography. The site of Kuumbi Cave, excavated by multiple teams since 2005, has revealed the longest cultural and faunal record for any eastern African island. This record extends to the Late Pleistocene, when Zanzibar was part of the mainland, and attests to the extirpation of large mainland mammals in the millennia after the island became separated. We draw on modeling and sedimentary data to examine the process by which Zanzibar was most recently separated from the mainland, providing the first systematic insights into the nature and chronology of this process. We subsequently investigate the cultural and faunal record from Kuumbi Cave, which provides at least five key temporal windows into human activities and faunal presence: two at the end of the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM), one during the period of post-LGM rapid sea level rise and island formation, and two in the late Holocene (Middle Iron Age and Late Iron Age). This record demonstrates the presence of large mammals during the period of island formation, and their severe reduction or disappearance in the Kuumbi Cave sequence by the late Holocene. While various limitations, including discontinuity in the sequence, problematize attempts to clearly attribute defaunation to anthropogenic or island biogeographic processes, Kuumbi Cave offers an unprecedented opportunity to examine post-Pleistocene island formation and its long-term consequences for human and animal

  1. Continental Island Formation and the Archaeology of Defaunation on Zanzibar, Eastern Africa.

    PubMed

    Prendergast, Mary E; Rouby, Hélène; Punnwong, Paramita; Marchant, Robert; Crowther, Alison; Kourampas, Nikos; Shipton, Ceri; Walsh, Martin; Lambeck, Kurt; Boivin, Nicole L

    2016-01-01

    With rising sea levels at the end of the Pleistocene, land-bridge or continental islands were formed around the world. Many of these islands have been extensively studied from a biogeographical perspective, particularly in terms of impacts of island creation on terrestrial vertebrates. However, a majority of studies rely on contemporary faunal distributions rather than fossil data. Here, we present archaeological findings from the island of Zanzibar (also known as Unguja) off the eastern African coast, to provide a temporal perspective on island biogeography. The site of Kuumbi Cave, excavated by multiple teams since 2005, has revealed the longest cultural and faunal record for any eastern African island. This record extends to the Late Pleistocene, when Zanzibar was part of the mainland, and attests to the extirpation of large mainland mammals in the millennia after the island became separated. We draw on modeling and sedimentary data to examine the process by which Zanzibar was most recently separated from the mainland, providing the first systematic insights into the nature and chronology of this process. We subsequently investigate the cultural and faunal record from Kuumbi Cave, which provides at least five key temporal windows into human activities and faunal presence: two at the end of the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM), one during the period of post-LGM rapid sea level rise and island formation, and two in the late Holocene (Middle Iron Age and Late Iron Age). This record demonstrates the presence of large mammals during the period of island formation, and their severe reduction or disappearance in the Kuumbi Cave sequence by the late Holocene. While various limitations, including discontinuity in the sequence, problematize attempts to clearly attribute defaunation to anthropogenic or island biogeographic processes, Kuumbi Cave offers an unprecedented opportunity to examine post-Pleistocene island formation and its long-term consequences for human and animal

  2. "It's Hard Answering Your Calling": Teacher Teams in a Restructuring Urban Middle School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tonso, Karen L.; Jung, Maura Lobos; Colombo, Marie

    2006-01-01

    Considered a successful university-operated, urban middle school serving an overwhelmingly African American student body, "Charter" Middle School was dechartered suddenly, then merged a year later with students from a neighborhood school to become "Choice" Middle School, a school of choice in the urban district. Using a situated learning framework…

  3. Lessons from Africa: A Supplement to Middle School Courses in World Culture, Global Studies, and World Geography. Experimental Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merryfield, Merry M., Ed.

    These lessons were written by African social studies specialists for U.S. middle school students to stimulate interest in and develop a positive attitude toward Africans and their culture. Each lesson provides objectives, materials, teaching procedures, and is meant to be used as a textbook supplement. To promote understanding of young Africans,…

  4. Africans in America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hart, Ayanna; Spangler, Earl

    This book introduces African-American history and culture to children. The first Africans in America came from many different regions and cultures, but became united in this country by being black, African, and slaves. Once in America, Africans began a long struggle for freedom which still continues. Slavery, the Civil War, emancipation, and the…

  5. Therapy with African Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nwadiora, Emeka

    1996-01-01

    Informs helping professionals about the unique history and challenges of African families to guide them toward providing ethnically sensitive psychological services to African immigrant families in need. African families undergo great stress when faced with the alienation of being Black and African in a Euro-American culture. (SLD)

  6. African Outreach Workshop 1974.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Nancy J.

    This report discusses the 1974 African Outreach Workshop planned and coordinated by the African Studies Program at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. Its major aim was to assist teachers in developing curriculum units on African using materials available in their local community. A second aim was for the African Studies Program to…

  7. Modern African Art: Getting beyond the Traditional To Recognize Contemporaneous Aesthetics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kader, Themina

    College students in art history courses study African art more frequently than in the past. Textbooks and videos, however, do not reflect the realities of creative expression today in Africa. Rather, African art dwells on the traditional arts of the west and southern regions of Africa. This paper focuses on eastern and southern sub-Saharan Africa…

  8. Language Teacher Research in the Middle East

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coombe, Christine, Ed.; Barlow, Lisa, Ed.

    2007-01-01

    An openness to new ways of teaching and learning is vital for growth among English language teachers, teacher educators, teachers in training, and students. This volume in the Language Teacher Research Series (Thomas S. C. Farrell, series editor) shares the studies and reflections of teacher researchers working in Middle Eastern countries with…

  9. The Middle East: An Annotated Bibliography of Literature for Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maehr, Jane

    This is an annotated bibliography of folklore, fiction and nonfiction about the Middle East, written in English for children aged 5 and older. There are eleven chapters - one which focuses on the entire Middle Eastern region, and ten which deal with individual countries: Iran, Iraq, Israel, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Saudi Arabia, Syria, Turkey, and…

  10. Oil, turmoil, and Islam in the Middle East

    SciTech Connect

    Sheikh, A.R.

    1986-01-01

    The turmoil and strife of the Middle East raises serious questions about the security of the world's oil supply. The author argues that OPEC and OAPEC can no longer afford to impose indiscriminate price increases on the marketplace because they hurt not only themselves but oil poor Third World nations as well. The author analyzes the importance of Middle Eastern oil in world politics. He emphasizes that any consideration of the forces influencing development in the Middle East should take Islamic tradition into account. Each chapter is organized around a current Middle Eastern problem: oil politics in relation to international energy needs; the ramifications of the new oil wealth and power of the Middle East; The Iran-Iraq War; Muslim insurgency in Afghanistan; The Arab-Israel conflict; turmoil in Lebanon; Palestinian nationalism; and the Middle East as a superpower.

  11. Middle East Studies: A Catalogue of Middle East Studies Resources In or Near Connecticut. Area Studies Resource Guides, Number Two.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stone, Frank A., Comp.

    This directory of Middle Eastern resource materials in or near Connecticut is designed for use by educators, librarians, media specialists, and the general public. The Middle East is defined as the part of the world known as Southwest Asia/North Africa (SWANA). The information is organized under ten major categories: associations and…

  12. Defining seascapes for marine unconsolidated shelf sediments in an eastern boundary upwelling region: The southern Benguela as a case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karenyi, Natasha; Sink, Kerry; Nel, Ronel

    2016-02-01

    Marine unconsolidated sediment habitats, the largest benthic ecosystem, are considered physically controlled ecosystems driven by a number of local physical processes. Depth and sediment type are recognised key drivers of these ecosystems. Seascape (i.e., marine landscape) habitat classifications are based solely on consistent geophysical features and provide an opportunity to define unconsolidated sediment habitats based on processes which may vary in distribution through space and time. This paper aimed to classify unconsolidated sediment seascapes and explore their diversity in an eastern boundary upwelling region at the macro-scale, using the South African west coast as a case study. Physical variables such as sediment grain size, depth and upwelling-related variables (i.e., maximum chlorophyll concentration, austral summer bottom oxygen concentration and sediment organic carbon content) were included in the analyses. These variables were directly measured through sampling, or collated from existing databases and the literature. These data were analysed using multivariate Cluster, Principal Components Ordination and SIMPER analyses (in PRIMER 6 + with PERMANOVA add-in package). There were four main findings; (i) eight seascapes were identified for the South African west coast based on depth, slope, sediment grain size and upwelling-related variables, (ii) three depth zones were distinguished (inner, middle and outer shelf), (iii) seascape diversity in the inner and middle shelves was greater than the outer shelf, and (iv) upwelling-related variables were responsible for the habitat diversity in both inner and middle shelves. This research demonstrates that the inclusion of productivity and its related variables, such as hypoxia and sedimentary organic carbon, in seascape classifications will enhance the ability to distinguish seascapes on continental shelves, where productivity is most variable.

  13. Middle East

    SciTech Connect

    Hemer, D.O.; Mason, J.F.; Hatch, G.C.

    1981-10-01

    Petroleum production in Middle East countries during 1980 totaled 6,747,719,000 bbl or an average rate of 18,436,390,000 bbl/d, down 13.9% from 1979. Increases were in Saudi Arabia and Syria. Significant decreases occurred in Iraq, Iran, Kuwait, and Turkey. New discoveries were made in Abu Dhabi, Iran, Saudi Arabia, Sharjah, and Oman. New areas were explored in Bahrain, Oman, Syria, and Yemen. 9 figures, 16 tables.

  14. Population affinities of African Colombians to Sub-Saharan Africans based on dental morphology.

    PubMed

    Delgado-Burbano, M E

    2007-01-01

    The Atlantic slave trade moved more than 13 million Africans to American lands between the 15th and 19th centuries. Previous historical, linguistic, and social-cultural studies suggested a Western-Central Bantu African origin for the Colombian slaves; however, their precise provenance remains unclear. The present study investigates the variation of the epigenetic dental traits in the deciduous and permanent dentition and phenotypic affinities of a contemporary Afro-Colombian community (n=178) in an attempt to identify their possible African ancestors. The results of a multivariate analysis of principal components show that Afro-descendents from Guapi have strong phenotypic relationships with several Bantu-speakers groups of Western and Western-Central Africa (Sub-Saharan region), specifically from Gabon, Congo, Pygmies, Nigeria, Cameroon, Togo and Benin. In concordance with recent mtDNA studies, this research suggests a distant but important relationship between Afro-Colombians and Eastern and South-Eastern African populations. This analysis also shows a marked dental divergence with North African samples. The dental information is not very different from the cultural, linguistic and historic data; however, it is more in agreement with studies based on molecular variation. In addition, this study reveals that African-Americans from North America, Central America-Caribbean and South America have high biological variation essentially identical to their several Sub-Saharan sources. Although a microevolutionary model, based on differential rates of gene flow with Native American and European-American groups and little selective pressures influence, better explains the phenotypic variation observed, more African-American dental samples must be analyzed from a regional perspective.

