Science.gov

Sample records for african middle eastern

  1. Middle Eastern rhinoplasty.

    PubMed

    Azizzadeh, Babak; Mashkevich, Grigoriy

    2010-02-01

    The ethnic appearance of the Middle Eastern nose is defined by several unique visual features, particularly a high radix, wide overprojecting dorsum, and an amorphous hanging nasal tip. These external characteristics reflect distinct structural properties of the osseo-cartilaginous nasal framework and skin-soft tissue envelope in patients of Middle Eastern extraction. The goal, and the ultimate challenge, of rhinoplasty on Middle Eastern patients is to achieve balanced aesthetic refinement, while avoiding surgical westernization. Detailed understanding of the ethnic visual harmony in a Middle Eastern nose greatly assists in preserving native nasal-facial relationships during rhinoplasty on Middle Eastern patients. Esthetic alteration of a Middle Eastern nose follows a different set of goals and principles compared with rhinoplasties on white or other ethnic patients. This article highlights the inherent nasal features of the Middle Eastern nose and reviews pertinent concepts of rhinoplasty on Middle Eastern patients. Essential considerations in the process spanning the consultation and surgery are reviewed. Reliable operative techniques that achieve a successful aesthetic outcome are discussed in detail. PMID:20206101

  2. The Impact of a Geographic Technologies Professional Development Institute on Middle Eastern and North African Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benimmas, Aicha; Kerski, Joseph; Solis, Patricia

    2011-01-01

    Basic education in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) seems to be characterized by lecture methods of instruction, a lack of interdisciplinary approaches and a disconnection with local community problems. During 2008, a "My Community, Our Earth" (MyCOE) workshop was organized in the MENA region and involved teachers of geography, math and…

  3. Y-Chromosome and mtDNA Genetics Reveal Significant Contrasts in Affinities of Modern Middle Eastern Populations with European and African Populations

    PubMed Central

    Badro, Danielle A.; Youhanna, Sonia C.; Salloum, Angélique; Ghassibe-Sabbagh, Michella; Johnsrud, Brian; Khazen, Georges; Matisoo-Smith, Elizabeth; Soria-Hernanz, David F.; Wells, R. Spencer; Tyler-Smith, Chris; Platt, Daniel E.; Zalloua, Pierre A.

    2013-01-01

    The Middle East was a funnel of human expansion out of Africa, a staging area for the Neolithic Agricultural Revolution, and the home to some of the earliest world empires. Post LGM expansions into the region and subsequent population movements created a striking genetic mosaic with distinct sex-based genetic differentiation. While prior studies have examined the mtDNA and Y-chromosome contrast in focal populations in the Middle East, none have undertaken a broad-spectrum survey including North and sub-Saharan Africa, Europe, and Middle Eastern populations. In this study 5,174 mtDNA and 4,658 Y-chromosome samples were investigated using PCA, MDS, mean-linkage clustering, AMOVA, and Fisher exact tests of FST's, RST's, and haplogroup frequencies. Geographic differentiation in affinities of Middle Eastern populations with Africa and Europe showed distinct contrasts between mtDNA and Y-chromosome data. Specifically, Lebanon's mtDNA shows a very strong association to Europe, while Yemen shows very strong affinity with Egypt and North and East Africa. Previous Y-chromosome results showed a Levantine coastal-inland contrast marked by J1 and J2, and a very strong North African component was evident throughout the Middle East. Neither of these patterns were observed in the mtDNA. While J2 has penetrated into Europe, the pattern of Y-chromosome diversity in Lebanon does not show the widespread affinities with Europe indicated by the mtDNA data. Lastly, while each population shows evidence of connections with expansions that now define the Middle East, Africa, and Europe, many of the populations in the Middle East show distinctive mtDNA and Y-haplogroup characteristics that indicate long standing settlement with relatively little impact from and movement into other populations. PMID:23382925

  4. The Research Biobank of the Year Competition of the European, Middle Eastern and African Society for Biopreservation and Biobanking (ESBB): aims and achievements.

    PubMed

    Schröder, Christina; Corfield, Julie; di Donato, Jeanne-Hélène; Meir, Karen; Parodi, Barbara; Schmitz, Arndt A; Tiran, Andreas; Tybring, Gunnel; Hewitt, Robert E

    2014-04-01

    With the increasing number of research biobanks and the importance of their role in supporting medical and biological research, the development and sharing of biobanking best practices and benchmarking standards has become paramount. To promote outstanding biobank services for research, the Research Biobank of the Year Competition (RBYC) has been inaugurated by the European, Middle-Eastern, and African Society for Biopreservation and Biobanking (ESBB) in October 2013. The procedures for the call and evaluation procedure, including the newly developed scoring system, are presented here. The statistics and evaluation results of the first year's applications, as well as the experiences of the jury are reported here, and improvements for the RBYC in subsequent years are proposed. Beyond offering a unique benchmarking opportunity for biobanks, the RBYC is discussed as a novel tool to enhance biobank quality, transparency, usage, connectivity, innovation, and sustainability. PMID:24749884

  5. Migration as a turning point in food habits: the early phase of dietary acculturation among women from South Asian, African, and Middle Eastern Countries living in Norway.

    PubMed

    Terragni, Laura; Garnweidner, Lisa M; Pettersen, Kjell Sverre; Mosdøl, Annhild

    2014-01-01

    This article explores the early phase of dietary acculturation after migration. South Asian, African and Middle Eastern women (N = 21) living in Norway were interviewed about their early experiences with food in a new context. The findings pointed to abrupt changes in food habits in the first period after migration. To various degrees, women reported unfamiliarity with foods in shops, uncertainty about meal formats and food preparation and fear of eating food prohibited by their religion. Their food consumption tended to be restricted to food items perceived as familiar or safe. Our findings indicate that the first period after migration represents a specific phase in the process of dietary acculturation. Early initiatives aimed at enhancing confidence in food and familiarity with the new food culture are recommended. PMID:24735209

  6. The prevalence of extreme Middle Eastern ideologies around the world.

    PubMed

    Loza, Wagdy; Abd-el-Fatah, Youssef; Prinsloo, Johan; Hesselink-Louw, Anni; Seidler, Katie

    2011-02-01

    The Belief Diversity Scale (BDS) was administered to Australian, Canadian, Egyptian, and South African participants of different religious backgrounds. The BDS is a 33-item, six subscale instrument that is designed to quantitatively measure Middle Eastern extremist ideologies on risk areas that are reported in the literature. Results demonstrated the reliability and validity of the BDS, thus suggesting that the BDS could be used as an objective tool to measure Middle Eastern extremist ideologies. Results also supported the hypothesis of prevalence of Middle Eastern extremist ideologies around different parts of the world. PMID:20448230

  7. The Prevalence of Extreme Middle Eastern Ideologies around the World

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loza, Wagdy; Abd-El-Fatah, Youssef; Prinsloo, Johan; Hesselink-Louw, Anni; Seidler, Katie

    2011-01-01

    The Belief Diversity Scale (BDS) was administered to Australian, Canadian, Egyptian, and South African participants of different religious backgrounds. The BDS is a 33-item, six subscale instrument that is designed to quantitatively measure Middle Eastern extremist ideologies on risk areas that are reported in the literature. Results demonstrated…

  8. Cultural Clues to the Middle Eastern Student

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Orin D.; And Others

    1976-01-01

    Cultural patterns and characteristics of Middle Eastern students indicate their adaptability ease or difficulty in American society. Manners, paternalistic patterns, religion, and social relationships are discussed. (LBH)

  9. BRCA Genetic Screening in Middle Eastern and North African: Mutational Spectrum and Founder BRCA1 Mutation (c.798_799delTT) in North African

    PubMed Central

    Laraqui, Abdelilah; Uhrhammer, Nancy; EL Rhaffouli, Hicham; Sekhsokh, Yassine; Lahlou-Amine, Idriss; Bajjou, Tahar; Hilali, Farida; El Baghdadi, Jamila; Al Bouzidi, Abderrahmane; Bakri, Youssef; Amzazi, Said; Bignon, Yves-Jean

    2015-01-01

    Background. The contribution of BRCA1 mutations to both hereditary and sporadic breast and ovarian cancer (HBOC) has not yet been thoroughly investigated in MENA. Methods. To establish the knowledge about BRCA1 mutations and their correlation with the clinical aspect in diagnosed cases of HBOC in MENA populations. A systematic review of studies examining BRCA1 in BC women in Cyprus, Jordan, Egypt, Lebanon, Morocco, Algeria, and Tunisia was conducted. Results. Thirteen relevant references were identified, including ten studies which performed DNA sequencing of all BRCA1 exons. For the latter, 31 mutations were detected in 57 of the 547 patients ascertained. Familial history of BC was present in 388 (71%) patients, of whom 50 were mutation carriers. c.798_799delTT was identified in 11 North African families, accounting for 22% of total identified BRCA1 mutations, suggesting a founder allele. A broad spectrum of other mutations including c.68_69delAG, c.181T>G, c.5095C>T, and c.5266dupC, as well as sequence of unclassified variants and polymorphisms, was also detected. Conclusion. The knowledge of genetic structure of BRCA1 in MENA should contribute to the assessment of the necessity of preventive programs for mutation carriers and clinical management. The high prevalence of BC and the presence of frequent mutations of the BRCA1 gene emphasize the need for improving screening programs and individual testing/counseling. PMID:25814778

  10. Educational Film Guide for Middle Eastern Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenman, Joseph; Joachim, Ann

    This annotated guide lists 16mm. films on the Middle East for use in grades K-12 and with adults. The Middle East refers to a vast area extending from eastern Afghanistan and the northern Caucasus to the western coast of Morocco and the southern periphery of the Sahara. The guide does not list films according to their merits. Rather, it includes…

  11. The prevalence of the Middle-Eastern extreme ideologies among some Canadians.

    PubMed

    Loza, Wagdy

    2011-05-01

    A total of 183 Canadian participants of different religious backgrounds completed the Belief Diversity Scale (BDS). The BDS is an 80-item, 6-subscale instrument designed to quantitatively measure the religious attitudes, beliefs, and ideologies of Middle-Eastern extremists' on risk areas that are reported in the literature. The results demonstrated the reliability and validity of the BDS as well as indicated the prevalence of Middle-Eastern extremists' ideologies among Muslim Canadians. Results were similar to those obtained from similar study completed on South African participants. These findings suggested that the BDS has the potential to be used as an objective tool to measure Middle-Eastern religious extremism. PMID:20587454

  12. Culture and Language Learning: Middle Eastern Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magrath, Douglas

    Middle Eastern students face cultural conflicts in adapting to the western value system. While feeling obligated to maintain their native culture they also need to feel comfortable with the culture of their target language. In attempting to identify with a new group, ESL students may sense a loss of membership in their native group. Culture stress…

  13. Emigration dynamics of eastern African countries.

    PubMed

    Oucho, J O

    1995-01-01

    This examination of emigration dynamics focuses on 13 countries extending from Eritrea to Zimbabwe and Mozambique on the eastern African mainland and on 5 Indian Ocean island nations. The first part of the study looks at the temporal, spatial, and structural perspectives of emigration dynamics. Part 2 considers international migration in the region according to Appleyard's typology (permanent settlers, labor migration, refugees, and illegal migrants) with the additional category of return migration. Measurement issues in emigration dynamics are discussed in part 3, and the demographic/economic setting is the topic of part 4. The demographic factors emphasized include spatial distribution, population density, population structure, population dynamics, demographic transition, and the relationship between internal and international migration. Other major topics of this section of the study are the economic base, the human resource base, population and natural resources, the sociocultural context (emigration, chain migration, return migration, and migration linkages and networks), political factors (including human rights, minority rights and security, regional integration and economic cooperation, and the impact of structural adjustment programs), and a prediction of future emigration dynamics. It is concluded that refugee flows remain a major factor in eastern African countries but the development of human resources in the northern portion of the region indicates development of potential labor migration from this area. Data constraints have limited measurement of emigration in this region and may contribute to the seeming indifference of most eastern African countries to emigration policies. Emigration in this region has been triggered by deteriorating economic and political conditions and is expected to increase. PMID:12347007

  14. Inflammatory bowel disease in children of middle eastern descent.

    PubMed

    Naidoo, Christina Mai Ying; Leach, Steven T; Day, Andrew S; Lemberg, Daniel A

    2014-01-01

    Increasing rates of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are now seen in populations where it was once uncommon. The pattern of IBD in children of Middle Eastern descent in Australia has never been reported. This study aimed to investigate the burden of IBD in children of Middle Eastern descent at the Sydney Children's Hospital, Randwick (SCHR). The SCHR IBD database was used to identify patients of self-reported Middle Eastern ethnicity diagnosed between 1987 and 2011. Demographic, diagnosis, and management data was collected for all Middle Eastern children and an age and gender matched non-Middle Eastern IBD control group. Twenty-four patients of Middle Eastern descent were identified. Middle Eastern Crohn's disease patients had higher disease activity at diagnosis, higher use of thiopurines, and less restricted colonic disease than controls. Although there were limitations with this dataset, we estimated a higher prevalence of IBD in Middle Eastern children and they had a different disease phenotype and behavior compared to the control group, with less disease restricted to the colon and likely a more active disease course. PMID:24987422

  15. Inflammatory Bowel Disease in Children of Middle Eastern Descent

    PubMed Central

    Naidoo, Christina Mai Ying; Leach, Steven T.; Day, Andrew S.; Lemberg, Daniel A.

    2014-01-01

    Increasing rates of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are now seen in populations where it was once uncommon. The pattern of IBD in children of Middle Eastern descent in Australia has never been reported. This study aimed to investigate the burden of IBD in children of Middle Eastern descent at the Sydney Children's Hospital, Randwick (SCHR). The SCHR IBD database was used to identify patients of self-reported Middle Eastern ethnicity diagnosed between 1987 and 2011. Demographic, diagnosis, and management data was collected for all Middle Eastern children and an age and gender matched non-Middle Eastern IBD control group. Twenty-four patients of Middle Eastern descent were identified. Middle Eastern Crohn's disease patients had higher disease activity at diagnosis, higher use of thiopurines, and less restricted colonic disease than controls. Although there were limitations with this dataset, we estimated a higher prevalence of IBD in Middle Eastern children and they had a different disease phenotype and behavior compared to the control group, with less disease restricted to the colon and likely a more active disease course. PMID:24987422

  16. Middle Holocene thermal maximum in eastern Beringia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaufman, D. S.; Bartlein, P. J.

    2015-12-01

    A new systematic review of diverse Holocene paleoenvironmental records (Kaufman et al., Quat. Sci. Rev., in revision) has clarified the primary multi-centennial- to millennial-scale trends across eastern Beringia (Alaska, westernmost Canada and adjacent seas). Composite time series from midges, pollen, and biogeochemical indicators are compared with new summaries of mountain-glacier and lake-level fluctuations, terrestrial water-isotope records, sea-ice and sea-surface-temperature analyses, and peatland and thaw-lake initiation frequencies. The paleo observations are also compared with recently published simulations (Bartlein et al., Clim. Past Discuss., 2015) that used a regional climate model to simulate the effects of global and regional-scale forcings at 11 and 6 ka. During the early Holocene (11.5-8 ka), rather than a prominent thermal maximum as suggested previously, the newly compiled paleo evidence (mostly sensitive to summer conditions) indicates that temperatures were highly variable, at times both higher and lower than present, although the overall lowest average temperatures occurred during the earliest Holocene. During the middle Holocene (8-4 ka), glaciers retreated as the regional average temperature increased to a maximum between 7 and 5 ka, as reflected in most proxy types. The paleo evidence for low and variable temperatures during the early Holocene contrasts with more uniformly high temperatures during the middle Holocene and agrees with the climate simulations, which show that temperature in eastern Beringia was on average lower at 11 ka and higher at 6 ka than at present (pre-industrial). Low temperatures during the early Holocene can be attributed in part to the summer chilling caused by flooding the continental shelves, whereas the mid-Holocene thermal maximum was likely driven by the loss of the Laurentide ice sheet, rise in greenhouse gases, higher-than-present summer insolation, and expansion of forest over tundra.

  17. Issues in Health Care of Middle Eastern Patients

    PubMed Central

    Lipson, Juliene G.; Meleis, Afaf I.

    1983-01-01

    Relationships between Middle Eastern patients and Western health care professionals are often troubled by mutual misunderstanding of culturally influenced values and communication styles. Although Middle Easterners vary ethnically, they do share a core of common values and behavior that include the importance of affiliation and family, time and space orientations, interactional style and attitudes toward health and illness. Problems in providing health care involve obtaining adequate information, “demanding behavior” by a patient's family, conflicting beliefs about planning ahead and differing patterns of communicating grave diagnoses or “bad news.” There are guidelines that will provide an understanding of the cultural characteristics of Middle Easterners and, therefore, will improve rather than impede their health care. A personal approach and continuity of care by the same health care professional help to bridge the gap between Middle Eastern cultures and Western medical culture. In addition, periodic use of cultural interpreters helps ameliorate the intensity of some cultural issues. PMID:6364575

  18. Sulphate and desertification signals in Middle Eastern temperature trends

    SciTech Connect

    Nasrallah, H.A.; Balling, R.C. Jr.

    1994-12-31

    Analysis of Middle Eastern annual temperature anomalies over the past 40 years reveals statistically significant warming over this time period of 0.07 C per decade. The warming is most pronounced over the spring season and least apparent in the winter season. Spatial analysis reveals a positive relationship between Middle Eastern warming and the degree of human-induced desertification and a negative relationship between local warming and the atmospheric concentration of sulphate.

  19. Some Middle Eastern Breads, their Characteristics and their Production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In Middle Eastern countries, there are many traditional products which are made from wheat; bread is the most important one, and it is eaten with almost every kind of food. The goals of this study are to 1) in general, review major types of breads in the Middle East, and 2) specifically discuss Pers...

  20. Modern Middle Eastern Fiction: An Approach to Studying the Area.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stone, Frank A., Comp.

    The annotated listing cites Middle Eastern fiction which has been translated into English and can be used in humanities or social studies classes at the secondary level. The eight works of fiction listed contain materials that can be used to investigate the following topics: 1) contrasts between urban and village styles of life in the Middle East;…

  1. Middle East and North African Oil.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Quazzaz, Ayad

    1981-01-01

    Traces the history of oil and natural gas in the Middle East and relates the importance of the Middle East's current stores of oil to economic development. Information is presented on the relationship of major oil companies and local governments, OPEC, rate of production, and the impact of oil on the societies of the Middle East and North Africa.…

  2. Uterine Transplantation: Ethical Considerations within Middle Eastern Perspectives.

    PubMed

    Altawil, Zaid; Arawi, Thalia

    2016-08-01

    The field of reproductive medicine witnessed a breakthrough in September 2014 with the first successful live birth post uterine transplantation. This success represents the culmination of decades' worth of research on infertility and reproductive medicine. This subject of infertility gathers special attention in the Middle East, as childbearing is given paramount importance in the family unit. And as with any new medical advancement, Middle Eastern people look to their religious authorities for guidance. This paper describes the various ethical quandaries related to uterine transplantation, from a perspective of the religious and societal factors that are unique to the Middle East, and embeds them within the conversation of its alternative solutions. PMID:25982588

  3. Cultural Issues in Evaluation Studies of Middle Eastern Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, K. E.

    1996-01-01

    Many Middle Eastern students in Western graduate programs in higher education wish to undertake evaluations of home country institutions, but their approaches reflect significant cultural differences. Issues confronting students and supervisors in this context are discussed, and a relatively recent "fourth generation" approach to evaluation that…

  4. Competent Counseling for Middle Eastern American Clients: Implications for Trainees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soheilian, Sepideh S.; Inman, Arpana G.

    2015-01-01

    The authors used a factorial multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) to determine whether counselor trainees' group differences on measures of multicultural competence, empathy, and multicultural counseling self-efficacy (CSE) when working with Middle Eastern American (MEA) clients were moderated by trainee race. Two hundred and fifty-six…

  5. Decreasing Discipline Referrals for African American Males in Middle School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Earl, Jr.; Ratchford, Vicky F.

    2007-01-01

    Brogden Middle School (BMS) is located approximately 15 miles south of Goldsboro, North Carolina, a city of approximately 40,000 citizens and the home of a military base. To decrease the number of discipline referrals of African American males, 10 students who had the most frequent discipline referrals during their seventh-grade year were…

  6. Grandmotherhood: Contemporary Meaning among African American Middle-Class Grandmothers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Timberlake, Elizabeth M.; Chipungu, Sandra Stukes

    1992-01-01

    Explored how contemporary middle-class African American grandmothers perceived themselves in relation to their children. Found moderate relationship between values of 100 grandchildren to 100 grandmothers, timing of role assumption, and current situational context. Values included expansion of self; morality or altruism; power, influence, or…

  7. Cultural Clues to the Middle Eastern Student. Occasional Paper No. 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Orin D.; And Others

    This paper discusses characteristics common to all Middle Eastern students with the exception of Israelis, and addresses itself to those working with Middle Eastern students on American college and university campuses. Middle Eastern students will show themselves to be highly adaptable, but they may demonstrate a formality of manner, particularly…

  8. Abraham's children in the genome era: major Jewish diaspora populations comprise distinct genetic clusters with shared Middle Eastern Ancestry.

    PubMed

    Atzmon, Gil; Hao, Li; Pe'er, Itsik; Velez, Christopher; Pearlman, Alexander; Palamara, Pier Francesco; Morrow, Bernice; Friedman, Eitan; Oddoux, Carole; Burns, Edward; Ostrer, Harry

    2010-06-11

    For more than a century, Jews and non-Jews alike have tried to define the relatedness of contemporary Jewish people. Previous genetic studies of blood group and serum markers suggested that Jewish groups had Middle Eastern origin with greater genetic similarity between paired Jewish populations. However, these and successor studies of monoallelic Y chromosomal and mitochondrial genetic markers did not resolve the issues of within and between-group Jewish genetic identity. Here, genome-wide analysis of seven Jewish groups (Iranian, Iraqi, Syrian, Italian, Turkish, Greek, and Ashkenazi) and comparison with non-Jewish groups demonstrated distinctive Jewish population clusters, each with shared Middle Eastern ancestry, proximity to contemporary Middle Eastern populations, and variable degrees of European and North African admixture. Two major groups were identified by principal component, phylogenetic, and identity by descent (IBD) analysis: Middle Eastern Jews and European/Syrian Jews. The IBD segment sharing and the proximity of European Jews to each other and to southern European populations suggested similar origins for European Jewry and refuted large-scale genetic contributions of Central and Eastern European and Slavic populations to the formation of Ashkenazi Jewry. Rapid decay of IBD in Ashkenazi Jewish genomes was consistent with a severe bottleneck followed by large expansion, such as occurred with the so-called demographic miracle of population expansion from 50,000 people at the beginning of the 15th century to 5,000,000 people at the beginning of the 19th century. Thus, this study demonstrates that European/Syrian and Middle Eastern Jews represent a series of geographical isolates or clusters woven together by shared IBD genetic threads. PMID:20560205

  9. Abraham's Children in the Genome Era: Major Jewish Diaspora Populations Comprise Distinct Genetic Clusters with Shared Middle Eastern Ancestry

    PubMed Central

    Atzmon, Gil; Hao, Li; Pe'er, Itsik; Velez, Christopher; Pearlman, Alexander; Palamara, Pier Francesco; Morrow, Bernice; Friedman, Eitan; Oddoux, Carole; Burns, Edward; Ostrer, Harry

    2010-01-01

    For more than a century, Jews and non-Jews alike have tried to define the relatedness of contemporary Jewish people. Previous genetic studies of blood group and serum markers suggested that Jewish groups had Middle Eastern origin with greater genetic similarity between paired Jewish populations. However, these and successor studies of monoallelic Y chromosomal and mitochondrial genetic markers did not resolve the issues of within and between-group Jewish genetic identity. Here, genome-wide analysis of seven Jewish groups (Iranian, Iraqi, Syrian, Italian, Turkish, Greek, and Ashkenazi) and comparison with non-Jewish groups demonstrated distinctive Jewish population clusters, each with shared Middle Eastern ancestry, proximity to contemporary Middle Eastern populations, and variable degrees of European and North African admixture. Two major groups were identified by principal component, phylogenetic, and identity by descent (IBD) analysis: Middle Eastern Jews and European/Syrian Jews. The IBD segment sharing and the proximity of European Jews to each other and to southern European populations suggested similar origins for European Jewry and refuted large-scale genetic contributions of Central and Eastern European and Slavic populations to the formation of Ashkenazi Jewry. Rapid decay of IBD in Ashkenazi Jewish genomes was consistent with a severe bottleneck followed by large expansion, such as occurred with the so-called demographic miracle of population expansion from 50,000 people at the beginning of the 15th century to 5,000,000 people at the beginning of the 19th century. Thus, this study demonstrates that European/Syrian and Middle Eastern Jews represent a series of geographical isolates or clusters woven together by shared IBD genetic threads. PMID:20560205

  10. Middle Eastern power systems; Present and future developments

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-06-01

    Middle Eastern Power systems have evolved independently of each other over many decades. The region covers a wide geographical area of over 4 million square kilometers with an estimated population in 1990 of over 120 million people. This paper discusses the present status and future power system developments in the Middle East with emphasis on the Mashrequ Arab Countries (MAC). MAC consists of Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, Lebanon, Syria, Yemen, and the six Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries, namely, Bahrain, Kuwait, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Oman, and the United Arab Emirates (UAE). Interconnections within MAC and possible extensions to Turkey, Europe, and Central Africa are discussed. A common characteristic of the MAC power systems is that they are all operated by government or semi-government bodies. The energy resources in the region are varied. Countries such as Iraq, Egypt, and Syria have significant hydro power resources. On the other hand, the GCC countries and Iraq have abundant fossil fuel reserves.

  11. The Relationship between African American Middle School Students' Attitudes toward Reading and Their Reading Comprehension Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, LeCharle Webb

    2009-01-01

    There are numerous strongly held views and myths about African American students in general and middle school students in particular. This study investigated widely held views about African American middle school students' attitudes toward reading and about how positive attitudes toward reading affect reading performances. In this study, four…

  12. Quantity, Type, and Correlates of Physical Activity among American Middle Eastern University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahan, David

    2009-01-01

    The prevalence of hypokinetic disease among persons of Middle Eastern heritage is higher than whites and research on American young adults of this population is limited. Therefore 214 tertiary students of Middle Eastern descent self-reported their physical activity (PA) over a 1-week monitoring period using pedometers and daily activity logs.…

  13. Watermarks within the Middle Eastern Manuscript Collection of the Baillieu Library

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewincamp, Sophie

    2012-01-01

    The University of Melbourne's Middle Eastern Manuscript collection housed at the Baillieu Library was acquired by Professor John Bowman in the 1950s as part of a teaching collection to promote greater learning of Middle Eastern culture and civilisation (Pryde 2007, 3). The collection is a rare example within Australia and represents many different…

  14. Middle muschelkalk evaporitic deposits in eastern Paris basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geisler-Cussey, D.

    Middle Muschelkalk of the eastern Paris Basin is an extension of the large German Basin than an unit by itself. It allows us to study the effects of continental influences on evaporitic sedimentation: fresh water and detrital supplies, and salt dissolution. More or less evaporated sea water flowing into the basin causes a cyclic evolution of salinity throughout the series. The deposit is generally layered and shows millimetric to centimetric primary depositional sequences which prove the complexity of the internal organization of the filling in the basin. They reflect elementary changes in the depositional environment: fresh water supplies carring detrital particles, fresh water and sea water inflow introducing dilution, increasing evaporation rate causing precipitation of carbonates, Ca-sulfate or halite. In fact, the main factors controlling sedimentation which are working at this fine scale and the evolution at a larger sequential scale depends upon which one of these factors becomes dominant. The general evolution results in a typical sedimentary cycle.

  15. Current obstacles to organ transplant in Middle Eastern countries.

    PubMed

    Shaheen, Faissal A M; Souqiyyeh, Muhammad Ziad

    2015-04-01

    The Middle Eastern map includes all the Arab countries, Iran, Turkey, Pakistan, and countries of Central Asia. There are common features of organ transplant in these countries such as inadequate preventive medicine, uneven health infrastructure, poor awareness of the medical community and public about the importance of organ donation and transplant, high level of ethnicity, poor government support of organ transplant, and political unrest. In addition, there is inadequate team spirit among transplant physicians, lack of planning for organ procurement and transplant centers, and lack of effective health insurance. Living-donor organ transplant is the most widely practiced type of transplant in the Middle East. Deceased-donor organ donation is not used properly because of continued debate in the medical community about the concept of death according to neurologic criteria (brain death) and inadequate awareness of the public about the importance of organ donation and transplant in many countries in this region. Continuous work is needed to provide solutions to overcome the current obstacles. PMID:25894118

  16. Middle Eastern intestinal lymphoma: a morphological and immunohistochemical study.

    PubMed Central

    Isaacson, P; Al-Dewachi, H S; Mason, D Y

    1983-01-01

    A total of 31 cases of Middle Eastern gastrointestinal lymphoma (from Mosul, Iraq) has been analysed by conventional histology, and also by immunoperoxidase staining of trypsinised paraffin sections with anti-Ig and anti-J chain antisera. Histologically these neoplasms fell into three categories: undifferentiated lymphoma of Burkitt type (8 cases); follicle centre cell (FCC) lymphoma, resembling European lymphomas of FCC origin (15 cases); and Mediterranean lymphoma (MTL) (3 cases). Immunohistological staining of the FCC neoplasms showed that these tumours resembled their European counterpart in that cytoplasmic Ig and J chain could be demonstrated in a proportion of cases. However there was a striking difference in that alpha chain alone, light chain alone, or J chain alone were detected in several cases (in contrast to the predominance of mu plus kappa or lambda light chains found in European cases). Furthermore, prominent intracellular inclusions of alpha chains were found in two cases. Staining of the MTL cases revealed that the characteristic mucosal plasma cell infiltrate was positive for alpha chain (weakly) and J chain (strongly) but that the invasive cells which morphologically resembled FCCs were negative for both constituents. It is argued that these three histological categories constitute the major types of gastrointestinal lymphoma in the Middle East; and that in MTL the invasive lymphoma is of FCC type. Images PMID:6404945

  17. Phylogenetic Distinctiveness of Middle Eastern and Southeast Asian Village Dog Y Chromosomes Illuminates Dog Origins

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Sarah K.; Pedersen, Niels C.; Jafarishorijeh, Sardar; Bannasch, Danika L.; Ahrens, Kristen D.; Wu, Jui-Te; Okon, Michaella; Sacks, Benjamin N.

    2011-01-01

    Modern genetic samples are commonly used to trace dog origins, which entails untested assumptions that village dogs reflect indigenous ancestry or that breed origins can be reliably traced to particular regions. We used high-resolution Y chromosome markers (SNP and STR) and mitochondrial DNA to analyze 495 village dogs/dingoes from the Middle East and Southeast Asia, along with 138 dogs from >35 modern breeds to 1) assess genetic divergence between Middle Eastern and Southeast Asian village dogs and their phylogenetic affinities to Australian dingoes and gray wolves (Canis lupus) and 2) compare the genetic affinities of modern breeds to regional indigenous village dog populations. The Y chromosome markers indicated that village dogs in the two regions corresponded to reciprocally monophyletic clades, reflecting several to many thousand years divergence, predating the Neolithic ages, and indicating long-indigenous roots to those regions. As expected, breeds of the Middle East and East Asia clustered within the respective regional village dog clade. Australian dingoes also clustered in the Southeast Asian clade. However, the European and American breeds clustered almost entirely within the Southeast Asian clade, even sharing many haplotypes, suggesting a substantial and recent influence of East Asian dogs in the creation of European breeds. Comparison to 818 published breed dog Y STR haplotypes confirmed this conclusion and indicated that some African breeds reflect another distinct patrilineal origin. The lower-resolution mtDNA marker consistently supported Y-chromosome results. Both marker types confirmed previous findings of higher genetic diversity in dogs from Southeast Asia than the Middle East. Our findings demonstrate the importance of village dogs as windows into the past and provide a reference against which ancient DNA can be used to further elucidate origins and spread of the domestic dog. PMID:22194840

  18. Urban Middle School African American Girls' Attitudes toward Physical Education and Out-of-School Physical Activity Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramsey, Victor

    2012-01-01

    The purposes of this two-part study were (1) to investigate urban middle school African American girls' physical activity levels and their relationships to attitudes and, (2) to explore urban middle school African American girls' attitude toward physical education. A total of (N = 649) African American girls from 14 New York City middle…

  19. Teachers' Perception of African American Middle School Girls' Interest in Mathematics and Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Best, Bonnie M.

    Research into African American female underrepresentation in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields has become an area of interest due to the fact that a majority of African American middle school females do not possess the high levels of mathematics and science knowledge because of social and cultural barriers both inside and outside school that challenge their academic success. The purpose of this qualitative interpretative phenomenological study was to explore teachers' shared, lived experiences of teaching mathematics and science to African American middle school girls. Delgado and Stefancic's critical race theory, Pratt-Clarke's critical race feminism, and Baker-Miller's relational-cultural theory were used to guide this study. Research questions focused on the perceptions and experiences of teachers' lived experiences teaching mathematics and science to African American middle school females. Criterion, purposive, and maximum variation sampling techniques were used to recruit 10 teachers who have 3 or more years' experience teaching African American middle school girls. Semistructured face-to-face interviews were the primary data collection source. First cycle and second cycle coding methods were used to support the analysis of this study. Findings suggest that there is a connection between a positive student-teacher relationship and academic success. The results of this study contribute to positive social change by providing empirical evidence policymakers and teachers can use to improve the mathematics and science instruction and practices that are needed to meet the needs of African American middle school females and reduce the underrepresentation and underachievement of African American females in mathematics and science.

  20. The prevalence of middle eastern extremist ideologies among some canadian offenders.

    PubMed

    Loza, Wagdy

    2010-05-01

    The Belief Diversity Scale (BDS) was administered to 89 male Canadian offenders of different religious backgrounds. The BDS is a 33-item, sixsubscale instrument designed to quantitatively measure the religious attitudes, beliefs, and ideologies of Middle Eastern extremists on risk areas described in the literature. Results indicated that the Muslim offenders scored much higher than and significantly different from both the Christian and atheist groups on the BDS. Results also suggested the prevalence of Middle Eastern extremist ideologies among the Muslim offenders involved in this study. PMID:19584405

  1. The Learning Environment and the Reading Achievement of Middle School African American Male Students in a Suburban School Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frazier, Nicole Denise

    2012-01-01

    The reading achievement of African American males might be impacted by a host of variables. This study was undertaken to determine if there was a difference in the culturally responsive characteristics present in the learning environment of a middle school and the reading achievement of middle school African American males. The purpose of this…

  2. David Haynes: Chronicler of the African American Middle Class.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barron, Ronald

    1997-01-01

    Profiles writer David Haynes, and discusses his four novels (an award-winning young adult book and three novels for the adult market). Concludes that Haynes' success as a novelist is due to his characters, a healthy dose of humor, and his realistic depiction of a wide range of African American characters without resorting to sensationalism or…

  3. Digital Muslimas: ICT Skills of Females in Middle Eastern Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Primo, L. Heidi

    2010-01-01

    This article examines women in Islamic countries with regard to sustainable futures, equity, and social justice. Some barriers to ICT use for women in the Middle East include access to computers, gender discrimination by employers, marginalized political participation, high rates of illiteracy, and lack of independence. Distance education offers a…

  4. The Relationship between Principals' Leadership Characteristics and Academic Achievement of African American Males in Middle School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Landeau, Reginald H., Jr.

    2012-01-01

    The study evaluates the relationship between middle school principals' leadership characteristics and academic achievement of African American male students in grades 6, 7, and 8 in a large urban school district. Academic achievement is typically defined as the cognitive knowledge, skills, and abilities that are measured by achievement tests. The…

  5. Middle-Aged Independent-Living African Americans' Selections for Advance Directives: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDaniel, Brenda J.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this collective embedded qualitative case study was to examine the perspectives of three middle-aged independent-living African Americans who had participated in the process of advance care planning (ACP) and completed at least two advance directives (ADs), a Durable Power of Attorney for Health Care (DPAHC) and a Living Will (LW).…

  6. Best Practice Program for Low-Income African American Students Transitioning from Middle to High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gentle-Genitty, Carolyn

    2009-01-01

    On the basis of systematic evaluation of three program databases, totaling 246 programs, this article provides a discussion on a best practice program for low-income African American students transitioning from middle school to high school in urban school settings. The main research question was "Of the programs touted as best practice, is there…

  7. Mentoring and Standardized Achievement of African American Males in the Elementary and Middle Grades

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Kenneth A.

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the effects of mentoring on standardized achievement for African American males in the elementary and middle grades. Mentoring has been deemed effective regarding social development and various academic indicators, but scant empirical data is available regarding the effects of mentoring on standardized testing. Thus,…

  8. Examining Parent Involvement in Reversing the Underachievement of African American Students in Middle-Class Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, Tyrone C.; Reynolds, Rema

    2008-01-01

    In this study, the authors examined the school experiences of middle-class African American parents and students, because they are largely overlooked in the professional literature when it comes to underachievement and parent involvement. Although No Child Left Behind (NCLB) highlights parent involvement and school accountability through the use…

  9. Gender Differences in Motivational Pathways to College for Middle Class African American Youths

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, Dana; Kurtz-Costes, Beth; Copping, Kristine E.

    2011-01-01

    Using a sample of predominantly middle-class African American adolescents and parents (N = 424), the authors tested a path model linking parental expectations for children's future educational attainment, youths' motivation during Grade 11, and youths' subsequent on-time postsecondary educational progress. Parents' expectations were positively…

  10. Uncovering Problems and Identifying Coping Strategies of Middle Eastern University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alazzi, Khaled; Chiodo, John J.

    2006-01-01

    For international college students, the failure to achieve their educational goals regarding their program of study creates a large amount of stress. These international students experience pressure to succeed from their families, sponsoring agencies, or even the communities from their home country. For Middle Eastern students who come to study at…

  11. The Importance of "Wasta" in the Career Success of Middle Eastern Managers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tlaiss, Hayfaa; Kauser, Saleema

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Frequently used in fostering the career progression of individuals this paper aims to explore the concept of "wasta" and its significance in the career advancement of individuals in the Middle Eastern region. The paper also seeks to compare "wasta" with networking and mentoring. Design/methodology/approach: The argument is based on…

  12. Marlboro and Other Usual Brand Choices by Youth Smokers in Middle Eastern Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Page, Randy M.

    2012-01-01

    This study analyzed data from 118,743 adolescents completing 30 different Global Youth Tobacco Surveys conducted in 15 different Middle Eastern countries between 1999 and 2007 to determine the proportion of young smokers who usually smoked Marlboro, other cigarette brands, or no usual brand smoked in these countries. Marlboro was the most…

  13. Genetic referrals of Middle Eastern origin in a western city: inbreeding and disease profile.

    PubMed Central

    Hoodfar, E; Teebi, A S

    1996-01-01

    Inbreeding or consanguineous marriage is a common traditional practice in Middle Eastern cultures. Studies from various countries and communities of this region showed that the frequencies range from 20% to greater than 70%. Inbreeding is known to have adverse effects on morbidity and mortality, in particular with respect to autosomal recessive disorders. This study examined 200 couples representing all referrals of Middle Eastern origin seen at a large Clinical Genetics Unit in Montreal. They were compared with a similar sized group of different cultural backgrounds from among the same referrals. The rate of intercultural marriages and inbreeding was found to be 24% and 23.5% respectively in the Middle Eastern group, while they were 22.5% and 5% in the comparison group. Excluding the referrals for consanguinity only, the rate of inbreeding among the study group was 16.4%. Within the Middle Eastern group, autosomal recessive disorders were more than twice as common in the inbred than in the non-inbred families, the pattern of which is consistent with previous observations. PMID:8728693

  14. Middle Eastern Students Shut Out of the U.S. Turn to Australia and New Zealand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, David

    2007-01-01

    This article reports on the increase of Middle Eastern students in universities in Australia and New Zealand because of difficulties in getting visas for the United States and Britain. Difficulties in securing visas, combined with more aggressive recruiting by higher-education institutions in New Zealand and Australia, have led a growing number of…

  15. The Prevalence of Middle Eastern Extremist Ideologies among Some Canadian Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loza, Wagdy

    2010-01-01

    The Belief Diversity Scale (BDS) was administered to 89 male Canadian offenders of different religious backgrounds. The BDS is a 33-item, six-subscale instrument designed to quantitatively measure the religious attitudes, beliefs, and ideologies of Middle Eastern extremists on risk areas described in the literature. Results indicated that the…

  16. The Prevalence of the Middle-Eastern Extreme Ideologies among Some Canadians

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loza, Wagdy

    2011-01-01

    A total of 183 Canadian participants of different religious backgrounds completed the Belief Diversity Scale (BDS). The BDS is an 80-item, 6-subscale instrument designed to quantitatively measure the religious attitudes, beliefs, and ideologies of Middle-Eastern extremists' on risk areas that are reported in the literature. The results…

  17. The Middle Eastern Regional Irrigation Management Information Systems project-update

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Middle Eastern Regional Irrigation Management Information Systems Project (MERIMIS) was formulated at a meeting of experts from the region in Jordan in 2003. Funded by the U.S. Department of State, it is a cooperative regional project bringing together participants from Israel, Jordan, Palestini...

  18. Geochronology and geochemistry of middle Permian-Middle Triassic intrusive rocks from central-eastern Jilin Province, NE China: Constraints on the tectonic evolution of the eastern segment of the Paleo-Asian Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zi-Jin; Xu, Wen-Liang; Pei, Fu-Ping; Wang, Zhi-Wei; Li, Yu; Cao, Hua-Hua

    2015-12-01

    To constrain the Permian-Early Mesozoic tectonic evolution of the eastern segment of the Paleo-Asian Ocean, we conducted zircon U-Pb dating and whole-rock geochemical analyses on six middle Permian-Middle Triassic intrusive plutons in central-eastern Jilin Province, NE China. Zircons from the six plutons display distinct oscillatory zoning and striped absorption in cathodoluminescence (CL) images, and Th/U ratios of 0.11-1.41, indicating a magmatic origin. Zircon U-Pb dating indicates that the intrusive rocks formed in the middle Permian (ca. 260 Ma) to Middle Triassic (ca. 245 Ma). In central-eastern Jilin Province, the middle Permian and Middle Triassic plutons are composed mainly of strongly deformed monzogranites with affinities to adakitic rocks, which are formed from partial melting of thickened mafic lower crust. In contrast, the late Permian-the Early Triassic plutons in central-eastern Jilin Province consist of a bimodal association (including gabbros and granitoids) and deformed monzonites, which typically form in extensional settings. These observations, along with the results of previous studies on early-middle Permian granitoids in western Jilin Province, indicate that the eastern segment of the Paleo-Asian Ocean underwent the initial closure in central-western Jilin Province during the middle Permian and the final closure in eastern Jilin Province in the Middle Triassic.

  19. Nitrogen fixation by U.S. and Middle Eastern chickpeas with commercial and wild Middle Eastern inocula

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chickpeas (Cicer arietinum L.) are native to the Middle East (ME), and must be inoculated with symbiotic bacteria in order to fix nitrogen (N) in North American soils. Commercial inocula for chickpea contain several strains of the known N-fixing symbiont Mesorhizobium ciceri. It is not known whethe...

  20. Blunt traumatic injury in the Arab Middle Eastern populations

    PubMed Central

    Asim, Mohammad; El-Menyar, Ayman; Al-Thani, Hassan; Abdelrahman, Husham; Zarour, Ahmad; Latifi, Rifat

    2014-01-01

    Background: Trauma represents a global public health concern with an estimated 5 million deaths annually. Moreover, the incidence of blunt traumatic injuries (BTI) particularly road traffic accidents (RTAs) and workplace-related injuries are rising throughout the world-wide. Objectives: We aimed to review the epidemiology and prevention of BTI, in the Arab Middle East. Materials and Methods: A traditional narrative literature review was carried out using PubMed, MEDLINE and EMBASE search engines. We used the keywords “traumatic injuries”, “blunt” “epidemiology”, “Arab Middle East” between December 1972 and March 2013. Results: The most common mechanisms of BTI in our region are RTAs, falls from height, struck by heavy objects and pedestrian motor vehicle trauma crashes. The rate of RTA and occupational injuries are markedly increased in the region due to rapid industrial development, extreme climatic conditions and unfamiliar working environment. However, lack of reliable information on these unintentional injuries is mainly responsible for the underestimation of this trauma burden. This knowledge deficit shields the extent of the problem from policy makers, leading to continued fatalities. These preventable injuries in turn add to the overall financial burden on the society through loss of productivity and greater need of medical and welfare services. Conclusion: In the Arab Middle East, population-based studies on the incidence, mechanism of injury, prevention and outcome of BTI are not well-documented. Therefore, region-specific BTI studies would strengthen surveillance to better understand the burden of these injuries in the region. PMID:24812453

  1. Pharmacy Education and Practice in 13 Middle Eastern Countries

    PubMed Central

    Kheir, Nadir; Zaidan, Manal; Younes, Husam; El Hajj, Maguy; Wilbur, Kerry

    2008-01-01

    The Arab world has influenced the art and science of pharmacy for centuries. Pharmacy education and practice is continuing to evolve in the Arabic-speaking traditional Middle East countries, although relatively little information has been published in the English press. Our goal was to provide a high-level synopsis of conditions in this region. We selected 13 countries for review. Information was obtained by reviewing the available published literature and individual university and program web sites, as well as contacting program or country representatives. Seventy-eight active pharmacy schools in 12 countries were identified. At least 14,000 students (over 75% from Egypt) are admitted into baccalaureate degree programs every year. The 5-year baccalaureate degree remains the first professional degree to practice. While changes in pharmacy education have been relatively rapid over the past decade, the advancement of pharmacy practice, particularly in the private sector, appears to be slower. Hospital pharmacists often possess an advanced degree and tend to have a higher level of practice compared to that of community pharmacists. Despite the adversities that face academics and practitioners alike, there is a strong desire to advance the science and practice of pharmacy in the Middle East. PMID:19325953

  2. Sexual protective strategies and condom use in middle-age African American women: A qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Tanyka K.

    2015-01-01

    The heterosexual transmission of HIV has affected middle-age African American women at alarming rates; yet there is a paucity of research and interventions focused on this population. This study used a qualitative approach to understand middle-age urban African American women’s experiences with HIV-related sexual risk behaviors and to identify the sexual protective strategies they employed to reduce their risk for HIV infection. Ten African American women, ages 45 to 56, were recruited from low-income neighborhoods in New York City. Data were collected using in-depth interviews and analyzed using content analysis. Investigator triangulation and member checking were used to ensure rigor. Five salient themes emerged that highlighted the individual, gender/relationship power factors, and the sociocultural elements that influenced sexual protection or risk-taking behavior. Findings provide new insight into the complexities of HIV sexual risk behavior and can guide future HIV prevention interventions for middle-age, African American, urban women. PMID:26194973

  3. Cenozoic extension, volcanism and plateau uplift in eastern Africa and the African Superplume

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nyblade, A.; O'Donnell, J.; Mulibo, G. D.; Adams, A. N.

    2013-12-01

    Recent body and surface wave studies combine to image mantle velocity structure to a depth of 1200 km beneath eastern Africa using teleseismic earthquake data recorded by the AfricaArray East African Seismic Experiment in conjunction with permanent stations and previously deployed temporary stations. The combined network spans Kenya, Uganda, Tanzania, Zambia and Malawi. The 3-D shear wave velocity structure of the uppermost mantle was imaged using fundamental-mode Rayleigh wave phase velocities measured at periods ranging from 20 to 182 s, subsequently inverted for shear velocity structure. When considered in conjunction with mapped seismicity, the shear velocity model supports a secondary western rift branch striking southwestwards from Lake Tanganyika, likely exploiting the relatively weak lithosphere of the southern Kibaran Belt between the Bangweulu Block and the Congo Craton. In eastern Tanzania a low-velocity region suggests that the eastern rift branch trends southeastwards offshore eastern Tanzania coincident with the purported location of the northern margin of the proposed Ruvuma microplate. The results suggest that existing lithospheric structures exert a significant governing influence on rift development. Sub-lithospheric mantle wave speed variations extending to a depth of 1200 km were tomographically imaged from the inversion of P and S wave relative arrival time residuals. The images shows a low wave speed anomaly (LWA) well developed at shallow depths (100-200 km) beneath the Eastern and Western branches of the rift system and northwestern Zambia, and a fast wave speed anomaly at depths greater than 350 km beneath the central and northern parts of the East African Plateau and the eastern and central parts of Zambia. At depths below 350 km the LWA is most prominent under the central and southern parts of the East African Plateau and dips to the southwest beneath northern Zambia, extending to a depth of at least 900 km. The amplitude of the LWA is

  4. Evolution and creationism in Middle Eastern education: a new perspective.

    PubMed

    Burton, Elise K

    2011-01-01

    Statements made in a recent outcry against a creationist in the Israeli Ministry of Education starkly illuminated Western misconceptions about Iranian science education. These misconceptions are perpetuated not only among the general public but also within the international scientific community, where investigations of "Islamic creationism" often incorporate misleading assumptions regarding Islamic religious attitudes toward science as well as the nature of secularism in non-Western states. In turn, these assumptions have led to superficial analyses that overly rely on state religiosity to explain the treatment of evolution in national science education. Therefore, a new framework accounting for local political and social circumstances is crucial and urgently needed to effectively analyze science education in the Middle East. PMID:20812978

  5. Prescribed journeys through life: Cultural differences in mental time travel between Middle Easterners and Scandinavians.

    PubMed

    Ottsen, Christina Lundsgaard; Berntsen, Dorthe

    2015-12-01

    Mental time travel is the ability to remember past events and imagine future events. Here, 124 Middle Easterners and 128 Scandinavians generated important past and future events. These different societies present a unique opportunity to examine effects of culture. Findings indicate stronger influence of normative schemas and greater use of mental time travel to teach, inform and direct behaviour in the Middle East compared with Scandinavia. The Middle Easterners generated more events that corresponded to their cultural life script and that contained religious words, whereas the Scandinavians reported events with a more positive mood impact. Effects of gender were mainly found in the Middle East. Main effects of time orientation largely replicated recent findings showing that simulation of future and past events are not necessarily parallel processes. In accordance with the notion that future simulations rely on schema-based construction, important future events showed a higher overlap with life script events than past events in both cultures. In general, cross-cultural discrepancies were larger in future compared with past events. Notably, the high focus in the Middle East on sharing future events to give cultural guidance is consistent with the increased adherence to normative scripts found in this culture. PMID:26432189

  6. The Nubian Complex of Dhofar, Oman: An African Middle Stone Age Industry in Southern Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Rose, Jeffrey I.; Usik, Vitaly I.; Marks, Anthony E.; Hilbert, Yamandu H.; Galletti, Christopher S.; Parton, Ash; Geiling, Jean Marie; Černý, Viktor; Morley, Mike W.; Roberts, Richard G.

    2011-01-01

    Despite the numerous studies proposing early human population expansions from Africa into Arabia during the Late Pleistocene, no archaeological sites have yet been discovered in Arabia that resemble a specific African industry, which would indicate demographic exchange across the Red Sea. Here we report the discovery of a buried site and more than 100 new surface scatters in the Dhofar region of Oman belonging to a regionally-specific African lithic industry - the late Nubian Complex - known previously only from the northeast and Horn of Africa during Marine Isotope Stage 5, ∼128,000 to 74,000 years ago. Two optically stimulated luminescence age estimates from the open-air site of Aybut Al Auwal in Oman place the Arabian Nubian Complex at ∼106,000 years ago, providing archaeological evidence for the presence of a distinct northeast African Middle Stone Age technocomplex in southern Arabia sometime in the first half of Marine Isotope Stage 5. PMID:22140561

  7. Human X-chromosomal lineages in Europe reveal Middle Eastern and Asiatic contacts.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Feng-Xia; Yotova, Vania; Zietkiewicz, Ewa; Lovell, Alan; Gehl, Dominik; Bourgeois, Stéphane; Moreau, Claudia; Spanaki, Cleanthe; Plaitakis, Andreas; Moisan, Jean-Paul; Labuda, Damian

    2004-04-01

    Within Europe, classical genetic markers, nuclear autosomal and Y-chromosome DNA polymorphisms display an east-west frequency gradient. This has been taken as evidence for the westward migration of Neolithic farmers from the Middle East. In contrast, most studies of mtDNA variation in Europe and the Middle East have not revealed clinal distributions. Here we report an analysis of dys44 haplotypes, consisting of 35 polymorphisms on an 8 kb segment of the dystrophin gene on Xp21, in a sample of 1203 Eurasian chromosomes. Our results do not show a significant genetic structure in Europe, though when Middle Eastern samples are included a very low but significant genetic structure, rooted in Middle Eastern heterogeneity, is observed. This structure was not correlated to either geography or language, indicating that neither of these factors are a barrier to gene flow within Europe and/or the Middle East. Spatial autocorrelation analysis did not show clinal variation from the Middle East to Europe, though an underlying and ancient east-west cline across the Eurasian continent was detected. Clines provide a strong signal of ancient major population migration(s), and we suggest that the observed cline likely resulted from an ancient, bifurcating migration out of Africa that influenced the colonizing of Europe, Asia and the Americas. Our study reveals that, in addition to settlements from the Near East, Europe has been influenced by other major population movements, such as expansion(s) from Asia, as well as by recent gene flow from within Europe and the Middle East. PMID:14560313

  8. Marine protected areas in the eastern African Region: how successful are they?

    PubMed

    Francis, Julius; Nilsson, Agneta; Waruinge, Dixon

    2002-12-01

    This article reviews the governance and management of Marine Protected Areas (MPAs), and the coral reefs they contain, in the eastern African Region. This includes the Comoros, Kenya, Madagascar, Mauritius, Mozambique, Tanzania, and the Seychelles. Three generations or categories of MPAs are distinguished: i) small areas for protection of a single species or unique marine habitat; iii) large multiple use MPAs designed for coastal development as well as biodiversity protection; and iii) MPAs managed by a nongovernmental organization (NGO) or the private sector. Each of these MPA types is examined according to the policies, legislation, and management systems they entail as well as the economic and community situation they operate within. The paper also provides a review of some eastern African MPAs in terms of their size and location, the type of MPA, zonation schemes, and financial status. The successes of the different types of MPAs are discussed based on specific indicators, such as changes in biodiversity, infrastructure, compliance to regulations and the level of involvement of primary stakeholders in the management. From the review it is clear that a fourth generation of MPAs may be forthcoming; community-based MPAs. Although lack of data makes it difficult to assess the effectiveness of these different categories of MPAs, it is clear that no MPA can succeed without support of the local communities. Generally, the results of the analysis are promising for MPAs, however a lack of data is hampering a deeper analysis. The major issues facing MPAs in the region are highlighted, as well as some regional initiatives striving to address these issues. A number of recommendations are made, aiming to strengthen the establishment and management of MPAs in the eastern African region. PMID:12572815

  9. Quantity, type, and correlates of physical activity among American Middle Eastern university students.

    PubMed

    Kahan, David

    2009-09-01

    The prevalence of hypokinetic disease among persons of Middle Eastern heritage is higher than whites and research on American young adults of this population is limited. Therefore 214 tertiary students of Middle Eastern descent self-reported their physical activity (PA) over a 1-week monitoring period using pedometers and daily activity logs. Daily step count averaged 9,256 (SD = 3,084) steps, while daily energy expenditure averaged 6.26 kcal/kg (SD = 4.92). Most participants reported no weekly engagement in sport (69.2%) and walk/run (52.8%) activities, and at least once-weekly engagement in conditioning (68.7%) activities. Moderately religious and highly acculturated men, and Muslims, and moderately/highly acculturated persons were more likely to average > or = 10,000 steps/day and engage in at least one sport activity per week, respectively. These findings may be related to religious and cultural issues unique to Middle Eastern American college students whose collectivist social affiliations with family and community members may facilitate or inhibit various aspects of PA behavior. PMID:19791627

  10. Algebra Matters: An Ethnographic Study of Successful African American Male Algebra 1 Students in a Suburban Middle School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirkwood, Kirk

    2012-01-01

    Alarming statistics reveal that African American male students are encountering long-standing challenges in K-12 mathematics. However, few studies have explored the phenomena associated with African American males and K-12 mathematics education, particularly at the middle school level in the context of an Algebra 1 course of study. The purpose of…

  11. Strategies Employed by Middle School Principals Successful in Increasing and Sustaining the Mathematics Achievement of African American Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Rebecca

    2013-01-01

    This study approaches the problem of African American mathematics achievement from a strength-based perspective, identifying practices implemented by middle school principals successful in increasing and sustaining the mathematics achievement of African American students. The study was designed to answer questions regarding both school-wide…

  12. Teaching Them All: An Exploratory Mixed Methods Study of African American Students' Perceptions of Their Middle School's Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hankerson, Henry

    2009-01-01

    Research indicates school culture impacts student achievement. At Teach Them All Middle School (TTA), an achievement gap exists between African American and White students. The purpose of the current study was to examine the perceptions of African American students concerning the school culture at TTA. The research questions explored the…

  13. Eastern South African hydroclimate over the past 270,000 years.

    PubMed

    Simon, Margit H; Ziegler, Martin; Bosmans, Joyce; Barker, Stephen; Reason, Chris J C; Hall, Ian R

    2015-01-01

    Processes that control the hydrological balance in eastern South Africa on orbital to millennial timescales remain poorly understood because proxy records documenting its variability at high resolution are scarce. In this work, we present a detailed 270,000 year-long record of terrestrial climate variability in the KwaZulu-Natal province based on elemental ratios of Fe/K from the southwest Indian Ocean, derived from X-ray fluorescence core scanning. Eastern South African climate variability on these time scales reflects both the long-term effect of regional insolation changes driven by orbital precession and the effects associated with high-latitude abrupt climate forcing over the past two glacial-interglacial cycles, including millennial-scale events not previously identified. Rapid changes towards more humid conditions in eastern South Africa as the Northern Hemisphere entered phases of extreme cooling were potentially driven by a combination of warming in the Agulhas Current and shifts of the subtropical anticyclones. These climate oscillations appear coherent with other Southern Hemisphere records but are anti-phased with respect to the East Asian Monsoon. Numerical modelling results reveal that higher precipitation in the KwaZulu-Natal province during precession maxima is driven by a combination of increased local evaporation and elevated moisture transport into eastern South Africa from the coast of Mozambique. PMID:26686943

  14. Eastern South African hydroclimate over the past 270,000 years

    PubMed Central

    Simon, Margit H.; Ziegler, Martin; Bosmans, Joyce; Barker, Stephen; Reason, Chris J.C.; Hall, Ian R.

    2015-01-01

    Processes that control the hydrological balance in eastern South Africa on orbital to millennial timescales remain poorly understood because proxy records documenting its variability at high resolution are scarce. In this work, we present a detailed 270,000 year-long record of terrestrial climate variability in the KwaZulu-Natal province based on elemental ratios of Fe/K from the southwest Indian Ocean, derived from X-ray fluorescence core scanning. Eastern South African climate variability on these time scales reflects both the long-term effect of regional insolation changes driven by orbital precession and the effects associated with high-latitude abrupt climate forcing over the past two glacial-interglacial cycles, including millennial-scale events not previously identified. Rapid changes towards more humid conditions in eastern South Africa as the Northern Hemisphere entered phases of extreme cooling were potentially driven by a combination of warming in the Agulhas Current and shifts of the subtropical anticyclones. These climate oscillations appear coherent with other Southern Hemisphere records but are anti-phased with respect to the East Asian Monsoon. Numerical modelling results reveal that higher precipitation in the KwaZulu-Natal province during precession maxima is driven by a combination of increased local evaporation and elevated moisture transport into eastern South Africa from the coast of Mozambique. PMID:26686943

  15. Eastern South African hydroclimate over the past 270,000 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simon, Margit H.; Ziegler, Martin; Bosmans, Joyce; Barker, Stephen; Reason, Chris J. C.; Hall, Ian R.

    2015-12-01

    Processes that control the hydrological balance in eastern South Africa on orbital to millennial timescales remain poorly understood because proxy records documenting its variability at high resolution are scarce. In this work, we present a detailed 270,000 year-long record of terrestrial climate variability in the KwaZulu-Natal province based on elemental ratios of Fe/K from the southwest Indian Ocean, derived from X-ray fluorescence core scanning. Eastern South African climate variability on these time scales reflects both the long-term effect of regional insolation changes driven by orbital precession and the effects associated with high-latitude abrupt climate forcing over the past two glacial-interglacial cycles, including millennial-scale events not previously identified. Rapid changes towards more humid conditions in eastern South Africa as the Northern Hemisphere entered phases of extreme cooling were potentially driven by a combination of warming in the Agulhas Current and shifts of the subtropical anticyclones. These climate oscillations appear coherent with other Southern Hemisphere records but are anti-phased with respect to the East Asian Monsoon. Numerical modelling results reveal that higher precipitation in the KwaZulu-Natal province during precession maxima is driven by a combination of increased local evaporation and elevated moisture transport into eastern South Africa from the coast of Mozambique.

  16. Patients' management of type 2 diabetes in Middle Eastern countries: review of studies.

    PubMed

    Alsairafi, Zahra Khalil; Taylor, Kevin Michael Geoffrey; Smith, Felicity J; Alattar, Abdulnabi T

    2016-01-01

    The increased prevalence of diabetes in Middle Eastern countries is a health policy priority. Important risk factors for diabetes have been identified. Lifestyle interventions and adherence to medications are central to disease prevention and management. This review focuses on the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus in Middle Eastern countries. The aim is to identify the ways in which knowledge, health beliefs, and social and cultural factors influence adherence to medication and lifestyle measures. Thirty-four studies were identified following a systematic search of the literature. The studies describe the influence of knowledge, health beliefs, culture, and lifestyle on the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus in the Middle East. Findings indicate a lack of health knowledge about diabetes among populations, which has implications for health behaviors, medication adherence, and treatment outcomes. Many identified health beliefs and cultural lifestyle factors, such as religious beliefs, beliefs about fasting during Ramadan, and sedentary lifestyles played a role in patients' decisions. For better management of this disease, a collaborative approach between patients, their families, health care professionals, and governments should be adopted. Implementing behavioral strategies and psychological interventions that incorporate all health care professionals in the management process have been shown to be effective methods. Such services help patients change their behavior. However, the utilization of such services and interventions is still limited in Arabian countries. Physicians in the Middle East are the health care professionals most involved in the care process. PMID:27354775

  17. Globalization and gametes: reproductive 'tourism,' Islamic bioethics, and Middle Eastern modernity.

    PubMed

    Inhorn, Marcia C

    2011-04-01

    'Reproductive tourism' has been defined as the search for assisted reproductive technologies (ARTs) and human gametes (eggs, sperm, embryos) across national and international borders. This article conceptualizes reproductive tourism within 'global reproscapes,' which involve the circulation of actors, technologies, money, media, ideas, and human gametes, all moving in complicated manners across geographical landscapes. Focusing on the Muslim countries of the Middle East, the article explores the Islamic 'local moral worlds' informing the movements of Middle Eastern infertile couples. The ban on third-party gamete donation in Sunni Muslim-majority countries and the recent allowance of donor technologies in the Shia Muslim-majority countries of Iran and Lebanon have led to significant movements of infertile couples across Middle Eastern national borders. In the new millennium, Iran is leading the way into this 'brave new world' of high-tech, third-party assisted conception, with Islamic bioethical discourses being used to justify various forms of technological assistance. Although the Middle East is rarely regarded in this way, it is a key site for understanding the intersection of technoscience, religious morality, and modernity, all of which are deeply implicated in the new world of reproductive tourism. PMID:21563005

  18. Patients’ management of type 2 diabetes in Middle Eastern countries: review of studies

    PubMed Central

    Alsairafi, Zahra Khalil; Taylor, Kevin Michael Geoffrey; Smith, Felicity J; Alattar, Abdulnabi T

    2016-01-01

    The increased prevalence of diabetes in Middle Eastern countries is a health policy priority. Important risk factors for diabetes have been identified. Lifestyle interventions and adherence to medications are central to disease prevention and management. This review focuses on the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus in Middle Eastern countries. The aim is to identify the ways in which knowledge, health beliefs, and social and cultural factors influence adherence to medication and lifestyle measures. Thirty-four studies were identified following a systematic search of the literature. The studies describe the influence of knowledge, health beliefs, culture, and lifestyle on the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus in the Middle East. Findings indicate a lack of health knowledge about diabetes among populations, which has implications for health behaviors, medication adherence, and treatment outcomes. Many identified health beliefs and cultural lifestyle factors, such as religious beliefs, beliefs about fasting during Ramadan, and sedentary lifestyles played a role in patients’ decisions. For better management of this disease, a collaborative approach between patients, their families, health care professionals, and governments should be adopted. Implementing behavioral strategies and psychological interventions that incorporate all health care professionals in the management process have been shown to be effective methods. Such services help patients change their behavior. However, the utilization of such services and interventions is still limited in Arabian countries. Physicians in the Middle East are the health care professionals most involved in the care process. PMID:27354775

  19. Helicobacter pylori Infection in the general population: A Middle Eastern perspective

    PubMed Central

    Khedmat, Hossein; Karbasi-Afshar, Reza; Agah, Shahram; Taheri, Saeed

    2013-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H.pylori) infection is probably the most important factor that has been associated with the development of gastric cancers in human populations. However, there are no reliable data on the prevalence of this infection in the Middle East. In this article, based on a comprehensive literature review, we aimed to evaluate the situation in this region. The literature has been searched for the incidence and prevalence of H.pylori infection by Pubmed and Google Scholar. Search was repeated for each of the Middle Eastern countries, and to empower the method, citations of each found article were searched for the related studies. Seventy seven reports from the countries of the Middle East region had been reviewed and they all indicated a high rate of infection either in the general population or in the dyspeptic patients, the rate seemed to be higher in patients with dyspepsia, in patients with histologically confirmed gastritis and in patients of older age groups. PMID:24294467

  20. Phylogenetic Patterns of Extinction Risk in the Eastern Arc Ecosystems, an African Biodiversity Hotspot

    PubMed Central

    Yessoufou, Kowiyou; Daru, Barnabas H.; Davies, T. Jonathan

    2012-01-01

    There is an urgent need to reduce drastically the rate at which biodiversity is declining worldwide. Phylogenetic methods are increasingly being recognised as providing a useful framework for predicting future losses, and guiding efforts for pre-emptive conservation actions. In this study, we used a reconstructed phylogenetic tree of angiosperm species of the Eastern Arc Mountains – an important African biodiversity hotspot – and described the distribution of extinction risk across taxonomic ranks and phylogeny. We provide evidence for both taxonomic and phylogenetic selectivity in extinction risk. However, we found that selectivity varies with IUCN extinction risk category. Vulnerable species are more closely related than expected by chance, whereas endangered and critically endangered species are not significantly clustered on the phylogeny. We suggest that the general observation for taxonomic and phylogenetic selectivity (i.e. phylogenetic signal, the tendency of closely related species to share similar traits) in extinction risks is therefore largely driven by vulnerable species, and not necessarily the most highly threatened. We also used information on altitudinal distribution and climate to generate a predictive model of at-risk species richness, and found that greater threatened species richness is found at higher altitude, allowing for more informed conservation decision making. Our results indicate that evolutionary history can help predict plant susceptibility to extinction threats in the hyper-diverse but woefully-understudied Eastern Arc Mountains, and illustrate the contribution of phylogenetic approaches in conserving African floristic biodiversity where detailed ecological and evolutionary data are often lacking. PMID:23056587

  1. Distribution and clinal trends of the ABO and Rh genes in select Middle Eastern countries.

    PubMed

    AlSuhaibani, E S; Kizilbash, N A; Afshan, K; Malik, S

    2015-01-01

    An understanding of the ABO and Rh blood group systems is important for blood transfusions and is also pertinent due to their potential association with certain morbidities and susceptibilities to infections. To investigate the diversity and differentiation of the ABO and Rh loci in Middle Eastern populations, data from twelve representative Middle Eastern populations were analyzed. Six populations were in conformity with Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium at the ABO locus. The pooled heterozygosity at both loci was calculated to be highest in the sample from Jordan and lowest in Bahrain. Heterogeneity was pronounced in the Northern compared to the Southern Middle Eastern populations. Overall, the absolute gene diversity was 0.0046 and gene differentiation was calculated to be 0.0100. Genetic diversity of the studied loci across all populations (HT) was estimated to be 0.4594, while the diversity within the populations (HS) was 0.4548. Nei's genetic distance analyses revealed highest affinities between the populations of Kuwait and Qatar, Oman and Yemen, and between Qatar and the United Arab Emirates. These results were displayed through a UGPMA dendrogram and principal component analyses, which established clustering of certain populations. Clinal trends of the allelic systems were observed by generating contour maps that allow a detailed appreciation of the distributions of alleles across the geography of the Arabian Peninsula and the Middle East. Taken together, these analyses are helpful in understanding the differentiation of blood group loci and for designing prospective studies for establishing the associations of these loci with health variables in the populations studied. PMID:26400302

  2. The seismotectonics of Southeastern Tanzania: Implications for the propagation of the eastern branch of the East African Rift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mulibo, Gabriel D.; Nyblade, Andrew A.

