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Sample records for african murinae based

  1. Phylogeny and biogeography of African Murinae based on mitochondrial and nuclear gene sequences, with a new tribal classification of the subfamily

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Background Within the subfamily Murinae, African murines represent 25% of species biodiversity, making this group ideal for detailed studies of the patterns and timing of diversification of the African endemic fauna and its relationships with Asia. Here we report the results of phylogenetic analyses of the endemic African murines through a broad sampling of murine diversity from all their distribution area, based on the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene and the two nuclear gene fragments (IRBP exon 1 and GHR). Results A combined analysis of one mitochondrial and two nuclear gene sequences consistently identified and robustly supported ten primary lineages within Murinae. We propose to formalize a new tribal arrangement within the Murinae that reflects this phylogeny. The diverse African murine assemblage includes members of five of the ten tribes and clearly derives from multiple faunal exchanges between Africa and Eurasia. Molecular dating analyses using a relaxed Bayesian molecular clock put the first colonization of Africa around 11 Mya, which is consistent with the fossil record. The main period of African murine diversification occurred later following disruption of the migration route between Africa and Asia about 7–9 Mya. A second period of interchange, dating to around 5–6.5 Mya, saw the arrival in Africa of Mus (leading to the speciose endemic Nannomys), and explains the appearance of several distinctive African lineages in the late Miocene and Pliocene fossil record of Eurasia. Conclusion Our molecular survey of Murinae, which includes the most complete sampling so far of African taxa, indicates that there were at least four separate radiations within the African region, as well as several phases of dispersal between Asia and Africa during the last 12 My. We also reconstruct the phylogenetic structure of the Murinae, and propose a new classification at tribal level for this traditionally problematic group. PMID:18616808

  2. Mitochondrial and nuclear genes-based phylogeography of Arvicanthis niloticus (Murinae) and sub-Saharan open habitats pleistocene history.

    PubMed

    Dobigny, Gauthier; Tatard, Caroline; Gauthier, Philippe; Ba, Khalilou; Duplantier, Jean-Marc; Granjon, Laurent; Kergoat, Gael J

    2013-01-01

    A phylogeographic study was conducted on the Nile grass rat, Arvicanthis niloticus, a rodent species that is tightly associated with open grasslands from the Sudano-Sahelian regions. Using one mitochondrial (cytochrome b) and one nuclear (intron 7 of Beta Fibrinogen) gene, robust patterns were retrieved that clearly show that (i) the species originated in East Africa concomitantly with expanding grasslands some 2 Ma, and (ii) four parapatric and genetically well-defined lineages differentiated essentially from East to West following Pleistocene bioclimatic cycles. This strongly points towards allopatric genetic divergence within savannah refuges during humid episodes, then dispersal during arid ones; secondary contact zones would have then stabilized around geographic barriers, namely, Niger River and Lake Chad basins. Our results pertinently add to those obtained for several other African rodent as well as non-rodent species that inhabit forests, humid zones, savannahs and deserts, all studies that now allow one to depict a more comprehensive picture of the Pleistocene history of the continent south of the Sahara. In particular, although their precise location remains to be determined, at least three Pleistocene refuges are identified within the West and Central African savannah biome.

  3. Mitochondrial and Nuclear Genes-Based Phylogeography of Arvicanthis niloticus (Murinae) and Sub-Saharan Open Habitats Pleistocene History

    PubMed Central

    Dobigny, Gauthier; Tatard, Caroline; Gauthier, Philippe; Ba, Khalilou; Duplantier, Jean-Marc; Granjon, Laurent; Kergoat, Gael J.

    2013-01-01

    A phylogeographic study was conducted on the Nile grass rat, Arvicanthis niloticus, a rodent species that is tightly associated with open grasslands from the Sudano-Sahelian regions. Using one mitochondrial (cytochrome b) and one nuclear (intron 7 of Beta Fibrinogen) gene, robust patterns were retrieved that clearly show that (i) the species originated in East Africa concomitantly with expanding grasslands some 2 Ma, and (ii) four parapatric and genetically well-defined lineages differentiated essentially from East to West following Pleistocene bioclimatic cycles. This strongly points towards allopatric genetic divergence within savannah refuges during humid episodes, then dispersal during arid ones; secondary contact zones would have then stabilized around geographic barriers, namely, Niger River and Lake Chad basins. Our results pertinently add to those obtained for several other African rodent as well as non-rodent species that inhabit forests, humid zones, savannahs and deserts, all studies that now allow one to depict a more comprehensive picture of the Pleistocene history of the continent south of the Sahara. In particular, although their precise location remains to be determined, at least three Pleistocene refuges are identified within the West and Central African savannah biome. PMID:24223730

  4. DNA barcoding of Murinae (Rodentia: Muridae) and Arvicolinae (Rodentia: Cricetidae) distributed in China.

    PubMed

    Li, Jing; Zheng, Xin; Cai, Yansen; Zhang, Xiuyue; Yang, Min; Yue, Bisong; Li, Jing

    2015-01-01

    Identification of rodents is very difficult mainly due to high similarities in morphology and controversial taxonomy. In this study, mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) was used as DNA barcode to identify the Murinae and Arvicolinae species distributed in China and to facilitate the systematics studies of Rodentia. In total, 242 sequences (31 species, 11 genera) from Murinae and 130 sequences (23 species, 6 genera) from Arvicolinae were investigated, of which 90 individuals were novel. Genetic distance, threshold method, tree-based method, online BLAST and BLOG were employed to analyse the data sets. There was no obvious barcode gap. The average K2P distance within species and genera was 2.10% and 12.61% in Murinae, and 2.86% and 11.80% in Arvicolinae, respectively. The optimal threshold was 5.62% for Murinae and 3.34% for Arvicolinae. All phylogenetic trees exhibited similar topology and could distinguish 90.32% of surveyed species in Murinae and 82.60% in Arvicolinae with high support values. BLAST analyses yielded similar results with identification success rates of 92.15% and 93.85% for Murinae and Arvicolinae, respectively. BLOG successfully authenticated 100% of detected species except Leopoldamys edwardsi based on the latest taxonomic revision. Our results support the species status of recently recognized Micromys erythrotis, Eothenomys tarquinius and E. hintoni and confirm the important roles of comprehensive taxonomy and accurate morphological identification in DNA barcoding studies. We believe that, when proper analytic methods are applied or combined, DNA barcoding could serve as an accurate and effective species identification approach for Murinae and Arvicolinae based on a proper taxonomic framework. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Molecular evidence that the spiny mouse (Acomys) is more closely related to gerbils (Gerbillinae) than to true mice (Murinae).

    PubMed

    Chevret, P; Denys, C; Jaeger, J J; Michaux, J; Catzeflis, F M

    1993-04-15

    Spiny mice of the genus Acomys traditionally have been classified as members of the Murinae, a subfamily of rodents that also includes rats and mice with which spiny mice share a complex set of morphological characters, including a unique molar pattern. The origin and evolution of this molar pattern, documented by many fossils from Southern Asia, support the hypothesis of the monophyly of Acomys and all other Murinae. This view has been challenged by immunological studies that have suggested that Acomys is as distantly related to mice (Mus) as are other subfamilies (e.g., hamsters: Cricetinae) of the muroid rodents. We present molecular evidence derived from DNA.DNA hybridization data that indicate that the spiny mouse Acomys and two African genera of Murinae, Uranomys and Lophuromys, constitute a monophyletic clade, a view that was recently suggested on the basis of dental characters. However, our DNA.DNA hybridization data also indicate that the spiny mice (Acomys) are more closely related to gerbils (Gerbillinae) than to the true mice and rats (Murinae) with which they have been classified. Because Acomys and the brush-furred mice Uranomys and Lophuromys share no derived morphological characters with the Gerbillinae, their murine morphology must have evolved by convergence, including the molar pattern previously considered to support the monophyly of the Murinae.

  6. Molecular evidence that the spiny mouse (Acomys) is more closely related to gerbils (Gerbillinae) than to true mice (Murinae).