  15. Geochemical study (major, trace elements and Pb-Sr-Nd isotopes) of mantle material obducted onto the North African margin (Edough Massif, North Eastern Algeria): Tethys fragments or lost remnants of the Liguro-Provençal basin?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bosch, Delphine; Hammor, Dalila; Mechati, Mehdi; Fernandez, Laure; Bruguier, Olivier; Caby, Renaud; Verdoux, Patrick

    2014-06-01

    The Maghrebides, Betics and some parts of the Calabrian, NE Sicilian and Tuscan allochtons constitute dismembered fragments of the Alpine belt that resulted from the Cenozoic collision between Africa and Eurasia and the opening of the Western Mediterranean basin. Mineral and whole-rock geochemical analyses have been performed on three distinct outcrops of mantle material from the Edough Massif of NE Algeria, namely the Bou Maiza (BM) gabbros, the La Voile Noire (LVN) amphibolites and the Sidi Mohamed (SM) peridotites. In all samples, Sr isotopes are largely affected by seawater alteration (87Sr/86Sract. > 0.70384 and up to 0.70888) and cannot be used to evaluate the nature of the source reservoirs. SM peridotites display variable depleted mantle Nd isotopic signatures (εNdact. from + 7.0 to + 12.2) and geochemical features suggesting no significant chemical depletion as a result of partial melting and melt extraction (Mg# < 90; slightly LREE-depleted patterns with La/YbN = 0.33-0.39). These rocks are interpreted as parts of the subcontinental lithospheric mantle incorporated into the crustal units of the Edough Massif during the early stages of opening of the Algerian basin. BM gabbros and LVN amphibolites show geochemical signatures indicating derivation from a common depleted mantle reservoir (εNd > + 7.9) and are likely cogenetic, but without filiation with the SM peridotites. Pb isotopes indicate a contribution of sediments in the source reservoir, which is attributed to contamination solely by hydrous fluids released from a sedimentary component. This observation, together with a LILE-enrichment, suggests a back-arc basin environment. These results indicate that BM and LVN units were obducted onto the North African margin and subsequently fragmented, probably during doming and exhumation of the lower continental crust of the Edough massif. Doming resulted in opposite movements of the overlying oceanic units, southward for the BM units and northward for LVN

  16. Pan-African adakitic rocks of the north Arabian-Nubian Shield: petrological and geochemical constraints on the evolution of the Dokhan volcanics in the north Eastern Desert of Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obeid, Mohamed A.; Azer, Mokhles K.

    2015-04-01

    The Precambrian basement of Egypt is part of the Red Sea Mountains and represents the north-western part of the Arabian-Nubian Shield (ANS). Five volcanic sections are exposed in the Egyptian basement complex, namely El Kharaza, Monqul, Abu Had, Mellaha and Abu Marwa. They are located in the north Eastern Desert (ED) of Egypt and were selected for petrological and geochemical studies as they represent the Dokhan volcanics. The volcanics divide into two main pulses, and each pulse was frequently accompanied by deposition of immature molasse type sediments, which represent a thick sequence of the Hammamat group in the north ED. Compositionally, the rocks form a continuum from basaltic andesite, andesite, dacite (lower succession) to rhyodacite and rhyolite (upper succession), with no apparent compositional gaps. These high-K calc-alkaline rocks have strong affinities to subduction-related rocks with enriched LILEs (Rb, Ba, K, Th, Ce) relative to high field strength elements (Nb, Zr, P, Ti) and negative Nb anomalies relative to NMORB. The lower succession displays geochemical characteristics of adakitic rocks with SiO2 >53 wt%, Al2O3 >15 wt%, MgO >2.5 wt%, Mg# >49, Sr >650 ppm, Y <17 ppm, Yb <2 ppm, Ni >25 ppm, Cr >50 ppm and Sr/Y >42.4. They also have low Nb, Rb and Zr compared to the coexisting calc-alkaline rhyodacites and rhyolites. The highly fractionated rhyolitic rocks have strong negative Eu anomalies and possess the geochemical characteristics of A-type suites. Trace element geochemical signatures indicate a magma source consistent with post-collisional suites that retain destructive plate signatures associated with subduction zones. The adakitic rocks in the northern ANS are generated through partial melting of delaminated mafic lower crust interacting with overlying mantle-derived magma. The Dokhan volcanics were likely generated by a combination of processes, including partial melting, crystal fractionation and assimilation.

  17. Seismicity of the eastern Hellenic Subduction Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruestle, A.; Kueperkoch, L.; Rische, M.; Meier, T.; Friederich, W.; Egelados Working Group

    2012-04-01

    The Hellenic Subduction Zone (HSZ) is the seismically most active region of Europe. The African plate is subducting beneath the Aegean lithosphere with a relative velocity of 4 cm per year. A detailed picture of the microseismicity of the eastern HSZ was obtained by the recordings of the temporary networks CYCNET (September 2002 - September 2005) and EGELADOS (October 2005 - March 2007). In total, nearly 7000 earthquakes were located with a location uncertainty of less than 20 km. The SE Aegean is dominated by (1) shallow intraplate seismicity within the Aegean plate, by (2) interplate seismicity at the plate contact and by (3) intermediate deep seismicity along the subducting African slab. Strong shallow seismicity in the upper plate is observed along the Ptolemy graben south of Crete extending towards the Karpathos Basin, indicating intense recent deformation of the forearc. In contrary, low shallow seismicity around Rhodes indicates only minor seismic crustal deformation of the upper plate. An almost NS-striking zone of microseismicity has been located, running from the Karpathos basin via the Nisyros volcanic complex towards the EW striking Gökova graben. In the SE Aegean the geometry of the Wadati-Benioff-Zone (WBZ) within the subducting African plate is revealed in detail by the observed microseismicity. Between about 50 to 100 km depth a continuous band of intermediate deep seismicity describes the strongly curved geometry of the slab. From the central to the eastern margin of the HSZ, the dip direction of the WBZ changes from N to NW with a strong increase of the dip angle beneath the eastern Cretan Sea. The margin of the dipping African slab is marked by an abrupt end of the observed WBZ beneath SW Anatolia. Below 100 km depth, the WBZ of the eastern HSZ is dominated by an isolated cluster of intense intermediate deep seismicity (at 100-180 km depth) beneath the Nisyros volcanic complex. It has an extension of about 100x80 km and is build up of 3 parallel

  18. Water in the Middle East, a Secondary and College Level Multi-Media Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manneberg, Eliezer

    The secondary and college level guide outlines a course of study on the Middle East, with emphasis on water problems of the area. Among the course objectives are the following: (1) make generalizations about particular Middle Eastern cultures and support them with evidence; (2) interpret environmental and social data from specific Middle Eastern…

  19. Gender and Homework Management Reported by African American Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xu, Jianzhong

    2010-01-01

    The present study linked gender and grade level to homework management strategies and homework completion behaviours. The participants were 685 African American students in the south-eastern USA, including 370 eighth graders and 315 eleventh graders. Gender appeared related to the majority of homework measures examined in the present study.…

  20. Alice Walker: "The Diary of an African Nun" and Dubois Double Consciousness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fontenot, Chester J.

    1977-01-01

    Analyzes Alice Walker's novel and notes that the plight of the African nun is that of the black intellectual or middle-class who find themselves caught between two worlds which are at once complementary and contradictory. (Author)

  1. The Offshore East African Rift System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franke, D.; Klimke, J.; Jokat, W.; Stollhofen, H.; Mahanjane, S.

    2014-12-01

    Numerous studies have addressed various aspects of the East African Rift system but surprisingly few on the offshore continuation of the south-eastern branch of the rift into the Mozambique Channel. The most prominent article has been published almost 30 years ago by Mougenot et al. (1986) and is based on vintage seismic data. Several studies investigating earthquakes and plate motions from GPS measurements reveal recent deformation along the offshore branch of the East African Rift system. Slip vectors from earthquakes data in Mozambique's offshore basins show a consistent NE direction. Fault plane solutions reveal ~ E-W extensional failure with focal depth clustering around 19 km and 40 km, respectively. Here, we present new evidence for neotectonic deformation derived from modern seismic reflection data and supported by additional geophysical data. The modern rift system obviously reactivates structures from the disintegration of eastern Gondwana. During the Jurassic/Cretaceous opening of the Somali and Mozambique Basins, Madagascar moved southwards along a major shear zone, to its present position. Since the Miocene, parts of the shear zone became reactivated and structurally overprinted by the East African rift system. The Kerimbas Graben offshore northern Mozambique is the most prominent manifestation of recent extensional deformation. Bathymetry data shows that it deepens northwards, with approximately 700 m downthrown on the eastern shoulder. The graben can be subdivided into four subbasins by crosscutting structural lineaments with a NW-SE trend. Together with the N-S striking graben-bounding faults, this resembles a conjugate fault system. In seismic reflection data normal faulting is distinct not only at the earthquake epicenters. The faults cut through the sedimentary successions and typically reach the seafloor, indicating ongoing recent deformation. Reference: Mougenot, D., Recq, M., Virlogeux, P., and Lepvrier, C., 1986, Seaward extension of the East

  2. Support Needs of Overweight African American Women for Weight Loss

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Janet L.; Stewart, Diana W.; Lynam, Ian M.; Daley, Christine M.; Befort, Christie; Scherber, Robyn M.; Mercurio, Andrea E.; Okuyemi, Kolawole S.; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To examine social support needs of obese and over-weight African American women for weight loss. Methods Focus groups were conducted with over-weight and obese African American women. Data were analyzed using standard grounded theory text analysis. Results Our middle-aged (45.7 years; SD=12.6) women (N = 66) were interested in receiving support from others focused on the health benefits of weight loss. Behaviors perceived as supportive include co-participating in exercise, providing nutrition education, using positive reinforcements, and avoiding criticism. Conclusions: African American women are interested in a program designed to increase social support for their weight loss. PMID:19182980

  3. Middle Years. For Middle Level Educators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hechinger, Fred M.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    This supplement offers 10 articles focusing on middle school education. Topics include remembering adolescence, resources and teaching tips, active middle school students, adolescent development, challenges in middle school education, integrated studies, planning middle school special events, a writing-science-consumerism miniunit on popcorn,…

  4. CRUSTAL TECTONICS AND SEISMICITY OF THE MIDDLE EAST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghalib, H. A.; Gritto, R.; Sibol, M. S.; Herrmann, R. B.; Aleqabi, G. I.; Caron, P. F.; Wagner, R. A.; Ali, B. S.; Ali, A. A.