    2016-04-01

    Seismicity patterns and focal mechanisms in southeastern Tanzania, determined from data recorded on temporary and permanent AfricaArray seismic stations, have been used to investigate the propagation direction of the Eastern branch of the East African Rift System southward from the Northern Tanzania Divergence Zone (NTDZ). Within the NTDZ, the rift zone is defined by three segments, the Eyasi segment to the west, the Manyara segment in the middle, and the Pangani segment to the east. Results show that most of the seismicity (~ 75%) extends to the south of the Manyara segment along the eastern margin of the Tanzania Craton, and at ~ 6-7° S latitude trends to the SE along the northern boundary of the Ruvuma microplate, connecting with a N-S zone of seismicity offshore southern Tanzania and Mozambique. A lesser amount of seismicity (~ 25%) is found extending from the SE corner of the Tanzania Craton at ~ 6-7° S latitude southwards towards Lake Nyasa. This finding supports a model of rift propagation via the Manyara segment to the southeast of the Tanzania Craton along the northern boundary of the Ruvuma microplate. However, given the limited duration of the seismic recordings used in this study, the possibility of another zone of extension developing to the south towards Lake Nyasa (Malawi) cannot be ruled out. Focal mechanisms along the boundary between the Victoria and the Ruvuma microplates and offshore southeastern Tanzania show a combination of normal and strike slip faulting indicating mainly extension with some sinistral motion, consistent with the mapped geologic faults and a clockwise rotation of the Ruvuma microplate.

  3. 60,000 years of interactions between Central and Eastern Africa documented by major African mitochondrial haplogroup L2

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Marina; Alshamali, Farida; Silva, Paula; Carrilho, Carla; Mandlate, Flávio; Jesus Trovoada, Maria; Černý, Viktor; Pereira, Luísa; Soares, Pedro

    2015-01-01

    Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroup L2 originated in Western Africa but is nowadays spread across the entire continent. L2 movements were previously postulated to be related to the Bantu expansion, but L2 expansions eastwards probably occurred much earlier. By reconstructing the phylogeny of L2 (44 new complete sequences) we provide insights on the complex net of within-African migrations in the last 60 thousand years (ka). Results show that lineages in Southern Africa cluster with Western/Central African lineages at a recent time scale, whereas, eastern lineages seem to be substantially more ancient. Three moments of expansion from a Central African source are associated to L2: (1) one migration at 70–50 ka into Eastern or Southern Africa, (2) postglacial movements (15–10 ka) into Eastern Africa; and (3) the southward Bantu Expansion in the last 5 ka. The complementary population and L0a phylogeography analyses indicate no strong evidence of mtDNA gene flow between eastern and southern populations during the later movement, suggesting low admixture between Eastern African populations and the Bantu migrants. This implies that, at least in the early stages, the Bantu expansion was mainly a demic diffusion with little incorporation of local populations. PMID:26211407

  4. 60,000 years of interactions between Central and Eastern Africa documented by major African mitochondrial haplogroup L2.

    PubMed

    Silva, Marina; Alshamali, Farida; Silva, Paula; Carrilho, Carla; Mandlate, Flávio; Jesus Trovoada, Maria; Černý, Viktor; Pereira, Luísa; Soares, Pedro

    2015-01-01

    Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroup L2 originated in Western Africa but is nowadays spread across the entire continent. L2 movements were previously postulated to be related to the Bantu expansion, but L2 expansions eastwards probably occurred much earlier. By reconstructing the phylogeny of L2 (44 new complete sequences) we provide insights on the complex net of within-African migrations in the last 60 thousand years (ka). Results show that lineages in Southern Africa cluster with Western/Central African lineages at a recent time scale, whereas, eastern lineages seem to be substantially more ancient. Three moments of expansion from a Central African source are associated to L2: (1) one migration at 70-50 ka into Eastern or Southern Africa, (2) postglacial movements (15-10 ka) into Eastern Africa; and (3) the southward Bantu Expansion in the last 5 ka. The complementary population and L0a phylogeography analyses indicate no strong evidence of mtDNA gene flow between eastern and southern populations during the later movement, suggesting low admixture between Eastern African populations and the Bantu migrants. This implies that, at least in the early stages, the Bantu expansion was mainly a demic diffusion with little incorporation of local populations. PMID:26211407

  5. The Sensitivity of African Easterly Waves to Eastern Tropical Atlantic Sea-Surface Temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Druyan, Leonard M.; Fulakeza, Matthew

    2011-01-01

    The results of two regional atmospheric model simulations are compared to assess the influence of the eastern tropical Atlantic sea-surface temperature maximum on local precipitation, transient easterly waves and the West African summer monsoon. Both model simulations were initialized with reanalysis 2 data (US National Center for Environmental Prediction and Department of Energy) on 15 May 2006 and extended through 6 October 2006, forced by synchronous reanalysis 2 lateral boundary conditions introduced four times daily. One simulation uses 2006 reanalysis 2 sea-surface temperatures, also updated four times daily, while the second simulation considers ocean forcing absent the sea-surface temperature maximum, achieved here by subtracting 3 K at every ocean grid point between 0 and 15 N during the entire simulation. The simulation with 2006 sea-surface temperature forcing produces a realistic distribution of June-September mean precipitation and realistic westward propagating swaths of maximum rainfall, based on validation against Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) estimates. The simulation without the sea-surface temperature maximum produces only 57% of the control June-September total precipitation over the eastern tropical Atlantic and about 83% of the Sahel precipitation. The simulation with warmer ocean temperatures generates generally stronger circulation, which in turn enhances precipitation by increasing moisture convergence. Some local precipitation enhancement is also attributed to lower vertical thermal stability above the warm water. The study shows that the eastern tropical Atlantic sea-surface temperature maximum enhances the strength of transient easterly waves and broadens the spatial extent of associated precipitation. However, large-scale circulation and its interaction with the African continent, and not sea-surface temperatures, control the timing and trajectories of the waves.

  6. Middle Proterozoic age for the Montpelier Anorthosite, Goochland terrane, eastern Piedmont, Virginia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Aleinikoff, J.N.; Horton, J.W., Jr.; Walter, M.

    1996-01-01

    Uranium-lead dating of zircons from the Montpelier Anorthosite confirms previous interpretations, based on equivocal evidence, that the Goochland terrane in the eastern Piedmont of Virginia contains Grenvillian basement rocks of Middle Proterozoic age. A very few prismatic, elongate, euhedral zircons, which contain 12-29 ppm uranium, are interpreted to be igneous in origin. The vast majority of zircons are more equant, subangular to anhedral, contain 38-52 ppm uranium, and are interpreted to be metamorphic in origin. One fraction of elongate zircon, and four fragments of a very large zircon (occurring in a nelsonite segregation) yield an upper intercept age of 1045 ?? 10 Ma, interpreted as the time of anorthosite crystallization. Irregularly shaped metamorphic zircons are dated at 1011 ?? 2 Ma (weighted average of the 207Pb/206Pb ages). The U-Pb isotopic systematics of metamorphic titanite were reset during the Alleghanian orogeny at 297 ?? 5 Ma. These data provide a minimum age for gneisses of the Goochland terrane that are intruded by the anorthosite. Middle Proterozoic basement rocks of the Goochland terrane may be correlative with those in the Shenandoah massif of the Blue Ridge tectonic province, as suggested by similarities between the Montpelier Anorthosite and the Roseland anorthosite. Although the areal extent of Middle Proterozoic basement and basement-cover relations in the eastern Piedmont remain unresolved, results of this investigation indicate that the Goochland terrane is an internal massif of Laurentian crust rather than an exotic accreted terrane.

  7. Characterizing the learning styles and testing the science-related attitudes of African American middle school students: Implications for the underrepresentation of African Americans in the sciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perine, Donald Ray

    African Americans, Hispanics, Native Americans and women are underrepresented among the population of scientists and science teachers in the United States. Specifically, the shortage of African Americans teaching math and science at all levels of the educational process and going into the many science-related fields is manifested throughout the entire educational and career structure of our society. This shortage exists when compared to the total population of African Americans in this country, the population of African American students, and to society's demand for more math and science teachers and professionals of all races. One suggestion to address this problem is to update curricular and instructional programs to accommodate the learning styles of African Americans from elementary to graduate school. There is little in the published literature to help us understand the learning styles of African American middle school students and how they compare to African American adults who pursue science careers. There is also little published data to help inform us about the relationship between learning styles of African American middle school students and their attitudes toward science. The author used a learning styles inventory instrument to identify the learning style preferences of the African American students and adults. The preferences identified describe how African American students and African American adult science professionals prefer to function, learn, concentrate, and perform in their educational and work activities in the areas of: (a) immediate environment, (b) emotionality, (c) sociological needs, and (d) physical needs. The learning style preferences for the students and adults were not significantly different in key areas of preference. A Test of Science-Related Attitudes (TOSRA) was used to measure seven distinct science-related attitudes of the middle school students. A comparison of the profile of the mean scores for the students in this study

  8. Child Physical Abuse Prevalence, Characteristics, Predictors, and Beliefs about Parent-Child Violence in South Asian, Middle Eastern, East Asian, and Latina Women in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maker, Azmaira H.; Shah, Priti V.; Agha, Zia

    2005-01-01

    The present study examined the prevalence, characteristics, beliefs, and demographic predictors of parent-child physical violence among South Asian, Middle Eastern, East Asian, and Latina women in the United States. Two hundred fifty-one college-educated women from a middle to high SES (South Asian/Middle Eastern, n = 93; East Asian, n = 72;…

  9. Complete mitochondrial genome sequence of the Eastern gorilla (Gorilla beringei) and implications for african ape biogeography.

    PubMed

    Das, Ranajit; Hergenrother, Scott D; Soto-Calderón, Iván D; Dew, J Larry; Anthony, Nicola M; Jensen-Seaman, Michael I

    2014-01-01

    The Western and Eastern species of gorillas (Gorilla gorilla and Gorilla beringei) began diverging in the mid-Pleistocene, but in a complex pattern with ongoing gene flow following their initial split. We sequenced the complete mitochondrial genomes of 1 Eastern and 1 Western gorilla to provide the most accurate date for their mitochondrial divergence, and to analyze patterns of nucleotide substitutions. The most recent common ancestor of these genomes existed about 1.9 million years ago, slightly more recent than that of chimpanzee and bonobo. We in turn use this date as a calibration to reanalyze sequences from the Eastern lowland and mountain gorilla subspecies to estimate their mitochondrial divergence at approximately 380000 years ago. These dates help frame a hypothesis whereby populations became isolated nearly 2 million years ago with restricted maternal gene flow, followed by ongoing male migration until the recent past. This process of divergence with prolonged hybridization occurred against the backdrop of the African Pleistocene, characterized by intense fluctuations in temperature and aridity, while at the same time experiencing tectonic uplifting and consequent shifts in the drainage of major river systems. Interestingly, this same pattern of introgression following divergence and discrepancies between mitochondrial and nuclear loci is seen in fossil hominins from Eurasia, suggesting that such processes may be common in hominids and that living gorillas may provide a useful model for understanding isolation and migration in our extinct relatives. PMID:25189777

  10. Complete Mitochondrial Genome Sequence of the Eastern Gorilla (Gorilla beringei) and Implications for African Ape Biogeography

    PubMed Central

    Das, Ranajit; Hergenrother, Scott D.; Soto-Calderón, Iván D.; Dew, J. Larry; Anthony, Nicola M.

    2014-01-01

    The Western and Eastern species of gorillas (Gorilla gorilla and Gorilla beringei) began diverging in the mid-Pleistocene, but in a complex pattern with ongoing gene flow following their initial split. We sequenced the complete mitochondrial genomes of 1 Eastern and 1 Western gorilla to provide the most accurate date for their mitochondrial divergence, and to analyze patterns of nucleotide substitutions. The most recent common ancestor of these genomes existed about 1.9 million years ago, slightly more recent than that of chimpanzee and bonobo. We in turn use this date as a calibration to reanalyze sequences from the Eastern lowland and mountain gorilla subspecies to estimate their mitochondrial divergence at approximately 380000 years ago. These dates help frame a hypothesis whereby populations became isolated nearly 2 million years ago with restricted maternal gene flow, followed by ongoing male migration until the recent past. This process of divergence with prolonged hybridization occurred against the backdrop of the African Pleistocene, characterized by intense fluctuations in temperature and aridity, while at the same time experiencing tectonic uplifting and consequent shifts in the drainage of major river systems. Interestingly, this same pattern of introgression following divergence and discrepancies between mitochondrial and nuclear loci is seen in fossil hominins from Eurasia, suggesting that such processes may be common in hominids and that living gorillas may provide a useful model for understanding isolation and migration in our extinct relatives. PMID:25189777

  11. Late middle Eocene epoch of Libya yields earliest known radiation of African anthropoids.

    PubMed

    Jaeger, Jean-Jacques; Beard, K Christopher; Chaimanee, Yaowalak; Salem, Mustafa; Benammi, Mouloud; Hlal, Osama; Coster, Pauline; Bilal, Awad A; Duringer, Philippe; Schuster, Mathieu; Valentin, Xavier; Marandat, Bernard; Marivaux, Laurent; Métais, Eddy; Hammuda, Omar; Brunet, Michel

    2010-10-28

    Reconstructing the early evolutionary history of anthropoid primates is hindered by a lack of consensus on both the timing and biogeography of anthropoid origins. Some prefer an ancient (Cretaceous) origin for anthropoids in Africa or some other Gondwanan landmass, whereas others advocate a more recent (early Cenozoic) origin for anthropoids in Asia, with subsequent dispersal of one or more early anthropoid taxa to Africa. The oldest undoubted African anthropoid primates described so far are three species of the parapithecid Biretia from the late middle Eocene Bir El Ater locality of Algeria and the late Eocene BQ-2 site in the Fayum region of northern Egypt. Here we report the discovery of the oldest known diverse assemblage of African anthropoids from the late middle Eocene Dur At-Talah escarpment in central Libya. The primate assemblage from Dur At-Talah includes diminutive species pertaining to three higher-level anthropoid clades (Afrotarsiidae, Parapithecidae and Oligopithecidae) as well as a small species of the early strepsirhine primate Karanisia. The high taxonomic diversity of anthropoids at Dur At-Talah indicates either a much longer interval of anthropoid evolution in Africa than is currently documented in the fossil record or the nearly synchronous colonization of Africa by multiple anthropoid clades at some time during the middle Eocene epoch. PMID:20981098

  12. Depression, stressful life events, social support, and self-esteem in middle class African American women.

    PubMed

    Warren, B J

    1997-06-01

    African American women, are at risk for development of depression because they are a racial minority and female, and often have multiple roles which affect their social supports and self-esteem. An exploratory study was conducted that examined relationships between depression, stressful life events, social support, and self-esteem in 100 middle class African American women aged 20 to 35 years. The conceptual framework for the study was derived from Beeber's (1987) model. Correlational analysis revealed a positive relationship between depression and stressful life events and a negative relationship between depression and social support. Regression analysis revealed that stressful life events and social support added significantly to the model whereas self-esteem did not. PMID:9193115

  13. A focused ethnographic assessment of Middle Eastern mothers' infant feeding practices in Canada.

    PubMed

    Jessri, Mahsa; Farmer, Anna P; Olson, Karin

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the barriers to following complementary feeding guidelines among Middle Eastern mothers and the cultural considerations of practitioners from an emic perspective. This is a two-phase focused ethnographic assessment of infant feeding among 22 Middle Eastern mothers in Western Canada who had healthy infants aged <1 year. Data were collected through four focus groups conducted in Arabic/Farsi, and were further complemented by comprehensive survey data collected in the second phase of study. Mothers' main criterion for choosing infant foods was whether or not foods were Halal, while food allergens were not causes for concern. Vitamin D supplements were not fed to 18/22 of infants, and mashed dates (Halawi), rice pudding (Muhallabia/Ferni) and sugared water/tea were the first complementary foods commonly consumed. Through constant comparison of qualitative data, three layers of influence emerged, which described mothers' process of infant feeding: socio-cultural, health care system and personal factors. Culture was an umbrella theme influencing all aspects of infant feeding decisions. Mothers cited health care professionals' lack of cultural considerations and lack of relevance and practicality of infant feeding guidelines as the main reasons for ignoring infant feeding recommendations. Early introduction of pre-lacteal feeds and inappropriate types of foods fed to infants among immigrant/refugee Middle Eastern mothers in Canada is cause of concern. Involving trained language interpreters in health teams and educating health care staff on cultural competency may potentially increase maternal trust in the health care system and eventually lead to increased awareness of and adherence to best practices with infant feeding recommendations. PMID:23795644

  14. Examining science achievement of African American females in suburban middle schools: A mixed methods study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Topping, Kecia C.

    This dissertation examined factors that affected the science achievement of African American females in suburban middle schools. The research literature informed that African American females are facing the barriers of race, gender, socioeconomic status, and cultural learning style preferences. Nationally used measurements of science achievement such as the Standardized Achievement Test, Tenth edition (SAT-10), National Assessment for Educational Progress, and National Center for Educational Statistics showed that African American females are continuing to falter in the areas of science when compared to other ethnic groups. This study used a transformative sequential explanatory mixed methods design. In the first, quantitative, phase, the relationships among the dependent variables, science subscale SAT-10 NCE scores, yearly averages, and the independent variables, attitude toward science scores obtained from the Modified Fennema-Sherman Attitudes toward Science Scale, socioeconomics, and caregiver status were tested. The participants were 150 African American females in grades 6 through 8 in four suburban middle schools located in the Southeastern United States. The results showed a positive, significant linear relationship between the females' attitude and their science subscale SAT-10 NCE scores and a positive, significant linear relationship between the females' attitudes and their yearly averages in science. The results also confirmed that attitude was a significant predictor of science subscale SAT-10 NCE scores for these females and that attitude and socioeconomics were significant predictors of the females' yearly averages in science. In the second, qualitative, phase, nine females purposefully selected from those who had high and low attitude towards science scores on the scale in the quantitative phase were interviewed. The themes that emerged revealed seven additional factors that impacted the females' science achievement. They were usefulness of science

  15. Tropical cyclogenesis in Eastern Atlantique: Impact of earlier passage of African Easterly Wave trough on the evolution of Mesoscale Convective Systems and air-sea interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lahat Dieng, Abdou; Eymard, Laurence; Moustapha Sall, Saidou; Lazar, Alban; Leduc-Leballeur, Marion

    2014-05-01

    A large part of Atlantic tropical depressions is generated in the Eastern basin in relation with the African Easterly Waves and the Mesoscale Convective Systems coming from the African continent. But initial surface oceanic and atmosphere conditions favoring such evolution are largely unknown. This study analyzes the structures of strengthening and dissipating MCSs evolving near the West African coast and evaluates the role of the surface oceanic condition on their evolutions. Satellite brightness temperature from Meteosat Second Generation over the summer season of 2006 and radar data for the same season between 1993 and 1999 are used to subjectively select fourteen cases of strengthening (dissipating) MCSs when they cross the Senegalese coast. With these observed MCSs locations, a lagged composite analysis is then performed using Era interim and CFSR reanalyses. Results show that the strengthening MCS composite is preceded by prior passage of an AEW near the West African coast. This first trough wave was associated with a cyclonic circulation in the low and middle troposphere and has enhanced southwest wind flow behind him feeding humidly to the strengthening MCS composite which was located in the vicinity of the second AEW trough. The contraction of the wave length associated with the two troughs was probably facilitated this supply in humidity. The Sea Surface Temperature seem contribute to the MCS enhancement through surface evaporation flux but this contribution is less important than humidity advection by the fist system. These conditions were not found in the dissipating MCS case which dissipated in a drying environment air dominated by subsidence and anticyclonic circulation. Key words: Mesoscale Convective System, African Easterly Wave, Sea Surface Temperature, tropical depression.

  16. Multidisciplinary care team for cancer patients and its implementation in several Middle Eastern countries

    PubMed Central

    Silbermann, M.; Pitsillides, B.; Al-Alfi, N.; Omran, S.; Al-Jabri, K.; Elshamy, K.; Ghrayeb, I.; Livneh, J.; Daher, M.; Charalambous, H.; Jafferri, A.; Fink, R.; El-Shamy, M.

    2013-01-01

    This article introduces palliative care to cancer patients in Middle Eastern countries. It considers the importance of the multidisciplinary team in providing an adequate service to the patient and his/her family. It provides views of professionals from the various countries with regard to the role of the nurse in such teams; whereby the three elements of palliative care nursing entail: 1. Working directly with patients and families; 2. Working with other health and social care professionals to network and co-ordinate services; and 3. working at an organizational level to plan, develop and manage service provision in local, regional and national settings. This article also details the challenges that nurses face in the Middle East and outlines the preferable ways to overcome such challenges. The latter include more focused educational activities at the undergraduate and graduate levels and continuous clinical training throughout their work as palliative care nurse specialists. PMID:24001762

  17. The P and S wave velocity structure of the mantle beneath eastern Africa and the African superplume anomaly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mulibo, Gabriel D.; Nyblade, Andrew A.

    2013-08-01

    P and S relative arrival time residuals from teleseismic earthquakes recorded on over 60 temporary AfricaArray broadband seismic stations deployed in Uganda, Tanzania, and Zambia between 2007 and 2011 have been inverted, together with relative arrival time residuals from earthquakes recorded by previous deployments, for a tomographic image of mantle wave speed variations extending to a depth of 1200 km beneath eastern Africa. The image shows a low-wave speed anomaly (LWA) well developed at shallow depths (100-200 km) beneath the Eastern and Western branches of the Cenozoic East African rift system and northwestern Zambia, and a fast wave speed anomaly at depths ≤ 350 km beneath the central and northern parts of the East African Plateau and the eastern and central parts of Zambia. At depths ≥350 km the LWA is most prominent under the central and southern parts of the East African Plateau and dips to the southwest beneath northern Zambia, extending to a depth of at least 900 km. The amplitude of the LWA is consistent with a ˜150-300 K thermal perturbation, and its depth extent indicates that the African superplume, originally identified as a lower mantle anomaly, is likely a whole mantle structure. A superplume extending from the core-mantle boundary to the surface implies an origin for the Cenozoic extension, volcanism, and plateau uplift in eastern Africa rooted in the dynamics of the lower mantle.

  18. Additional evidence for bone technology in the southern African Middle Stone Age.

    PubMed

    d'Errico, Francesco; Henshilwood, Christopher S

    2007-02-01

    Few Middle Stone Age sites have yielded convincing evidence for a complex bone technology, a behavior often associated with the emergence of modern cultures. Here, we review the published evidence for Middle Stone Age bone tools from southern Africa, analyze an additional nine bone artifacts recently recovered from Middle Stone Age levels at Blombos Cave, describe an unpublished bone tool from probable Middle Stone Age levels at Peers Cave, examine a single bone awl found at Blombosch Sands (an open site near Blombos Cave), and reappraise marked bone artifacts and a bone point recovered from Klasies River. To determine the chronological and cultural attribution of these artifacts, document bone-manufacturing techniques associated with the southern African MSA, and discuss the symbolic significance of the markings present on some of these objects we use (1) available contextual information; (2) morphometric comparison of Later Stone Age, Modern San, and purported Middle Stone Age projectile points; (3) analysis of the carbon/nitrogen content of bone tools and faunal remains from Peers and Blombos caves; and (4) microscopic analysis of traces of manufacture and use. Previously undescribed bone artifacts from Blombos Cave include a massive point manufactured on weathered bone, two complete awls and two awl tips manufactured on small-sized mammal and bird bone, a probable projectile point with a tang manufactured by knapping and scraping, a shaft fragment modified by percussion, used as retoucher and bearing a set of incised lines on the middle of the periosteal surface, and two fragments with possible engravings. The point from Peers Cave can be assigned to the Middle Stone Age and bears tiny markings reminiscent of those recorded on projectile points from Blombos and used as marks of ownership on San arrow points. The awl from Blombosch Sands and the bone point from Klasies River can be attributed to the Later Stone Age. Two notched objects from Klasies are

  19. Climatic change and the history of the Middle East: Did major climatic changes alter the course of Middle Eastern history during the past 5,000 years?

    SciTech Connect

    Issar, A.S.

    1995-07-01

    This article explores the influence of climatic change on history, specifically that of the Middle Eastern regions. The Middle east may provide a unique model and opportunity to assess the impact of climatic change on human evenst. The climatic history of the Middle East varied considerably during the past 10,000 years (after the beginning of the agricultural revolution) and there is a rich archeological and historical record. The author looks at the conventional reasons for upheavels in the region and then superimposes the climatic changes to find another explanation which better fits the archeological and historical facts. 15 refs., 6 figs.

  20. Post-middle Miocene origin of modern landforms in the eastern Piedmont of Virginia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Weems, R.E.; Edwards, L.E.

    2007-01-01

    Diverse late middle Miocene dinoflagellate floras, obtained from two sites along the western edge of the Atlantic Coastal Plain in central Virginia, indicate that the eastern Virginia Piedmont was covered by marine waters about 12-13 Ma. This transgression extended farther westward across the Virginia Piedmont than any other transgression that has been documented. Extensive fluvial deposits that may be associated with this transgression covered earlier stream patterns in the eastern Piedmont and buried them beneath a thin (probably less than 100 foot-thick) veneer of sand and gravel. During the subsequent regression, a linear down-slope stream-drainage pattern developed. Although it has been somewhat modified by later stream captures, it still is easily recognizable. This interval of marine inundation and deposition explains why modern stream patterns in the eastern Piedmont of Virginia strongly resemble the stream patterns in the Coastal Plain and differ from the structurally adjusted trellis stream patterns typical of the western Piedmont, Blue Ridge, and Valley and Ridge regions. Uplift of the modern Southern Appalachian Mountains began at the time of this transgression and was largely completed by the late Pliocene.

  1. Comparison of personal characteristics, tobacco use, and health states in Chaldean, Arab American, and non-Middle Eastern White adults.

    PubMed

    Jamil, H; Templin, T; Fakhouri, M; Rice, V H; Khouri, R; Fakhouri, H; Al-Omran, Hasan; Al-Fauori, Ibrahim; Baker, Omar

    2009-08-01

    This study compared and contrasted personal characteristics, tobacco use (cigarette and water pipe smoking), and health states in Chaldean, Arab American and non-Middle Eastern White adults attending an urban community service center. The average age was 39.4 (SD = 14.2). The three groups differed significantly (P < .006) on ethnicity, age, gender distribution, marital status, language spoken, education, employment, and annual income. Current cigarette smoking was highest for non-Middle Eastern White adults (35.4%) and current water pipe smoking was highest for Arab Americans (3.6%). Arab Americans were more likely to smoke both cigarettes and the narghile (4.3%). Health problems were highest among former smokers in all three ethnic groups. Being male, older, unmarried, and non-Middle Eastern White predicted current cigarette smoking; being Arab or Chaldean and having less formal education predicted current water pipe use. PMID:18311586

  2. Exploring Middle-Eastern mothers' perceptions and experiences of breastfeeding in Canada: an ethnographic study.

    PubMed

    Jessri, Mahsa; Farmer, Anna P; Olson, Karin

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore from the Middle-Eastern mothers' perspective, the experience of breastfeeding and their perceptions of attributes of the health care system, community and society on their feeding decisions after migration to Canada. New immigrant mothers from the Middle East (n = 22) were recruited from community agencies in Edmonton, Canada. Qualitative data were collected through four focus groups using an ethnographic approach to guide concurrent data collection and analysis. Survey data were collected on socio-demographic characteristics via pre-tested questionnaires. All mothers, but one who was medically exempt, breastfed their infants from birth and intended to continue for at least 2 years. Through constant comparison of data, five layers of influence emerged which described mothers' process of decision making: culture/society, community, health care system, family/friends and mother-infant dyad. Religious belief was an umbrella theme that was woven throughout all discussions and it was the strongest determining factor for choosing to breastfeed. However, cultural practices promoted pre-lacteal feeding and hence, jeopardising breastfeeding exclusivity. Although contradicted in Islamic tradition, most mothers practised fasting during breastfeeding because of misbeliefs about interpretations regarding these rules. Despite high rates of breastfeeding, there is a concern of lack of breastfeeding exclusivity among Middle-Eastern settlers in Canada. To promote successful breastfeeding in Muslim migrant communities, interventions must occur at different levels of influence and should consider religious beliefs to ensure cultural acceptability. Practitioners may support exclusive breastfeeding through cultural competency, and respectfully acknowledging Islamic beliefs and cultural practices. PMID:22909247

  3. Eastern Termination of the Subducting African Lithosphere Beneath Anatolia Imaged by Teleseismic P-Wave Tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biryol, C. B.; Zandt, G.; Beck, S. L.; Ozacar, A.; Schmandt, B.

    2009-12-01

    A variety of complex tectonic processes are active in Anatolia. Collision related plateau formation dominates the present lithospheric deformation toward the east and slab roll-back related back-arc extension takes place toward the west. The two zones are connected at the northern part of the region by strike-slip faulting along the right-lateral North Anatolian Fault. Recent seismological studies show that the Eastern Anatolian Plateau (EAP) is supported by hot asthenosphereric material that was emplaced beneath the plateau following the detachment of subducted Arabian lithosphere. The westward continuation of the deeper structure of Anatolia is less well constrained due to the lack of geophysical observations. In order to study how the deeper lithosphere and mantle structure evolves spatially from east to west, we used teleseismic P-wave tomography and data from several temporary and permanent seismic networks deployed in the region. A major part of the data comes from the North Anatolian Fault passive seismic experiment (NAF) that consists of 39 broadband seismic stations operated at the north central part of Anatolia between 2005 - 2008. We also used data collected from permanent seismic stations of the National Earthquake Monitoring Center (NEMC) and stations from the Eastern Turkey Seismic Experiment (ETSE). Approximately 15,000 P-wave travel time residuals, measured in multiple frequency bands, are inverted using approximate finite-frequency sensitivity kernels. Our tomographic model reveals a fast anomaly that corresponds to the subducted portion of the African lithosphere along the Cyprean Arc. This fast anomaly dips northward beneath central Anatolia with an angle of approximately 45 degrees. However, the anomaly disappears rather sharply east of 36 degree longitude. This eastern edge of the slab also marks the western boundary of the EAP and Arabia-Eurasia collision zone. Beneath EAP our model reveals distributed slow anomalies down to 400 km and upper

  4. How African American, Middle Class Parents Learn and Enact a Racism Resistant Critical Race Achievement Ideology in Their Adolescents in Gifted and AP Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Tracey Simmons

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to examine African American, middle class parents' facilitation of an academic achievement ideology that is racism-resistant in their adolescent offspring in AP and Gifted Education classrooms. Three research questions guided the study: (1) how do African American, middle class parents come to acquire or…

  5. A Descriptive Qualitative Study Exploring Teacher and Parental Perceptions of African-American Middle School Male Students Related to Mathematics Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fowler, Crystal Nicole

    2013-01-01

    This qualitative descriptive case study explored the perceptions of parents and teachers of the academic achievement gap in mathematics between African-American middle school males and their White counterparts. Ten parents, both African-American and White, with students attending middle school in the Cherokee County School District and 5 teachers…

  6. Schooling Experiences and Perceptions of Resettled Sub-Saharan African Refugee Middle School Students in a Southwest U.S. State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sallu, Adama

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the schooling experiences and perceptions of resettled sub-Saharan African middle school refugee students in a metropolitan area of the United States Southwest. The research questions underpinning this study included: What are the schooling experiences and perceptions of resettled sub-Saharan African middle school refugee…

  7. Climatology and variability of the Middle Eastern summer Shamal wind : Implications to dust storm variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Y.; Notaro, M.

    2014-12-01

    The climatology and variability of Shamal wind, an important regulator of summertime Middle Eastern dust storm activity, have been poorly characterized in the scientific literature. The Middle Eastern Shamal is a strong low-level northwesterly wind, which can lift dust from the Syrian and Iraqi deserts and transport it to the Persian Gulf and Arabian Peninsula. Despite its critical role as a dust storm driver, the variability and controls of summertime Shamal wind has not been addressed by previous studies. The spatial distribution and seasonal cycle of the Shamal wind during 1970-2013, along with its interannual variability, covariability with dust storm activities, and potential link to sea surface temperatures (SSTs) in the tropical Pacific Ocean and Mediterranean Sea, are studied using hourly station records, reanalysis data, and remotely-sensed data. According to a wind-direction and speed-based criterion for Shamal days, the summertime Shamal behaves like a summer monsoon with variability in its onset, termination, and distinct break periods. Based on a multi-station criterion for Shamal onset and termination, the onset occurs on May 23 ± 8 days (one standard deviation), and the termination date is Sep 2 ± 21 days. The highest wind speed on a Shamal day occurs around the noon along the west coast of the Persian Gulf, corresponding to a peak in horizontal pressure gradient. The onset of Shamal is associated with the development of low pressure over Iran and high pressure over the eastern Mediterranean and northwestern Arabian Peninsula - an eastward expansion of the high over subtropical Atlantic. El Niño events support the delayed onset and weaker intensity of the summer Shamal. Intensified summer Shamal winds are associated with anomalously cool Mediterranean SSTs, which enhance the high pressure over the eastern Mediterranean. The impacts of El Niño-Southern Oscillation and Mediterranean SSTs on summer Shamal are validated by an independent statistical

  8. Hominin teeth from the Middle Pleistocene site of Yiyuan, Eastern China.

    PubMed

    Xing, Song; Sun, Chengkai; Martinón-Torres, María; Bermúdez de Castro, José María; Han, Fei; Zhang, Yingqi; Liu, Wu

    2016-06-01

    In 1981-1982, some hominin fossils, including a relatively complete skull and seven isolated teeth, were recovered from the Middle Pleistocene site of Yiyuan in Eastern China. In the present study we provide a detailed metric and morphological comparison of the Yiyuan dental sample in order to characterize better the variability of the human populations that inhabited China during the Middle Pleistocene. Aside from taxonomic and phylogenetic questions, the lack of understanding and/or knowledge about the morphological variability of these populations have caused concern about the human versus non-human nature of some of the hominin dental remains found in East Asia during the Early and the Middle Pleistocene. Thus, our study aims to present a detailed description and comparison of the Yiyuan isolated teeth to 1) discuss and support their human nature and 2) to explore their taxonomic affinities with regard to other penecontemporaneous populations from Asia. Our results clearly differentiate the Yiyuan sample from Pongo specimens and support a human attribution for the Yiyuan material. Our analyses also suggest that the Yiyuan teeth form a morphologically coherent group together with samples from Zhoukoudian, Chaoxian and Hexian. They are different from the more derived specimens from Panxian Dadong, suggesting a pattern of biogeographic isolation and different evolutionary trends between northern and southern China during the Middle Pleistocene. In addition, and despite sharing a common morphological bauplan with Homo erectus sensu stricto (s.s.), the Yiyuan, Zhoukoudian and Hexian teeth are also different from the Indonesian Early Pleistocene samples. In particular, the expression of a highly crenulated or dendritic enamel-dentine surface could be unique to these groups. Our study supports the notion that the taxonomy of the Pleistocene hominins from Asia may have been oversimplified. Future studies should explore the variability of the Asian specimens and

  9. Sporotrichosis of Maxillary Sinuses in a Middle Aged Female Patient from Rural Area of Eastern India

    PubMed Central

    Das, Saumik; Sinha, Ramanuj; Aggarwal, Neeraj; Chakravorty, Sriparna

    2016-01-01

    Sporotrichosis is commonly a chronic infection caused by Sporothrix schenckii, a saprophytic fungus and is usually limited to cutaneous and subcutaneous tissues. Disseminated systemic, osteoarticular or pulmonary sporotrichosis have been reported but nasal sinusitis by this fungus is extremely infrequent. Earlier report from southern India documented a case of maxillary sinusitis by Sporothrix schenckii. Here we report a similar case of bilateral maxillary sinusitis in a middle aged female from a village of Bihar, a state in eastern India. She underwent endoscopic maxillary sinus surgery for nasal symptoms and diagnosed to have sporotrichotic infection of maxillary sinuses. The diagnosis was done by mycological and histopathological examination and patient improved under antifungal chemotherapy. PMID:27134873

  10. Latest Oligocene through early middle Miocene diatom biostratigraphy of the eastern tropical Pacific

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barron, J.A.

    1983-01-01

    Study of DSDP Sites 71, 77, and 495 has allowed the development of a refined diatom biostratigraphy for the latest Oligocene through early middle Miocene of the eastern tropical Pacific which is well correlated to the low-latitude zonations for planktonic foraminifers, coccoliths, and radiolarians. Six zones and 7 subzones are proposed, and correlation with high-latitude diatoms zonations for the North Pacific, the Norwegian Sea, and the Southern Ocean is suggested by the discovery of selected diatoms in these tropical sediments which were previously thought to be restricted to high latitudes. Six new species and one new variety of diatoms which are stratigraphically useful are proposed: Actinocyclus hajosiae, n. sp., A. radionovae, n. sp., Coscinodiscus blysmos, n. sp., C. praenodulifer, n. sp., Craspedodiscus rydei, n. sp., Thalassiosira bukryi, n. sp., and Coscinodiscus lewisianus var. robustus n. var. ?? 1983.

  11. The nature of culturally responsive pedagogy in two urban African American middle school science classrooms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bondima, Michelle Harris

    This ethnographic in nature study explores how two middle school science teachers who have classes populated by urban African Americans teach their students and how their students perceive their teaching. Since urban African American students continue to perform lower than desired on measures of science achievement, there is an urgent need to understand what pedagogical methodologies assist and hinder urban African American students in achieving higher levels of success in science. A pedagogical methodology that theorists posit assists subordinated school populations is culturally responsive pedagogy. Culturally responsive pedagogy is defined as a teaching methodology concerned with preparing students to question inequality, racism, and injustice. Teachers who use culturally responsive pedagogy respect the culture students bring to the class, and require that the teachers willingly do whatever is necessary to educate students (Nieto, 2000). The teacher participants were two female African Americans who were identified by their school supervisors as being highly effective with urban African American students. The researcher presented the teachers in separate case studies conducted over a data collection period of nine months. Data were collected by participant observation, interviews, and artifact collection. Data were analyzed by application of grounded theory techniques. Findings of the teachers' (and the students') beliefs about pedagogy that both assisted and hindered the students' performance in science were reported in a rich and nuanced storytelling manner based on multiple perspectives (teachers', students', and the researcher's). Pedagogical methodologies that the teachers used that assisted their students were the use of cultural metaphors and images in science and applications of motivational techniques that encouraged a nurturing relationship between the teacher and her students. Pedagogical methodologies that hindered students varied by teacher

  12. Social Risk and Protective Factors for African American Children's Academic Achievement and Adjustment during the Transition to Middle School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burchinal, Margaret R.; Roberts, Joanne E.; Zeisel, Susan A.; Rowley, Stephanie J.

    2008-01-01

    The transition to middle school is often marked by decreased academic achievement and increased emotional stress, and African American children exposed to social risk may be especially vulnerable during this transition. To identify mediators and protective factors, the authors related severity and timing of risk exposure to academic achievement…

  13. From Victory to Freedom: The African American Experience. Curriculum Guide: Elementary and Middle School Course of Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio Historical Society, Columbus.

    This elementary and middle school curriculum guide contains three sections of instructional materials about three areas of African American life. The section "Community Life" includes detailed lessons on family, the church, education, business, and organizations. The section "Public Life" provides in-depth lessons on media, science and medicine,…

  14. Mother-Daughter Communication about Sex and Sexual Intercourse among Middle- to Upper-Class African American Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Usher-Seriki, Kimberly K.; Bynum, Mia Smith; Callands, Tamora A.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated linkages between various dimensions of mother-daughter communication about sex and sexual intercourse in a sample of 274 middle- to upper-income African American adolescent girls, drawn from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Logistic regression analysis revealed that girls who reported closer…

  15. Middle-Class African American Adolescents' and Parents' Conceptions of Parental Authority and Parenting Practices: A Longitudinal Investigation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smetana, Judith G.

    2000-01-01

    Examined longitudinally conceptions of parental authority and ratings of parental rules and decision-making among middle- class African American adolescents and their parents. Found that nearly all subjects affirmed parents' legitimate authority to regulate and children's obligation to comply regarding oral, conventional, prudential, friendship,…

  16. Longitudinal Development of Family Decision Making: Defining Healthy Behavioral Autonomy for Middle-Class African American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smetana, Judith G.; Campione-Barr, Nicole; Daddis, Christopher

    2004-01-01

    The development of decision-making autonomy was examined in 76 middle-class African American early adolescents (M=13 years) and their mothers, who were followed longitudinally for 5 years. Adolescent decision-making autonomy over conventional, prudential, multifaceted, and personal issues increased over time but at different rates. Mothers viewed…

  17. Dating Violence and Sexual Assault Prevention with African American Middle Schoolers: Does Group Gender Composition Impact Dating Violence Attitudes?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, Beverly M.; Weisz, Arlene N.; Jayasundara, Dheeshana S.

    2012-01-01

    A dating violence and sexual assault prevention program was presented to 396, predominately African American, middle schoolers in two inner city schools in the United States. In one school the program was offered with a same-gender group composition; in the other school, the same program was offered with mixed-gender group composition. A…

  18. Lower and middle Guadalupian shelf carbonates, eastern margin of Central Basin platform, Permian basin, west Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, R.F.; Chalcraft, R.G.

    1988-01-01

    Lower and middle Guadalupian shelf carbonates serve as the reservoir for a nearly continuous band of oil fields extending 100 mi along the eastern margin of the Central Basin platform of west Texas. Approximately 5 billion bbl of oil have been produced from stratigraphic-structural traps within the Upper Permian (Gaudalupian Series) dolomites of the San Andrea and Grayburg Formations in Upton, Crane, Ector, Pecos, and Andrews Counties, Texas. The San Andrea and Grayburg Formations are cyclical shallowing-upward carbonate sequences of open shelf through sabkha facies whose depositional strike parallels the eastern margin of the Central Basin platform. Porosity and permeability of reservoir rock are governed by diagenetic processes such as dolomitization, anhydrite porosity occlusion, leaching, silicification, and authigenic clay formation. Self sediments are primarily burrowed wackestones and packstones that locally contain pelletal, skeletal, and ooid grainstones. Typical subtidal shelf sediments are capped by algal-laminated dolomite, nodular anhydritic dolomite, and bedded anhydrite. The fauna is normally sparse and dominated by foraminifera and algae. Less common faunal components include pelecypods, crinoids, sponges, Bryozoa, brachiopods, gastropods, and coral that are associated with the development of small scattered patch reefs. Lowering the sea level during the early Guadalpian initiated basinward progradation of San Andres carbonate facies with hydrocarbon reservoirs best developed in shallow self fusulinid wackestones to packstone and oolitic grainstone. Reservoir dolomites of the Grayburg formation are present east of San Andres fields with optimal reservoir properties occurring near the San Andreas outer shelf margin.

  19. Climatology and dynamics of summer tropopause folds over the eastern Mediterranean and the Middle East

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tyrlis, E.; Skerlak, B.; Sprenger, M.; Wernli, H.; Zittis, G.; Lelieveld, J.

    2013-12-01

    A climatology of tropopause folds is presented that focus on the summer events occurring over the Eastern Mediterranean and the Middle East (EMME) based on the ERA-Interim dataset. The methodology employs an algorithm that detects folds as areas featuring multiple crossings of the dynamical tropopause and allows their classification according to their vertical extent. Our results confirm the findings of an earlier 1-year climatology that recognized a global ';hot spot' of fold activity over a sector extending from the eastern Mediterranean to Afghanistan, in the vicinity of the subtropical jet. Two distinct maxima of activity are recognized over Turkey and Iran-Afghanistan where fold occurrence exceeds 25%. Rarely, deep folds form over the Levantine Basin and Iran at surprising low latitudes. This summertime increase in fold activity defies the zonal mean seasonal cycle over the subtropics and it is driven by the South Asian Monsoon. From late spring, the EMME is gradually brought under the influence of the zonally asymmetric background state induced by the monsoon, which features an elevated tropopause and depression of isentropic surfaces. As areas of sharply sloping isentropes develop especially over the eastern Mediterranean and Iran-Afghanistan, subsidence and fold formation are favored. The monsoon also drives the interannual variability of EMME fold activity. An upward trend in fold activity is identified, especially during May that can be attributed to the recent advanced monsoon onset and the deeper convective activity throughout summer. This stronger upper level monsoon signature promotes enhanced upper level baroclinicity over the EMME that favors folding.

  20. Dynamics of summer tropopause folds over the eastern Mediterranean and the Middle East.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tyrlis, Evangelos; Sprenger, Michael; Wernli, Heini; Lelieveld, Jos

    2013-04-01

    Tropopause folds are atmospheric structures occurring in the subtropical and extratropical regions, while deep folds are a special category of tropopause folds, identified predominantly in the extratropics with their dynamics closely linked to those of midlatitude baroclinic waves. In the zonal mean, a distinct seasonal cycle is recognized featuring a summer minimum, especially for deep midlatitude folds, due to the weaker summer midlatitude baroclinicity. However, the investigation of the seasonal cycle of the vertical distribution of potential vorticity (PV) confirmed the findings of an earlier 1-year global climatolology that reported abundant summer folds over a sector ranging from the eastern Mediterranean to Afghanistan. This region lies at the western and northern flanks of the upper level South Asian Monsoon anticyclone. From late spring, it is gradually brought under the influence of the zonally asymmetric background state induced by the monsoon, which features an elevated tropopause and depression of isentropic surfaces. As areas of sharply sloping isentropes develop over the eastern Mediterranean and Iran-Afghanistan, which are exposed to the midlatitude westerlies, subsidence and tropopause fold formation are favored. The present study aims at the further quantification of the above initial findings through the compilation of a comprehensive climatology of folds over the eastern Mediterranean and the Middle East. The methodology is based on an algorithm that detects folds as areas featuring multiple crossings of the dynamical tropopause. The analysis is based on the ERA-Interim data interpolated on a 1x1 regular grid, spanning the period 1979-2012. The methodology allows the identification of geometrical features of tropopause folds and their classification into deep and shallow structures. This allows us the understanding of the distinct dynamical links with the monsoon on intra-seasonal timescales and the investigation of the evolution and vertical

  1. A Preliminary Handlist of Important English, French and German Works on Modern Middle Eastern History (1798-1948).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kunke, Laverne

    Thie bibliography of published works in English, French, and German on 19th and 20th Century Middle Eastern history is designed as a preliminary handlist to test the feasibility of compiling a core bibliography in the field for nonspecialists and beginning graduate students. Among the entries, which are classified according to geographical area…

  2. Gender differences in motivational pathways to college for middle class African American youths.

    PubMed

    Wood, Dana; Kurtz-Costes, Beth; Copping, Kristine E

    2011-07-01

    Using a sample of predominantly middle-class African American adolescents and parents (N = 424), the authors tested a path model linking parental expectations for children's future educational attainment, youths' motivation during Grade 11, and youths' subsequent on-time postsecondary educational progress. Parents' expectations were positively related to adolescents' educational attainment aspirations, attainment expectations, utility values (i.e., beliefs about the usefulness of education), and perceptions of racial barriers to upward mobility. Relationships between parents' expectations and youths' aspirations and expectations were mediated by youths' perceptions of parents' expectations. For boys, but not girls, Grade 11 educational expectations and utility values each uniquely predicted college attendance 1 year after high school graduation. In addition, boys' perceptions of racial barriers were negatively related to subsequent postsecondary progress through their influence on values. Findings underscore the importance of academic achievement motivation as a developmental resource for African American boys and suggest that boys are especially likely to benefit from interventions promoting positive motivational beliefs. PMID:21574704

  3. Urban African-American middle school science students: Does standards-based teaching make a difference?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butler Kahle, Jane; Meece, Judith; Scantlebury, Kathryn

    2000-11-01

    The current reform movement in science education promotes standards-based teaching, including the use of inquiry, problem solving, and open-ended questioning, to improve student achievement. This study examines the influence of standards-based teaching practices on the achievement of urban, African-American, middle school science students. Science classes of teachers who had participated in the professional development (n = 8) of Ohio's statewide systemic initiative (SSI) were matched with classes of teachers (n = 10) who had not participated. Data were gathered using group-administered questionnaires and achievement tests that were specifically designed for Ohio's SSI. Analyses indicate that teachers who frequently used standards-based teaching practices positively influenced urban, African-American students' science achievement and attitudes, especially for boys. Additionally, teachers' involvement in the SSI's professional development was positively related to the reported use of standards-based teaching practices in the classroom. The findings support the efficacy of high-quality professional development to change teaching practices and to enhance student learning.

  4. Middle Jurassic to early Cretaceous igneous rocks along eastern North American continental margin

    SciTech Connect

    Jansa, L.F.; Pe-Piper, G.

    1988-03-01

    Late Middle Jurassic and Early Cretaceous mafic dikes, sills, flows, and local volcaniclastic sediments are intercalated within continental shelf sediments from the Baltimore Canyon Trough northward to the Grand Banks of Newfoundland. The igneous rocks on the eastern North American margin are mainly alkali basalts of intraplate affinity. The late Middle Jurassic igneous activity was of short duration, at about 140 Ma, and was restricted to Georges Bank where it led to construction of several volcanic cones. The main period of igneous activity was concentrated at about 120 Ma in the Aptian/Berremian. The activity consists of dike swarms in Baltimore Canyon, occasional dikes on the Scotian Shelf, and the growth of stratovolcanoes on the Scotian Shelf and Grand Banks. Younger dikes (approx. 95 Ma) also are present on the Grand Banks. With regard to oil exploration on the continental margin, care must be taken to properly identify igneous and volcaniclastic rocks on mechanical logs, drill cuttings, and cores. Reflection seismic profiles can be used to map the areal extent of sills, flows, and low-angle dikes, which commonly show distinctive seismic responses. However, steeply dipping dikes generally produce little, if any, seismic response. Isotopic-age determinations of igneous rocks, combined with biostratigraphic-age determinations of adjacent strata, are invaluable for stratigraphic correlation, establishing chronology of seismic sequences, and analysis of basin sedimentation and tectonic history. 9 figures, 2 tables.

  5. Middle Holocene aridity, eolian-dune accretion, and the formation of Lake Mattamuskeet, eastern North Carolina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez, A. B.; Waters, M. N.; Piehler, M. F.

    2009-12-01

    The stratigraphic record of Lake Mattamuskeet, eastern North Carolina, shows an interval of eolian activity in the middle Holocene. There are about 500,000 elliptical lakes, wetlands, and depressions with elevated rims located on the Atlantic Coastal Plain named Carolina Bays. Lake Mattamuskeet is the largest (162 km2; mean depth 1.0 m), and formed when a blowout depression of a parabolic dune flooded 1540-1635 cal yr. BP. The parabolic dune is up to 2.0-m thick, contains sedimentary structures that indicate rapid deposition, and is composed of a coarsening-upward sequence of silt at the base to sandy silt at the top. Below the dune is an 8420-8605 cal yr. BP paleosol, which corresponds to a wet period in the area. The bottom half of the dune deposit contains abundant charcoal beds and laminae dated at ~6600 cal yr. BP, indicating fire was associated with initial formation of the parabolic dune. Middle Holocene climate of the southeast Atlantic coastal plain is not well constrained. Deposition of the eolian dune could be a local response to fire; or indicate a time of reduced effective moisture in the area. Given that pedogenesis on the dune did not initiate until ~2780-2965 cal yr. BP and flooding of the Lake basin did not occur for ~1000 years after that, effective moisture may have been low for approximately 3600 years after initial dune accretion.

  6. Preliminary comparative study of middle Anisian vertebrate ichnoassociation from South-Eastern Alps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valdiserri, D.; Todesco, R.; Avanzini, M.

    2009-04-01

    Anisian vertebrate tracks from the south-eastern Alps are known since the first decades of 1900s (Abel, 1926). The sedimentary units yielding footprints are characterized by the alternation of limestone influenced by terrigenous supply with mere marine and volcanic layers allowing a precise dating. In this study, we compare four different ichnoassociations from three different outcrops in the South-Eastern Alps correlating them chronologically and sedimentologically. They were found to be subsequent in time from Lower Pelsonian (Bad Gfrill-Voltago Conglomerate; Todesco, 2007) through middle Pelsonian (Bad Gfrill- Giovo Formation) (Valdiserri et al., 2006) and basal Illyrian (Piz da Peres- Richthofen Conglomerate; Todesco et al., 2008) to the middle Illyrian (Val Duron-Morbiac Limestone; Avanzini et al., 2007). In all these ichno-associations, Rhynchosauroides, an ichno-genus referable to a lizard - like trackmaker well known in the European Anisian, is dominant. Within this group at least four different morphotypes are known, probably reflecting both intraspecific variation (i.e. sexual dimorphism) and different ichnospecies. Although the Chirotheridae group, referred to Archosaurian trackmakers Synaptichnium is represented in both Pelsonian ichnoassociation of the Bad Gfrill outcrop, while Chirotherium , Isochirotherium and Brachichirotherium are recognized both in Pelsonian and in Illyrian ichnosites with a incremental presence in the Illyrian The ichofamiliae Rotodactylidae und Procolophonidae seem well represented in the Pelsonian strata but absent in the Illyrian ones. The preliminarly comparative analysis of these four correlated ichnosites and the comparision with the yet known ones (Avanzini and Mietto 2008) pointed out the expected predominance of the Lepidosaurian-Archosaurian association typical for the middle Triassic ichnofauna. The incremental presence of the Chirotherian track in Illyrian and the presence of the Procolophonichium just in the

  7. Multi-method chronological investigation of a Middle Paleolithic stratigraphic context in Eastern Transylvania, Romania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veres, Daniel; Cosac, Marian; Muratoreanu, George; Niţǎ, Loredana; Schmidt, Christoph; Hambach, Ulrich; Hubay, Katalin; Alexandru, Radu; Cuculici, Roxana; Lucian Buzea, Dan; Dumitraşcu, Valentin

    2016-04-01

    The Middle to Upper Paleolithic transition is one of the crucial periods of change in the prehistory of Europe due to the full emergence, continent-wide, of modern human technologies, detrimental of Neanderthal survival. Knowledge about the transition is vast, however, the evidence for cultural and technological developments in the Carpathian - Lower Danube area is still rather sparse. Here we discuss latest results arising from an archaeological-chronological investigation of a Middle Paleolithic context within the Varghis karst, eastern Transylvania, Romania. Combining our results with these of previous excavations, we can distinguish several stages of habitation in the area comprising a rock shelter connected to a newly discovered filled-in cave entrance. Reanalysis of the deeper stratigraphy previously unexcavated shows that at least two main habitation levels have been preserved. In both levels, the bone assemblages (Bos/Bison, Capra, Canis lupus, Ursus spaeleus) directly associated with lithics point to human-accumulation of material. In order to augment the typological cultural considerations, we applied direct radiocarbon dating on bones from within the occupation layers and on scattered charcoal, for the latter following a two-step combustion protocol (1). Radiocarbon dating on bones suggests the lowermost occupation layer is >43.4 radiocarbon kyr BP old, whereas the preliminary infrared stimulated luminescence (IRSL) ages on the lowermost productive layer and above it indicate surprisingly old ages of ca. 120 kyr and respectively, ca. 70 kyr. Multiple-protocol dating of charcoal found within the two habitation layers produced ages >38 radiocarbon kyr BP, suggesting that the lowermost habitation layer unequivocally pertains to the Middle Paleolithic industries. For the upper productive layer, radiocarbon dating of charcoal found 20 cm above it produced a surprisingly young age of 17.4 radiocarbon kyr BP. However, as the carbon content of this sample was

  8. East African pigs have a complex Indian, Far Eastern and Western ancestry.

    PubMed

    Noce, A; Amills, M; Manunza, A; Muwanika, V; Muhangi, D; Aliro, T; Mayega, J; Ademun, R; Sànchez, A; Egbhalsaied, S; Mercadé, A; Masembe, C

    2015-08-01

    In this study, we have characterized the mitochondrial diversity of 81 swine from Uganda. Median-joining network analysis of D-loop sequences from these individuals and others characterized in previous studies allowed us to determine that Ugandan pigs cluster with populations from the West (Europe/North Africa), Far East and India. In addition, partial sequencing of the Y-chromosome UTY locus in 18 Ugandan domestic pigs revealed the segregation of a single HY1 lineage that has a cosmopolitan distribution. A Western and Far Eastern ancestry for East African pigs had been already reported, but this is the first study demonstrating an additional contribution from the Indian porcine gene pool. This result is consistent with the high frequency of zebuine alleles in cattle from East Africa. The geographic coordinates of East Africa, at the crossroads of many trading routes that, through the ages, linked Europe, Africa and Asia, might explain the rich and complex genetic heritage of livestock native to this area. PMID:26011180

  9. The negative impacts of human activities in the eastern African region: an international waters perspective.

    PubMed

    Payet, Rolph; Obura, David

    2004-02-01

    The complex interactions between human activities and the environment at the interface of land and water is analyzed with a focus on the Somali Current (East Africa), and Indian Ocean Island States, subregions of the Global International Waters Assessment (GIWA). These 2 subregions contain some of the world's richest ecosystems, including the high biodiversity forests of Madagascar and the diverse coastal habitats of the eastern African coast. These ecosystems support local communities and national and regional economies. Current and future degradation of these systems, from water basins to continental shelves, affects the livelihoods and sustainability of the countries in the region, and long-term efforts to reduce poverty. The assessments determined that pollution and climate change are the primary environmental and social concerns in the Islands of the Indian Ocean, while freshwater shortage and unsustainable exploitation of fisheries and other living resources are the primary environmental and social concerns in East Africa. The GIWA approach, through assessing root causes of environmental concerns, enables the development of policy approaches for mitigating environmental degradation. This paper explores policy frameworks for mitigating the impacts, and reducing the drivers, of 3 environmental concerns--freshwater shortage; solid waste pollution; and climate change--addressing social and institutional causes and effects, and linking the subregions to broad international frameworks. The common theme in all 3 case studies is the need to develop integrated ecosystem and international waters policies, and mechanisms to manage conflicting interests and to limit threats to natural processes. PMID:15083647

  10. Interannual Variability of South-Eastern African Summer Rainfall. Part 1: Relationships with Air-Sea Interaction Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rocha, Alfredo; Simmonds, Ian

    1997-03-01

    This paper investigates the role that air-sea interaction processes may play in interannual variability of south-eastern African summer rainfall. The principal spatial modes of south-eastern African summer rainfall are first identified using principal component analysis. Four modes are retained. The most important mode of variability is found to represent rainfall variability over most of the domain, particularly in the regions to the south.The influence of ENSO (as measured by the SOI) on summer rainfall is investigated in detail for different SOI leads. The relationship is such that during the summer following the onset of an ENSO event, south-eastern Africa tends to experience dry conditions. Strongest relationships are found with the SOI leading rainfall by about 3 to 6 months.A second index, the Brandon-Marion Index (BMI) which is indicative of changes in the pressure field over the Indian Ocean correlates with rainfall better than the SOI. Strongest correlations are found when this index leads rainfall by about 1 to 3 months. More importantly, a partial correlation analysis reveals that the BMI influences rainfall independently of ENSO. Both the SOI and the BMI are potential predictors of summer rainfall.An investigation of rainfall associations with global SST anomalies reveals areas in the tropical Indian and Pacific Oceans that are linked with rainfall changes over the subcontinent. The relationship is such that warm anomalies tend to be followed by dry conditions over much of south-eastern Africa. Strongest relationships are found when SSTs lead the rainfall season by about 1 to 3 months. Well-defined atmospheric anomalies are identified during dry south-eastern African summers. These include, amongst others, anomalously warm tropospheric temperatures and marked low-level cyclonic circulation anomalies over the central Indian Ocean, which generate abnormally weak easterly winds along much of the south-eastern coast of Africa. These perturbations to the

  11. Middle Miocene climate cooling linked to intensification of eastern equatorial Pacific upwelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holbourn, A. E.; Kuhnt, W.; Lyle, M. W.; Schneider, L. J.; Romero, O. E.; Andersen, N.

    2013-12-01

    During the middle Miocene, Earth's climate transitioned from a relatively warm phase (Miocene climatic optimum, ~17-15 Ma) into a colder mode with re-establishment of permanent ice sheets on Antarctica. Carbon sequestration and atmospheric CO2 drawdown through increased terrigenous and/or marine productivity have been proposed as the main drivers of this fundamental transition. However, comparatively little is known about the processes initially sustaining global warmth and about the chain of climate events that reversed this trend and promoted ice growth on Antarctica after ~15 Ma. We integrate high-resolution (1-3 kyr) benthic stable isotope data with XRF-scanner derived biogenic silica and carbonate accumulation estimates in an exceptionally well-preserved sedimentary archive to reconstruct variations in eastern equatorial Pacific upwelling and to investigate temporal linkages between high- and low-latitude climate change over the interval 16-13 Ma. Our records show that the climatic optimum (16.8-14.7 Ma) was characterized by high amplitude climate variations, marked by intense perturbations of the carbon cycle. Episodes of peak warmth at (southern hemisphere) insolation maxima coincided with transient shoaling of the carbonate compensation depth and enhanced carbonate dissolution in the deep ocean. A switch to obliquity-paced climate variability after 14.7 Ma concurred with a general improvement in carbonate preservation and the onset of stepwise global cooling, culminating with extensive ice growth over Antarctica at ~13.8 Ma (Mi3 event). We find that two massive increases in opal accumulation at ~14.0 and ~13.8 Ma occurred just before and during the final and most prominent cooling step, supporting the hypothesis that increased primary productivity due to enhancement of the eastern equatorial Pacific cold tongue contributed to CO2 drawdown and promoted global cooling.

  12. The HBsAg Prevalence Among Blood Donors From Eastern Mediterranean and Middle Eastern Countries: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Babanejad, Mehran; Izadi, Neda; Najafi, Farid; Alavian, Seyed Moayed

    2016-01-01

    Context The world health organization (WHO) recommends that all blood donations should be screened for evidence of infections, such as hepatitis B. The present study aimed to determine the prevalence of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) in blood donors at the eastern Mediterranean region office (EMRO) of the WHO and middle eastern countries. Evidence Acquisition A meta-analysis was carried out based on the results of an electronic literature search of PubMed, Ovid, Scopus, and Google Scholar for articles published from January 1, 2000, to August 31, 2015. In accordance with a significant homogeneity test and a large value of I2, the random effects model was used to aggregate data from the studies and produce the pooled estimates using the “Metan” command. Results We included 66 eligible studies. The pooled prevalence of HBsAg in blood donors of both EMRO and middle eastern (E and M) countries was 2.03% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.79 – 2.26). In addition, the prevalence rates in the EMRO countries was 1.99% (95% CI: 1.84 – 2.14) and 1.62% in the Middle Eastern countries (95% CI: 1.36 – 1.88). The prevalence among blood donors with more than one study was 1.58% in Egypt, 0.58% in Iran, 0.67% in Iraq, 2.84% in Pakistan, 3.02% in Saudi Arabia, 1.68% in Turkey, and 5.05% in Yemen. Conclusions Based on the WHO classification of hepatitis B virus (HBV) prevalence, the prevalence of HBsAg in blood donors from E and M countries reached an intermediate level. However, there were low prevalence levels in some E and M countries. PMID:27226804

  13. Hominin diversity in the Middle Pliocene of eastern Africa: the maxilla of KNM-WT 40000.

    PubMed

    Spoor, Fred; Leakey, Meave G; Leakey, Louise N

    2010-10-27

    The 3.5-Myr-old hominin cranium KNM-WT 40000 from Lomekwi, west of Lake Turkana, has been assigned to a new hominin genus and species, Kenyanthropus platyops, on the basis of a unique combination of derived facial and primitive neurocranial features. Central to the diagnosis of K. platyops is the morphology of the maxilla, characterized by a flat and relatively orthognathic subnasal region, anteriorly placed zygomatic processes and small molars. To study this morphology in more detail, we compare the maxillae of African Plio-Pleistocene hominin fossils and samples of modern humans, chimpanzees and gorillas, using conventional and geometric morphometric methods. Computed tomography scans and detailed preparation of the KNM-WT 40000 maxilla enable comprehensive assessment of post-mortem changes, so that landmark data characterizing the morphology can be corrected for distortion. Based on a substantially larger comparative sample than previously available, the results of statistical analyses show that KNM-WT 40000 is indeed significantly different from and falls outside the known range of variation of species of Australopithecus and Paranthropus, contemporary Australopithecus afarensis in particular. These results support the attribution of KNM-WT 40000 to a separate species and the notion that hominin taxonomic diversity in Africa extends back well into the Middle Pliocene. PMID:20855311

  14. Hominin diversity in the Middle Pliocene of eastern Africa: the maxilla of KNM-WT 40000

    PubMed Central

    Spoor, Fred; Leakey, Meave G.; Leakey, Louise N.