    PubMed Central

    Chevret, P; Denys, C; Jaeger, J J; Michaux, J; Catzeflis, F M

    1993-01-01

    Spiny mice of the genus Acomys traditionally have been classified as members of the Murinae, a subfamily of rodents that also includes rats and mice with which spiny mice share a complex set of morphological characters, including a unique molar pattern. The origin and evolution of this molar pattern, documented by many fossils from Southern Asia, support the hypothesis of the monophyly of Acomys and all other Murinae. This view has been challenged by immunological studies that have suggested that Acomys is as distantly related to mice (Mus) as are other subfamilies (e.g., hamsters: Cricetinae) of the muroid rodents. We present molecular evidence derived from DNA.DNA hybridization data that indicate that the spiny mouse Acomys and two African genera of Murinae, Uranomys and Lophuromys, constitute a monophyletic clade, a view that was recently suggested on the basis of dental characters. However, our DNA.DNA hybridization data also indicate that the spiny mice (Acomys) are more closely related to gerbils (Gerbillinae) than to the true mice and rats (Murinae) with which they have been classified. Because Acomys and the brush-furred mice Uranomys and Lophuromys share no derived morphological characters with the Gerbillinae, their murine morphology must have evolved by convergence, including the molar pattern previously considered to support the monophyly of the Murinae. PMID:8475093

  7. Pneumocystis murina MSG gene family and the structure of the locus associated with its transcription

    PubMed Central

    Keely, Scott P.; Linke, Michael J.; Cushion, Melanie T.; Stringer, James R.

    2007-01-01

    Analysis of the P. murina MSG gene family and expression-site locus showed that, as in P. carinii, P. murina MSG genes are arranged in head-to-tail tandem arrays located on multiple chromosomes, and that a variety of MSG genes can reside at the unique P. murina expression site. Located between the P. murina expression site and attached MSG gene is a block of 132 basepairs that is also present at the beginning of MSG genes that are not at the expression site. The center of this sequence block resembles the 28 basepair CRJE of P. carinii, but the block of conserved sequence in P. murina is nearly five times longer than in P. carinii, and much shorter than in Pneumocystis wakefieldiae. These data indicate that the P. murina expression-site locus has a distinct structure. PMID:17320432

  8. Oral Immunization of Mice with Live Pneumocystis murina Protects against Pneumocystis Pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Samuelson, Derrick R; de la Rua, Nicholas M; Charles, Tysheena P; Ruan, Sanbao; Taylor, Christopher M; Blanchard, Eugene E; Luo, Meng; Ramsay, Alistair J; Shellito, Judd E; Welsh, David A

    2016-03-15

    Pneumocystis pneumonia is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised patients, particularly those infected with HIV. In this study, we evaluated the potential of oral immunization with live Pneumocystis to elicit protection against respiratory infection with Pneumocystis murina. C57BL/6 mice vaccinated with live P. murina using a prime-boost vaccination strategy were protected from a subsequent lung challenge with P. murina at 2, 7, 14, and 28 d postinfection even after CD4(+) T cell depletion. Specifically, vaccinated immunocompetent mice had significantly faster clearance than unvaccinated immunocompetent mice and unvaccinated CD4-depleted mice remained persistently infected with P. murina. Vaccination also increased numbers of CD4(+) T cells, CD8(+) T cells, CD19(+) B cells, and CD11b(+) macrophages in the lungs following respiratory infection. In addition, levels of lung, serum, and fecal P. murina-specific IgG and IgA were increased in vaccinated animals. Furthermore, administration of serum from vaccinated mice significantly reduced Pneumocystis lung burden in infected animals compared with control serum. We also found that the diversity of the intestinal microbial community was altered by oral immunization with P. murina. To our knowledge, our data demonstrate for the first time that an oral vaccination strategy prevents Pneumocystis infection. Copyright © 2016 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  9. Oral immunization of mice with live Pneumocystis murina protects against Pneumocystis pneumonia

    PubMed Central

    Samuelson, Derrick R.; de la Rua, Nicholas M.; Charles, Tysheena P.; Ruan, Sanbao; Taylor, Christopher M.; Blanchard, Eugene E.; Luo, Meng; Ramsay, Alistair J.; Shellito, Judd E.; Welsh, David A.

    2016-01-01

    Pneumocystis pneumonia is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised patients; particularly those infected with human immunodeficiency virus. In this study, we evaluated the potential of oral immunization with live Pneumocystis to elicit protection against respiratory infection with Pneumocystis murina. C57BL/6 mice vaccinated with live P. murina using a prime-boost vaccination strategy were protected from a subsequent lung challenge with P. murina at 2, 7, 14, and 28 days post infection even after CD4+ T cell depletion. Specifically, vaccinated immunocompetent mice had significantly faster clearance than unvaccinated immunocompetent mice and unvaccinated CD4-depleted mice remained persistently infected with P. murina. Vaccination also increased numbers of CD4+ T cells, CD8+ T cells, CD19+ B cells, and CD11b+ macrophages in the lungs following respiratory infection. In addition, levels of lung, serum, and fecal P. murina-specific IgG and IgA were increased in vaccinated animals. Further, administration of serum from vaccinated mice significantly reduced Pneumocystis lung burden in infected animals compared to control serum. We also found that the diversity of the intestinal microbial community was altered by oral immunization with P. murina. Our data demonstrate for the first time that an oral vaccination strategy prevents Pneumocystis infection. PMID:26864029

  10. Sangassou virus, the first hantavirus isolate from Africa, displays genetic and functional properties distinct from those of other murinae-associated hantaviruses.

    PubMed

    Klempa, Boris; Witkowski, Peter T; Popugaeva, Elena; Auste, Brita; Koivogui, Lamine; Fichet-Calvet, Elisabeth; Strecker, Thomas; Ter Meulen, Jan; Krüger, Detlev H

    2012-04-01

    We have discovered the first indigenous African hantavirus, Sangassou virus (SANGV). The virus was isolated from an African wood mouse (Hylomyscus simus), trapped in a forest habitat in Guinea, West Africa. Here, we report on the characterization of the genetic and functional properties of the virus. The complete genome of SANGV was determined and showed typical hantavirus organization. The small (S), medium (M), and large (L) genome segments containing genes encoding nucleocapsid protein, two envelope glycoproteins, and viral polymerase were found to be 1,746, 3,650, and 6,531 nucleotides long, respectively. The exact 5' and 3' termini for all three segments of the SANGV genome were determined and were predicted to form the panhandle structures typical of bunyaviruses. Phylogenetic analyses of all three segment sequences confirmed SANGV as a Murinae-associated hantavirus most closely related to the European Dobrava-Belgrade virus. We showed, however, that SANGV uses β(1) integrin rather than β(3) integrin and decay-accelerating factor (DAF)/CD55 as an entry receptor. In addition, we demonstrated a strong induction of type III lambda interferon (IFN-λ) expression in type I IFN-deficient Vero E6 cells by SANGV. These properties are unique within Murinae-associated hantaviruses and make the virus useful in comparative studies focusing on hantavirus pathogenesis.

  11. Sangassou Virus, the First Hantavirus Isolate from Africa, Displays Genetic and Functional Properties Distinct from Those of Other Murinae-Associated Hantaviruses

    PubMed Central

    Witkowski, Peter T.; Popugaeva, Elena; Auste, Brita; Koivogui, Lamine; Fichet-Calvet, Elisabeth; Strecker, Thomas; ter Meulen, Jan; Krüger, Detlev H.

    2012-01-01

    We have discovered the first indigenous African hantavirus, Sangassou virus (SANGV). The virus was isolated from an African wood mouse (Hylomyscus simus), trapped in a forest habitat in Guinea, West Africa. Here, we report on the characterization of the genetic and functional properties of the virus. The complete genome of SANGV was determined and showed typical hantavirus organization. The small (S), medium (M), and large (L) genome segments containing genes encoding nucleocapsid protein, two envelope glycoproteins, and viral polymerase were found to be 1,746, 3,650, and 6,531 nucleotides long, respectively. The exact 5′ and 3′ termini for all three segments of the SANGV genome were determined and were predicted to form the panhandle structures typical of bunyaviruses. Phylogenetic analyses of all three segment sequences confirmed SANGV as a Murinae-associated hantavirus most closely related to the European Dobrava-Belgrade virus. We showed, however, that SANGV uses β1 integrin rather than β3 integrin and decay-accelerating factor (DAF)/CD55 as an entry receptor. In addition, we demonstrated a strong induction of type III lambda interferon (IFN-λ) expression in type I IFN-deficient Vero E6 cells by SANGV. These properties are unique within Murinae-associated hantaviruses and make the virus useful in comparative studies focusing on hantavirus pathogenesis. PMID:22278233