    2009-12-01

    The Arabian plate describes a geological entity and a dynamic system that has been in continuous interaction with the African plate to the west and south and the Eurasian plate to the north and east. The western and southern boundaries are distinguished by see floor spreading along the Gulf of Aden and Red Sea and transform faulting along the Dead Sea, whereas the northern and eastern boundaries are portrayed by compressional suture zones under thrusting the Turkish and Iranian plateaus. Despite this favorable juxtaposition of continental land masses and the plethora of national seismic networks in every country of the Middle East, the majority of published research on the Arabian plate and surrounding tectonic blocks still depends primarily on global seismographic stations and occasional local networks. Since 2005, we deployed a number of seismic stations, and more recently a five elements array, in close proximity to the northeastern boundary of the Arabian plate. The primary objective of the effort is to better understand the regional seismicity and seismotectonics of the Arabian plate and surrounding regions. To date over a terabyte of high quality 100 sps continuous three-component broadband data have been collected and being analyzed to derive models representative of the greater Middle East tectonic setting. This goal is, in part, achieved by estimating local and regional seismic velocity models using receiver function and surface wave dispersion analyses, and by using these models to obtain accurate hypocenter locations and event focal mechanisms. The resulting events distribution reveals a distinct picture of the interaction between the seismicity and tectonics of the region. The highest seismicity rate seems to be confined to the active northern section of the Zagros thrust zone, while it decreases towards the southern end, before the intensity increases again in the Bandar Abbas region. Spatial distribution of the events and stations provide thorough

  5. Regions. [Africa, Middle East].

    PubMed

    1985-03-01

    This discussion of population focuses on the regions of Africa and the Middle East. In South Africa more white women are working but fewer black women work. The overall result is that the percentage of women who work is declining. Marita de Beer, research liaison executive at the South African Advertising Research Foundation, reports that the female population grew by 31% in the past 10 years while the number of working women has grown by only 11%. Among blacks the female population rose by 36%, but the number of workers among them declined by about 1%. Married women are among the fastest growing groups of working women in South Africa. The most recent estimate of the population of Nigeria is 92 million. According to Professor Vremudia Diejomaoh, Nigeria's population will probably reach 155 million by 2000 with 33% living in urban areas. In Saudi Arabia the Pan Arab Research Center recently completed a census of retail outlets in 3 metropolitan areas: Jeddah, Riyadh, and Dammam. The types of outlets surveyed include large supermarkets, small supermarkets, groceries with and without deep freeze, tobacco shops, meat shop/delis, small cafeterias, large restaurants/hotels, cosmetics shops or perfumeries, camera stores, toy shops, pharmacies, watch and gift shop, newsstands, department store, and appliance outlets. Using the Census of Retail Outlets as a base, Pan Arab Research Center also has a new distribution audit system that will cover 500 outlets. By plotting Arab countries according to their population policies and their current growth rates, it is possible to project where the middle class will grow fastest in the Arab world. The countries that have declining growth rates and strong population programs designed to encourage lower fertility rates among women are Egypt, Tunisia, Morocco, Algeria, and Lebanon. The countries most likely to have a better per capita distribution of resources within this decade are those where governments encourage reductions in

  6. Regions. [Africa, Middle East].

    PubMed

    1985-03-01

    This discussion of population focuses on the regions of Africa and the Middle East. In South Africa more white women are working but fewer black women work. The overall result is that the percentage of women who work is declining. Marita de Beer, research liaison executive at the South African Advertising Research Foundation, reports that the female population grew by 31% in the past 10 years while the number of working women has grown by only 11%. Among blacks the female population rose by 36%, but the number of workers among them declined by about 1%. Married women are among the fastest growing groups of working women in South Africa. The most recent estimate of the population of Nigeria is 92 million. According to Professor Vremudia Diejomaoh, Nigeria's population will probably reach 155 million by 2000 with 33% living in urban areas. In Saudi Arabia the Pan Arab Research Center recently completed a census of retail outlets in 3 metropolitan areas: Jeddah, Riyadh, and Dammam. The types of outlets surveyed include large supermarkets, small supermarkets, groceries with and without deep freeze, tobacco shops, meat shop/delis, small cafeterias, large restaurants/hotels, cosmetics shops or perfumeries, camera stores, toy shops, pharmacies, watch and gift shop, newsstands, department store, and appliance outlets. Using the Census of Retail Outlets as a base, Pan Arab Research Center also has a new distribution audit system that will cover 500 outlets. By plotting Arab countries according to their population policies and their current growth rates, it is possible to project where the middle class will grow fastest in the Arab world. The countries that have declining growth rates and strong population programs designed to encourage lower fertility rates among women are Egypt, Tunisia, Morocco, Algeria, and Lebanon. The countries most likely to have a better per capita distribution of resources within this decade are those where governments encourage reductions in

  7. Racial Identity Attitudes, Self-Esteem, and Academic Achievement among African American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonvillain, Jocelyn Freeman; Honora, Detris

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to explore the extent to which racial identity attitudes and self-esteem could predict academic performance for African American middle school students. A total of 175 African American adolescents in 7th grade attending one of two urban schools participated in the study. The Multi-Ethnic Identity Measure (MEIM)…

  8. Physical Activities and Sedentary Pursuits in African American and Caucasian Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dowda, Marsha; Pate, Russell R.; Felton, Gwen M.; Saunders, Ruth; Ward, Dianne S.; Dishman, Rod K.; Trost, Stewart G.

    2004-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to describe and compare the specific physical activity choices and sedentary pursuits of African American and Caucasian American girls. Participants were 1,124 African American and 1,068 Caucasian American eighth-grade students from 31 middle schools. The 3-Day Physical Activity Recall (3DPAR) was used to measure…

  9. Male Gender Role Strain as a Barrier to African American Men's Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffith, Derek M.; Gunter, Katie; Allen, Julie Ober

    2011-01-01

    Despite the potential health consequences, African American men tend to treat their roles as providers, fathers, spouses, and community members as more important than engaging in health behaviors such as physical activity. We conducted 14 exploratory focus groups with 105 urban, middle-aged African American men from the Midwest to examine factors…

  10. Story Structure in a Sample of African-American Children: Evidence for a Cyclical Story Schema.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bidell, Thomas R.; Hubbard, Lady June; Weaver, Monica

    A study examined the scripts or schemata--cognitive structures that represent story prototypes--used by African-American children and how they differ from story telling patterns of White middle-class children using a Western, linear "problem solving" story schemata. Samples of oral narratives were collected from 50 African-American children, ages…

  11. The Relationship between Motivational Orientation & Educational Aspirations in Urban, African American Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warner, Cheryl B.; Phelps, Rosemary E.

    2008-01-01

    African American youth are characterized as experiencing declining academic motivation and engagement while simultaneously maintaining optimism for their future success. Thus, researchers hypothesize academic motivation to be a negative factor for educational aspirations when applied to an urban sample of African American middle school students (N…

  12. Transitioning to High School: Issues and Challenges for African American Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holcomb-McCoy, Cheryl

    2007-01-01

    Although there is a growing body of literature on students' transition from middle school to high school, much of the literature fails to take into consideration the distinctive racial and environmental circumstances of African American students. This article reviews literature related to the transitioning of African American students and…

  13. Grade-Related Changes in the Production of African American English.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Craig, Holly K.; Washington, Julie A.

    2004-01-01

    This investigation examined grade as a source of systematic variation in the African American English (AAE) produced by students in preschool through fifth grades. Participants were 400 typically developing African American boys and girls residing in low- or middle-income homes in an urban-fringe community or midsize central city in the…

  14. The African Connection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oguntoyinbo, Lekan

    2012-01-01

    From student and faculty exchanges to joint research projects, U.S. universities maintain a broad spectrum of collaborative relationships with African universities. It's unclear how many U.S. colleges and universities have partnerships with African universities. The African Studies Association, an organization of scholars, doesn't keep that kind…

  15. Linguistic Imperialism: African Perspectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillipson, Robert

    1996-01-01

    Responds to an article on aspects of African language policy and discusses the following issues: multilingualism and monolingualism, proposed changes in language policy from the Organization for African Unity and South African initiatives, the language of literature, bilingual education, and whose interests English-language teaching is serving.…

  16. Moho depth and three-dimensional P and S structure of the crust and uppermost mantle in the Eastern Mediterranean and Middle East derived from tomographic inversion of local ISC data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koulakov, Ivan; Sobolev, Stephan V.

    2006-01-01

    ~82000 P and S arrival times from ~3000 sources recorded by ~250 seismic stations from the revised ISC catalogue are employed to study a circular area of 6° radius centred on the Dead Sea. We use the linearized tomographic approach based on the rays constructed in a 1-D spherical velocity model and corrected for the Moho depth variation and relief. All the sources were relocated. As the result of simultaneous iterative inversion we get 3-D P and S velocity anomalies in the crust and uppermost mantle, Moho depth and corrected source parameters. The resulting images fit well with the existing tectonic elements in the study area. In the crust, a narrow P and S low-velocity anomaly marks the position of the Dead Sea Transform (DST) that is interpreted as sediments in the shallower layer and a zone of fractured and deformed rocks in the middle and lower crust. There is a narrow (50 km wide) band of thickening of the crust along the DST in the Arava valley between the Red Sea and Dead Sea and some 100 km north of the Dead Sea. This zone may be associated with the minimum of the lithospheric strength and, therefore, explain the location of the DST in the Arava Valley. The velocity anomalies under the crust and the map of the Moho depth clearly distinguish the oceanic (Levant basin) and continental types of crust (Asia Minor, Zagros, Cyprus and Eratosthenes Mount). Verification of the results takes an important part in this study. Inversions of different starting models and independent processing of data subsets show high robustness of the results. Synthetic tests clearly show the limits of the resolving power of the inversion with the existing data set.

  17. A culturally adapted lifestyle intervention addressing a Middle Eastern immigrant population at risk of diabetes, the MEDIM (impact of Migration and Ethnicity on Diabetes In Malmö): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Studies have shown that lifestyle interventions are effective in preventing or delaying the onset of type 2 diabetes in high-risk patients. However, research on the effectiveness of lifestyle interventions in high-risk immigrant populations with different cultural and socioeconomic backgrounds is scarce. The aim was to design a culturally adapted lifestyle intervention for an immigrant population and to evaluate its effectiveness and cost-effectiveness. Methods/design In this randomized controlled trial, 308 participants (born in Iraq, living in Malmö, Sweden and at high risk of type 2 diabetes) will be allocated to either a culturally adapted intervention or a control group. The intervention will consist of 10 group counseling sessions focusing on diet, physical activity and behavioral change over 6 months, and the offer of exercise sessions. Cultural adaptation includes gender-specific exercise sessions, and counseling by a health coach community member. The control group will receive the information about healthy lifestyle habits provided by the primary health care center. The primary outcome is change in fasting glucose level. Secondary outcomes are changes in body mass index, insulin sensitivity, physical activity, food habits and health-related quality of life. Measurements will be taken at baseline, after 3 and 6 months. Data will be analyzed by the intention-to-treat approach. The cost-effectiveness during the trial period and over the longer term will be assessed by simulation modeling from patient, health care and societal perspectives. Discussion This study will provide a basis to measure the effectiveness of a lifestyle intervention designed for immigrants from the Middle East in terms of improvement in glucose metabolism, and will also assess its cost-effectiveness. Results from this trial may help health care providers and policy makers to adapt and implement lifestyle interventions suitable for this population group that can be

  18. Recognition of strong seasonality and climatic cyclicity in an ancient, fluvially dominated, tidally influenced point bar: Middle McMurray Formation, Lower Steepbank River, north-eastern Alberta, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jablonski, Bryce V. J.; Dalrymple, Robert W.