    2010-01-01

    The 3.5-Myr-old hominin cranium KNM-WT 40000 from Lomekwi, west of Lake Turkana, has been assigned to a new hominin genus and species, Kenyanthropus platyops, on the basis of a unique combination of derived facial and primitive neurocranial features. Central to the diagnosis of K. platyops is the morphology of the maxilla, characterized by a flat and relatively orthognathic subnasal region, anteriorly placed zygomatic processes and small molars. To study this morphology in more detail, we compare the maxillae of African Plio-Pleistocene hominin fossils and samples of modern humans, chimpanzees and gorillas, using conventional and geometric morphometric methods. Computed tomography scans and detailed preparation of the KNM-WT 40000 maxilla enable comprehensive assessment of post-mortem changes, so that landmark data characterizing the morphology can be corrected for distortion. Based on a substantially larger comparative sample than previously available, the results of statistical analyses show that KNM-WT 40000 is indeed significantly different from and falls outside the known range of variation of species of Australopithecus and Paranthropus, contemporary Australopithecus afarensis in particular. These results support the attribution of KNM-WT 40000 to a separate species and the notion that hominin taxonomic diversity in Africa extends back well into the Middle Pliocene. PMID:20855311

  15. Capacity Building and Financing Oral Health in the African and Middle East Region.

    PubMed

    Mumghamba, E G; Joury, E; Fatusi, O; Ober-Oluoch, J; Onigbanjo, R J; Honkala, S

    2015-07-01

    Many low- and middle-income countries do not yet have policies to implement effective oral health programs. A reason is lack of human and financial resources. Gaps between resource needs and available health funding are widening. By building capacity, countries aim to improve oral health through actions by oral health care personnel and oral health care organizations and their communities. Capacity building involves achieving measurable and sustainable results in training, research, and provision of care. Actions include advancement of knowledge, attitudes and skills, expansion of support, and development of cohesiveness and partnerships. The aim of this critical review is to review existing knowledge and identify gaps and variations between and within different income levels in relation to the capacity building and financing oral health in the African and Middle East region (AMER). A second aim is to formulate research priorities and outline a research agenda for capacity building and financing to improve oral health and reduce oral health inequalities in the AMER. The article focuses on capacity building for oral health and oral health financing in the AMER of the IADR. In many communities in the AMER, there are clear and widening gaps between the dental needs and the existing capacity to meet these needs in terms of financial and human resources. Concerted efforts are required to improve access to oral health care through appropriate financing mechanisms, innovative health insurance schemes, and donor support and move toward universal oral health care coverage to reduce social inequality in the region. It is necessary to build capacity and incentivize the workforce to render evidence-based services as well as accessing funds to conduct research on equity and social determinants of oral health while promoting community engagement and a multidisciplinary approach. PMID:26101338

  16. A Call to Honesty: Extending Religious Priming of Moral Behavior to Middle Eastern Muslims

    PubMed Central

    Aveyard, Mark E.

    2014-01-01

    Two experiments with Middle Eastern participants explored the generalizability of prior research on religious priming and moral behavior to a novel cultural and religious context. Participants in Experiment 1 completed a sentence unscrambling task with religious or non-religious content (in Arabic) before taking an unsupervised math test on which cheating was possible and incentivized. No difference in honesty rates emerged between the two groups, failing to extend findings from previous research with similar stimuli. Experiment 2 tested the effects of the athan, the Islamic call to prayer, using the same design. This naturalistic religious prime produced higher rates of honesty (68%) compared to controls who did not hear the call to prayer (53%).These results raise the possibility that the psychological mechanisms used by religion to influence moral behavior might differ between religions and cultures, highlighting an avenue of exploration for future research. The experiments here also address two growing concerns in psychological science: that the absence of replications casts doubt on the reliability of original research findings, and that the Westernized state of psychological science casts doubt on the generalizability of such work. PMID:24992091

  17. Physicians' Attitudes to Clinical Pain Management and Education: Survey from a Middle Eastern Country.

    PubMed

    Nasser, Soumana C; Nassif, Jeanette G; Saad, Aline Hanna

    2016-01-01

    Despite promising initiatives to advance the practice of pain management in Middle Eastern countries, their pain care lags behind developed countries. The objectives of this study are to evaluate physicians' assessment of their own competency in pain management, to assess physicians' practice related to pain management, and to identify physician-related barriers to effective pain control. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 3 teaching medical centers in Lebanon targeting the above-mentioned outcomes and assessing the impact of physicians' years in practice on the studied end-points. A total of 69 physicians were surveyed. Fifty-seven percent reported "very good to excellent" pain management skills; only 25% of them described the need for continuing professional development. When treating patients with pain, 52% of physicians refer to updated international guidelines, whereas 43% rely on their own judgment. Physicians were more likely to consult with another physician (65%) rather than a pharmacist (12%) when treating patients with pain. Fear of adverse effects of analgesics was the most commonly reported barrier (45%) to pain control among physicians from different career stages. Based on these survey findings, national pain management and practice policies are needed to optimize this area of deficiency in patient care. PMID:27445596

  18. Physicians' Attitudes to Clinical Pain Management and Education: Survey from a Middle Eastern Country

    PubMed Central

    Saad, Aline Hanna

    2016-01-01

    Despite promising initiatives to advance the practice of pain management in Middle Eastern countries, their pain care lags behind developed countries. The objectives of this study are to evaluate physicians' assessment of their own competency in pain management, to assess physicians' practice related to pain management, and to identify physician-related barriers to effective pain control. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 3 teaching medical centers in Lebanon targeting the above-mentioned outcomes and assessing the impact of physicians' years in practice on the studied end-points. A total of 69 physicians were surveyed. Fifty-seven percent reported “very good to excellent” pain management skills; only 25% of them described the need for continuing professional development. When treating patients with pain, 52% of physicians refer to updated international guidelines, whereas 43% rely on their own judgment. Physicians were more likely to consult with another physician (65%) rather than a pharmacist (12%) when treating patients with pain. Fear of adverse effects of analgesics was the most commonly reported barrier (45%) to pain control among physicians from different career stages. Based on these survey findings, national pain management and practice policies are needed to optimize this area of deficiency in patient care.

  19. Neuromuscular independence of abdominal wall muscles as demonstrated by middle-eastern style dancers.

    PubMed

    Moreside, Janice M; Vera-Garcia, Francisco J; McGill, Stuart M

    2008-08-01

    Previous studies analyzing neuromuscular independence of the abdominal wall have involved a participant population with no specific training in separating individual muscle segments. We chose to study nine women trained in the art of middle-eastern dance, anticipating they may have unique skills in motor control. Specifically, we were searching for evidence of separation of upper rectus abdominis (URA) from lower rectus abdominis (LRA), as well as understanding what role the oblique muscles play in abdominal wall synergies. EMG analysis was done on eight trunk muscles bilaterally as the dancers participated in 30 dance, planar, and curl-up activities. The filtered data were then cross-correlated to determine the time lag between pairs of signals. Only three dance movements demonstrated consistent evidence of an ability to separate URA/LRA activation timing. The external and internal oblique muscles tend to align themselves temporally with the LRA. However, these findings were only evident in these three specific "belly-roll" conditions, all with low levels of muscle activation, and no external torque. Evidence of significantly different activation levels (% MVC) between URA/LRA was demonstrated in eight conditions, all of which required various pelvis movements with minimal thorax motion. PMID:17329127

  20. An improvisation on the Middle-Eastern mijwiz; auditory roughness profiles and tension/release patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vassilakis, Pantelis N.

    2005-04-01

    Within western musical tradition, auditory roughness constitutes one of the principle perceptual correlates of dissonance. A previous study [P. N. Vassilakis, Selected Reports in Ethnomusicology, Vol. 12 (in press)] addressed the musical significance of auditory roughness within western as well as three non-western musical traditions. It introduced a new roughness estimation model that predicts successfully roughness ratings of synthesized complex diatonic dyads. For the present study, an application was created that uses the aforementioned model to estimate the roughness of natural signals with arbitrary spectra, as well as roughness profiles of short musical pieces. The application was used to examine if and how the pattern of tension and release within a stylized improvisation on the Middle Eastern mijwiz (double clarinet) relates to roughness changes. Tension/release patterns were indicated by the Lebanese improviser and expert mijwiz player (Dr. A. J. Racy) and were also obtained by both musicians and non-musicians (American-raised) in a perceptual experiment. The results suggest that auditory roughness is a good predictor of the tension/release pattern indicated by the improviser. The patterns obtained by the subjects, although not very consistent, appear to be different overall, suggesting that musical tension and release may be culture-specific concepts.

  1. A call to honesty: extending religious priming of moral behavior to Middle Eastern Muslims.

    PubMed

    Aveyard, Mark E

    2014-01-01

    Two experiments with Middle Eastern participants explored the generalizability of prior research on religious priming and moral behavior to a novel cultural and religious context. Participants in Experiment 1 completed a sentence unscrambling task with religious or non-religious content (in Arabic) before taking an unsupervised math test on which cheating was possible and incentivized. No difference in honesty rates emerged between the two groups, failing to extend findings from previous research with similar stimuli. Experiment 2 tested the effects of the athan, the Islamic call to prayer, using the same design. This naturalistic religious prime produced higher rates of honesty (68%) compared to controls who did not hear the call to prayer (53%).These results raise the possibility that the psychological mechanisms used by religion to influence moral behavior might differ between religions and cultures, highlighting an avenue of exploration for future research. The experiments here also address two growing concerns in psychological science: that the absence of replications casts doubt on the reliability of original research findings, and that the Westernized state of psychological science casts doubt on the generalizability of such work. PMID:24992091

  2. Retired African American female urban middle school science teachers' beliefs and practices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitney, Frances M.

    The purpose of this paper is to give a voice to a dedicated group of professionals who unselfishly labored twenty-five plus years educating the children of America's poorest taxpaying citizens. These retired African American female urban middle school science teachers (RAAFUMSST) explain the experiences that gave them the fortitude to stay in the urban school system until their retirement. The goal is to give you a glimpse into the distractions, challenges, and victories the teachers encountered as they strove to teach science in an overcrowded, underserviced, and depressed urban school district of a major city. Most times sacrificing self for service, the participants of this study held fast to their beliefs that all of America's children, regardless of their parents' socioeconomic status, deserve a quality education. It is through individual interviews that the five retired science teachers of this project share their reflections on the events and circumstances that altered their labor of love. Critical Race Theory (CRT) serves as the theoretical frame for this study.

  3. Social risk and protective factors for African American children's academic achievement and adjustment during the transition to middle school.

    PubMed

    Burchinal, Margaret R; Roberts, Joanne E; Zeisel, Susan A; Rowley, Stephanie J

    2008-01-01

    The transition to middle school is often marked by decreased academic achievement and increased emotional stress, and African American children exposed to social risk may be especially vulnerable during this transition. To identify mediators and protective factors, the authors related severity and timing of risk exposure to academic achievement and adjustment between 4th and 6th grade in 74 African American children. Longitudinal analyses indicated that severity more than timing of risk exposure was negatively related to all outcomes and that language skills mediated the pathway from risk for most outcomes. Transition to middle school was related to lower math scores and to more externalizing problems when children experienced higher levels of social risk. Language skills and parenting served as protective factors, whereas expectations of racial discrimination was a vulnerability factor. Results imply that promoting parenting and, especially, language skills, and decreasing expectations of racial discrimination provide pathways to academic success for African American children during the transition from elementary to middle school, especially those exposed to adversity. PMID:18194027

  4. It Is Not Just the Poor Kids: The Use of AAE Forms by African-American School-Aged Children from Middle SES Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horton-Ikard, RaMonda; Miller, Jon F.

    2004-01-01

    This study examined the production of African-American English (AAE) forms produced by 69 school-aged African-American children from middle socio-economic status (SES) communities to determine if age would influence: (a) the number of different types of AAE tokens and (b) the rate of dialect. Descriptive data revealed that there were more than 20…

  5. Lifting the Voices of High-Achieving, Middle-Class, African American Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Stacey Marvetta

    2012-01-01

    The state of African American education is complex. Beginning in the 17th century, African Americans fought for an education that allowed them to read and write. During the 21st century, African Americans value on education extends beyond only reading and writing to using these skills and other skills to maintain strong academic and leadership…

  6. Reappraisal of surface wave magnitudes in the Eastern Mediterranean region and the Middle East

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ambraseys, N.; Douglas, J.

    2000-05-01

    There have been many attempts to improve parametric catalogues for surface wave magnitudes for earthquakes of this century, and many of these attempts have been based on empirical adjustments to homogenize and complete catalogues without recourse to the instrumental data with which these magnitudes have been calculated. Using the Prague formula with station corrections and a substantial volume of amplitude and period readings of surface waves, culled from station bulletins, we calculated uniformly the magnitude of all significant earthquakes, 1519 in all, in the Eastern Mediterranean region and in the Middle East between 1900 and 1998. We also calculated station corrections and their variation with time, and examined the effect of distance adjustment of the Prague formula on Ms estimates. We find that the current procedure of averaging station magnitudes underestimates Ms. This underestimation depends on the variance and on the number of station magnitudes available for the calculation of Ms, which can be as large as 0.3 magnitude units or more. We also find that station corrections have a rather small overall effect on event magnitude, of less than +0.1, except when the number of observing stations is small, in which case the correction may reach +0.3 magnitude units. Event magnitudes derived from station magnitudes with distance adjustment, calculated from the original Prague formula, are on average 0.1 units larger than Ms without distance correction. We find that for shallow events, Gutenberg's estimates are, on average, larger by 0.12 units and show a significant scatter, with a standard deviation three times the mean value. We find similar differences and scatter for surface wave magnitudes estimated by other workers and agencies.

  7. Long-term effects of organized violence on young Middle Eastern refugees' mental health.

    PubMed

    Montgomery, Edith

    2008-11-01

    The pre- and post-displacement factors associated with psychological problems among young refugees are not clear. From the existing research it appears that refugee children and adolescents are vulnerable to the effects of pre-migration exposure to trauma, but the long-term effects of such exposure are mediated by certain risk and protective factors at the individual, family and community level. The aim of the present study was to assess the influence of traumatic experiences before emigration, as well as social life after immigration, on the mental health of young Middle Eastern refugees 8-9 years after immigration into Denmark. The study group comprises 131 young refugees (76 girls and 55 boys; mean age 15.3 years) from 67 families. They were assessed in 2000-2001 as part of a follow-up study of 311 children, who in 1992-1993 were consecutively registered in Denmark as asylum seekers with at least one parent. Predictors of more externalizing behaviour were: witnessing attack on others after arrival, more schools attended, less attending school or work, lower mother's education in the home country and lower age. Predictors of more internalizing behaviour were: numbers of types of traumatic events before arrival, numbers of types of stressful events after arrival, and numbers of types of experiences of discrimination, lower mother's education in the home country, fewer Danish friends, not Muslim or Christian religion, less Danish proficiency and female gender. It is concluded that aspects of social life in Denmark, including mother's education and indicators of adaptation, as well as a stressful life context in exile, including discrimination, predicted psychological problems 8-9 years after arrival, more than traumatic experiences before arrival. Thus, the prevention of psychopathology in young refugees depends to a large extent on the political will to make provision for the necessary changes regarding reception and treatment of refugees. PMID:18755530

  8. Identification of novel BRCA founder mutations in Middle Eastern breast cancer patients using capture and Sanger sequencing analysis.

    PubMed

    Bu, Rong; Siraj, Abdul K; Al-Obaisi, Khadija A S; Beg, Shaham; Al Hazmi, Mohsen; Ajarim, Dahish; Tulbah, Asma; Al-Dayel, Fouad; Al-Kuraya, Khawla S

    2016-09-01

    Ethnic differences of breast cancer genomics have prompted us to investigate the spectra of BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations in different populations. The prevalence and effect of BRCA 1 and BRCA 2 mutations in Middle Eastern population is not fully explored. To characterize the prevalence of BRCA mutations in Middle Eastern breast cancer patients, BRCA mutation screening was performed in 818 unselected breast cancer patients using Capture and/or Sanger sequencing. 19 short tandem repeat (STR) markers were used for founder mutation analysis. In our study, nine different types of deleterious mutation were identified in 28 (3.4%) cases, 25 (89.3%) cases in BRCA 1 and 3 (10.7%) cases in BRCA 2. Seven recurrent mutations identified accounted for 92.9% (26/28) of all the mutant cases. Haplotype analysis was performed to confirm c.1140 dupG and c.4136_4137delCT mutations as novel putative founder mutation, accounting for 46.4% (13/28) of all BRCA mutant cases and 1.6% (13/818) of all the breast cancer cases, respectively. Moreover, BRCA 1 mutation was significantly associated with BRCA 1 protein expression loss (p = 0.0005). Our finding revealed that a substantial number of BRCA mutations were identified in clinically high risk breast cancer from Middle East region. Identification of the mutation spectrum, prevalence and founder effect in Middle Eastern population facilitates genetic counseling, risk assessment and development of cost-effective screening strategy. PMID:27082205

  9. Oral Health Inequalities between Rural and Urban Populations of the African and Middle East Region.

    PubMed

    Ogunbodede, E O; Kida, I A; Madjapa, H S; Amedari, M; Ehizele, A; Mutave, R; Sodipo, B; Temilola, S; Okoye, L

    2015-07-01

    Although there have been major improvements in oral health, with remarkable advances in the prevention and management of oral diseases, globally, inequalities persist between urban and rural communities. These inequalities exist in the distribution of oral health services, accessibility, utilization, treatment outcomes, oral health knowledge and practices, health insurance coverage, oral health-related quality of life, and prevalence of oral diseases, among others. People living in rural areas are likely to be poorer, be less health literate, have more caries, have fewer teeth, have no health insurance coverage, and have less money to spend on dental care than persons living in urban areas. Rural areas are often associated with lower education levels, which in turn have been found to be related to lower levels of health literacy and poor use of health care services. These factors have an impact on oral health care, service delivery, and research. Hence, unmet dental care remains one of the most urgent health care needs in these communities. We highlight some of the conceptual issues relating to urban-rural inequalities in oral health, especially in the African and Middle East Region (AMER). Actions to reduce oral health inequalities and ameliorate rural-urban disparity are necessary both within the health sector and the wider policy environment. Recommended actions include population-specific oral health promotion programs, measures aimed at increasing access to oral health services in rural areas, integration of oral health into existing primary health care services, and support for research aimed at informing policy on the social determinants of health. Concerted efforts must be made by all stakeholders (governments, health care workforce, organizations, and communities) to reduce disparities and improve oral health outcomes in underserved populations. PMID:26101336

  10. The economic dimensions of Middle Eastern history: Essays in honor of Charles Issawi

    SciTech Connect

    Esfandiari, H.; Udovitch, A.L.

    1993-12-31

    Twelve articles give historical prespectives of the middle east and its economic development. Trends and prospects of the middle east oil industry cover the historical aspects and beginnings of the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC).

  11. Formation of African Easterly Waves and Mesoscale Convective Systems over Eastern Africa and its Implication to Tropical Cyclogenesis over Eastern Atlantic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Yuh-Lang

    2009-07-01

    The formation of African easterly waves and mesoscale convective systems in eastern North Africa and its impacts on the tropical cyclogenesis over the eastern Atlantic Ocean is studied. Based on numerical simulations, AEWs can be produced by vortex shedding from the EH. The lee vortex is generated mainly by the blocking of the EH and helped by the horizontal shear associated with the northeasterly wind and the jet passing through the Turkana channel. The MCS was originated from the moist convection over the EH triggered by diurnal sensible heating. When the MCS moved to the lee of the mountain, it merged with the lee vortex of the AEW train and formed the coupled AEW-MCS system. Numerical simulations of a regional climate model indicate that the simulated fields do possess the AEW characteristics and the convection was generated over the EH, and the pre-Alberto AEW-MCS system was generated near the lee of the EH. Finer-resolution numerical simulations demonstrate that the vortex generated on the lee and MCS over the mountain eventually merge and become an AEW-MCS system which might serve as a precursor of tropical cyclone.

  12. Recruiting Secondary Mathematics Teachers: Characteristics That Add Up for African American Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ragland, Tamra C.; Harkness, Shelly Sheats

    2014-01-01

    In this article, the authors provide portraits of three mathematics teachers: one European American man, one African American man, and one Middle Eastern woman. All three taught in secondary schools with predominantly African American student populations. Semi-structured interviews and observations were conducted to create a comparative case study…

  13. The complete mitochondrial genome of a gecko and the phylogeneticposition of the Middle Eastern teratoscincus keyserlingii

    SciTech Connect

    Macey, J. Robert; Fong, Jonathan J.; Kuehl, Jennifer V.; Shafiei,Soheila; Ananjeva, Natalia B.; Papenfuss, Theodore J.; Boore, Jeffrey L.

    2005-04-22

    Sqamate reptiles are traditionally divided into six groups: Iguania, Anguimorpha, Scincomorpha, Gekkota (these four are lizards), Serpentes (snakes), and Amphisbaenia (the so-called worm lizards). Currently there are complete mitochondrial genomes from two representatives of the Iguania (Janke et al., 2001; Kumazawa, 2004), three from the Anguimorpha (Kumazawa, 2004; Kumazawa and Endo, 2004), two from the Scincomorpha (Kumazawa and Nishida, 1999; Kumazawa, 2004), two from Serpentes (Kumazawa et al., 1998; Kumazawa, 2004) and 12 from Amphisbaenia (Macey et al., 2004). The only traditional group of Squamata from which a complete mitochondrial genome has not been sequenced is the Gekkota. Here we report the complete mitochondrial genome of Teratoscincus keyserlingii, a Middle Eastern representative of the Gekkota. The gekkonid lizard genus Teratoscincus is distributed throughout the deserts of central and southwest Asia as shown in figure 1, with five species currently recognized (Macey et al. 1997a, 1999b). Included in this figure are the positions of mountain ranges discussed in the text; see also figure 1 in Macey et al. (1999b). Two species, T. bedriagai and T. microlepis, are restricted to Southwest Asia south of the Kopet Dagh and Hindu Kush in Iran, Afghanistan, and Pakistan (Anderson, 1999). Two species are found in the deserts of western China and Mongolia, with T. przewalskii occurring in the Taklimakan and lowland Gobi deserts, and T. roborowskii restricted to the Turpan Depression. The fifth species, T. scincus, is sometimes considered to be restricted to the Caspian Basin in Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzistan, Tadjikistan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan. Alternatively, Teratoscincus populations in Southwest Asia, primarily on the Iranian Plateau, situated directly north of the Arabian Plate, are sometimes considered to be a subspecies of T. scincus or, otherwise, to constitute a sixth species, T. keyserlingii. Macey et al. (1999b) assessed the phylogenetic

  14. Automated inter-station phase velocity measurements across the eastern Mediterranean and Middle East

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Sharkawy, Amr; Weidle, Christian; Christiano, Luigia; Soomro, Riaz; Lebedev, Sergi; Meier, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    The structure of the lithosphere in northeastern Africa, eastern Mediterranean and the Middle East is highly variable. It ranges from young oceanic lithosphere in the Red Sea to what is considered the oldest oceanic lithosphere on Earth in the Mediterranean Sea north of Libya, and from highly deformed continental lithosphere at the east-Mediterranean margins to more stable continental lithosphere of Phanerozoic origin and to cratonic lithosphere beneath the Arabian Peninsula. Details of the lithospheric structure are, however, poorly known. Surface waves are ideally suited for studies of the lithosphere and the sublithospheric mantle. Our goal is to better define the 3D lithospheric shear-wave velocity structure within this region by surface wave tomography. Using regional to teleseismic Rayleigh and Love waves that traverse the area we can obtain information about its seismic structure by examining phase velocities as a function of frequency. A newly developed algorithm for automated inter-station phase velocity measurements (Soomro et al. 2016) is applied here to obtain both Rayleigh and Love fundamental mode phase velocities. We utilize a database consisting of more than 3800 regional and teleseismic earthquakes recorded by more than 1850 broadband seismic stations within the area, provided by the European Integrated Data Archive (WebDc/EIDA) and IRIS. Moreover, for the first time, data from the Egyptian National Seismological Network (ENSN), recorded by up to 25 broad band seismic stations, is also included in the analysis. For each station pair approximately located on the same great circle path, the recorded waveforms are cross correlated and the dispersion curves of fundamental modes are calculated from the phase of the weighted cross correlation functions. Path average dispersion curves are obtained by averaging the smooth parts of single-event dispersion curves. Parameters tests and preliminary results of automatically measured phase velocities are

  15. Laparoscopic resection for hepatocellular carcinoma: comparison between Middle Eastern and Western experience

    PubMed Central

    Piardi, Tullio; Sommacale, Daniele; Baumert, Thomas; Mutter, Didier; Marescaux, Jacques

    2014-01-01

    Background Laparoscopic liver resection (LLR) is growing in popularity, but the short- and long-term outcome of patients undergoing LLR for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) has not yet been established. Methods A literature search was performed using PubMed, Scopus, and Web of Science (WoS) from cited English and Chinese publications. Clinical and survival parameters were extracted. The search was last conducted in October 2013. After application of selective criteria, 24 remaining original studies with more than 15 patients were analyzed. Results In the Western experience, mean operative time was between 150 to 300 minutes, and mean blood loss ranged from 55 to 452 mL. Transfusion was required in all series, ranging from 2.8% to 50%. The conversion rate ranged from 5% to 19.4%. Three cases of death were reported. General morbidity rate ranged from 1.5% to 25%. Specific complications were divided into hemorrhage (2.4% to 25%), ascites (3.7% to 15.3%), and biliary collection (0.6% to 5%). Liver insufficiency was reported in two cases. Mean hospital stay ranged from 5.4 to 15 days. In all case-matched studies, LLR was statistically associated with a shorter hospital stay. The 5-year overall survival rate ranged from 55% to 70%. No trocar-site recurrence was observed. The recurrence rate ranged from 21.4% to 50%. Comparative studies did not demonstrate any significant difference in terms of recurrence between LLR and open liver resection (OLR). In the Middle Eastern experience, mean operative time ranged from 147 to 325 minutes, and mean blood loss ranged from 88 to 808 mL. Transfusion was required, ranging from 1.8% to 19.2%. The conversion rate ranged from 1.8% to 18.6%, and four series reported no conversion. There was no mortality. The main specific complication was ascites (1.7% to 26.6%). A biliary collection was reported in only two series (10.7% and 13.3%), and only one case of postoperative liver insufficiency was reported. Mean hospital stay ranged from 4 to

  16. Australian Middle Eastern parents' perceptions and practices of children's weight-related behaviours: Talking with Parents' Study.

    PubMed

    Hardy, Louise L; Hector, Debra; Saleh, Shay; King, Lesley

    2016-09-01

    The home environment is associated with obesity-related behaviours among children, and research in Australia has shown that some of these behaviours are more prevalent among children from particular cultural backgrounds including Middle Eastern. This study presents findings from face-to-face, semi-structured interviews conducted in April 2013 with a convenience sample of Middle Eastern parents of primary school-age children at an Islamic private school in Sydney, Australia. The interviews explored parental perceptions and practices regarding state government health messages addressing children's eating, physical activity and screen time. The purpose of the study was to investigate whether the content of these generic public health messages is relevant and acceptable to Middle Eastern parents of young children, and to identify any enablers and barriers to adopting these healthy practices at home. Thematic analysis identified predominant themes. In total, 21 interviews were conducted (reference children: 12 boys/9 girls, aged 5-12 years). The content of current health messages regarding children's weight-related behaviours was familiar to respondents, and accepted as relevant for guiding their parenting practices. Parents perceived that they typically encouraged healthy behaviours, although they also reported making regular exemptions, in response to various circumstances. Overall, the perceptions and reported practices of the parents were consistent with other studies with Australian parents. There were no apparent culturally specific barriers or enablers to children's weight-related behaviours. There is however scope for health promoters to provide more precise information on health recommendations, health risks and benefits, and to provide more specific ideas for ways in which parents can act on these health messages within the home and family environment, to encourage and support healthy behaviours in their children. PMID:25929280

  17. Antibodies against bovine herpesvirus 4 are highly prevalent in wild African buffaloes throughout eastern and southern Africa.

    PubMed

    Dewals, Benjamin; Gillet, Laurent; Gerdes, Truuske; Taracha, Evans L N; Thiry, Etienne; Vanderplasschen, Alain

    2005-10-31

    Bovine herpesvirus 4 (BoHV-4) has been isolated from cattle throughout the world. Interestingly, a survey of wild African buffaloes mainly from the Maasai Mara Game Reserve in Kenya revealed that 94% of the animals tested had anti-BoHV-4 antibodies [Rossiter, P.B., Gumm, I.D., Stagg, D.A., Conrad, P.A., Mukolwe, S., Davies, F.G., White, H., 1989. Isolation of bovine herpesvirus-3 from African buffaloes (Syncerus caffer). Res. Vet. Sci. 46, 337-343]. These authors also proposed that the serological antigenic relationship existing between BoHV-4 and alcelaphine herpesvirus 1 (AlHV-1) could confer to BoHV-4 infected buffaloes a protective immune response against lethal AlHV-1 infection. In the present study, we addressed two questions related to Rossiter et al. paper. Firstly, to investigate the role of the African buffalo as a natural host species of BoHV-4, the seroprevalence of anti-BoHV-4 antibodies was analysed in wild African buffaloes throughout eastern and southern Africa. A total of 400 sera was analysed using two complementary immunofluorescent assays. These analyses revealed that independently of their geographical origin, wild African buffaloes exhibit a seroprevalence of anti-BoHV-4 antibodies higher than 68%. This result is by far above the seroprevalence generally observed in cattle. Our data are discussed in the light of our recent phylogenetic study demonstrating that the BoHV-4 Bo17 gene has been acquired from a recent ancestor of the African buffalo. Secondly, we investigated the humoral antigenic relationship existing between BoHV-4 and AlHV-1. Our results demonstrate that among the antigens expressed in AlHV-1 infected cells, epitope(s) recognised by anti-BoHV-4 antibodies are exclusively nuclear, suggesting that the putative property of BoHV-4 to confer an immune protection against AlHV-1 relies on a cellular rather than on a humoral immune response. PMID:16153785

  18. Hyaluronic acid used for the correction of nasal deviation in an 18-year-old Middle Eastern man.

    PubMed

    Piggott, J R; Yazdani, A

    2011-01-01

    The use of fillers for nonsurgical rhinoplasty has advanced in both materials and methods, and continues to gain popularity in North America. This technique is most often used for secondary revisions, although reports of fillers used in primary rhinoplasty in selected patients have been recently described. The present report details the use of a hyaluronic acid dermal filler in a young Middle Eastern man for a post-traumatic crooked nose deformity. Primary correction of the patient's right-sided nasal bone deviation using hyaluronic acid as a soft tissue filler was achieved with excellent results and patient satisfaction. The current use of fillers in nasal contouring is reviewed. PMID:23204891

  19. Sexual sensation seeking and Internet sex-seeking of Middle Eastern men who have sex with men.

    PubMed

    Matarelli, Steven A

    2013-10-01

    Despite recent evidence of stabilization in many developed nations, new human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections remain a public health concern globally. Efforts remain fragile in a number of world regions due to incomplete or inconsistent social policies concerning HIV, criminalization of same-sex encounters, social stigma, and religious doctrine. Middle Eastern men who have sex with men (MSM) remain one of the most hidden and stigmatized of all HIV risk groups. High-risk sexual bridging networks from these men to low prevalence populations (e.g., to spouse to offspring) are emerging HIV transmission pathways throughout the region. This cross-sectional, exploratory study investigated Sexual Sensation Seeking Scale (SSSS) scores to predict numbers of recent MSM sexual activities and to predict any recent unprotected receptive anal intercourse (URAI) activities in 86 Middle Eastern MSM who resided in the Middle East and who used the Internet to sex-seek. In a multivariate hierarchical regression, higher SSSS scores predicted higher numbers of recent MSM sexual activities (p = .028) and URAI (p = .022). In a logistic regression, higher SSSS scores increased the likelihood of engaging in URAI activities threefold (OR 3.0, 95 % CI 1.15-7.85, p = .025). Age and drug/alcohol use during sexual activities served as covariates in the regression models and were not significant in any analyses. Despite numerous hurdles, adopting Internet-based, non-restricted HIV education and prevention public health programs in the Middle East could instrumentally enhance efforts toward reducing the likelihood of new HIV transmissions in MSM and their sexual partners, ultimately contributing to an improved quality of life. PMID:23440562

  20. Current status of African swine fever virus in a population of wild boar in eastern Poland (2014-2015).

    PubMed

    Woźniakowski, Grzegorz; Kozak, Edyta; Kowalczyk, Andrzej; Łyjak, Magdalena; Pomorska-Mól, Małgorzata; Niemczuk, Krzysztof; Pejsak, Zygmunt

    2016-01-01

    African swine fever virus (ASFV) was detected in wild boar in eastern Poland in early 2014. So far, 65 cases of ASFV infection in wild boar have been recognised. The methods used for ASFV detection included highly specific real-time PCR with a universal probe library (UPL), enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and an immunoperoxidase test (IPT) for identification of anti-ASFV antibodies. The positive ASF cases were located near the border with Belarus in Sokółka and Białystok counties. Some of the countermeasures for disease prevention include early ASF diagnosis by ASFV DNA identification as well as detection of specific antibodies by systematic screening. The aim of this study was to assess the current ASF status in a Polish population of wild boar during the last two years (2014-2015). PMID:26497350

  1. Position of the Patella among Emirati Adult Knees. Is Insall-Salvati Ratio Applicable to Middle-Easterners?

    PubMed Central

    Althani, Saeed; Shahi, Alisina; Tan, Timothy L.; Al-Belooshi, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Background: Abnormal patellar height is associated with anterior knee pain and several conditions that affect the patellofemoral joint. The aim of this study was to 1) report the incidence of patella alta and patella baja and 2) investigate whether the normal limits of the Insall-Salvati ratio is applicable in adult Middle-Easterners. Methods: A radiographic review of the lateral radiographs of 736 Middle-Eastern knees were performed. Patellar tendon length (TL) and the patellar length (TP) was digitally measured and the ratios of these measures was used to calculate the Insall-Salvati ratio. Results: The overall mean TL/PL ratio was 1.20±0.17. The Insall-Salvati ratio was higher (p=0.0013) in males (1.22± 0.12) than in females (1.18±0.17). According to our measurement, the recommended levels for defining abnormal patellar position should be 0.86 for patella baja and 1.54 for patella alta. Conclusion: The use of TL/PL ratio demonstrated a higher incidence of patella alta and a higher mean TL/PL ratio compared to other techniques. The normal ranges for the TL/PL differs from western populations and may be attributed to lifestyle differences. PMID:27200391

  2. Evidence for Atlantic thermal differentiation in the late middle Eocene to early Oligocene, eastern equatorial Atlantic DSDP Site 366

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabideaux, N. M.; Cramer, B. S.; Katz, M.

    2011-12-01

    The Eocene-Oligocene climate transition marked a pronounced shift in global climate from greenhouse to icehouse conditions. We present new late middle to late Eocene (~33-39 Ma) benthic foraminiferal stable isotope records (δ18O, δ13C), including Oi-1, from DSDP Site 366 on the Sierra Leone Rise (04°40.70'N, 19°51.10'W) that extend published latest Eocene-early Oligocene Site 366 records (Miller et al. 1989), in an attempt to identify the influence Northern Component Water (NCW) and Southern Component Water (SCW), and possibly Tethyan Outflow Water (TOW), had on deepwater circulation in the Atlantic at this time. Site 366 provides constraints on eastern equatorial Atlantic deepwaters (~2700m paleodepth) during this time. Comparisons with published isotope records (Cramer et al., 2009) indicate a distinct δ18O offset between ODP Site 689 (Deister-Haass and Zahn, 1996) and Site 366 indicating cooler waters in the Southern Ocean than in the eastern equatorial Atlantic. South Atlantic δ18O records generally fall between the Site 689 and Site 366 values throughout the late middle Eocene-early Oligocene, and may indicate relative contributions of northern- and southern-sourced deepwater.

  3. Understanding the Breast Cancer Experience of Survivors: a Qualitative Study of African American Women in Rural Eastern North Carolina.

    PubMed

    Torres, Essie; Dixon, Crystal; Richman, Alice R

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this study is to gain an in-depth understanding of African American breast cancer survivors' experiences, barriers and facilitators in accessing breast cancer treatment, and challenges in adherence to follow-up care. We conducted seven focus groups with 32 African American women with breast cancer in three rural counties in eastern North Carolina during August-November 2013. Surveys were also utilized to gather basic demographic and breast health history information. Thematic analysis was performed using the immersion crystallization approach. Several common areas of life affected by breast cancer included faith and support networks, psychosocial well-being, and quality of care issues. Faith in God was an important coping mechanism essential to all women in the study and a critical facilitator in survivorship. Support networks consisted of family, church-family, friends, and co-workers. The concept of fear included the discovery of breast cancer and fear of death, negative side effects of treatment, and social stigma of having breast cancer. Factors that influenced provider-patient relationship were age of provider, perceived lack of empathy, and providers leaving during treatment. Participants also expressed their lack of knowledge regarding a number of the side effects they were experiencing during and after their treatment. Results of this study contribute to the assessment of potential coping mechanisms used by African American breast cancer survivors (i.e., spirituality, positive attitudes, and support networks) that can potentially be effective and have a positive impact on the adjustment of life for survivors. PMID:25877467

  4. On the linkage between the Asian summer monsoon and tropopause fold activity over the eastern Mediterranean and the Middle East

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tyrlis, Evangelos; Å kerlak, Bojan; Sprenger, Michael; Wernli, Heini; Zittis, George; Lelieveld, Jos

    2014-03-01

    A climatology of tropopause folds occurring over the Eastern Mediterranean and the Middle East (EMME) has been established using the ERA-Interim reanalyses for the years 1979-2012. The methodology employs an algorithm that detects folds at grid points where the vertical profile features multiple crossings of the dynamical tropopause and allows their classification according to their vertical extent. Our results confirm the findings of an earlier 1 year climatology that recognized a global "hot spot" of summertime fold activity between the eastern Mediterranean and central Asia, in the vicinity of the subtropical jet. Two distinct maxima of activity are identified over Turkey and Iran-Afghanistan where fold frequency exceeds 25%. Occasionally, medium and deep folds form over the two regions at surprisingly low latitudes. This summertime peak in fold activity diverges from the zonal mean seasonal cycle over the subtropics and is driven by the South Asian Monsoon. Starting in late spring, the EMME is gradually brought under the influence of the zonally asymmetric background state induced by the monsoon. As areas of sharply sloping isentropes develop especially over the eastern Mediterranean and Iran-Afghanistan, subsidence and fold formation are favored. Further investigation of the reanalysis data provided empirical evidence that the monsoon also drives the interannual variability of EMME fold activity. An upward trend in fold activity is identified, especially in May, attributed to the recent advanced monsoon onset and the deepening convective activity throughout summer, which promotes upper-level baroclinicity over the EMME and favors folding.

  5. Contribution of the Middle Eastern dust source areas to PM10 levels in urban receptors: Case study of Tehran, Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Givehchi, Raheleh; Arhami, Mohammad; Tajrishy, Massoud

    2013-08-01

    The origins and evolution of the Middle Eastern dust storms which frequently impact the residents of this arid region were studied. A methodology was adapted and developed to identify the desert regions of potential dust sources and determine their contributions to PM10 concentrations in the highly-populated receptor city of Tehran, Iran. Initially, the episodes of regional dust intrusion and the resulting amounts of increase in the particulate concentrations during these episodes were determined using a statistical analyzing methodology. The dust episodes were also inspected with the aerosol index information from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI). The Hybrid Single-Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory (HYSPLIT) model was used as the main tool to determine the proportions of dust originating from different deserts during the dusty episodes of 2009-2010. Daily 5-day back trajectories were obtained from the receptor stations during the dust outbreaks in order to find and confirm the location of potential sources. After the boundaries of the potential sources were determined by 5-day backward trajectories, this region was divided into different areas to quantify their contributions to the measured PM10 levels. The proximity between the measured and simulated data confirmed the ability of HYSPLIT in modeling the Middle Eastern dust intrusion and estimating the particulate concentration in the downwind receptor sites. Results showed that the deserts in Iraq and Syria are the main contributing dust sources which comprise more than 90% of the dust related PM10 concentrations in Tehran, during the studied dust episodes. The sources in northern Iraq and eastern Syria respectively represented 44% and 32% contributions on average.

  6. Middle proterozoic tectonic activity in west Texas and eastern New Mexico and analysis of gravity and magnetic anomalies

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, D.C.; Keller, G.R. )

    1994-03-01

    The Precambrian history of west Texas and eastern New Mexico is complex, consisting of four events: Early Proterozoic orogenic activity (16309-1800 Ma), formation of the western granite-rhyolite province (WGRP) (1340-1410 Ma), Grenville age tectonics (1116-1232 Ma), and middle Proterozoic extension possibly related to mid-continent rifting (1086-1109 Ma). Pre-Grenville tectonics, Grenville tectonics, and mid-continent rifting are represented in this area by the Abilene gravity minimum (AGM) and bimodal igneous rocks, which are probably younger. We have used gravity modeling and the comparison of gravity and magnetic anomalies with rock types reported from wells penetrating Precambrian basement to study the AGM and middle Proterozoic extension in this area. The AGM is an east-northeast-trending, 600 km long, gravity low, which extends from the Texas-Oklahoma border through the central basin platform (CBP) to the Delaware basin. This feature appears to predate formation of the mafic body in the CBP (1163 Ma) and is most likely related to Pre-Grenville tectonics, possibly representing a continental margin arc batholith. Evidence of middle Proterozoic extension is found in the form of igneous bodies in the CBP, the Van Horn uplift, the Franklin Mountains, and the Sacramento Mountains. Analysis of gravity and magnetic anomalies shows that paired gravity and magnetic highs are related to mafic intrusions in the upper crust. Mapping of middle Proterozoic igneous rocks and the paired anomalies outlines a 530 km diameter area of distributed east-west-oriented extension. The Debaca-Swisher terrain of shallow marine and clastic sedimentary rocks is age correlative with middle Proterozoic extension. These rocks may represent the lithology of possible Proterozoic exploration targets. Proterozoic structures were reactivated during the Paleozoic, affecting both the structure and deposition in the Permian basin.

  7. African Homo erectus: Old radiometric ages and young Oldowan assemblages in the middle Awash Valley, Ethiopia

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, J.D.; White, T.D.; Selassie, Y.H. ); Heinzelin, J. de ); Schick, K.D. ); Hart, W.K. ); WoldeGabriel, G. ); Walter, R.C. ); Suwa, G. ); Asfaw, B. )

    1994-06-24

    Fossils and artifacts recovered from the middle Awash Valley of Ethiopia's Afar depression sample the Middle Pleistocene transition from Homo erectus to Homo sapiens. Ar/Ar ages, biostratigraphy, and tephrachronology from this area indicate that the Pleistocene Bodo hominid cranium and newer specimens are approximately 0.6 million years old. Only Oldowan chopper and flake assemblages are present in the lower stratigraphic units but Acheulean bifacial artifacts are consistently prevalent and widespread in directly overlying deposits. This technological transition is related to a shift in sedimentary regime, supporting the hypothesis that Middle Pleistocene Oldowan assemblages represent a behavioral facies of the Acheulean industrial complex.

  8. From pen pals to chat rooms: the impact of social media on Middle Eastern Society.

    PubMed

    Hatfield, Elaine; Rapson, Richard L

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we will discuss what is known about a surprisingly popular phenomenon in the Middle East-the use of social media to communicate. We will begin with a discussion of what "social media" sites are (sites such as Facebook, Your Middle East, YouTube, Flickr, Muslima.com, chat rooms, and instant messaging) and point out how common they are in the Middle East. Next, we will discuss the reasons why men and women are currently using Internet and social media. Finally, we will discuss what impact social media have had on politics, political dissent, education, and men's and women's relationships-and the impact they might be expected to have in future years. Finally, we will focus on the impact of such media on men's and women's relationships-including cross-gender friendships, romantic relationships, and sexual relationships. PMID:26090303

  9. Racial Identity, Social Context, and Race-Related Social Cognition in African Americans during Middle Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowley, Stephanie J.; Burchinal, Margaret R.; Roberts, Joanne E.; Zeisel, Susan A.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the effect of changes in racial identity, cross-race friendships, same-race friendships, and classroom racial composition on changes in race-related social cognition from 3rd to 5th grade for 73 African American children. The goal of the study was to determine the extent to which preadolescent racial identity and social context…

  10. Student Perceptions of Teacher Characteristics on Math Achievement for Middle School African American Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clayton, Otis, Jr.

    2013-01-01

    This causal-comparative research explored how African American students' perceptions of their math teachers affected their academic performance on the Math Tennessee Comprehensive Assessment Program (TCAP) Test during 2009-2010 academic year. When considering possible measures of teacher effectiveness in K-12 education, it can be argued that…

  11. Phylogenetic implications of the first African Middle Miocene hominoid frontal bone from Otavi, Namibia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pickford, Martin; Sola, Salvador Moya; Köhler, Meike

    1997-09-01

    The discovery of a hominoid frontal at Berg Aukas, Namibia, aged 13-12 Ma, permits an analysis of the phylogenetic relations between fossil and extant great apes. The Namibian specimen is closer morphologically to African apes and humans (AAH), whereas all fossil Eurasian great apes differ markedly from AAH but are closer to the Pongo clade.

  12. Project-Based Learning about Nutrition with Technology in an African-American Middle School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banks, Sibyl

    2010-01-01

    In the last few years, there has been a growing problem with the prevalence of being overweight. This is becoming an accepted lifestyle in the African American community, and has begun to impact not just adults, but also adolescents and young children. There are problems associated with being overweight or obese that could have lifetime…

  13. The Contribution of Student Perceptions of School Climate to Understanding the Disproportionate Punishment of African American Students in a Middle School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shirley, Erica L. M.; Cornell, Dewey G.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the contribution of student perceptions of school climate to racial differences in school discipline. Four hundred middle school students completed a school climate survey. Compared to Caucasian students, African-American students were referred to the office for discipline three times as frequently and received five times…

  14. A Comparative Study of Parental Involvement and Its Effect on African-American Male and Overall Student Achievement at Single Gender and Coeducational Middle Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nellums, Michael W.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if Parental Involvement influenced academic performance at single gender and co-educational schools. This study also compared African American male academic achievement with all students enrolled in two single gender, and one coeducational, middle school programs. Although all three schools reflected a…

  15. Succession of rugose coral faunas in the Lower and Middle Devonian of eastern North America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Oliver, William Albert, Jr.

    1967-01-01

    The late Onesquethaw (Onondaga) faunas are the largest and most widely distributed of all those under review. Succeeding faunas of the Cazenovia, Tioughnioga and Taghanic Stage (Hamilton-Tully sequence) are less widespread and are clearly derivatives of the late Onesquethaw fauna. The Taghanic fauna is the latest Middle Devonian rugose coral fauna in the area

  16. When Culture and Learning Styles Matter: A Canadian University with Middle-Eastern Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lemke-Westcott, Tracey; Johnson, Brad

    2013-01-01

    Transnational branch campuses of universities are a growing phenomenon, particularly in the Middle-East. The cultures of home institutions and host countries are often foreign to each other. The result is a cultural and learning style gap between faculty and students impacting students' learning and teachers' effectiveness. A pilot study of the…

  17. Creating a virtual community of practice to investigate legitimate peripheral participation by African American middle school girls in science activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edwards, Leslie D.

    How do teenage girls develop an interest in science? What kinds of opportunities can science teachers present to female students that support their engagement with learning science? I studied one aspect of this issue by focusing on ways students could use science to enhance or gain identities that they (probably) already valued. To do that I created technology-rich activities and experiences for an after school class in science and technology for middle school girls who lived in a low socio-economic urban neighborhood. These activities and experiences were designed to create a virtual community of practice whose members used science in diverse ways. Student interest was made evident in their responses to the activities. Four conclusions emerged. (1) Opportunities to learn about the lives and work of admired African American business women interested students in learning by linking it to their middle-class aspirations and their interest in things that money and status can buy. (2) Opportunities to learn about the lives and work of African American women experts in science in a classroom context where students then practiced similar kinds of actual scientific tasks engaged students in relations of legitimate peripheral participation in a virtual and diverse community of practice focused on science which was created in the after-school classes. (3) Opportunities where students used science to show off for family, friends, and supporters of the after-school program, identities they valued, interested them enough that they engaged in long-term science and technology projects that required lots of revisions. (4) In response to the opportunities presented, new and enhanced identities developed around becoming a better student or becoming some kind of scientist.

  18. Rates of and Risk factors for trabecular and cortical BMD loss in middle-aged and elderly African Ancestry men

    PubMed Central

    Sheu, Yahtyng; Bunker, Clareann H.; Jonnalagadda, Pallavi; Cvejkus, Ryan K.; Patrick, Allen L.; Wheeler, Victor W.; Gordon, Christopher L.; Zmuda, Joseph M.

    2014-01-01

    Low trabecular (Tb) and cortical (Ct) volumetric BMD (vBMD) are related to increased fracture risk, but little is known about the patterns and correlates of Tb and Ct vBMD loss with aging. We examined the rates of change in total, Tb.vBMD and Ct.vBMD at the radius and tibia, and identified factors associated with vBMD loss among 1,569 men of African descent aged 40 years and older. Quantitative computed tomography was used to measure vBMD 6 years apart. The annualized rate of loss in Tb.vBMD was significant at the radius (−0.047%/yr, p=0.016) but not tibia. At the radius, a significant loss of Tb.vBMD was observed in men aged 40-49 that appeared to be attenuated and not statistically significant among older age men. In contrast, the decline in Ct.vBMD was similar at both skeletal sites (−0.254 to −0.264%/yr, p<0.0001) and was consistent across all age groups. Positive associations were found for vBMD changes with body weight (all but radius Ct.vBMD) and diabetes (Ct.vBMD only), while negative associations were found with hypertension (all but radius Tb.vBMD), smoking (Ct.vBMD only), and androgen deprivation therapy (cortical vBMD only). Trabecular and cortical vBMD loss appears to follow different patterns among middle- and older-aged men of African ancestry. Factors associated with the decline in vBMD also varied by compartment and anatomical site. Additional studies are needed to better understand the physiological mechanisms underlying early BMD loss among African ancestry men. PMID:25213918

  19. Uniparental Genetic Heritage of Belarusians: Encounter of Rare Middle Eastern Matrilineages with a Central European Mitochondrial DNA Pool

    PubMed Central

    Kushniarevich, Alena; Sivitskaya, Larysa; Danilenko, Nina; Novogrodskii, Tadeush; Tsybovsky, Iosif; Kiseleva, Anna; Kotova, Svetlana; Chaubey, Gyaneshwer; Metspalu, Ene; Sahakyan, Hovhannes; Bahmanimehr, Ardeshir; Reidla, Maere; Rootsi, Siiri; Parik, Jüri; Reisberg, Tuuli; Achilli, Alessandro; Hooshiar Kashani, Baharak; Gandini, Francesca; Olivieri, Anna; Behar, Doron M.; Torroni, Antonio; Davydenko, Oleg; Villems, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Ethnic Belarusians make up more than 80% of the nine and half million people inhabiting the Republic of Belarus. Belarusians together with Ukrainians and Russians represent the East Slavic linguistic group, largest both in numbers and territory, inhabiting East Europe alongside Baltic-, Finno-Permic- and Turkic-speaking people. Till date, only a limited number of low resolution genetic studies have been performed on this population. Therefore, with the phylogeographic analysis of 565 Y-chromosomes and 267 mitochondrial DNAs from six well covered geographic sub-regions of Belarus we strove to complement the existing genetic profile of eastern Europeans. Our results reveal that around 80% of the paternal Belarusian gene pool is composed of R1a, I2a and N1c Y-chromosome haplogroups – a profile which is very similar to the two other eastern European populations – Ukrainians and Russians. The maternal Belarusian gene pool encompasses a full range of West Eurasian haplogroups and agrees well with the genetic structure of central-east European populations. Our data attest that latitudinal gradients characterize the variation of the uniparentally transmitted gene pools of modern Belarusians. In particular, the Y-chromosome reflects movements of people in central-east Europe, starting probably as early as the beginning of the Holocene. Furthermore, the matrilineal legacy of Belarusians retains two rare mitochondrial DNA haplogroups, N1a3 and N3, whose phylogeographies were explored in detail after de novo sequencing of 20 and 13 complete mitogenomes, respectively, from all over Eurasia. Our phylogeographic analyses reveal that two mitochondrial DNA lineages, N3 and N1a3, both of Middle Eastern origin, might mark distinct events of matrilineal gene flow to Europe: during the mid-Holocene period and around the Pleistocene-Holocene transition, respectively. PMID:23785503

  20. One for All and All for One: Using Multiple Identification Theory Simulations to Build Cooperative Attitudes and Behaviors in a Middle Eastern Conflict Scenario

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Robert Howard; Williams, Alexander Jonathan

    2010-01-01

    The authors previously developed multiple identification theory (MIT) as a system of simulation game design intended to promote attitude change. The present study further tests MIT's effectiveness. The authors created a game (CULTURE & CREED) via MIT as a complex simulation of Middle Eastern conflict resolution, designed to change attitudes and…

  1. Racial identity, social context, and race-related social cognition in African Americans during middle childhood.

    PubMed

    Rowley, Stephanie J; Burchinal, Margaret R; Roberts, Joanne E; Zeisel, Susan A

    2008-11-01

    This study examined the effect of changes in racial identity, cross-race friendships, same-race friendships, and classroom racial composition on changes in race-related social cognition from 3rd to 5th grade for 73 African American children. The goal of the study was to determine the extent to which preadolescent racial identity and social context predict expectations of racial discrimination in cross-race social interactions (social expectations). Expectations of racial discrimination were assessed using vignettes of cross-race social situations involving an African American child in a social interaction with European Americans. There were 3 major findings. First, expectations for discrimination declined slightly from 3rd to 5th grade. Second, although racial composition of children's classrooms, number of European American friends, gender, and family poverty status were largely unrelated to social expectations, having more African American friends was associated with expecting more discrimination in cross-racial interactions from 3rd to 5th grade. Third, increases in racial centrality were related to increases in discrimination expectations, and increases in public regard were associated with decreases in discrimination expectations. These data suggest that as early as 3rd grade, children are forming attitudes about their racial group that have implications for their cross-race social interactions. PMID:18999320

  2. Temporal Change in Functional Richness and Evenness in the Eastern African Plio-Pleistocene Carnivoran Guild

    PubMed Central

    Werdelin, Lars; Lewis, Margaret E.

    2013-01-01

    We analyze functional richness and functional evenness of the carnivoran guild in eastern Africa from 3.5 Ma to 1.5 Ma, and compare them to the present day. The data consist of characters of the craniodental apparatus of 76 species of fossil and extant carnivorans, divided into four 0.5 Ma time slices from 3.5 to 1.5 Ma, together with the modern fauna. Focus is on large (>21.5 kg) carnivores. Results show that the large carnivore guild has lost nearly 99% of its functional richness since 3.5 Ma, in a process starting prior to 2 Ma. Measurement of functional evenness shows the modern large carnivore guild to be unique in being randomly distributed in morphospace while in all past time slices there is significant clustering of species. The results are analyzed in the light of known changes to climate and environment in eastern Africa. We conclude that climate change is unlikely to explain all of the changes found and suggest that the evolution of early hominins into carnivore niche space, especially the evolution of derived dietary strategies after 2 Ma, played a significant part in the reduction of carnivore functional richness. PMID:23483948

  3. Hydrothermal macroscopic Fe-sepiolite from Oujda Mounts (Middle Atlas, Eastern Morocco)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arranz, Enrique; Lago, Marceliano; Bastida, Joaquín; Galé, Carlos; Soriano, Jesús; Ubide, Teresa

    2008-10-01

    The Triassic-Jurassic series in the Oujda Mounts (Middle Atlas, NE Morocco) includes two basaltic units. The whole sequence is crosscut by veins filled with Fe-sepiolite + chalcedony + calcite + smectite and mixed layer talc-saponite. Fe-sepiolite occurs as macroscopic fibres and is one of the latest mineral phases in the filling sequence of the veins. The compositional relationships and crystallographic parameters obtained on carefully selected samples of sepiolite are compared with previous data, and support the actual development of Mg-Fe substitution in this clay mineral, given the adequate hydrothermal conditions. Genesis of this uncommon variety of sepiolite in veins is interpreted as the result of regional low temperature hydrothermalism that affected the Middle Atlas during the Jurassic. The Mg-rich hydrothermal solutions interacted with the basaltic sequences, previously affected by alteration processes, producing the mobilization of Fe and allowing for the precipitation of Fe-sepiolite as a late mineral in the veins.

  4. [Fine structure of the fundic gland zone epithelium in various eastern African ruminants].

    PubMed

    Weyrauch, K D; Saber, A S

    1985-01-01

    Light- and electron microscopic investigations were conducted on the epithelium of the area glandulae gastricae propriae of the abomasum, using material of 12 East African game ruminants of nine species. The members of the main feeding categories (Hofmann, Stewart 1972): concentrate selector, roughage eater and intermediate feeder did not differ much in the ultrastructure of the fundic stomach epithelium but showed greater differences with respect to the height and shape of the glandular tubules and the arrangement of the epithelial cell types. Specifically the following cell types were observed: mucoid cells, chief cells, parietal cells, seven different endocrine cells, tuft cells and two types of migrating cells. In some epithelial celltypes of the concentrate selector dikdik, cristalloid cytoplasmic inclusions were found. PMID:4014717

  5. Controls on Middle Pennsylvanian peat-forming floras in the Eastern United States

    SciTech Connect

    Eble, C.F. )

    1992-01-01

    Middle Pennsylvanian strata in the Central Appalachian Basin contain numerous coal beds that provide an opportunity to study changes in coal-spore floras on an intra- and inter-bed scale. Vertical spore abundance patterns within individual coal beds record the ecological dynamics, both biologic and edaphic, of peat-forming systems in this interval. Coal palynofloras of this interval show a stratigraphic change in composition. Early to Middle Pennsylvanian spore floras are largely dominated by Lycospora. Species of Densosporites, a small lycopsid genus, Granulatisporites, a fern/pteridosperm( )-allied genus, and Laevigatosporites, a calamite-related genus, commonly displace Lycospora vertically within these beds, reflecting patterns of ecological succession. Spore floras from stratigraphically younger coal beds in this sequence exhibit similar intra-bed spore variation, but contain increased percentages of tree-fern spores, and tend to be more florally heterogeneous overall. Areas of clastic deposition within the swamps are also marked by changes in spore composition. These changes in coal palynology are paralleled by stratigraphic changes in coal appearance and associated strata composition. The proportion of dull'' coal lithotypes, frequency of clastic partings, and amount of coarse clastics in the enclosing strata all increase toward the top of this sequence. Climate may have been more important in determining the floral composition of Early through mid-Middle Pennsylvanian peat swamps, whereas climate, tectonics, and eustasy interacted to determine sediment volume and type in this interval.

  6. Palliative cancer care in Middle Eastern countries: accomplishments and challenges †

    PubMed Central

    Silbermann, M.; Arnaout, M.; Daher, M.; Nestoros, S.; Pitsillides, B.; Charalambous, H.; Gultekin, M.; Fahmi, R.; Mostafa, K.A.H.; Khleif, A.D.; Manasrah, N.; Oberman, A.

    2012-01-01

    Background In larger parts of the Middle East palliative care is still misunderstood among health professionals, cancer patients and the public at large. One reason to that is because the term does not obviously communicate the intent of this clinical discipline, which is lending better quality of life while combating cancer. Further, culture, tradition and religion have contributed to this misgiving and confusion especially at the terminal stage of the disease. Methods The Middle East Cancer Consortium jointly with the American Society of Clinical Oncology, the American Oncology Nursing Society, the San Diego Hospice Center for Palliative Medicine and the Children's Hospital & Clinics of Minnesota initiated a series of training courses and workshops in the Middle East to provide updated training to physicians, nurses, social workers and psychologists from throughout the region with basic concepts of palliative care and pain managements in adults and children cancers. Results During the past 6 years hundreds of professionals took part in these educational and training activities, thereby creating the core of trained caregivers who start to make the change in their individual countries. Conclusions The outcome of consecutive training activities can overcome geopolitical instabilities, and yield a genuine change in approach of both regulators, medical administrators, medical staff and the public; as to the important contribution of palliative care services to the welfare of the patient and his/her family. PMID:22628412

  7. Magnetic fabrics and Pan-African structural evolution in the Najd Fault corridor in the Eastern Desert of Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdeen, Mamdouh M.; Greiling, Reinhard O.; Sadek, Mohamed F.; Hamad, Sayed S.

    2014-11-01

    dykes dissecting it, the highest susceptibilities exceed 7 × 10-2 SI units in magnetite-bearing serpentinite. Early orogenic rocks are characterized by relatively high anisotropies (P‧ up to 1.7) and are deformed in numerous shear zones. Most of these shear zones can be related to the Najd Fault System. In contrast, late orogenic sediments and intrusives show mostly low anisotropies. However, magnetic lineations are still distinctly oriented parallel with the Najd Fault trend. The very latest Pan-African intrusives, the broadly N-S trending dykes crosscutting the Kadabora pluton, imply c. E-W directed extension. Such an extension is consistent with the magnetic fabric in some of the dykes. Therefore, the Kadabora dykes mark the end of Najd wrenching and a late stage of extension in this part of the Eastern Desert of Egypt. The other dykes display mostly primary fabrics, related to magma flow during their intrusion and are thus post-deformational with regard to the Pan-African orogeny.

  8. The Hominin Sites and Paleolakes Drilling Project: inferring the environmental context of human evolution from eastern African rift lake deposits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen, A.; Campisano, C.; Arrowsmith, R.; Asrat, A.; Behrensmeyer, A. K.; Deino, A.; Feibel, C.; Hill, A.; Johnson, R.; Kingston, J.; Lamb, H.; Lowenstein, T.; Noren, A.; Olago, D.; Owen, R. B.; Potts, R.; Reed, K.; Renaut, R.; Schäbitz, F.; Tiercelin, J.-J.; Trauth, M. H.; Wynn, J.; Ivory, S.; Brady, K.; O'Grady, R.; Rodysill, J.; Githiri, J.; Russell, J.; Foerster, V.; Dommain, R.; Rucina, S.; Deocampo, D.; Russell, J.; Billingsley, A.; Beck, C.; Dorenbeck, G.; Dullo, L.; Feary, D.; Garello, D.; Gromig, R.; Johnson, T.; Junginger, A.; Karanja, M.; Kimburi, E.; Mbuthia, A.; McCartney, T.; McNulty, E.; Muiruri, V.; Nambiro, E.; Negash, E. W.; Njagi, D.; Wilson, J. N.; Rabideaux, N.; Raub, T.; Sier, M. J.; Smith, P.; Urban, J.; Warren, M.; Yadeta, M.; Yost, C.; Zinaye, B.

    2016-02-01

    The role that climate and environmental history may have played in influencing human evolution has been the focus of considerable interest and controversy among paleoanthropologists for decades. Prior attempts to understand the environmental history side of this equation have centered around the study of outcrop sediments and fossils adjacent to where fossil hominins (ancestors or close relatives of modern humans) are found, or from the study of deep sea drill cores. However, outcrop sediments are often highly weathered and thus are unsuitable for some types of paleoclimatic records, and deep sea core records come from long distances away from the actual fossil and stone tool remains. The Hominin Sites and Paleolakes Drilling Project (HSPDP) was developed to address these issues. The project has focused its efforts on the eastern African Rift Valley, where much of the evidence for early hominins has been recovered. We have collected about 2 km of sediment drill core from six basins in Kenya and Ethiopia, in lake deposits immediately adjacent to important fossil hominin and archaeological sites. Collectively these cores cover in time many of the key transitions and critical intervals in human evolutionary history over the last 4 Ma, such as the earliest stone tools, the origin of our own genus Homo, and the earliest anatomically modern Homo sapiens. Here we document the initial field, physical property, and core description results of the 2012-2014 HSPDP coring campaign.

  9. The curse of wealth - Middle Eastern countries need to address the rapidly rising burden of diabetes.

    PubMed

    Klautzer, Lisa; Becker, Joachim; Mattke, Soeren

    2014-04-01

    The energy boom of the last decade has led to rapidly increasing wealth in the Middle East, particularly in the oil and gas-rich Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries. This exceptional growth in prosperity has brought with it rapid changes in lifestyles that have resulted in a significant rise in chronic disease. In particular the number of people diagnosed with diabetes has increased dramatically and health system capacity has not kept pace. In this article, we summarize the current literature to illustrate the magnitude of the problem, its causes and its impact on health and point to options how to address it. PMID:24757686

  10. Natural and anthropogenic aerosols in the Eastern Mediterranean and Middle East: possible impacts.

    PubMed

    Kallos, G; Solomos, S; Kushta, J; Mitsakou, C; Spyrou, C; Bartsotas, N; Kalogeri, C

    2014-08-01

    The physical and chemical properties of airborne particles have significant implications on the microphysical cloud processes. Maritime clouds have different properties than polluted ones and the final amounts and types of precipitation are different. Mixed phase aerosols that contain soluble matter are efficient cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) and enhance the liquid condensate spectrum in warm and mixed phase clouds. Insoluble particles such as mineral dust and black carbon are also important because of their ability to act as efficient ice nuclei (IN) through heterogeneous ice nucleation mechanisms. The relative contribution of aerosol concentrations, size distributions and chemical compositions on cloud structure and precipitation is discussed in the framework of RAMS/ICLAMS model. Analysis of model results and comparison with measurements reveals the complexity of the above links. Taking into account anthropogenic emissions and all available aerosol-cloud interactions the model precipitation bias was reduced by 50% for a storm simulation over eastern Mediterranean. PMID:24630589

  11. Middle Eastern strategic deployment - oasis or mirage. Master's thesis, August 1985-June 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Howard, S.B.

    1986-06-06

    This study assesses the feasibility of the United States deploying its planned military forces for the protection of its national interests in the Middle East, within time constraints previously established in our Southwest Asian contingency plans. The actual deployment feasibility was determined based upon comparisons of historical and current-day, transportation-related strategic military deployments. Past deployments by the United States to Europe in 1944 (Normandy Invasion), to Lebanon in 1958, to Grenada in 1983, and by the United Kingdom to the Falkland Islands in 1982, as well as recent Joint Readiness Exercises, were analyzed. Thus, common transportation-related problems served to identify the general causes for delays in the smooth movement of American military forces. This study identified three consistent causes of delays in strategic deployments; (1) Lack of adequate deployment training, (2) Inadequate coordination of operational requirements, and (3) Failure to execute specific details in pre-established contingency plans and procedures. The study concludes that the United States is not capable of successfully deploying its combat forces to the Middle East within the time schedules contained in our current contingency plans. This lack of force projection capability is attributed to delays that will be encountered because of unanticipated transportation-related problems. This study cites a weakness in the structure of Army and Joint Commands at Division level and above. The weakness, as identified, shows that the contingency planning function is separated from contingency execution/operations functions within these command structures.