  12. Cross-Species Transmission in the Speciation of the Currently Known Murinae-Associated Hantaviruses

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Xian-Dan; Wang, Wen; Guo, Wen-Ping; Zhang, Xiao-He; Xing, Jian-Guang; Chen, Sheng-Ze; Li, Ming-Hui; Chen, Yi; Xu, Jianguo; Plyusnin, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    To gain more insight into the phylogeny of Dabieshan virus (DBSV), carried by Niviventer confucianus and other Murinae-associated hantaviruses, genome sequences of novel variants of DBSV were recovered from Niviventer rats trapped in the mountainous areas of Wenzhou, China. Genetic analyses show that all known genetic variants of DBSV, including the ones identified in this study, are distinct from other Murinae-associated hantaviruses. DBSV variants show geographic clustering and high intraspecies diversity. The data suggest that DBSV is a distinct species in the genus Hantavirus. Interestingly, DBSV shows the highest sequence identity to Hantaan virus (HTNV), with a >7% difference in the sequences of the N, GPC, and L proteins, while N. confucianus is more closely related to Rattus norvegicus (the host of Seoul virus [SEOV]) than to Apodemus agrarius (the host of HTNV and Saaremaa virus [SAAV]). Further genetic analyses of all known Murinae-associated hantaviruses (both established and tentative species) show that many of them, including DBSV, may have originated from host switching. The estimation of evolutionary rates and divergence time supports the role of cross-species transmission in the evolution of Murinae-associated hantaviruses. The detection of positive selection suggests that genetic drift may contribute to the speciation of Murinae-associated hantaviruses and that adaptation has a role as well. PMID:22855492

  13. IL-33 and M2a alveolar macrophages promote lung defense against the atypical fungal pathogen Pneumocystis murina.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Michael P; Christmann, Benjamin S; Werner, Jessica L; Metz, Allison E; Trevor, Jennifer L; Lowell, Clifford A; Steele, Chad

    2011-02-15

    We have recently reported that mice deficient in the myeloid Src-family tyrosine kinases Hck, Fgr, and Lyn (Src triple knockout [TKO]) had augmented innate lung clearance of Pneumocystis murina that correlated with a higher ability of alveolar macrophages (AMs) from these mice to kill P. murina. In this article, we show that despite possessing enhanced killing, AMs from naive Src TKO mice did not demonstrate enhanced inflammatory responses to P. murina. We subsequently discovered that both AMs and lungs from P. murina-infected Src TKO mice expressed significantly greater levels of the M2a markers RELM-α and Arg1, and the M2a-associated chemokines CCL17 and CCL22 than did wild-type mice. IL-4 and IL-13, the primary cytokines that promote M2a polarization, were not differentially produced in the lungs between wild-type and Src TKO mice. P. murina infection in Src TKO mice resulted in enhanced lung production of the novel IL-1 family cytokine IL-33. Immunohistochemical analysis of IL-33 in lung tissue revealed localization predominantly in the nucleus of alveolar epithelial cells. We further demonstrate that experimental polarization of naive AMs to M2a resulted in more efficient killing of P. murina compared with untreated AMs, which was further enhanced by the addition of IL-33. Administration of IL-33 to C57BL/6 mice increased lung RELM-α and CCL17 levels, and enhanced clearance of P. murina, despite having no effect on the cellular composition of the lungs. Collectively, these results indicate that M2a AMs are potent effector cells against P. murina. Furthermore, enhancing M2a polarization may be an adjunctive therapy for the treatment of Pneumocystis.

  14. Parasite fauna of rodents (Murinae) from El Hierro (Canary Islands, Spain): a multidisciplinary approach.

    PubMed

    Feliu, Carlos; López, Mercedes; Gómez, María S; Torres, Jordi; Sánchez, Santiago; Miquel, Jordi; Abreu-Acosta, Néstor; Segovia, Juan M; Martín-Alonso, Aarón; Montoliu, Isabel; Villa, Mercedes; Fernández-Álvarez, Angela; Bakhoum, Abdoulaye J S; Valladares, Basilio; Orós, Jorge; Foronda, Pilar

    2012-06-01

    The parasite fauna (protozoa, helminths and insects) of the two most widespread Murinae rodents in El Hierro (Canary Islands, Spain), the black rat (Rattus rattus) and the house mouse (Mus musculus domesticus) was studied. Faunistic, ecological, ecotoxicological data, as well as information on the biology of some nematode parasites of R. rattus are provided. The present work is unprecedented in the Canary Islands, and provides the first data on the parasite biodiversity in Murinae from the archipelago. Concerning to parasitofaunas stands out: a) impoverishment of biodiversity of helminths respect of which have the same hosts in other islands; b) increasing the number of species of Siphonaptera, even compared with flea species that parasitize the same hosts from continental biotopes.

  15. Population affinities of African Colombians to Sub-Saharan Africans based on dental morphology.

    PubMed

    Delgado-Burbano, M E

    2007-01-01

    The Atlantic slave trade moved more than 13 million Africans to American lands between the 15th and 19th centuries. Previous historical, linguistic, and social-cultural studies suggested a Western-Central Bantu African origin for the Colombian slaves; however, their precise provenance remains unclear. The present study investigates the variation of the epigenetic dental traits in the deciduous and permanent dentition and phenotypic affinities of a contemporary Afro-Colombian community (n=178) in an attempt to identify their possible African ancestors. The results of a multivariate analysis of principal components show that Afro-descendents from Guapi have strong phenotypic relationships with several Bantu-speakers groups of Western and Western-Central Africa (Sub-Saharan region), specifically from Gabon, Congo, Pygmies, Nigeria, Cameroon, Togo and Benin. In concordance with recent mtDNA studies, this research suggests a distant but important relationship between Afro-Colombians and Eastern and South-Eastern African populations. This analysis also shows a marked dental divergence with North African samples. The dental information is not very different from the cultural, linguistic and historic data; however, it is more in agreement with studies based on molecular variation. In addition, this study reveals that African-Americans from North America, Central America-Caribbean and South America have high biological variation essentially identical to their several Sub-Saharan sources. Although a microevolutionary model, based on differential rates of gene flow with Native American and European-American groups and little selective pressures influence, better explains the phenotypic variation observed, more African-American dental samples must be analyzed from a regional perspective.

  16. Dietary Ecology of Murinae (Muridae, Rodentia): A Geometric Morphometric Approach

    PubMed Central

    Gómez Cano, Ana Rosa; Hernández Fernández, Manuel; Álvarez-Sierra, M. Ángeles

    2013-01-01

    Murine rodents represent a highly diverse group, which displays great ecological versatility. In the present paper we analyse the relationship between dental morphology, on one hand, using geometric morphometrics based upon the outline of first upper molar and the dietary preference of extant murine genera, on the other. This ecomorphological study of extant murine rodents demonstrates that dietary groups can be distinguished with the use of a quantitative geometric morphometric approach based on first upper molar outline. A discriminant analysis of the geometric morphometric variables of the first upper molars enables us to infer the dietary preferences of extinct murine genera from the Iberian Peninsula. Most of the extinct genera were omnivore; only Stephanomys showed a pattern of dental morphology alike that of the herbivore genera. PMID:24236090

  17. African American adolescents' academic persistence: a strengths-based approach.

    PubMed

    Butler-Barnes, Sheretta T; Chavous, Tabbye M; Hurd, Noelle; Varner, Fatima

    2013-09-01

    African American adolescents are faced with the challenge to be successful academically, even though they may experience racial discrimination within school settings. Unfortunately, relatively little scholarship explores how African American adolescents draw on personal and cultural assets to persist and thrive in the face of discriminatory experiences. Additionally, little research has explored the buffering role of assets (e.g., racial pride, self-efficacy, and self-acceptance) on the relationship between school-based racial discriminatory experiences and the academic persistence of African American adolescents. Participants in the current study included 220 (58 % girls) socioeconomically diverse African American adolescents. Latent class analysis was utilized to identify clusters based on participants' racial pride, self-efficacy, and self-acceptance. Three cluster groups were identified. The majority of the students belonged to the average group in which adolescents reported average levels of the three study assets. Adolescents in the higher group reported higher assets relative to their peers in the study and those in the lower group reported lower strength-based assets relative to their peers. Results indicated that school-based racial discrimination was associated with lower levels of academic persistence. Additionally, adolescents in the higher assets group reported higher academic persistence in comparison to the average and low group. Our model reflected a promotive but not protective influence of adolescents' assets on their academic persistence.

  18. Changes in diversification patterns and signatures of selection during the evolution of murinae-associated hantaviruses.

    PubMed

    Castel, Guillaume; Razzauti, Maria; Jousselin, Emmanuelle; Kergoat, Gael J; Cosson, Jean-François

    2014-03-10

    In the last 50 years, hantaviruses have significantly affected public health worldwide, but the exact extent of the distribution of hantavirus diseases, species and lineages and the risk of their emergence into new geographic areas are still poorly known. In particular, the determinants of molecular evolution of hantaviruses circulating in different geographical areas or different host species are poorly documented. Yet, this understanding is essential for the establishment of more accurate scenarios of hantavirus emergence under different climatic and environmental constraints. In this study, we focused on Murinae-associated hantaviruses (mainly Seoul Dobrava and Hantaan virus) using sequences available in GenBank and conducted several complementary phylogenetic inferences. We sought for signatures of selection and changes in patterns and rates of diversification in order to characterize hantaviruses' molecular evolution at different geographical scales (global and local). We then investigated whether these events were localized in particular geographic areas. Our phylogenetic analyses supported the assumption that RNA virus molecular variations were under strong evolutionary constraints and revealed changes in patterns of diversification during the evolutionary history of hantaviruses. These analyses provide new knowledge on the molecular evolution of hantaviruses at different scales of time and space.