    2016-04-01

    Inclined heterolithic stratification in the Lower Cretaceous McMurray Formation, exposed along the Steepbank River in north-eastern Alberta, Canada, accumulated on point bars of a 30 to 40 m deep continental-scale river in the fluvial-marine transition. This inclined heterolithic stratification consists of two alternating lithologies, sand and fine-grained beds. Sand beds were deposited rapidly by unidirectional currents and contain little or no bioturbation. Fine-grained beds contain rare tidal structures, and are intensely bioturbated by low-diversity ichnofossil assemblages. The alternations between the sand and fine-grained beds are probably caused by strong variations in fluvial discharge; that are believed to be seasonal (probably annual) in duration. The sand beds accumulated during river floods, under fluvially dominated conditions when the water was fresh, whereas the fine-grained beds accumulated during the late stages of the river flood and deposition continued under tidally influenced brackish-water conditions during times of low-river flow (i.e. the interflood periods). These changes reflect the annual migration in the positions of the tidal and salinity limits within the fluvial-marine transition that result from changes in river discharge. Sand and fine-grained beds are cyclically organized in the studied outcrops forming metre-scale cycles. A single metre-scale cycle is defined by a sharp base, an upward decrease in sand-bed thickness and upward increases in the preservation of fine-grained beds and the intensity of bioturbation. Metre-scale cycles are interpreted to be the product of a longer term (decadal) cyclicity in fluvial discharge, probably caused by fluctuations in ocean or solar dynamics. The volumetric dominance of river-flood deposits within the succession suggests that accumulation occurred in a relatively landward position within the fluvial-marine transition. This study shows that careful observation can reveal much about the

  19. Geochemical characteristics of the Shujiadian Cu deposit related intrusion in Tongling: Petrogenesis and implications for the formation of porphyry Cu systems in the Middle-Lower Yangtze River Valley metallogenic belt, eastern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shiwei; Zhou, Taofa; Yuan, Feng; Fan, Yu; Cooke, David R.; Zhang, Lejun; Fu, Bin; White, Noel C.

    2016-05-01

    Porphyry Cu deposits can form in intracontinental or post-collision settings; however, both the genesis of fertile magmas and the mechanism of metal enrichment remain controversial. The Shujiadian porphyry Cu deposit is located in the Tongling area of the Middle-Lower Yangtze River Valley metallogenic belt. It is hosted by the Shujiadian complex, which mainly consists of quartz diorite porphyry (143.7 ± 1.7 Ma) and pyroxene diorite (139.8 ± 1.6 Ma). They both belong to the calc-alkaline series, with enrichment in large-ion lithophile elements (LILE) and light rare earth elements (LREE), depletion in high field-strength elements (HFSE) and heavy rare earth elements (HREE), and slightly negative Eu anomalies. Both quartz diorite porphyry and pyroxene diorite have geochemical affinities with adakite, and their low MgO (1.5-3.7 wt%), and Ni (3.7-6.9 ppm), Cr (2.0-44 ppm), and Th/Ce contents (0.06-0.11) indicate that the intrusive rocks have some characteristics of adakite-like rocks derived from thickened lower crust and melts from metabasaltic rocks and eclogites. Plagioclases from the quartz diorite porphyry are andesine (An value = 31.8-40.5) and from the pyroxene diorite are felsic albite and oligoclase with large-scale zones and variable An value (An value = 8.9-18.3), Fe and Sr contents, which indicate that mixing of mafic and felsic magma may have occurred in the shallow magma chamber. Compared to the barren quartz diorite porphyry, relatively lower SiO2 contents (49.5-55.2 wt.%), higher εNd(t) values (- 7.4 to - 6.9), εHf(t) values (- 11.0 to - 9.1) compositions, Ti-in-zircon temperatures (714-785 °C), and variations of HREE contents of the mineralization-related pyroxene diorite suggest mixing with high-temperature mafic magma. Calculated Ce4 +/Ce3 + values of pyroxene diorite plot between the Ni-NiO buffer (NNO) and magnetite-hematite buffer (MH), and barren quartz diorite porphyry samples plot below the Ni-NiO buffer (NNO). Geochemical features of

  20. Fat, fibre and cancer risk in African Americans and rural Africans.

    PubMed

    O'Keefe, Stephen J D; Li, Jia V; Lahti, Leo; Ou, Junhai; Carbonero, Franck; Mohammed, Khaled; Posma, Joram M; Kinross, James; Wahl, Elaine; Ruder, Elizabeth; Vipperla, Kishore; Naidoo, Vasudevan; Mtshali, Lungile; Tims, Sebastian; Puylaert, Philippe G B; DeLany, James; Krasinskas, Alyssa; Benefiel, Ann C; Kaseb, Hatem O; Newton, Keith; Nicholson, Jeremy K; de Vos, Willem M; Gaskins, H Rex; Zoetendal, Erwin G

    2015-04-28

    Rates of colon cancer are much higher in African Americans (65:100,000) than in rural South Africans (<5:100,000). The higher rates are associated with higher animal protein and fat, and lower fibre consumption, higher colonic secondary bile acids, lower colonic short-chain fatty acid quantities and higher mucosal proliferative biomarkers of cancer risk in otherwise healthy middle-aged volunteers. Here we investigate further the role of fat and fibre in this association. We performed 2-week food exchanges in subjects from the same populations, where African Americans were fed a high-fibre, low-fat African-style diet and rural Africans a high-fat, low-fibre western-style diet, under close supervision. In comparison with their usual diets, the food changes resulted in remarkable reciprocal changes in mucosal biomarkers of cancer risk and in aspects of the microbiota and metabolome known to affect cancer risk, best illustrated by increased saccharolytic fermentation and butyrogenesis, and suppressed secondary bile acid synthesis in the African Americans.

  1. Fat, Fiber and Cancer Risk in African Americans and Rural Africans

    PubMed Central

    O'Keefe, Stephen J.D.; Li, Jia V.; Lahti, Leo; Ou, Junhai; Carbonero, Franck; Mohammed, Khaled; Posma, Joram M; Kinross, James; Wahl, Elaine; Ruder, Elizabeth; Vipperla, Kishore; Naidoo, Vasudevan; Mtshali, Lungile; Tims, Sebastian; Puylaert, Philippe G.B.; DeLany, James; Krasinskas, Alyssa; Benefiel, Ann C.; Kaseb, Hatem O.; Newton, Keith; Nicholson, Jeremy K.; de Vos, Willem M.; Gaskins, H. Rex; Zoetendal, Erwin G.

    2015-01-01

    Rates of colon cancer are much higher in African Americans (65:100,000) than in rural South Africans (<5:100,000). The higher rates are associated with higher animal protein and fat and lower fiber consumption, higher colonic secondary bile acids, lower colonic short chain fatty acid quantities and higher mucosal proliferative biomarkers of cancer risk in otherwise healthy middle aged volunteers. Here we investigate further the role of fat and fiber in this association. We performed two-week food exchanges in subjects from the same populations, where African Americans were fed a high-fiber, lowfat African-style diet, and rural Africans a high-fat low-fiber western-style diet under close supervision. In comparison to their usual diets, the food changes resulted in remarkable reciprocal changes in mucosal biomarkers of cancer risk and in aspects of the microbiota and metabolome known to affect cancer risk, best illustrated by increased saccharolytic fermentation and butyrogenesis and suppressed secondary bile acid synthesis in the African Americans. PMID:25919227

  2. Feasibility and Preliminary Efficacy of an After-School Program for Middle Schoolers with ADHD: A Randomized Trial in a Large Public Middle School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molina, Brooke S. G.; Flory, Kate; Bukstein, Oscar G.; Greiner, Andrew R.; Baker, Jennifer L.; Krug, Vicky; Evans, Steven W.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: This pilot study tests the feasibility and preliminary efficacy of an after-school treatment program for middle schoolers with ADHD using a randomized clinical trial design. Method: A total of 23 students with ADHD (25% female, 48% African American) from a large public middle school were randomly assigned to a 10-week program or to…

  3. Access to What? Creating a Composite Measure of Educational Quantity and Educational Quality for 11 African Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spaull, Nicholas; Taylor, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the current study is to create a composite statistic of educational quantity and educational quality by combining household data (Demographic and Health Survey) on grade completion and survey data (Southern and Eastern African Consortium for Monitoring Educational Quality) on cognitive outcomes for 11 African countries: Kenya, Lesotho,…

  4. Molecular genetic and morphological analyses of the African wild dog (Lycaon pictus).

    PubMed

    Girman, D J; Kat, P W; Mills, M G; Ginsberg, J R; Borner, M; Wilson, V; Fanshawe, J H; Fitzgibbon, C; Lau, L M; Wayne, R K

    1993-01-01

    African wild dog populations have declined precipitously during the last 100 years in eastern Africa. The possible causes of this decline include a reduction in prey abundance and habitat; disease; and loss of genetic variability accompanied by inbreeding depression. We examined the levels of genetic variability and distinctiveness among populations of African wild dogs using mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) restriction site and sequence analyses and multivariate analysis of cranial and dental measurements. Our results indicate that the genetic variability of eastern African wild dog populations is comparable to that of southern Africa and similar to levels of variability found in other large canids. Southern and eastern populations of wild dogs show about 1% divergence in mtDNA sequence and form two monophyletic assemblages containing three mtDNA genotypes each. No genotypes are shared between the two regions. With one exception, all wild dogs examined from zoos had southern African genotypes. Morphological analysis supports the distinction of eastern and southern African wild dog populations, and we suggest they should be considered separate subspecies. An eastern African wild dog breeding program should be initiated to ensure preservation of the eastern African form and to slow the loss of genetic variability that, while not yet apparent, will inevitably occur if wild populations continue to decline. Finally, we examined the phylogenetic relationships of wild dogs to other wolf-like canids through analysis of 736 base pairs (bp) of cytochrome b sequence and showed wild dogs to belong to a phylogenetically distinct lineage of the wolf-like canids.

  5. Mediterranean summer climate and the importance of Middle-East Topography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simpson, Isla; Seager, Richard; Shaw, Tiffany; Ting, Mingfang

    2015-04-01

    In summer, the atmospheric circulation over the Mediterranean is characterized by localized intense subsidence and low level northerlies over the central- to eastern portion of the basin. Here, simulations with the Community Atmosphere Model, version 5 are used to investigate the influence of the elevated terrain of North Africa and the Middle East on this summertime circulation. This builds on previous work that recognized a role for North African topography in localizing the Mediterranean subsidence. By flattening the two regions of elevated terrain in the model it is demonstrated that, while they both conspire to produce about 30% of the summertime subsidence, contrary to previous work, the mountains of the Middle-East dominate in this topographic contribution by far. This topography, consisting primarily of the Zagros Mountain range, alters the circulation throughout the depth of the troposphere over the Mediterranean, and further East. The model results suggest that about 20% of the Mediterranean summertime moisture deficit can be attributed to this mountain induced circulation. This topography, therefore, plays an important role in the climate of the Mediterranean and the large scale circulation over the rest of Eurasia during the summer. Further stationary wave modelling reveals that the mountain influence is produced via mechanical forcing of the flow. The greatest influence of the topography occurs when the low level incident flow is easterly, as happens during the summer, primarily due to the presence of condensational heating over Asia. During other seasons, when the low level incident flow is westerly, the influence of Middle-East topography on the Mediterranean is negligible.