  12. Basin Dynamics and Sedimentary Infilling of Miocene Sandstone Reservoir Systems In Eastern Tunisian African Margin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bédir, Mourad; Khomsi, Sami

    2015-04-01

    Most of hydrocarbon accumulations and aquifers within the Cap Bon, Gulf of Hammamet and Sahel basins in eastern tunisian foreland are reservoired within the Upper Miocene Birsa and Saouaf sandstones and shales Formations. In the gulf of Hammamet, these sandstones constitutes oil and gas fields and are exploited on anticline highs and described as varying from shoreface to shallow marine and typically exhibit excellent reservoir quality of 30% to 35% porosity and good permeability from 500 to 1100 md. In addition, the fracturing of faults enhanced the reservoir quality potential. In contrary, the same hydrocarbon reservoirs are important hydrogeologic ones in the Cap Bon and Sahel basins with huge amount of hundred millions of cubic meters of water only partially exploited. Integrated wire line logging correlations, seismic sequence stratigraphic, tectonics and outcrop geologic analogue studies had permitted to highlight the basin structuring and sedimentary environments of sequence deposits infilling of the reservoir distribution between high platforms to subsiding graben and syncline basins bounded by deep-seated transtensive and transpressive flower faults. Seven third order sequence deposits limited by downlap prograding and onlap/toplap aggrading/retrograding system tracts extend along the eastern margin around the three basins by facies and thickness variances. System tracts exhibit around high horst and graben a channelized and levee infillings extending from 100 meters to more than a kilometer of width. They present a stacked single story and multistory channels types showing space lateral and vertical migrations along NE-SW, E-W and N-S directions. Paleogeographic depositional reservoir fair maps distribution highlight deltaic horst domain with floodplain and incised valley of fluvial amalgamed and braided sandstones distributary channels that occupy the high folded horsts. Whereas folded horst-graben and syncline borders domain of Shelf prodelta are

  13. Impact of middle Cretaceous (Albian to Turonian) climatic changes in the eastern sub-equatorial marginal Pacific region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Navarro Ramirez, Juan Pablo; Bodin, Stéphane; Heimhofer, Ulrich; Immenhauser, Adrian

    2015-04-01

    A new Albian-Turonian carbon isotope (δ13Ccarb and δ13Corg) curve based on epeiric-neritic carbonate successions from Peru is reported. The study was carried out to test the hypothesis that mid-Cretaceous OAEs, which are well-documented in the Tethys and Atlantic realm, are equally recorded in the epeiric-neritic realm of the eastern sub-equatorial Pacific as exposed in Northern and Central Peru. Depositional environments range from shallow subtidal inner ramp to outer ramp settings. For this purpose, we combined chemostratigraphic and sedimentological information from expanded and well-exposed sections in NW Peru. The geochemical data provide evidence for the record of the OAE1b set, the OAE1c, the OAE1d, as well as the Cenomanian-Turonian Boundary Event (OAE2), known as one of the most extreme carbon cycle perturbation. The new δ13C record is constrained by biostratigraphic evidence and 87Sr/86Sr isotope stratigraphy using well-preserved oyster shells. Sedimentological observations, combined with the δ13C stratigraphic record, were used to elucidate the complex interplay of climate changes, nutrient supply and platform drowning. These observations indicate: (1) A late Aptian-early Albian change from siliciclastic- to carbonate-dominated sedimentation that may be coeval with the placement of the Kilian event. (2) Incipient platform-drowning during the early Albian probably linked to the impact of the Paquier event. (3) An early middle Albian demise of neritic carbonate production that coincides with the Leenhardt Level, followed by middle Albian condensed sedimentation that reports prominent negative values in δ13Ccarb. (4) Renewed carbonate ramp production during the late Albian-middle Cenomanian. (5) An upper Cenomanian-middle Turonian transition interval with the OAE2 represented by a 44-m-thick sedimentary succession characterized by rhythmically bedded marls, marly limestones and limestones. Despite the scarcity of significant amount of organic matter (a

  14. Gut Microbiota Dynamics during Dietary Shift in Eastern African Cichlid Fishes.

    PubMed

    Baldo, Laura; Riera, Joan Lluís; Tooming-Klunderud, Ave; Albà, M Mar; Salzburger, Walter

    2015-01-01

    The gut microbiota structure reflects both a host phylogenetic history and a signature of adaptation to the host ecological, mainly trophic niches. African cichlid fishes, with their array of closely related species that underwent a rapid dietary niche radiation, offer a particularly interesting system to explore the relative contribution of these two factors in nature. Here we surveyed the host intra- and interspecific natural variation of the gut microbiota of five cichlid species from the monophyletic tribe Perissodini of lake Tanganyika, whose members transitioned from being zooplanktivorous to feeding primarily on fish scales. The outgroup riverine species Astatotilapia burtoni, largely omnivorous, was also included in the study. Fusobacteria, Firmicutes and Proteobacteria represented the dominant components in the gut microbiota of all 30 specimens analysed according to two distinct 16S rRNA markers. All members of the Perissodini tribe showed a homogenous pattern of microbial alpha and beta diversities, with no significant qualitative differences, despite changes in diet. The recent diet shift between zooplantkon- and scale-eaters simply reflects on a significant enrichment of Clostridium taxa in scale-eaters where they might be involved in the scale metabolism. Comparison with the omnivorous species A. burtoni suggests that, with increased host phylogenetic distance and/or increasing herbivory, the gut microbiota begins differentiating also at qualitative level. The cichlids show presence of a large conserved core of taxa and a small set of core OTUs (average 13-15%), remarkably stable also in captivity, and putatively favoured by both restricted microbial transmission among related hosts (putatively enhanced by mouthbrooding behavior) and common host constraints. This study sets the basis for a future large-scale investigation of the gut microbiota of cichlids and its adaptation in the process of the host adaptive radiation. PMID:25978452

  15. Gut Microbiota Dynamics during Dietary Shift in Eastern African Cichlid Fishes

    PubMed Central

    Baldo, Laura; Riera, Joan Lluís; Tooming-Klunderud, Ave; Albà, M. Mar; Salzburger, Walter

    2015-01-01

    The gut microbiota structure reflects both a host phylogenetic history and a signature of adaptation to the host ecological, mainly trophic niches. African cichlid fishes, with their array of closely related species that underwent a rapid dietary niche radiation, offer a particularly interesting system to explore the relative contribution of these two factors in nature. Here we surveyed the host intra- and interspecific natural variation of the gut microbiota of five cichlid species from the monophyletic tribe Perissodini of lake Tanganyika, whose members transitioned from being zooplanktivorous to feeding primarily on fish scales. The outgroup riverine species Astatotilapia burtoni, largely omnivorous, was also included in the study. Fusobacteria, Firmicutes and Proteobacteria represented the dominant components in the gut microbiota of all 30 specimens analysed according to two distinct 16S rRNA markers. All members of the Perissodini tribe showed a homogenous pattern of microbial alpha and beta diversities, with no significant qualitative differences, despite changes in diet. The recent diet shift between zooplantkon- and scale-eaters simply reflects on a significant enrichment of Clostridium taxa in scale-eaters where they might be involved in the scale metabolism. Comparison with the omnivorous species A. burtoni suggests that, with increased host phylogenetic distance and/or increasing herbivory, the gut microbiota begins differentiating also at qualitative level. The cichlids show presence of a large conserved core of taxa and a small set of core OTUs (average 13–15%), remarkably stable also in captivity, and putatively favoured by both restricted microbial transmission among related hosts (putatively enhanced by mouthbrooding behavior) and common host constraints. This study sets the basis for a future large-scale investigation of the gut microbiota of cichlids and its adaptation in the process of the host adaptive radiation. PMID:25978452

  16. Mountain-front recharge along the eastern side of the Middle Rio Grande Basin, central New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anderholm, Scott K.

    2000-01-01

    Mountain-front recharge, which generally occurs along the margins of alluvial basins, can be a large part of total recharge to the aquifer system in such basins. Mountain-front recharge occurs as the result of infiltration of flow from streams that have headwaters in the mountainous areas adjacent to alluvial basins and ground- water flow from the aquifers in the mountainous areas to the aquifer in the alluvial basin. This report presents estimates of mountain-front recharge to the basin-fill aquifer along the eastern side of the Middle Rio Grande Basin in central New Mexico. The basin is a structural feature that contains a large thickness of basin-fill deposits, which compose the main aquifer in the basin. The basin is bounded along the eastern side by mountains composed of crystalline rocks of Precambrian age and sedimentary rocks of Paleozoic age. Precipitation is much larger in the mountains than in the basin; many stream channels debouch from the mountainous area to the basin. Chloride-balance and water-yield regression methods were used to estimate mountain-front recharge. The chloride-balance method was used to calculate a chloride balance in watersheds in the mountainous areas along the eastern side of the basin (subareas). The source of chloride to these watersheds is bulk precipitation (wet and dry deposition). Chloride leaves these watersheds as mountain-front recharge. The water-yield regression method was used to determine the streamflow from the mountainous watersheds at the mountain front. This streamflow was assumed to be equal to mountain-front recharge because most of this streamflow infiltrates and recharges the basin-fill aquifer. Total mountain-front recharge along the eastern side of the Middle Rio Grande Basin was estimated to be about 11,000 acre- feet per year using the chloride-balance method and about 36,000 and 38,000 acre-feet per year using two water-yield regression equations. There was a large range in the recharge estimates in a

  17. Chemical speciation and source apportionment of Non-Methane Volatile Organic Compounds (NMVOCs) in a Middle Eastern country

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salameh, Therese; Sauvage, Stéphane; Afif, Charbel; Borbon, Agnès; Locoge, Nadine

    2014-05-01

    NMVOCs, emitted from various sources, are of particular interest since they contribute to the formation of tropospheric ozone, PAN and secondary organic aerosols resulting in negative impacts on human health, climate and on the environment. To identify abatement measures, a profound knowledge of emission sources and their composition is a prerequisite. Air pollution in the Middle East region remains difficult to assess and understand because of a lack of ground-based measurements and the limited information on NMVOC chemical speciation and source apportionment. Based on a large database of NMVOC observations obtained in Beirut, the capital of Lebanon (a developing country in the Middle East region, located in Western Asia on the eastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea), the overall objective of this work is to apportion the sources of NMVOCs encountered in Lebanon. First, source profiles were determined with field measurements close to the main potential emitters namely the road transport, gasoline vapour, power generation and solvent uses. The results obtained are compared to other studies held in other regions and are used to assess the emission inventory developed for Lebanon. Secondly, two intensive field campaigns were held in a receptor site in Beirut during summer 2011 and winter 2012 in order to obtain a large time resolved dataset. The PMF analysis of this dataset was applied to apportion anthropogenic sources in this area. In both seasons, combustion (road transport and power generation) and gasoline evaporation, especially in winter, were the main sources contributing to the NMVOCs in Beirut. The results will support model implementation especially by completing the emission inventory established for the year 2010 by Waked et al. 2012 according to the EEA/EMEP guidelines because of the lack of Lebanon-specific emission factor.

  18. Traces of sub-Saharan and Middle Eastern lineages in Indian Muslim populations.

    PubMed

    Eaaswarkhanth, Muthukrishnan; Haque, Ikramul; Ravesh, Zeinab; Romero, Irene Gallego; Meganathan, Poorlin Ramakodi; Dubey, Bhawna; Khan, Faizan Ahmed; Chaubey, Gyaneshwer; Kivisild, Toomas; Tyler-Smith, Chris; Singh, Lalji; Thangaraj, Kumarasamy

    2010-03-01

    Islam is the second most practiced religion in India, next to Hinduism. It is still unclear whether the spread of Islam in India has been only a cultural transformation or is associated with detectable levels of gene flow. To estimate the contribution of West Asian and Arabian admixture to Indian Muslims, we assessed genetic variation in mtDNA, Y-chromosomal and LCT/MCM6 markers in 472, 431 and 476 samples, respectively, representing six Muslim communities from different geographical regions of India. We found that most of the Indian Muslim populations received their major genetic input from geographically close non-Muslim populations. However, low levels of likely sub-Saharan African, Arabian and West Asian admixture were also observed among Indian Muslims in the form of L0a2a2 mtDNA and E1b1b1a and J(*)(xJ2) Y-chromosomal lineages. The distinction between Iranian and Arabian sources was difficult to make with mtDNA and the Y chromosome, as the estimates were highly correlated because of similar gene pool compositions in the sources. In contrast, the LCT/MCM6 locus, which shows a clear distinction between the two sources, enabled us to rule out significant gene flow from Arabia. Overall, our results support a model according to which the spread of Islam in India was predominantly cultural conversion associated with minor but still detectable levels of gene flow from outside, primarily from Iran and Central Asia, rather than directly from the Arabian Peninsula. PMID:19809480

  19. Climate aberrations during the middle Miocene: evidence from the eastern North Atlantic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quaijtaal, W.; Donders, T.; Schouten, S.; Louwye, S.

    2013-12-01

    During the Middle Miocene Climatic Optimum (MMCO; 17-14.5 Ma) the relatively warm climate of the Miocene reached peak temperatures. After the MMCO, the global climate started cooling through several short-lived cooling events, represented by positive oxygen isotope excursions: the Mi-events (Miocene isotope events). One of the more severe events, Mi-3, is associated with East Antarctic Ice Sheet growth and potential Northern Hemisphere ice expansion, as well as marine and terrestrial species turnover and aridification. The causes and consequences of the Mi-events are not well constrained yet. CO2 reconstructions combined with the abovementioned consequences suggest that a drawdown of CO2 and/or changes in ocean led to the changes surrounding Mi-3. A minimum node in both eccentricity and obliquity amplitude modulation, an orbital configuration creating favourable conditions for ice growth, has been suggested as a possible triggering mechanism as well. However, an exact cause cannot be pinpointed yet and more high-resolution records are needed in order to investigate the impact and order of events surrounding the Mi-events. Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Leg 307 recovered such a high resolution record from the middle Miocene of the Porcupine Basin (offshore south-western Ireland). We have analyzed well-preserved palynomorphs (mainly organic-walled dinoflagellate cysts, acritarchs and pollen) and organic molecules for paleothermometry (e.g. TEX86 and UK'37) from site U1318. With these proxies, the development of the Mi-3 event and following Mi-4 have been reconstructed in high resolution (ca. 13 kyr), by assessing e.g. temperature, sea level, thermocline depth and productivity. A pronounced cooling can be observed at Mi-3, and to a lesser degree in Mi-4 as well, together with a sea-level fall and a turnover in the dinocyst record. Our findings also include indications of aridification and a change in wind patterns during Mi-3. This confirms the dramatic

  20. Characterization of Greater Middle Eastern genetic variation for enhanced disease gene discovery.

    PubMed

    Scott, Eric M; Halees, Anason; Itan, Yuval; Spencer, Emily G; He, Yupeng; Azab, Mostafa Abdellateef; Gabriel, Stacey B; Belkadi, Aziz; Boisson, Bertrand; Abel, Laurent; Clark, Andrew G; Alkuraya, Fowzan S; Casanova, Jean-Laurent; Gleeson, Joseph G

    2016-09-01

    The Greater Middle East (GME) has been a central hub of human migration and population admixture. The tradition of consanguinity, variably practiced in the Persian Gulf region, North Africa, and Central Asia, has resulted in an elevated burden of recessive disease. Here we generated a whole-exome GME variome from 1,111 unrelated subjects. We detected substantial diversity and admixture in continental and subregional populations, corresponding to several ancient founder populations with little evidence of bottlenecks. Measured consanguinity rates were an order of magnitude above those in other sampled populations, and the GME population exhibited an increased burden of runs of homozygosity (ROHs) but showed no evidence for reduced burden of deleterious variation due to classically theorized 'genetic purging'. Applying this database to unsolved recessive conditions in the GME population reduced the number of potential disease-causing variants by four- to sevenfold. These results show variegated genetic architecture in GME populations and support future human genetic discoveries in Mendelian and population genetics. PMID:27428751

  1. Environmental margin and island evolution in Middle Eastern populations of the Egyptian fruit bat.

    PubMed

    Hulva, P; Marešová, T; Dundarova, H; Bilgin, R; Benda, P; Bartonička, T; Horáček, I

    2012-12-01

    Here, we present a study of the population genetic architecture and microevolution of the Egyptian fruit bat (Rousettus aegyptiacus) at the environmental margins in the Middle East using mitochondrial sequences and nuclear microsatellites. In contrast to the rather homogenous population structure typical of cave-dwelling bats in climax tropical ecosystems, a relatively pronounced isolation by distance and population diversification was observed. The evolution of this pattern could be ascribed to the complicated demographic history at higher latitudes related to the range margin fragmentation and complex geomorphology of the studied area. Lineages from East Africa and Arabia show divergent positions. Within the northwestern unit, the most marked pattern of the microsatellite data set is connected with insularity, as demonstrated by the separate status of populations from Saharan oases and Cyprus. These demes also exhibit a reduction in genetic variability, which is presumably connected with founder effects, drift and other potential factors related to island evolution as site-specific selection. Genetic clustering indicates a semipermeability of the desert barriers in the Sahara and Arabian Peninsula and a corridor role of the Nile Valley. The results emphasize the role of the island environment in restricting the gene flow in megabats, which is also corroborated by biogeographic patterns within the family, and suggests the possibility of nascent island speciation on Cyprus. Demographic analyses suggest that the colonization of the region was connected to the spread of agricultural plants; therefore, the peripatric processes described above might be because of or strengthened by anthropogenic changes in the environment. PMID:23094994

  2. Paleogeography of a Middle Pennsylvanian coal seam in the eastern Kentucky coal field

    SciTech Connect

    Jamal, M.A. . Allied Geophysical Labs.); Kusky, T.M. . Dept. of Geology)

    1992-01-01

    The middle Pennsylvanian Upper Elkhorn No.3 coal bed of the Breathitt Formation represents a swamp facies of a fluvial/deltaic complex eroded from the Appalachian hinterland. Geologic conditions during the peat formation and burial stages of the coal were determined by correlating measured sections, using maps of the thickness, number of partings, roof lithologies, and sulfur- ash-, and Btu-content of the Upper Elkhorn No. 3 coal. A paleogeographic reconstruction of the peat stage shows areas of marine-influence, in addition to well-protected and poorly-protected swamps. The peat swamp which deposited the coal developed on a very broad coastal plain consisting of deltaic-type sediments with increasing terrestrial conditions to the east and increasing marine conditions to the west. Prograding fluvial systems buried peat initially deposited in brackish to marine environments of the flood-basin. Pre-mining basin analysis leads to more effective exploration and exploitation, in particular coal quality (including sulfur and ash content), mineability, roof lithology and locations of channels can be predicted before mining.

  3. Source apportionment of airborne nanoparticles in a Middle Eastern city using positive matrix factorization.

    PubMed

    Al-Dabbous, Abdullah N; Kumar, Prashant

    2015-04-01

    Airborne nanoparticles have been studied worldwide, but little is known about their sources in the Middle East region, where hot, arid and dusty climatic conditions generally prevail. For the first time in Kuwait, we carried out size-resolved measurements of particle number distributions (PNDs) and concentrations (PNCs) in the 5-1000 nm size range. Measurements were made continuously for 31 days during the summer months of May and June 2013 using a fast-response differential mobility spectrometer (Cambustion DMS500) at a sampling rate of 10 Hz. Sources and their contributions were identified using the positive matrix factorization (PMF) approach that was applied to the PND data. Simultaneous measurements of gaseous pollutants (i.e., O3, NO, NOx, SO2 and CO), PM10, wind speed and direction were also carried out to aid the interpretation of the PMF results through the conditional probability function plots and Pearson product-moment correlations. Six major sources of PNCs were identified, contributing ∼46% (fresh traffic emissions), 27% (aged traffic emissions), 9% (industrial emissions), 9% (regional background), 6% (miscellaneous sources) and 3% (Arabian dust transport) of the total PNCs. The sources of nanoparticles and their PND profiles identified could serve as reference data to design more detailed field studies in the future and treat these sources in dispersion modelling and health impact assessment studies. PMID:25749465

  4. A Record of Early to Middle Holocene Hydroclimate Variability from the West African Sahel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McIntosh, R.; Douglas, P. M.; Warren, C.; Meyers, S. R.; Coutros, P.; Park, D. P.

    2011-12-01

    The African Humid Period (ca. 14.8 to 5.5 ka) is an interval of wet climates across northwest Africa, with evidence for widespread lake basins and savannah vegetation in areas that are now desert. There are few high-resolution continental records of hydrologic variability during the African humid period however. In particular, it remains uncertain how periods of north Atlantic climate variability were expressed in northwest Africa. We present results from a 5.4 meter sediment core from Lake Fati in northern Mali (16.29° N, 3.71° W), which represents the first lake sediment core from the western Sahel. The Lake Fati core contains a continuous record of lake mud from 10.43 to 4.66 kyr BP. Centimeter scale XRF scanning indicates strong covariation between iron, calcium, manganese and phosphorous abundance due to enrichment of these elements during periods of enhanced deposition of authigenic siderite. Preliminary oxygen isotope measurements indicate that authigenic siderite δ18O values are positively correlated with Fe counts, suggesting that siderite deposition increased during drier periods with greater evaporation of lake waters. These drying events occurred on decadal to centennial time scales, with higher-frequency variability during the early Holocene. Peaks in zirconium and titanium abundance coincide with some of the inferred dry periods, suggesting that deposition of aeolian silt coincided with periods of increased evaporation of lake water. A roughly 30 year interval of sand deposition at ~8.33 kyr BP suggests major drying and activation of aeolian sand deposition. This abrupt climate change could be related to the 8.2 ka event in the North Atlantic; further efforts to refine the sediment core age model will constrain the relationship of this rapid drying to abrupt climate change in the North Atlantic. Aluminum and silicon counts co-vary for much of the lake Fati record, and are related to input of terrigenous sediment, primarily during seasonal flooding

  5. Molecular Genotyping of Anisakis Larvae in Middle Eastern Japan and Endoscopic Evidence for Preferential Penetration of Normal over Atrophic Mucosa

    PubMed Central

    Arai, Toshio; Akao, Nobuaki; Seki, Takenori; Kumagai, Takashi; Ishikawa, Hirofumi; Ohta, Nobuo; Hirata, Nobuto; Nakaji, So; Yamauchi, Kenji; Hirai, Mitsuru; Shiratori, Toshiyasu; Kobayashi, Masayoshi; Fujii, Hiroyuki; Ishii, Eiji; Naito, Mikio; Saitoh, Shin-ichi; Yamaguchi, Toshikazu; Shibata, Nobumitsu; Shimo, Masamune; Tokiwa, Toshihiro

    2014-01-01

    Background Anisakiasis is a parasitic disease caused primarily by Anisakis spp. larvae in Asia and in Western countries. The aim of this study was to investigate the genotype of Anisakis larvae endoscopically removed from Middle Eastern Japanese patients and to determine whether mucosal atrophy affects the risk of penetration in gastric anisakiasis. Methods In this study, 57 larvae collected from 44 patients with anisakiasis (42 gastric and 2 colonic anisakiasis) were analyzed retrospectively. Genotyping was confirmed by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis of ITS regions and by sequencing the mitochondrial small subunit (SSU) region. In the cases of gastric anisakiasis, correlation analyses were conducted between the frequency of larval penetration in normal/atrophic area and the manifestation of clinical symptoms. Results Nearly all larvae were A. simplex seusu stricto (s.s.) (99%), and one larva displayed a hybrid genotype. The A. simplex larvae penetrated normal mucosa more frequently than atrophic area (p = 0.005). Finally, patients with normal mucosa infection were more likely to exhibit clinical symptoms than those with atrophic mucosa infection (odds ratio, 6.96; 95% confidence interval, 1.52–31.8). Conclusions In Japan, A. simplex s.s. is the main etiological agent of human anisakiasis and tends to penetrate normal gastric mucosa. Careful endoscopic examination of normal gastric mucosa, particularly in the greater curvature of the stomach will improve the detection of Anisakis larvae. PMID:24586583

  6. Estimation of the residence time of permafrost groundwater in the middle of the Lena River basin, eastern Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiyama, Tetsuya; Asai, Kazuyoshi; Kolesnikov, Alexander B.; Gagarin, Leonid A.; Shepelev, Victor V.

    2013-09-01

    Detection of changes in the hydrological cycles of permafrost regions is a critical issue in hydrology. Better understanding of groundwater dynamics in permafrost regions is needed to assess the vulnerability of the cryolithic water environment to changing climate. However, little is known about the age of groundwater in the Siberian Arctic region. In order to determine the residence time of permafrost groundwater in eastern Siberia, transient tracers including tritium (3H), chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), and sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) were used to analyze a mixture of supra-permafrost and intra-permafrost groundwater in the middle of the Lena River basin. Tritium analyses showed that the concentration ranges from 1.0 to 16.8 TU, and the apparent age of groundwater ranged from around 1 to 55 years. One of the spring waters appeared to contain more than 90% water recharged by precipitation before the 1960s nuclear testing era, and the water could be partly sourced from thawing permafrost. Comparisons of apparent groundwater ages estimated from different tracers imply that 3H and CFC-12 are the most applicable to groundwater vulnerability assessments in this region. Because the apparent age is a mixture of those from supra-permafrost and intra-permafrost groundwater, further analysis would be required to assess the contribution ratio of the two types of groundwater.

  7. Mortality Trends in Patients Hospitalized with the Initial Acute Myocardial Infarction in a Middle Eastern Country over 20 Years

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Emad; Al Suwaidi, Jassim; El-Menyar, Ayman; AlBinali, Hajar A. H.; Gehani, A. A.

    2014-01-01

    We aimed to define the temporal trend in the initial Acute Myocardial Infarction (AMI) management and outcome during the last two decades in a Middle Eastern country. A total of 10,915 patients were admitted with initial AMI with mean age of 53 ± 11.8 years. Comparing the two decades (1991–2000) to (2001–2010), the use of antiplatelet drugs increased from 84% to 95%, β-blockers increased from 38% to 56%, and angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEI) increased from 12% to 36% (P < 0.001 for all). The rates of PCI increased from 2.5% to 14.6% and thrombolytic therapy decreased from 71% to 65% (P < 0.001 for all). While the rate of hospitalization with Initial MI increased from 34% to 66%, and the average length of hospital stay decreased from 6.4 ± 3 to 4.6 ± 3, all hospital outcomes parameters improved significantly including a 39% reduction in in-hospital Mortality. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that higher utilization of antiplatelet drugs, β-blockers, and ACEI were the main contributors to better hospital outcomes. Over the study period, there was a significant increase in the hospitalization rate in patients presenting with initial AMI. Evidence-based medical therapies appear to be associated with a substantial improvement in outcome and in-hospital mortality. PMID:24868481

  8. Policies for transfer of technology to developing countries: the case of Middle Eastern oil-exporting countries

    SciTech Connect

    Bamakhramah, A.S.

    1981-01-01

    The Middle Eastern oil-exporting countries constitute a particular case among the developing countries. Two main characteristics contribute to this position: (1) availability of financial resources to purchase needed technology, particularly for surplus countries; (2) scarcity of labor, entrepreneurship and managerial skills. This study proposes policy measures for these countries which would serve their national economic, social, and political goals given the above characteristics. The treatment of the subject contains three main aspects: (1) the social, cultural and institutional factors affecting transfer of technology; (2) the strategies which these countries can follow to achieve better methods of technology transfer. These include technology assessment, technology bargaining, research and development and information; (3) economic and industrial policies regarding foreign direct investment, licensing agreements and management contracts as alternative mechanisms for acquisition of foreign technology. Transfer of technology was found to be influenced by other factors beyond financial costs and factors of production. These factors include the scale of production or product technology, the size of domestic markets, accessibility to international markets, local technological infrastructure, absorptive capacity and government regulations regarding foreign direct investment.

  9. Substance abuse In Middle Eastern adolescents living in two different countries: spiritual, cultural, family and personal factors.

    PubMed

    Badr, Lina Kurdahi; Taha, Asma; Dee, Vivien

    2014-08-01

    It is estimated that the percentage of students using illicit substances by sixth grade has tripled over the last decade not only in developed countries but in developing countries as well probably due to the transition to a more Western society. Although much has been done to understand the mechanisms underlying substance abuse, few studies have been conducted with minority ethnic and religious groups such as Middle Eastern Youth. The primary goal of this study was to determine whether there are differences in factors contributing to substance abuse in adolescents from Lebanon versus the U.S.A. and to decipher the role of spirituality, religion, and culture among other factors that may influence substance abuse. A correlational cross-sectional design was used with adolescents living in two different countries: Los Angeles, California and Beirut, Lebanon. Muslim adolescents had significantly less rates of alcohol and substance use than Christians in both Lebanon and Los Angeles. More years lived in the U.S.A. increases the likelihood of abuse for both Muslims and Christians. Attachment to God and family was negatively associated with substance abuse. These results among others facilitate a better understanding of the influence of culture, religion, family and personal factors on substance abuse. Culturally sensitive interventions could benefit from the findings of this pilot study. PMID:23526183

  10. Daytime twin-peak structures observed at southern African and European middle latitudes on 8-13 April 2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katamzi, Zama T.; Bosco Habarulema, John; Giday, Nigussie M.

    2016-07-01

    Daytime twin-peak structures, also known as bite-out or diurnal double-maxima structures, are ionospheric phenomena in which the diurnal ionospheric trend shows two peaks (instead of the normal one) during the daytime. This study reports on first simultaneous observations of these structures in the Global Positioning System and ionosonde measurements from the southern African and European middle-latitude stations during a mostly quiet geomagnetic condition period of 8-13 April 2012, which indicates that their occurrence and therefore driving mechanism(s) may not be localised. It is found that the daytime twin-peak structures generally appear later in the Northern Hemisphere with a 1-3 h latency although they propagate mostly equatorward in both hemispheres. Proxies of meridional neutral winds were calculated from available manually scaled ionosonde measurements and used to explore their potential as drivers of the structures. Bite-out events were linked to downward drifts of the vertical component of equivalent neutral winds causing plasma depletions. In addition, evidence of sporadic E layers at the same time as enhancements of daytime twin-peak structures suggests that the tides had influence via the meridional wind shear in generating these structures through the dynamo electric field which resulted in upward E × B drifts.

  11. Geochemical features of metabasic rocks from an Early to Middle Jurassic Accretionary Complex (Refahiye metamorphics, Eastern Pontides, NE Turkey): Implications for Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous magmatic lull

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Göçmengil, G.; Topuz, G.; Çelik, Ö. F.; Altıntaş, Ä.°. E.; Özkan, M.

    2012-04-01

    The Refahiye metamorphics (Eastern Pontides, NE Turkey) represent a metamorphosed accretionary complex of Early to Middle Jurassic age and occur as an interleave between coeval ophiolite. This Early to Middle Jurassic metamorphics and ophiolites are bound by a Permo-Triassic accretionary complex in the north and a Late Cretaceous accretionary complex in the south. The Refahiye metamorphics are made up of greenschist, marble, serpentine, phyllite and subordinately amphibolite, micaschist, eclogite and metachert knockers. The Jurassic and Late Cretaceous accretionary complexes in Eastern Mediterranean are related to the consumption of a Mesozoic ocean, the so-called Neo-Tethys. Regional geology in the Eastern Pontides indicate that the Early to Middle Jurassic and Late Cretaceous times correspond to volumious igneous activity, while Late Jurassic and Early Cretaceous time to an igneous lull. Here we present whole-rock geochemical data on metabasic rocks from the Refahiye accretionary complex, and discuss these data in terms of accreted material and its implications for the Jurassic evolution of the Eastern Pontides. All the metabasic rocks are well recrystallized, free of any relict texture and are variably hydrated (LOI ~ 1.3-5.1 wt%). Some samples are characterized by the unusually high-Al2O3 contents (up to 20.8 wt%) suggestive of derivation from high-Al basalts. Geochemically three distinct metabasic group are distinguished, on the basis of fluid immobile HFSEs and REEs. Group I is characterized by moderately to strongly fractionated REE patterns [(La/Yb)cn ~8-18], absence of any Nb-Ta anomaly in multi element variation diagrams and high Ti and low Zr/Nb ratios (3.68-5.72), corresponding to unorogenic alkaline basalts (ocean island basalt). Group II characterized by moderately fractionated REE ratios [(La/Yb)cn ~0.6-2.6], absence of any Nb-Ta anomaly, resembling unorogenic tholeiitic basalts (E and N-MORB). Group III on the other hand, displays unfractionated

  12. Virtual industrial water usage and wastewater generation in the Middle East/North African region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakhel, S. R.; Geissen, S.-U.; Vogelpohl, A.

    2013-01-01

    This study deals with the quantification of volumes of water usage, wastewater generation, virtual water export, and wastewater generation from export for eight export relevant industries present in the Middle East/North Africa (MENA). It shows that about 3400 million m3 of water is used per annum while around 793 million m3 of wastewater is generated from products that are meant for domestic consumption and export. The difference between volumes of water usage and wastewater generation is due to water evaporation or injecting underground (oil wells pressure maintenance). The wastewater volume generated from production represents a population equivalent of 15.5 million in terms of wastewater quantity and 30.4 million in terms of BOD. About 409 million m3 of virtual water flows from MENA to EU27 (resulting from export of eight commodities) which is equivalent to 12.1% of the water usage of those industries and Libya is the largest virtual water exporter (about 87 million m3). Crude oil and refined petroleum products represent about 89% of the total virtual water flow, fertilizers represent around 10% and 1% remaining industries. EU27 poses the greatest indirect pressure on the Kuwaiti hydrological system where the virtual water export represents about 96% of the actual renewable water resources in this country. The Kuwaiti crude oil water use in relation to domestic water withdrawal is about 89% which is highest among MENA countries. Pollution of water bodies, in terms of BOD, due to production is very relevant for crude oil, slaughterhouses, refineries, olive oil, and tanneries while pollution due to export to EU27 is most relevant for crude oil industry and olive oil mills.

  13. Minimal influence of recrystallization on middle Miocene benthic foraminiferal stable isotope stratigraphy in the eastern equatorial Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voigt, Janett; Hathorne, Ed C.; Frank, Martin; Holbourn, Ann

    2016-01-01

    Stable carbon and oxygen isotopes (δ13C and δ18O) of foraminiferal tests are amongst the most important tools in paleoceanography, but the extent to which recrystallization can alter the isotopic composition of the tests is not well known. Here we compare three middle Miocene (16-13 Ma) benthic foraminiferal stable isotope records from eastern equatorial Pacific sites with different diagenetic histories to investigate the effect of recrystallization. To test an extreme case, we analyzed stable isotope compositions of benthic foraminifera from Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Site U1336, for which the geochemistry of bulk carbonates and associated pore waters indicates continued diagenetic alteration in sediments > 14.7 Ma. Despite this diagenetic overprinting, the amplitudes and absolute values of the analyzed U1336 stable isotopes agree well with high-resolution records from better preserved Sites U1337 and U1338 nearby. Our results suggest that although benthic foraminiferal tests of all three sites show some degree of textural changes due to recrystallization, they have retained their original stable isotope signatures. The good agreement of the benthic foraminiferal stable isotope records demonstrates that recrystallization occurred extremely rapidly (< 100 kyr) after deposition. This is confirmed by the preservation of orbital cyclicities in U1336 stable isotope data and δ18O values being different to inorganic calcite that would precipitate from U1336 pore waters during late recrystallization. The close similarity of the benthic foraminiferal stable isotope records between the sites allows the well-resolved paleomagnetic results of Site U1336 to be transferred to Sites U1337 and U1338 improving the global geological timescale.

  14. Middle and Late Weichselian (Devensian) glaciation history of south-western Norway, North Sea and eastern UK

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sejrup, H. P.; Nygård, A.; Hall, A. M.; Haflidason, H.

    2009-02-01

    Data from eastern England, Scotland, the northern North Sea and western Norway have been compiled in order to outline our current knowledge of the Middle and Late Weichselian glacial history of this region. Radiometric dates and their geological context from key sites in the region are presented and discussed. Based on the available information the following conclusions can be made: (i) Prior to 39 cal ka and most likely after ca 50 cal ka Scotland and southern Norway were extensively glaciated. Most likely the central North Sea was not glaciated at this time and grounded ice did not reach the shelf edge. (ii) During the time interval between 29 and 39 ka periods with ameliorated climate (including the Ålesund, Sandnes and Tolsta Interstadials) alternated with periods of restricted glaciation in Scotland and western Norway. (iii) Between 29 and 25 ka maximum Weichselian glaciation of the region occurred, with the Fennoscandian and British ice sheets coalescing in the central North Sea. (iv) Decoupling of the ice sheets had occurred at 25 ka, with development of a marine embayment in the northern North Sea (v) Between 22 and 19 ka glacial ice expanded westwards from Scandinavia onto the North Sea Plateau in the Tampen readvance. (vi) The last major expansion of glacial ice in the offshore areas was between 17.5 and 15.5 ka. At this time ice expanded in the north-western part of the region onto the Måløy Plateau from Norway and across Caithness and Orkney and to east of Shetland from the Moray Firth. The Norwegian Channel Ice Stream (NCIS), which drained major parts of the south-western Fennoscandian Ice Sheet, was active at several occasions between 29 and 18 ka.

  15. Describing the Situational Contexts of Sweetened Product Consumption in a Middle Eastern Canadian Community: Application of a Mixed Method Design

    PubMed Central

    Moubarac, Jean-Claude; Cargo, Margaret; Receveur, Olivier; Daniel, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Little is known about the situational contexts in which individuals consume processed sources of dietary sugars. This study aimed to describe the situational contexts associated with the consumption of sweetened food and drink products in a Catholic Middle Eastern Canadian community. A two-stage exploratory sequential mixed-method design was employed with a rationale of triangulation. In stage 1 (n = 62), items and themes describing the situational contexts of sweetened food and drink product consumption were identified from semi-structured interviews and were used to develop the content for the Situational Context Instrument for Sweetened Product Consumption (SCISPC). Face validity, readability and cultural relevance of the instrument were assessed. In stage 2 (n = 192), a cross-sectional study was conducted and exploratory factor analysis was used to examine the structure of themes that emerged from the qualitative analysis as a means of furthering construct validation. The SCISPC reliability and predictive validity on the daily consumption of sweetened products were also assessed. In stage 1, six themes and 40-items describing the situational contexts of sweetened product consumption emerged from the qualitative analysis and were used to construct the first draft of the SCISPC. In stage 2, factor analysis enabled the clarification and/or expansion of the instrument's initial thematic structure. The revised SCISPC has seven factors and 31 items describing the situational contexts of sweetened product consumption. Initial validation of the instrument indicated it has excellent internal consistency and adequate test-retest reliability. Two factors of the SCISPC had predictive validity for the daily consumption of total sugar from sweetened products (Snacking and Energy demands) while the other factors (Socialization, Indulgence, Constraints, Visual Stimuli and Emotional needs) were rather associated to occasional consumption of these products. PMID:23028597

  16. A Scopus-based examination of tobacco use publications in Middle Eastern Arab countries during the period 2003–2012

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Tobacco smoking is the main health-care problem in the world. Evaluation of scientific output in the field of tobacco use has been poorly explored in Middle Eastern Arab (MEA) countries to date, and there are few internationally published reports on research activity in tobacco use. The main objectives of this study were to analyse the research output originating from 13 MEA countries on tobacco fields and to examine the authorship pattern and the citations retrieved from the Scopus database. Methods Data from 1 January 2003 through 31 December 2012 were searched for documents with specific words regarding the tobacco field as 'keywords’ in the title in any 1 of the 13 MEA countries. Research productivity was evaluated based on a methodology developed and used in other bibliometric studies. Results Five hundred documents were retrieved from 320 peer-reviewed journals. The greatest amount of research activity was from Egypt (25.4%), followed by the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) (23.2%), Lebanon (16.3%), and Jordan (14.8%). The total number of citations for the 560 documents, at the time of data analysis (27 August 2013), was 5,585, with a mean ± SD of 9.95 ± 22.64 and a median (interquartile range) of 3(1–10). The h-index of the retrieved documents was 34. This study identified 232 (41.4%) documents from 53 countries in MEA-foreign country collaborations. By region, MEA collaborated most often with countries in the Americas (29.6%), followed by countries in the same MEA region (13.4%), especially KSA and Egypt. Conclusions The present data reveal a promising rise and a good start for research productivity in the tobacco field in the Arab world. Research output is low in some countries, which can be improved by investing in more international and national collaborative research projects in the field of tobacco. PMID:24885706

  17. An Examination of Successful Leadership Behaviors Exhibited by Middle School Principals in Stimulating and Sustaining African-American Students' Achievement on the California Standards Test in Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Jacqueline

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this research study was to examine leadership behaviors of middle school principals who have been successful in stimulating and sustaining African-American students' mathematics achievement on the California Standards Test. Specifically, this research sought to answer the following questions: 1) How do middle school principal…

  18. Signatures of solar event at middle and low latitudes in the Europe-African sector, during geomagnetic storms, October 2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azzouzi, I.; Migoya-Orué, Y.; Amory Mazaudier, C.; Fleury, R.; Radicella, S. M.; Touzani, A.

    2015-11-01

    This paper presents the variability of the total electron content, VTEC, the ROTI index (proxy of the scintillation index) and the transient variations of the Earth's magnetic field associated to the impacts of solar events during October 2013. The observations are from middle and low latitudes in European African longitude sector. During October 2013, there are four solar events reaching the Earth. The two first events, on October 2 and October 8 are CME, the third event on October 14, is a jet of fast solar wind flowing from a solar coronal hole, and the last event on October 30 is a slow solar wind with southward excursions of the Bz component of the interplanetary magnetic field, associated to CME passing near the Earth. For the four events, the variation of VTEC at middle latitudes is the same and presents an increase of VTEC at the time of the impact followed by a decrease of VTEC, lasting one or several days. At low latitudes, no clear common pattern for all the events appears. For the four events the variation of the ROTI index over Africa is different showing the asymmetry between West and East Africa. For the first event, on October 2, the scintillations are not inhibited, for the second and the fourth events on October 8 and 30, the scintillations are inhibited on East Africa and for the third event (high speed solar wind stream), on October 14, the scintillations are inhibited over the whole Africa. The available data allow the full explanation of the observations of October 14, indeed, on this day, there is no post sunset increase of the virtual height h‧F2 at Ascension Island. There is no Pre Reversal Enhancement (PRE) of the eastward electric field; it is this electric field which moves up the F layer, the necessary condition for the existence of scintillation. The analysis of the variations of the Earth's magnetic field at low latitudes highlights the presence of the ionospheric disturbance dynamo on October 14, which produces a decrease of the

  19. Kinematic evolution of Andean fold-thrust structures along the boundary between the Eastern Cordillera and Middle Magdalena Valley basin, Colombia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    SáNchez, Javier; Horton, Brian K.; Tesón, Eliseo; Mora, AndréS.; Ketcham, Richard A.; Stockli, Daniel F.

    2012-06-01

    Surface and subsurface data support a kinematic reconstruction of Cenozoic fold-thrust deformation along the Eastern Cordillera-Magdalena Valley transition in Colombia. The La Salina fault (LSF) marks the boundary between west-vergent Eastern Cordillera structures and hinterland deposits of the Middle Magdalena Valley basin. Apatite fission track and (U-Th)/He thermochronological results for the west-directed LSF reveal initial hanging wall exhumation during middle Eocene-early Oligocene (45-30 Ma) shortening, renewed exhumation in the early middle Miocene (18-12 Ma), and accelerated late Miocene-Pliocene (12-3 Ma) exhumation. Vitrinite reflectance data suggest maximum burial of 4-6 km, helping constrain Cenozoic basin architecture. Mapping of the LSF reveals hanging wall Cretaceous-Eocene rocks in a broad anticline-syncline pair with limited faulting and footwall Eocene-Quaternary basin fill in a complex series of tight thrust-related folds. Limited displacement along the westernmost (frontal) thrust suggests that shortening is largely accommodated by east-directed thrusting within a broader triangle zone of a passive-roof duplex (and probable minor strike-slip deformation). In the preferred kinematic restoration, the most recent phase of shortening to transpressional deformation represents out-of-sequence reactivation of the LSF consistent with irregular crosscutting relationships among footwall structures. Earliest exhumation by 45-30 Ma in the Eastern Cordillera fold-thrust belt is correlated with increased sedimentary lithic fragments and high compositional maturity in sandstones of the adjacent Magdalena Valley basin. Exhumation since ˜15 Ma coincided with decreased compositional maturity and elevated accumulation rates for the Real Group. The compositional provenance shifts are attributed to westward advance of fold-thrust deformation into the proximal (eastern) segments of the Magdalena Valley basin.

  20. Comparative Transcriptomics of Eastern African Cichlid Fishes Shows Signs of Positive Selection and a Large Contribution of Untranslated Regions to Genetic Diversity

    PubMed Central

    Baldo, Laura; Santos, M.Emília; Salzburger, Walter

    2011-01-01

    The hundreds of endemic species of cichlid fishes in the East African Great Lakes Tanganyika, Malawi, and Victoria are a prime model system in evolutionary biology. With five genomes currently being sequenced, eastern African cichlids also represent a forthcoming genomic model for evolutionary studies of genotype-to-phenotype processes in adaptive radiations. Here we report the functional annotation and comparative analyses of transcriptome data sets for two eastern African cichlid species, Astatotilapia burtoni and Ophthalmotilapia ventralis, representatives of the modern haplochromines and ectodines, respectively. Nearly 647,000 expressed sequence tags were assembled in more than 46,000 contigs for each species using the 454 sequencing technology, largely expanding the current sequence data set publicly available for these cichlids. Total predicted coverage of their proteome diversity is approximately 50% for both species. Comparative qualitative and quantitative analyses show very similar transcriptome data for the two species in terms of both functional annotation and relative abundance of gene ontology terms expressed. Average genetic distance between species is 1.75% when all transcript types are considered including nonannotated sequences, 1.33% for annotated sequences only including untranslated regions, and decreases to nearly half, 0.95%, for coding sequences only, suggesting a large contribution of noncoding regions to their genetic diversity. Comparative analyses across the two species, tilapia and the outgroup medaka based on an overlapping data set of 1,216 genes (∼526 kb) demonstrate cichlid-specific signature of disruptive selection and provide a set of candidate genes that are putatively under positive selection. Overall, these data sets offer the genetic platform for future comparative analyses in light of the upcoming genomes for this taxonomic group. PMID:21617250

  1. The Effect of Using Rapping To Teach Selected Musical Forms to Urban African American Middle School Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akintunde, Omowale

    A study determined the effects of a pedagogical approach using rap music on the learning of musical forms among urban African American youth and whether there were differential effects among students of different levels of self-esteem. Urban African American youth (n=66) from the St. Louis County Public Schools who were enrolled in general music…

  2. A bibliometric analysis of toxicology research productivity in Middle Eastern Arab countries during a 10-year period (2003–2012)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Bibliometric studies are increasingly being used for research assessment by involving the application of statistical methods to scientific publications to obtain the bibliographics for each country. The main objective of this study was to analyse the research productivity originating from 13 Middle Eastern Arab (MEA) countries with articles published in toxicology journals. Methods Data from January 1, 2003 till December 31, 2012 were searched for documents with specific words in the toxicology field as a “source title” in any one of the 13 MEA countries. Research productivity was evaluated based on a methodology developed and used in other bibliometric studies. Research productivity was adjusted to the national population and nominal gross domestic product (GDP) per capita. Results Documents (n = 1,240) were retrieved from 73 international peer-reviewed toxicology journals. The h-index of the retrieved documents was 39. Of the 73 journal titles, 52 (69.9%) have their IF listed in the ISI Journal Citation Reports 2012; 198 documents (16.0%) were published in journals that had no official IF. After adjusting for economy and population power, Egypt (193.6), Palestine (18.1), Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) (13.0), and Jordan (11.5) had the highest research productivity. Countries with large economies, such as the Kuwait, United Arab Emirates (UAE), and Oman, tended to rank relatively low after adjustment of GDP. The total number of citations at the time of data analysis (August 4, 2013) was 10,991, with a median (interquartile range) of 4 (1–11). MEA collaborated more with countries in the MEA regions (16.7%), especially KSA, Egypt, and UAE, followed by Europe (14.4%), especially with the United Kingdom and Germany. Conclusions The present data show a promising rise and a good start for toxicology research activity in toxicology journals in the Arab world. Research output is low in some countries, which can be improved by investing in more

  3. Poor reproductive health among a group of socially damaged Middle Eastern women: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Mohammadi, Gohar; Amiraliakbari, Sedigheh; Ramezankhani, Ali; Majd, Hamid Alavi

    2011-01-01

    . Contraception was completely ignored in 44.6% of participants. Among eligible women, 53.3% never participated in cervical cancer screening examination. Mean sexual performance scale score was 21.9 (5.5) and 75 (83.3%) participants scored less than 28. Conclusion A high prevalence of poor reproductive health was documented among a group of Middle Eastern socially damaged women. PMID:22140328

  4. The Relationship between Body Size and Depressed Mood: Findings from a Sample of African American Middle School Girls

    PubMed Central

    Granberg, Ellen M.; Simons, Ronald L.; Gibbons, Frederick X.; Melby, Janet Nieuwsma

    2009-01-01

    The relationship between body weight and depression among adolescent females has been the subject of considerable attention from researchers. The risk of experiencing this distress, however, is not equally distributed across members of all racial groups. African American girls are generally more satisfied with their bodies and thus may be less vulnerable to experiencing depression as a result of weight concerns. Several scholars have suggested that membership in African American culture provides social resources that protect black females from experiencing high levels of weight-based psychological distress. We examine the relationship between body size and depression and the potentially moderating role of African American cultural experiences using data from the Family and Community Health Study (FACHS). Assessing a cohort of 342 African American girls ages 12-14, we found support for a link between weight and depression. There was no evidence, however, that exposure to African American culture moderated this relationship. PMID:19834569

  5. Middle Stone Age (MSA) site distributions in eastern Africa and their relationship to Quaternary environmental change, refugia and the evolution of Homo sapiens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basell, Laura S.

    2008-12-01

    This paper considers the evolution of Homo sapiens in eastern Africa in relation to refugia and bottlenecks around ˜200 ka BP, at a macro scale. Middle Stone Age (MSA) lithics, site distributions and locations are analysed in relation to palaeovegetation maps of the last glacial/interglacial cycle, which are used as a proxy for earlier climate cycles. A "push and pull" model is then postulated for the spread of Homo sapiens out of refugia in eastern Africa, involving both volcanism (push) and habitat availability (pull). A date within OIS 5 is suggested for this expansion to other parts of the continent, and potentially further afield, contrary to a frequently proposed expansion within OIS 3.

  6. Middle Triassic shallow-water limestones from the Upper Muschelkalk of eastern France: the origin and depositional environment of some early Mesozoic fine-grained limestones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duringer, Philippe; Vecsei, Adam

    1998-10-01

    We have analyzed the sedimentary structures, depositional geometries, and petrography of a Middle Triassic fine-grained limestone succession from the Upper Muschelkalk in the intracratonic Germanic Basin. The limestones occur in a unit, several metres thick, that extends over an area of at least 2500 km 2 in eastern France. The geometry of specific wave ripples and small channels filled by lateral-accretion bedded limestones, and the cyclic sedimentation of the Upper Muschelkalk in eastern France indicate deposition on a very shallow subtidal shelf, commonly under the influence of relatively strong currents. The limestones mostly consist of microspar with a few skeletal grains. The formation of current ripples in the fine-grained limestones appear to be incompatible with an originally muddy grain size. The major part of the microsparite may thus have originated from the recrystallization of silt-size carbonate grains, e.g., calcispheres or peloids.

  7. The karyotype of the middle-African hedgehog Atelerix albiventris Wagner, 1841 and its cytotaxonomical relationships to other Erinaceinae (Insectivora: Erinaceidae).

    PubMed

    Hübner, R; Maddalena, T; Poduschka, W

    1991-01-01

    Like other hedgehog species investigated hitherto, also the Middle African species Atelerix albiventris has a diploid number of 48 chromosomes. However, Aethechinus and Atelerix display quite distinct cytogenetic characteristics compared to the hedgehog genera Erinaceus, Hemiechinus and Paraechinus. Individual chromosome structures and reactivities permit the recognition of similarities to the Algerian hedgehog Aethechinus algirus and indicate their close relationship. Nevertheless, the proposal by Corbet (1988) to merge the two taxa into one genus, which is contrary to Robbins and Setzer (1985) remains to be clarified by further investigations. PMID:1879689

  8. Blood vitamins and trace elements in Northern-East African cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus soemmeringii) in captivity in the Middle East.

    PubMed

    Beckmann, Katie M; O'Donovan, Declan; McKeown, Sean; Wernery, Ulli; Basu, Puja; Bailey, Tom A

    2013-09-01

    There are few published data regarding the endangered Northern-East African cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus soemmeringii), held in captivity in the Middle East and Europe. Studies have demonstrated a high incidence of disease in captive cheetahs, in which vitamin and trace element imbalances have often been implicated. Blood vitamin and trace element reference values in cheetahs merit further investigation. In this study, blood samples were opportunistically collected from apparently healthy A. j. soemmeringii from two collections (A and B) with successful breeding programs in the United Arab Emirates. The cheetahs were fed whole prey of mixed species (and, in Collection B, goat muscle and bone as well) dusted with vitamin and mineral supplements. Mean serum vitamin and trace element values (for cheetahs > 4 mo in age) were as follows: vitamin A (retinol), 2.20 microM/L (n = 27); vitamin B1, 0.0818 microM/L (n = 45); vitamin C, 28.6 microM/L (n=10); vitamin E (alpha-tocopherol), 35.6 microM/L (n = 27); copper (Cu), 12.53 microM/L (n = 27); selenium (Se), 3.10 microM/L (n = 27); and zinc (Zn), 10.87 microM/L (n = 27). Mean values of vitamin A, vitamin E, Cu, and Zn fell within ranges of published cheetah mean values, and mean Se was lower than range values for cheetahs presented in one previous study; blood vitamin B1 and vitamin C values of cheetahs have not previously been published. The values were taken to indicate that the cheetahs' nutritional status was adequate with regard to those nutrients analyzed. Serum vitamin E was particularly high in cheetahs fed fresh whole prey, and on this basis vitamin E supplementation of fresh whole prey appeared to have been unnecessary. There were differences (P < 0.05) between collections in serum vitamin B1, vitamin E, Cu, and 10 other hematologic and biochemical parameters. Nine hematologic and blood biochemical parameters differed among age categories. PMID:24063089

  9. The role of sex, self-perception, and school bonding in predicting academic achievement among middle class African American early adolescents.

    PubMed

    Eisele, Heather; Zand, Debra H; Thomson, Nicole Renick

    2009-01-01

    To date, little research has addressed within-group variables as predictors of academic achievement among middle-class African American youth. The present study helped fill this gap by investigating the role of sex, self-perceptions, and school bonding as predictors of academic success among 174 middle class early adolescent boys (n = 91) and girls residing in a large Midwestern city. Results of a path analysis indicated that gender identity fully mediated the relationship between biological sex and adolescents' perceptions of peer acceptance. Perceptions of peer acceptance were positively related to perceptions of behavior, which, in turn, were related to school bonding. School bonding was then related to academic achievement. The findings are discussed within the context of helping educators to better meet students' educational needs. PMID:20432600

  10. Petrology and geodynamic significance of the post-collisional Pan-African magmatism in the Eastern Saghro area (Anti-Atlas, Morocco)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Errami, E.; Bonin, B.; Laduron, D.; Lasri, L.

    2009-09-01

    The Saghro Group consists of a thick volcanic-sedimentary sequence with intercalated basaltic lavas, the first magmatic event in eastern Saghro area. Nd isotopes of basaltic pillow lavas show T DM model ages ranging from 640 to 580 Ma, which represent a maximum age for basalt eruption. Granitoids within the Saghro Group consist of a charnockitic suite, tonalites, granodiorites and monzogranites. They are high-K calc-alkaline (HKCA) with a post-collisional character, and were emplaced at high-levels in the crust. Their ages of emplacement are within the 580-560 Ma bracket, implying that the entire Saghro Group is slightly older than or partly coeval to granitoid emplacement and implying a common geodynamical setting. Sr-Nd isotopic compositions and Nd T DM model ages point to a mixed origin, combining a juvenile mantle source and an Eburnean crustal component, which could be the West African Craton (WAC). The juvenile component in the Saghro granitoids could be the depleted upper mantle that has sourced the earlier basalts. Field observations, geochemical and geochronological data together support that, during the Pan-African orogeny, the Anti-Atlas was subjected to a regional transpressional to transtensional event. This event would have been responsible for the dissection of the northern margin of the WAC into several blocks, the development of deep sedimentary basins and the emplacement of HKCA magmas.

  11. Determinants of Women's Education in the Middle East and North Africa: Illustrations from Seven Countries. PHREE Background Paper Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    El-Sanabary, Nagat

    Despite considerable progress by Middle Eastern and North African countries in improving opportunities for women to access and attain education at all levels, much remains to be done. This report focuses on three sets of highly inter-related determinants of access, achievement, and outcome--macro-level societal determinants, school…

  12. Transition from a localized to wide deformation along Eastern branch of Central East African Rift: Insights from 3D numerical models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leroy, S. D.; Koptev, A.; Burov, E. B.; Calais, E.; Gerya, T.

    2015-12-01

    The Central East African Rift (CEAR) bifurcates in two branches (eastern, magma-rich and western, magma-poor) surrounding strong Tanzanian craton. Intensive magmatism and continental flood basalts are largely present in many of the eastern rift segments, but other segments, first of all the western branch, exhibit very small volcanic activity. The Eastern rift is characterized by southward progression of the onset of volcanism, the extensional features and topographic expression of the rift vary significantly north-southward: in northern Kenya the deformation is very wide (some 150-250 km in E-W direction), to the south the rift narrows to 60-70 km, yet further to the south the deformation widens again in the so-called Tanzania divergence zone. Widening of the Eastern branch within its southern part is associated with the impingement of the southward-propagating rift on the strong Masai block situated to east of the Tanzanian craton. To understand the mechanisms behind this complex deformation distribution, we implemented a 3Dl ultra-high resolution visco-plastic thermo-mechanical numerical model accounting for thermo-rheological structure of the lithosphere and hence captures essential features of the CEAR. The preferred model has a plume seeded slightly to the northeast of the craton center, consistent with seismic tomography, and produces surface strain distribution that is in good agreement with observed variation of deformation zone width along eastern side of Tanzanian craton: localized above bulk of mantle material deflected by cratonic keel narrow high strain zone (Kenia Rift) is replaced by wide distributed deformations within areas situated to north (northern Kenya, Turkana Rift) and to south (Tanzania divergence, Masai block) of it. These results demonstrate significant differences in the impact of the rheological profile on rifting style in case of dominant active rifting compared to dominant passive rifting. Narrow rifting, conventionally attributed to

  13. Late Pan-African granite emplacement during regional deformation, evidence from magnetic fabric and structural studies in the Hammamat-Atalla area, Central Eastern Desert of Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greiling, R. O.; de Wall, H.; Sadek, M. F.; Dietl, C.

    2014-11-01

    Field investigations, microstructural observations, and magnetic fabric analyses revealed a polyphase, late Pan-African deformational evolution in the Um Sheqila-Um Had (595 Ma) composite pluton and in the Hammamat and Atalla areas of the Central Eastern Desert of Egypt in Ediacaran times. Major stages are early shortening (NNW-SSE), subsequent strike-slip (NW-SE shear zones), and late shortening (NW-SE). Strain studies on pebbles and xenoliths together with AMS data show a predominance of shallow, NW-SE trending X axes or magnetic lineations, associated with steep, NW-SE striking magnetic foliations. Magnetic fabrics and microstructures indicate a tectonic fabric in the Um Sheqila-Um Had granitoid plutons, which is dominated by steep NW-SE striking foliations and shallow NW-SE trending lineations, similar to those in the high-angle Atalla Shear Zone. There is a change of lineation directions from ESE-WNW at Um Sheqila (oldest) to NW-SE to Um Had II (youngest). This pattern may indicate an influence of strike-slip and is also consistent with NE-SW compression. This holds also true for the asymmetry of the contact aureole, which is extended towards NW, parallel with the trend of the magnetic lineation. The character and orientation of the deformation pattern in the Um Sheqila-Um Had plutons and the Atalla Shear Zone is thus similar to the pattern of the late shortening phase. The intrusion of the Um Sheqila-Um Had granitoid rocks, therefore, took place before the late shortening stage, but postdates early deformation, which, according to published data, was associated with lithospheric thinning in the Central Eastern Desert. Therefore, these Pan-African plutons do not represent the earliest post-deformational intrusions but a late stage of syn-deformational magmatic activity. At a regional scale, this deformation with steep foliations and shallow lineations may also be related with lateral escape tectonics. The pluton emplacement, the importance of transcurrent

  14. Impact of climate change on the water resources of the eastern Mediterranean and Middle East region: Modeled 21st century changes and implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chenoweth, Jonathan; Hadjinicolaou, Panos; Bruggeman, Adriana; Lelieveld, Jos; Levin, Zev; Lange, Manfred A.; Xoplaki, Elena; Hadjikakou, Michalis

    2011-06-01

    The likely effects of climate change on the water resources of the eastern Mediterranean and Middle East region are investigated using a high-resolution regional climate model (PRECIS) by comparing precipitation simulations of 2040-2069 and 2070-2099 with 1961-1990. The simulations show about a 10% decline in precipitation across the region by both the middle and the end of the century, with considerable variation between countries and international river basins. Results suggest that per capita water resources will not change particularly significantly in southeastern Europe, where they are relatively plentiful and population growth is minimal. However, in much of the Middle East, climate change coupled with population growth is likely to reduce per capita water resources considerably. This will inevitably result in major social, economic, and environmental change in the region. Countries where the required adaptation is likely to be particularly challenging include Turkey and Syria because of the large agricultural workforces, Iraq because of the magnitude of the change and its downstream location, and Jordan because of its meager per capita water resources coupled with limited options for desalination. If the internal water footprint of the region declines in line with precipitation but the total water footprint of the region increases in line with population, then by midcentury, as much as half the total water needs of the region may need to be provided through desalination and imported in the form of virtual water.

  15. The Palisades is a key reference site for the middle Pleistocene of eastern Beringia: new evidence from paleomagnetics and regional tephrostratigraphy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jensen, Britta J. L.; Reyes, Alberto V.; Froese, Duane G.; Stone, David B.

    2013-03-01

    The Palisades, in central Alaska, is one of the most prominent exposures of Quaternary sediments on the Yukon River. Perennially-frozen silt and sand at the Palisades are presently thought to preserve paleoenvironmental records from the Holocene to ˜Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 8 and, beneath a major unconformity, the earliest Pleistocene (˜2 Ma). We present new paleomagnetic and tephrochronologic constraints that substantially revise the age of the sediments at the Palisades. We describe 15 new tephra beds, including five beds below the prominent PAL tephra that correlate to known tephra with independent age control from other sites in eastern Beringia. These five known tephra include Chester Bluff tephra, which is present in east-central Alaska and the Yukon, and the newly named Alyeska Pipeline and Taylor Highway tephra from central Alaska; all are constrained to the middle Pleistocene. Paleomagnetic transects from the base of the bluff to the MIS 5e forest bed yield normal polarity, with the exception of a brief reversal event between Old Crow tephra (124 ± 10 ka) and the MIS 5e forest bed that is likely the first documentation of the Blake paleomagnetic event in Alaskan loess. The detailed tephrostratigraphy and paleomagnetic data collectively suggest that most of the sedimentary record at the Palisades is middle Pleistocene in age. The Palisades thus preserves a rare record of late to middle Pleistocene paleoenvironments with multiple regionally distributed tephra beds.

  16. Under the Sun or in the Shade? Jua Kali in African Countries. National Policy Definition in Technical and Vocational Education: Beyond the Formal Sector. A Subregional Seminar for Eastern and Southern African Countries (Nairobi, Kenya, September 15-19, 1997). International project on Technical and Vocational Education (UNEVOC).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Berlin (Germany).

    This document is a comprehensive report a subregional seminar for eastern and southern African countries on the Jua Kali movement. (Jua Kali, "hot sun" in Swahili, refers to the informal or nonformal sector of the economy.) Section 1 explains the role of the International Project on Technical and Vocational Education (UNEVOC) in the development of…

  17. Mesozoic magmatism in an upper- to middle-crustal section through the Cordilleran continental margin arc, eastern Transverse Ranges, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Needy, S.K.; Anderson, J.L.; Wooden, J.L.; Fleck, R.J.; Barth, A.P.; Paterson, S.R.; Memeti, V.; Pignotta, G.S.

    2009-01-01

    The eastern Transverse Ranges provide essentially continuous exposure for >100 km across the strike of the Mesozoic Cordilleran orogen. Thermobarometric calculations based on hornblende and plagioclase compositions in Mesozoic plutonic rocks show that the fi rst-order distribution of rock units resulted from differential Laramide exhumation. Mesozoic supracrustal rocks are preserved in the relatively little exhumed eastern part of the eastern Transverse Ranges and south-central Mojave Desert, and progressively greater rock uplift and exhumation toward the west exposed rocks originating at mid-crustal depths. The eastern Transverse Ranges thus constitute a tilted, nearly continuously exposed crustal section of the Mesozoic magmatic arc and framework rocks from subvolcanic levels to paleodepths as great as ??22 km. The base of this tilted arc section is a moderately east-dipping sheeted magmatic complex >10 km in width by 70 km in length, constructed structurally beneath, yet synchronous with Late Jurassic and Cretaceous upper-crustal plutons. Geochronology and regional structural relations thus suggest that arc magmas generated in the lower crust of this continental arc interacted in a complex mid-crustal zone of crystallization and mixing; products of this zone were parental magmas that formed relatively homogeneous upper crustal felsic plutons and fed lavas and voluminous ignimbrites. ?? 2009 The Geological Society of America.

  18. Psychological distress mediates the association between daytime sleepiness and consumption of sweetened products: cross-sectional findings in a Catholic Middle-Eastern Canadian community

    PubMed Central

    Moubarac, Jean-Claude; Cargo, Margaret; Receveur, Olivier; Daniel, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Objective To examine the associations between consumption of sweetened products, daytime sleepiness (DS) and psychological distress (PD) in a Catholic Middle-Eastern Canadian community, and to test the hypothesis that the association between DS and consumption of sweetened products is mediated by PD. Design A cross-sectional study. Setting A Catholic Middle-Eastern Canadian community. Participants 186 men and women aged between 18 and 60 years. Primary and secondary outcome measures Sweetened product consumption was measured using a food frequency questionnaire (total sugars/day). DS and PD were measured using standardised questionnaires. The generalised linear model was used to estimate associations between sweetened product consumption, age, sex, self-reported body mass index, DS and PD. Baron and Kenny's four-step approach in addition to the Sobel test were used to establish mediation. Results Average DS score was 8.2 (SD=4.5) with 19.5% having excessive scores (>12). Mean PD score was 20.8 (SD=6.2) with 11.8% having high distress scores. Average consumption of sweetened products was 15.5 g/day (SD=13.9). Baron and Kenny's three steps to establish partial mediation were confirmed. First, DS was associated with consumption of sweetened products (p<0.03). Second, DS and PD were correlated (r=0.197; p<0.04). Third, PD was associated with consumption of sweetened products (p<0.01) when both PD and DS were entered as predictors in a multivariate regression. However, Baron and Kenny's fourth step to establish complete mediation was not met. The effect of DS on consumption of sweetened products controlling for PD was reduced, but it was not zero. Finally, the Sobel test was significant (2.14; p<0.03). Conclusions The association between DS and consumption of sweetened products in the Catholic Middle-Eastern Canadian community is partially mediated by psychological distress. Further work should test this mediation relationship in larger samples and verify the

  19. The African superswell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nyblade, Andrew A.; Robinson, Scott W.

    1994-01-01

    Maps of residual bathymetry in the ocean basins around the African continent reveal a broad bathymetric swell in the southeastern Atlantic Ocean with an amplitude of about 500 m. We propose that this region of anomalously shallow bathymetry, together with the contiguous eastern and southern African plateaus, form a superswell which we refer to as the African superswell. The origin of the African superswell is uncertain. However, rifting and volcanism in eastern Africa, as well as heat flow measurements in southern Africa and the southeastern Atlantic Ocean, suggest that the superswell may be attributed, at least in part, to heating of the lithosphere.