  19. Changes in Diversification Patterns and Signatures of Selection during the Evolution of Murinae-Associated Hantaviruses

    PubMed Central

    Castel, Guillaume; Razzauti, Maria; Jousselin, Emmanuelle; Kergoat, Gael J.; Cosson, Jean-François

    2014-01-01

    In the last 50 years, hantaviruses have significantly affected public health worldwide, but the exact extent of the distribution of hantavirus diseases, species and lineages and the risk of their emergence into new geographic areas are still poorly known. In particular, the determinants of molecular evolution of hantaviruses circulating in different geographical areas or different host species are poorly documented. Yet, this understanding is essential for the establishment of more accurate scenarios of hantavirus emergence under different climatic and environmental constraints. In this study, we focused on Murinae-associated hantaviruses (mainly Seoul Dobrava and Hantaan virus) using sequences available in GenBank and conducted several complementary phylogenetic inferences. We sought for signatures of selection and changes in patterns and rates of diversification in order to characterize hantaviruses’ molecular evolution at different geographical scales (global and local). We then investigated whether these events were localized in particular geographic areas. Our phylogenetic analyses supported the assumption that RNA virus molecular variations were under strong evolutionary constraints and revealed changes in patterns of diversification during the evolutionary history of hantaviruses. These analyses provide new knowledge on the molecular evolution of hantaviruses at different scales of time and space. PMID:24618811

  20. Guiding Philosophical Principles for a DuBoisian-based African American Educational Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alridge, Derrick P.

    1999-01-01

    Examines the educational thought of W.E.B. DuBois, extrapolating from his work a model of educational principles that raise awareness of the need for African American based education and encourage further development of African American based education models. The principles are: African American centered education; communal education; broad based…

  1. Correlated changes in occlusal pattern and diet in stem Murinae during the onset of the radiation of Old World rats and mice.

    PubMed

    Tiphaine, Coillot; Yaowalak, Chaimanee; Cyril, Charles; Helder, Gomes-Rodrigues; Jacques, Michaux; Paul, Tafforeau; Monique, Vianey-Liaud; Laurent, Viriot; Vincent, Lazzari

    2013-11-01

    Adaptive radiations in mammals are sometimes associated with the emergence of key dental innovations facilitating food processing and masticatory movements. The dietary aspects of such innovations constitute an important focus in evolutionary biology. Murine rodents, which originated during middle Miocene, currently constitute the largest extant mammalian subfamily. Their adaptive radiation combines an original chewing motion with a peculiar occlusal pattern. The fossil record clearly establishes the timing of acquisitions of those innovations, and the aim of our study was to estimate the dietary changes associated with each of them. Fossil taxa phylogenetically closest to Murinae were investigated through the use of geographic information system applied on maps obtained from first upper molars digitized by X-ray synchrotron microtomography. This methodology enables estimation of quantitative topographic descriptors of the dietary specializations of the molar crown. The peculiar forwardly directed chewing motion acquired by stem Murinae may have been a key innovation allowing the invasion of an insectivorous dietary niche. The further radiation of crown Murinae coincides with the return to the plant-dominated omnivorous dietary niche of their distant ancestors through the acquisition of new morphological traits. The retention of the forwardly directed chewing motion by the crown Murinae could have become a competitive advantage in the context of a more generalist diet.

  2. Triglyceride-based screening tests fail to recognize cardiometabolic disease in African immigrant and African-American men.

    PubMed

    Yu, Sophia S K; Ramsey, Natalie L M; Castillo, Darleen C; Ricks, Madia; Sumner, Anne E

    2013-02-01

    The prevalence of cardiometabolic disease in Africa now rivals that of Western nations. Therefore, screening programs that lead to effective prevention of cardiometabolic disease in Africans is imperative. Most screening tests for cardiometabolic disease use triglyceride (TG) levels as a criterion. However, the failure rate of TG-based screening tests in African Americans is high. In Africans, the efficacy of TG-based screening tests is unknown. Our goal was to determine the association between hypertriglyceridemia (TG ≥150 mg/dL) and cardiometabolic disease in African and African-American men. This was a cross-sectional study of 155 men (80 African immigrants, 75 African Americans) [age, 35±9 years, mean±standard deviation (SD), body mass index (BMI) 28.5±5.2 kg/m(2)] who self-identified as healthy. Lipid profiles were performed. Glucose tolerance and insulin resistance was determined by oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTT) and the insulin sensitivity index (S(I)), respectively. Cardiometabolic disease was defined by four possible subtypes--prediabetes, diabetes, insulin resistance, or metabolic triad [hyperinsulinemia, hyperapolipoprotein B, small low-density lipoprotein (LDL) particles]. TG levels were higher in men with cardiometabolic disease than without (88±43 versus 61±26 mg/dL, P<0.01). However, <10% of men with cardiometabolic disease had TG ≥150 mg/dL. Even within each cardiometabolic disease subtype, the prevalence of TG ≥150 mg/dL was <10%. Furthermore, TG levels in the 5% of men identified by OGTT as diabetic were ≤100 mg/dL (mean 71±24, range 45-100 mg/dL). Hypertriglyceridemia is a poor marker of cardiometabolic disease in men of African descent. Therefore TG-based screening tests fail to identify both African immigrants and African-American men with cardiometabolic disease. As a consequence, the opportunity for early intervention and prevention is lost.

  3. Triglyceride-Based Screening Tests Fail to Recognize Cardiometabolic Disease in African Immigrant and African-American Men

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Sophia S.K.; Ramsey, Natalie L.M.; Castillo, Darleen C.; Ricks, Madia

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background The prevalence of cardiometabolic disease in Africa now rivals that of Western nations. Therefore, screening programs that lead to effective prevention of cardiometabolic disease in Africans is imperative. Most screening tests for cardiometabolic disease use triglyceride (TG) levels as a criterion. However, the failure rate of TG-based screening tests in African Americans is high. In Africans, the efficacy of TG-based screening tests is unknown. Our goal was to determine the association between hypertriglyceridemia (TG ≥150 mg/dL) and cardiometabolic disease in African and African-American men. Research Design and Methods This was a cross-sectional study of 155 men (80 African immigrants, 75 African Americans) [age, 35±9 years, mean±standard deviation (SD), body mass index (BMI) 28.5±5.2 kg/m2] who self-identified as healthy. Lipid profiles were performed. Glucose tolerance and insulin resistance was determined by oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTT) and the insulin sensitivity index (SI), respectively. Cardiometabolic disease was defined by four possible subtypes—prediabetes, diabetes, insulin resistance, or metabolic triad [hyperinsulinemia, hyperapolipoprotein B, small low-density lipoprotein (LDL) particles]. Results TG levels were higher in men with cardiometabolic disease than without (88±43 versus 61±26 mg/dL, P<0.01). However, <10% of men with cardiometabolic disease had TG ≥150 mg/dL. Even within each cardiometabolic disease subtype, the prevalence of TG ≥150 mg/dL was <10%. Furthermore, TG levels in the 5% of men identified by OGTT as diabetic were ≤100 mg/dL (mean 71±24, range 45–100 mg/dL). Conclusions Hypertriglyceridemia is a poor marker of cardiometabolic disease in men of African descent. Therefore TG-based screening tests fail to identify both African immigrants and African-American men with cardiometabolic disease. As a consequence, the opportunity for early intervention and prevention is lost

  4. African refugee and immigrant health needs: report from a community-based house meeting project.

    PubMed

    Boise, Linda; Tuepker, Anais; Gipson, Teresa; Vigmenon, Yves; Soule, Isabelle; Onadeko, Sade

    2013-01-01

    As in other communities in the United States, information is lacking about the health needs of Africans refugees and immigrants living in Portland, Oregon. In 2008, the African Partnership for Health coalition (APH) was formed to carry out research, advocacy and education to improve the health and well-being of Africans in Oregon. This was APH's initial project. The purposes of this study were to gather data about the perceived health needs and barriers to health care Africans encounter, and lay the foundation for a program of action to guide APH's future work. Community-based participatory research (CBPR) methods were used to collect data on how to improve the health of the African community in the Portland area and define an agenda for future projects. Popular education principles guided the engagement and training of African community members, who conducted nine house meetings with 56 Africans from 14 countries. The results were analyzed by African community members and researchers and prioritized at a community meeting. Three themes emerged: The stressfulness of life in America, the challenges of gaining access to health care, and the pervasive feelings of disrespect and lack of understanding of Africans' health needs, culture, and life experiences by health providers and staff members. Using CBPR methods, we identified and prioritized the needs of the African community. This information provides a framework for future work of the African Partnership for Health and other service and advocacy groups.