  6. Role of radiotherapy in cancer control in low-income and middle-income countries.

    PubMed

    Barton, Michael B; Frommer, Michael; Shafiq, Jesmin

    2006-07-01

    More than half the cases of cancer in the world arise in people in low-income and middle-income countries. This proportion will rise to 70% by 2020. These are regions where the annual gross national income per person is less than 9386 US dollars. Radiotherapy is an essential part of the treatment of cancer. In high-income countries, 52% of new cases of cancer should receive radiotherapy at least once and up to 25% might receive a second course. Because of the different distribution of tumour types worldwide and of the advanced stage at presentation, patients with cancer in low-income and middle-income regions could have a greater need for radiotherapy than those in high-income countries. Radiotherapy for cure or palliation has been shown to be cost effective. Many countries of low or middle income have limited access to radiotherapy, and 22 African and Asian countries have no service at all. In Africa in 2002, the actual supply of megavoltage radiotherapy machines (cobalt or linear accelerator) was only 155, 18% of the estimated need. In the Asia-Pacific region, nearly 4 million cases of cancer arose in 2002. In 12 countries with available data, 1147 megavoltage machines were available for an estimated demand of nearly 4000 megavoltage machines. Eastern Europe and Latin America showed similar shortages. Strategies for developing services need planning at a national level and substantial investment for staff training and equipment. Safe and effective development of services would benefit from: links with established facilities in other countries, particularly those within the same region; access to information, such as free online journal access; and better education of all medical staff about the roles and benefits of radiotherapy. PMID:16814210

  7. Locus of Control in University Students From Eastern and Western Societies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parsons, Oscar A.; Schneider, John M.

    1974-01-01

    The Rotter Internal-External Locus of Control (I-E) Scale was used to evaluate male and female students in Eastern, Western and Middle Eastern societies. Results showed that Japanese students scored higher on external source control tests than students from other countries while Indian students scored lower on these tests. (EK)

  8. Biological evaluation of Trans-African highways

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adamatzky, Andrew; Kayem, Anne V. D. M.

    2013-01-01

    The Trans-African highway network is a unique concept of integrated development of transport corridors spanning all African countries and providing landlocked countries access to seaports. The planned road system is still maturing and just partially complete, thus giving us a chance to play with different scenarios of its growth and to consider potential alternative transport networks. We study the evolving transport network in the African continent with a groundbreaking technique of imitating growing transport networks with slime mould Physarum polycephalum. We represent the major urban areas of Africa with a source of nutrients, inoculate a piece of the slime mould in Cairo and allow the mould to span all urban areas with its network of protoplasmic tubes. We then compare the slime mould networks with existing and planned highway corridors. We found that slime mould provides a good approximation of the Trans-African highway network, with some roads of Eastern Africa delineated by P. polycephalum in a larger number of laboratory experiments. We demonstrate direct matches between protoplasmic tubes and Trans-Sahelian as well as Lagos-Mombasa corridors. Finally we analyse the bio-logic of transport network development in families of generalised Physarum graphs.

  9. Enhancing the Cultural Identity of Early Adolescent Male African Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bass, Christopher K.; Coleman, Hardin L. K.

    This paper reports on the development of a school-based Afrocentric intervention for middle school male adolescents who are at risk for academic failure or underachievement. The intervention combined the principles of the rites of passage movement within African American communities and current thinking on the process of second culture acquisition…

  10. Greening of the Sahara - a paleo perspective on the history of water in the Middle East and North Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bar-Matthews, M.

    2012-04-01

    The Middle-East, mostly at its southern edge together with North Africa, the northern edge of the Sahara Desert, are located at the boundary between high- to-mid latitude and tropical-subtropical climate systems. The geographical duality of desert adjacent to Mediterranean-type climate regions played and still plays a major role on the water availability. Thanks to the number of important paleoclimate studies that been made on accurate dating of cave speleothems in Southern Arabia and Oman (Fleitmann et al., 2011) and in the northeast Sahara, the Negev Desert Israel (Vaks et al., 2010) and the study of sapropels in Eastern and central Mediterranean (Almogi-Labin et al., 2009; Osborne et al, 2008), it is clear that the region was graced with water during peak interglacials when the African monsoon and westerly storm/rainfall systems intensified. Northward penetration of the Inter Tropical Convergence Zone over the Arabian and African continents resulted in increased discharge of the Nile River and rivers that emerged from central Sahara into the Eastern Mediterranean Sea. Correspondingly, enhanced westerly wind activity led to an increase in rainfall from Atlantic-Mediterranean sources over the entire Mediterranean basin, which even penetrated south into the north-east corner of the Sahara Desert. The Saharo-Arabian Desert became narrower and climatic "windows" opened for the dispersal of hominids and animals out of the African continent at 250-239, 210-193, 138-120, 108-98, 87-84 and 10-6.5 ka BP, with severe dry conditions in between. Greening of the Sahara Desert at these intervals is supported also by various marine and terrestrial records, such as corals, lakes, tufa deposits and archeological findings. Dry conditions prevailed in the Sahara desert during glacials. This is in contrast to the climatic conditions in the Eastern Mediterranean coastal region and the Jordan Rift Valley (Bar-Matthews et al., 2003; Lisker et al., 2010), where water was available for

  11. Raising African American Student Graduation Rates: A Best Practices Study of Predominantly White Liberal Arts Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pool, Robert W.

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative study sought to explore best practices at small, private liberal arts institutions that experienced large increases in African American graduation rates. Particular focus was on institutions that enrolled less than 17% minority students whose overall enrollment fell within the middle 50% of all SAT scores and the middle 50% of…

  12. Missed Opportunities: Examining the Literacy Experiences of African American Students Displaced by Hurricane Katrina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pollard, Tamica McClarty

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine how five African American middle school students, who were displaced by Hurricane Katrina represent their literacy experiences before, during, and after their displacement. Specifically, the two research questions were: (a) What are the stories that these middle school students tell about their lives,…

  13. The Social Ecology of Well-Being in Middle Childhood.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levitt, Mary J.; Crooks, Noel A.; Bustos, Gaston L.; Santos, Jennifer D.; Telan, Paige; Silver, Marcia E.; Branscum, Emily; Levitt, Jerome L.

    Parent and friend support, family stress, and economic hardship are examined as mediators of well-being for 782 African-American, European-American, and Hispanic-American 4th and 6th graders from middle and low income schools. Of these, 172 were immigrants. Well-being indices included loneliness, self-concept, depression, and teacher-rated…

  14. Fostering Meaningful Middle School Literacy Learning: Investigating Beliefs and Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brock, Cynthia H.; Boyd, Fenice B.

    2011-01-01

    This article takes us inside two urban middle school classrooms where the majority of students speak African American English. In addition to exploring the nature of literacy instruction inside Mrs. Baird's and Ms. Lawson's classrooms, we examine both teachers' underlying beliefs with respect to language, literacy, and learning. This inquiry…

  15. The Black Black Woman and the Black Middle Class.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeffers, Trellie

    1981-01-01

    Reprint of a 1973 article that describes the discrimination that particularly dark-skinned Black women suffer, especially at the hands of a color-conscious Black middle class. Calls for dark women to look to the African appearance and working-class roots as sources of pride and strength. (GC)

  16. Social Motives Underlying Antisocial Behavior across Middle School Grades

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Juvonen, Jaana; Ho, Alice Y.

    2008-01-01

    The goal of the study was to examine whether social motives (social mimicry, mutual attraction, and unreciprocated attraction) predict changes in antisocial behavior across middle school grades. The 2,003 initial participants (55% girls) were drawn from a larger longitudinal study of urban public school students: 44% Latino, 26% African-American,…

  17. Shifting Attendance Trajectories from Middle to High School: Influences of School Transitions and Changing School Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benner, Aprile D.; Wang, Yijie

    2014-01-01

    In the current study, we examine patterns of school attendance across middle and high school with a diverse sample of 8,908 students (48% female; 54% Latino, 31% White, 13% African American, 2% Asian American). Attendance declined from middle through high school, but this overall pattern masked important variations. In total, 44% of students…

  18. Racial Disparities in Tobacco Use and Social Influences in a Rural Southern Middle School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muilenburg, Jessica L.; Johnson, William D.; Annang, Lucy; Strasser, Sheryl M.

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated racial differences of tobacco use and social exposure to tobacco products in a sample of middle school students. Questionnaires were administered in January 2005 to 290 students in a Mississippi Delta-area middle school. The participants were 51.0% female and 56.6% African American. Unadjusted odds ratios revealed that…

  19. Seed viability and germination success of Acacia tortilis along land-use and aridity gradients in the Eastern Sahara.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Gidske Leknæs; Krzywinski, Knut; Gjessing, Håkon K; Pierce, Richard Holton

    2016-01-01

    Our study focuses on the keystone species Acacia tortilis and is the first to investigate the effect of domestic ungulates and aridity on seed viability and germination over an extensive part of the Eastern Sahara. Bruchids infest its seeds and reduce their viability and germination, but ingestion by ruminant herbivores diminishes infestation levels and enhances/promotes seed viability and germination. The degree of these effects seems to be correlated with animal body mass. Significantly reduced numbers of wild ruminant ungulates have increased the potential importance of domestic animals and pastoral nomadism for the functionality of arid North African and Middle Eastern ecosystems. We sampled seeds (16,543) from A. tortilis in eight areas in three regions with different aridity and land use. We tested the effect of geography and sampling context on seed infestation using random effects logistic regressions. We did a randomized and balanced germination experiment including 1193 seeds, treated with different manure. Germination time and rates across geography, sampling context, and infestation status were analyzed using time-to-event analyses, Kaplan-Meier curves and proportional hazards Cox regressions. Bruchid infestation is very high (80%), and the effects of context are significant. Neither partial infestation nor adding manure had a positive effect on germination. There is a strong indication that intact, uningested seeds from acacia populations in the extremely arid Western Desert germinate more slowly and have a higher fraction of hard seeds than in the Eastern Desert and the Red Sea Hills. For ingested seeds in the pastoralist areas we find that intact seeds from goat dung germinate significantly better than those from camel dung. This is contrary to the expected body-mass effect. There is no effect of site or variation in tribal management.