  20. The Effect of Tutoring and Mentoring on Student Success in Single-Parent Middle Class African American Households

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Lachelle Yavette

    2013-01-01

    Evidence suggests that African American male students from single mother households may face more challenges than white male students in obtaining educational success in terms of graduation and test performance. This association has been generated from previous studies that identified themes of poverty, parents' lack of education, absent…

  1. The Relationship between Body Size and Depressed Mood: Findings from a Sample of African American Middle School Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Granberg, Ellen M.; Simons, Ronald L.; Gibbons, Frederick X.; Melby, Janet Nieuwsma

    2008-01-01

    The relationship between body weight and depression among adolescent females has been the subject of considerable attention from researchers. The risk of experiencing this distress, however, is not equally distributed across members of all racial groups. African American girls are generally more satisfied with their bodies and thus may be less…

  2. Longitudinal Effects of Family Factors on Alcohol Use among African American and White Non-Hispanic Males during Middle School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horton, E. Gail; Gil, Andres

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the longitudinal effects of five family factors (familism, parent derogation, parent-child communication, family alcohol problems, and family drug problems) on intensity of alcohol use among a sample of 451 African American and White non-Hispanic males from early to mid-adolescence (sixth through eighth grades). Results…

  3. The Identity Status of African Americans in Middle Adolescence: A Replication and Extension of Forbes and Ashton (1998).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Branch, Curtis W.; Boothe, Barrington

    2002-01-01

    This study is a replication and extension of the work of Forbes and Ashton (1998). Seventy-seven African American high school students completed the revised version of the Extended Objective Measure of Ego Identity Status. Most of the students were found to be in uncommitted identity statuses. Similar results were found in both ideological and…

  4. Cultural Learning Context as It Relates to Efficacy and the Mathematics Performance of African-American Middle School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burrell, Jennifer O.

    2012-01-01

    Nearly 20 years of empirical work has demonstrated that cultural-asset focused learning environments can improve the academic performance of African-American students. One example is communal learning context, which shifts students' motivational primacy from the individual to the social group. Considering the critical role of efficacy beliefs in…

  5. Perceptions of Parenting Practices as Predictors of Aggression in a Low-Income, Urban, Predominately African American Middle School Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray, Kantahyanee W.; Haynie, Denise L.; Howard, Donna E.; Cheng, Tina L.; Simons-Morton, Bruce

    2010-01-01

    This research examined the relation between early adolescent aggression and parenting practices in an urban, predominately African American sample. Sixth graders (N = 209) completed questionnaires about their overt and relational aggressive behaviors and perceptions of caregivers' parenting practices. Findings indicated that moderate levels of…

  6. North African Jewish and non-Jewish populations form distinctive, orthogonal clusters.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Christopher L; Palamara, Pier F; Dubrovsky, Maya; Botigué, Laura R; Fellous, Marc; Atzmon, Gil; Oddoux, Carole; Pearlman, Alexander; Hao, Li; Henn, Brenna M; Burns, Edward; Bustamante, Carlos D; Comas, David; Friedman, Eitan; Pe'er, Itsik; Ostrer, Harry

    2012-08-21

    North African Jews constitute the second largest Jewish Diaspora group. However, their relatedness to each other; to European, Middle Eastern, and other Jewish Diaspora groups; and to their former North African non-Jewish neighbors has not been well defined. Here, genome-wide analysis of five North African Jewish groups (Moroccan, Algerian, Tunisian, Djerban, and Libyan) and comparison with other Jewish and non-Jewish groups demonstrated distinctive North African Jewish population clusters with proximity to other Jewish populations and variable degrees of Middle Eastern, European, and North African admixture. Two major subgroups were identified by principal component, neighbor joining tree, and identity-by-descent analysis-Moroccan/Algerian and Djerban/Libyan-that varied in their degree of European admixture. These populations showed a high degree of endogamy and were part of a larger Ashkenazi and Sephardic Jewish group. By principal component analysis, these North African groups were orthogonal to contemporary populations from North and South Morocco, Western Sahara, Tunisia, Libya, and Egypt. Thus, this study is compatible with the history of North African Jews-founding during Classical Antiquity with proselytism of local populations, followed by genetic isolation with the rise of Christianity and then Islam, and admixture following the emigration of Sephardic Jews during the Inquisition. PMID:22869716

  7. North African Jewish and non-Jewish populations form distinctive, orthogonal clusters

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Christopher L.; Palamara, Pier F.; Dubrovsky, Maya; Botigué, Laura R.; Fellous, Marc; Atzmon, Gil; Oddoux, Carole; Pearlman, Alexander; Hao, Li; Henn, Brenna M.; Burns, Edward; Bustamante, Carlos D.; Comas, David; Friedman, Eitan; Pe'er, Itsik; Ostrer, Harry

    2012-01-01

    North African Jews constitute the second largest Jewish Diaspora group. However, their relatedness to each other; to European, Middle Eastern, and other Jewish Diaspora groups; and to their former North African non-Jewish neighbors has not been well defined. Here, genome-wide analysis of five North African Jewish groups (Moroccan, Algerian, Tunisian, Djerban, and Libyan) and comparison with other Jewish and non-Jewish groups demonstrated distinctive North African Jewish population clusters with proximity to other Jewish populations and variable degrees of Middle Eastern, European, and North African admixture. Two major subgroups were identified by principal component, neighbor joining tree, and identity-by-descent analysis—Moroccan/Algerian and Djerban/Libyan—that varied in their degree of European admixture. These populations showed a high degree of endogamy and were part of a larger Ashkenazi and Sephardic Jewish group. By principal component analysis, these North African groups were orthogonal to contemporary populations from North and South Morocco, Western Sahara, Tunisia, Libya, and Egypt. Thus, this study is compatible with the history of North African Jews—founding during Classical Antiquity with proselytism of local populations, followed by genetic isolation with the rise of Christianity and then Islam, and admixture following the emigration of Sephardic Jews during the Inquisition. PMID:22869716

  8. Media influence on pre-middle school African Americans' perceptions toward science, mathematics, and technology courses and careers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waters, Sharon Campbell

    2005-07-01

    A variety of previous studies have suggested that inaccurate, stereotypical or missing media depictions of science, engineering, and technology (SET) workers and fields have contributed to a growing shortage of youth interested in pursuing careers within the scientific endeavor. However, studies on the perceptions of African American youth have not usually been the focus of such research. In this exploratory study, in-depth interviews were conducted with 34 fifth grade African American students to determine the relative influence television and film portrayals of SET workers had on these children's perceptions of roles in SET fields and careers and school coursework related to them. Framed within the theoretical perspectives of cultivation analysis and the construction of social reality, results indicated the majority of participants perceived scientists as ambiguous, possessing either mythic characteristics of the fantastic persona or they saw them as altruistically inclined figures that saved the world from disease, destruction, and decay. Television and film portrayals of SET workers were found in varying degrees and ways to shape these African American children's perceptions toward SET careers. While children exhibited self-concepts about SET workers that were sometimes idealistic, distorted, or unrealistic, most had favorable perceptions toward math and science courses in school. However, it was the absence of television and film portrayals of African Americans in SET roles that was problematic for the majority of students. Recommendations for media producers, educators, scientific research foundations, and parents were suggested to dispel some of these commonly found media stereotypes of SET workers and African Americans in these roles and their effects.

  9. African American Girls' Perceptions of Their Adjustment from Coeducational Elementary Schools to a Single-Gender Middle School, and How They Believe Educators Can Best Support This Transition: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Presley, Christal L.

    2009-01-01

    his qualitative and quantitative study investigated student perceptions of seventh-grade African American females who transitioned from a coeducational elementary school to a single-gender middle school. This study was conducted by surveying students, having them answer writing prompts, and interviewing them. Data furnished by the respondents was…

  10. Portrait of a pragmatic conservative: Senator James A. McClure of Idaho and the politics of United States energy and Middle Eastern affairs, 1967--1990

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woods-Davis, Wilma

    This dissertation examines the political career of Senator James A. McClure as it relates to United States energy policy and Middle Eastern affairs, 1967-1990 and within the context of the modern (post-World War II) conservative movement. A pragmatic conservative, McClure sought a balance between the extremes of issues, especially as they related to energy and United States foreign policy toward the Arab-Israeli conflict in the Middle East. More often than not, this quiet senator from Idaho was the voice of reason and moderation, carefully analyzing all sides of the issue before submitting his views on the subject. His approach to energy policy represents his conservative expression of policy, while his approach to the Arab-Israeli conflict in the Middle East demonstrates his moderation, reason, and pragmatism. He called for a national energy plan that would promote domestic production of natural energy resources, energy conservation, and peace in the Middle East. He early warned that if the United States did not develop a comprehensive energy policy, the nation would soon face energy shortages. His cautionary statements went unnoticed until the first energy crisis in 1973 and 1974. Although McClure did not support reliance on imported oil to meet energy demand, he did advocate a change in direction in foreign policy. The United States must take a more even-handed approach to the Arab-Israeli conflict and consider the Arab position too in the historic debate. He continually urged a pro-Israeli congress to rethink its policies in this area. In addition to his senate duties, McClure acted as an unofficial goodwill ambassador to many of the Arab leaders in the Middle East. He made at least nine trips to the Middle East to discuss issues of energy, trade, peace, and war. He developed a working rapport with some Arab leaders, and did much to enhance the United States image in the region. He did this at a time in American history when Congress and the public were slow to

  11. Negotiating the Confluence: Middle-Eastern, Immigrant, Sexual-Minority Men and Concerns for Learning and Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eichler, Matthew A.; Mizzi, Robert C.

    2013-01-01

    Sexual-minority male immigrants re-locating from the Middle East to the United States and Canada have particular experiences upon entry and integration into their new societies. The needs of learning and identity are highlighted through a multiple case approach involving three men. Interviews were conducted with the three participants, which were…

  12. First data on the environment and climate change within the Zhom-Bolok volcanic field (Eastern Sayan Mountains) in the Middle-Late Holocene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bezrukova, E. V.; Shchetnikov, A. A.; Kuzmin, M. I.; Sharova, O. G.; Kulagina, N. V.; Letunova, P. P.; Ivanov, E. V.; Kraynov, M. A.; Kerber, E. V.; Filinov, I. A.; Levina, O. V.

    2016-05-01

    This paper considers the results of comprehensive lithological, biostratigraphic, and geochemical investigation of sediments in Khara-Nur Lake (Eastern Sayan Mountains) situated in the area of the greatest Holocene eruptions in the Central Asia Region. The age of the basal sediment layer is estimated at 6881 ± 53 years. The local natural environment and climate have undergone great changes since that time. The Holocene volcanic events did not exert a catastrophic impact on the regional landscape, but they caused dramatic changes in the local vegetation. The well-defined correlation of the regional events with the well-known records of the natural environment in the Northern Hemisphere is indicative of the decisive influence of global atmospheric circulation on restructuring the landscape and climate system in the Zhom-Bolok Region in the Middle-Late Holocene.

  13. The evolution of the Middle Triassic (Muschelkalk) carbonate ramp in the SE Iberian Ranges, eastern Spain: sequence stratigraphy, dolomitization processes and dynamic controls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López-Gómez, José; Mas, Ramón; Arche, Alfredo

    1993-11-01

    The Upper Permian—Triassic strata of the SE Iberian Ranges, eastern Spain, display the classic Germanic-type facies of Buntsandstein, Muschelkalk and Keuper. The Muschelkalk is represented by two carbonate units with a siliciclastic-evaporitic unit in between. Their ages range from Anisian to basal Carnian (Middle Triassic to base of the Upper Triassic). The carbonate units represent ramps that evolved during the early thermal subsidence period which succeeded the first rift phase. Seven facies have been distinguished, representing shoals, tidal flats, organic buildups and lagoons, as well as a karst horizon in the lower carbonatic unit. Most of the carbonates were dolomitised. Three processes of dolomitization are invoked: mixing waters, penecontemporaneous seepage refluxion, and deep burial. The top of the Buntsandstein and the Muschelkalk facies are subdivided into two depositional sequences, including lowstand, transgressive and highstand systems tracts, with superimposed tectonic and eustatic controls.

  14. Quantification of climate and vegetation from Southern African Middle Stone Age sites - an application using Late Pleistocene plant material from Sibudu, South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruch, A. A.; Sievers, C.; Wadley, L.

    2012-04-01

    The isolated geographical situation of South Africa makes the unraveling of various parameters that influence its regional climate in time challenging. If the South African climate does not exhibit a linear correlation with global archives as suggested by some authors then the contribution of independent local data that provides direct information on the environment at a certain place and time is crucial. Fossil plant remains provide valuable information on past environmental conditions. Although few paleobotanical data are available from Southern Africa, some sites reveal rich and diverse fossil floras, most notably, Sibudu Cave, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, with its numerous fruits, seeds, pollen and charcoal flora. Such plant remains not only provide information on past vegetation, but also serve as a sound base for paleoclimate quantification with the Coexistence Approach (CA). Sibudu Cave has pulses of Middle Stone Age occupation separated by hiatuses that are as long as 10 ka. Pre-Still Bay, Still Bay, Howiesons Poort, post-Howiesons Poort and late and final Middle Stone Age industries are present. Variations in vegetation and the animals preyed on through time suggest that subtle environmental changes could have occurred during MIS4 and MIS3 in the Sibudu area. Whilst always semi-forested, the region may have comprised a mosaic of uneven and changeable patches of coastal forest and savanna. These in turn might have influenced the numbers of forest versus plains animals in the area. Cultural factors could also have played a part in the faunal variability observed in Sibudu. Preliminary analyses of Sibudu Cave material confirm the potential of the CA for its application on Late Pleistocene African floras. In the future, comparison with other contemporaneous sites will help quantify spatial differences in the climate of the Late Pleistocene in South Africa, and may answer if environmental changes effected the cultural development from Still Bay to late MSA

  15. Cross-cultural challenges for assessing medical professionalism among clerkship physicians in a Middle Eastern country (Bahrain): feasibility and psychometric properties of multisource feedback

    PubMed Central

    Al Ansari, Ahmed; Al Khalifa, Khalid; Al Azzawi, Mohamed; Al Amer, Rashed; Al Sharqi, Dana; Al-Mansoor, Anwar; Munshi, Fadi M

    2015-01-01

    Background We aimed to design, implement, and evaluate the feasibility and reliability of a multisource feedback (MSF) system to assess interns in their clerkship year in the Middle Eastern culture, the Kingdom of Bahrain. Method The study was undertaken in the Bahrain Defense Force Hospital, a military teaching hospital in the Kingdom of Bahrain. A total of 21 interns (who represent the total population of the interns for the given year) were assessed in this study. All of the interns were rotating through our hospital during their year-long clerkship rotation. The study sample consisted of nine males and 12 females. Each participating intern was evaluated by three groups of raters, eight medical intern colleagues, eight senior medical colleagues, and eight coworkers from different departments. Results A total of 21 interns (nine males and 12 females) were assessed in this study. The total mean response rates were 62.3%. A factor analysis was conducted that found that the data on the questionnaire grouped into three factors that counted for 76.4% of the total variance. These three factors were labeled as professionalism, collaboration, and communication. Reliability analysis indicated that the full instrument scale had high internal consistency (Cronbach’s α 0.98). The generalizability coefficients for the surveys were estimated to be 0.78. Conclusion Based on our results and analysis, we conclude that the MSF tool we used on the interns rotating in their clerkship year within our Middle Eastern culture provides an effective method of evaluation because it offers a reliable, valid, and feasible process. PMID:26316836

  16. Science self-efficacy of African American middle school students: Relationship to motivation self-beliefs, achievement, gender, and gender orientation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Britner, Shari Lynn

    Motivation researchers have established that students' self-efficacy beliefs, the confidence they have in their academic capabilities, are related to academic outcomes. Self-efficacy has been amply researched in mathematics and language arts and nearly exclusively with White students. African American students and the area of science have each received scant attention. Typically, gender differences favor boys in mathematics and girls in language arts. Researchers have also found that these differences may be a function of gender orientation beliefs. The purpose of this study was to extend findings in science self-efficacy and to African American middle school students. I sought to determine whether self-efficacy assessed at differing levels of specificity (lab skills versus science grades) would each predict science achievement assessed at corresponding levels, to discover whether mean scores in academic motivation and achievement would differ by gender, and to determine whether these differences are a function of gender orientation (N = 268). Science grade self-efficacy was positively associated with the grades obtained by boys and by girls. For girls, grades were also associated positively with science self-concept and negatively with value of science. For reasons resulting from problematic instructional practices, lab skills self-efficacy was not associated with lab grades. Girls reported stronger science self-efficacy and received higher grades in science class. Gender orientation beliefs did not account for these differences, but masculinity and femininity were each associated with science grade self-efficacy, suggesting that androgyny is an adaptive orientation for the science self-efficacy beliefs of African American students. Findings are interpreted within the framework of A. Bandura's (1986) social cognitive theory.

  17. Oncology pharmacy units: a safety policy for handling hazardous drugs and related waste in low- and middle-income African countries—Angolan experience

    PubMed Central

    da Conceição, Ana Vaz; Bernardo, Dora; Lopes, Lygia Vieira; Miguel, Fernando; Bessa, Fernanda; Monteiro, Fernando; Santos, Cristina; Oliveira, Blasques; Santos, Lúcio Lara

    2015-01-01

    In African countries, higher rates of late-stage cancers at the time of first diagnosis are a reality. In this context, hazardous drugs (HDs), such as chemotherapy, play an important role and have immense benefits for patients’ treatment. HDs should be handled under specific conditions. At least a class 5 environment primary engineering control (PEC), physically located in an appropriate buffer area, is mandatory for sterile HDs compounding, as well as administrative control, personal protective equipment, work practices and other engineering and environmental controls, in order to protect the environment, patient, and worker. The aim of this study is to describe the Angolan experience regarding the development of oncology pharmacy units and discuss international evidence-based guidelines on handling HDs and related waste. Measures to incorporate modern and economical solutions to upgrade or build adequate and safe facilities and staff training, in order to comply with international guidelines in this area, are crucial tasks for African countries of low and middle income. PMID:26557873

  18. A new cytotype of the African pygmy mouse Mus minutoides in Eastern Africa. Implications for the evolution of sex-autosome translocations.

    PubMed

    Veyrunes, F; Perez, J; Borremans, B; Gryseels, S; Richards, L R; Duran, A; Chevret, P; Robinson, T J; Britton-Davidian, J

    2014-12-01

    The African pygmy mice (genus Mus, subgenus Nannomys) are recognized for their highly conserved morphology but extensive chromosomal diversity, particularly involving sex-autosome translocations, one of the rarest chromosomal rearrangements among mammals. It has been shown that in the absence of unambiguous diagnostic morphological traits, sex-autosome translocations offer accurate taxonomic markers. For example, in Mus minutoides, irrespective of the diploid number (which ranges from 2n = 18 to 34), all specimens possess the sex-autosome translocations (X.1) and (Y.1) that are unique to this species. In this study, we describe a new cytotype that challenges this view. Males are characterized by the translocation (Y.1) only, while females carry no sex-autosome translocation, the X chromosome being acrocentric. Hence, although sex-autosome translocations (X.1) and (Y.1) are still diagnostic when one or both are present, their absence does not rule out M. minutoides. This cytotype has a large distribution, with specimens found in Tanzania and in the eastern part of South Africa. The nonpervasive distribution of Rb(X.1) provides an opportunity to investigate different evolutionary scenarios of sex-autosome translocations using a phylogenetic framework and the distribution of telomeric repeats. The results tend to support a scenario involving a reversal event, i.e., fusion then fission of Rb(X.1), and highlighted the existence of a new X1X1X2X2/X1X2Y sex chromosome system, confirming the remarkable diversity of neo-sex chromosomes and sex determination systems in the African pygmy mice. PMID:25159220

  19. Is Giving Up Traditional Religious Culture Part of the Price to be Paid for Acquiring Higher Education? Adaptation of Academic Western Culture by Jewish Israeli University Students of Middle Eastern Origin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kedem, Peri; Bar-Lev, Mordechai

    1983-01-01

    A study of whether the Middle Eastern student feels that attaining the status of "Western modern man" is incompatible with maintaining a traditional, religious way of life is reported. Some loosening of extreme religious practices was found among college students, but there was no evident revolt against home or tradition. (MSE)

  20. Impacts of climate change on Middle Eastern societies over the last 2700 years: new results from the Gejkar speleothem, Iraq

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flohr, Pascal; Fleitmann, Dominik; Bosomworth, Matt; Cheng, Hai; Sadekov, Aleksey; Matthews, Roger; Matthews, Wendy; Black, Stuart; Edwards, Lawrence

    2016-04-01

    Climatic and environmental changes are often cited as a major factor for past social, economic, and political changes. This is especially relevant in the semi-arid to arid Middle East, where, however, only few precisely dated, high-resolution climate records are available. Here we present new results from an up to annually resolved stalagmite from Gejkar Cave in the Kurdish Regional Government of Iraq region. Based on Uranium-series dating and annual layer counts, the record dates back ~2700 years, and its annual layer thickness and carbon and oxygen isotope profile appear indicative of precipitation and effective moisture. We also assess if observed decadal to multi-decadal shifts in precipitation are synchronous with socio-economic changes as observed in the archaeological and historical record in the wider Middle East over the last 2000 years, such as the largely prosperous Roman and Byzantine periods, the Seljuq invasion, and the decline of the Ottoman Empire.

  1. Vertical profiles of CO and CH4 in the lower and middle troposphere over the Eastern United States January 1978

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reichle, H. G., Jr.; Condon, E. P.

    1979-01-01

    Samples of tropospheric air were obtained over the Eastern United States during January of 1978. These samples were analyzed by gas chromatography using flame ionization detection to produce vertical profiles of carbon monoxide and methane from the surface to 8 km. The carbon monoxide mixing ratios at 35 deg N and 45 deg N agree with previously published values; however, the mixing ratio at 25 deg N was significantly lower than most published values. The methane mixing ratio was weakly dependent on latitude and has an average value of 1.64 ppm.

  2. Permian and Triassic Meliata-related rift and drift processes in Eastern Alps: middle and lower crust and its potential correlation with sedimentary units

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neubauer, Franz

    2016-04-01

    The poorly studied middle and lower crust (MLC) of passive continental margins, a key plate tectonic element, is often preserved in thick-skinned tectonic wedges of mountain belts. We studied the Permian to early Norian Meliata Ocean-related rift-characteristics of MLC and detached upper crust (UC) of the Austroalpine nappes of Eastern Alps (and Western Carpathians) with the aim to assess rift models, composition and temporal and spatial distribution of magmatism. We also compare the development of UC sedimentary units with similar successions of the eastern Southalpine unit. There, rifting started already during Early Permian, and a major extensional event occurred during late Early Permian separating Lower and Upper Permian carbonate platforms. In Austroalpine units, rifting occurred later, and the response of LMC to rifting includes acidic and subordinate, mostly earlier mafic magmatism, high-temperature/low-pressure metamorphism (ca. 0.46 GPa, 540 °C), and pure and simple shear deformation in shallow parts of MLC. In UC, the poorly dated rift-onset unconformity formed in Early or Middle Permian and resulted in N-S to NE-SW striking halfgrabens filled with up to 1.5 km thick terrestrial clastics. First marine ingressions occurred during latest Permian, since Anisian carbonate deposition dominated (loss of the clastic hinterland). We recently detected a break-up angular unconformity in central Northern Calcareous Alps (NCA) on top of tilted Lower Anisian Gutenstein Limestone and wedge-shaped Middle Triassic carbonates covered by Norian Dachstein Reef Limestone indicating the break-off and spreading in the Meliata oceanic tract. In Permian evaporites, polyhalite veins and grains crystallized between 235 and 225 Ma and at ca. 210 Ma testifying intense fluid flow along normal faults similar as Anisian/Ladinian strata-bound iron and Pb-Zn-Ba-F mineralizations do. In the underlying basement, we detected similar Permian to Triassic ductile shear zones with Ar

  3. Geochronology and petrogenesis of Middle Permian S-type granitoid in southeastern Guangxi Province, South China: Implications for closure of the eastern Paleo-Tethys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yan-Jun; Wei, Jun-Hao; Santosh, M.; Tan, Jun; Fu, Le-Bing; Zhao, Shao-Qing

    2016-07-01

    The Bangxi-Chenxing suture zone is an important region to address the history of closure of the eastern Paleo-Tethys ocean. Among the widespread S-type granite batholiths in the SE Guangxi Province adjacent to this suture is the Nali granodiorite. Here we report zircon U-Pb ages, major and trace element geochemistry, and Sr-Nd-Hf isotope geochemistry of a newly found Middle Permian S-type granite in this region. LA-ICP-MS zircon U-Pb geochronology yields emplacement ages of 265 ± 2 to 262 ± 2 Ma for the Nali granodiorite. Both the inner and outer phases are characterized by variable SiO2 (66.91-71.39 wt.%), high Al2O3 (12.99-14.04 wt.%), K2O + Na2O (4.78-5.98 wt.%), and A/CNK values (1.11-1.50), resembling those of typical S-type granites. The rocks are enriched in Rb, Th, U and light rare earth elements with weak negative Eu anomalies, and show depletion in Nb, Ta, Ti, with typical arc-like affinity. They have relatively high (87Sr/86Sr)i ratios of 0.7228 to 0.7331, low εNd(t) values of - 13.6 to - 11.9, and low zircon εHf(t) values (- 21.9 to - 8.8). High whole-rock Nd isotopic model ages (2.00-2.02 Ga) and zircon Hf isotopic model ages (1.59-2.20 Ga), indicate that they might have been generated by partial melting of ancient lower crust with minor contribution from mantle sources. The granodiorite shows continental arc affinity and likely formed within a subduction setting. By combining previously extant data for Permo-Triassic arc-/collision-related magmatism in the Jinshajiang-Ailaoshan-Song Ma and Bangxi-Chenxing suture zones, we propose that the subduction of the eastern Paleo-Tethys might have started during Middle Permian triggered by the northward subduction of the Indochina Block (ICB) beneath the South China Block (SCB) and closure during Middle Triassic.

  4. Longitudinal predictors of reading and math trajectories through middle school for African American versus Caucasian students across two samples.

    PubMed

    Hooper, Stephen R; Roberts, Joanne; Sideris, John; Burchinal, Margaret; Zeisel, Susan

    2010-09-01

    This study's primary purpose was to examine the relative contribution of social-behavioral predictors to reading and math skills. The study expands on Duncan et al.'s (2007) work by using longitudinal methodology from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development's Study of Child Care and Youth Development (SECCYD) and the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten Class of 1998-1999 (ECLS-K) databases, and by focusing on potential differences in patterns of early predictors of later reading and math trajectories for African American versus Caucasian students. Predictor measures were selected at kindergarten, and the outcomes included standardized reading and math scores obtained from Grades 1, 3, 5, and 9 for the SECCYD sample, and Grades 3, 5, and 8 for the ECLS-K sample. Consistent with Duncan et al.'s findings, results reflect the relative contributions of early reading and math skills to later functioning in these respective academic domains for both samples, and there are indications for the importance of early expressive language skills to both reading and math in the SECCYD sample. Findings related to the power of social-behavioral predictors, however, are not consistent across samples. Although the SECCYD sample evidenced no such predictors, several interactions in the ECLS-K sample suggested the moderating effects of early ratings of aggressive behaviors and internalizing behaviors on later reading and math for African American students. The moderating effects of early teacher ratings of attention and internalizing behaviors for African American students as compared with Caucasian students in later math growth also were noted. The importance of early social-behavioral functions as related to later academic skills remains an important area of inquiry. PMID:20822220

  5. Geology and metallogeny of the Ar Rayn terrane, eastern Arabian shield: Evolution of a Neoproterozoic continental-margin arc during assembly of Gondwana within the East African orogen

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Doebrich, J.L.; Al-Jehani, A. M.; Siddiqui, A.A.; Hayes, T.S.; Wooden, J.L.; Johnson, P.R.

    2007-01-01

    characteristics of the Ar Rayn terrane are analogous to the Andean continental margin of Chile, with opposite subduction polarity. The Ar Rayn terrane represents a continental margin arc that lay above a west-dipping subduction zone along a continental block represented by the Afif composite terrane. The concentration of epithermal, porphyry Cu and IOCG mineral systems, of central arc affiliation, along the AAF suggests that the AAF is not an ophiolitic suture zone, but originated as a major intra-arc fault that localized magmatism and mineralization. West-directed oblique subduction and ultimate collision with a land mass from the east (East Gondwana?) resulted in major transcurrent displacement along the AAF, bringing the eastern part of the arc terrane to its present exposed position, juxtaposed across the AAF against a back-arc basin assemblage represented by the Abt schist of the Ad Dawadimi terrane. Our findings indicate that arc formation and accretionary processes in the Arabian shield were still ongoing into the latest Neoproterozoic (Ediacaran), to about 620-600 Ma, and lead us to conclude that evolution of the Ar Rayn terrane (arc formation, accretion, syn- to postorogenic plutonism) defines a final stage of assembly of the Gondwana supercontinent along the northeastern margin of the East African orogen. ?? 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. The curse of wealth – Middle Eastern countries need to address the rapidly rising burden of diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Klautzer, Lisa; Becker, Joachim; Mattke, Soeren

    2014-01-01

    The energy boom of the last decade has led to rapidly increasing wealth in the Middle East, particularly in the oil and gas-rich Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries. This exceptional growth in prosperity has brought with it rapid changes in lifestyles that have resulted in a significant rise in chronic disease. In particular the number of people diagnosed with diabetes has increased dramatically and health system capacity has not kept pace. In this article, we summarize the current literature to illustrate the magnitude of the problem, its causes and its impact on health and point to options how to address it. PMID:24757686

  7. Improvements on Restricted Insecticide Application Protocol for Control of Human and Animal African Trypanosomiasis in Eastern Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Muhanguzi, Dennis; Picozzi, Kim; Hatendorf, Jan; Thrusfield, Michael; Welburn, Susan Christina; Kabasa, John David; Waiswa, Charles

    2014-01-01

    Background African trypanosomes constrain livestock and human health in Sub-Saharan Africa, and aggravate poverty and hunger of these otherwise largely livestock-keeping communities. To solve this, there is need to develop and use effective and cheap tsetse control methods. To this end, we aimed at determining the smallest proportion of a cattle herd that needs to be sprayed on the legs, bellies and ears (RAP) for effective Human and Animal African Trypanosomiasis (HAT/AAT) control. Methodology/Principal finding Cattle in 20 villages were ear-tagged and injected with two doses of diminazene diaceturate (DA) forty days apart, and randomly allocated to one of five treatment regimens namely; no treatment, 25%, 50%, 75% monthly RAP and every 3 month Albendazole drench. Cattle trypanosome re-infection rate was determined by molecular techniques. ArcMap V10.3 was used to map apparent tsetse density (FTD) from trap catches. The effect of graded RAP on incidence risk ratios and trypanosome prevalence was determined using Poisson and logistic random effect models in R and STATA V12.1 respectively. Incidence was estimated at 9.8/100 years in RAP regimens, significantly lower compared to 25.7/100 years in the non-RAP regimens (incidence rate ratio: 0.37; 95% CI: 0.22–0.65; P<0.001). Likewise, trypanosome prevalence after one year of follow up was significantly lower in RAP animals than in non-RAP animals (4% vs 15%, OR: 0.20, 95% CI: 0.08–0.44; P<0.001). Contrary to our expectation, level of protection did not increase with increasing proportion of animals treated. Conclusions/significance Reduction in RAP coverage did not significantly affect efficacy of treatment. This is envisaged to improve RAP adaptability to low income livestock keepers but needs further evaluation in different tsetse challenge, HAT/AAT transmission rates and management systems before adopting it for routine tsetse control programs. PMID:25356758

  8. Indian Castle Shale: late synorogenic siliciclastic succession in an evolving Middle to Late Ordovician foreland basin, eastern New York State

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baird, Gordon C.; Brett, Carlton E.

    2002-01-01

    The thick, organic-rich, Indian Castle Shale, is a major component of the greater Utica Shale basinal facies succession associated with the Taconian Orogeny. Detailed correlations of numerous Indian Castle sections, presented herein, are based on physical matching of numerous altered ash layers (K-bentonites) coupled with use of submarine discontinuities and other distinctive beds. Several important trends are observed: first, the Dolgeville Formation extends eastward into the eastern Mohawk Valley region (Hoffmans Fault area) lithologically separating an older Utica division (Flat Creek Shale) from Indian Castle Shale proper. Second, Indian Castle Shale strata are observed to overlap the regional top-Dolgeville and post-Trenton disconformity towards the northwest. Third, the lower part, and possibly the upper part, of the Indian Castle succession is differentially thickened in the west-central Mohawk Valley region due to differential subsidence and syntectonic fault activity. Fourth, the lower part of the Indian Castle Shale succession in the central-to-eastern part of the Mohawk Valley region continues to thin slightly with little evidence for major eastward transition of Utica facies into turbiditic Schenectady deposits. Fifth, K-bentonitic beds, many displaying distinctive sedimentological features, are clustered in intervals of apparent Indian Castle stratigraphic condensation. Ashes also display an overall upward decrease in abundance within the Indian Castle Shale succession. These patterns indicate that Indian Castle deposition, influenced by lithospheric flexural processes, localized fault activity and eustatic fluctuations, occurred when the foreland basin was maximally developed. Indian Castle deposition was probably linked to a collisional tectophase of Taconian overthrusting.

  9. New 3-D view of a middle-shelf grounding-zone wedge in Eastern Basin Ross Sea, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bart, P. J.; Tomkin, J.

    2008-12-01

    A new large-area multibeam survey of a previously identified grounding zone wedge on the central Ross Sea middle continental shelf was acquired during NBP0802 and NBP0803 in February 2008. Within a regional framework, this wedge corresponds to the third grounding event since the WAIS began the post-LGM retreat. The survey reveals the 3-D detailed view of a lineated topset with iceberg gouges, a smooth multi-lobed foreset and distinct downdip pinchout of the grounding zone wedge. Beyond the down-dip pinchout, older subglacial lineations, oblique to the younger lineations, are evident. The multibeam survey along with sub- bottom profiler records permitted us to precisely position piston cores for each of these morphologic sectors. The combined data may serve as a proxy for evaluating some aspects of the WAIS's modern grounding- zone system. For example, sediment cores at the wedge's thin landward and basinward limits obtained homogenous gray mud below a thin olive-green pelagic drape. The absence of a similar pelagic drape embedded in the homogenous gray muds suggests that grounded ice did not retreat past this location before the WAIS occupied the middle-shelf grounding position. In other words, the pause in WAIS retreat was not associated with any significant re-advance.

  10. Occurrence of sexuals of African weaver ant (Oecophylla longinoda Latreille) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) under a bimodal rainfall pattern in eastern Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Rwegasira, R G; Mwatawala, M; Rwegasira, G M; Offenberg, J

    2015-04-01

    The African weaver ant, Oecophylla longinoda, is being utilized as a biocontrol agent and may also be targeted for future protein production. Rearing of mated queens in nurseries for colony production is needed to cater for such demands. Thus, newly mated queens must be collected for use as seed stocks in the nurseries. To collect mated queens efficiently it is important to identify when sexuals occur in mature colonies. We studied the occurrence of sexuals in O. longinoda colonies for 2 years in Tanga, Tanzania, a region characterized by a bimodal rainfall pattern. We found that O. longinoda sexuals occurred almost throughout the year with abundance peaks from January to April. Production of sexuals appeared to be triggered by rainfall, suggesting that populations in areas with long rainy periods may show prolonged mating periods compared to populations experiencing extended dry periods. The bimodal rain pattern may thus cause a low production over a long period. The average yearly production of queens per tree and per colony was estimated to be 449 and 2753, respectively. The average number of queens per nest was 17. Worker abundance declined from January to March with minimum by the end of this period, being inversely proportional to the production of sexuals. In conclusion, mated queens may be collected almost throughout the year, but most efficiently by the onset of the long rainy season when the majority disperse. PMID:25524028

  11. Cigarette smoking in a Middle Eastern country and its association with hospitalisation use: a nationwide cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Sibai, Abla Mehio; Iskandarani, Mohamad; Darzi, Andrea; Nakkash, Rima; Saleh, Shadi; Fares, Souha; Hwalla, Nahla

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Little is known about the distribution of cigarette smoking by place and persons at the national level or its burden on healthcare expenditure in countries of the Middle East. We examine in this study the pattern of cigarette smoking by age, gender and geography and assess its association with hospitalisation use in Lebanon, a small middle-income country in the Middle East. Design Population-based cross-sectional study. Setting The study draws on data collected as part of the nationwide multistage cluster sample Nutrition and Non-Communicable Disease Risk Factor survey conducted in Lebanon in 2009. Participants A total of 2836 Lebanese adults 18 years and over. Measures Hospitalisation, the outcome variable, was measured using one item and recoded as a dichotomous variable. Cigarette smoking, the main exposure variable, was assessed by examining smoking status and pack-years, capturing intensity, frequency and duration of exposure. Results The overall prevalence rate of current smoking in this study was 34.7%, with significantly higher rates in males than females (42.9% and 27.5%, respectively). Close to two-thirds of the study population reported ever being hospitalised (62.8%). Compared to non-smokers, past and current smokers were significantly more likely to be hospitalised, after controlling for sociodemographic and health-related characteristics (OR=2.9, 95% CI 1.26 to 3.34, and OR=1.35, 95% CI 1.12 to 1.63, respectively). Hospitalisation use increased significantly in a dose–response manner with increasing pack-years. Conclusions When compared to regional and international estimates, the prevalence rates of smoking in Lebanon are considerably high, with percentages among women being among the highest in the region. Our findings of increased odds of hospitalisation among ever smokers, net of the effect of comorbidity, underscore the additional burden of smoking on the healthcare bill cost. Continued monitoring of smoking rates and disease

  12. Parasites of South African wildlife. VIII. Helminth and arthropod parasites of warthogs, Phacochoerus aethiopicus, in the eastern Transvaal.

    PubMed

    Boomker, J; Horak, I G; Booyse, D G; Meyer, S

    1991-09-01

    Helminth and arthropod parasites were collected from 41 warthogs, Phacochoerus aethiopicus, in the Hoedspruit Nature Reserve, eastern Transvaal. This reserve consists of a military base, which is a restricted area and is surrounded by a reserve, which is open to the public. Eleven nematode species, 1 or 2 cestode species and the larvae of 2 cestode species were recovered from the animals in the reserve, and 8 nematode species and 1 or 2 cestode species were recovered from those in the military base. Oesophagostomum spp. were generally most abundant in warthogs in the reserve during the cooler months of the year, while Probstmayria vivipara also occurred in peak numbers during the cooler months, with an additional peak in October and November 1988 in warthogs in the reserve and the base, respectively. No pattern of seasonal abundance could be determined for the other helminth species. The warthogs also harboured 8 ixodid and 1 argasid tick species, 3 flea species and 1 louse species. Adult and immature Haematopinus phacochoeri were most numerous during August and September, and the largest numbers of adult Rhipicephalus simus were present from December to April. PMID:1923382

  13. Perceptions of Parenting Practices as Predictors of Aggression in a Low-Income, Urban, Predominately African American Middle School Sample

    PubMed Central

    MURRAY, KANTAHYANEE W.; HAYNIE, DENISE L.; HOWARD, DONNA E.; CHENG, TINA L.; SIMONS-MORTON, BRUCE

    2011-01-01

    This research examined the relation between early adolescent aggression and parenting practices in an urban, predominately African American sample. Sixth graders (N = 209) completed questionnaires about their overt and relational aggressive behaviors and perceptions of caregivers’ parenting practices. Findings indicated that moderate levels of parental expectations for peaceful solutions at Time 1 were associated with a lower likelihood of overt aggression at Time 2. Furthermore, findings suggest that when caregivers’ support and knowledge of adolescents’ whereabouts were relatively low or when caregivers’ exerted high psychological control, moderate levels of parental expectations for peaceful solutions protected early adolescents against engagement in both overt and relational aggression. The implications of the findings for schools and other youth violence prevention settings are discussed. PMID:26855618

  14. New data on genesis of the crust in the eastern segment of the Middle Urals: Sr-Nd isotopic constraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smirnov, V. N.; Ronkin, Yu. L.; Puchkov, V. N.; Soloshenko, N. G.; Streletskaya, M. V.

    2016-04-01

    The analysis of the Sr and Nd isotopic composition in different granitoids of the Verkhisetsk, Shartash, Krasnopolsk, Petrokamensk, and Shabry massifs, which were successively formed in the island arc, continental marginal, and collisional geodynamic settings during the period from the Middle Devonian to the early Permian, revealed that 87Sr/86Sr0 values in them vary from 0.70331 to 0.70431 and ɛNd( t), from +1.9 to +6.2. The two-stage model Nd age of granitoids (938-629 Ma) indicates that their magma originates from material at least Neoproterozoic in age, not younger. The observed variations in the Nd model ages of granitoids and 87Sr/86Sr0 values provide grounds for assuming the primary heterogeneity of the source of granitoid melts.

  15. Warming of the Indian Ocean threatens eastern and southern African food security but could be mitigated by agricultural development

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Funk, C.; Dettinger, M.D.; Michaelsen, J.C.; Verdin, J.P.; Brown, M.E.; Barlow, M.; Hoell, A.

    2008-01-01

    Since 1980, the number of undernourished people in eastern and southern Africa has more than doubled. Rural development stalled and rural poverty expanded during the 1990s. Population growth remains very high, and declining per-capita agricultural capacity retards progress toward Millennium Development goals. Analyses of in situ station data and satellite observations of precipitation have identified another problematic trend: main growing-season rainfall receipts have diminished by ???15% in food-insecure countries clustered along the western rim of the Indian Ocean. Occurring during the main growing seasons in poor countries dependent on rain-fed agriculture, these declines are societally dangerous. Will they persist or intensify? Tracing moisture deficits upstream to an anthropogenically warming Indian Ocean leads us to conclude that further rainfall declines are likely. We present analyses suggesting that warming in the central Indian Ocean disrupts onshore moisture transports, reducing continental rainfall. Thus, late 20th-century anthropogenic Indian Ocean warming has probably already produced societally dangerous climate change by creating drought and social disruption in some of the world's most fragile food economies. We quantify the potential impacts of the observed precipitation and agricultural capacity trends by modeling 'millions of undernourished people' as a function of rainfall, population, cultivated area, seed, and fertilizer use. Persistence of current tendencies may result in a 50% increase in undernourished people by 2030. On the other hand, modest increases in per-capita agricultural productivity could more than offset the observed precipitation declines. Investing in agricultural development can help mitigate climate change while decreasing rural poverty and vulnerability. ?? 2008 by The National Academy of Sciences of the USA.

  16. Warming of the Indian Ocean threatens eastern and southern African food security but could be mitigated by agricultural development

    PubMed Central

    Funk, Chris; Dettinger, Michael D.; Michaelsen, Joel C.; Verdin, James P.; Brown, Molly E.; Barlow, Mathew; Hoell, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    Since 1980, the number of undernourished people in eastern and southern Africa has more than doubled. Rural development stalled and rural poverty expanded during the 1990s. Population growth remains very high, and declining per-capita agricultural capacity retards progress toward Millennium Development goals. Analyses of in situ station data and satellite observations of precipitation have identified another problematic trend: main growing-season rainfall receipts have diminished by ≈15% in food-insecure countries clustered along the western rim of the Indian Ocean. Occurring during the main growing seasons in poor countries dependent on rain-fed agriculture, these declines are societally dangerous. Will they persist or intensify? Tracing moisture deficits upstream to an anthropogenically warming Indian Ocean leads us to conclude that further rainfall declines are likely. We present analyses suggesting that warming in the central Indian Ocean disrupts onshore moisture transports, reducing continental rainfall. Thus, late 20th-century anthropogenic Indian Ocean warming has probably already produced societally dangerous climate change by creating drought and social disruption in some of the world's most fragile food economies. We quantify the potential impacts of the observed precipitation and agricultural capacity trends by modeling “millions of undernourished people” as a function of rainfall, population, cultivated area, seed, and fertilizer use. Persistence of current tendencies may result in a 50% increase in undernourished people by 2030. On the other hand, modest increases in per-capita agricultural productivity could more than offset the observed precipitation declines. Investing in agricultural development can help mitigate climate change while decreasing rural poverty and vulnerability. PMID:18685101

  17. The middle Holocene climatic records from Arabia: Reassessing lacustrine environments, shift of ITCZ in Arabian Sea, and impacts of the southwest Indian and African monsoons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enzel, Yehouda; Kushnir, Yochanan; Quade, Jay

    2015-06-01

    A dramatic increase in regional summer rainfall amount has been proposed for the Arabian Peninsula during the middle Holocene (ca. 9-5 ka BP) based on lacustrine sediments, inferred lake levels, speleothems, and pollen. This rainfall increase is considered primarily the result of an intensified Indian summer monsoon as part of the insolation-driven, northward shift of the boreal summer position of the Inter-Tropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) to over the deserts of North Africa, Arabia, and northwest India. We examine the basis for the proposed drastic climate change in Arabia and the shifts in the summer monsoon rains, by reviewing paleohydrologic lacustrine records from Arabia. We evaluate and reinterpret individual lake-basin status regarding their lacustrine-like deposits, physiography, shorelines, fauna and flora, and conclude that these basins were not occupied by lakes, but by shallow marsh environments. Rainfall increase required to support such restricted wetlands is much smaller than needed to form and maintain highly evaporating lakes and we suggest that rainfall changes occurred primarily at the elevated edges of southwestern, southern, and southeastern Arabian Peninsula. These relatively small changes in rainfall amounts and local are also supported by pollen and speleothems from the region. The changes do not require a northward shift of the Northern Hemisphere summer ITCZ and intensification of the Indian monsoon rainfall. We propose that (a) latitudinal and slight inland expansion of the North African summer monsoon rains across the Red Sea, and (b) uplifted moist air of this monsoon to southwestern Arabia highlands, rather than rains associated with intensification of Indian summer monsoon, as proposed before, increased rains in that region; these African monsoon rains produced the modest paleo-wetlands in downstream hyperarid basins. Furthermore, we postulate that as in present-day, the ITCZ in the Indian Ocean remained at or near the equator all

  18. The Agia Marina Xyliatou Observatory: A remote supersite in Cyprus to monitor changes in the atmospheric composition of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Middle East

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sciare, Jean

    2016-04-01

    The Eastern Mediterranean and Middle East (EMME) region has been identified as one of the hot spot region in the world strongly influenced by climate changes impacts. This region is characterized by rapidly growing population with contrasting economic development, strong environmental gradients and climate extremes. However, long-term observations of the atmospheric constituents (gaseous and particulate) of the atmosphere at a remote site representative of EMME is still missing making difficult to assess current and future impacts on air quality, water resources and climate. In collaboration with the Department of Labour Inspection and in the frame of French research programs (ChArMEx and ENVI-Med "CyAr") and the EU H2020 "ACTRIS-2" (2015-2019) project, CyI and CNRS are putting unprecedented efforts to implement at a rural site of Cyprus (Agia Marina Xyliatou) a unique infrastructure to monitor key atmospheric species relevant to air quality and climate. A large set of real-time instrumentations is currently deployed to characterize reactive gases (incl. O3, CO, NOx, SO2, VOC), in-situ aerosol properties (mass, size distribution, light scatt./absorption/extinction coef. and chemistry) and as well as integrated optical properties (sunphotomer, solar flux). Through Transnational access (H2020 ACTRIS2), this station is offering to (non-)EU partners (Research, SMEs) a new atmospheric facility to monitor long range transported clean/polluted air masses from 3 different continents (Europe, Africa, Middle East) and investigate aerosol-cloud interactions through the use of UAV and a mountain site (Troodos, 1900m asl). We will present here an overview of this new research infrastructure and provide a first glance of key features observed from gas/aerosol measurements obtained in 2015

  19. New Archaeointensity Result from Middle-Eastern China and Its Constraints on the Variation of the Geomagnetic Field during the last 6 kyr

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, S.; Jin, G.; Deng, C.; Tauxe, L.; Qin, H.; Pan, Y.; Zhu, R.

    2015-12-01

    Archaeomagnetic study is an effective way to understand the variation of the geomagnetic field over periods of hundreds to thousands of years. We have carried out archaeointensity studies on archaeological artifacts, including pottery fragments, bricks and baked clay, collected from several sites covering the middle to eastern part of China spanning the past ~6 kyr. We designed detailed rock magnetic and archaeointensity experiments in this study. Rock magnetic results indicate that the main magnetic carriers of these samples are stable magnetite or titanomagnetite with mainly fine particles of SD and SP. About 40% of the specimens in the paleointensity experiment pass the strict selection criteria and are considered to record robust intensity values. The virtual axial dipole moments (VADMs) of our sites range from ~2.5×1022 to ~15.8×1022 Am2. We record three low intensity values with VADMs of less than 3×1022 Am2, two of them comparable to the one reported by Cai et al. (2015) at ~3000 BCE while the other one comparable to those reported by Cai et al. (2014) at ~2200 BCE, which supply further evidence for the existence of 'DIPs' (decreases in paleoinetnsity) in China during the period of ~3000-2000 BCE. A high intensity value of ~16×1022 Am2 is recorded by our new data at ~1300 BCE, which may represent a new spike at this time period. The low and high values recorded by our new data update the six-fold variation between ~2200 BCE and ~1300 BCE discussed in Cai et al. (2014) to eight-fold, which may indicate a stronger geodynamic process during this period. Our new data are generally in good agreement with the published data in China, Japan and Korea at similar time periods, except the extreme low and high values discussed above, which will improve the Eastern Asian model greatly. The new data together with the published data suggest severe fluctuation of the geomagnetic field in Eastern Asia during the last 6 kyr. Vast quantities of reliable data are needed to

  20. Early-Middle Paleozoic subduction-collision history of the south-eastern Central Asian Orogenic Belt: Evidence from igneous and metasedimentary rocks of central Jilin Province, NE China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pei, Fu-Ping; Zhang, Ying; Wang, Zhi-Wei; Cao, Hua-Hua; Xu, Wen-Liang; Wang, Zi-Jin; Wang, Feng; Yang, Chuan

    2016-09-01

    To constrain the Early-Middle Paleozoic tectonic evolution of the south-eastern segment of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB), we undertook zircon U-Pb dating and analyzed major and trace elements and zircon Hf isotope compositions of Late Cambrian to Middle Devonian igneous and metasedimentary rocks in central Jilin Province, NE China. LA-ICP-MS zircon U-Pb dating indicates that the Early-Middle Paleozoic magmatism in central Jilin Province can be divided into four episodes: Late Cambrian (ca. 493 Ma), Middle Ordovician (ca. 467 Ma), Late Ordovician-Early Silurian (ca. 443 Ma), and Late Silurian-Middle Devonian (425-396 Ma). The progression from subduction initiation to maturity is recorded by Late Cambrian low-K tholeiitic meta-diabase, Middle Ordovician medium-K calc-alkaline pyroxene andesite, and Late Ordovician to Early Silurian low-K tonalite, which all have subduction-related characteristics and formed in an evolving supra-subduction zone setting. Late Silurian to Middle Devonian calc-alkaline igneous rocks, with the lithological association of granodiorite, monzogranite, rhyolite, dacite, and trachydacite, show progressively increasing K2O contents from medium K to shoshonite series. Furthermore, the Early-Middle Devonian monzogranites are characterized by high K2O, Sr/Y, and [La/Yb]N values, indicating they were generated by the melting of thickened lower crust. These results suggest a transition from subduction to post-orogenic setting during the Late Silurian-Middle Devonian. Our interpretation is supported by the maximum age of molasse deposition in the Zhangjiatun member of the Xibiehe Formation. Overall, we suggest that Late Cambrian tholeiitic meta-diabase, Middle Ordovician pyroxene andesite, and Late Ordovician-Early Silurian tonalite formed above the northward-subducting and simultaneously seaward-retreating of Paleo-Asian Ocean plate. Subsequently, the northern arc collided with the North China Craton and post-orogenic extension occurred

  1. Mushrooms and truffles: historical biofactories for complementary medicine in Africa and in the middle East.

    PubMed

    El Enshasy, Hesham; Elsayed, Elsayed A; Aziz, Ramlan; Wadaan, Mohamad A

    2013-01-01

    The ethnopharmaceutical approach is important for the discovery and development of natural product research and requires a deep understanding not only of biometabolites discovery and profiling but also of cultural and social science. For millennia, epigeous macrofungi (mushrooms) and hypogeous macrofungi (truffles) were considered as precious food in many cultures based on their high nutritional value and characterized pleasant aroma. In African and Middle Eastern cultures, macrofungi have long history as high nutritional food and were widely applied in folk medicine. The purpose of this review is to summarize the available information related to the nutritional and medicinal value of African and Middle Eastern macrofungi and to highlight their application in complementary folk medicine in this part of the world. PMID:24348710

  2. Mushrooms and Truffles: Historical Biofactories for Complementary Medicine in Africa and in the Middle East

    PubMed Central

    El Enshasy, Hesham; Elsayed, Elsayed A.; Aziz, Ramlan; Wadaan, Mohamad A.

    2013-01-01

    The ethnopharmaceutical approach is important for the discovery and development of natural product research and requires a deep understanding not only of biometabolites discovery and profiling but also of cultural and social science. For millennia, epigeous macrofungi (mushrooms) and hypogeous macrofungi (truffles) were considered as precious food in many cultures based on their high nutritional value and characterized pleasant aroma. In African and Middle Eastern cultures, macrofungi have long history as high nutritional food and were widely applied in folk medicine. The purpose of this review is to summarize the available information related to the nutritional and medicinal value of African and Middle Eastern macrofungi and to highlight their application in complementary folk medicine in this part of the world. PMID:24348710

  3. Delineation of Holocene-Pleistocene aquifer system in parts of Middle Ganga Plain, Bihar, Eastern India through DC resistivity survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganguli, Shuva Shankha; Singh, Shashikant

    2014-07-01

    The study area forms a part of the Middle Ganga Plain (MGP) and experiences intensive groundwater draft due to domestic, irrigation and industrial purposes. Geoelectrical surveys were carried out in a geomorphic unit of MGP called South Ganga Plain, along the north-south traverse covering a total 50 km stretch. Interpreted results of the total of 17 vertical electrical soundings, carried out, provided information on aquifer and aquitard geometry and sediment nature in different aquifer systems. Bedrock topography is also demarcated along the north-south transect. The estimated dip of massive bedrock is less than 0.5° and dips toward north. The survey results show that a two-tier aquifer system exists in Newer alluvium parts of the study area and it is replaced by a single aquifer system at Older alluvium that occurs under thick clay/sandy clay bed in the southern part. An exponential decay of the aquifer potential is observed from north to south. Paleo channel Sone River is traced and it forms a potential aquifer.

  4. Major controls on architecture, sequence stratigraphy and paleosols of middle Pleistocene continental sediments ("Qc Unit"), eastern central Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Celma, Claudio; Pieruccini, Pierluigi; Farabollini, Piero

    2015-05-01

    Middle Pleistocene continental sediments in central Italy ("Qc Unit") record the oldest fluvial accumulation along the uplifting margin of the Peri-Adriatic basin. The architecture of the sediment body can be divided into two unconformity-bounded, fining-upward cycles interpreted as genetically related depositional sequences. These sequences highlight the systematic adjustment of the fluvial system to changes in the ratio between accommodation space and sediment supply (A/S ratio) and, from base to top, comprise the following surfaces and stratal components: (i) a regionally correlative sequence boundary resulting from an A/S ratio ≤ 0; (ii) a low-accommodation systems tract characterized by conglomerate-rich, amalgamated channel fills and recording an A/S ratio < 1; (iii) an expansion surface marking the turnaround point from low-accommodation systems tract to high-accommodation systems tract deposits; (iv) a high-accommodation systems tract dominated by floodplain fines encasing lens-like, fluvial channel deposits and denoting an A/S ratio > 1; and (v) a mature red argillic paleosol. To constrain the climatic signal for paleosols formation, the two sequence-capping mature paleosols have been investigated. The results of these studies suggest that they were developed under humid and warm climatic conditions associated with interglacial phases, which have been correlatively attributed to Marine Oxygen Isotope Stages 11 and 9.

  5. Multi-stage emerald formation during Pan-African regional metamorphism: The Zabara, Sikait, Umm Kabo deposits, South Eastern desert of Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grundmann, G.; Morteani, G.

    2008-02-01

    The genesis of gem-quality deep green emeralds of Zabara, Sikait and Umm Kabo (South Eastern Desert, Egypt) is to date a controversial topic. The emerald-bearing biotite schists and quartz lenses are interpreted alternatively as a product of (i) thrust-fault-shear zone - controlled large scale alkali-metasomatism driven by post-magmatic fluid flow or of (ii) a large scale interaction between syntectonic pegmatitic magma or hydrothermal fluids with pre-existing basic to ultrabasic rocks, or of (iii) a syn- to post-tectonic regional metamorphism and small scale blackwall metasomatism. Detailed microstructural and chemical analyses of the Egyptian emeralds and their host rocks show that three generations of beryl can be distinguished: a colourless pegmatitic beryl; a pale green Cr-poor beryl crystallized from pegmatite-related hydrothermal fluids; and a deep green Cr- and Mg-rich emerald. The crystallization of the Cr- and Mg-rich emerald was controlled by the very local availability of Cr, Mg and Be-rich metamorphic fluids during the Pan-African tectono-thermal event. Emerald-rich quartz lenses demonstrate that those fluids locally did mobilize quartz, too. The pale green emeralds found within the pegmatites in association with colourless beryl are the product of a mobilization of colourless pegmatitic beryl and/or phenakite by late pegmatitic fluids slightly enriched in Cr by an interaction with the Cr-rich country rocks. The late pegmatitic fluids are typically Na-rich as is demonstrated by the pervasive albitization of the pegmatites. The complex interplay of magmatic and regional metamorphic events during the genesis of the Egyptian emeralds/beryls makes it impossible through stable oxygen isotope data to relate their genesis to the one or the other event.

  6. Addressing diarrhea prevalence in the West African Middle Belt: social and geographic dimensions in a case study for Benin

    PubMed Central

    Pande, Saket; Keyzer, Michiel A; Arouna, Aminou; Sonneveld, Ben GJS

    2008-01-01

    Background In West Africa, the Northern Sahelian zone and the coastal areas are densely populated but the Middle Belt in between is in general sparsely settled. Predictions of climate change foresee more frequent drought in the north and more frequent flooding in the coastal areas, while conditions in the Middle Belt will remain moderate. Consequently, the Middle Belt might become a major area for immigration but there may be constraining factors as well, particularly with respect to water availability. As a case study, the paper looks into the capacity of the Middle Belt zone of Benin, known as the Oueme River Basin (ORB), to reduce diarrhea prevalence. In Benin it links to the Millennium Development Goals on child mortality and environmental sustainability that are currently farthest from realization. However, diarrhea prevalence is only in part due to lack of availability of drinking water from a safe source. Social factors such as hygienic practices and poor sanitation are also at play. Furthermore, we consider these factors to possess the properties of a local public good that suffers from under provision and requires collective action, as individual actions to prevent illness are bound to fail as long as others free ride. Methods Combining data from the Demographic Health Survey with various spatial data sets for Benin, we apply mixed effect logit regression to arrive at a spatially explicit assessment of geographical and social determinants of diarrhea prevalence. Starting from an analysis of these factors separately at national level, we identify relevant proxies at household level, estimate a function with geo-referenced independent variables and apply it to evaluate the costs and impacts of improving access to good water in the basin. Results First, the study confirms the well established stylized fact on the causes of diarrhea that a household with access to clean water and with good hygienic practices will, irrespective of other conditions, not suffer

  7. From the Bay of Naples to the River Don: the Campanian Ignimbrite eruption and the Middle to Upper Paleolithic transition in Eastern Europe.

    PubMed

    Hoffecker, John F; Holliday, Vance T; Anikovich, M V; Sinitsyn, A A; Popov, V V; Lisitsyn, S N; Levkovskaya, G M; Pospelova, G A; Forman, Steven L; Giaccio, Biagio

    2008-11-01

    The Campanian Ignimbrite (CI) eruption, dated by 40Ar/39Ar and various stratigraphic methods to ca. 39,000 cal BP, generated a massive ash plume from its source in southern Italy across Southeastern and Eastern Europe. At the Kostenki-Borshchevo open-air sites on the Middle Don River in Russia, Upper Paleolithic artifact assemblages are buried below, within, and above the CI tephra (which is redeposited by slope action at most sites) on the second terrace. Luminescence and radiocarbon dating, paleomagnetism, and soil and pollen stratigraphy provide further basis for correlation with the Greenland and North Atlantic climate stratigraphy. The oldest Upper Paleolithic occupation layers at Kostenki-Borshchevo may be broadly correlated with warm intervals that preceded the CI event and Heinrich Event 4 (HE4; Greenland Interstadial: GI 12-GI 9) dating to ca. 45,000-41,000 cal BP. These layers contain an industry not currently recognized in other parts of Europe. Early Upper Paleolithic layers above the CI tephra are correlated with HE4 and warm intervals that occurred during 38,000-30,000 cal BP (GI 8-GI 5), and include an assemblage that is assigned to the Aurigancian industry, associated with skeletal remains of modern humans. PMID:18937961

  8. Vitamin D intake and other risk factors for vitamin D insufficiency in Middle Eastern people living in the UK: a comparison of cultural and ethnic groups.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Wassan A; Al-Murrani, Waleed; Kuri, Victor; Rees, Gail A

    2013-01-01

    A questionnaire was designed to obtain information about factors affecting vitamin D status in Middle Eastern people living in the UK. A total of 242 questionnaires were returned out of 350 distributed. A total of 85% of the sample was estimated to have a low vitamin D intake (< 5 μg/d). Other risk factors for vitamin D insufficiency included covering skin from sunlight (62% men and 84% women); low use of vitamin D containing supplements (18.5%) and being overweight or obese (49% men and 44% women). Vitamin D intake was lowest in the Kurdish ethnic group (2.18 μg/d) and in those with primary (1.83 μg/d) and secondary school (2.14 μg/d) level education compared to higher education (3.0-3.59 μg/d). Vitamin D intake was highest in those aged 40-49 years (4.0 μg/d), those born in the Levant (4.29 μg/d), and in those who were obese (3.60 μg/d). PMID:23621485

  9. A systematic search for linkage with nonsyndromic recessive deafness in two large Middle Eastern inbred kindreds excludes more than 30% of the genome

    SciTech Connect

    Weiss, S.; Korostishevsky, M.; Frydman, M.

    1994-09-01

    It has been estimated that as many as 35 loci may individually cause autosomal recessive non-syndromic deafness. The extreme genetic heterogeneity, limited clinical differentiation and phenotypic assortative mating in many western countries make many families unsuitable for genetic linkage studies. Recently the first of those loci was mapped (to 13q) in two consanguineous families from northern Tunisia. We are studying two large highly consanguineous Middle Eastern kindreds (a total of 26 deaf in 98 sampled individuals). Examination in each family showed no evidence of clinical heterogeneity and indicated an uncomplicated profound bilateral sensorineural deafness. We have been able to exclude the 13q locus as the cause of deafness in each kindred and have also excluded such `candidate` loci as regions as those causing Usher`s syndrome type 1 (11q13)(11p), Usher`s syndrome type II (1q32-q41), Waardenburg syndrome type I (2q37), branchio-oto-renal syndrome (8q12-q13), Monge`s deafness (5q31), and Treacher Collins syndrome (5q31.3-q33.3). To date, no lod scores greater than 1 have been obtained in either kindred using 150 RFLT`s, VNTR`s and highly polymorphic microsatellite markers (CA repeats and tetranucleotides). By Morton`s criterion a minimum of 30% of the autosomal genome can be excluded for each kindred separately.

  10. Liver Fluke Infection and Fish Consumption in Khon Kaen, Thailand: A Case Study on Negotiating the Middle Ground between Western Science and Eastern Culture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samiphak, Sara

    This research investigates why typical strategies for promoting health, prolonging life, and preventing disease do not work in many communities. I use the liver fluke infection endemic in Khon Kaen, Thailand to explore the middle ground between Western science and Eastern culture. Prior work on the O.viverrini infection in Khon Kaen, Thailand has focused almost exclusively on developing effective medical treatment for the liver fluke infection. This dissertation employs a case study designed to explore the conditions that created and perpetuate the problem in the first place. In concrete terms, I analyze how the worldviews of local villagers shape their attitudes toward life (and death), which in turn determine if they engage in the high-risk behavior -- eating undercooked fish -- that makes them vulnerable to the infection. My research focuses on these people in-situ over a three-month period, and includes data from participant-observation, interviews, and video-recordings. This work seeks to illuminate how people's thinking and reasoning skills, and personal/cultural identities affect their abilities to learn and act on new health concepts. This potentially provides a window into future educational strategies in a complex world.

  11. Differential growth inhibitory effects of highly oxygenated guaianolides isolated from the Middle Eastern indigenous plant Achillea falcata in HCT-116 colorectal cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Tohme, Rita; Al Aaraj, Lamis; Ghaddar, Tarek; Gali-Muhtasib, Hala; Saliba, Najat A; Darwiche, Nadine

    2013-01-01

    Medicinal plants play a crucial role in traditional medicine and in the maintenance of human health worldwide. Sesquiterpene lactones represent an interesting group of plant-derived compounds that are currently being tested as lead drugs in cancer clinical trials. Achillea falcata is a medicinal plant indigenous to the Middle Eastern region and belongs to the Asteraceae family, which is known to be rich in sesquiterpene lactones. We subjected Achillea falcata extracts to bioassay-guided fractionation against the growth of HCT-116 colorectal cancer cells and identified four secotanapartholides, namely 3-β-methoxy-isosecotanapartholide (1), isosecotanapartholide (2), tanaphallin (3), and 8-hydroxy-3-methoxyisosecotanapartholide (4). Three highly oxygenated guaianolides were isolated for the first time from Achillea falcata, namely rupin A (5), chrysartemin B (6), and 1β, 2β-epoxy-3β,4α,10α-trihydroxyguaian-6α,12-olide (7). These sesquiterpene lactones showed no or minor cytotoxicity while exhibiting promising anticancer effects against HCT-116 cells. Further structure-activity relationship studies related the bioactivity of the tested compounds to their skeleton, their lipophilicity, and to the type of functional groups neighboring the main alkylating center of the molecule. PMID:23860275

  12. Climate condition of the significant precipitation decrease over the middle-eastern region of Inner Mongolia, China in recent 10 years (2001-2010)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Tao; Jiang, Xuegong; Hu, Yinghua

    2013-01-01

    Compared to the 50-year mean climatological value (1961-2010), the precipitation of middle-eastern Inner Mongolia exhibited a significant decrease during the past 10 years (2001-2010). To identify the climatic causes, a comprehensive investigation was conducted by inspecting climatic factors from this 50-year period, which appear to work together in connecting closely to the precipitation. Significant positive correlations with precipitation were found in sea level pressure (SLP) difference between the area of (30° N-20° S; 50-160° E) and the northeastern Pacific Ocean, between the Northern Atlantic and the northeastern Pacific Oceans, and sea surface temperature difference between the northeastern and northwestern Pacific in the previous year, while negative connections were found in the 500-hPa temperature difference between the Antarctic and the belt region around 60° S. During the period of 2001-2010, East Asia was prevailingly controlled by a huge high, which was regarded as one of unfavorable factors for producing rain or snow. Other factors were the enlarged 500 hPa temperature differences between the Antarctic and the zones around 60° S and the Equator, the negative SLP difference between the East Asia, northern Atlantic, and Pacific Oceans. Finally, the unique wind flows and associated moisture transports also played a key role in the precipitation reduction for the first decade of the twenty-first century.