  5. The Inclusion of African-American Study Participants in Web-Based Research Studies: Viewpoint

    PubMed Central

    Harker, Laura; Arriola, Kimberly R. Jacob

    2016-01-01

    The use of Web-based methods for research recruitment and intervention delivery has greatly increased as Internet usage continues to grow. These Internet-based strategies allow for researchers to quickly reach more people. African-Americans are underrepresented in health research studies. Due to this, African-Americans get less benefit from important research that could address the disproportionate health outcomes they face. Web-based research studies are one promising way to engage more African-Americans and build trust with the African-American community. With African-Americans’ increasing access to the Internet using mobile phones and other mobile phone technologies, we advocate for efforts to increase the representation of African-Americans in research studies by using the Internet as a recruitment tool and conclude with recommendations that support this goal. PMID:27334683

  6. The life cycle stages of Pneumocystis murina have opposing effects on the immune response to this opportunistic, fungal pathogen.

    PubMed

    Evans, Heather M; Bryant, Grady L; Garvy, Beth A

    2016-08-29

    The cyst cell wall β-glucans of Pneumocystis have been shown to stimulate immune responses in lung epithelial cells, dendritic cells, and alveolar macrophages. Little is known about how the trophic life forms, which do not have a fungal cell wall, interact with these innate immune cells. Here, we report differences in the responses of both neonatal and adult mice to the trophic and cystic life cycle stages of Pneumocystis murina The adult and neonatal immune responses to infection with Pneumocystis murina trophic forms were less robust than the response to infection with a physiologically normal mixture of cysts and trophic forms. Cysts promoted the recruitment of nonresident innate immune cells and T and B cells into the lungs. Cysts, but not trophic forms, stimulated increased IFN-γ cytokine concentrations in the alveolar spaces, and an increase in IFN-γ-producing CD4(+) T cells. In vitro, bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (BMDCs) stimulated with cysts produced the proinflammatory cytokines IL-1β and IL-6. In contrast, trophic forms suppressed β-glucan-, LTA-, and LPS-induced IL-1β, IL-6, and TNFα production by BMDCs and antigen presentation to CD4(+) T cells. The negative effects of trophic forms were not due to ligation of mannose receptor. Our results indicate that optimal innate and adaptive immune responses to Pneumocystis species are dependent on stimulation with the cyst life cycle stage. Conversely, trophic forms suppress β-glucan-induced proinflammatory responses in vitro, suggesting that the trophic forms dampen cyst-induced inflammation in vivo.

  7. UHPLC/HRMS analysis of African mango (Irvingia gabonensis) seeds, seed extracts, and African mango based dietary supplements

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Dietary Supplements based on extract from Irvingia gabonensis (African Mango, or AM) seeds are one of the popular herbal weight loss dietary supplements in the US market. The extract from the AM seeds is believed to be a natural and healthy way to lose weight and improve overall health. However, the...

  8. Faith-Based Mental Health Interventions with African Americans: A Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hays, Krystal; Aranda, Maria P.

    2016-01-01

    Faith-based interventions have emerged culturally sensitive way to address mental health issues among African Americans. This systematic review explores the scope and efficacy of faith-based mental health intervention outcomes among African Americans. Extracted data included the study population, setting, study design, intervention, adaptations,…

  9. Faith-Based Mental Health Interventions with African Americans: A Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hays, Krystal; Aranda, Maria P.

    2016-01-01

    Faith-based interventions have emerged culturally sensitive way to address mental health issues among African Americans. This systematic review explores the scope and efficacy of faith-based mental health intervention outcomes among African Americans. Extracted data included the study population, setting, study design, intervention, adaptations,…

  10. Venture funding for science-based African health innovation.

    PubMed

    Masum, Hassan; Chakma, Justin; Simiyu, Ken; Ronoh, Wesley; Daar, Abdallah S; Singer, Peter A

    2010-12-13

    While venture funding has been applied to biotechnology and health in high-income countries, it is still nascent in these fields in developing countries, and particularly in Africa. Yet the need for implementing innovative solutions to health challenges is greatest in Africa, with its enormous burden of communicable disease. Issues such as risk, investment opportunities, return on investment requirements, and quantifying health impact are critical in assessing venture capital's potential for supporting health innovation. This paper uses lessons learned from five venture capital firms from Kenya, South Africa, China, India, and the US to suggest design principles for African health venture funds. The case study method was used to explore relevant funds, and lessons for the African context. The health venture funds in this study included publicly-owned organizations, corporations, social enterprises, and subsidiaries of foreign venture firms. The size and type of investments varied widely. The primary investor in four funds was the International Finance Corporation. Three of the funds aimed primarily for financial returns, one aimed primarily for social and health returns, and one had mixed aims. Lessons learned include the importance of measuring and supporting both social and financial returns; the need to engage both upstream capital such as government risk-funding and downstream capital from the private sector; and the existence of many challenges including difficulty of raising capital, low human resource capacity, regulatory barriers, and risky business environments. Based on these lessons, design principles for appropriate venture funding are suggested. Based on the cases studied and relevant experiences elsewhere, there is a case for venture funding as one support mechanism for science-based African health innovation, with opportunities for risk-tolerant investors to make financial as well as social returns. Such funds should be structured to overcome the

  11. Venture funding for science-based African health innovation

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background While venture funding has been applied to biotechnology and health in high-income countries, it is still nascent in these fields in developing countries, and particularly in Africa. Yet the need for implementing innovative solutions to health challenges is greatest in Africa, with its enormous burden of communicable disease. Issues such as risk, investment opportunities, return on investment requirements, and quantifying health impact are critical in assessing venture capital’s potential for supporting health innovation. This paper uses lessons learned from five venture capital firms from Kenya, South Africa, China, India, and the US to suggest design principles for African health venture funds. Discussion The case study method was used to explore relevant funds, and lessons for the African context. The health venture funds in this study included publicly-owned organizations, corporations, social enterprises, and subsidiaries of foreign venture firms. The size and type of investments varied widely. The primary investor in four funds was the International Finance Corporation. Three of the funds aimed primarily for financial returns, one aimed primarily for social and health returns, and one had mixed aims. Lessons learned include the importance of measuring and supporting both social and financial returns; the need to engage both upstream capital such as government risk-funding and downstream capital from the private sector; and the existence of many challenges including difficulty of raising capital, low human resource capacity, regulatory barriers, and risky business environments. Based on these lessons, design principles for appropriate venture funding are suggested. Summary Based on the cases studied and relevant experiences elsewhere, there is a case for venture funding as one support mechanism for science-based African health innovation, with opportunities for risk-tolerant investors to make financial as well as social returns. Such funds should

  12. Elder abuse and neglect in African American families: informing practice based on ecological and cultural frameworks.

    PubMed

    Horsford, Sheena R; Parra-Cardona, José Rubén; Schiamberg, Larry; Post, Lori A

    2011-01-01

    Despite the rapid growth of the elderly African American population in the U.S., elder abuse and neglect in African American families continue to be underdeveloped areas of study. This article presents an ecological and culturally informed framework for the study of elder abuse in African American populations. The model was developed based on Bronfenbrenner's Human Ecological Theory. The model identifies risk factors associated with different systems that have an influence on the lives of African American families. Cultural protective factors also are identified in the model. The model is intended to provide an understanding of elder abuse and neglect in African American families by considering the influence of contextual factors such as the legacy of slavery, social exclusion, and structural segregation and racism. Specific suggestions for practice are proposed according to cultural strengths of African American communities as well as the ecological premises of the model.

  13. Using Community-Based Participatory Research to Investigate Meaningful Prenatal Care Among African American Women.

    PubMed

    Nypaver, Cynthia F; Shambley-Ebron, Donna

    2016-11-01

    In the United States, African American babies die more than twice as often as White babies. The cause for this difference remains elusive, yet is likely complex with one factor being inadequate cultural care of pregnant African American women. The purpose of this study was to explore African American women's perspectives of meaningful prenatal care. Community-based participatory research was employed for this study using photovoice. The sample included 11 African American mothers in an urban community in Midwestern United States. Five themes were abstracted from the data: (1) Access to Care; (2) Soul Nourishment; (3) Companionship; (4) Help Me, Teach Me; and (5) The Future. Meaningful prenatal care is influenced by culture. African American women need physical, social, and soulful support to enhance meaningfulness of care during pregnancy. The findings support that meaningfulness of prenatal care for African American women may be enhanced by accessible and uniquely designed, culturally congruent models of prenatal care. © The Author(s) 2015.