  20. Seed viability and germination success of Acacia tortilis along land-use and aridity gradients in the Eastern Sahara.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Gidske Leknæs; Krzywinski, Knut; Gjessing, Håkon K; Pierce, Richard Holton

    2016-01-01

    Our study focuses on the keystone species Acacia tortilis and is the first to investigate the effect of domestic ungulates and aridity on seed viability and germination over an extensive part of the Eastern Sahara. Bruchids infest its seeds and reduce their viability and germination, but ingestion by ruminant herbivores diminishes infestation levels and enhances/promotes seed viability and germination. The degree of these effects seems to be correlated with animal body mass. Significantly reduced numbers of wild ruminant ungulates have increased the potential importance of domestic animals and pastoral nomadism for the functionality of arid North African and Middle Eastern ecosystems. We sampled seeds (16,543) from A. tortilis in eight areas in three regions with different aridity and land use. We tested the effect of geography and sampling context on seed infestation using random effects logistic regressions. We did a randomized and balanced germination experiment including 1193 seeds, treated with different manure. Germination time and rates across geography, sampling context, and infestation status were analyzed using time-to-event analyses, Kaplan-Meier curves and proportional hazards Cox regressions. Bruchid infestation is very high (80%), and the effects of context are significant. Neither partial infestation nor adding manure had a positive effect on germination. There is a strong indication that intact, uningested seeds from acacia populations in the extremely arid Western Desert germinate more slowly and have a higher fraction of hard seeds than in the Eastern Desert and the Red Sea Hills. For ingested seeds in the pastoralist areas we find that intact seeds from goat dung germinate significantly better than those from camel dung. This is contrary to the expected body-mass effect. There is no effect of site or variation in tribal management. PMID:26811790

  1. Temporal labyrinths of eastern Eurasian Pleistocene humans

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Xiu-Jie; Crevecoeur, Isabelle; Liu, Wu; Xing, Song; Trinkaus, Erik

    2014-01-01

    One of the morphological features that has been identified as uniquely derived for the western Eurasian Neandertals concerns the relative sizes and positions of their semicircular canals. In particular, they exhibit a relatively small anterior canal, a relatively larger lateral one, and a more inferior position of the posterior one relative to the lateral one. These discussions have not included full paleontological data on eastern Eurasian Pleistocene human temporal labyrinths, which have the potential to provide a broader context for assessing Pleistocene Homo trait polarities. We present the temporal labyrinths of four eastern Eurasian Pleistocene Homo, one each of Early (Lantian 1), Middle (Hexian 1), and Late (Xujiayao 15) Pleistocene archaic humans and one early modern human (Liujiang 1). The labyrinths of the two earlier specimens and the most recent one conform to the proportions seen among western early and recent modern humans, reinforcing the modern human pattern as generally ancestral for the genus Homo. The labyrinth of Xujiayao 15 is in the middle of the Neandertal variation and separate from the other samples. This eastern Eurasian labyrinthine dichotomy occurs in the context of none of the distinctive Neandertal external temporal or other cranial features. As such, it raises questions regarding possible cranial and postcranial morphological correlates of Homo labyrinthine variation, the use of individual “Neandertal” features for documenting population affinities, and the nature of late archaic human variation across Eurasia. PMID:25002467

  2. Late Quaternary mammalian zoogeography of eastern Washington

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyman, R. Lee; Livingston, Stephanie D.

    1983-11-01

    The late Quaternary mammalian zoogeographic history of eastern Washington as revealed by archaeological and paleontological research conforms to a set of past environmental conditions inferred from botanical data. During the relatively cool and moist late Pleistocene and early Holocene, Cervus cf. elaphus, Ovis canadensis, Vulpes vulpes, Martes americana, Alopex lagopus, and perhaps Rangifer sp., taxa with ecological preferences for mesic steppe habitats, were present in the now xeric Columbia Basin. As the climate became progressively warmer and drier during the late Pleistocene and early Holocene, Antilocapra americana, Onychomys leucogaster, Spermophilus townsendii, and Neotoma cinerea, taxa with ecological preferences for xeric steppe habitats, appear in the Columbia Basin. Bison sp. and Taxidea taxus may have been present in eastern Washington for the last 20,000 yr. Middle and late Holocene records for Oreamnos americanus, Spermophilus columbianus, S. townsendii, Lagurus curtatus, and Urocyon cinereoargenteus in central eastern Washington suggest fluctuations in the ranges of these taxa that conform to a middle Holocene period of less effective precipitation and a ca. 3500-yr-old period of more effective precipitation before essentially modern environmental conditions prevailed.

  3. Generational Changes in Conceptions of Mental Illness: A Study of a South African Indian Sample.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bhana, Kastoor; Daniels, Carol Sandra

    1986-01-01

    Investigates generational changes in the conceptualization of mental illness. Hindu and Muslim grandmothers and their middle-aged daughters were studied with the following results: (1) a significant generation effect and (2) the conceptualization largely in eastern terms but an acceptance of both eastern and western conceptions of etiology and…

  4. Eastern Europe's Silicon Rush

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodard, Colin

    2007-01-01

    This article presents how the fast expansion of information technology industry in eastern Slovakia is putting a strain on its labor supply. Suddenly, computer-science graduates have become one of the former Eastern Bloc's greatest assets, attracting multinational technology companies hungry for skilled programmers, technicians, and engineers.…

  5. The Eratosthenes Seamount - Eastern Mediterranean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ehrhardt, A.; Schnabel, M.; Damm, V.

    2012-04-01

    The Eratosthenes Seamount forms a prominent landmark in the Eastern Mediterranean. It is located south of Cyprus with the Levantine Basin on its eastern side, the Herodotus Basin on its western side and the Nile Cone south of the seamount. The Eratosthenes Seamount rises up to 750 m below sea surface and is about 1200 m higher than the surrounding seafloor of the Levantine Basin and the Nile Cone sediments. The Eratosthenes Seamount is considered as a continental fragment of the former African-Nubian Plate that was rifted to its present position relative to Africa during the formation of the Tethyan Ocean. In 2010 a detailed geophysical survey was carried out in the area of the Eratosthenes Seamount by the Federal Institute for Geosciences and Natural Resources of Germany including multichannel seismic (MCS), refraction seismics, magnetic, gravity and magnetotelluric data acquisition. First results show a highly deformed seamount, with a plateau-like top that is impacted by west-east trending graben formation. The slopes of the seamount are eroded showing deep incised ripple patterns and recent submarine landslides. The Eratosthenes Seamount produces also a prominent magnetic and gravity anomaly, both supporting its uniqueness in the area of the Eastern Mediterranean. Velocity information by refraction seismic modeling, as well as the models of the magnetic and gravity data show evidence for a volcanic core of the seamount with carbonate layers on top of the volcanic core. The slopes of the seamount terminate against a conspicuous rim-like escarpment that forms in addition the northern and western termination of the Messinian Evaporites in the study area. The MCS and refraction seismic data show a very deep Levantine Basin with maximum acoustic basement depths of 12 to 14 km very close to the slope of the Eratosthenes Seamount. The deepest sediments resolved by the MCS data are of Lower Cretaceous to Jurassic age. The refraction seismic model shows a 14 km thick

  6. Models of invasion and establishment of African Mustard (Brassica tournefortii)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Berry, Kristin H.; Gowan, Timothy A.; Miller, David M.; Brooks, Matthew L.

    2015-01-01

    Introduced exotic plants can drive ecosystem change. We studied invasion and establishment ofBrassica tournefortii (African mustard), a noxious weed, in the Chemehuevi Valley, western Sonoran Desert, California. We used long-term data sets of photographs, transects for biomass of annual plants, and densities of African mustard collected at irregular intervals between 1979 and 2009. We suggest that African mustard may have been present in low numbers along the main route of travel, a highway, in the late 1970s; invaded the valley along a major axial valley ephemeral stream channel and the highway; and by 2009, colonized 22 km into the eastern part of the valley. We developed predictive models for invasibility and establishment of African mustard. Both during the initial invasion and after establishment, significant predictor variables of African mustard densities were surficial geology, proximity to the highway and axial valley ephemeral stream channel, and number of small ephemeral stream channels. The axial valley ephemeral stream channel was the most vulnerable of the variables to invasions. Overall, African mustard rapidly colonized and quickly became established in naturally disturbed areas, such as stream channels, where geological surfaces were young and soils were weakly developed. Older geological surfaces (e.g., desert pavements with soils 140,000 to 300,000 years old) were less vulnerable. Microhabitats also influenced densities of African mustard, with densities higher under shrubs than in the interspaces. As African mustard became established, the proportional biomass of native winter annual plants declined. Early control is important because African mustard can colonize and become well established across a valley in 20 yr.

  7. 16 Extraordinary African Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lobb, Nancy

    This collection for children tells the stories of 16 African Americans who helped make America what it is today. African Americans can take pride in the heritage of these contributors to society. Biographies are given for the following: (1) Sojourner Truth, preacher and abolitionist; (2) Frederick Douglass, abolitionist; (3) Harriet Tubman, leader…

  8. African Studies Computer Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuntz, Patricia S.

    African studies computer resources that are readily available in the United States with linkages to Africa are described, highlighting those most directly corresponding to African content. Africanists can use the following four fundamental computer systems: (1) Internet/Bitnet; (2) Fidonet; (3) Usenet; and (4) dial-up bulletin board services. The…

  9. Understanding African American Males

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Edward Earl

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the socialization skills, self-esteem, and academic readiness of African American males in a school environment. Discussions with students and the School Perceptions Questionnaire provided data for this investigation. The intended targets for this investigation were African American students; however, there…

  10. Africans Away from Home.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarke, John Henrik

    Africans who were brought across the Atlantic as slaves never fully adjusted to slavery or accepted its inevitability. Resistance began on board the slave ships, where many jumped overboard or committed suicide. African slaves in South America led the first revolts against tyranny in the New World. The first slave revolt in the Caribbean occurred…

  11. Keeping African Masks Real

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waddington, Susan

    2012-01-01

    Art is a good place to learn about our multicultural planet, and African masks are prized throughout the world as powerfully expressive artistic images. Unfortunately, multicultural education, especially for young children, can perpetuate stereotypes. Masks taken out of context lose their meaning and the term "African masks" suggests that there is…

  12. Educating African American Males

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Edward E.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Schools across America spend money, invest in programs, and sponsor workshops, offer teacher incentives, raise accountability standards, and even evoke the name of Obama in efforts to raise the academic achievement of African American males. Incarceration and college retention rates point to a dismal plight for many African American…

  13. African American men's perspectives on promoting physical activity: "We're not that difficult to figure out!".

    PubMed

    Friedman, Daniela B; Hooker, Steven P; Wilcox, Sara; Burroughs, Ericka L; Rheaume, Carol E

    2012-01-01

    African American men report poorer health than do White men and have significantly greater odds for developing chronic diseases partly because of limited physical activity. Understanding how to encourage healthy behaviors among African American men will be critical in the development of effective physical activity messages and programs. Guided by principles of cultural sensitivity and social marketing, this research examined middle-aged and older African American men's recommended strategies for promoting physical activity to African American men of their age. The authors report results from 49 interviews conducted with middle-aged (45-64 years) and older (65-84 years) African American men in South Carolina. Four groups of African American men were recruited: middle-aged active men (n = 17), middle-aged inactive men (n = 12), older active men (n = 10), older inactive men (n = 10). Themes related to marketing and recruitment strategies, message content, and spokesperson characteristics emerged and differed by age and physical activity level. Recommended marketing strategies included word of mouth; use of mass media; partnering with churches, businesses, and fraternities; strategic placement of messages; culturally appropriate message framing; and careful attention to selection of program spokespersons. Findings will help in the marketing, design, implementation, and evaluation of culturally appropriate interventions to encourage physical activity among middle-aged and older African American men in the South. PMID:22808914

  14. African American men's perspectives on promoting physical activity: "We're not that difficult to figure out!".

    PubMed

    Friedman, Daniela B; Hooker, Steven P; Wilcox, Sara; Burroughs, Ericka L; Rheaume, Carol E

    2012-01-01

    African American men report poorer health than do White men and have significantly greater odds for developing chronic diseases partly because of limited physical activity. Understanding how to encourage healthy behaviors among African American men will be critical in the development of effective physical activity messages and programs. Guided by principles of cultural sensitivity and social marketing, this research examined middle-aged and older African American men's recommended strategies for promoting physical activity to African American men of their age. The authors report results from 49 interviews conducted with middle-aged (45-64 years) and older (65-84 years) African American men in South Carolina. Four groups of African American men were recruited: middle-aged active men (n = 17), middle-aged inactive men (n = 12), older active men (n = 10), older inactive men (n = 10). Themes related to marketing and recruitment strategies, message content, and spokesperson characteristics emerged and differed by age and physical activity level. Recommended marketing strategies included word of mouth; use of mass media; partnering with churches, businesses, and fraternities; strategic placement of messages; culturally appropriate message framing; and careful attention to selection of program spokespersons. Findings will help in the marketing, design, implementation, and evaluation of culturally appropriate interventions to encourage physical activity among middle-aged and older African American men in the South.