  13. Middle-Late Pleistocene marine terraces and fault activity in the Sant'Agata di Militello coastal area (north-eastern Sicily)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giunta, Giuseppe; Gueli, Anna M.; Monaco, Carmelo; Orioli, Silvia; Ristuccia, Gloria M.; Stella, Giuseppe; Troja, Sebastiano O.

    2012-04-01

    The coastal sector of Sant'Agata di Militello (north-eastern Sicily) is characterized by a flight of raised Middle-Upper Pleistocene marine terraces occurring at different heights with respect to present sea level. In particular, the geomorphological survey and the analysis of stereo-pairs of aerial photographs allowed to recognize at least five main orders of well preserved Quaternary surfaces and relative deposits mostly located at the hanging wall and at the footwall of the Pleistocene northwest-dipping Capo d'Orlando normal fault, which controlled the geomorphological evolution of the coastal area. The marine terraces show an overall good morphological continuity and are formed by marine platforms overlain by littoral deposits made up of yellow littoral sand and gravels in a sandy matrix. The continental sedimentary cover of the 3rd order terrace contains mammal-bearing deposits that were previously dated 200 ± 40 ka BP by isoleucine epimerization method, allowing to relate them to MIS 7.1 high-stand. In order to better define the whole terrace chronology, deposit samples were analyzed by Optically Stimulated Luminescence (OSL) methodology, a conventional SAR protocol used with sand-sized quartz. New datings, together with the detailed morphostructural analysis, allow to relate the 2nd and 4th order terraces to MIS 5.5 and 8.5, respectively, and to reconstruct the tectonic evolution of this coastal area, constraining the activity of the Capo d'Orlando fault.

  14. Geochronology and Geochemistry of Volcanic Suites from the Middle Sulu Orogenic Belt, Eastern China: Implication for Petrogenesis and Tectonic Setting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, J.; Chang, S. C.; Lu, H.; Zhang, H.

    2014-12-01

    The widely distributed Late Mesozoic igneous events in North China have been intensively studied in the past decades and proposed to be accounted by lithospheric thinning. However, mechanism of the lithospheric thining is still in debate. In this study, we report U-Pb zircon ages, geochemical data and Sr-Nd isotopic data for the Cretaceous mafic and associated felsic intrusions from the middle Sulu orogenic belt in the Shandong Peninsula. The ICP-MS U-Pb zircon analyses show consistent crystallization ages ranging from 120.2 ± 2.1 Ma to 123.3 ± 1.6 Ma for four representative samples. These rocks are characterized by LREE and LILE enrichment, HREE depletion, high initial 87Sr/86Sr values ranging from 0.70401 to 0.70966, low negative ɛNd(t) values from -22.0 to -12.2. These features suggest that they were derived from a common enriched lithospheric mantle source. Geochemical and isotopic data indicate that the original magma of these rocks was produced by partial melting of an ancient lithospheric mantle, which was variably mixed with lower crustal eclogite derived melts. The lamprophyres, andesitic porphyrites and syenogranite may have been attributed to subsequent fractional crystallization of olivine and pyroxene, whereas the rhyolite resulted from K-feldspar and plagioclase fractionation, without any crustal contamination affection. Tectonically, the petrogenesis process of these rocks favors an intense lithospheric extensional regime beneath the Sulu orogenic belt at 120 ~ 124 Ma, which was resulted by the widespread removal of the upper mantle and lower crust that driven by the abrupt change of the subducting direction of the Pacific plate.

  15. Arsenic-bearing pyrite and marcasite in the Fire Clay coal bed, Middle Pennsylvanian Breathitt Formation, eastern Kentucky

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ruppert, L.F.; Hower, J.C.; Eble, C.F.

    2005-01-01

    Arsenic concentrations determined on 11 lithotype samples from the Middle Pennsylvanian Breathitt Group Fire Clay coal bed, Leslie County, KY, range from 1 to 418 ppm (whole coal basis). The 11 lithotype samples, which vary in thickness from 4 to 18 cm, were sampled from a continuous 1.38 m channel sample, and were selected based on megascopic appearance (vitrain-rich versus attrital-rich). A lithotype that contains 418 ppm As is located near the top of the coal bed and is composed of 10.5 cm of bright clarain bands containing fusain that, within short distances, grade laterally into Fe sulfide bands. To determine the mode of occurrence of As in this lithotype, the coal was examined with scanning electron microscopy and analyzed by energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence. Massive, framboidal, cell filling, cell-wall replacement, and radiating forms of Fe sulfide were observed in the high As lithotype; many of the radiating Fe sulfide forms, and one of the cell-wall replacements contained As. Examination of the grains with optical light microscopy shows that the majority of radiating morphologies are pyrite, the remainder are marcasite. Selected Fe sulfide grains were also analyzed by electron microprobe microscopy. Arsenic concentrations within individual grains range from 0.0 wt.% to approximately 3.5 wt.%. On the basis of morphology, these Fe sulfides are presumed to be of syngenetic origin and would probably be removed from the coal during physical coal cleaning, thus eliminating a potential source of As from the coal combustion process. However, because the grains are radiating and have high surface area, dissolution and release of As could occur if the pyrite is oxidized in refuse ponds.

  16. "Give a Brotha a Break!": The Experiences and Dilemmas of Middle-Class African American Male Students in White Suburban Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Beverly M.

    2012-01-01

    Background/Context: Today, in the era of the first African American president, approximately one third of all African Americans live in suburban communities, and their children are attending suburban schools. Although most research on the education of African American students, particularly males, focuses on their plight in urban schooling, what…

  17. Petrogenesis, geochronology, and tectonic significance of granitoids in the Tongshan intrusion, Anhui Province, Middle-Lower Yangtze River Valley, eastern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhi-Yu; Du, Yang-Song; Teng, Chuan-Yao; Zhang, Jing; Pang, Zhen-Shan

    2014-01-01

    The Tongshan copper deposit in Anhui Province is a typical mid-sized skarn and porphyry type deposit in the Anqing-Guichi district along the Middle-Lower Yangtze River Valley, eastern China. The Tongshan intrusion is closely related to this mineralization. The intrusion mainly comprises rocks that are quartz diorite porphyry, quartz monzonite porphyry, and granodiorite porphyry. Plagioclase in these rocks is mostly andesine (An = 31.0-42.9), along with minor oligoclase. Biotite is magnesium-rich [Mg/(Mg + Fe) = 0.52-0.67] and aluminum-poor (Al2O3 = 12.32-14.09 wt.%), and can be classified as magnesio-biotite. Hornblende is TiO2-poor (<1.96 wt.%) and magnesium-rich [Mg/(Mg + Fe) > 0.60], and is magnesio-hornblende or edenite. The SHRIMP zircon U-Pb age of the quartz monzonite porphyry is 145.1 ± 1.2 Ma, which corresponds to the middle Yanshanian period. Whole-rock geochemical results show that the rocks are silica-rich (SiO2 = 60.23-66.23 wt.%) and alkali-rich (K2O + Na2O = 4.97-8.72 wt.%), and low in calcium (CaO = 2.61-5.66 wt.%). Trace element results show enrichments in large ion lithophile element (e.g., K, Rb, and Ba) and depletions in some high field strength elements (e.g., Nb, Ta, P, and Ti). The total rare earth element (REE) content of the rocks is low (ΣREE < 200 μg/g), and they exhibit light REE enrichment [(La/Yb)N > 10] and small positive Eu anomalies (average δEu = 1.16). These mineralogical, geochronological, and geochemical results show that the intrusion has a mixed crust-mantle source. The Tongshan intrusion was formed by multiple emplacements of crustally contaminated basaltic magma generated by varying degrees of partial melting of enriched lithospheric mantle and lower crust. Hornblende thermobarometry yielded magmatic crystallization temperatures of 652-788 °C and an average crystallization pressure of 1.4 kbar, which corresponds to a depth of approx. 4.7 km. Biotite thermobarometry yielded similar temperatures and lower pressures of 735

  18. The pace of East African monsoon evolution during the Holocene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weldeab, Syee; Menke, Valerie; Schmiedl, Gerhard

    2014-03-01

    African monsoon precipitation experienced a dramatic change in the course of the Holocene. The pace with which the African monsoon shifted from a strong early to middle to a weak late Holocene is critical for our understanding of climate dynamics, hydroclimate-vegetation interaction, and shifts of prehistoric human settlements, yet it is controversially debated. On the basis of planktonic foraminiferal Ba/Ca time series from the eastern Mediterranean Sea, here we present a proxy record of Nile River runoff that provides a spatially integrated measure of changes in East African monsoon (EAM) precipitation. The runoff record indicates a markedly gradual middle to late Holocene EAM transition that lasted over 3500 years. The timing and pace of runoff change parallels those of insolation and vegetation changes over the Nile basin, indicating orbitally forced variation of insolation as the main EAM forcing and the absence of a nonlinear precipitation-vegetation feedback. A tight correspondence between a threshold level of Nile River runoff and the timing of occupation/abandonment of settlements suggests that along with climate changes in the eastern Sahara, the level of Nile River and intensity of summer floods were likely critical for the habitability of the Nile Valley (Egypt).

  19. Chemical composition of PM10 and its in vitro toxicological impacts on lung cells during the Middle Eastern Dust (MED) storms in Ahvaz, Iran.

    PubMed

    Naimabadi, Abolfazl; Ghadiri, Ata; Idani, Esmaeil; Babaei, Ali Akbar; Alavi, Nadali; Shirmardi, Mohammad; Khodadadi, Ali; Marzouni, Mohammad Bagherian; Ankali, Kambiz Ahmadi; Rouhizadeh, Ahmad; Goudarzi, Gholamreza

    2016-04-01

    Reports on the effects of PM10 from dust storm on lung cells are limited. The main purpose of this study was to investigate the chemical composition and in vitro toxicological impacts of PM10 suspensions, its water-soluble fraction, and the solvent-extractable organics extracted from Middle Eastern Dust storms on the human lung epithelial cell (A549). Samples of dust storms and normal days (PM10 < 200 μg m(-3)) were collected from December 2012 until June 2013 in Ahvaz, the capital of Khuzestan Province in Iran. The chemical composition and cytotoxicity were analyzed by ICP- OES and Lactase Dehydrogenase (LDH) reduction assay, respectively. The results showed that PM10 suspensions, their water-soluble fraction and solvent-extractable organics from both dust storm and normal days caused a decrease in the cell viability and an increase in LDH in supernatant in a dose-response manner. Although samples of normal days showed higher cytotoxicity than those of dust storm at the highest treated dosage, T Test showed no significant difference in cytotoxicity between normal days and dust event days (P value > 0.05). These results led to the conclusions that dust storm PM10 as well as normal day PM10 could lead to cytotoxicity, and the organic compounds (PAHs) and the insoluble particle-core might be the main contributors to cytotoxicity. Our results showed that cytotoxicity and the risk of PM10 to human lung may be more severe during dust storm than normal days due to inhalation of a higher mass concentration of airborne particles. Further research on PM dangerous fractions and the most responsible components to make cytotoxicity in exposed cells is recommended. PMID:26774778

  20. Reconnaissance studies of potential petroleum source rocks in the Middle Jurassic Tuxedni Group near Red Glacier, eastern slope of Iliamna Volcano

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stanley, Richard G.; Herriott, Trystan M.; LePain, David L.; Helmold, Kenneth P.; Peterson, C. Shaun

    2013-01-01

    Previous geological and organic geochemical studies have concluded that organic-rich marine shale in the Middle Jurassic Tuxedni Group is the principal source rock of oil and associated gas in Cook Inlet (Magoon and Anders, 1992; Magoon, 1994; Lillis and Stanley, 2011; LePain and others, 2012; LePain and others, submitted). During May 2009 helicopter-assisted field studies, 19 samples of dark-colored, fine-grained rocks were collected from exposures of the Red Glacier Formation of the Tuxedni Group near Red Glacier, about 70 km west of Ninilchik on the eastern flank of Iliamna Volcano (figs. 1 and 3). The rock samples were submitted to a commercial laboratory for analysis by Rock-Eval pyrolysis and to the U.S. Geological Survey organic geochemical laboratory in Denver, Colorado, for analysis of vitrinite reflectance. The results show that values of vitrinite reflectance (percent Ro) in our samples average about 2 percent, much higher than the oil window range of 0.6–1.3 percent (Johnsson and others, 1993). The high vitrinite reflectance values indicate that the rock samples experienced significant heating and furthermore suggest that these rocks may have generated oil and gas in the past but no longer have any hydrocarbon source potential. The high thermal maturity of the rock samples may have resulted from (1) the thermaleffects of igneous activity (including intrusion by igneous rocks), (2) deep burial beneath Jurassic, Cretaceous, and Tertiary strata that were subsequently removed by uplift and erosion, or (3) the combined effects of igneous activity and burial.

  1. Geochemistry and Nd Sr isotopic studies of Late Mesozoic granitoids in the southeastern Hubei Province, Middle Lower Yangtze River belt, Eastern China: Petrogenesis and tectonic setting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Guiqing; Mao, Jingwen; Li, Ruiling; Bierlein, Frank P.

    2008-08-01

    A geochemical and isotopic study was carried out for the Mesozoic Yangxin, Tieshan and Echeng granitoid batholiths in the southeastern Hubei Province, eastern China, in order to constrain their petrogenesis and tectonic setting. These granitoids dominantly consist of quartz diorite, monzonite and granite. They are characterized by SiO 2 and Na 2O compositions of between 54.6 and 76.6 wt.%, and 2.9 to 5.6 wt.%, respectively, enrichment in light rare earth elements (LREE) and large ion lithophile elements (LILE), and relative depletion in Y (concentrations ranging from 5.17 to 29.3 ppm) and Yb (0.34-2.83 ppm), with the majority of the granitoids being geochemically similar to high-SiO 2 adakites (HSA). Their initial Nd ( ɛNd = - 12.5 to - 6.1) and Sr (( 87Sr/ 86Sr) i = 0.7054-0.7085) isotopic compositions, however, distinguish them from adakites produced by partial melting of subducted slab and those produced by partial melting of the lower crust of the Yangtze Craton in the Late Mesozoic. The granitoid batholiths in the southeastern Hubei Province exhibit very low MgO ranging from 0.09 to 2.19 wt.% with an average of 0.96 wt.%, and large variations in negative to positive Eu anomalies (Eu/Eu * = 0.22-1.4), especially the Tieshan granites and Yangxin granite porphyry (Eu/Eu * = 0.22-0.73). Geochemical and Nd-Sr isotopic data demonstrate that these granitoids originated as partial melts of an enriched mantle source that experienced significant contamination of lower crust materials and fractional crystallization during magma ascent. Late Mesozoic granitoids in the southeastern Hubei Province of the Middle-Lower Yangtze River belt were dominantly emplaced in an extensional tectonic regime, in response to basaltic underplating, which was followed by lithospheric thinning during the early Cretaceous.

  2. Chemistry of serpentine "polymorphs" in the Pan-African serpentinites from the Eastern Desert of Egypt, with an emphasis on the effect of superimposed thermal metamorphism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Surour, Adel A.

    2016-08-01

    The present work deals with some Pan-African serpentinites of Neoproterozoic age from five localities in the Eastern Desert of Egypt namely, Abu Fannani, Fawakhir, Barramiya, Ras Shait and Wadi Ghadir that derivedmostly from lherzolite to harzburgite protoliths. The M-value of antigorite is anindicator of the metamorphic grade which is lowest at Fawakhir (greenschist facies) and highest at Abu Fannani (lower amphibolite facies). Antigoritization during progressive regional metamorphism at Fawakhir is limited and its M-value is much higher than 8.52 indicating crystallization temperatures of 220-250 °C whereas it is ≥300 °C in the rest. Antigorite recrystallized at T ≈ 400-450 °C in the contact metamorphic aureoles due to the emplacement of post-orogenic leucogranites at Fawakhir and Gebel Ghadir. Towards the contact with the granites, M-value of antigorite is low (6.48) compared to 8.52 in the least recrystallized antigorite due to the thermal effect. Antigorite that forms in the thermal aureoles is characterized by two types of substitution; Tschermak substitution (Al3+ and Cr3+ for Si4+ in the tetrahedral sites and Mg2+ in the octahedral sites) and non-Tschermak substitutionin the octahedral sites (2R3+ = 3R2+). Generally, both ortho- and clinochrysotiles are common with MgO contents of 41-41.13 wt% and 39.38-40.93 wt%, respectively. In addition to chlorite, high- and low-Al lizardites are present with almost constant total iron (~0.24 cations) as Fe2+(vi) and variable Mg2+. This suggests that significant R3+ in the octahedral sites are mostly occupied by Al3+ and Cr3+ and not iron. In the lizardite structure, there is Tschermak substitution of Si4+ by some trivalent cations in the tetrahedral sites. Using the TEM images, antigorite is distinguishable from chrysotile and they suggest the presence of polyhedral or polygonal serpentine (spherical or circular with alternating sectors of lizardite). Crack-seal microstructures are displayed by chrysotile and

  3. Population genomic analysis uncovers African and European admixture in Drosophila melanogaster populations from the south-eastern United States and Caribbean Islands.

    PubMed

    Kao, Joyce Y; Zubair, Asif; Salomon, Matthew P; Nuzhdin, Sergey V; Campo, Daniel

    2015-04-01

    Drosophila melanogaster is postulated to have colonized North America in the past several 100 years in two waves. Flies from Europe colonized the east coast United States while flies from Africa inhabited the Caribbean, which if true, make the south-east US and Caribbean Islands a secondary contact zone for African and European D. melanogaster. This scenario has been proposed based on phenotypes and limited genetic data. In our study, we have sequenced individual whole genomes of flies from populations in the south-east US and Caribbean Islands and examined these populations in conjunction with population sequences from the west coast US, Africa, and Europe. We find that west coast US populations are closely related to the European population, likely reflecting a rapid westward expansion upon first settlements into North America. We also find genomic evidence of African and European admixture in south-east US and Caribbean populations, with a clinal pattern of decreasing proportions of African ancestry with higher latitude. Our genomic analysis of D. melanogaster populations from the south-east US and Caribbean Islands provides more evidence for the Caribbean Islands as the source of previously reported novel African alleles found in other east coast US populations. We also find the border between the south-east US and the Caribbean island to be the admixture hot zone where distinctly African-like Caribbean flies become genomically more similar to European-like south-east US flies. Our findings have important implications for previous studies examining the generation of east coast US clines via selection. PMID:25735402

  4. Escaping poverty and securing middle class status: how race and socioeconomic status shape mobility prospects for African Americans during the transition to adulthood.

    PubMed

    Hardaway, Cecily R; McLoyd, Vonnie C

    2009-02-01

    This article draws on extant research from the disciplines of psychology, sociology, and economics to identify linkages between individual, family, community, and structural factors related to social mobility for African Americans during the transition to adulthood. It considers how race and class together affect opportunities for social mobility through where African Americans live, whom they associate with, and how they are impacted by racial and class-related stigma. Of particular interest is social mobility as accomplished through academic achievement, educational attainment, employment, economic independence, and homeownership. Research on five issues is reviewed and discussed: (a) the unique vulnerabilities of newly upwardly mobile African Americans, (b) wealth as a source of inequality, (c) racism and discrimination, (d) the stigma associated with lower-class status, and (e) social and cultural capital. The article concludes with a summary and directions for future research. PMID:19636721

  5. Escaping Poverty and Securing Middle Class Status: How Race and Socioeconomic Status Shape Mobility Prospects for African Americans During the Transition to Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Hardaway, Cecily R.; Mcloyd, Vonnie C.

    2014-01-01

    This article draws on extant research from the disciplines of psychology, sociology, and economics to identify linkages between individual, family, community, and structural factors related to social mobility for African Americans during the transition to adulthood. It considers how race and class together affect opportunities for social mobility through where African Americans live, whom they associate with, and how they are impacted by racial and class-related stigma. Of particular interest is social mobility as accomplished through academic achievement, educational attainment, employment, economic independence, and homeownership. Research on five issues is reviewed and discussed: (a) the unique vulnerabilities of newly upwardly mobile African Americans, (b) wealth as a source of inequality, (c) racism and discrimination, (d) the stigma associated with lower-class status, and (e) social and cultural capital. The article concludes with a summary and directions for future research. PMID:19636721

  6. Geology and geochemistry of the Middle Proterozoic Eastern Ghat mobile belt and its comparison with the lower crust of the Southern Peninsular shield

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rao, M. V. Subba

    1988-01-01

    Two prominent rock suites constitute the lithology of the Eastern Ghat mobile belt: (1) the khondalite suite - the metapelites, and (2) the charnockite suite. Later intrusives include ultramafic sequences, anorthosites and granitic gneisses. The chief structural element in the rocks of the Eastern Ghats is a planar fabric (gneissosity), defined by the alignment of platy minerals like flattened quartz, garnet, sillimanite, graphite, etc. The parallelism between the foliation and the lithological layering is related to isoclinal folding. The major structural trend (axial plane foliation trend) observed in the belt is NE-SW. Five major tectonic events have been delineated in the belt. A boundary fault along the western margin of the Eastern Ghats, bordering the low grade terrain has been substantiated by recent gravity and the deep seismic sounding studies. Field evidence shows that the pyroxene granulites (basic granulites) post-date the khondalite suite, but are older than the charnockites as well as the granitic gneisses. Polyphase metamorphism, probably correlatable with different periods of deformation is recorded. The field relations in the Eastern Ghats point to the intense deformation of the terrain, apparently both before, during and after metamorphism.

  7. The Relationship between Verve and the Academic Achievement of African American Students in Reading and Mathematics in an Urban Middle School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Norvella P.; Hawkins, Torrance N.; Natesan, Prathiba

    2008-01-01

    Since its inception, the United States has struggled with its responsibility for educating African American students. Its history of denial and discrimination in the education of Black children has created a national crisis in which academic difficulty and school failure is disproportionately high. In an effort to improve the education of African…

  8. The Effects of the Implementation of NCLB on the Achievement Gap between African American and White Students in Georgia Middle Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benson, Stacey L.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between the implementation of No Child Left Behind and the achievement gap between African American and white students' eighth-grade math scores on the yearly-standardized test (Criterion Referenced Competency Test--CRCT) in Georgia. A descriptive research design was utilized to examine data obtained from the…

  9. Escaping Poverty and Securing Middle Class Status: How Race and Socioeconomic Status Shape Mobility Prospects for African Americans during the Transition to Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardaway, Cecily R.; McLoyd, Vonnie C.

    2009-01-01

    This article draws on extant research from the disciplines of psychology, sociology, and economics to identify linkages between individual, family, community, and structural factors related to social mobility for African Americans during the transition to adulthood. It considers how race and class together affect opportunities for social mobility…

  10. Eastern Kentucky Teacher and Administrative Stress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Sam; Ballestero, Victor

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to survey selected Eastern Kentucky Principals (Elementary, Middle, and High School) to collect data about stress in public schools. A stress survey (Appendix C) was sent to randomly selected elementary, middle, and high school principals located in the Eastern Kentucky region serviced by Morehead State University…

  11. Geochronology- and Geochemistry of Late Carboniferous-Middle Permian I- and A-Type Granites and Gabro-Diorites in the Eastern Jimausi Massif, NE, China: Implications for a Tectonic Transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bi, Junhui; Ge, Wenchun

    2016-04-01

    The late Paleozoic magmatism in the Jiamusi Massif of northeast China, located in the eastern segment of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB), was dominated by an active continental margin environment due to subduction of the paleo-oceanic plate. Nevertheless, what deep geodynamic processes controlled the late Paleozoic evolution of the Jiamusi Massif are still poorly constrained. In this contribution, we present zircon U-Pb ages and geochemical data of late Carboniferous-middle Permian magmatism in the Jiamusi Massif, aiming to provide constraints on the question. Precise LA-ICP-MS U-Pb zircon ages indicate that the granitoids and gabbro-diorites were emplaced in the late Carboniferous-middle Permian (302-267 Ma). The granites belong to a high-potassium calc-alkaline series, are weakly peraluminous I- and A-type granites, and show high SiO2 and K2O contents; they are depleted in high field strength elements (HFSEs), enriched in light rare earth elements (LREEs) and large ion lithophile elements (LILEs), show weakly to mildly fractionated REE patterns, and on spidergrams show arc-type affinities with strong depletions in Nb, Ta, and Ti. The combination of heterogeneous values of ɛHf(t) for magmatic zircons in all granitoids (ranging from +7.9 to -5.6) and two-stage Hf model ages (TDM2) of 0.8-1.7 Ga suggests that the granites originated from partial melting of a predominantly "old" Meso-Neoproterozoic crustal source. The gabbro-diorites of the Longtouqiao pluton are depleted in Nb, Ta, P, and Ti, and show flat distributions of most LILEs and HFSEs, except for marked large positive anomalies in Ba, K, and Pb. These features reflect limited degrees of crustal contamination associated with subduction-related magma processes. These data, together with previously reported data and the occurrence of arc magmatic rocks along the eastern part of the Jiamusi Massif, suggest that the intrusive rocks formed during westward subduction of the Paleo-Pacific Ocean lithosphere

  12. A Fish Assemblage from the Middle Eocene from Libya (Dur At-Talah) and the Earliest Record of Modern African Fish Genera.

    PubMed

    Otero, Olga; Pinton, Aurélie; Cappetta, Henri; Adnet, Sylvain; Valentin, Xavier; Salem, Mustapha; Jaeger, Jean-Jacques

    2015-01-01

    In the early nineteen sixties, Arambourg and Magnier found some freshwater fish (i.e., Polypterus sp., Siluriformes indet. and Lates sp.) mixed with marine members in an Eocene vertebrate assemblage at Gebel Coquin, in the southern Libyan Desert. This locality, aged ca 37-39Ma and now known under the name of Dur At-Talah, has been recently excavated. A new fish assemblage, mostly composed of teeth, was collected by the Mission Paléontologique Franco-Libyenne. In this paper, we describe freshwater fish members including a dipnoan (Protopterus sp.), and several actinopterygians: bichir (Polypterus sp.), aba fish (Gymnarchus sp.), several catfishes (Chrysichthys sp. and a mochokid indet.), several characiforms (including the tiger fish Hydrocynus sp., and one or two alestin-like fish), and perciforms (including the snake-head fish Parachanna sp. and at least one cichlid). Together with the fossiliferous outcrops at Birket Qarun in Egypt, the Libyan site at Dur At-Talah reduces a 10-Ma chronological gap in the fossil record of African freshwater fish. Their fish assemblages overlap in their composition and thus constitute a rather homogenous, original and significant amount of new elements regarding the Paleogene African ichthyofauna. This supports the establishment of the modern African freshwater fish fauna during this time period because these sites mostly contain the earliest members known in modern genera. PMID:26674637

  13. A Fish Assemblage from the Middle Eocene from Libya (Dur At-Talah) and the Earliest Record of Modern African Fish Genera

    PubMed Central

    Otero, Olga; Pinton, Aurélie; Cappetta, Henri; Adnet, Sylvain; Valentin, Xavier; Salem, Mustapha; Jaeger, Jean-Jacques

    2015-01-01

    In the early nineteen sixties, Arambourg and Magnier found some freshwater fish (i.e., Polypterus sp., Siluriformes indet. and Lates sp.) mixed with marine members in an Eocene vertebrate assemblage at Gebel Coquin, in the southern Libyan Desert. This locality, aged ca 37–39Ma and now known under the name of Dur At-Talah, has been recently excavated. A new fish assemblage, mostly composed of teeth, was collected by the Mission Paléontologique Franco-Libyenne. In this paper, we describe freshwater fish members including a dipnoan (Protopterus sp.), and several actinopterygians: bichir (Polypterus sp.), aba fish (Gymnarchus sp.), several catfishes (Chrysichthys sp. and a mochokid indet.), several characiforms (including the tiger fish Hydrocynus sp., and one or two alestin-like fish), and perciforms (including the snake-head fish Parachanna sp. and at least one cichlid). Together with the fossiliferous outcrops at Birket Qarun in Egypt, the Libyan site at Dur At-Talah reduces a 10-Ma chronological gap in the fossil record of African freshwater fish. Their fish assemblages overlap in their composition and thus constitute a rather homogenous, original and significant amount of new elements regarding the Paleogene African ichthyofauna. This supports the establishment of the modern African freshwater fish fauna during this time period because these sites mostly contain the earliest members known in modern genera. PMID:26674637

  14. Attachment and health care utilization among middle-aged and older African-descent men: dismissiveness predicts less frequent digital rectal examination and prostate-specific antigen screening.

    PubMed

    Consedine, Nathan S; Tuck, Natalie L; Fiori, Katherine L

    2013-09-01

    Although health care utilization occurs in interpersonal contexts, little is known regarding how interpersonal preferences or styles among patients may be relevant. A small body of work has identified links between attachment-a dispositional style of relating to others-and patterns of health care use. The current report examined how attachment characteristics predicted the frequency of digital rectal exam and prostate-specific antigen testing in a sample of African-descent men. Four hundred and fourteen African-descent men aged 45 to 70 years completed measures of prostate screening and attachment, together with measures of traditional predictors of screening (demographics, insurance, family history, physician variables, knowledge, perceived risk, and accessibility). Consistent with predictions, dismissiveness-the most common relational style among older men-predicted less frequent prostate-specific antigen testing and digital rectal examination. However, attachment security-a comfort with intimate relationships-also predicted lower screening frequency. Identifying the interpersonal characteristics predicting screening may help identify men at risk of suboptimal health care use and guide the development of interventions suited to the normative relational preferences of current cohorts of older, African-descent men. PMID:23355546

  15. Ageism and Body Esteem: Associations With Psychological Well-Being Among Late Middle-Aged African American and European American Women

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. Social expectancy theory posits that cultural values shape how individuals perceive and evaluate others, and this influences how others evaluate themselves. Based on this theory, ageism may shape older individuals’ self-evaluations. Given the cultural focus on beauty and youth, perceptions of age discrimination may be associated with lower body esteem, and this may be associated with poor psychological well-being. Because discrimination has been associated with poor health, and perceptions of health can affect body perceptions, subjective health status may also contribute to lower body esteem. Method. These associations are assessed in a structural equation model for 244 African American and European American women in their early 60s. Results. Perceptions of age discrimination and body esteem were associated with lower psychological well-being for both ethnic groups. Body esteem partially mediated the association between age discrimination and psychological well-being among European American women but not among African American women. Discussion. Age-related discrimination is one source of psychological distress for older adults, though ageism’s associations with body esteem, health, and psychological well-being vary significantly for European American and African American women. Examining body perceptions and health in the contexts of ageism and ethnicity is necessary when considering the psychological well-being of older women. PMID:24013801

  16. The Middle East Content Priority Teaching Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fix, Jerrold E.

    Variations of a social studies unit on Middle Eastern culture, history, and geography are presented to aid secondary school classroom teachers as they develop and implement Middle Eastern area studies educational programs. The guide is presented in four parts, each of which represents one version of the unit. Teachers are directed to select the…

  17. "Get up off that Thing": African American Middle School Students Respond to Literature to Develop a Framework for Understanding Social Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tyson, Cynthia A.

    2002-01-01

    The use of children's literature in urban social studies classrooms to facilitate students' engagement in literate behaviors and simultaneously develop a framework for understanding social action is an under-researched area. This paper discusses the use of literature for children and young adults in an urban middle school language arts and social…

  18. PALEODRAINAGES OF THE EASTERN SAHARA - THE RADAR RIVERS REVISITED (SIR - A/B IMPLICATIONS FOR A MID - TERTIARY TRANS - AFRICAN DRAINAGE SYSTEM).

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCauley, John F.; Breed, Carlos S.; Schaber, Gerald G.; McHugh, William P.; Issawi, Bahay; Haynes, C. Vance; Grolier, Maurice J.; El Kilani, Ali

    1986-01-01

    A complex history of Cenozoic fluvial activity in the presently hyperarid eastern Sahara is inferred from Shuttle Imaging Radar (SIR) data and postflight field investigations in southwest Egypt and northwest Sudan. SIR images were coregistered with Landsat and existing maps as a guide to exploration of the buried paleodrainages (radar rivers) first discovered by SIR-A. Field observations explain the radar responses of three types of radar rivers: RR-1, RR-2, and RR-3. A generalized model of the radar rivers, based on field studies and regional geologic relations, shows apparent changes in river regimen since the large valleys were established during the late Paleogene-early Neogene eras. SIR-based mapping of these paleodrainages, although incomplete, reveals missing links in an area once thought to be devoid of master streams.

  19. [African programme for onchocerciasis control (APOC): entomological aspects of Onchocerca volvulus transmission by Simulium neavei in the Basin of Sankuru (Eastern Kasai, Democratic Republic of Congo)].

    PubMed

    Traoré, S; Enyong, P; Mandiangu, M L; Kayembé, D; Noma, M; Sékétéli, A

    2007-02-01

    As part of a study to evaluate the long-term impact of community-directed treatment with ivermectin (CDTI), baseline entomological data on the transmission of onchocerciasis in the forest zone of the Eastern Kasai Province were collected from July 1998 to January 1999. Species of the Simulium neavei complex were the only vectors found in the site during the study. Nuisance activity was low with a mean biting rate of only 32.5 bites/man/day. The mean parturity rate was 29.4%, the mean rate of infected females was 14.5% and the mean number of infective Onchocerca larvae per 1000 parous flies was 659. These findings clearly show that the S. neavei population at the study site has high vector capability and constitutes a large microfilarial reservoir. The entomological features found in the study area are consistent with a hyper-endemic zone. PMID:17506270

  20. Transforming attitudes and lives: Liberating African-American elementary and middle school students in out-of-school time STEM education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Charisse F.

    Statistically, African-Americans, women, and the disabled are underrepresented in the fields of Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math (STEM). Historically, these underrepresented students, are described as being unrecognized and underdeveloped in the American STEM circuit. Many experience deficient and inadequate educational resources, are not encouraged to pursue STEM education and careers, and are confronted with copious obstructions. In this quantitative study, the researcher collected pretest and posttest survey data from a group of 4th, 5th, and 6th-grade African-American students in Title I funded schools. The reseacher used quantitative analysis to determine any significant differences in the science related attitudes between and within groups who participated in Out of School-Time Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics programs and those who did not. Results revealed no significant differences in the science related attitudes between the groups of the students who participated in the Out of School Time-Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics programs and those who did not. Results also revealed no significant differences in the science related attitudes within the groups of students who participated in the Out of School Time-Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics programs and those who did not.

  1. Integrating South Pacific carbon cycling and climate history from Late Paleocene to Middle Eocene: an upper slope transect from eastern New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slotnick, B. S.; Dickens, G. R.; Hollis, C. J.; Crampton, J. S.; Strong, C.; Zachos, J. C.; Hines, B. R.; Philips, A.

    2013-12-01

    The Late Paleocene to Middle Eocene was characterized by prominent variations in global carbon cycling, which operated on both long (>10e6) and short (<10e5) time scales. The interval from about 58 to 52 Ma is now fairly well documented, and can be described in a general sense as a time when δ13C dropped significantly, and the CCD deepened by several hundred meters. Superimposed on these trends were a series of hyperthermal events, each associated with a rapid drop in δ13C and a shoaling of the CCD. A current issue is whether such hyperthermals, which were likely paced/triggered by orbital variations, occurred during the Late Paleocene (before the PETM) and during the middle Eocene (after the start of EECO). The problem arises in part because the CCD is relatively shallow prior to 58 Ma and after 52 Ma, such that well-resolved, single-site deep-sea records spanning the entire interval are rare. To better understand and constrain Late Paleocene to Middle Eocene carbon cycle changes, we extend well-resolved carbon isotope and carbonate content records from the Mead Stream section, which accumulated on the middle-upper slope of proto-New Zealand. In addition, we generated a new carbon isotope and carbonate content record from Branch Stream, a section up-slope from Mead Stream, for comparison between different settings along the same margin. The new data compliments previous work at these localities, such that detailed records now extend from 58 to 38 Ma. The long-term drop in δ13C from 58-52 Ma was followed by a long-term rise in δ13C. Numerous geologically-brief (<0.2 Myr) but relatively small carbon isotope excursions (CIEs) occur through this interval, although it is not clear if they are hyperthermals. In addition, strata from the late Early Eocene has lower carbonate contents than were measured in beds that span the numerous yet distinct clay-rich Early Eocene hyperthermals, an indication that the flux of carbonate to the seafloor decreased, either because of

  2. Giant rhinoceros Paraceratherium and other vertebrates from Oligocene and middle Miocene deposits of the Kağızman-Tuzluca Basin, Eastern Turkey.

    PubMed

    Sen, Sevket; Antoine, Pierre-Olivier; Varol, Baki; Ayyildiz, Turhan; Sözeri, Koray

    2011-05-01

    A recent fieldwork in the Kağızman-Tuzluca Basin in northeastern Turkey led us to the discovery of three vertebrate localities which yielded some limb bones of the giant rhino Paraceratherium, a crocodile tooth, and some small mammals, respectively. These discoveries allowed, for the first time to date some parts of the sedimentary units of this basin. This study also shows that the dispersal area of Paraceratherium is wider than it was known before. Eastern Turkey has several Cenozoic sedimentary basins formed during the collision of the Arabian and Eurasian plates. They are poorly documented for vertebrate paleontology. Consequently, the timing of tectonic activities, which led to the formation of the East Anatolian accretionary complex, is not constrained enough with a solid chronological framework. This study provides the first biostratigraphic evidences for the infill under the control of the compressive tectonic regime, which built the East Anatolian Plateau. PMID:21465174

  3. Giant rhinoceros Paraceratherium and other vertebrates from Oligocene and middle Miocene deposits of the Kağızman-Tuzluca Basin, Eastern Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sen, Sevket; Antoine, Pierre-Olivier; Varol, Baki; Ayyildiz, Turhan; Sözeri, Koray

    2011-05-01

    A recent fieldwork in the Kağızman-Tuzluca Basin in northeastern Turkey led us to the discovery of three vertebrate localities which yielded some limb bones of the giant rhino Paraceratherium, a crocodile tooth, and some small mammals, respectively. These discoveries allowed, for the first time to date some parts of the sedimentary units of this basin. This study also shows that the dispersal area of Paraceratherium is wider than it was known before. Eastern Turkey has several Cenozoic sedimentary basins formed during the collision of the Arabian and Eurasian plates. They are poorly documented for vertebrate paleontology. Consequently, the timing of tectonic activities, which led to the formation of the East Anatolian accretionary complex, is not constrained enough with a solid chronological framework. This study provides the first biostratigraphic evidences for the infill under the control of the compressive tectonic regime, which built the East Anatolian Plateau.

  4. Effect of waterfalls and the flood pulse on the structure of fish assemblages of the middle Xingu River in the eastern Amazon basin.

    PubMed

    Barbosa, T A P; Benone, N L; Begot, T O R; Gonçalves, A; Sousa, L; Giarrizzo, T; Juen, L; Montag, L F A

    2015-08-01

    The structure of fish assemblages in Neotropical rivers is influenced by a series of environmental, spatial and/or temporal factors, given that different species will occupy the habitats that present the most favourable conditions to their survival. The present study aims to identify the principal factors responsible for the structuring of the fish assemblages found in the middle Xingu River, examining the influence of environmental, spatial, and temporal factors, in addition to the presence of natural barriers (waterfalls). For this, data were collected every three months between July 2012 and April 2013, using gillnets of different sizes and meshes. In addition to biotic data, 17 environmental variables were measured. A total of 8,485 fish specimens were collected during the study, representing 188 species. Total dissolved solids, conductivity, total suspended matter, and dissolved oxygen concentrations were the variables that had the greatest influence on the characteristics of the fish fauna of the middle Xingu. Only the barriers and hydrological periods played a significant deterministic role, resulting in both longitudinal and lateral gradients. This emphasizes the role of the connectivity of the different habitats found within the study area in the structuring of its fish assemblages. PMID:26691079

  5. Post-rift vertical movements and horizontal deformations in the eastern margin of the Central Atlantic: Middle Jurassic to Early Cretaceous evolution of Morocco

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertotti, Giovanni; Gouiza, Mohamed

    2012-11-01

    Wide regions of Morocco, from the Meseta to the High Atlas, have experienced km-scale upward vertical movements during Middle Jurassic to Early Cretaceous times following the appearance of oceanic crust in the Central Atlantic. The area experiencing exhumation was flanked to the W by a domain of continuous subsidence, part of which is named the Essaouira-Agadir basin. Comparison with vertical movement curves predicted by lithospheric thinning models shows that only 50-60 % of the subsidence documented in the Essaouira basin can be explained by post-rift thermal relaxation and that <30-40 % of the observed exhumation can be explained by processes (in)directly related to the evolution of the Central Atlantic rifted margin. Syn-sedimentary structures in Middle Jurassic to Lower Cretaceous formations of the Eassouira-Agadir basin are common and range from m-scale folds and thrusts to km-scale sedimentary wedges. These structures systematically document coeval shortening generally oriented at high angle to the present margin. As a working hypothesis, it is suggested that regional shortening can explain the structural observations and the enigmatic vertical movements.

  6. Paleodrainages of the Eastern Sahara - The radar rivers revisited (SIR-A/B implications for a mid-tertiary Trans-African drainage system)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccauley, J. F.; Breed, C. S.; Schaber, G. G.; Mchugh, W. P.; Haynes, C. C.

    1986-01-01

    The images obtained by the Shuttle Imaging Radar (SIR)-A and -B systems over the southwestern Egypt and northwestern Sudan were coregistered with the Landsat images and the existing maps to aid in extrapolations of the buried paleodrainages ('radar rivers'), first discovered by SIR-A. Field observations explain the radar responses of three types of radar rivers, RR-1 (broad, aggraded valleys filled with alluvium), RR-2 (braided channels inset in the RR-1 valleys), and RR-3 (narrow, long, bedrock-incised channels). A generalized model of the radar rivers, based on field studies and regional geologic relations, shows inferred changes in river regimen since the large valleys were established during the later Paleogene-early Neogene. It is suggested that a former Trans-African master stream system may have flowed from headwaters in the Red Sea Hills southwestward across North Africa, discharging into the Atlantic at the Paleo-Niger delta, prior to the Neogene domal uplifts and building of volcanic edifices across the paths of these ancient watercourses.

  7. Learning to "see" sound: An investigation into the intellectual and linguistic resources that urban middle school African American boys utilize in the practice of representing sound transmission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, Christopher G.

    2011-12-01

    This research examines the intellectual and linguistic resources that a group of African American boys brought to the study of the science of sound and the practice of representation. By taking a resource-rich view of the boys' linguistic and representational practices, my objective is to investigate children's abilities in producing, using, critiquing, and modifying representations. Specifically, this research looks to explore and identify the varieties of resources that African American boys utilize in developing scientific understanding. Using transcripts from group sessions, as well as the drawings produced during these sessions, I utilized a combination of discourse analysis to explore the boys' linguistic interactions during the critique of drawings with a focus on the boys' manipulation of line segments in order to explore their representational competencies. Analysis of the transcripts and the boys' drawings revealed several important findings. First, elements of Signifying were instrumental in the group's collective exploration of each other's drawings, and the ideas of sound transmission being represented in the drawings. Thus, I found that the boys' use of Signifying was key to their engagement win the practice of critique. Second, the boys' ideas regarding sound transmission were not fixed, stable misconceptions that could be "fixed" through instruction. Instead, I believe that their explanations and drawings were generated from a web of ideas regarding sound transmission. Lastly, the boys exhibited a form of meta-representational competency that included the production, modification, and manipulation of notations used to represent sound transmission. Despite this competency, the negotiation process necessary in constructing meaning of a drawing highlighted the complexities in developing a conventional understanding or meaning for representations. Additional research is necessary for exploring the intellectual and lingustic resources that children from

  8. Early to middle Miocene climate evolution: New insights from IODP Sites U1335, U1337 and U1338 (eastern equatorial Pacific Ocean)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kochhann, Karlos G. D.; Holbourn, Ann; Kuhnt, Wolfgang; Lyle, Mitch; Raffi, Isabella; Channell, James E.; Andersen, Nils

    2015-04-01

    The lower to middle Miocene (~20 to 13 Ma) carbonate-rich sedimentary successions recovered at Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Sites U1335, U1337 and U1338 allow unsurpassed resolution over the Climatic Optimum (16.9-14.7 Ma) and the transition into a colder climate mode after 13.9 Ma with re-establishment of permanent Antarctic ice sheets. High-resolution (1-10 kyr) stable carbon (δ13C) and oxygen (δ18O) isotopes of well-preserved epibenthic foraminifera (Cibicidoides mundulus and Planulina wuellerstorfi) from these three sites show that the Climatic Optimum was characterized by high-amplitude climate variations and intense perturbations of the carbon cycle. Episodes of peak warmth coincided with transient shoaling of the carbonate compensation depth and enhanced carbonate dissolution in the deep ocean. The U1335 and U1337 records additionally reveal that the rapid global warming and/or polar ice melting event, marking the onset of the Climatic Optimum at ~16.9 Ma, was coupled to a massive increase in carbonate dissolution, indicated by sharp drops in carbonate percentages and accumulation rates and by the fragmentation or complete dissolution of planktonic foraminifers. After ~14.7 Ma, stepwise global cooling, culminating with extensive ice growth over Antarctica at ~13.8 Ma, coincide with enhanced opal and benthic foraminiferal accumulation rates, suggesting that increased siliceous productivity and organic carbon burial may have contributed to CO2 drawdown. Integration of age models derived from orbitally-tuned, high-resolution isotopes, biostratigraphic data and magnetic reversals allows further constraints on the temporal sequence of events and helps unravel the drivers of early to middle Miocene climate variations.

  9. Assessment of African Swine Fever Diagnostic Techniques as a Response to the Epidemic Outbreaks in Eastern European Union Countries: How To Improve Surveillance and Control Programs

    PubMed Central

    Nieto, R.; Soler, A.; Pelayo, V.; Fernández-Pinero, J.; Markowska-Daniel, I.; Pridotkas, G.; Nurmoja, I.; Granta, R.; Simón, A.; Pérez, C.; Martín, E.; Fernández-Pacheco, P.; Arias, M.

    2015-01-01

    This study represents a complete comparative analysis of the most widely used African swine fever (ASF) diagnostic techniques in the European Union (EU) using field and experimental samples from animals infected with genotype II ASF virus (ASFV) isolates circulating in Europe. To detect ASFV, three different PCRs were evaluated in parallel using 785 field and experimental samples. The results showed almost perfect agreement between the Universal ProbeLibrary (UPL-PCR) and the real-time (κ = 0.94 [95% confidence interval {CI}, 0.91 to 0.97]) and conventional (κ = 0.88 [95% CI, 0.83 to 0.92]) World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE)-prescribed PCRs. The UPL-PCR had greater diagnostic sensitivity for detecting survivors and allows earlier detection of the disease. Compared to the commercial antigen enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), good-to-moderate agreement (κ = 0.67 [95% CI, 0.58 to 0.76]) was obtained, with a sensitivity of 77.2% in the commercial test. For ASF antibody detection, five serological methods were tested, including three commercial ELISAs, the OIE-ELISA, and the confirmatory immunoperoxidase test (IPT). Greater sensitivity was obtained with the IPT than with the ELISAs, since the IPT was able to detect ASF antibodies at an earlier point in the serological response, when few antibodies are present. The analysis of the exudate tissues from dead wild boars showed that IPT might be a useful serological tool for determining whether or not animals had been exposed to virus infection, regardless of whether antibodies were present. In conclusion, the UPL-PCR in combination with the IPT was the most trustworthy method for detecting ASF during the epidemic outbreaks affecting EU countries in 2014. The use of the most appropriate diagnostic tools is critical when implementing effective control programs. PMID:26041901

  10. Contaminant profiles for surface water, sediment, flora and fauna associated with the mangrove fringe along middle and lower eastern Tampa Bay.

    PubMed

    Lewis, M A; Russell, M J

    2015-06-15

    Contaminant concentrations are reported for surface water, sediment, flora and fauna collected during 2010-2011 from the mangrove fringe along eastern Tampa Bay, Florida. Concentrations of trace metals, chlorinated pesticides, atrazine, total polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and polychlorinated biphenyls were species-, chemical- and location-specific. Contaminants in sediments did not exceed proposed individual sediment quality guidelines. Most sediment quality assessment quotients were less than one indicating the likelihood of no inhibitory effect based on chemical measurements alone. Faunal species typically contained more contaminants than plant species; seagrass usually contained more chemicals than mangroves. Bioconcentration factors for marine angiosperms were usually less than 10 and ranged between 1 and 31. Mercury concentrations (ppm) in blue crabs and fish did not exceed the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency fish tissue criterion of 0.3 and the U.S. Food and Drug Administration action level of 1.0. In contrast, total mercury concentrations in faunal species often exceeded guideline values for wildlife consumers of aquatic biota. PMID:25931177

  11. Transpression and juxtaposition of middle crust over upper crust forming a crustal scale flower structure: Insight from structural, fabric, and kinematic studies from the Rengali Province, eastern India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, Gautam; Bose, Sankar; Das, Kaushik; Dasgupta, Arnab; Yamamoto, Takafumi; Hayasaka, Yasutaka; Chakrabarti, Kalyan; Mukhopadhyay, Joydip

    2016-02-01

    Deformational, metamorphic, monazite age and fabric data from Rengali Province, eastern India converge towards a multi-scale transpressional deformational episode at ca. 498-521 Ma which is linked with the latest phase of tectonic processes operative at proto-India-Antarctica join. Detailed sector wise study on mutual overprinting relationships of macro-to microstructural elements suggest that deformation was regionally partitioned into fold-thrust dominated shortening zones alternating with zones of dominant transcurrent deformation bounded between the thrust sense Barkot Shear Zone in the north and the dextral Kerajang Fault Zone in the south. The strain partitioned zones are further restricted between two regional transverse shear zones, the sinistral Riamol Shear Zone in the west and the dextral Akul Fault Zone in the east which are interpreted as synthetic R and antithetic R' Riedel shear plane, respectively. The overall structural disposition has been interpreted as a positive flower structure bounded between the longitudinal and transverse faults with vertical extrusion and symmetric juxtaposition of mid-crustal amphibolite grade basement gneisses over low-grade upper crustal rocks emanating from the central axis of the transpressional belt.

  12. Transactional sex and economic exchange with partners among young South African men in the rural Eastern Cape: prevalence, predictors, and associations with gender-based violence

    PubMed Central

    Dunkle, Kristin L; Jewkes, Rachel; Nduna, Mzikazi; Jama, Nwabisa; Levin, Jonathan; Sikweyiya, Yandisa; Koss, Mary P

    2009-01-01

    We explored the prevalence and predictors of transactional sex with casual partners and main girlfriends among 1,288 men aged 15-26 from 70 villages in the rural Eastern Cape province of South Africa. Data were collected through face-to-face interviews with young men enrolling in the Stepping Stones HIV prevention trial. A total of 17.7% of participants reported giving material resources or money to casual sex partners and 6.6% received resources from a casual partner. Transactionally motivated relationships with main girlfriends were more balanced between giving (14.9%) and getting (14.3%). We constructed multivariable models to identify the predictors for giving and for getting material resources in casual and in main relationships. Each model resulted in remarkably similar predictors. All four types of exchange were associated with higher socio-economic status, more adverse childhood experiences, more lifetime sexual partners, and alcohol use. Men who were more resistant to peer pressure to have sex were less likely to report transactional sex with casual partners, and men who reported more equitable gender attitudes were less likely to report main partnerships underpinned by exchange. The most consistent predictor of all four types of transaction was the perpetration of intimate partner violence and rape against women other than a main partner. The strong and consistent association between perpetration of gender-based violence and both giving and getting material goods from female partners suggests that transactional sex in both main and casual relationships can be viewed within a broader continuum of men's exercise of gendered power and control. HIV prevention interventions need to explicitly address transactional sex in the context of ideas about masculinity which place a high emphasis on heterosexual success with, and control of, women. PMID:17560702

  13. African Americans: Diverse People, Diverse Career Needs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kimbrough, Verna D.; Salomone, Paul R.

    1993-01-01

    Identifies the many subgroups within the African-American population and suggests guidelines for career counseling with different subcultures: rural and urban lower class, middle class, and underclass. (SK)

  14. Genesis of the Datuanshan stratabound skarn Cu(-Mo) deposit, Middle-Lower Yangtze Valley, Eastern China: constraints from geology, Re-Os geochronology, mineralogy, and sulfur isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Yi; Gao, Fuping; Du, Yangsong; Du, Yilun; Pang, Zhenshan

    2016-07-01

    Stratabound deposits are the most abundant and economically significant ore type in the Middle-Lower Yangtze River Valley, one of the most important metallogenic belts in China. The Datuanshan deposit is one of the largest and most representative stratabound Cu(-Mo) deposits in the Tongling district of the Middle-Lower Yangtze River metallogenic belt. All the orebodies of the Datuanshan deposit occur around Mesozoic quartz monzodiorite and are tabular or semi-tabular bodies along bedding-parallel faults within upper Permian to Lower Triassic strata. However, discordant and crosscutting relationships (e.g., the host rocks crosscut by skarn- and quartz-sulfide veins, with alteration halos around the veins) have also been found, especially along the skarn-host contact and orebody-host contact, indicating that skarnitization and mineralization postdated the deposition of the host sediments. The skarn consists mainly of prograde garnet and pyroxene and retrograde alteration assemblages of amphibole, epidote, and chlorite, as well as quartz and sulfides. Electron microprobe analyses show that the garnets and pyroxenes are grossular-andradite and hedenbergite-diopside series, respectively, and all samples plot in the field of typical skarn copper deposits worldwide. Molybdenite samples from stratiform copper ores yield Re-Os model ages of 138.2-139.9 Ma with a weighted mean age of 139.2 ± 0.9 Ma. This is reasonably consistent with the ages of the stratiform Mo ores (138.0-140.8 Ma) and genetically related quartz monzodiorite (135.2-139.3 Ma) in the Datuanshan deposit, indicating that the stratiform Cu and Mo mineralization was contemporaneous with emplacement of the quartz monzodiorite magmas in the Early Cretaceous. Fifteen δ34S values for sulfides range from -1.8 to +4.7 ‰, with a mean of 0.5 ‰, indicating that the sulfur was derived mainly from a magmatic source. Moreover, the sulfur isotope values of the ores are consistent with those of Mesozoic intermediate

  15. Refinement of Late Early to Middle Miocene Diatom Biostratigraphy for the Eastern Coast of the United States - Application to IODP 313 Coring on the New Jersey Shallow Shelf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barron, J. A.; Miller, K. G.; Sugarman, P.; Scienceparty, E.; Scientific Team Of Iodp Leg 313

    2010-12-01

    Marine diatoms have been employed for biostratigraphic correlation of lower and middle Miocene sediments deposited on the Atlantic Coastal Plain between Florida and New Jersey for over 50 years. Biotratigraphic zonations developed during the 1970’s and early 1980’s by George W. Andrews and William H. Abbott relied primarily on benthic and shallow shelf-dwelling diatoms ( Actinoptychus, Delphineis, Rhaphoneis, Sceptroneis ) that are common in these deposits. Limited age control was provided by sporadic occurrences of oceanic planktonic diatoms, calcareous nannofossils, and planktonic foraminifera. The transect of holes cored on the shallow New Jersey shelf during IODP Leg 313 provided an opportunity to further develop this east coast diatom biostratigraphy and to refine its correlation with the geologic time scale. In particular, Hole M0029A, at 39°31.170500’N, 73°24.792500’W in 35.97 m of water recovered a nearly continuous sequence of diatom-rich sediments between ~695 and 325 m subbottom depth that preliminary strontium and planktonic microfossil assigned to the late early and middle Miocene. Detailed light microscope study of this sequence revealed the occurrence of numerous oceanic planktonic diatoms (species of Actinocyclus, Annellus, Azpeitia, Crucidenticula, Denticulopsis, Thalassiosira) that have been proven to be useful for diatom biostratigraphy in the equatorial and North Pacific during the past 30 years, where their datum levels (first and last occurrences) have been directly tied to paleomagnetic stratigraphy. Comparison of the stratigraphic positions of these diatom datum levels with calcareous nannofossil, planktonic foraminiferal, and strontium isotope stratigraphy results in a refined age model for Hole M0029A ranging in age between ~19.0 and 13.0 Ma. The continuous occurrence in Hole M0029A of an evolutionary sequence of diatom species of Delphineis (D. ovata, D. lineata, D. penelliptica, D. angustata, D. novacaesarae, D. biseriata) that

  16. Hierarchy of sedimentary discontinuity surfaces and condensed beds from the middle Paleozoic of eastern North America: Implications for cratonic sequence stratigraphy

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McLaughlin, P.I.; Brett, Carlton E.; Wilson, M.A.

    2008-01-01

    Sedimentological analyses of middle Paleozoic epeiric sea successions in North America suggest a hierarchy of discontinuity surfaces and condensed beds of increasing complexity. Simple firmgrounds and hardgrounds, which are comparatively ephemeral features, form the base of the hierarchy. Composite hardgrounds, reworked concretions, authigenic mineral crusts and monomictic intraformational conglomerates indicate more complex histories. Polymictic intraformational conglomerates, ironstones and phosphorites form the most complex discontinuity surfaces and condensed beds. Complexity of discontinuities is closely linked to depositional environments duration of sediment starvation and degree of reworking which in turn show a relationship to stratigraphic cyclicity. A model of cratonic sequence stratigraphy is generated by combining data on the complexity and lateral distribution of discontinuities in the context of facies successions. Lowstand, early transgressive and late transgressive systems tracts are representative of sea-level rise. Early and late transgressive systems tracts are separated by the maximum starvation surface (typically a polymictic intraformational conglomerate or condensed phosphorite), deposited during the peak rate of sea-level rise. Conversely the maximum flooding surface, representing the highest stand of sea level, is marked by little to no break in sedimentation. The highstand and falling stage systems tracts are deposited during relative sea-level fall. They are separated by the forced-regression surface, a thin discontinuity surface or condensed bed developed during the most rapid rate of sea-level fall. The lowest stand of sea level is marked by the sequence boundary. In subaerially exposed areas it is occasionally modified as a rockground or composite hardground.

  17. "How can I tell?" Consequences of HIV status disclosure among couples in eastern African communities in the context of an ongoing HIV "test-and-treat" trial.

    PubMed

    Maeri, Irene; El Ayadi, Alison; Getahun, Monica; Charlebois, Edwin; Akatukwasa, Cecilia; Tumwebaze, Dennis; Itiakorit, Harriet; Owino, Lawrence; Kwarisiima, Dalsone; Ssemmondo, Emmanuel; Sang, Norton; Kabami, Jane; Clark, Tamara D; Petersen, Maya; Cohen, Craig R; Bukusi, Elizabeth A; Kamya, Moses; Havlir, Diane; Camlin, Carol S

    2016-01-01

    People living with HIV/AIDS anticipate HIV-related stigma and fear disclosure to intimate partners. Yet, disclosure is critical to reducing HIV transmission and improving care engagement. This qualitative study characterized HIV disclosure experiences and normative beliefs among couples in communities participating in an HIV test-and-treat trial in Kenya and Uganda (Sustainable East Africa Research in Community Health, NCT#01864603). In-depth interviews were conducted with care providers (n = 50), leaders (n = 32) and members (n = 112) of eight communities. Data were analyzed using grounded theoretical approaches and Atlas.ti software. Findings confirmed gender differences in barriers to disclosure: while both men and women feared blame and accusation, women also feared violence and abandonment ("I did not tell my husband because [what if] I tell him and he abandons me at the last moment when I am in labor?"). Positive consequences included partner support for increased care-seeking and adherence ("My husband keeps on reminding me 'have you taken those drugs?'") Yet negative consequences included partnership dissolution, blame, and reports of violence ("some men beat their wives just because of that [bringing HIV medications home]"). Among HIV-infected individuals in discordant relationships, men more often reported supportive spouses ("we normally share [HIV-risk-reduction strategies] since I have been infected and she is HIV negative"), than did women ("my husband refused to use condoms and even threatened to marry another wife"). Care providers lent support for HIV-positive women who wanted to engage partners in testing but feared negative consequences: "They engaged the two of us in a session and asked him if we could all test." Findings demonstrate differing experiences and support needs of women and men living with HIV in eastern Africa, with HIV-positive women in discordant couples particularly vulnerable to negative consequences of disclosure

  18. The U-Pb SIMS zircon age and geodynamic conditions of formation of granitoides of the Verkhisetsk batholith, the eastern slope of the Middle Urals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smirnov, V. N.; Ivanov, K. S.; Larionov, A. N.

    2014-11-01

    The U-Pb SIMS age dating of zircons from different-age granitoid assemblages varying in composition of the Verkhisetsk batholith shows that it comprises rocks of three age groups, formed at different stages of the Ural Mobile Belt. The first age group is represented by quartz diorites (396 ± 5 Ma) with insignificant distribution in area. Their formation was synchronous to island arc volcanism, manifested in the area of study from the second half of the Emsian to late Givetian-early Frasnian. According to this, we could consider these granitoides as comagmatic to island arc volcanites. The second age group includes tonalites and trondhjemites (367 ± 4 Ma), comprising the western part of the batholith. On the basis of similarity between these rocks and granitoides of modern active continental margins in material composition, it is assumed that they formed throughout the island arc-continental stage of development of the Ural Mobile Belt. Granitoides of the third age group, dominating in the Verkhisetsk batholith, formed as a result of several homodrome rhythms of granodiorite-granite intrusions of moderate-potassium composition during a short period of time (315-300 Ma). Their formation is related to the initial stage of the collision stage of development of the region, lasting from the early Bashkirian to Late Permian in the Middle Urals, which is fixed by deposition of flysch and molasse sediments in the Ural Foredeep. The data obtained change our understanding significantly of the character of evolution of granitoid magmatism and the place of rock assemblages studied in the geological history of the Urals.

  19. The early Middle Pleistocene archeopaleontological site of Wadi Sarrat (Tunisia) and the earliest record of Bos primigenius

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez-Navarro, Bienvenido; Karoui-Yaakoub, Narjess; Oms, Oriol; Amri, Lamjed; López-García, Juan Manuel; Zerai, Kamel; Blain, Hugues-Alexandre; Mtimet, Moncef-Saïd; Espigares, María-Patrocinio; Ben Haj Ali, Nebiha; Ros-Montoya, Sergio; Boughdiri, Mabrouk; Agustí, Jordi; Khayati-Ammar, Hayet; Maalaoui, Kamel; El Khir, Maahmoudi Om; Sala, Robert; Othmani, Abdelhak; Hawas, Ramla; Gómez-Merino, Gala; Solè, Àlex; Carbonell, Eudald; Palmqvist, Paul

    2014-04-01

    Here we describe the new, rich lacustrine paleontological and archeological site of Wadi Sarrat (Le Kef, northeastern Tunisia), dated to the beginning of the Middle Pleistocene, ˜0.7 Ma, by a combination of paleomagnetism and biochronology. This locality preserves the earliest record of auroch, Bos primigenius, the ancestor of the worldwide extant domestic cattle species Bos taurus, which is represented by a nearly complete, giant-sized cranium (specimen OS1). Both the cranial anatomy and the size of this specimen reflect the phylogenetic legacy inherited from its ancestor, the late Early Pleistocene African Bos buiaensis, recorded in the eastern African paleoanthropological site of Buia, Eritrea (1.0 Ma). Given that the latter species is an evolved form of the classical Early Pleistocene African buffalo Pelorovis oldowayensis, the finding of B. primigenius at Wadi Sarrat shows that the genus Bos evolved in Africa and dispersed into Eurasia at the beginning of the Middle Pleistocene, which coincides with the spread of the Acheulian technocomplex in northern Africa and Europe. Therefore, the lineage of Pelorovis-Bos has been part of the human ecological landscape since the appearance of the genus Homo in the African Early Pleistocene.

  20. Coupled marine productivity and salinity and West African monsoon variability over the last 30,000 years in the eastern equatorial Atlantic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marret, F.; Kim, S.-Y.; Scourse, J.; Kennedy, H.

    2009-04-01

    Marine cores collected off west equatorial Africa have highlighted transfer of terrigenous material in the close ocean that have had a deep influence on the marine productivity for the last 30,000 years. The strength of the West African Monsoon has varied though time, from weak during glacial periods to strong during interglacials. In consequence, the amount of precipitation on the continent had drastic effect on the vegetation cover and soil erosion. Studies of marine cores have enabled the observation of changes in vegetation cover, from extended equatorial rainforest to expansion of savannahs. In association with open grassland association, soil is open to erosion, although precipitation is less; conversely, during periods of extended rainforest in a context of strong monsoon, soil erosion is minimised to the presence of trees. In both cases, terrigenous material is flushed out to the adjacent marine domain and has a profound influence on the marine biota. Three marine cores were studied from a north south transect, from Cameroon to Angola (off Sanaga, off Ogouée, and off Congo rivers), for their palynomorph contents. All cores contain a robust chronology based on radiocarbon dates and two have stable isotope data, allowing comparison. Dinoflagellate cysts were studied for retracing sea-surface conditions such as temperature, salinity and productivity whereas pollen were used to assess changes in the vegetation on the close continent for the last 30,000 years (1). A number of pollen records from terrestrial sequences from equatorial central Africa document the dynamics of the lowland rainforest and savannah in relation to climatic changes during the Holocene. Prior to the Holocene, continental records are scarce in this vast region and/or only allow reconstruction of the local vegetation. In our records, terrestrial proxies (pollen, spores, and charred grass cuticles) signal changes in the expansion/regression of the lowland rainforest which we relate to the

  1. Geological, geochronological, and mineralogical constraints on the genesis of the Chengchao skarn Fe deposit, Edong ore district, Middle-Lower Yangtze River Valley metallogenic belt, eastern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Lei; Xie, Guiqing; Mao, Jingwen; Lü, Zhicheng; Zhao, Caisheng; Zheng, Xianwei; Ding, Ning

    2015-04-01

    The Edong ore district is located within the westernmost Middle-Lower Yangtze River Valley metallogenic belt (MLYRB), and hosts the largest concentration of skarn Fe deposits in China, although the origin of these deposits remains controversial. The Chengchao deposit is the largest skarn Fe deposit so far discovered within the MLYRB, and provides a good opportunity to address the debate surrounding the origin of these skarn Fe deposits. Here, we present geological, geochronological, and mineralogical data from the Chengchao skarn deposit and associated intrusions, and discuss the relationships between granitoids and mineralization in the Chengchao deposit. The NW-SE-striking orebodies in the study area have porphyritic quartz monzonite and/or granite footwalls, and Triassic marble or diorite hangingwalls, indicating a spatial relationship between these intrusions and Fe mineralization. Zircon U-Pb data from the granite, porphyritic quartz monzonite, diorite, and porphyritic diabase dike within the deposit show ages of 129 ± 1, 128 ± 1, 140 ± 1, and 126 ± 1 Ma, respectively. These ages and the previously reported ages on the timing of mineralization suggest that the porphyritic quartz monzonite and granite are coeval with the formation of the skarn Fe deposit. Our data confirm that the granitic rocks are temporally associated with Fe mineralization. The prograde substage of skarn development is characterized by two stages of andradite (Adr98-38Grs61-2Prp2-0Sps1-0Alm1-0) and diopside (Di95-61Hd37-5Jo3-0), including an early stage of garnet and pyroxene formation that is genetically associated with the mineralization. The early stage garnets are more andradite-rich (Adr98-50Grs49-2Prp1-0Sps1-0Alm0) than the late veinlet garnets characterized by intermediate grandite compositions (Adr67-37Grs61-31Prp2-0Sps1-0Alm1-0). The early stage pyroxenes (Di95-74Hd26-5Jo1-0) are compositionally distinct from the late stage pyroxenes (Di84-61Hd37-16Jo3-0). Compositional

  2. Enriched asthenosphere melting beneath the nascent North African margin: trace element and Nd isotope evidence in middle-late Triassic alkali basalts from central Sicily (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cirrincione, Rosolino; Fiannacca, Patrizia; Lustrino, Michele; Romano, Vanessa; Tranchina, Annunziata; Villa, Igor M.