  14. HOME-BASED BLOOD PRESSURE INTERVENTIONS FOR AFRICAN AMERICANS

    PubMed Central

    Feldman, Penny H.; McDonald, Margaret V.; Mongoven, Jennifer M.; Peng, Timothy R.; Gerber, Linda M.; Pezzin, Liliana E.

    2009-01-01

    Background Efforts to increase blood pressure (BP) control rates in African Americans, a traditionally underserved, high risk population must address both provider practice and patient adherence issues. The Home-Based BP Intervention for African Americans study is a three-arm randomized controlled trial designed to test two strategies to improve HTN management and outcomes in a decentralized service setting serving a vulnerable and complex home care population. The primary study outcomes are systolic BP, diastolic BP, and BP control; secondary outcomes are nurse adherence to HTN management recommendations, and patient adherence to medication, healthy diet and other self-management strategies. Methods and Results Nurses (N=312) in a nonprofit Medicare-certified home health agency are randomized along with their eligible hypertensive patients (N=845). The two interventions being tested are: (i) a “basic” intervention delivering key evidence-based reminders to home care nurses and patients while the patient is receiving traditional post-acute home health care; and (ii) an “augmented” intervention that includes that same as the basic intervention, plus transition to an ongoing HTN Home Support Program that extends support for 12 months. Outcomes are measured at 3 and 12 months post baseline interview. The interventions will be assessed relative to usual care and to each other. Conclusions Systems change to improve BP management and outcomes in home health will not easily occur without new intervention models and rigorous evaluation of their impact. Results from this trial will provide important information on potential strategies to improve BP control in a low income, chronically ill patient population. PMID:20031844

  15. Beyond the "Critical" Curtain: Community-Based Service Learning in an African Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West, Gerald Oakley

    2004-01-01

    A case of community-based service learning in the School of Theology at the University of Natal, Pietermaritzburg, South Africa is analyzed for what it means to teach biblical studies in an African context where biblical scholarship is partially constituted by ordinary African readers of the Bible and where context is a central pedagogical…

  16. Applicability of age-based hunting regulations for African leopards.

    PubMed

    Balme, Guy Andrew; Hunter, Luke; Braczkowski, Alex Richard

    2012-01-01

    In species in which juvenile survival depends strongly on male tenure, excessive trophy hunting can artificially elevate male turnover and increase infanticide, potentially to unsustainable levels. Simulation models show that the likelihood of safe harvests can be improved by restricting offtakes to males old enough to have reared their first cohort of offspring to independence; in the case of African leopards, males were ≥7 years old. Here, we explore the applicability of an age-based approach for regulating trophy hunting of leopards. We conducted a structured survey comprising photographs of known-age leopards to assess the ability of wildlife practitioners to sex and age leopards. We also evaluated the utility of four phenotypic traits for use by trophy hunters to age male leopards in the field. Our logistic regression models showed that male leopard age affected the likelihood of survey respondents identifying the correct sex; notably, males <2 years were typically misidentified as females, while mature males (≥4 years) were sexed correctly. Mature male leopards were also more likely to be aged correctly, as were portrait photographs. Aging proficiency was also influenced by the profession of respondents, with hunters recording the lowest scores. A discriminant model including dewlap size, the condition of the ears, and the extent of facial scarring accurately discriminated among male leopard age classes. Model classification rates were considerably higher than the respective scores attained by survey respondents, implying that the aging ability of hunters could theoretically improve with appropriate training. Dewlap size was a particularly reliable indicator of males ≥7 years and a review of online trophy galleries suggested its wider utility as an aging criterion. Our study demonstrated that an age-based hunting approach is practically applicable for leopards. However, implementation would require major reform within the regulatory framework and the

  17. Applicability of Age-Based Hunting Regulations for African Leopards

    PubMed Central

    Balme, Guy Andrew; Hunter, Luke; Braczkowski, Alex Richard

    2012-01-01

    In species in which juvenile survival depends strongly on male tenure, excessive trophy hunting can artificially elevate male turnover and increase infanticide, potentially to unsustainable levels. Simulation models show that the likelihood of safe harvests can be improved by restricting offtakes to males old enough to have reared their first cohort of offspring to independence; in the case of African leopards, males were ≥7 years old. Here, we explore the applicability of an age-based approach for regulating trophy hunting of leopards. We conducted a structured survey comprising photographs of known-age leopards to assess the ability of wildlife practitioners to sex and age leopards. We also evaluated the utility of four phenotypic traits for use by trophy hunters to age male leopards in the field. Our logistic regression models showed that male leopard age affected the likelihood of survey respondents identifying the correct sex; notably, males <2 years were typically misidentified as females, while mature males (≥4 years) were sexed correctly. Mature male leopards were also more likely to be aged correctly, as were portrait photographs. Aging proficiency was also influenced by the profession of respondents, with hunters recording the lowest scores. A discriminant model including dewlap size, the condition of the ears, and the extent of facial scarring accurately discriminated among male leopard age classes. Model classification rates were considerably higher than the respective scores attained by survey respondents, implying that the aging ability of hunters could theoretically improve with appropriate training. Dewlap size was a particularly reliable indicator of males ≥7 years and a review of online trophy galleries suggested its wider utility as an aging criterion. Our study demonstrated that an age-based hunting approach is practically applicable for leopards. However, implementation would require major reform within the regulatory framework and the

  18. Religiosity and Risky Sexual Behaviors among an African American Church-based Population

    PubMed Central

    Hawes, Starlyn M.; Berkley-Patton, Jannette Y.

    2014-01-01

    African Americans are disproportionately burdened by STDs and HIV in the US. This study examined the relationships between demographics, religiosity, and sexual risk behaviors among 255 adult African American church-based participants. Although participants were highly religious, they reported an average of seven lifetime sex partners and most inconsistently used condoms. Several demographic variables and religiosity significantly predicted lifetime HIV-related risk factors. Taken together, findings indicated that this population is at risk for HIV. Future research should continue to identify correlates of risky sexual behavior among African American parishioners to facilitate the development of HIV risk reduction interventions in their church settings. PMID:23054481

  19. Culture-Based Considerations in Programming for Stuttering Intervention With African American Clients and Their Families.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Tommie L; Crowe, Thomas A

    1998-07-01

    This article describes a clinical framework that may be used with African American children who stutter and their families. It includes discussion of the clinical importance of culture-based factors such as myths, oral presentation styles, narrative discourse styles, and cognitive learning styles, as well as rules for interaction and turn-taking. These factors are considered relative to the various clinical stages in the evaluation and treatment of stuttering in African Americans.

  20. Development of a Faith-Based Stress Management Intervention in a Rural African American Community

    PubMed Central

    Bryant, Keneshia; Moore, Todd; Willis, Nathaniel; Hadden, Kristie

    2017-01-01

    Background Faith-based mental health interventions developed and implemented using a community-based participatory research (CBPR) approach hold promise for reaching rural African Americans and addressing health disparities. Objectives To describe the development, challenges, and lessons learned from the Trinity Life Management, a faith-based stress management intervention in a rural African American faith community. Methods The researchers used a CBPR approach by partnering with the African American faith community to develop a stress management intervention. Development strategies include working with key informants, focus groups, and a community advisory board (CAB). Results The community identified the key concepts that should be included in a stress management intervention. Conclusions The faith-based “Trinity Life Management” stress management intervention was developed collaboratively by a CAB and an academic research team. The intervention includes stress management techniques that incorporate Biblical principles and information about the stress–distress–depression continuum. PMID:26548794

  1. Implementation of Evidence-Based HIV Interventions for Young Adult African American Women in Church Settings

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Jennifer M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To assess the barriers and facilitators to using African American churches as sites for implementation of evidence-based HIV interventions among young African American women. Design Mixed methods cross-sectional design. Setting African American churches in Philadelphia, PA. Participants 142 African American pastors, church leaders, and young adult women ages 18 to 25. Methods Mixed methods convergent parallel design. Results The majority of young adult women reported engaging in high-risk HIV-related behaviors. Although church leaders reported willingness to implement HIV risk-reduction interventions, they were unsure of how to initiate this process. Key facilitators to the implementation of evidence-based interventions included the perception of the leadership and church members that HIV interventions were needed and that the church was a promising venue for them. A primary barrier to implementation in this setting is the perception that discussions of sexuality should be private. Conclusion Implementation of evidence-based HIV interventions for young adult African American women in church settings is feasible and needed. Building a level of comfort in discussing matters of sexuality and adapting existing evidence-based interventions to meet the needs of young women in church settings is a viable approach for successful implementation. PMID:25139612