  15. African American Mothers' Socialization Beliefs and Goals with Young Children: Themes of History, Education, and Collective Independence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suizzo, Marie-Anne; Robinson, Courtney; Pahlke, Erin

    2008-01-01

    Although research on African American family socialization is increasing, little is known about the beliefs, goals, and strategies of middle-class parents of young children. This study's aim was to address this research gap by examining three key aspects of parental socialization. First, the authors investigated whether and how African American…

  16. Paleoceanography of the tropical eastern pacific ocean.

    PubMed

    Grigg, R W; Hey, R

    1992-01-10

    The East Pacific Barrier (EPB) is the most effective marine barrier to dispersal of tropical shallow-water fauna in the world today. The fossil record of corals in the eastern Pacific suggests this has been true throughout the Cenozoic. In the Cretaceous, the EPB was apparently less effective in limiting dispersal. Equatorial circulation in the Pacific then appears to have been primarily east to west and the existence of oceanic atolls (now drowned guyots) in the eastern Pacific probably aided dispersal. Similarly, in the middle and early Mesozoic and late Paleozoic, terranes in the central tropical Pacific likely served as stepping stones to dispersal of tropical shelf faunas, reducing the isolating effect of an otherwise wider Pacific Ocean (Panthalassa).

  17. Paleoceanography of the tropical eastern pacific ocean.

    PubMed

    Grigg, R W; Hey, R

    1992-01-10

    The East Pacific Barrier (EPB) is the most effective marine barrier to dispersal of tropical shallow-water fauna in the world today. The fossil record of corals in the eastern Pacific suggests this has been true throughout the Cenozoic. In the Cretaceous, the EPB was apparently less effective in limiting dispersal. Equatorial circulation in the Pacific then appears to have been primarily east to west and the existence of oceanic atolls (now drowned guyots) in the eastern Pacific probably aided dispersal. Similarly, in the middle and early Mesozoic and late Paleozoic, terranes in the central tropical Pacific likely served as stepping stones to dispersal of tropical shelf faunas, reducing the isolating effect of an otherwise wider Pacific Ocean (Panthalassa). PMID:17756067

  18. Diabetes in African Americans

    PubMed Central

    Marshall, M

    2005-01-01

    African Americans have a high risk for type 2 diabetes. Genetic traits, the prevalence of obesity, and insulin resistance all contribute to the risk of diabetes in the African American community. African Americans have a high rate of diabetic complications, because of poor glycaemic control and racial disparities in health care in the USA. African Americans with diabetes may have an atypical presentation that simulates type 1 diabetes, but then their subsequent clinical course is typical of type 2 diabetes. Culturally sensitive strategies, structured disease management protocols, and the assistance of nurses, diabetic educators, and other health care professionals are effective in improving the outcome of diabetes in the African American community. PMID:16344294

  19. Spirometric reference values in a large Middle Eastern population.

    PubMed

    Golshan, M; Nematbakhsh, M; Amra, B; Crapo, R O

    2003-09-01

    Ethnic differences in pulmonary function have been frequently reported. The purposes of this study were to derive equations for the prediction of normative spirometry values for a large population of Persians in Isfahan and compare them to reference values from a White Euro-USA population. Spirometry measurements were obtained from 4,341 randomly selected healthy nonsmoker subjects in Isfahan, Iran, utilising American Thoracic Society guidelines and a vigorous quality assurance program. Measured data from 3,213 subjects were analysed using multiple regression techniques to derive prediction equations for spirometric variables; the remaining 1,128 subjects were used as a control group to test the validity of the derived equations. In addition, predicted values were compared with values derived from recently published equations for the USA. Derived prediction equations showed good performance for most spirometric parameters. Compared with USA Whites, adult Persians have minimally lower forced vital capacities, while the values for children are close to USA Whites. In comparison with reference equations based on European or USA populations, local reference values are more biologically and technically suitable for the interpretation of spirometric data from Iranian populations. PMID:14516147

  20. Signals of Chaotic Behavior in Middle Eastern Stock Exchanges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hacinliyan, Avadis Simon; Aybar, Orhan Ozgur; Aybar, Ilknur Kusbeyzi; Kulali, Mustafa; Karaduman, Seyma

    This study involves analysis of financial time series using nonlinear data analysis methods involving chaos and fractal analysis methods such as R/S, DFA, attractor reconstruction using phase space representation, delay coordinates, mutual information, false nearest neighbors (henceforth referred to as FNN) and maximal Lyapunov exponents. A reparametrization of the Lyapunov exponent analysis that is addressed towards the aliasing effect frequently seen in economic time series has also been used.

  1. Caring for veterans returning home from Middle Eastern wars.

    PubMed

    Wands, Lisa Marie

    2011-04-01

    After serving at war, veterans work to resume a normal life at home. For some, the difficulties of reintegration are compounded by significant physical injury or psychological trauma, such as traumatic brain injury and post-traumatic stress disorder. It is equally important to attend to the all-encompassing experience of reintegration for any veteran. The transition is deeply embedded in the context of relationships and, as such, nurses can provide support. Nurses can find guidance on how to better connect with veterans returning home from war in Swanson's work on caring.

  2. Using Object Boxes to Teach about Middle Eastern Antiquity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gianetto, Jennifer L.; Rule, Audrey C.

    2005-01-01

    Students need to enter the interconnected global community with an understanding of how different cultures perceive the world, how the cultures and societies of today evolved from those of the past, and how all peoples impact the development of future societies. Unfortunately, time constraints or lack of resources in schools cause many social…

  3. African bees to control African elephants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vollrath, Fritz; Douglas-Hamilton, Iain

    2002-11-01

    Numbers of elephants have declined in Africa and Asia over the past 30 years while numbers of humans have increased, both substantially. Friction between these two keystone species is reaching levels which are worryingly high from an ecological as well as a political viewpoint. Ways and means must be found to keep the two apart, at least in areas sensitive to each species' survival. The aggressive African bee might be one such method. Here we demonstrate that African bees deter elephants from damaging the vegetation and trees which house their hives. We argue that bees can be employed profitably to protect not only selected trees, but also selected areas, from elephant damage.

  4. Recent divergences and size decreases of eastern gorilla populations.

    PubMed

    Roy, Justin; Arandjelovic, Mimi; Bradley, Brenda J; Guschanski, Katerina; Stephens, Colleen R; Bucknell, Dan; Cirhuza, Henry; Kusamba, Chifundera; Kyungu, Jean Claude; Smith, Vince; Robbins, Martha M; Vigilant, Linda

    2014-11-01

    Compared with other African apes, eastern gorillas (Gorilla beringei) have been little studied genetically. We used analysis of autosomal DNA genotypes obtained from non-invasively collected faecal samples to estimate the evolutionary histories of the two extant mountain gorilla populations and the closely related eastern lowland gorillas. Our results suggest that eastern lowland gorillas and mountain gorillas split beginning some 10 000 years ago, followed 5000 years ago by the split of the two mountain gorilla populations of Bwindi Impenetrable National Park and the Virungas Massif. All three populations have decreased in effective population size, with particularly substantial 10-fold decreases for the mountain gorillas. These dynamics probably reflect responses to habitat changes resulting from climate fluctuations over the past 20 000 years as well as increasing human influence in this densely populated region in the last several thousand years.

  5. Recent divergences and size decreases of eastern gorilla populations

    PubMed Central

    Roy, Justin; Arandjelovic, Mimi; Bradley, Brenda J.; Guschanski, Katerina; Stephens, Colleen R.; Bucknell, Dan; Cirhuza, Henry; Kusamba, Chifundera; Kyungu, Jean Claude; Smith, Vince; Robbins, Martha M.; Vigilant, Linda

    2014-01-01

    Compared with other African apes, eastern gorillas (Gorilla beringei) have been little studied genetically. We used analysis of autosomal DNA genotypes obtained from non-invasively collected faecal samples to estimate the evolutionary histories of the two extant mountain gorilla populations and the closely related eastern lowland gorillas. Our results suggest that eastern lowland gorillas and mountain gorillas split beginning some 10 000 years ago, followed 5000 years ago by the split of the two mountain gorilla populations of Bwindi Impenetrable National Park and the Virungas Massif. All three populations have decreased in effective population size, with particularly substantial 10-fold decreases for the mountain gorillas. These dynamics probably reflect responses to habitat changes resulting from climate fluctuations over the past 20 000 years as well as increasing human influence in this densely populated region in the last several thousand years. PMID:25376805

  6. Lithospheric Response of the Anatolian Plateau in the Realm of the Black Sea and the Eastern Mediterranean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ergun, Mustafa

    2016-04-01

    The Eastern Mediterranean and the Middle East make up the southern boundary of the Tethys Ocean for the last 200 Ma by the disintegration of the Pangaea and closure of the Tethys Ocean. It covers the structures: Hellenic and Cyprus arcs; Eastern Anatolian Fault Zone; Bitlis Suture Zone and Zagros Mountains. The northern boundary of the Tethys Ocean is made up the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea, and it extends up to Po valley towards the west (Pontides, Caucasus). Between these two zones the Alp-Himalayan orogenic belt is situated where the Balkan, Anatolia and the Iran plateaus are placed as the remnants of the lost Ocean of the Tethys. The active tectonics of the eastern Mediterranean is the consequences of the convergence between the Africa, Arabian plates in the south and the Eurasian plate in the north. These plates act as converging jaws of vise forming a crustal mosaic in between. The active crustal deformation pattern reveals two N-S trending maximum compression or crustal shortening syntaxes': (i) the eastern Black Sea and the Arabian plate, (ii) the western Black Sea and the Isparta Angle. The transition in young mountain belts, from ocean crust through the agglomeration of arc systems with long histories of oceanic closures, to a continental hinterland is well exemplified by the plate margin in the eastern Mediterranean. The boundary between the African plate and the Aegean/Anatolian microplate is in the process of transition from subduction to collision along the Cyprus Arc. Since the Black Sea has oceanic lithosphere, it is actually a separate plate. However it can be considered as a block, because the Black Sea is a trapped oceanic basin that cannot move freely within the Eurasian Plate. Lying towards the northern margin of orogenic belts related to the closure of the Tethys Ocean, it is generally considered to be a result of back-arc extension associated with the northward subduction of the Tethyan plate to the south. Interface oceanic lithosphere at

  7. Sickle cell disease in Middle East Arab countries

    PubMed Central

    El-Hazmi, Mohsen A. F.; Al-Hazmi, Ali M.; Warsy, Arjumand S.