    2016-03-01

    During the dismembering of the Pangea supercontinent, middle-late Triassic sub-volcanic alkaline rocks were emplaced in central Sicily. These rocks have an alkali basaltic composition and show OIB-like incompatible element patterns in primitive mantle-normalized diagrams (e.g., enrichments in HFSE and LREE coupled with high HFSE/LILE ratios), as well as slightly positive \\varepsilon_{Nd} values. Only subtle effects of crustal contamination at shallow depths emerge from geochemical data. These characteristics are very different compared with the Permian calcalkaline magmas from elsewhere in SW Europe still carrying the geochemical signature of modifications related to the Variscan orogeny. The mineralogical, geochemical and isotopic compositions of the investigated samples from central Sicily are also different from the coeval shoshonitic volcano-plutonic formations of Southern Alps (Dolomites). The incompatible element composition and Nd isotopic ratios are consistent with low-degree partial melting of a moderately depleted asthenospheric mantle source, with a negligible involvement of the thinned continental crust. The studied alkaline basalts represent the only known evidence of a segment of the Triassic rift system associated with early Pangea breakup in central Sicily. The close similarity of the central Sicily Triassic alkali basalts with coeval basalts emplaced along former orogenic sutures across the peri-Mediterranean area suggests a common origin related, at least partly, to asthenospheric passive upwelling following the tectonic collapse of the Variscan Belt. These rocks provide new constraints on the spatial-temporal distribution, magma source evolution and geodynamic meaning of the widespread Permo-Triassic basic magmatism developed after the end of the Variscan Orogeny in southwestern Europe.

  3. African human mtDNA phylogeography at-a-glance.

    PubMed

    Rosa, Alexandra; Brehem, António

    2011-01-01

    The mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) genetic system has long proven to be useful for studying the demographic history of our species, since their proposed Southeast/East African origin 200 kya. Despite the weak archaeological and anthropologic records, which render a difficult understanding of early intra- continental migrations, the phylogenetic L0-L1'6 split at about 140-160 kya is thought to represent also an early sub-structuring of small and isolated communities in South and East Africa. Regional variation accumulated over the following millennia, with L2 and L3 lineages arising in Central and East Africa 100-75 kya. Their sub-Saharan dispersal not later than 60 kya, largely overwhelmed the L0'1 distribution, nowadays limited to South African Khoisan and Central African Pygmies. Cyclic expansions and retractions of the equatorial forest between 40 kya and the "Last Glacial Aridity Maximum" were able to reduce the genetic diversity of modern humans. Surviving regional-specific lineages have emerged from the Sahelian refuge areas, repopulating the region and contributing to the overall West African genetic similarity. Particular L1- L3 lineages mirror the substantial population growth made possible by moister and warmer conditions of the Sahara's Wet Phase and the adoption of agriculture and iron smelting techniques. The diffusion of the farming expertise from a Central African source towards South Africa was mediated by the Bantu people 3 kya. The strong impact of their gene flow almost erased the pre-existent maternal pool. Non-L mtDNAs testify for Eurasian lineages that have enriched the African maternal pool at different timeframes: i) Near and Middle Eastern influences in Upper Palaeolithic, probably link to the spread of Afro-Asiatic languages; ii) particular lineages from West Eurasia around or after the glacial period; iii) post-glacial mtDNA signatures from the Franco-Cantabrian refugia, that have crossed the Strait of Gibraltar and iv) Eurasian lineages

  4. Tectonic Uplift and Eastern Africa Aridification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sepulchre, Pierre; Ramstein, Gilles; Fluteau, Frédéric; Schuster, Mathieu; Tiercelin, Jean-Jacques; Brunet, Michel

    2006-09-01

    The history of Eastern African hominids has been linked to a progressive increase of open grassland during the past 8 million years. This trend was explained by global climatic processes, which do not account for the massive uplift of eastern African topography that occurred during this period. Atmosphere and biosphere simulations quantify the role played by these tectonic events. The reduced topographic barrier before 8 million years ago permitted a zonal circulation with associated moisture transport and strong precipitation. Our results suggest that the uplift itself led to a drastic reorganization of atmospheric circulation, engendering the strong aridification and paleoenvironmental changes suggested by the data.

  5. Volcanism in Eastern Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cauthen, Clay; Coombs, Cassandra R.

    1996-01-01

    In 1891, the Virunga Mountains of Eastern Zaire were first acknowledged as volcanoes, and since then, the Virunga Mountain chain has demonstrated its potentially violent volcanic nature. The Virunga Mountains lie across the Eastern African Rift in an E-W direction located north of Lake Kivu. Mt. Nyamuragira and Mt. Nyiragongo present the most hazard of the eight mountains making up Virunga volcanic field, with the most recent activity during the 1970-90's. In 1977, after almost eighty years of moderate activity and periods of quiescence, Mt. Nyamuragira became highly active with lava flows that extruded from fissures on flanks circumscribing the volcano. The flows destroyed vast areas of vegetation and Zairian National Park areas, but no casualties were reported. Mt. Nyiragongo exhibited the same type volcanic activity, in association with regional tectonics that effected Mt. Nyamuragira, with variations of lava lake levels, lava fountains, and lava flows that resided in Lake Kivu. Mt. Nyiragongo, recently named a Decade volcano, presents both a direct and an indirect hazard to the inhabitants and properties located near the volcano. The Virunga volcanoes pose four major threats: volcanic eruptions, lava flows, toxic gas emission (CH4 and CO2), and earthquakes. Thus, the volcanoes of the Eastern African volcanic field emanate harm to the surrounding area by the forecast of volcanic eruptions. During the JSC Summer Fellowship program, we will acquire and collate remote sensing, photographic (Space Shuttle images), topographic and field data. In addition, maps of the extent and morphology(ies) of the features will be constructed using digital image information. The database generated will serve to create a Geographic Information System for easy access of information of the Eastem African volcanic field. The analysis of volcanism in Eastern Africa will permit a comparison for those areas from which we have field data. Results from this summer's work will permit

  6. Teaching about the Middle East: Challenges and Resource

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaffee, Cyrisse

    2004-01-01

    Barbara Petzen began working as a part-time outreach coordinator at Harvard University's Center for Middle Eastern Studies (CMES) a week before September 11, 2001. She was finishing her dissertation in Middle Eastern studies, specializing in the Ottoman Empire and Arab history, and thought it would be a good job to have while she completed her…

  7. African dust outbreaks over the Mediterranean Basin during 2001-2011: concentrations, phenomenology and trends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pey, Jorge; Querol, Xavier; Alastuey, Andres; Forastiere, Franceso; Stafoggia, Massimo

    2013-04-01

    Concentrations, phenomenology and trends of African dust outbreaks over the whole Mediterranean Basin werestudied on an 11-year period (2001-2011). This work has been performed in the context of the MED-PARTICLES (LIFE programme, EU) project, devoted to quantify short-term health effects of particulate matter over the Mediterranean region by distinguishing different particle sizes, chemical components and sources, with emphasis in the effects of African dust. In order to evaluate conduct this investigation, PM10 data from 19 regional and suburban background sites West to East in the Mediterranean area were compiled. After identifying the daily occurrence of African dust outbreaks, a methodology for estimating natural dust contributions on daily PM10 concentrations was applied. Our findings point out that African dust outbreaks are sensibly more frequent in southern sitesacross the Mediterranean, from 30 to 37 % of the annual days, whereas they occur less than 20% of the annual days in northern sites. The central Mediterranean emerges as a transitional area, with slightly higher frequency of dust episodes in its lower extreme when compared to similar latitudinal positions in western and eastern sides of the Basin. A decreasing south to north gradient of African dust contribution to PM10, driven by the latitudinal position of the monitoring sites at least 25°E westwards across the Basin,is patent across the Mediterranean. From 25°E eastwards, higher annual dust contributions are encountered due to the elevated annual occurrence of severe episodesof dust but also because of inputs from Middle Eastern deserts. Concerning seasonality patterns and intensity characteristics, a clear summer prevalence is observed in the western part, with low occurrence of severe episodes (daily dust averages over 100 µg m-3 in PM10); no seasonal trend is detected in the central region, with moderate-intensity episodes; and significantly higher contributions are common in autumn

  8. African horse sickness.

    PubMed

    Zientara, S; Weyer, C T; Lecollinet, S

    2015-08-01

    African horse sickness (AHS) is a devastating disease of equids caused by an arthropod-borne virus belonging to the Reoviridae family, genus Orbivirus. It is considered a major health threat for horses in endemic areas in sub-Saharan Africa. African horse sickness virus (AHSV) repeatedly caused large epizootics in the Mediterranean region (North Africa and southern Europe in particular) as a result of trade in infected equids. The unexpected emergence of a closely related virus, the bluetongue virus, in northern Europe in 2006 has raised fears about AHSV introduction into Europe, and more specifically into AHSV-free regions that have reported the presence of AHSV vectors, e.g. Culicoides midges. North African and European countries should be prepared to face AHSV incursions in the future, especially since two AHSV serotypes (serotypes 2 and 7) have recently spread northwards to western (e.g. Senegal, Nigeria, Gambia) and eastern Africa (Ethiopia), where historically only serotype 9 had been isolated. The authors review key elements of AHS epidemiology, surveillance and prophylaxis. PMID:26601437

  9. Gravimetric maps of the Central African Republic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Albouy, J.; Godivier, R. (Principal Investigator)

    1982-01-01

    Gravimetric maps of the Central African Republic are described including a map of Bouguer anomalies at 1/1,000,000 in two sections (eastern sheet, western sheet) and a map, in color, of Bouguer anomalies at 1/2,000,000. Instrumentation, data acquisition, calibration, and data correction procedures are discussed.

  10. Cultural aspects of African American eating patterns.

    PubMed

    Airhihenbuwa, C O; Kumanyika, S; Agurs, T D; Lowe, A; Saunders, D; Morssink, C B

    1996-09-01

    The high mortality from diet-related diseases among African Americans strongly suggests a need to adopt diets lower in total fat, saturated fat and salt and higher in fiber. However, such changes would be contrary to some traditional African American cultural practices. Focus group interviews were used to explore cultural aspects of eating patterns among low- and middle-income African Americans recruited from an urban community in Pennsylvania. In total, 21 males and 32 females, aged 13-65+ years were recruited using a networking technique. Participants identified eating practices commonly attributed to African Americans and felt that these were largely independent of socioeconomic status. They were uncertain about links between African American eating patterns and African origins but clear about influences of slavery and economic disadvantage. The perception that African American food patterns were characteristically adaptive to external conditions, suggest that, for effective dietary change in African American communities, changes in the food availability will need to precede or take place in parallel with changes recommended to individuals. Cultural attitudes about where and with whom food is eaten emerged as being equivalent in importance to attitudes about specific foods. These findings emphasize the importance of continued efforts to identify ways to increase the relevance of cultural context and meanings in dietary counseling so that health and nutrition interventions are anchored in values as perceived, in this case, by African Americans. PMID:9395569

  11. African-Centered Schooling in Theory and Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pollard, Diane S., Ed.; Ajirotutu, Cheryl S., Ed.

    This book tells the story of two African-centered schools, an elementary school and a middle school, in an urban public school system. Both schools were originally conceived as "all male academies," but legal and political obstacles caused both to become coeducational, although still African-centered. The factors that affected the implementation…

  12. Discrimination, Mastery, and Depressive Symptoms among African American Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watkins, Daphne C.; Hudson, Darrell L.; Caldwell, Cleopatra Howard; Siefert, Kristine; Jackson, James S.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This study examines the influence of discrimination and mastery on depressive symptoms for African American men at young (18-34), middle (35-54), and late (55+) adulthood. Method: Analyses are based on responses from 1,271 African American men from the National Survey of American Life (NSAL). Results: Discrimination was significantly…

  13. Support Needs of Overweight African American Women for Weight Loss

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Janet L.; Stewart, Diana W.; Lynam, Ian M.; Daley, Christine M.; Befort, Christie; Scherber, Robyn M.; Mercurio, Andrea E.; Okuyemi, Kolawole S.; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: To examine social support needs of obese and overweight African American women for weight loss. Methods: Focus groups were conducted with overweight and obese African American women. Data were analyzed using standard grounded theory text analysis. Results: Our middle-aged (45.7 years; SD = 12.6) women (N = 66) were interested in…

  14. "Workin' on the Railroad": African American Labor History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maher, Rebecca

    2004-01-01

    In the spring of 2003, the author worked with a team of eighth grade teachers at Asheville Middle School in North Carolina on a project that combined fine art, music, the history of the railroads, and the African American experience in the state and nation. In her classroom, students interviewed a retired train conductor, who was African American,…

  15. Addressing diabetes at the crossroads of global pandemic and regional culture: Comment on "The curse of wealth - Middle Eastern countries need to address the rapidly rising burden of diabetes".

    PubMed

    Hsu, William C; Gabbay, Robert A

    2014-07-01

    As diabetes and obesity rates continue to climb at astronomical rates in the Middle East, future generations are at an even greater risk for diabetes and the associated complications. Many factors are at play and it is clear that creative solutions are needed to retool provider resources in the Middle East towards prevention of diabetes and its complications while leveraging technology to maximize outreach within the accepted cultural norms. Only by building the capacity to address the current diabetes burden as well focusing on prevention for the future, can Middle East countries create a strong infrastructure for a successful future. PMID:25114948

  16. Lithospheric Response of the Anatolian Plateau in the Realm of the Black Sea and the Eastern Mediterranean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ergun, Mustafa

    2016-04-01

    The Eastern Mediterranean and the Middle East make up the southern boundary of the Tethys Ocean for the last 200 Ma by the disintegration of the Pangaea and closure of the Tethys Ocean. It covers the structures: Hellenic and Cyprus arcs; Eastern Anatolian Fault Zone; Bitlis Suture Zone and Zagros Mountains. The northern boundary of the Tethys Ocean is made up the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea, and it extends up to Po valley towards the west (Pontides, Caucasus). Between these two zones the Alp-Himalayan orogenic belt is situated where the Balkan, Anatolia and the Iran plateaus are placed as the remnants of the lost Ocean of the Tethys. The active tectonics of the eastern Mediterranean is the consequences of the convergence between the Africa, Arabian plates in the south and the Eurasian plate in the north. These plates act as converging jaws of vise forming a crustal mosaic in between. The active crustal deformation pattern reveals two N-S trending maximum compression or crustal shortening syntaxes': (i) the eastern Black Sea and the Arabian plate, (ii) the western Black Sea and the Isparta Angle. The transition in young mountain belts, from ocean crust through the agglomeration of arc systems with long histories of oceanic closures, to a continental hinterland is well exemplified by the plate margin in the eastern Mediterranean. The boundary between the African plate and the Aegean/Anatolian microplate is in the process of transition from subduction to collision along the Cyprus Arc. Since the Black Sea has oceanic lithosphere, it is actually a separate plate. However it can be considered as a block, because the Black Sea is a trapped oceanic basin that cannot move freely within the Eurasian Plate. Lying towards the northern margin of orogenic belts related to the closure of the Tethys Ocean, it is generally considered to be a result of back-arc extension associated with the northward subduction of the Tethyan plate to the south. Interface oceanic lithosphere at

  17. Gastrointestinal Infections in Deployed Forces in the Middle East Theater: An Historical 60 Year Perspective.

    PubMed

    Riddle, Mark S; Savarino, Stephen J; Sanders, John W

    2015-11-01

    Infectious diarrhea has been among the most common maladies of military deployments throughout time. The U.S. military experienced a significant burden from this disease in the middle eastern and north African campaigns of World War II (WWII). This article compares patterns of disease experienced in WWII with the recent military deployments to the same region for Operation Iraqi Freedom and Operation Enduring Freedom (OIF/OEF). Remarkable similarities in the prevalence and risk factors were noted, which belie the assumed improvements in prevention against these infections. In both campaigns, peaks of diarrhea occurred shortly after arrival of new personnel, which were seasonally associated and were linked to initial lapses in field sanitation and hygiene. It is important to reassess current strategies, especially, in light of emerging evidence of the chronic sequelae of these common infections to include a reemphasis on or reexamination of vaccine development, rapid field diagnostics, treatment algorithms, and antimicrobial prophylaxis. PMID:26350450

  18. Gastrointestinal Infections in Deployed Forces in the Middle East Theater: An Historical 60 Year Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Riddle, Mark S.; Savarino, Stephen J.; Sanders, John W.

    2015-01-01

    Infectious diarrhea has been among the most common maladies of military deployments throughout time. The U.S. military experienced a significant burden from this disease in the middle eastern and north African campaigns of World War II (WWII). This article compares patterns of disease experienced in WWII with the recent military deployments to the same region for Operation Iraqi Freedom and Operation Enduring Freedom (OIF/OEF). Remarkable similarities in the prevalence and risk factors were noted, which belie the assumed improvements in prevention against these infections. In both campaigns, peaks of diarrhea occurred shortly after arrival of new personnel, which were seasonally associated and were linked to initial lapses in field sanitation and hygiene. It is important to reassess current strategies, especially, in light of emerging evidence of the chronic sequelae of these common infections to include a reemphasis on or reexamination of vaccine development, rapid field diagnostics, treatment algorithms, and antimicrobial prophylaxis. PMID:26350450

  19. African Aesthetics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abiodun, Rowland

    2001-01-01

    No single traditional discipline can adequately supply answers to the many unresolved questions in African art history. Because of the aesthetic, cultural, historical, and, not infrequently, political biases, already built into the conception and development of Western art history, the discipline of art history as defined and practiced in the West…

  20. Founder mutations in Tunisia: implications for diagnosis in North Africa and Middle East

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Tunisia is a North African country of 10 million inhabitants. The native background population is Berber. However, throughout its history, Tunisia has been the site of invasions and migratory waves of allogenic populations and ethnic groups such as Phoenicians, Romans, Vandals, Arabs, Ottomans and French. Like neighbouring and Middle Eastern countries, the Tunisian population shows a relatively high rate of consanguinity and endogamy that favor expression of recessive genetic disorders at relatively high rates. Many factors could contribute to the recurrence of monogenic morbid trait expression. Among them, founder mutations that arise in one ancestral individual and diffuse through generations in isolated communities. Method We report here on founder mutations in the Tunisian population by a systematic review of all available data from PubMed, other sources of the scientific literature as well as unpublished data from our research laboratory. Results We identified two different classes of founder mutations. The first includes founder mutations so far reported only among Tunisians that are responsible for 30 genetic diseases. The second group represents founder haplotypes described in 51 inherited conditions that occur among Tunisians and are also shared with other North African and Middle Eastern countries. Several heavily disabilitating diseases are caused by recessive founder mutations. They include, among others, neuromuscular diseases such as congenital muscular dystrophy and spastic paraglegia and also severe genodermatoses such as dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa and xeroderma pigmentosa. Conclusion This report provides informations on founder mutations for 73 genetic diseases either specific to Tunisians or shared by other populations. Taking into account the relatively high number and frequency of genetic diseases in the region and the limited resources, screening for these founder mutations should provide a rapid and cost effective tool for

  1. Development of West African Rainy Seasons (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, K. H.

    2013-12-01

    The development of West African rainy seasons in the observed climatology can be understood in terms of two factors: continentality, i.e., the shape and placement of the African continent, and solar forcing. First, the observed features of the West African spring and summer precipitation climatology that distinguish it from the precipitation climatology of the tropical Atlantic to the east and Central/Eastern Africa to the west are presented. These include a lingering of the precipitation maximum along the Guinean coast in June and the apparent sudden movement of the precipitation maximum into the Sahel in early July. Then, these distinguishing features of the West Africa precipitation climatology are explained in terms of the regional dynamics and, finally, related to continentality and solar forcing through the roles of the African easterly jet, land surface temperature, and seasonally-varying SSTs.

  2. The Eastern Arc Mountains and coastal forests of East Africa-an archive to understand large-scale biogeographical patterns: Pseudotomias, a new genus of African Pseudophyllinae (Orthoptera: Tettigoniidae).

    PubMed

    Hemp, Claudia

    2016-01-01

    A new genus of Pseudophyllinae restricted to East Africa is described. Data on the ecology, and the habitat are provided. The biogeographical pattern and morphology suggests an old radiation since Tomias from Central and West Africa is the closest relative to Pseudotomias. The old forests of East Africa could hereby be the source of representatives of this old radiation since venation is less reduced in East African taxa of Phyllomimini. PMID:27395601

  3. Ideal Body Size as a Mediator for the Gender-Specific Association between Socioeconomic Status and Body Mass Index: Evidence from an Upper-Middle-Income Country in the African Region

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yepes, Maryam; Maurer, Jürgen; Stringhini, Silvia; Viswanathan, Barathi; Gedeon, Jude; Bovet, Pascal

    2016-01-01

    Background: While obesity continues to rise globally, the associations between body size, gender, and socioeconomic status (SES) seem to vary in different populations, and little is known on the contribution of perceived ideal body size in the social disparity of obesity in African countries. Purpose: We examined the gender and socioeconomic…

  4. Eastern Kentucky Teacher and Administrative Stress: Part II

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Sam; Ballestero, Victor

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to survey selected Eastern Kentucky Teachers (Elementary, Middle, and High School) to collect data about stress in public schools. This was a continuation study for Eastern Kentucky that collected data on how men and women teachers and men and women administrators handle stress. A stress survey (Appendix C) was…

  5. Promotive Parenting Practices among African American Mothers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams-Wheeler, Meeshay

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine communication/reasoning, behavioral control, and trust as predictors of resourcefulness among African American children during middle childhood (6-12 years of age). Mothers who practice promotive socialization strategies are more likely to rear children who are socially competent and well adjusted. Multiple…

  6. Carnivorous dinocephalian from the Middle Permian of Brazil and tetrapod dispersal in Pangaea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cisneros, Juan Carlos; Abdala, Fernando; Atayman-Güven, Saniye; Rubidge, Bruce S.; Celâl Şengör, A. M.; Schultz, Cesar L.

    2012-01-01

    The medial Permian (∼270-260 Ma: Guadalupian) was a time of important tetrapod faunal changes, in particular reflecting a turnover from pelycosaurian- to therapsid-grade synapsids. Until now, most knowledge on tetrapod distribution during the medial Permian has come from fossils found in the South African Karoo and the Russian Platform, whereas other areas of Pangaea are still poorly known. We present evidence for the presence of a terrestrial carnivorous vertebrate from the Middle Permian of South America based on a complete skull. Pampaphoneus biccai gen. et sp. nov. was a dinocephalian "mammal-like reptile" member of the Anteosauridae, an early therapsid predator clade known only from the Middle Permian of Russia, Kazakhstan, China, and South Africa. The genus is characterized, among other features, by postorbital bosses, short, bulbous postcanines, and strongly recurved canines. Phylogenetic analysis indicates that the Brazilian dinocephalian occupies a middle position within the Anteosauridae, reinforcing the model of a global distribution for therapsids as early as the Guadalupian. The close phylogenetic relationship of the Brazilian species to dinocephalians from South Africa and the Russian Platform suggests a closer faunistic relationship between South America and eastern Europe than previously thought, lending support to a Pangaea B-type continental reconstruction.

  7. Carnivorous dinocephalian from the Middle Permian of Brazil and tetrapod dispersal in Pangaea

    PubMed Central

    Cisneros, Juan Carlos; Abdala, Fernando; Atayman-Güven, Saniye; Rubidge, Bruce S.; Şengör, A. M. Celâl; Schultz, Cesar L.

    2012-01-01

    The medial Permian (∼270–260 Ma: Guadalupian) was a time of important tetrapod faunal changes, in particular reflecting a turnover from pelycosaurian- to therapsid-grade synapsids. Until now, most knowledge on tetrapod distribution during the medial Permian has come from fossils found in the South African Karoo and the Russian Platform, whereas other areas of Pangaea are still poorly known. We present evidence for the presence of a terrestrial carnivorous vertebrate from the Middle Permian of South America based on a complete skull. Pampaphoneus biccai gen. et sp. nov. was a dinocephalian “mammal-like reptile” member of the Anteosauridae, an early therapsid predator clade known only from the Middle Permian of Russia, Kazakhstan, China, and South Africa. The genus is characterized, among other features, by postorbital bosses, short, bulbous postcanines, and strongly recurved canines. Phylogenetic analysis indicates that the Brazilian dinocephalian occupies a middle position within the Anteosauridae, reinforcing the model of a global distribution for therapsids as early as the Guadalupian. The close phylogenetic relationship of the Brazilian species to dinocephalians from South Africa and the Russian Platform suggests a closer faunistic relationship between South America and eastern Europe than previously thought, lending support to a Pangaea B-type continental reconstruction. PMID:22307615

  8. The Plio-Pleistocene evolution of the Southern Middle Atlas Fault Zone (SMAFZ) front of Morocco

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laville, E.; Delcaillau, B.; Charroud, M.; Dugué, O.; Ait Brahim, L.; Cattaneo, G.; Deluca, P.; Bouazza, A.

    2007-06-01

    The South Middle Atlas front constitutes a northeast-trending shear zone, located north of the Neogene Missour basin and east of the Taza Guercif basin. This paper analyses the Southern Middle Atlas Fault Zone (SMAFZ) deformation since the Pliocene. The set of structures observed suggests that reverse and thrust faulting along the central part of the SMAFZ are combined with left-lateral slip along N S striking faults of its south-western termination and right-lateral faulting along E NE striking faults of the east northeast termination. Thrusts and oblique thrust-related anticlines of the two lateral ramps partly accommodate north-west directed motion of the African plate. The Thrusts probably resulted from rejuvenation of Jurassic normal faults; they were active during the Upper Miocene Pliocene and the Pleistocene. The geometries of positive inversion structures and buttressing effects are clearly dependent on the geometry and sedimentology of the original basin-controlling fault system and on the presence of a décollement level. Field mapping is integrated with Landsat imagery and a digital elevation model to investigate the morphotectonic evolution of the south-eastern range front of the Middle Atlas. Geomorphological features provide significant information on the processes that govern lateral propagation of active anticlines. Both suggest that the deformation front may have been active since Pliocene.

  9. A SNP test to identify Africanized honeybees via proportion of 'African' ancestry.

    PubMed

    Chapman, Nadine C; Harpur, Brock A; Lim, Julianne; Rinderer, Thomas E; Allsopp, Michael H; Zayed, Amro; Oldroyd, Benjamin P

    2015-11-01

    The honeybee, Apis mellifera, is the world's most important pollinator and is ubiquitous in most agricultural ecosystems. Four major evolutionary lineages and at least 24 subspecies are recognized. Commercial populations are mainly derived from subspecies originating in Europe (75-95%). The Africanized honeybee is a New World hybrid of A. m. scutellata from Africa and European subspecies, with the African component making up 50-90% of the genome. Africanized honeybees are considered undesirable for bee-keeping in most countries, due to their extreme defensiveness and poor honey production. The international trade in honeybees is restricted, due in part to bans on the importation of queens (and semen) from countries where Africanized honeybees are extant. Some desirable strains from the United States of America that have been bred for traits such as resistance to the mite Varroa destructor are unfortunately excluded from export to countries such as Australia due to the presence of Africanized honeybees in the USA. This study shows that a panel of 95 single nucleotide polymorphisms, chosen to differentiate between the African, Eastern European and Western European lineages, can detect Africanized honeybees with a high degree of confidence via ancestry assignment. Our panel therefore offers a valuable tool to mitigate the risks of spreading Africanized honeybees across the globe and may enable the resumption of queen and bee semen imports from the Americas. PMID:25846634

  10. Adiposity and hyperglycaemia in pregnancy and related health outcomes in European ethnic minorities of Asian and African origin: a review

    PubMed Central

    Jenum, Anne Karen; Sommer, Christine; Sletner, Line; Mørkrid, Kjersti; Bærug, Anne; Mosdøl, Annhild

    2013-01-01

    Background Ethnic minorities in Europe have high susceptibility to type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and, in some groups, also cardiovascular disease (CVD). Pregnancy can be considered a stress test that predicts future morbidity patterns in women and that affects future health of the child. Objective To review ethnic differences in: 1) adiposity, hyperglycaemia, and pre-eclampsia during pregnancy; 2) future risk in the mother of obesity, T2DM and CVD; and 3) prenatal development and possible influences of maternal obesity, hyperglycaemia, and pre-eclampsia on offspring's future disease risk, as relevant for ethnic minorities in Europe of Asian and African origin. Design Literature review. Results Maternal health among ethnic minorities is still sparsely documented. Higher pre-pregnant body mass index (BMI) is found in women of African and Middle Eastern descent, and lower BMI in women from East and South Asia compared with women from the majority population. Within study populations, risk of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is considerably higher in many minority groups, particularly South Asians, than in the majority population. This increased risk is apparent at lower BMI and younger ages. Women of African origin have higher risk of pre-eclampsia. A GDM pregnancy implies approximately seven-fold higher risk of T2DM than normal pregnancies, and both GDM and pre-eclampsia increase later risk of CVD. Asian neonates have lower birth weights, and mostly also African neonates. This may translate into increased risks of later obesity, T2DM, and CVD. Foetal overgrowth can promote the same conditions. Breastfeeding represents a possible strategy to reduce risk of T2DM in both the mother and the child. Conclusions Ethnic minority women in Europe with Asian and African origin and their offspring seem to be at increased risk of T2DM and CVD, both currently and in the future. Pregnancy is an important window of opportunity for short and long-term disease prevention. PMID:23467680

  11. Media and Teaching about the Middle East

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaviani, Khodadad

    2009-01-01

    This qualitative study was conducted in 2006-2007 and found that teachers relied on a variety of readily available media to stay informed about the Middle East and used some of them in their teaching. Teachers tried to explain to their students that every Middle Eastern Muslim is not a terrorist and Iraq was not behind the 9/11 terrorist attacks.…

  12. Obesity and African Americans

    MedlinePlus

    ... Data > Minority Population Profiles > Black/African American > Obesity Obesity and African Americans African American women have the ... ss6304.pdf [PDF | 3.38MB] HEALTH IMPACT OF OBESITY More than 80 percent of people with type ...

  13. For People of African, Mediterranean, or Southeast Asian Heritage: Important Information about Diabetes Blood Tests

    MedlinePlus

    ... p.m. eastern time, M-F For More Information American Diabetes Association National Heart, Lung, and Blood ... of African, Mediterranean, or Southeast Asian Heritage: Important Information about Diabetes Blood Tests Page Content On this ...

  14. "It's Hard Answering Your Calling": Teacher Teams in a Restructuring Urban Middle School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tonso, Karen L.; Jung, Maura Lobos; Colombo, Marie

    2006-01-01

    Considered a successful university-operated, urban middle school serving an overwhelmingly African American student body, "Charter" Middle School was dechartered suddenly, then merged a year later with students from a neighborhood school to become "Choice" Middle School, a school of choice in the urban district. Using a situated learning framework…

  15. Lessons from Africa: A Supplement to Middle School Courses in World Culture, Global Studies, and World Geography. Experimental Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merryfield, Merry M., Ed.

    These lessons were written by African social studies specialists for U.S. middle school students to stimulate interest in and develop a positive attitude toward Africans and their culture. Each lesson provides objectives, materials, teaching procedures, and is meant to be used as a textbook supplement. To promote understanding of young Africans,…

  16. The Middle East: An Annotated Bibliography of Literature for Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maehr, Jane

    This is an annotated bibliography of folklore, fiction and nonfiction about the Middle East, written in English for children aged 5 and older. There are eleven chapters - one which focuses on the entire Middle Eastern region, and ten which deal with individual countries: Iran, Iraq, Israel, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Saudi Arabia, Syria, Turkey, and…

  17. Sources and Resources for Teaching about the Middle East

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merkle, Armin S.; Pearson, Robert P.

    1978-01-01

    Teaching and resource materials on the Middle East are identified in three areas: textbooks, audiovisual materials (filmstrips, audiotapes, maps, and films), and background reading for teachers on Middle Eastern history, religion, daily life, literature, and politics. For each resource, a brief annotation and ordering information are given.…

  18. Friend Influence on Achievement during Middle Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeLay, Dawn

    2013-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate friend influence on academic achievement and task avoidance during middle childhood in a sample of 794 participants in 397 stable same-sex friendship dyads (205 girl dyads and 192 boy dyads) from four municipalities in Finland: two in Central Finland, one in Western Finland, and one in Eastern Finland.…

  19. Language Teacher Research in the Middle East

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coombe, Christine, Ed.; Barlow, Lisa, Ed.

    2007-01-01

    An openness to new ways of teaching and learning is vital for growth among English language teachers, teacher educators, teachers in training, and students. This volume in the Language Teacher Research Series (Thomas S. C. Farrell, series editor) shares the studies and reflections of teacher researchers working in Middle Eastern countries with…

  20. African dust outbreaks over the Mediterranean Basin during 2001-2011: PM10 concentrations, phenomenology and trends, and its relation with synoptic and mesoscale meteorology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pey, J.; Querol, X.; Alastuey, A.; Forastiere, F.; Stafoggia, M.

    2013-02-01

    The occurrence of African dust outbreaks over the whole Mediterranean Basin has been studied on an 11-yr period (2001-2011). In order to evaluate the impact of such mineral dust outbreaks on ambient concentrations of particulate matter, PM10 data from regional and suburban background sites across the Mediterranean area were compiled. After identifying the daily influence of African dust, a methodology for the estimation of the natural dust contributions on daily PM10 concentrations was applied. Our findings point out that African dust outbreaks are sensibly more frequent in southern sites across the Mediterranean, from 30 to 37% of the annual days, whereas they occur less than 20% of the annual days in northern sites. The central Mediterranean emerges as a transitional area, with slightly higher frequency of dust episodes in its lower extreme when compared to similar latitudinal positions in western and eastern sides of the Basin. A decreasing south to north gradient of African dust contribution to PM10, driven by the latitudinal position of the monitoring sites at least 25° E westwards across the Basin, is patent across the Mediterranean. As a result of this, an experimental equation for the estimation of annual African dust contributions based on the latitudinal position was obtained. From 25° E eastwards, higher annual dust contributions are encountered due to the elevated annual occurrence of severe episodes of dust but also because of inputs from Negev and Middle Eastern deserts. The slightly higher frequency of African dust episodes observed over southern sites in the central Mediterranean Basin is compensated by its moderately lower intensity. Concerning seasonality patterns and intensity characteristics, a clear summer prevalence is observed in the western part, with low occurrence of severe episodes (daily dust averages over 100 μg m-3 in PM10); no seasonal trend is detected in the central region, with moderate-intensity episodes; and significantly

  1. Oil, turmoil, and Islam in the Middle East

    SciTech Connect

    Sheikh, A.R.

    1986-01-01

    The turmoil and strife of the Middle East raises serious questions about the security of the world's oil supply. The author argues that OPEC and OAPEC can no longer afford to impose indiscriminate price increases on the marketplace because they hurt not only themselves but oil poor Third World nations as well. The author analyzes the importance of Middle Eastern oil in world politics. He emphasizes that any consideration of the forces influencing development in the Middle East should take Islamic tradition into account. Each chapter is organized around a current Middle Eastern problem: oil politics in relation to international energy needs; the ramifications of the new oil wealth and power of the Middle East; The Iran-Iraq War; Muslim insurgency in Afghanistan; The Arab-Israel conflict; turmoil in Lebanon; Palestinian nationalism; and the Middle East as a superpower.

  2. Middle East future line plans muddled following Gulf War

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-11-01

    This paper reports that the recent Gulf War has left the middle East in an awkward situation on current and future pipe line projects. Much of Kuwait's production capacity was destroyed and its ability to regain its previous position as an oil producer in the Middle East in the near term is questionable. Iraq's production remains severely curtailed by international agreement. Saudi Arabia and the other Middle Eastern states continue to produce at the higher than normal levels instigated in the early days of the crisis. The continuing efforts to bring the Kuwait oilfields under control, coupled with ongoing excessive production by some Middle eastern countries and the world response to Sadam Hussein's questionable intentions leave the Middle East pipe line construction picture muddled. The war forestalled pipe line projects in Kuwait and Iraq and many of the planned projects now are questionable. In other areas of the Middle East, the war may have firmed tentative plans for pipe line construction.

  3. Continental Island Formation and the Archaeology of Defaunation on Zanzibar, Eastern Africa.

    PubMed

    Prendergast, Mary E; Rouby, Hélène; Punnwong, Paramita; Marchant, Robert; Crowther, Alison; Kourampas, Nikos; Shipton, Ceri; Walsh, Martin; Lambeck, Kurt; Boivin, Nicole L

    2016-01-01

    With rising sea levels at the end of the Pleistocene, land-bridge or continental islands were formed around the world. Many of these islands have been extensively studied from a biogeographical perspective, particularly in terms of impacts of island creation on terrestrial vertebrates. However, a majority of studies rely on contemporary faunal distributions rather than fossil data. Here, we present archaeological findings from the island of Zanzibar (also known as Unguja) off the eastern African coast, to provide a temporal perspective on island biogeography. The site of Kuumbi Cave, excavated by multiple teams since 2005, has revealed the longest cultural and faunal record for any eastern African island. This record extends to the Late Pleistocene, when Zanzibar was part of the mainland, and attests to the extirpation of large mainland mammals in the millennia after the island became separated. We draw on modeling and sedimentary data to examine the process by which Zanzibar was most recently separated from the mainland, providing the first systematic insights into the nature and chronology of this process. We subsequently investigate the cultural and faunal record from Kuumbi Cave, which provides at least five key temporal windows into human activities and faunal presence: two at the end of the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM), one during the period of post-LGM rapid sea level rise and island formation, and two in the late Holocene (Middle Iron Age and Late Iron Age). This record demonstrates the presence of large mammals during the period of island formation, and their severe reduction or disappearance in the Kuumbi Cave sequence by the late Holocene. While various limitations, including discontinuity in the sequence, problematize attempts to clearly attribute defaunation to anthropogenic or island biogeographic processes, Kuumbi Cave offers an unprecedented opportunity to examine post-Pleistocene island formation and its long-term consequences for human and animal

  4. Continental Island Formation and the Archaeology of Defaunation on Zanzibar, Eastern Africa

    PubMed Central

    Prendergast, Mary E.; Rouby, Hélène; Punnwong, Paramita; Marchant, Robert; Crowther, Alison; Kourampas, Nikos; Shipton, Ceri; Walsh, Martin; Lambeck, Kurt; Boivin, Nicole L.

    2016-01-01

    With rising sea levels at the end of the Pleistocene, land-bridge or continental islands were formed around the world. Many of these islands have been extensively studied from a biogeographical perspective, particularly in terms of impacts of island creation on terrestrial vertebrates. However, a majority of studies rely on contemporary faunal distributions rather than fossil data. Here, we present archaeological findings from the island of Zanzibar (also known as Unguja) off the eastern African coast, to provide a temporal perspective on island biogeography. The site of Kuumbi Cave, excavated by multiple teams since 2005, has revealed the longest cultural and faunal record for any eastern African island. This record extends to the Late Pleistocene, when Zanzibar was part of the mainland, and attests to the extirpation of large mainland mammals in the millennia after the island became separated. We draw on modeling and sedimentary data to examine the process by which Zanzibar was most recently separated from the mainland, providing the first systematic insights into the nature and chronology of this process. We subsequently investigate the cultural and faunal record from Kuumbi Cave, which provides at least five key temporal windows into human activities and faunal presence: two at the end of the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM), one during the period of post-LGM rapid sea level rise and island formation, and two in the late Holocene (Middle Iron Age and Late Iron Age). This record demonstrates the presence of large mammals during the period of island formation, and their severe reduction or disappearance in the Kuumbi Cave sequence by the late Holocene. While various limitations, including discontinuity in the sequence, problematize attempts to clearly attribute defaunation to anthropogenic or island biogeographic processes, Kuumbi Cave offers an unprecedented opportunity to examine post-Pleistocene island formation and its long-term consequences for human and animal

  5. Africans in America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hart, Ayanna; Spangler, Earl

    This book introduces African-American history and culture to children. The first Africans in America came from many different regions and cultures, but became united in this country by being black, African, and slaves. Once in America, Africans began a long struggle for freedom which still continues. Slavery, the Civil War, emancipation, and the…

  6. African Outreach Workshop 1974.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Nancy J.

    This report discusses the 1974 African Outreach Workshop planned and coordinated by the African Studies Program at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. Its major aim was to assist teachers in developing curriculum units on African using materials available in their local community. A second aim was for the African Studies Program to…

  7. Middle East Studies: A Catalogue of Middle East Studies Resources In or Near Connecticut. Area Studies Resource Guides, Number Two.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stone, Frank A., Comp.

    This directory of Middle Eastern resource materials in or near Connecticut is designed for use by educators, librarians, media specialists, and the general public. The Middle East is defined as the part of the world known as Southwest Asia/North Africa (SWANA). The information is organized under ten major categories: associations and…

  8. Middle East

    SciTech Connect

    Hemer, D.O.; Mason, J.F.; Hatch, G.C.

    1981-10-01

    Petroleum production in Middle East countries during 1980 totaled 6,747,719,000 bbl or an average rate of 18,436,390,000 bbl/d, down 13.9% from 1979. Increases were in Saudi Arabia and Syria. Significant decreases occurred in Iraq, Iran, Kuwait, and Turkey. New discoveries were made in Abu Dhabi, Iran, Saudi Arabia, Sharjah, and Oman. New areas were explored in Bahrain, Oman, Syria, and Yemen. 9 figures, 16 tables.

  9. Defining seascapes for marine unconsolidated shelf sediments in an eastern boundary upwelling region: The southern Benguela as a case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karenyi, Natasha; Sink, Kerry; Nel, Ronel

    2016-02-01

    Marine unconsolidated sediment habitats, the largest benthic ecosystem, are considered physically controlled ecosystems driven by a number of local physical processes. Depth and sediment type are recognised key drivers of these ecosystems. Seascape (i.e., marine landscape) habitat classifications are based solely on consistent geophysical features and provide an opportunity to define unconsolidated sediment habitats based on processes which may vary in distribution through space and time. This paper aimed to classify unconsolidated sediment seascapes and explore their diversity in an eastern boundary upwelling region at the macro-scale, using the South African west coast as a case study. Physical variables such as sediment grain size, depth and upwelling-related variables (i.e., maximum chlorophyll concentration, austral summer bottom oxygen concentration and sediment organic carbon content) were included in the analyses. These variables were directly measured through sampling, or collated from existing databases and the literature. These data were analysed using multivariate Cluster, Principal Components Ordination and SIMPER analyses (in PRIMER 6 + with PERMANOVA add-in package). There were four main findings; (i) eight seascapes were identified for the South African west coast based on depth, slope, sediment grain size and upwelling-related variables, (ii) three depth zones were distinguished (inner, middle and outer shelf), (iii) seascape diversity in the inner and middle shelves was greater than the outer shelf, and (iv) upwelling-related variables were responsible for the habitat diversity in both inner and middle shelves. This research demonstrates that the inclusion of productivity and its related variables, such as hypoxia and sedimentary organic carbon, in seascape classifications will enhance the ability to distinguish seascapes on continental shelves, where productivity is most variable.

  10. North African Populations Carry the Signature of Admixture with Neandertals

    PubMed Central

    Civit, Sergi; Arenas, Conxita; Ávila-Arcos, María C.; Bustamante, Carlos D.; Comas, David; Lalueza-Fox, Carles

    2012-01-01

    One of the main findings derived from the analysis of the Neandertal genome was the evidence for admixture between Neandertals and non-African modern humans. An alternative scenario is that the ancestral population of non-Africans was closer to Neandertals than to Africans because of ancient population substructure. Thus, the study of North African populations is crucial for testing both hypotheses. We analyzed a total of 780,000 SNPs in 125 individuals representing seven different North African locations and searched for their ancestral/derived state in comparison to different human populations and Neandertals. We found that North African populations have a significant excess of derived alleles shared with Neandertals, when compared to sub-Saharan Africans. This excess is similar to that found in non-African humans, a fact that can be interpreted as a sign of Neandertal admixture. Furthermore, the Neandertal's genetic signal is higher in populations with a local, pre-Neolithic North African ancestry. Therefore, the detected ancient admixture is not due to recent Near Eastern or European migrations. Sub-Saharan populations are the only ones not affected by the admixture event with Neandertals. PMID:23082212

  11. Population affinities of African Colombians to Sub-Saharan Africans based on dental morphology.

    PubMed

    Delgado-Burbano, M E

    2007-01-01

    The Atlantic slave trade moved more than 13 million Africans to American lands between the 15th and 19th centuries. Previous historical, linguistic, and social-cultural studies suggested a Western-Central Bantu African origin for the Colombian slaves; however, their precise provenance remains unclear. The present study investigates the variation of the epigenetic dental traits in the deciduous and permanent dentition and phenotypic affinities of a contemporary Afro-Colombian community (n=178) in an attempt to identify their possible African ancestors. The results of a multivariate analysis of principal components show that Afro-descendents from Guapi have strong phenotypic relationships with several Bantu-speakers groups of Western and Western-Central Africa (Sub-Saharan region), specifically from Gabon, Congo, Pygmies, Nigeria, Cameroon, Togo and Benin. In concordance with recent mtDNA studies, this research suggests a distant but important relationship between Afro-Colombians and Eastern and South-Eastern African populations. This analysis also shows a marked dental divergence with North African samples. The dental information is not very different from the cultural, linguistic and historic data; however, it is more in agreement with studies based on molecular variation. In addition, this study reveals that African-Americans from North America, Central America-Caribbean and South America have high biological variation essentially identical to their several Sub-Saharan sources. Although a microevolutionary model, based on differential rates of gene flow with Native American and European-American groups and little selective pressures influence, better explains the phenotypic variation observed, more African-American dental samples must be analyzed from a regional perspective. PMID:17675007

  12. Middle Years. For Middle Level Educators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hechinger, Fred M.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    This supplement offers 10 articles focusing on middle school education. Topics include remembering adolescence, resources and teaching tips, active middle school students, adolescent development, challenges in middle school education, integrated studies, planning middle school special events, a writing-science-consumerism miniunit on popcorn,…

  13. Gender and Homework Management Reported by African American Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xu, Jianzhong

    2010-01-01

    The present study linked gender and grade level to homework management strategies and homework completion behaviours. The participants were 685 African American students in the south-eastern USA, including 370 eighth graders and 315 eleventh graders. Gender appeared related to the majority of homework measures examined in the present study.…

  14. Alice Walker: "The Diary of an African Nun" and Dubois Double Consciousness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fontenot, Chester J.

    1977-01-01

    Analyzes Alice Walker's novel and notes that the plight of the African nun is that of the black intellectual or middle-class who find themselves caught between two worlds which are at once complementary and contradictory. (Author)

  15. Pan-African adakitic rocks of the north Arabian-Nubian Shield: petrological and geochemical constraints on the evolution of the Dokhan volcanics in the north Eastern Desert of Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obeid, Mohamed A.; Azer, Mokhles K.

    2015-04-01

    The Precambrian basement of Egypt is part of the Red Sea Mountains and represents the north-western part of the Arabian-Nubian Shield (ANS). Five volcanic sections are exposed in the Egyptian basement complex, namely El Kharaza, Monqul, Abu Had, Mellaha and Abu Marwa. They are located in the north Eastern Desert (ED) of Egypt and were selected for petrological and geochemical studies as they represent the Dokhan volcanics. The volcanics divide into two main pulses, and each pulse was frequently accompanied by deposition of immature molasse type sediments, which represent a thick sequence of the Hammamat group in the north ED. Compositionally, the rocks form a continuum from basaltic andesite, andesite, dacite (lower succession) to rhyodacite and rhyolite (upper succession), with no apparent compositional gaps. These high-K calc-alkaline rocks have strong affinities to subduction-related rocks with enriched LILEs (Rb, Ba, K, Th, Ce) relative to high field strength elements (Nb, Zr, P, Ti) and negative Nb anomalies relative to NMORB. The lower succession displays geochemical characteristics of adakitic rocks with SiO2 >53 wt%, Al2O3 >15 wt%, MgO >2.5 wt%, Mg# >49, Sr >650 ppm, Y <17 ppm, Yb <2 ppm, Ni >25 ppm, Cr >50 ppm and Sr/Y >42.4. They also have low Nb, Rb and Zr compared to the coexisting calc-alkaline rhyodacites and rhyolites. The highly fractionated rhyolitic rocks have strong negative Eu anomalies and possess the geochemical characteristics of A-type suites. Trace element geochemical signatures indicate a magma source consistent with post-collisional suites that retain destructive plate signatures associated with subduction zones. The adakitic rocks in the northern ANS are generated through partial melting of delaminated mafic lower crust interacting with overlying mantle-derived magma. The Dokhan volcanics were likely generated by a combination of processes, including partial melting, crystal fractionation and assimilation.

  16. Seismicity of the eastern Hellenic Subduction Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruestle, A.; Kueperkoch, L.; Rische, M.; Meier, T.; Friederich, W.; Egelados Working Group

    2012-04-01

    The Hellenic Subduction Zone (HSZ) is the seismically most active region of Europe. The African plate is subducting beneath the Aegean lithosphere with a relative velocity of 4 cm per year. A detailed picture of the microseismicity of the eastern HSZ was obtained by the recordings of the temporary networks CYCNET (September 2002 - September 2005) and EGELADOS (October 2005 - March 2007). In total, nearly 7000 earthquakes were located with a location uncertainty of less than 20 km. The SE Aegean is dominated by (1) shallow intraplate seismicity within the Aegean plate, by (2) interplate seismicity at the plate contact and by (3) intermediate deep seismicity along the subducting African slab. Strong shallow seismicity in the upper plate is observed along the Ptolemy graben south of Crete extending towards the Karpathos Basin, indicating intense recent deformation of the forearc. In contrary, low shallow seismicity around Rhodes indicates only minor seismic crustal deformation of the upper plate. An almost NS-striking zone of microseismicity has been located, running from the Karpathos basin via the Nisyros volcanic complex towards the EW striking Gökova graben. In the SE Aegean the geometry of the Wadati-Benioff-Zone (WBZ) within the subducting African plate is revealed in detail by the observed microseismicity. Between about 50 to 100 km depth a continuous band of intermediate deep seismicity describes the strongly curved geometry of the slab. From the central to the eastern margin of the HSZ, the dip direction of the WBZ changes from N to NW with a strong increase of the dip angle beneath the eastern Cretan Sea. The margin of the dipping African slab is marked by an abrupt end of the observed WBZ beneath SW Anatolia. Below 100 km depth, the WBZ of the eastern HSZ is dominated by an isolated cluster of intense intermediate deep seismicity (at 100-180 km depth) beneath the Nisyros volcanic complex. It has an extension of about 100x80 km and is build up of 3 parallel

  17. The Offshore East African Rift System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franke, D.; Klimke, J.; Jokat, W.; Stollhofen, H.; Mahanjane, S.

    2014-12-01

    Numerous studies have addressed various aspects of the East African Rift system but surprisingly few on the offshore continuation of the south-eastern branch of the rift into the Mozambique Channel. The most prominent article has been published almost 30 years ago by Mougenot et al. (1986) and is based on vintage seismic data. Several studies investigating earthquakes and plate motions from GPS measurements reveal recent deformation along the offshore branch of the East African Rift system. Slip vectors from earthquakes data in Mozambique's offshore basins show a consistent NE direction. Fault plane solutions reveal ~ E-W extensional failure with focal depth clustering around 19 km and 40 km, respectively. Here, we present new evidence for neotectonic deformation derived from modern seismic reflection data and supported by additional geophysical data. The modern rift system obviously reactivates structures from the disintegration of eastern Gondwana. During the Jurassic/Cretaceous opening of the Somali and Mozambique Basins, Madagascar moved southwards along a major shear zone, to its present position. Since the Miocene, parts of the shear zone became reactivated and structurally overprinted by the East African rift system. The Kerimbas Graben offshore northern Mozambique is the most prominent manifestation of recent extensional deformation. Bathymetry data shows that it deepens northwards, with approximately 700 m downthrown on the eastern shoulder. The graben can be subdivided into four subbasins by crosscutting structural lineaments with a NW-SE trend. Together with the N-S striking graben-bounding faults, this resembles a conjugate fault system. In seismic reflection data normal faulting is distinct not only at the earthquake epicenters. The faults cut through the sedimentary successions and typically reach the seafloor, indicating ongoing recent deformation. Reference: Mougenot, D., Recq, M., Virlogeux, P., and Lepvrier, C., 1986, Seaward extension of the East

  18. A community-based, culturally relevant intervention to promote healthy eating and physical activity among middle-aged African American women in rural Alabama: Findings from a group randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Scarinci, Isabel C.; Moore, Artisha; Wynn, Theresa; Cherrington, Andrea; Fouad, Mona; Li, Yufeng

    2015-01-01

    Objective We examined the efficacy of a community-based, culturally relevant intervention to promote healthy eating and physical activity among African American (AA) women between the ages of 45–65 years, residing in rural Alabama. Methods We conducted a group randomized controlled trial with counties as the unit of randomization that evaluated two interventions based on health priorities identified by the community: (1) promotion of healthy eating and physical activity; and (2) promotion of breast and cervical cancer screening. A total of 6 counties with 565 participants were enrolled in the study between November 2009 and October 2011. Results The overall retention rate at 24-month follow-up was 54.7%. Higher retention rate was observed in the “healthy lifestyle” arm (63.1%) as compared to the “screening” arm (45.3%). Participants in the “healthy lifestyle” arm showed significant positive changes compared to the “screening” arm at 12-month follow-up with regard to decrease in fried food consumption and an increase in both fruit/vegetable intake and physical activity. At 24-month follow-up, these positive changes were maintained with healthy eating behaviors, but not engagement in physical activity. Conclusions A culturally relevant intervention, developed in collaboration with the target audience, can improve (and maintain) healthy eating among AA women living in rural areas. PMID:25152504

  19. Black African Traditional Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zaslavsky, Claudia

    1970-01-01

    Discusses the traditional number systems and the origin of the number names used by several African peoples living south of the Sahara. Also included are limitations in African mathematical development, and possible topics for research. (RP)

  20. School Adjustment and the Academic Success of Rural African American Early Adolescents in the Deep South

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farmer, Thomas W.; Irvin, Matthew J.; Thompson, Jana H.; Hutchins, Bryan C.; Leung, Man-Chi

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between end-of-year grades and the academic, behavioral, and social characteristics of rural African American youth. Participants included 392 7th and 8th grade students from 2 rural middle schools in the south. Participants were African American and were from 2 communities that have child poverty rates…

  1. Racial Identity Attitudes, Self-Esteem, and Academic Achievement among African American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonvillain, Jocelyn Freeman; Honora, Detris

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to explore the extent to which racial identity attitudes and self-esteem could predict academic performance for African American middle school students. A total of 175 African American adolescents in 7th grade attending one of two urban schools participated in the study. The Multi-Ethnic Identity Measure (MEIM)…

  2. Transitioning to High School: Issues and Challenges for African American Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holcomb-McCoy, Cheryl

    2007-01-01

    Although there is a growing body of literature on students' transition from middle school to high school, much of the literature fails to take into consideration the distinctive racial and environmental circumstances of African American students. This article reviews literature related to the transitioning of African American students and…

  3. Developmental Processes in African American Families: An Application of McLoyd's Theoretical Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nievar, M. Angela; Luster, Tom

    2006-01-01

    In accordance with McLoyd's model of African American children's development, we examined the linkages among family income, maternal psychological distress, marital conflict, parenting, and children's outcomes in early and middle childhood, using a sample of 591 African American children from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. Income…

  4. Pride, Heritage, and Self-Worth: Keys to African-American Male Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White-Hood, Marian

    1994-01-01

    Young African American males' role models are those in the entertainment and sports arenas. Few see themselves as scholars, contributing to the common good. To counteract teachers' low expectations of black males' performance, educators at Benjamin Tasker Middle School in Bowie, Maryland, established African-American Achievers, a program that…

  5. The Relationship between Motivational Orientation & Educational Aspirations in Urban, African American Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warner, Cheryl B.; Phelps, Rosemary E.

    2008-01-01

    African American youth are characterized as experiencing declining academic motivation and engagement while simultaneously maintaining optimism for their future success. Thus, researchers hypothesize academic motivation to be a negative factor for educational aspirations when applied to an urban sample of African American middle school students (N…

  6. Physical Activities and Sedentary Pursuits in African American and Caucasian Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dowda, Marsha; Pate, Russell R.; Felton, Gwen M.; Saunders, Ruth; Ward, Dianne S.; Dishman, Rod K.; Trost, Stewart G.

    2004-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to describe and compare the specific physical activity choices and sedentary pursuits of African American and Caucasian American girls. Participants were 1,124 African American and 1,068 Caucasian American eighth-grade students from 31 middle schools. The 3-Day Physical Activity Recall (3DPAR) was used to measure…

  7. Grade-Related Changes in the Production of African American English.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Craig, Holly K.; Washington, Julie A.

    2004-01-01

    This investigation examined grade as a source of systematic variation in the African American English (AAE) produced by students in preschool through fifth grades. Participants were 400 typically developing African American boys and girls residing in low- or middle-income homes in an urban-fringe community or midsize central city in the…

  8. Institutional Factors That Affect the Mathematical Achievement of African American Females

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chatman, Audrey

    2011-01-01

    This dissertation explored how institutional factors impact the mathematical achievement of African American middle school females. The purpose of the research was to provide insight into African American females' perception of their mathematics experiences and demonstrate how both internal and external factors contribute to their achievement.…

  9. Male Gender Role Strain as a Barrier to African American Men's Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffith, Derek M.; Gunter, Katie; Allen, Julie Ober

    2011-01-01

    Despite the potential health consequences, African American men tend to treat their roles as providers, fathers, spouses, and community members as more important than engaging in health behaviors such as physical activity. We conducted 14 exploratory focus groups with 105 urban, middle-aged African American men from the Midwest to examine factors…

  10. The African Connection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oguntoyinbo, Lekan

    2012-01-01

    From student and faculty exchanges to joint research projects, U.S. universities maintain a broad spectrum of collaborative relationships with African universities. It's unclear how many U.S. colleges and universities have partnerships with African universities. The African Studies Association, an organization of scholars, doesn't keep that kind…

  11. A culturally adapted lifestyle intervention addressing a Middle Eastern immigrant population at risk of diabetes, the MEDIM (impact of Migration and Ethnicity on Diabetes In Malmö): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Studies have shown that lifestyle interventions are effective in preventing or delaying the onset of type 2 diabetes in high-risk patients. However, research on the effectiveness of lifestyle interventions in high-risk immigrant populations with different cultural and socioeconomic backgrounds is scarce. The aim was to design a culturally adapted lifestyle intervention for an immigrant population and to evaluate its effectiveness and cost-effectiveness. Methods/design In this randomized controlled trial, 308 participants (born in Iraq, living in Malmö, Sweden and at high risk of type 2 diabetes) will be allocated to either a culturally adapted intervention or a control group. The intervention will consist of 10 group counseling sessions focusing on diet, physical activity and behavioral change over 6 months, and the offer of exercise sessions. Cultural adaptation includes gender-specific exercise sessions, and counseling by a health coach community member. The control group will receive the information about healthy lifestyle habits provided by the primary health care center. The primary outcome is change in fasting glucose level. Secondary outcomes are changes in body mass index, insulin sensitivity, physical activity, food habits and health-related quality of life. Measurements will be taken at baseline, after 3 and 6 months. Data will be analyzed by the intention-to-treat approach. The cost-effectiveness during the trial period and over the longer term will be assessed by simulation modeling from patient, health care and societal perspectives. Discussion This study will provide a basis to measure the effectiveness of a lifestyle intervention designed for immigrants from the Middle East in terms of improvement in glucose metabolism, and will also assess its cost-effectiveness. Results from this trial may help health care providers and policy makers to adapt and implement lifestyle interventions suitable for this population group that can be

  12. Moho depth and three-dimensional P and S structure of the crust and uppermost mantle in the Eastern Mediterranean and Middle East derived from tomographic inversion of local ISC data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koulakov, Ivan; Sobolev, Stephan V.

    2006-01-01

    ~82000 P and S arrival times from ~3000 sources recorded by ~250 seismic stations from the revised ISC catalogue are employed to study a circular area of 6° radius centred on the Dead Sea. We use the linearized tomographic approach based on the rays constructed in a 1-D spherical velocity model and corrected for the Moho depth variation and relief. All the sources were relocated. As the result of simultaneous iterative inversion we get 3-D P and S velocity anomalies in the crust and uppermost mantle, Moho depth and corrected source parameters. The resulting images fit well with the existing tectonic elements in the study area. In the crust, a narrow P and S low-velocity anomaly marks the position of the Dead Sea Transform (DST) that is interpreted as sediments in the shallower layer and a zone of fractured and deformed rocks in the middle and lower crust. There is a narrow (50 km wide) band of thickening of the crust along the DST in the Arava valley between the Red Sea and Dead Sea and some 100 km north of the Dead Sea. This zone may be associated with the minimum of the lithospheric strength and, therefore, explain the location of the DST in the Arava Valley. The velocity anomalies under the crust and the map of the Moho depth clearly distinguish the oceanic (Levant basin) and continental types of crust (Asia Minor, Zagros, Cyprus and Eratosthenes Mount). Verification of the results takes an important part in this study. Inversions of different starting models and independent processing of data subsets show high robustness of the results. Synthetic tests clearly show the limits of the resolving power of the inversion with the existing data set.

  13. Eastern American Indian Communities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Robert K.

    Identification of social and cultural commonalities among American Indians of the eastern U.S. reveal 4 geographical areas--(1) the eastern seaboard (the largest group in both number of distinct groups and population); (2) the inland area; (3) Louisiana (a combination of inland and seaboard characteristics); (4) the eastern Great Lakes area…

  14. Recognition of strong seasonality and climatic cyclicity in an ancient, fluvially dominated, tidally influenced point bar: Middle McMurray Formation, Lower Steepbank River, north-eastern Alberta, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jablonski, Bryce V. J.; Dalrymple, Robert W.

    2016-04-01

    Inclined heterolithic stratification in the Lower Cretaceous McMurray Formation, exposed along the Steepbank River in north-eastern Alberta, Canada, accumulated on point bars of a 30 to 40 m deep continental-scale river in the fluvial-marine transition. This inclined heterolithic stratification consists of two alternating lithologies, sand and fine-grained beds. Sand beds were deposited rapidly by unidirectional currents and contain little or no bioturbation. Fine-grained beds contain rare tidal structures, and are intensely bioturbated by low-diversity ichnofossil assemblages. The alternations between the sand and fine-grained beds are probably caused by strong variations in fluvial discharge; that are believed to be seasonal (probably annual) in duration. The sand beds accumulated during river floods, under fluvially dominated conditions when the water was fresh, whereas the fine-grained beds accumulated during the late stages of the river flood and deposition continued under tidally influenced brackish-water conditions during times of low-river flow (i.e. the interflood periods). These changes reflect the annual migration in the positions of the tidal and salinity limits within the fluvial-marine transition that result from changes in river discharge. Sand and fine-grained beds are cyclically organized in the studied outcrops forming metre-scale cycles. A single metre-scale cycle is defined by a sharp base, an upward decrease in sand-bed thickness and upward increases in the preservation of fine-grained beds and the intensity of bioturbation. Metre-scale cycles are interpreted to be the product of a longer term (decadal) cyclicity in fluvial discharge, probably caused by fluctuations in ocean or solar dynamics. The volumetric dominance of river-flood deposits within the succession suggests that accumulation occurred in a relatively landward position within the fluvial-marine transition. This study shows that careful observation can reveal much about the

  15. Feasibility and Preliminary Efficacy of an After-School Program for Middle Schoolers with ADHD: A Randomized Trial in a Large Public Middle School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molina, Brooke S. G.; Flory, Kate; Bukstein, Oscar G.; Greiner, Andrew R.; Baker, Jennifer L.; Krug, Vicky; Evans, Steven W.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: This pilot study tests the feasibility and preliminary efficacy of an after-school treatment program for middle schoolers with ADHD using a randomized clinical trial design. Method: A total of 23 students with ADHD (25% female, 48% African American) from a large public middle school were randomly assigned to a 10-week program or to…

  16. Fat, fibre and cancer risk in African Americans and rural Africans.

    PubMed

    O'Keefe, Stephen J D; Li, Jia V; Lahti, Leo; Ou, Junhai; Carbonero, Franck; Mohammed, Khaled; Posma, Joram M; Kinross, James; Wahl, Elaine; Ruder, Elizabeth; Vipperla, Kishore; Naidoo, Vasudevan; Mtshali, Lungile; Tims, Sebastian; Puylaert, Philippe G B; DeLany, James; Krasinskas, Alyssa; Benefiel, Ann C; Kaseb, Hatem O; Newton, Keith; Nicholson, Jeremy K; de Vos, Willem M; Gaskins, H Rex; Zoetendal, Erwin G

    2015-01-01

    Rates of colon cancer are much higher in African Americans (65:100,000) than in rural South Africans (<5:100,000). The higher rates are associated with higher animal protein and fat, and lower fibre consumption, higher colonic secondary bile acids, lower colonic short-chain fatty acid quantities and higher mucosal proliferative biomarkers of cancer risk in otherwise healthy middle-aged volunteers. Here we investigate further the role of fat and fibre in this association. We performed 2-week food exchanges in subjects from the same populations, where African Americans were fed a high-fibre, low-fat African-style diet and rural Africans a high-fat, low-fibre western-style diet, under close supervision. In comparison with their usual diets, the food changes resulted in remarkable reciprocal changes in mucosal biomarkers of cancer risk and in aspects of the microbiota and metabolome known to affect cancer risk, best illustrated by increased saccharolytic fermentation and butyrogenesis, and suppressed secondary bile acid synthesis in the African Americans. PMID:25919227

  17. Fat, Fiber and Cancer Risk in African Americans and Rural Africans

    PubMed Central

    O'Keefe, Stephen J.D.; Li, Jia V.; Lahti, Leo; Ou, Junhai; Carbonero, Franck; Mohammed, Khaled; Posma, Joram M; Kinross, James; Wahl, Elaine; Ruder, Elizabeth; Vipperla, Kishore; Naidoo, Vasudevan; Mtshali, Lungile; Tims, Sebastian; Puylaert, Philippe G.B.; DeLany, James; Krasinskas, Alyssa; Benefiel, Ann C.; Kaseb, Hatem O.; Newton, Keith; Nicholson, Jeremy K.; de Vos, Willem M.; Gaskins, H. Rex; Zoetendal, Erwin G.