  2. Soybean-Enriched Snacks Based on African Rice

    PubMed Central

    Marengo, Mauro; Akoto, Hannah F.; Zanoletti, Miriam; Carpen, Aristodemo; Buratti, Simona; Benedetti, Simona; Barbiroli, Alberto; Johnson, Paa-Nii T.; Sakyi-Dawson, Esther O.; Saalia, Firibu K.; Bonomi, Francesco; Pagani, Maria Ambrogina; Manful, John; Iametti, Stefania

    2016-01-01

    Snacks were produced by extruding blends of partially-defatted soybean flour with flours from milled or parboiled African-grown rice. The interplay between composition and processing in producing snacks with a satisfactory sensory profile was addressed by e-sensing, and by molecular and rheological approaches. Soybean proteins play a main role in defining the properties of the protein network in the products. At the same content in soybean flour, use of parboiled rice flour increases the snack’s hardness. Electronic nose and electronic tongue discriminated samples containing a higher amount of soybean flour from those with a lower soybean flour content. PMID:28231133

  3. Engaging African American and Latino Adolescent Males through School-Based Health Centers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bains, Ranbir Mangat; Franzen, Carolyn W.; White-Frese', Jesse

    2014-01-01

    African American and Latino males are less likely to seek mental health services and obtain adequate care than their White counterparts. They are more likely to receive mental health services in school-based health centers (SBHCs) than in other community-based setting. The purpose of this article was to understand the issues and reasons these…

  4. Fear factors: cross validation of specific phobia domains in a community-based sample of African American adults.

    PubMed

    Chapman, L Kevin; Vines, Lauren; Petrie, Jenny

    2011-05-01

    The current study attempted a cross-validation of specific phobia domains in a community-based sample of African American adults based on a previous model of phobia domains in a college student sample of African Americans. Subjects were 100 African American community-dwelling adults who completed the Fear Survey Schedule-Second Edition (FSS-II). Domains of fear were created using a similar procedure as the original, college sample of African American adults. A model including all of the phobia domains from the FSS-II was initially tested and resulted in poor model fit. Cross-validation was subsequently attempted through examining the original factor pattern of specific phobia domains from the college sample (Chapman, Kertz, Zurlage, & Woodruff-Borden, 2008). Data from the current, community based sample of African American adults provided poor fit to this model. The trimmed model for the current sample included the animal and social anxiety factors as in the original model. The natural environment-type specific phobia factor did not provide adequate fit for the community-based sample of African Americans. Results indicated that although different factor loading patterns of fear may exist among community-based African Americans as compared to African American college students, both animal and social fears are nearly identical in both groups, indicating a possible cultural homogeneity for phobias in African Americans. Potential explanations of these findings and future directions are discussed.

  5. Nuclear organization of cholinergic, putative catecholaminergic, serotonergic and orexinergic systems in the brain of the African pygmy mouse (Mus minutoides): organizational complexity is preserved in small brains.

    PubMed

    Kruger, Jean-Leigh; Patzke, Nina; Fuxe, Kjell; Bennett, Nigel C; Manger, Paul R

    2012-05-01

    This study investigated the nuclear organization of four immunohistochemically identifiable neural systems (cholinergic, catecholaminergic, serotonergic and orexinergic) within the brain of the African pygmy mouse (Mus minutoides). The African pygmy mice studied had a brain mass of around 275 mg, making these the smallest rodent brains to date in which these neural systems have been investigated. In contrast to the assumption that in this small brain there would be fewer subdivisions of these neural systems, we found that all nuclei generally observed for these systems in other rodent brains were also present in the brain of the African pygmy mouse. As with other rodents previously studied in the subfamily Murinae, we observed the presence of cortical cholinergic neurons and a compactly organized locus coeruleus. These two features of these systems have not been observed in the non-Murinae rodents studied to date. Thus, the African pygmy mouse displays what might be considered a typical Murinae brain organization, and despite its small size, the brain does not appear to be any less complexly organized than other rodent brains, even those that are over 100 times larger such as the Cape porcupine brain. The results are consistent with the notion that changes in brain size do not affect the evolution of nuclear organization of complex neural systems. Thus, species belonging to the same order generally have the same number and complement of the subdivisions, or nuclei, of specific neural systems despite differences in brain size, phenotype or time since evolutionary divergence. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Analysing breast cancer microarrays from African Americans using shrinkage-based discriminant analysis.

    PubMed

    Pang, Herbert; Ebisu, Keita; Watanabe, Emi; Sue, Laura Y; Tong, Tiejun

    2010-10-01

    Breast cancer tumours among African Americans are usually more aggressive than those found in Caucasian populations. African-American patients with breast cancer also have higher mortality rates than Caucasian women. A better understanding of the disease aetiology of these breast cancers can help to improve and develop new methods for cancer prevention, diagnosis and treatment. The main goal of this project was to identify genes that help differentiate between oestrogen receptor-positive and -negative samples among a small group of African-American patients with breast cancer. Breast cancer microarrays from one of the largest genomic consortiums were analysed using 13 African-American and 201 Caucasian samples with oestrogen receptor status. We used a shrinkage-based classification method to identify genes that were informative in discriminating between oestrogen receptor-positive and -negative samples. Subset analysis and permutation were performed to obtain a set of genes unique to the African-American population. We identified a set of 156 probe sets, which gave a misclassification rate of 0.16 in distinguishing between oestrogen receptor-positive and -negative patients. The biological relevance of our findings was explored through literature-mining techniques and pathway mapping. An independent dataset was used to validate our findings and we found that the top ten genes mapped onto this dataset gave a misclassification rate of 0.15. The described method allows us best to utilise the information available from small sample size microarray data in the context of ethnic minorities.

  7. Culture-Based Considerations in Programming for Stuttering Intervention with African American Clients and Their Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Tommie L., Jr.; Crowe, Thomas A.

    1998-01-01

    Describes a clinical service delivery model for use with African-American children who stutter and their families. The model emphasizes the clinical importance of culture-based factors such as myths, oral presentation styles, narrative discourse styles, and cognitive learning styles, as well as rules for interaction and turn-taking. (Author/DB)

  8. Strong Teens: A School-Based Small Group Experience for African American Males

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Nathan J.; Rayle, Andrea Dixon

    2007-01-01

    This article describes the school-based, small group adaptation of the existing Strong Teens Curriculum (STC) for African American male adolescents in high schools. The STC was created to equip adolescents with skills that promote more effective social interaction and enhance personal emotional and psychological wellness. The authors present a…

  9. Education by Any Means Necessary: Peoples of African Descent and Community-Based Pedagogical Spaces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Douglas, Ty-Ron Michael; Peck, Craig

    2013-01-01

    This study examines how and why peoples of African descent access and utilize community-based pedagogical spaces that exist outside schools. Employing a theoretical framework that fuses historical methodology and border-crossing theory, the researchers review existing scholarship and primary documents to present an historical examination of how…

  10. Are South African Geography Education Students Ready for Problem-Based Learning?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Golightly, Aubrey; Muniz, Osvaldo A.

    2013-01-01

    Problem-based learning (PBL) is one of the possible training strategies that could be more fully implemented in the South African formal education system. The intention to migrate from teacher-centred to learner-centred instructions in higher education institutions and schools makes PBL a plausible option. Geography education students might be…

  11. Education by Any Means Necessary: Peoples of African Descent and Community-Based Pedagogical Spaces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Douglas, Ty-Ron Michael; Peck, Craig

    2013-01-01

    This study examines how and why peoples of African descent access and utilize community-based pedagogical spaces that exist outside schools. Employing a theoretical framework that fuses historical methodology and border-crossing theory, the researchers review existing scholarship and primary documents to present an historical examination of how…

  12. Enhancing Learning in South African Schools: Strategies beyond Outcomes-Based Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Todd, Alexa; Mason, Mark

    2005-01-01

    This paper addresses the problem of post-Apartheid South African schools as ineffective learning environments, and the question whether there are strategies for enhancing learning that are more effective and that might be more easily and successfully implemented than an outcomes-based education. Because of historical and situational constraints,…

  13. Are South African Geography Education Students Ready for Problem-Based Learning?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Golightly, Aubrey; Muniz, Osvaldo A.