    2011-01-01

    The sickle cell (HbS) gene occurs at a variable frequency in the Middle Eastern Arab countries, with characteristic distribution patterns and representing an overall picture of blood genetic disorders in the region. The origin of the gene has been debated, but studies using β-globin gene haplotypes have ascertained that there were multiple origins for HbS. In some regions the HbS gene is common and exhibits polymorphism, while the reverse is true in others. A common causative factor for the high prevalence and maintenance of HbS and thalassaemia genes is malaria endemicity. The HbS gene also co-exists with other haemoglobin variants and thalassaemia genes and the resulting clinical state is referred to as sickle cell disease (SCD). In the Middle Eastern Arab countries, the clinical picture of SCD expresses two distinct forms, the benign and the severe forms, which are related to two distinct β-globin gene haplotypes. These are referred to as the Saudi-Indian and the Benin haplotypes, respectively. In a majority of the Middle Eastern Arab countries the HbS is linked to the Saudi-Indian haplotype, while in others it is linked to the Benin haplotype. This review outlines the frequency, distribution, clinical feature, management and prevention as well as gene interactions of the HbS genes with other haemoglobin disorders in the Middle Eastern Arab countries. PMID:22199098

  8. Disillusionment with Higher Education in the Middle East and the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cochran, Judith A.

    2011-01-01

    University graduates in the Middle East and the United States of America are disillusioned with their higher education degrees. Youth expect to be well employed upon graduation and to improve their social status. Employment has been guaranteed from the earliest university certificates granted in Middle Eastern yeshivas, Houses of Learning, and…

  9. A Review of Dietary Selenium Intake and Selenium Status in Europe and the Middle East

    PubMed Central

    Stoffaneller, Rita; Morse, Nancy L.

    2015-01-01

    This is a systematic review of existing data on dietary selenium (Se) intake and status for various population groups in Europe (including the United Kingdom (UK)) and the Middle East. It includes English language systematic reviews, meta-analyses, randomised controlled trials, cohort studies, cross-sectional and case-control studies obtained through PUBMED searches from January, 2002, to November, 2014, for European data and from 1990 to November 2014, for Middle Eastern data. Reports were selected if they included data on Se intake and status. The search identified 19 European/UK studies and 15 investigations in the Middle East that reported Se intake and Se concentration in water and/or food and 48 European/UK studies and 44 investigations in the Middle East reporting Se status. Suboptimal Se status was reported to be widespread throughout Europe, the UK and the Middle East, and these results agreed with previous reports highlighting the problem. Eastern European countries had lower Se intake than Western European countries. Middle Eastern studies provided varying results, possibly due to varying food habits and imports in different regions and within differing socioeconomic groups. In conclusion, Se intake and status is suboptimal in European and Middle Eastern countries, with less consistency in the Middle East. PMID:25734564

  10. Eastern Equine Encephalitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Image of Culiseta melanura mosquito, photo taken by Jason Williams, reproduced by permission from the Virginia Mosquito Control Association. Eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV) is ...

  11. A Systematic Review of Radiotherapy Capacity in Low- and Middle-Income Countries

    PubMed Central

    Grover, Surbhi; Xu, Melody J.; Yeager, Alyssa; Rosman, Lori; Groen, Reinou S.; Chackungal, Smita; Rodin, Danielle; Mangaali, Margaret; Nurkic, Sommer; Fernandes, Annemarie; Lin, Lilie L.; Thomas, Gillian; Tergas, Ana I.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The cancer burden in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC) is substantial. The purpose of this study was to identify and describe country and region-specific patterns of radiotherapy (RT) facilities in LMIC. Methods: A systematic review of the literature was undertaken. A search strategy was developed to include articles on radiation capacity in LMIC from the following databases: PubMed, Embase, CINAHL Plus, Global Health, and the Latin American and Caribbean System on Health Sciences Information. Searches included all literature up to April 2013. Results: A total of 49 articles were included in the review. Studies reviewed were divided into one of four regions: Africa, Asia, Eastern Europe, and South America. The African continent has the least amount of resources for RT. Furthermore, a wide disparity exists, as 60% of all machines on the continent are concentrated in Egypt and South Africa while 29 countries in Africa are still lacking any RT resource. A significant heterogeneity also exists across Southeast Asia despite a threefold increase in megavoltage teletherapy machines from 1976 to 1999, which corresponds with a rise in economic status. In LMIC of the Americas, only Uruguay met the International Atomic Energy Agency recommendations of 4 MV/million population, whereas Bolivia and Venezuela had the most radiation oncologists (>1 per 1000 new cancer cases). The main concern with the review of RT resources in Eastern Europe was the lack of data. Conclusion: There is a dearth of publications on RT therapy infrastructure in LMIC. However, based on limited published data, availability of RT resources reflects the countries’ economic status. The challenges to delivering radiation in the discussed regions are multidimensional and include lack of physical resources, lack of human personnel, and lack of data. Furthermore, access to existing RT and affordability of care remains a large problem. PMID:25657930

  12. Middle ear infection (image)

    MedlinePlus

    A middle ear infection is also known as otitis media. It is one of the most common of childhood infections. With this illness, the middle ear becomes red, swollen, and inflamed because of bacteria ...

  13. The role of tephra studies in African paleoanthropology as exemplified by the Sidi Hakoma Tuff

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    WoldeGabriel, Giday; Endale, Tamrat; White, Tim D.; Thouveny, Nicolas; Hart, William K.; Renne, Paul R.; Asfaw, Berhane

    2013-01-01

    Beginning in the 1960s, geological and paleoanthropological exploration of the Ethiopian rift system's basins have led to the discovery and assembly of the most comprehensive record of human biological and technological change during the last 6 million years. The hominid fossils, including partial skeletons, were primarily discovered in the Afar Rift, the Main Ethiopian Rift, and in the Omo Basin of the broadly rifted zone of SW Ethiopia. The paleoanthropological research areas within the SW Afar Rift that have yielded many diverse hominid species and the oldest stone tools are, from north to south, Woranso-Mille (aff. Ardipithecus and Au. afarensis), Hadar (Au. afarensis, Homo sp.), Dikika (Au. afarensis), Gona (Ar. kadabba, Ar. ramidus, H. erectus, and oldest stone tools), Middle Awash (Ar. kadabba, Ar. ramidus, Au. anamensis, Au. afarensis, Au. garhi, H. erectus, H. rhodesiensis, H. sapiens idaltu, and the oldest paleo-butchery locality), and Galili (Au. afarensis). Additional hominid remains were discovered at Melka Kunture on the banks of the Awash River near its source along the western margin of the central part of the Main Ethiopian Rift (H. erectus), at Konso (H. erectus and A. boisei), and at the southern end of the MER, and in the Omo Basin (Au. anamensis, Au. afarensis, Au. aethiopicus, Au. boisei, H. habilis, and H. erectus). Distal and sometimes proximal tephra units interbedded within fossilifeous sedimentary deposits have become key elements in this work by providing chronological and correlative control and depositional contexts. Several regional tephra markers have been identified within the northern half of the eastern African rift valley in Ethiopia and Kenya, and in marine sediments of the Gulf of Aden Rift and the NW Indian Ocean. Out of the many regional tephra stratigraphic markers that range in age from the early Pliocene (3.97 Ma) to the late Pleistocene (0.16 Ma), the Sidi Hakoma Tuff (SHT) has been more widely identified and thoroughly

  14. Reading Achievement, Suspensions, and African American Males in Middle School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Kenneth A.; Howard, Keith E.; Graham, Anthony

    2007-01-01

    Associations between reading achievement and behavior, albeit problematic, are empirically supported in the literature. Although well documented, many of the studies were conducted outside of the school context using reading measures not typically aligned with school curricula. Furthermore, previous studies primarily document the existence of…

  15. Status of Information and Documentation Services in Eastern and Southern Africa and Future Prospects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Inganji, Francis

    This detailed report states that information and documentation services in Eastern and Southern African countries are expected to: (1) increase the efficiency of research, development, and training; (2) improve the efficiency and competitiveness of industry and technology, particularly of medium-sized and small concerns, by assisting professional…

  16. Survey of Basic Education in Eastern Africa. UNESCO/UNICEF Co-Operation Programme.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Nairobi (Kenya). Regional Office of Science and Technology for Africa.

    A survey of basic education in 13 Eastern African countries (Madagascar, Burundi, Comores, Ethiopia, Mauritius, Botswana, Kenya, Lesotho, Swaziland, Tanzania, Zambia, Malawi, and Somalia) covers basic education programs and UNICEF's supporting role. Basic education is seen as a concept evolved in the region, involving formal school systems and…

  17. Distribution of Primary School Enrollments in Eastern Africa. World Bank Staff Working Papers Number 511.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maas, Jacob van Lutsenburg; Criel, Geert

    Distribution of primary school enrollments within and among 15 countries of the Eastern African region was examined by drawing exclusively on routine annual statistics and by emphasizing simple computer-generated indicators. In its first phase, the study made inter-country comparisons that indicated which countries and which areas in the region…

  18. Making Middle Schools Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiles, Jon W.; Bondi, Joseph W.

    Over the past 20 years, the middle school has been a major innovative movement changing the face of intermediate education. While hard to define exactly, middle schools have different priorities and purposes than junior high schools. The former serve preadolescents (ages 10 to 14) through a balanced, comprehensive program. Middle school programs…

  19. Diasporic dreaming: return reproductive tourism to the Middle East.

    PubMed

    Inhorn, Marcia C

    2011-11-01

    This article attempts to capture the dynamics of return reproductive tourism to the Middle East, based on ethnographic research undertaken at four different Middle Eastern locales (Egypt, Lebanon, United Arab Emirates and Arab America). Across the Middle Eastern diaspora, which is now vast, due to the disruptions of war and political violence, infertile couples often dream of making a test-tube baby 'back home' for a variety of cultural, moral and psychological reasons. These reasons – including medical expatriotism, the language of medicine, co-religion and moral trustworthiness, donor phenotype, the comforts of home and discrimination – are rarely highlighted in the scholarly literature on cross-border reproductive care. Thus, further empirical investigation is needed in order to assess additional reasons for reproductive travel beyond Euro-America. Of particular concern are the needs of 'stranded' refugee populations, who are constrained from seeking assisted reproduction technology 'back home', but who may face economic constraints and cultural discrimination in host communities.

  20. Astronomy for African development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Govender, Kevindran

    2011-06-01

    In recent years there have been a number of efforts across Africa to develop the field of astronomy as well as to reap benefit from astronomy for African people. This presentation will discuss the case of the SALT (Southern African Large Telescope) Collateral Benefits Programme (SCBP) which was set up to ensure societal benefit from astronomy. With African society as the target, the SCBP has embarked on various projects from school level education to public understanding of science to socio-economic development, the latter mainly being felt in the rural communities surrounding the South African Astronomical Observatory (home to SALT). A development plan for ``Astronomy in Africa'' will also be discussed. This plan has been drawn up with input from all over Africa and themed ``Astronomy for Education''. The Africa case stands as a good example for the IYA cornerstone project ``Developing Astronomy Globally'' which focuses on developing regions.