    2015-01-01

    Rates of colon cancer are much higher in African Americans (65:100,000) than in rural South Africans (<5:100,000). The higher rates are associated with higher animal protein and fat and lower fiber consumption, higher colonic secondary bile acids, lower colonic short chain fatty acid quantities and higher mucosal proliferative biomarkers of cancer risk in otherwise healthy middle aged volunteers. Here we investigate further the role of fat and fiber in this association. We performed two-week food exchanges in subjects from the same populations, where African Americans were fed a high-fiber, lowfat African-style diet, and rural Africans a high-fat low-fiber western-style diet under close supervision. In comparison to their usual diets, the food changes resulted in remarkable reciprocal changes in mucosal biomarkers of cancer risk and in aspects of the microbiota and metabolome known to affect cancer risk, best illustrated by increased saccharolytic fermentation and butyrogenesis and suppressed secondary bile acid synthesis in the African Americans. PMID:25919227

  18. Geochemical characteristics of the Shujiadian Cu deposit related intrusion in Tongling: Petrogenesis and implications for the formation of porphyry Cu systems in the Middle-Lower Yangtze River Valley metallogenic belt, eastern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shiwei; Zhou, Taofa; Yuan, Feng; Fan, Yu; Cooke, David R.; Zhang, Lejun; Fu, Bin; White, Noel C.

    2016-05-01

    Porphyry Cu deposits can form in intracontinental or post-collision settings; however, both the genesis of fertile magmas and the mechanism of metal enrichment remain controversial. The Shujiadian porphyry Cu deposit is located in the Tongling area of the Middle-Lower Yangtze River Valley metallogenic belt. It is hosted by the Shujiadian complex, which mainly consists of quartz diorite porphyry (143.7 ± 1.7 Ma) and pyroxene diorite (139.8 ± 1.6 Ma). They both belong to the calc-alkaline series, with enrichment in large-ion lithophile elements (LILE) and light rare earth elements (LREE), depletion in high field-strength elements (HFSE) and heavy rare earth elements (HREE), and slightly negative Eu anomalies. Both quartz diorite porphyry and pyroxene diorite have geochemical affinities with adakite, and their low MgO (1.5-3.7 wt%), and Ni (3.7-6.9 ppm), Cr (2.0-44 ppm), and Th/Ce contents (0.06-0.11) indicate that the intrusive rocks have some characteristics of adakite-like rocks derived from thickened lower crust and melts from metabasaltic rocks and eclogites. Plagioclases from the quartz diorite porphyry are andesine (An value = 31.8-40.5) and from the pyroxene diorite are felsic albite and oligoclase with large-scale zones and variable An value (An value = 8.9-18.3), Fe and Sr contents, which indicate that mixing of mafic and felsic magma may have occurred in the shallow magma chamber. Compared to the barren quartz diorite porphyry, relatively lower SiO2 contents (49.5-55.2 wt.%), higher εNd(t) values (- 7.4 to - 6.9), εHf(t) values (- 11.0 to - 9.1) compositions, Ti-in-zircon temperatures (714-785 °C), and variations of HREE contents of the mineralization-related pyroxene diorite suggest mixing with high-temperature mafic magma. Calculated Ce4 +/Ce3 + values of pyroxene diorite plot between the Ni-NiO buffer (NNO) and magnetite-hematite buffer (MH), and barren quartz diorite porphyry samples plot below the Ni-NiO buffer (NNO). Geochemical features of

  19. Access to What? Creating a Composite Measure of Educational Quantity and Educational Quality for 11 African Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spaull, Nicholas; Taylor, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the current study is to create a composite statistic of educational quantity and educational quality by combining household data (Demographic and Health Survey) on grade completion and survey data (Southern and Eastern African Consortium for Monitoring Educational Quality) on cognitive outcomes for 11 African countries: Kenya, Lesotho,…

  20. An Andean ice-core record of a Middle Holocene mega-drought in North Africa and Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, Mary E.; Thompson, Lonnie G.

    An ice core from the Nevado Huascarán col in the Cordillera Blanca of northern Peru contains high-resolution time series of dust concentrations and size distributions since the end of the last glacial stage. A large dust peak, dated ˜4500 years ago, is contemporaneous with a widespread and prolonged drought that apparently extended from North Africa to eastern China, evidence of which occurs in historical, archeological and paleoclimatic records. This event may have been associated with several centuries of weak Asian/Indian/African monsoons, possibly linked with a protracted cooling in the North Atlantic. During the second half of the 20th century, high austral-summer dust concentrations in the Huascarán record are significantly correlated with atmospheric conditions, such as sea-level pressure and zonal wind velocities that are consistent with El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and positive North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) indices, and with aridity in North Africa, southwest Asia and the Middle East. Therefore, the dominant submicron fraction of the dust may have been transported by more intense northeasterly trade winds from the African dry regions across the tropical Atlantic during a period of frequent and/or intense ENSO activity. The proposed ENSO conditions that may have been linked with drought in the monsoon region may also have contributed to aridity in tropical South America, including the Cordillera Blanca.

  1. Mediterranean summer climate and the importance of Middle-East Topography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simpson, Isla; Seager, Richard; Shaw, Tiffany; Ting, Mingfang

    2015-04-01

    In summer, the atmospheric circulation over the Mediterranean is characterized by localized intense subsidence and low level northerlies over the central- to eastern portion of the basin. Here, simulations with the Community Atmosphere Model, version 5 are used to investigate the influence of the elevated terrain of North Africa and the Middle East on this summertime circulation. This builds on previous work that recognized a role for North African topography in localizing the Mediterranean subsidence. By flattening the two regions of elevated terrain in the model it is demonstrated that, while they both conspire to produce about 30% of the summertime subsidence, contrary to previous work, the mountains of the Middle-East dominate in this topographic contribution by far. This topography, consisting primarily of the Zagros Mountain range, alters the circulation throughout the depth of the troposphere over the Mediterranean, and further East. The model results suggest that about 20% of the Mediterranean summertime moisture deficit can be attributed to this mountain induced circulation. This topography, therefore, plays an important role in the climate of the Mediterranean and the large scale circulation over the rest of Eurasia during the summer. Further stationary wave modelling reveals that the mountain influence is produced via mechanical forcing of the flow. The greatest influence of the topography occurs when the low level incident flow is easterly, as happens during the summer, primarily due to the presence of condensational heating over Asia. During other seasons, when the low level incident flow is westerly, the influence of Middle-East topography on the Mediterranean is negligible.

  2. Greening of the Sahara - a paleo perspective on the history of water in the Middle East and North Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bar-Matthews, M.

    2012-04-01

    The Middle-East, mostly at its southern edge together with North Africa, the northern edge of the Sahara Desert, are located at the boundary between high- to-mid latitude and tropical-subtropical climate systems. The geographical duality of desert adjacent to Mediterranean-type climate regions played and still plays a major role on the water availability. Thanks to the number of important paleoclimate studies that been made on accurate dating of cave speleothems in Southern Arabia and Oman (Fleitmann et al., 2011) and in the northeast Sahara, the Negev Desert Israel (Vaks et al., 2010) and the study of sapropels in Eastern and central Mediterranean (Almogi-Labin et al., 2009; Osborne et al, 2008), it is clear that the region was graced with water during peak interglacials when the African monsoon and westerly storm/rainfall systems intensified. Northward penetration of the Inter Tropical Convergence Zone over the Arabian and African continents resulted in increased discharge of the Nile River and rivers that emerged from central Sahara into the Eastern Mediterranean Sea. Correspondingly, enhanced westerly wind activity led to an increase in rainfall from Atlantic-Mediterranean sources over the entire Mediterranean basin, which even penetrated south into the north-east corner of the Sahara Desert. The Saharo-Arabian Desert became narrower and climatic "windows" opened for the dispersal of hominids and animals out of the African continent at 250-239, 210-193, 138-120, 108-98, 87-84 and 10-6.5 ka BP, with severe dry conditions in between. Greening of the Sahara Desert at these intervals is supported also by various marine and terrestrial records, such as corals, lakes, tufa deposits and archeological findings. Dry conditions prevailed in the Sahara desert during glacials. This is in contrast to the climatic conditions in the Eastern Mediterranean coastal region and the Jordan Rift Valley (Bar-Matthews et al., 2003; Lisker et al., 2010), where water was available for

  3. Why So Many African-American Children in Special Ed?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Talbert-Johnson, Carolyn

    1998-01-01

    Examines salient issues concerning African-American students' overrepresentation in special education and identifies critical teacher, student, and program variables abetting this process. Few teachers are equipped to deal with different cultures, languages, lifestyles, and values, although white, middle-class kids from two-parent families are…

  4. Enhancing the Cultural Identity of Early Adolescent Male African Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bass, Christopher K.; Coleman, Hardin L. K.

    This paper reports on the development of a school-based Afrocentric intervention for middle school male adolescents who are at risk for academic failure or underachievement. The intervention combined the principles of the rites of passage movement within African American communities and current thinking on the process of second culture acquisition…

  5. Raising African American Student Graduation Rates: A Best Practices Study of Predominantly White Liberal Arts Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pool, Robert W.

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative study sought to explore best practices at small, private liberal arts institutions that experienced large increases in African American graduation rates. Particular focus was on institutions that enrolled less than 17% minority students whose overall enrollment fell within the middle 50% of all SAT scores and the middle 50% of…

  6. Missed Opportunities: Examining the Literacy Experiences of African American Students Displaced by Hurricane Katrina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pollard, Tamica McClarty

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine how five African American middle school students, who were displaced by Hurricane Katrina represent their literacy experiences before, during, and after their displacement. Specifically, the two research questions were: (a) What are the stories that these middle school students tell about their lives,…

  7. Biological evaluation of Trans-African highways

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adamatzky, Andrew; Kayem, Anne V. D. M.

    2013-01-01

    The Trans-African highway network is a unique concept of integrated development of transport corridors spanning all African countries and providing landlocked countries access to seaports. The planned road system is still maturing and just partially complete, thus giving us a chance to play with different scenarios of its growth and to consider potential alternative transport networks. We study the evolving transport network in the African continent with a groundbreaking technique of imitating growing transport networks with slime mould Physarum polycephalum. We represent the major urban areas of Africa with a source of nutrients, inoculate a piece of the slime mould in Cairo and allow the mould to span all urban areas with its network of protoplasmic tubes. We then compare the slime mould networks with existing and planned highway corridors. We found that slime mould provides a good approximation of the Trans-African highway network, with some roads of Eastern Africa delineated by P. polycephalum in a larger number of laboratory experiments. We demonstrate direct matches between protoplasmic tubes and Trans-Sahelian as well as Lagos-Mombasa corridors. Finally we analyse the bio-logic of transport network development in families of generalised Physarum graphs.

  8. Multiple Team Structures and Student Learning in a High Risk Middle School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trimble, Susan B.; Peterson, Gary W.

    This study investigated the relationship between a multiple team structure and student achievement in a high minority (predominantly African American), low socioeconomic status middle school over 3 years. Part of a larger 5-year investigation of team structures in high performing restructured middle schools, the study observed the components and…

  9. Shifting Attendance Trajectories from Middle to High School: Influences of School Transitions and Changing School Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benner, Aprile D.; Wang, Yijie

    2014-01-01

    In the current study, we examine patterns of school attendance across middle and high school with a diverse sample of 8,908 students (48% female; 54% Latino, 31% White, 13% African American, 2% Asian American). Attendance declined from middle through high school, but this overall pattern masked important variations. In total, 44% of students…

  10. Racial Disparities in Tobacco Use and Social Influences in a Rural Southern Middle School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muilenburg, Jessica L.; Johnson, William D.; Annang, Lucy; Strasser, Sheryl M.

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated racial differences of tobacco use and social exposure to tobacco products in a sample of middle school students. Questionnaires were administered in January 2005 to 290 students in a Mississippi Delta-area middle school. The participants were 51.0% female and 56.6% African American. Unadjusted odds ratios revealed that…

  11. Is There a Relationship between Family Structure and Substance Use among Public Middle School Students?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paxton, Raheem J.; Valois, Robert F.; Drane, J. Wanzer

    2007-01-01

    We investigated the relationship between family structure and substance use in a sample of 2,138 public middle school students in a southern state. The CDC Middle School Youth Risk Behavior Survey was utilized and adjusted logistic regression models were created separately for four race/gender categories (African American females/males, and…

  12. Fostering Meaningful Middle School Literacy Learning: Investigating Beliefs and Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brock, Cynthia H.; Boyd, Fenice B.

    2011-01-01

    This article takes us inside two urban middle school classrooms where the majority of students speak African American English. In addition to exploring the nature of literacy instruction inside Mrs. Baird's and Ms. Lawson's classrooms, we examine both teachers' underlying beliefs with respect to language, literacy, and learning. This inquiry…

  13. Social Motives Underlying Antisocial Behavior across Middle School Grades

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Juvonen, Jaana; Ho, Alice Y.

    2008-01-01

    The goal of the study was to examine whether social motives (social mimicry, mutual attraction, and unreciprocated attraction) predict changes in antisocial behavior across middle school grades. The 2,003 initial participants (55% girls) were drawn from a larger longitudinal study of urban public school students: 44% Latino, 26% African-American,…

  14. The Social Ecology of Well-Being in Middle Childhood.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levitt, Mary J.; Crooks, Noel A.; Bustos, Gaston L.; Santos, Jennifer D.; Telan, Paige; Silver, Marcia E.; Branscum, Emily; Levitt, Jerome L.

    Parent and friend support, family stress, and economic hardship are examined as mediators of well-being for 782 African-American, European-American, and Hispanic-American 4th and 6th graders from middle and low income schools. Of these, 172 were immigrants. Well-being indices included loneliness, self-concept, depression, and teacher-rated…

  15. Psychometric evaluations of the efficacy expectations and Outcome Expectations for Exercise Scales in African American women.

    PubMed

    Murrock, Carolyn J; Gary, Faye

    2014-01-01

    This secondary analysis tested the reliability and validity of the Self-Efficacy for Exercise (SEE) and the Outcome Expectations for Exercise (OEE) scales in 126 community dwelling, middle aged African American women. Social Cognitive Theory postulates self-efficacy is behavior age, gender and culture specific. Therefore, it is important to determine ifself-efficacy scales developed and tested in older Caucasian female adults are reliable and valid in middle aged, minority women. Cronbach's alpha and construct validity using hypothesis testing and confirmatory factor analysis supported the reliability and validity of the SEE and OEE scales in community dwelling, middle aged African American women. PMID:25612395

  16. Thinking about Middle School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hochman, Jere

    This book on middle school uses a very free-form structure to encourage educators to think about middle school's philosophy and purpose, and about how to create a successful middle school. The preface claims that it is not a book "about" teaming, advisory, interdisciplinary units, intramurals, parent-teacher conferences, and other middle school…

  17. African and non-African admixture components in African Americans and an African Caribbean population.

    PubMed

    Murray, Tanda; Beaty, Terri H; Mathias, Rasika A; Rafaels, Nicholas; Grant, Audrey Virginia; Faruque, Mezbah U; Watson, Harold R; Ruczinski, Ingo; Dunston, Georgia M; Barnes, Kathleen C

    2010-09-01

    Admixture is a potential source of confounding in genetic association studies, so it becomes important to detect and estimate admixture in a sample of unrelated individuals. Populations of African descent in the US and the Caribbean share similar historical backgrounds but the distributions of African admixture may differ. We selected 416 ancestry informative markers (AIMs) to estimate and compare admixture proportions using STRUCTURE in 906 unrelated African Americans (AAs) and 294 Barbadians (ACs) from a study of asthma. This analysis showed AAs on average were 72.5% African, 19.6% European and 8% Asian, while ACs were 77.4% African, 15.9% European, and 6.7% Asian which were significantly different. A principal components analysis based on these AIMs yielded one primary eigenvector that explained 54.04% of the variation and captured a gradient from West African to European admixture. This principal component was highly correlated with African vs. European ancestry as estimated by STRUCTURE (r(2)=0.992, r(2)=0.912, respectively). To investigate other African contributions to African American and Barbadian admixture, we performed PCA on approximately 14,000 (14k) genome-wide SNPs in AAs, ACs, Yorubans, Luhya and Maasai African groups, and estimated genetic distances (F(ST)). We found AAs and ACs were closest genetically (F(ST)=0.008), and both were closer to the Yorubans than the other East African populations. In our sample of individuals of African descent, approximately 400 well-defined AIMs were just as good for detecting substructure as approximately 14,000 random SNPs drawn from a genome-wide panel of markers. PMID:20717976

  18. Generational Changes in Conceptions of Mental Illness: A Study of a South African Indian Sample.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bhana, Kastoor; Daniels, Carol Sandra

    1986-01-01

    Investigates generational changes in the conceptualization of mental illness. Hindu and Muslim grandmothers and their middle-aged daughters were studied with the following results: (1) a significant generation effect and (2) the conceptualization largely in eastern terms but an acceptance of both eastern and western conceptions of etiology and…

  19. Seed viability and germination success of Acacia tortilis along land-use and aridity gradients in the Eastern Sahara.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Gidske Leknæs; Krzywinski, Knut; Gjessing, Håkon K; Pierce, Richard Holton

    2016-01-01

    Our study focuses on the keystone species Acacia tortilis and is the first to investigate the effect of domestic ungulates and aridity on seed viability and germination over an extensive part of the Eastern Sahara. Bruchids infest its seeds and reduce their viability and germination, but ingestion by ruminant herbivores diminishes infestation levels and enhances/promotes seed viability and germination. The degree of these effects seems to be correlated with animal body mass. Significantly reduced numbers of wild ruminant ungulates have increased the potential importance of domestic animals and pastoral nomadism for the functionality of arid North African and Middle Eastern ecosystems. We sampled seeds (16,543) from A. tortilis in eight areas in three regions with different aridity and land use. We tested the effect of geography and sampling context on seed infestation using random effects logistic regressions. We did a randomized and balanced germination experiment including 1193 seeds, treated with different manure. Germination time and rates across geography, sampling context, and infestation status were analyzed using time-to-event analyses, Kaplan-Meier curves and proportional hazards Cox regressions. Bruchid infestation is very high (80%), and the effects of context are significant. Neither partial infestation nor adding manure had a positive effect on germination. There is a strong indication that intact, uningested seeds from acacia populations in the extremely arid Western Desert germinate more slowly and have a higher fraction of hard seeds than in the Eastern Desert and the Red Sea Hills. For ingested seeds in the pastoralist areas we find that intact seeds from goat dung germinate significantly better than those from camel dung. This is contrary to the expected body-mass effect. There is no effect of site or variation in tribal management. PMID:26811790

  20. Temporal labyrinths of eastern Eurasian Pleistocene humans

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Xiu-Jie; Crevecoeur, Isabelle; Liu, Wu; Xing, Song; Trinkaus, Erik

    2014-01-01

    One of the morphological features that has been identified as uniquely derived for the western Eurasian Neandertals concerns the relative sizes and positions of their semicircular canals. In particular, they exhibit a relatively small anterior canal, a relatively larger lateral one, and a more inferior position of the posterior one relative to the lateral one. These discussions have not included full paleontological data on eastern Eurasian Pleistocene human temporal labyrinths, which have the potential to provide a broader context for assessing Pleistocene Homo trait polarities. We present the temporal labyrinths of four eastern Eurasian Pleistocene Homo, one each of Early (Lantian 1), Middle (Hexian 1), and Late (Xujiayao 15) Pleistocene archaic humans and one early modern human (Liujiang 1). The labyrinths of the two earlier specimens and the most recent one conform to the proportions seen among western early and recent modern humans, reinforcing the modern human pattern as generally ancestral for the genus Homo. The labyrinth of Xujiayao 15 is in the middle of the Neandertal variation and separate from the other samples. This eastern Eurasian labyrinthine dichotomy occurs in the context of none of the distinctive Neandertal external temporal or other cranial features. As such, it raises questions regarding possible cranial and postcranial morphological correlates of Homo labyrinthine variation, the use of individual “Neandertal” features for documenting population affinities, and the nature of late archaic human variation across Eurasia. PMID:25002467

  1. Eastern Europe's Silicon Rush

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodard, Colin

    2007-01-01

    This article presents how the fast expansion of information technology industry in eastern Slovakia is putting a strain on its labor supply. Suddenly, computer-science graduates have become one of the former Eastern Bloc's greatest assets, attracting multinational technology companies hungry for skilled programmers, technicians, and engineers.…

  2. African American men's perspectives on promoting physical activity: "We're not that difficult to figure out!".

    PubMed

    Friedman, Daniela B; Hooker, Steven P; Wilcox, Sara; Burroughs, Ericka L; Rheaume, Carol E

    2012-01-01

    African American men report poorer health than do White men and have significantly greater odds for developing chronic diseases partly because of limited physical activity. Understanding how to encourage healthy behaviors among African American men will be critical in the development of effective physical activity messages and programs. Guided by principles of cultural sensitivity and social marketing, this research examined middle-aged and older African American men's recommended strategies for promoting physical activity to African American men of their age. The authors report results from 49 interviews conducted with middle-aged (45-64 years) and older (65-84 years) African American men in South Carolina. Four groups of African American men were recruited: middle-aged active men (n = 17), middle-aged inactive men (n = 12), older active men (n = 10), older inactive men (n = 10). Themes related to marketing and recruitment strategies, message content, and spokesperson characteristics emerged and differed by age and physical activity level. Recommended marketing strategies included word of mouth; use of mass media; partnering with churches, businesses, and fraternities; strategic placement of messages; culturally appropriate message framing; and careful attention to selection of program spokespersons. Findings will help in the marketing, design, implementation, and evaluation of culturally appropriate interventions to encourage physical activity among middle-aged and older African American men in the South. PMID:22808914

  3. Models of invasion and establishment of African Mustard (Brassica tournefortii)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Berry, Kristin H.; Gowan, Timothy A.; Miller, David M.; Brooks, Matthew L.

    2015-01-01

    Introduced exotic plants can drive ecosystem change. We studied invasion and establishment ofBrassica tournefortii (African mustard), a noxious weed, in the Chemehuevi Valley, western Sonoran Desert, California. We used long-term data sets of photographs, transects for biomass of annual plants, and densities of African mustard collected at irregular intervals between 1979 and 2009. We suggest that African mustard may have been present in low numbers along the main route of travel, a highway, in the late 1970s; invaded the valley along a major axial valley ephemeral stream channel and the highway; and by 2009, colonized 22 km into the eastern part of the valley. We developed predictive models for invasibility and establishment of African mustard. Both during the initial invasion and after establishment, significant predictor variables of African mustard densities were surficial geology, proximity to the highway and axial valley ephemeral stream channel, and number of small ephemeral stream channels. The axial valley ephemeral stream channel was the most vulnerable of the variables to invasions. Overall, African mustard rapidly colonized and quickly became established in naturally disturbed areas, such as stream channels, where geological surfaces were young and soils were weakly developed. Older geological surfaces (e.g., desert pavements with soils 140,000 to 300,000 years old) were less vulnerable. Microhabitats also influenced densities of African mustard, with densities higher under shrubs than in the interspaces. As African mustard became established, the proportional biomass of native winter annual plants declined. Early control is important because African mustard can colonize and become well established across a valley in 20 yr.

  4. African American Mothers' Socialization Beliefs and Goals with Young Children: Themes of History, Education, and Collective Independence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suizzo, Marie-Anne; Robinson, Courtney; Pahlke, Erin

    2008-01-01

    Although research on African American family socialization is increasing, little is known about the beliefs, goals, and strategies of middle-class parents of young children. This study's aim was to address this research gap by examining three key aspects of parental socialization. First, the authors investigated whether and how African American…

  5. 16 Extraordinary African Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lobb, Nancy

    This collection for children tells the stories of 16 African Americans who helped make America what it is today. African Americans can take pride in the heritage of these contributors to society. Biographies are given for the following: (1) Sojourner Truth, preacher and abolitionist; (2) Frederick Douglass, abolitionist; (3) Harriet Tubman, leader…

  6. African Studies Computer Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuntz, Patricia S.

    African studies computer resources that are readily available in the United States with linkages to Africa are described, highlighting those most directly corresponding to African content. Africanists can use the following four fundamental computer systems: (1) Internet/Bitnet; (2) Fidonet; (3) Usenet; and (4) dial-up bulletin board services. The…

  7. African Literature as Celebration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Achebe, Chinua

    1989-01-01

    Describes the Igbo tradition of "Mbari," a communal creative enterprise that celebrates the world and the life lived in it through art. Contrasts the cooperative, social dimension of pre-colonial African culture with the exclusion and denial of European colonialism, and sees new African literature again celebrating human presence and dignity. (AF)

  8. Educating African American Males

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Edward E.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Schools across America spend money, invest in programs, and sponsor workshops, offer teacher incentives, raise accountability standards, and even evoke the name of Obama in efforts to raise the academic achievement of African American males. Incarceration and college retention rates point to a dismal plight for many African American…

  9. Africans Away from Home.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarke, John Henrik

    Africans who were brought across the Atlantic as slaves never fully adjusted to slavery or accepted its inevitability. Resistance began on board the slave ships, where many jumped overboard or committed suicide. African slaves in South America led the first revolts against tyranny in the New World. The first slave revolt in the Caribbean occurred…

  10. Keeping African Masks Real

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waddington, Susan

    2012-01-01

    Art is a good place to learn about our multicultural planet, and African masks are prized throughout the world as powerfully expressive artistic images. Unfortunately, multicultural education, especially for young children, can perpetuate stereotypes. Masks taken out of context lose their meaning and the term "African masks" suggests that there is…

  11. Diabetes in African Americans

    PubMed Central

    Marshall, M

    2005-01-01

    African Americans have a high risk for type 2 diabetes. Genetic traits, the prevalence of obesity, and insulin resistance all contribute to the risk of diabetes in the African American community. African Americans have a high rate of diabetic complications, because of poor glycaemic control and racial disparities in health care in the USA. African Americans with diabetes may have an atypical presentation that simulates type 1 diabetes, but then their subsequent clinical course is typical of type 2 diabetes. Culturally sensitive strategies, structured disease management protocols, and the assistance of nurses, diabetic educators, and other health care professionals are effective in improving the outcome of diabetes in the African American community. PMID:16344294

  12. The Eratosthenes Seamount - Eastern Mediterranean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ehrhardt, A.; Schnabel, M.; Damm, V.

    2012-04-01

    The Eratosthenes Seamount forms a prominent landmark in the Eastern Mediterranean. It is located south of Cyprus with the Levantine Basin on its eastern side, the Herodotus Basin on its western side and the Nile Cone south of the seamount. The Eratosthenes Seamount rises up to 750 m below sea surface and is about 1200 m higher than the surrounding seafloor of the Levantine Basin and the Nile Cone sediments. The Eratosthenes Seamount is considered as a continental fragment of the former African-Nubian Plate that was rifted to its present position relative to Africa during the formation of the Tethyan Ocean. In 2010 a detailed geophysical survey was carried out in the area of the Eratosthenes Seamount by the Federal Institute for Geosciences and Natural Resources of Germany including multichannel seismic (MCS), refraction seismics, magnetic, gravity and magnetotelluric data acquisition. First results show a highly deformed seamount, with a plateau-like top that is impacted by west-east trending graben formation. The slopes of the seamount are eroded showing deep incised ripple patterns and recent submarine landslides. The Eratosthenes Seamount produces also a prominent magnetic and gravity anomaly, both supporting its uniqueness in the area of the Eastern Mediterranean. Velocity information by refraction seismic modeling, as well as the models of the magnetic and gravity data show evidence for a volcanic core of the seamount with carbonate layers on top of the volcanic core. The slopes of the seamount terminate against a conspicuous rim-like escarpment that forms in addition the northern and western termination of the Messinian Evaporites in the study area. The MCS and refraction seismic data show a very deep Levantine Basin with maximum acoustic basement depths of 12 to 14 km very close to the slope of the Eratosthenes Seamount. The deepest sediments resolved by the MCS data are of Lower Cretaceous to Jurassic age. The refraction seismic model shows a 14 km thick

  13. African bees to control African elephants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vollrath, Fritz; Douglas-Hamilton, Iain

    2002-11-01

    Numbers of elephants have declined in Africa and Asia over the past 30 years while numbers of humans have increased, both substantially. Friction between these two keystone species is reaching levels which are worryingly high from an ecological as well as a political viewpoint. Ways and means must be found to keep the two apart, at least in areas sensitive to each species' survival. The aggressive African bee might be one such method. Here we demonstrate that African bees deter elephants from damaging the vegetation and trees which house their hives. We argue that bees can be employed profitably to protect not only selected trees, but also selected areas, from elephant damage.

  14. Paleoceanography of the tropical eastern pacific ocean.

    PubMed

    Grigg, R W; Hey, R

    1992-01-10

    The East Pacific Barrier (EPB) is the most effective marine barrier to dispersal of tropical shallow-water fauna in the world today. The fossil record of corals in the eastern Pacific suggests this has been true throughout the Cenozoic. In the Cretaceous, the EPB was apparently less effective in limiting dispersal. Equatorial circulation in the Pacific then appears to have been primarily east to west and the existence of oceanic atolls (now drowned guyots) in the eastern Pacific probably aided dispersal. Similarly, in the middle and early Mesozoic and late Paleozoic, terranes in the central tropical Pacific likely served as stepping stones to dispersal of tropical shelf faunas, reducing the isolating effect of an otherwise wider Pacific Ocean (Panthalassa). PMID:17756067

  15. Using Object Boxes to Teach about Middle Eastern Antiquity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gianetto, Jennifer L.; Rule, Audrey C.

    2005-01-01

    Students need to enter the interconnected global community with an understanding of how different cultures perceive the world, how the cultures and societies of today evolved from those of the past, and how all peoples impact the development of future societies. Unfortunately, time constraints or lack of resources in schools cause many social…

  16. A Review of Dietary Selenium Intake and Selenium Status in Europe and the Middle East

    PubMed Central

    Stoffaneller, Rita; Morse, Nancy L.

    2015-01-01

    This is a systematic review of existing data on dietary selenium (Se) intake and status for various population groups in Europe (including the United Kingdom (UK)) and the Middle East. It includes English language systematic reviews, meta-analyses, randomised controlled trials, cohort studies, cross-sectional and case-control studies obtained through PUBMED searches from January, 2002, to November, 2014, for European data and from 1990 to November 2014, for Middle Eastern data. Reports were selected if they included data on Se intake and status. The search identified 19 European/UK studies and 15 investigations in the Middle East that reported Se intake and Se concentration in water and/or food and 48 European/UK studies and 44 investigations in the Middle East reporting Se status. Suboptimal Se status was reported to be widespread throughout Europe, the UK and the Middle East, and these results agreed with previous reports highlighting the problem. Eastern European countries had lower Se intake than Western European countries. Middle Eastern studies provided varying results, possibly due to varying food habits and imports in different regions and within differing socioeconomic groups. In conclusion, Se intake and status is suboptimal in European and Middle Eastern countries, with less consistency in the Middle East. PMID:25734564

  17. Disillusionment with Higher Education in the Middle East and the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cochran, Judith A.

    2011-01-01

    University graduates in the Middle East and the United States of America are disillusioned with their higher education degrees. Youth expect to be well employed upon graduation and to improve their social status. Employment has been guaranteed from the earliest university certificates granted in Middle Eastern yeshivas, Houses of Learning, and…

  18. Sickle cell disease in Middle East Arab countries

    PubMed Central

    El-Hazmi, Mohsen A. F.; Al-Hazmi, Ali M.; Warsy, Arjumand S.

    2011-01-01

    The sickle cell (HbS) gene occurs at a variable frequency in the Middle Eastern Arab countries, with characteristic distribution patterns and representing an overall picture of blood genetic disorders in the region. The origin of the gene has been debated, but studies using β-globin gene haplotypes have ascertained that there were multiple origins for HbS. In some regions the HbS gene is common and exhibits polymorphism, while the reverse is true in others. A common causative factor for the high prevalence and maintenance of HbS and thalassaemia genes is malaria endemicity. The HbS gene also co-exists with other haemoglobin variants and thalassaemia genes and the resulting clinical state is referred to as sickle cell disease (SCD). In the Middle Eastern Arab countries, the clinical picture of SCD expresses two distinct forms, the benign and the severe forms, which are related to two distinct β-globin gene haplotypes. These are referred to as the Saudi-Indian and the Benin haplotypes, respectively. In a majority of the Middle Eastern Arab countries the HbS is linked to the Saudi-Indian haplotype, while in others it is linked to the Benin haplotype. This review outlines the frequency, distribution, clinical feature, management and prevention as well as gene interactions of the HbS genes with other haemoglobin disorders in the Middle Eastern Arab countries. PMID:22199098

  19. Sickle cell disease in Middle East Arab countries.

    PubMed

    El-Hazmi, Mohsen A F; Al-Hazmi, Ali M; Warsy, Arjumand S

    2011-11-01

    The sickle cell (HbS) gene occurs at a variable frequency in the Middle Eastern Arab countries, with characteristic distribution patterns and representing an overall picture of blood genetic disorders in the region. The origin of the gene has been debated, but studies using β-globin gene haplotypes have ascertained that there were multiple origins for HbS. In some regions the HbS gene is common and exhibits polymorphism, while the reverse is true in others. A common causative factor for the high prevalence and maintenance of HbS and thalassaemia genes is malaria endemicity. The HbS gene also co-exists with other haemoglobin variants and thalassaemia genes and the resulting clinical state is referred to as sickle cell disease (SCD). In the Middle Eastern Arab countries, the clinical picture of SCD expresses two distinct forms, the benign and the severe forms, which are related to two distinct β-globin gene haplotypes. These are referred to as the Saudi-Indian and the Benin haplotypes, respectively. In a majority of the Middle Eastern Arab countries the HbS is linked to the Saudi-Indian haplotype, while in others it is linked to the Benin haplotype. This review outlines the frequency, distribution, clinical feature, management and prevention as well as gene interactions of the HbS genes with other haemoglobin disorders in the Middle Eastern Arab countries. PMID:22199098

  20. The "Repoliticization" of Islam in the Middle East.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Robert W.; Abell, Robert

    1984-01-01

    Islamic fundamentalist groups are demanding political power and posing stiff changes to Middle Eastern regimes. The attainment of political independence, modernization, the incorporation of millions of newcomers as active participants in the political process, and the inability to deal effectively with Israel have contributed to conditions…

  1. Middle East Studies Teacher Training Program. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sefein, Naim A.

    This guide presents a teacher training program in Middle Eastern studies and procedures for program implementation. Details concerning program announcement, participant selection, and travel accommodations are included. Participants attended an orientation and registration workshop and an intensive academic workshop before flying to Egypt for the…

  2. Reconnaissance of mine drainage in the coal fields of eastern Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Growitz, D.J.; Reed, L.A.; Beard, M.M.

    1985-01-01

    Anthracite has been extensively mined in four areas of eastern Pennsylvania. Almost all underground mining in the four areas, the Northern, Eastern Middle, Western Middle, and Southern Fields, has been discontinued and many mines are abandoned and flooded. Precipitation on much of the 408 square miles of coal fields infiltrates to the underground mine complexes, and is discharged as mine drainage from tunnels, mine entrances, and boreholes. Mine drainage was measured and sampled at 251 sites that had a total discharge of 918 cubic feet per second, a total sulfate load of 1,470 tons per day, and a total iron discharge of 79 tons per day. The largest sulfate yield was 5.4 tons per day per square mile from the Western Middle Field. The yields from the Northern, Eastern Middle, and Southern Fields were 4.6, 3.6, and 1.4 tons per day per square mile, respectively.

  3. Early and Middle Pleistocene Faunal and hominins dispersals through Southwestern Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bar-Yosef, Ofer; Belmaker, Miriam

    2011-06-01

    This review summarizes the paleoecology of the Early and Middle Pleistocene of southwestern Asia, based on both flora and fauna, retrieved from a series of 'windows' provided by the excavated sites. The incomplete chrono-stratigraphy of this vast region does not allow to accept the direct chronological correlation between the available sites and events of faunal and hominin dispersals from Africa. It also demonstrates that hominins survived in a mixed landscape of open parkland with forested surrounding hills. In addition, the prevailing environmental conditions are not sufficient to explain successful adaptations to new ecological niches away from the African savanna of the bearers of 'core and flake' and the Acheulian industries, The differences in knapping and secondary shaping of stone artifacts probably reflect the learned traditions of different groups of hominins. The current distribution of lithic industries across Eurasia is undoubtedly incomplete due to lack of cultural continuities as well as paucity of field research in several sub-regions. This observation supports the contention that what we view as a constant stream of migrants was actually interrupted many times. The continuous occupation of southwestern Asia by the makers of the Acheulian is in contrast with neighboring regions such as the Iranian plateau and Eastern Europe. A more complex model is required to explain the recorded Eurasian archaeological-cultural mosaic.

  4. A Systematic Review of Radiotherapy Capacity in Low- and Middle-Income Countries

    PubMed Central

    Grover, Surbhi; Xu, Melody J.; Yeager, Alyssa; Rosman, Lori; Groen, Reinou S.; Chackungal, Smita; Rodin, Danielle; Mangaali, Margaret; Nurkic, Sommer; Fernandes, Annemarie; Lin, Lilie L.; Thomas, Gillian; Tergas, Ana I.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The cancer burden in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC) is substantial. The purpose of this study was to identify and describe country and region-specific patterns of radiotherapy (RT) facilities in LMIC. Methods: A systematic review of the literature was undertaken. A search strategy was developed to include articles on radiation capacity in LMIC from the following databases: PubMed, Embase, CINAHL Plus, Global Health, and the Latin American and Caribbean System on Health Sciences Information. Searches included all literature up to April 2013. Results: A total of 49 articles were included in the review. Studies reviewed were divided into one of four regions: Africa, Asia, Eastern Europe, and South America. The African continent has the least amount of resources for RT. Furthermore, a wide disparity exists, as 60% of all machines on the continent are concentrated in Egypt and South Africa while 29 countries in Africa are still lacking any RT resource. A significant heterogeneity also exists across Southeast Asia despite a threefold increase in megavoltage teletherapy machines from 1976 to 1999, which corresponds with a rise in economic status. In LMIC of the Americas, only Uruguay met the International Atomic Energy Agency recommendations of 4 MV/million population, whereas Bolivia and Venezuela had the most radiation oncologists (>1 per 1000 new cancer cases). The main concern with the review of RT resources in Eastern Europe was the lack of data. Conclusion: There is a dearth of publications on RT therapy infrastructure in LMIC. However, based on limited published data, availability of RT resources reflects the countries’ economic status. The challenges to delivering radiation in the discussed regions are multidimensional and include lack of physical resources, lack of human personnel, and lack of data. Furthermore, access to existing RT and affordability of care remains a large problem. PMID:25657930

  5. Wooden Calendar Sticks in Eastern Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koleva, Vesselina; Koleva, Svetlana

    Wooden calendar sticks have preserved an archaic time-keeping tradition, which, during the Middle Ages, was one of the tools for establishing and disseminating Christian chronology and the liturgical calendars of the Western and Eastern Churches. The calendars vary in size and shape, type of signs, and structure of the record. Christian symbols interwoven with signs and pictograms mark days of importance in the ritual and economic year cycle. The wooden calendars are considered one of the proofs of the syncretism between the pagan tradition and Christian rites in folk cultures.

  6. Middle ear infection (image)

    MedlinePlus

    A middle ear infection is also known as otitis media. It is one of the most common of childhood infections. With this illness, the middle ear becomes red, swollen, and inflamed because of bacteria ...

  7. Lithospheric Response of the Anatolian Plateau in the Realm of the Black Sea and the Eastern Mediterranean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ergun, Mustafa

    2016-04-01

    The Eastern Mediterranean and the Middle East make up the southern boundary of the Tethys Ocean for the last 200 Ma by the disintegration of the Pangaea and closure of the Tethys Ocean. It covers the structures: Hellenic and Cyprus arcs; Eastern Anatolian Fault Zone; Bitlis Suture Zone and Zagros Mountains. The northern boundary of the Tethys Ocean is made up the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea, and it extends up to Po valley towards the west (Pontides, Caucasus). Between these two zones the Alp-Himalayan orogenic belt is situated where the Balkan, Anatolia and the Iran plateaus are placed as the remnants of the lost Ocean of the Tethys. The active tectonics of the eastern Mediterranean is the consequences of the convergence between the Africa, Arabian plates in the south and the Eurasian plate in the north. These plates act as converging jaws of vise forming a crustal mosaic in between. The active crustal deformation pattern reveals two N-S trending maximum compression or crustal shortening syntaxes': (i) the eastern Black Sea and the Arabian plate, (ii) the western Black Sea and the Isparta Angle. The transition in young mountain belts, from ocean crust through the agglomeration of arc systems with long histories of oceanic closures, to a continental hinterland is well exemplified by the plate margin in the eastern Mediterranean. The boundary between the African plate and the Aegean/Anatolian microplate is in the process of transition from subduction to collision along the Cyprus Arc. Since the Black Sea has oceanic lithosphere, it is actually a separate plate. However it can be considered as a block, because the Black Sea is a trapped oceanic basin that cannot move freely within the Eurasian Plate. Lying towards the northern margin of orogenic belts related to the closure of the Tethys Ocean, it is generally considered to be a result of back-arc extension associated with the northward subduction of the Tethyan plate to the south. Interface oceanic lithosphere at

  8. Recent divergences and size decreases of eastern gorilla populations.

    PubMed

    Roy, Justin; Arandjelovic, Mimi; Bradley, Brenda J; Guschanski, Katerina; Stephens, Colleen R; Bucknell, Dan; Cirhuza, Henry; Kusamba, Chifundera; Kyungu, Jean Claude; Smith, Vince; Robbins, Martha M; Vigilant, Linda

    2014-11-01

    Compared with other African apes, eastern gorillas (Gorilla beringei) have been little studied genetically. We used analysis of autosomal DNA genotypes obtained from non-invasively collected faecal samples to estimate the evolutionary histories of the two extant mountain gorilla populations and the closely related eastern lowland gorillas. Our results suggest that eastern lowland gorillas and mountain gorillas split beginning some 10 000 years ago, followed 5000 years ago by the split of the two mountain gorilla populations of Bwindi Impenetrable National Park and the Virungas Massif. All three populations have decreased in effective population size, with particularly substantial 10-fold decreases for the mountain gorillas. These dynamics probably reflect responses to habitat changes resulting from climate fluctuations over the past 20 000 years as well as increasing human influence in this densely populated region in the last several thousand years. PMID:25376805

  9. Agricultural mechanization in the Central African Republic using renewable fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Adolph, D.H.

    1985-01-01

    This study examines an agricultural mechanization and renewable fuel system which was initiated by the African Inland Mission in the town of Obo, Central African Republic. Obo is in the Zande section of the CAR, therefore, the project was evaluated in the context on the Zande system of agriculture. The Zandes are largely sedentary subsistence farmers living in the Eastern corner of the CAR, the Southwestern corner of the Sudan, and the Northeastern corner of Zaire. The early studies about Zande agriculture are reviewed as a foundation for understanding the Zande system. This information is then updated with survey data and my observations while living in the Central African Republic, in 1984. Information was collected on land usage, crop type, crop yield, soil type, housing, people, employment, and attitudes to potential mechanization.

  10. Explaining English Middle Sentences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Kabyong

    2009-01-01

    The current paper attempts to account for the formation of English middle sentences. Discussing a set of previous analyses on the construction under investigation we show, following the assumptions of Oosten(1986) and Iwata(1999), that English middle constructions should be divided into two types: generic middle constructions and non-generic…

  11. Making Middle Schools Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiles, Jon W.; Bondi, Joseph W.

    Over the past 20 years, the middle school has been a major innovative movement changing the face of intermediate education. While hard to define exactly, middle schools have different priorities and purposes than junior high schools. The former serve preadolescents (ages 10 to 14) through a balanced, comprehensive program. Middle school programs…

  12. The Middle East population puzzle.

    PubMed

    Omran, A R; Roudi, F

    1993-07-01

    An overview is provided of Middle Eastern countries on the following topics; population change, epidemiological transition theory and 4 patterns of transition in the middle East, transition in causes of death, infant mortality declines, war mortality, fertility, family planning, age and sex composition, ethnicity, educational status, urbanization, labor force, international labor migration, refugees, Jewish immigration, families, marriage patterns, and future growth. The Middle East is geographically defined as Bahrain, Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Syria, United Arab Emirates, Yemen, Gaza and the West Bank, Iran, Turkey, and Israel. The Middle East's population grew very little until 1990 when the population was 43 million. Population was about doubled in the mid-1950s at 80 million. Rapid growth occurred after 1950 with declines in mortality due to widespread disease control and sanitation efforts. Countries are grouped in the following ways: persistent high fertility and declining mortality with low to medium socioeconomic conditions (Jordan, Oman, Syria, Yemen, and the West Bank and Gaza), declining fertility and mortality in intermediate socioeconomic development (Egypt, Lebanon, Turkey, and Iran), high fertility and declining mortality in high socioeconomic conditions (Bahrain, Iraq, Kuwait, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and the United Arab Emirates), and low fertility and mortality in average socioeconomic conditions (Israel). As birth and death rates decline, there is an accompanying shift from communicable diseases to degenerative diseases and increases in life expectancy; this pattern is reflected in the available data from Egypt, Kuwait, and Israel. High infant and child mortality tends to remain a problem throughout the Middle East, with the exception of Israel and the Gulf States. War casualties are undetermined, yet have not impeded the fastest growing population growth rate in the world. The average fertility is 5 births

  13. Black versus Black: The Relationship among African, African American, and African Caribbean Persons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Jennifer V.; Cothran, Mary E.

    2003-01-01

    Surveyed people of African descent regarding relationships among African, African-American, and African-Caribbean persons, focusing on contact and friendship, travel to countries of the diaspora, cross-cultural communication, thoughts and stereotypes, and education. Most respondents had contacts with the other groups, but groups had preconceived…

  14. Eastern Equine Encephalitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Image of Culiseta melanura mosquito, photo taken by Jason Williams, reproduced by permission from the Virginia Mosquito Control Association. Eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV) is ...

  15. The role of tephra studies in African paleoanthropology as exemplified by the Sidi Hakoma Tuff

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    WoldeGabriel, Giday; Endale, Tamrat; White, Tim D.; Thouveny, Nicolas; Hart, William K.; Renne, Paul R.; Asfaw, Berhane

    2013-01-01

    Beginning in the 1960s, geological and paleoanthropological exploration of the Ethiopian rift system's basins have led to the discovery and assembly of the most comprehensive record of human biological and technological change during the last 6 million years. The hominid fossils, including partial skeletons, were primarily discovered in the Afar Rift, the Main Ethiopian Rift, and in the Omo Basin of the broadly rifted zone of SW Ethiopia. The paleoanthropological research areas within the SW Afar Rift that have yielded many diverse hominid species and the oldest stone tools are, from north to south, Woranso-Mille (aff. Ardipithecus and Au. afarensis), Hadar (Au. afarensis, Homo sp.), Dikika (Au. afarensis), Gona (Ar. kadabba, Ar. ramidus, H. erectus, and oldest stone tools), Middle Awash (Ar. kadabba, Ar. ramidus, Au. anamensis, Au. afarensis, Au. garhi, H. erectus, H. rhodesiensis, H. sapiens idaltu, and the oldest paleo-butchery locality), and Galili (Au. afarensis). Additional hominid remains were discovered at Melka Kunture on the banks of the Awash River near its source along the western margin of the central part of the Main Ethiopian Rift (H. erectus), at Konso (H. erectus and A. boisei), and at the southern end of the MER, and in the Omo Basin (Au. anamensis, Au. afarensis, Au. aethiopicus, Au. boisei, H. habilis, and H. erectus). Distal and sometimes proximal tephra units interbedded within fossilifeous sedimentary deposits have become key elements in this work by providing chronological and correlative control and depositional contexts. Several regional tephra markers have been identified within the northern half of the eastern African rift valley in Ethiopia and Kenya, and in marine sediments of the Gulf of Aden Rift and the NW Indian Ocean. Out of the many regional tephra stratigraphic markers that range in age from the early Pliocene (3.97 Ma) to the late Pleistocene (0.16 Ma), the Sidi Hakoma Tuff (SHT) has been more widely identified and thoroughly

  16. "I Want to Do the Right Thing but What Is It?": White Teachers' Experiences with African American Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henfield, Malik S.; Washington, Ahmad R.

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative study examines 26 White middle school teachers' perceptions of their experiences in a predominantly White middle school with a growing African American student population. Utilizing in-depth focus group interviews, teachers elaborated on their experiences with navigating racial, ethnic and cultural boundaries as they attempted to…

  17. Barriers and Bridges to Positive Cross-Ethnic Relations: African American and White Parent Socialization Beliefs and Practices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamm, Jill V.

    2001-01-01

    Using interviews and focus groups, lower and middle socioeconomic status (SES) African American parents and middle SES white parents discussed their objectives regarding cross-ethnic relations and how they helped their children forge positive cross-ethnic relations. The groups relied on different methods to promote socialization. Parents' efforts…

  18. Astronomy for African development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Govender, Kevindran

    2011-06-01

    In recent years there have been a number of efforts across Africa to develop the field of astronomy as well as to reap benefit from astronomy for African people. This presentation will discuss the case of the SALT (Southern African Large Telescope) Collateral Benefits Programme (SCBP) which was set up to ensure societal benefit from astronomy. With African society as the target, the SCBP has embarked on various projects from school level education to public understanding of science to socio-economic development, the latter mainly being felt in the rural communities surrounding the South African Astronomical Observatory (home to SALT). A development plan for ``Astronomy in Africa'' will also be discussed. This plan has been drawn up with input from all over Africa and themed ``Astronomy for Education''. The Africa case stands as a good example for the IYA cornerstone project ``Developing Astronomy Globally'' which focuses on developing regions.

  19. African American Suicide

    MedlinePlus

    ... accounted for 83.8% of Caucasian elderly suicides. • Firearms were the predominant method of suicide among African ... per 100,000 annually. Source: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. National Vital Statistics System. Mortality Data. ...

  20. Lateral extrusion in the Eastern Alps revisited: Refining the model by thermochronological, sedimentary, and seismic data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    WöLfler, Andreas; Kurz, Walter; Fritz, Harald; Stüwe, Kurt

    2011-08-01

    This study comprises a reassessment of the classical model of lateral extrusion in the Eastern Alps by using recently published geochronological data, sedimentary ages from intramontane basins, ages and distribution of magmatic rocks, and information from seismic profiles. Extrusion-related faulting continuously propagated from the western toward the central eastern part of the Eastern Alps during Oligocene to Middle Miocene times. This is confined by oblique convergence between the Adriatic and European plates. During Middle Miocene times, extrusion became not only lateral in terms of parallel to the trend of the Eastern Alps, but was characterized by a displacement vector at a high angle to the strike of the orogen. This resulted in the exhumation of the Schladming and Pohorje blocks that were exhumed within extensional bridges at the northern and southern terminations of the Pöls-Lavanttal fault system, respectively. From Middle Miocene to recent times, extrusion was controlled by overall extension between the Dinaric and Carpathian subduction zones. The influence of north directed compression triggered by the northward moving Adriatic plate diminished, and the influence of the retreating Carpathian subduction zone increased. This gave rise to Miocene volcanism that is exclusively found east of the Dinaric subduction zone. We therefore consider that lateral extrusion in the Eastern Alps can be subdivided into distinct tectonic phases, with less pronounced eastward extension-related displacement between Late Oligocene and Middle Miocene times. As soon as the Eastern Alps passed the Dinaric subduction zone, the entire domain became highly extensive.

  1. The gendered character of the African petty bourgeoisie.

    PubMed

    Mcfadden, P

    1994-02-01

    An African feminist states her states her views on the conditions of women in Africa. Changes have occurred within the middle class, which are reflected in the Women's Movement and in relations between men and women. Women are taking much stronger positions and challenging the African male dominance. Men now speak with reservation about the interact with feminists. African men tend to marry down to women of lesser social and educational class, or to marry non-African women to avoid the issue of equality as Africans. The African middle class is now composed of a sufficient number of women in site of unequal gender relations. Men now ask women about gender issues, albeit for ulterior motives: to avoid feminist backlash in the presentation of papers, or to fulfill a donor requirement. An annoying Change is men's identification of themselves as feminists. The question is raised as to why men cannot think of another term to describe their inherited socialization as oppressors. This acquisition of the term "feminist" becomes just another appropriation to enhance their power or resources. Universal and free education has opened doors for women over the past 30 years. The women's fight against colonialism was a fight for women's opportunities. A disturbing trend is for women to argue for a return to "true" African traditions, when no one today would ever accept life as peasant women did 500 years ago. All African traditions are patriarchal. African feminist traditions need to be reclaimed and resurfaced from under the "layers of male defined and male reconstructed charades." A dangerous precedent is taking place in South Africa, since the International Monetary Fund (IMR) and the World Bank are preempting the opportunities gained by women through liberal state policies. Acceptance of IMF/World Bank terms means lost opportunity to education, to professions, and to economic resources gained in the post-independence era. IMF/World Bank policies are "racist, classiest, and

  2. A Chronological Perspective on the Acheulian and Its Transition to the Middle Stone Age in Southern Africa: The Question of the Fauresmith

    PubMed Central

    Herries, Andy I. R.

    2011-01-01

    An understanding of the age of the Acheulian and the transition to the Middle Stone Age in southern Africa has been hampered by a lack of reliable dates for key sequences in the region. A number of researchers have hypothesised that the Acheulian first occurred simultaneously in southern and eastern Africa at around 1.7-1.6 Ma. A chronological evaluation of the southern African sites suggests that there is currently little firm evidence for the Acheulian occurring before 1.4 Ma in southern Africa. Many researchers have also suggested the occurrence of a transitional industry, the Fauresmith, covering the transition from the Early to Middle Stone Age, but again, the Fauresmith has been poorly defined, documented, and dated. Despite the occurrence of large cutting tools in these Fauresmith assemblages, they appear to include all the technological components characteristic of the MSA. New data from stratified Fauresmith bearing sites in southern Africa suggest this transitional industry maybe as old as 511–435 ka and should represent the beginning of the MSA as a broad entity rather than the terminal phase of the Acheulian. The MSA in this form is a technology associated with archaic H. sapiens and early modern humans in Africa with a trend of greater complexity through time. PMID:21785711

  3. Wine and vinegar-based attractants for the African fig fly (Diptera: Drosophilidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The African fig fly (AFF), Zaprionus indianus Gupta (Diptera: Drosophilidae), is an invasive fruit pest that has spread rapidly through much of the eastern United States after first being detected in Florida in 2005. This drosophilid is a primary pest of figs in Brazil, so there were initial concern...

  4. Trapping African fig fly (Diptera: Drosophilidae) with combinations of vinegar and wine

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The African fig fly, Zaprionus indianus Gupta (Diptera: Drosophilidae), is an invasive fruit pest that has spread rapidly through much of the eastern United States. Tests were conducted in southern Florida that recorded the response of Z. indianus to baits that included Merlot wine, rice vinegar, et...

  5. Biosignatures in Middle Cambrian Paleosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horodyskyj, L. B.; White, T. S.; Kump, L. R.

    2008-12-01

    Before the advent of plants with spores and body structures that are easily preserved in the fossil record, the evidence for terrestrial ecosystems is limited to observations of their effects on the chemistry of weathering surfaces. Seven paleosols and paleosaprolites from southeast South Dakota and northwest and central Iowa have been analyzed to assess the extent of abiotic weathering and the presence of biosignatures in the Midwestern US during the Middle Cambrian. Evidence for extensive weathering exists on a variety of basement material, from the 1800 Ma Harris granite to the 1100 Ma Keweenawan basalts. All of the weathering profiles are overlain by the Middle Cambrian Mt. Simon Sandstone, placing their most likely time of development shortly before the advent of vascular plants. All weathering horizons show high chemical indices of alteration, typically >85, and considerable leaching of mobile cations, such as Na, Ca, Mg, and Mn, which is consistent with tropical to subtropical weathering conditions expected for central Laurentia during this interval. Organic carbon contents of <0.2 wt% are present in all weathering horizons, indicating the potential presence of a terrestrial biota. Carbon isotope values for this organic matter are ~-25 permil for paleosols in the western portion of the study area, and ~-23 permil for paleosols in the eastern half. These results are consistent with a photosynthetic origin for the organic matter. Organic matter in the overlying sandstone tends to be lighter than the soil organic matter. At most sites, this difference is 1 permil, except at the Elk Point site, where the difference is 27 permil, suggesting methanotrophic influence on this organic matter. A strong biosignature present at most sites is the near-complete loss of P from the surface. P is an important limiting nutrient in the terrestrial environment. Near-complete apatite dissolution at the surface of most of the weathering horizons is best explained by leaching via

  6. New insights into the history of the C-14010 lactase persistence variant in Eastern and Southern Africa.

    PubMed

    Macholdt, Enrico; Slatkin, Montgomery; Pakendorf, Brigitte; Stoneking, Mark

    2015-04-01

    Lactase persistence (LP), the ability to digest lactose into adulthood, is strongly associated with the cultural traits of pastoralism and milk-drinking among human populations, and several different genetic variants are known that confer LP. Recent studies of LP variants in Southern African populations, with a focus on Khoisan-speaking groups, found high frequencies of an LP variant (the C-14010 allele) that also occurs in Eastern Africa, and concluded that the C-14010 allele was brought to Southern Africa via a migration of pastoralists from Eastern Africa. However, this conclusion was based on indirect evidence; to date no study has jointly analyzed data on the C-14010 allele from both Southern African Khoisan-speaking groups and Eastern Africa. Here, we combine and analyze published data on the C-14010 allele in Southern and Eastern African populations, consisting of haplotypes with the C-14010 allele and four closely-linked short tandem repeat loci. Our results provide direct evidence for the previously-hypothesized Eastern African origin of the C-14010 allele in Southern African Khoisan-speaking groups. In addition, we find evidence for a separate introduction of the C-14010 allele into the Bantu-speaking Xhosa. The estimated selection intensity on the C-14010 allele in Eastern Africa is lower than that in Southern Africa, which suggests that in Eastern Africa the dietary changes conferring the fitness advantage associated with LP occurred some time after the origin of the C-14010 allele. Conversely, in Southern Africa the fitness advantage was present when the allele was introduced, as would be expected if pastoralism was introduced concomitantly. PMID:25448164

  7. Eastern Pacific Ocean Conference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The promotion of interaction among investigators of all oceanographic disciplines studying the eastern Pacific Ocean was the goal of the 1990 Eastern Pacific Ocean Conference (EPOC), held October 17-19 on the snow-covered slopes of Mt. Hood, Oreg. Thirty oceanographers representing all disciplines attended.Dick Barber, Duke University Marine Lab, Beaufort, N.C., chaired a session on the eastern equatorial Pacific Ocean, emphasizing issues related to biological activity. Steve Ramp of the Naval Postgraduate School in Montery, Calif., chaired a session on recent results from northern and central California experiments. On October 19, following an early morning earthquake, a business meeting and discussions regarding a collaboration in future experiments were held.

  8. Shear Wave Splitting Across Eastern, Western and Southern Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nyblade, A.; Ramirez, C.; Bagley, B. C.; Mulibo, G. D.; Tugume, F.; Wysession, M. E.; Wiens, D. A.

    2014-12-01

    The expansion of the AfricaArray network across eastern, western and southern Africa, in conjunction with seismic data from many PASSCAL deployments over the past 20 years, is helping to fill in major gaps in the global coverage of shear wave splitting measurements. New results from stations in Ghana, Nigeria, Mozambique, Botswana, Angola, Namibia and South Africa are presented in this study that when combined with previously published measurements help to map the pattern of seismic anisotropy over much of the African continent. A general pattern of fast polarization directions, characterized by NE orientations, is found, and superimposed on this subcontinental-scale pattern is local and regional variability, most notably around the Archean Tanzania craton in eastern Africa. The subcontinental-scale pattern, as well as local and regional variations in this pattern, are interpreted in terms of large-scale mantle flow from the African Superplume, fossil anisotropy in the lithosphere, and shape anisotropy in magmatic regions of the East African rift system.

  9. Doctoring in Eastern Europe

    PubMed Central

    Wilde, Henry

    1983-01-01

    Health care in Eastern Europe has not achieved world standards nor the goals of planners of socialist societies. With luck, perseverance, bribes or good connections, it is possible to obtain good medical and surgical care in Eastern Europe for a major illness. Primary and even secondary care usually are substandard, however, and often completely unacceptable to most Western foreigners. The reasons for this are complex but mainly rooted in different attitudes of health workers towards their patients, poor physical plants, poor salary structures, inadequate advancement opportunities for health care workers, poor social status and professional recognition for nurses and almost complete isolation of the average primary care doctor from hospital medicine. PMID:6659504

  10. African-Americans and Alzheimer's

    MedlinePlus

    ... Share Plus on Google Plus African-Americans and Alzheimer's alz.org | IHaveAlz Introduction 10 Warning Signs Brain ... African-Americans are at a higher risk for Alzheimer's disease. Many Americans dismiss the warning signs of ...

  11. Middle Start Snapshots: Improving Middle-Grades Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Academy for Educational Development, 2005

    2005-01-01

    This publication describes the school-improvement process in three schools participating in Middle Start, a comprehensive school-improvement program for schools with middle grades. Middle Start services, grounded in the Middle Start Principles and Practices, are tailored to a school's specific needs. The schools profiled are Bendle Middle School…

  12. African American Men’s Perspectives on Promoting Physical Activity: “We’re Not That Difficult to Figure out!”

    PubMed Central

    Friedman, Daniela B.; Hooker, Steven P.; Wilcox, Sara; Burroughs, Ericka L.; Rheaume, Carol E.

    2012-01-01

    African American men report poorer health than do White men and have significantly greater odds for developing chronic diseases partly because of limited physical activity. Understanding how to encourage healthy behaviors among African American men will be critical in the development of effective physical activity messages and programs. Guided by principles of cultural sensitivity and social marketing, this research examined middle-aged and older African American men’s recommended strategies for promoting physical activity to African American men of their age. The authors report results from. 49 interviews conducted with middle-aged (45–64 years) and older (65–84 years) African American men in South Carolina. Four groups of African American men were recruited; middle-aged active men (n = 17), middle-aged inactive men (n = 12), older active men (n = 10), older inactive men (n = 10). Themes related to marketing and recruitment strategies, message content, and spokesperson characteristics emerged and differed by age and physical activity level. Recommended marketing strategies included word of mouth; use of mass media; partnering with churches, businesses, and fraternities; strategic placement of messages; culturally appropriate message framing; and careful attention to selection of program spokespersons. Findings will help in the marketing, design, implementation, and evaluation of culturally appropriate interventions to encourage physical activity among middle-aged and older African American men in the South. PMID:22808914

  13. From a balcony of building 500, looking north. Eastern and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    From a balcony of building 500, looking north. Eastern and middle portions of building 511 are in the foreground. The movie theater (building 521) and the steam plant (building 215) are to the right rear. The commissary (building 520) is directly behind building 511. - Fitzsimons General Hospital, Bounded by East Colfax to south, Peoria Street to west, Denver City/County & Adams County Line to north, & U.S. Route 255 to east, Aurora, Adams County, CO

  14. Coalbed gas play emerges in eastern Kansas basins

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Newell, K.D.; Brady, L.L.; Lange, J.P.; Carr, T.R.

    2002-01-01

    Coalbed gas from Middle Pennsylvanian rocks in eastern Kansas is an emerging new energy play. Many of the critical geological parameters that will prove to be the major controls on the production fairways of this potential new resource have yet to be determined. Nevertheless, preliminary analyses indicate that recent leasing and exploration may translate into long-term production of new gas resources in what was hitherto considered a supermature petroleum province.

  15. Selected French Speaking Sub-Saharan African Countries: Burundi, Cameroon (Eastern), Chad, Congo (Brazzaville), Dahomey, Gabon, Ivory Coast, Mali, Mauritania, Niger, Rwanda, Senegal, Togo, Upper Volta, Zaire. A Guide to the Academic Placement of Students from These Countries in Academic Institutions of the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trudeau, Edouard J. C.

    The educational systems of 15 Sub-Saharan African countries are described, and guidelines concerning the academic placement of students who wish to study in U.S. institutions are provided. Tables indicate the grades covered by primary education and secondary education (academic and technical). Burundi, Rwanda, and Zaire have followed the Belgian…

  16. The Struggles over African Languages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maseko, Pam; Vale, Peter

    2016-01-01

    In this interview, African Language expert Pam Maseko speaks of her own background and her first encounter with culture outside of her mother tongue, isiXhosa. A statistical breakdown of South African languages is provided as background. She discusses Western (originally missionary) codification of African languages and suggests that this approach…

  17. Psychological Misdiagnosis of African Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garretson, Deborah J.

    1993-01-01

    Reviews historical and current problems with making accurate psychological diagnoses of African Americans. Suggests that misdiagnosis is strongly related to pathologization of African-American culture itself. Explores diagnostic process, stereotypes of African-American psychopathology, cultural differences in values and life stressors, and…

  18. Narcolepsy in African Americans

    PubMed Central

    Kawai, Makoto; O'Hara, Ruth; Einen, Mali; Lin, Ling; Mignot, Emmanuel

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: Although narcolepsy affects 0.02–0.05% of individuals in various ethnic groups, clinical presentation in different ethnicities has never been fully characterized. Our goal was to study phenotypic expression across ethnicities in the United States. Design/Setting: Cases of narcolepsy from 1992 to 2013 were identified from searches of the Stanford Center for Narcolepsy Research database. International Classification of Sleep Disorders, Third Edition diagnosis criteria for type 1 and type 2 narcolepsy were used for inclusion, but subjects were separated as with and without cataplexy for the purpose of data presentation. Information extracted included demographics, ethnicity and clinical data, HLA-DQB1*06:02, polysomnography (PSG), multiple sleep latency test (MSLT) data, and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) hypocretin-1 level. Patients: 182 African-Americans, 839 Caucasians, 35 Asians, and 41 Latinos with narcolepsy. Results: Sex ratio, PSG, and MSLT findings did not differ across ethnicities. Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) score was higher and age of onset of sleepiness earlier in African Americans compared with other ethnicities. HLA-DQB1*06:02 positivity was higher in African Americans (91.0%) versus others (76.6% in Caucasians, 80.0% in Asians, and 65.0% in Latinos). CSF hypocretin-1 level, obtained in 222 patients, was more frequently low (≤ 110 pg/ml) in African Americans (93.9%) versus Caucasians (61.5%), Asians (85.7%) and Latinos (75.0%). In subjects with low CSF hypocretin-1, African Americans (28.3%) were 4.5 fold more likely to be without cataplexy when compared with Caucasians (8.1%). Conclusions: Narcolepsy in African Americans is characterized by earlier symptom onset, higher Epworth Sleepiness Scale score, higher HLA-DQB1*06:02 positivity, and low cerebrospinal fluid hypocretin-1 level in the absence of cataplexy. In African Americans, more subjects without cataplexy have type 1 narcolepsy. Citation: Kawai M, O'Hara R, Einen M, Lin L

  19. Eastern Frequency Response Study

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, N.W.; Shao, M.; Pajic, S.; D'Aquila, R.

    2013-05-01

    This study was specifically designed to investigate the frequency response of the Eastern Interconnection that results from large loss-of-generation events of the type targeted by the North American Electric Reliability Corp. Standard BAL-003 Frequency Response and Frequency Bias Setting (NERC 2012a), under possible future system conditions with high levels of wind generation.

  20. Generativity in Middle Adulthood.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardin, Paula

    The study described in this paper was conducted to delineate the phenomenon of generativity in middle-aged adults in an attempt to identify its major characteristics, attributes, determinants, and situational or circumstantial variables. Three themes emerged from a literature survey of materials on middle adulthood: the theme of the entry…