    2013-01-01

    Problem-based learning (PBL) is one of the possible training strategies that could be more fully implemented in the South African formal education system. The intention to migrate from teacher-centred to learner-centred instructions in higher education institutions and schools makes PBL a plausible option. Geography education students might be…

  14. Health promoting behaviors among African American women with faith-based support.

    PubMed

    Drayton-Brooks, Shirlee; White, Neva

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative exploratory study was to document health perceptions, beliefs and attitudes, intentions and social pressures that influence health promoting behaviors as expressed by community level aggregates of African American women with faith support. Twenty-six African American women from two large urban congregations with an active health ministry program participated in this study. Focus group interviews guided by the Theory of Planned Behavior (Ajzen & Fishbein, 1980 & 1991) were used to identify salient health perceptions, beliefs and attitudes, intentions, and social pressures influencing health-promoting behaviors in African American women with faith-based support. Positive health perceptions, attitudes, and beliefs were identified as important to engaging in a healthy lifestyle. Exercise, well balanced diets, weight reduction and stress management were the most salient health concerns among the respondents. Key referents identified included the pastor, congregational nurses, physicians, and church/family members. Control beliefs among these women reflected salient spiritual and fatalistic beliefs concerning health-promoting behaviors. Trusting relationships, open communication, safe, comfortable, and familiar environments were identified as important considerations when planning health promotion interventions for an African American faith community. Health beliefs, attitudes, and behaviors are not developed outside of social systems, therefore, the facilitation of healthy lifestyle behaviors may be best assessed and influenced within a context of reciprocal social interaction such as in a faith-based community. In the context of a community level aggregate with faith-based support, behaviors to promote a healthy lifestyle may be positively influenced.

  15. Challenges Experienced by District-Based Support Teams in the Execution of Their Functions in a Specific South African Province

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Makhalemele, Thabo; Nel, Mirna

    2016-01-01

    This article reports on the findings of an embedded mixed-method South African study that investigated the challenges experienced by District-Based Support Team (DBST) members in the sub-directorate of Inclusive Education of a South African province in the execution of their functions. A Likert-scale questionnaire and individual semi-structured…

  16. Challenges Experienced by District-Based Support Teams in the Execution of Their Functions in a Specific South African Province

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Makhalemele, Thabo; Nel, Mirna

    2016-01-01

    This article reports on the findings of an embedded mixed-method South African study that investigated the challenges experienced by District-Based Support Team (DBST) members in the sub-directorate of Inclusive Education of a South African province in the execution of their functions. A Likert-scale questionnaire and individual semi-structured…

  17. Conducting community-based, culturally specific, eye disease screening clinics for urban African Americans with diabetes.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Robert M; Wolf, Fredric M; Musch, David C; Fitzgerald, James T; Johnson, Mark W; Nwankwo, Robin B; Robins, Lynne S; Oh, Mary S; Gillard, Mary Lou

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the need for, and efficacy of, community-based culturally specific eye disease screening clinics for urban African Americans with diabetes. The study employed a variety of culturally specific methods in the design and performance of 43 community-based eye disease screening clinics in southeastern Michigan. One thousand, thirty-seven subjects were recruited for the study. Of that number, 817 identified themselves as African Americans and are the focus of this report. Of the 817 African-American patients screened, 84 (10%) needed to be examined by an ophthalmologist immediately (< 30 days), and 180 (22%) needed to be examined soon (within 1 to 3 months), while 544 (67%) were advised to return for another exam a year later. The project demonstrated that it was possible to use culturally specific techniques to identify a significant number of urban African Americans with diabetes in need of eye screening and treatment. However, lack of health insurance proved to be the primary barrier to receiving needed treatment. Although the project was successful, it is not a solution to what is essentially a health systems problem, ie, inadequate access to appropriate diabetes care for a significant number of our population.

  18. Immunohistochemical localization of inhibin and steroidogenic enzymes in the ovary of common tree shrew (Tupaia glis) and northern smooth-tailed tree shrew (Dendrogale murina).

    PubMed

    Kimura, J; Tsukise, A; Watanabe, G; Taya, K; Rerkamnuaychoke, W; Endo, H; Kurohmaru, M; Yamada, J; Nishida, T

    2000-10-01

    To study the ovarian function of the Order Scandentia, the localization of inhibin and steroidogenic enzymes (3 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase/isomerase and aromatase) in the ovaries of common tree shrew (Tupaia glis) and northern smooth-tailed tree shrew (Dendrogale murina) was immunohistochemically analysed. As in the results reported for other mammals, inhibin alpha-chain was localized in the follicular epithelium of secondary or Graafian follicles in the two species. The localization of aromatase in the ovary of these two species, however, was different. In the common tree shrew, the aromatase was localized in the thecal cells, whilst in other mammals it is localized in the granulosa cells. These results indicate that in the ovary of the common tree shrew, the oestradiol may be synthesized in the thecal cells.

  19. Experimentally Evaluating the Impact of a School-Based African-Centered Emancipatory Intervention on the Ethnic Identity of African American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Kelly M.; Andrews, Emily; Gaska, Karie; Sullivan, Cris; Bybee, Deborah; Ellick, Kecia L.

    2012-01-01

    Ethnic identity, the extent to which one defines one's self as a member of a particular ethnic group, has been found to be an important predictor of African American adolescents' psychological and behavioral well-being. This study experimentally examined the effects of a school-based emancipatory intervention on the ethnic identity of African…

  20. Experimentally Evaluating the Impact of a School-Based African-Centered Emancipatory Intervention on the Ethnic Identity of African American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Kelly M.; Andrews, Emily; Gaska, Karie; Sullivan, Cris; Bybee, Deborah; Ellick, Kecia L.

    2012-01-01

    Ethnic identity, the extent to which one defines one's self as a member of a particular ethnic group, has been found to be an important predictor of African American adolescents' psychological and behavioral well-being. This study experimentally examined the effects of a school-based emancipatory intervention on the ethnic identity of African…

  1. East African wetland-catchment data base for sustainable wetland management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leemhuis, Constanze; Amler, Esther; Diekkrüger, Bernd; Gabiri, Geofrey; Näschen, Kristian

    2016-10-01

    Wetlands cover an area of approx. 18 Mio ha in the East African countries of Kenya, Rwanda, Uganda and Tanzania, with still a relative small share being used for food production. Current upland agricultural use intensification in these countries due to demographic growth, climate change and globalization effects are leading to an over-exploitation of the resource base, followed by an intensification of agricultural wetland use. We aim on translating, transferring and upscaling knowledge on experimental test-site wetland properties, small-scale hydrological processes, and water related ecosystem services under different types of management from local to national scale. This information gained at the experimental wetland/catchment scale will be embedded as reference data within an East African wetland-catchment data base including catchment physical properties and a regional wetland inventory serving as a base for policy advice and the development of sustainable wetland management strategies.

  2. Can Home-Based HIV Rapid Testing Reduce HIV Disparities Among African Americans in Miami?

    PubMed

    Kenya, Sonjia; Okoro, Ikenna S; Wallace, Kiera; Ricciardi, Michael; Carrasquillo, Olveen; Prado, Guillermo

    2016-09-01

    Sixty percent of African Americans have had an HIV test, yet this population disproportionately contributes to AIDS mortality, suggesting that testing is not occurring early enough to achieve optimal outcomes. OraQuick, the first Food and Drug Administration-approved home-based HIV rapid test (HBHRT) could potentially increase testing rates. We assessed whether community health workers (CHWs) paired with HBRHT could improve HIV screening and health care access among African Americans in Miami, Florida. In October-November 2013, 60 African Americans were enrolled and randomized to the experimental condition, which received CHW assistance to complete HBHRT, or the control condition, which were instructed to complete HBHRT independently. Intervention participants were significantly (p ≤ .05) more likely than control participants to complete HBHRT and, if positive, get linked to HIV care (100% vs. 83%) χ(2) (1, N = 60) = 5.46, p ≤ .02. We concluded that CHW-assisted HBHRT may be a promising strategy to improve HIV testing and care among African Americans.

  3. Straight Talk: HIV Prevention for African-American Heterosexual Men: Theoretical Bases and Intervention Design

    PubMed Central

    Frye, Victoria; Bonner, Sebastian; Williams, Kim; Henny, Kirk; Bond, Keosha; Lucy, Debbie; Cupid, Malik; Smith, Stephen; Koblin, Beryl A.

    2016-01-01

    In the United States, racial disparities in HIV/AIDS are stark. Although African Americans comprise an estimated 14% of the U.S. population, they made up 52% of new HIV cases among adults and adolescents diagnosed in 2009. Heterosexual transmission is now the second leading cause of HIV in the United States. African Americans made up a full two-thirds of all heterosexually acquired HIV/AIDS cases between 2005 and 2008. Few demonstrated efficacious HIV prevention interventions designed specifically for adult, African-American heterosexual men exist. Here, we describe the process used to design a theory-based HIV prevention intervention to increase condom use, reduce concurrent partnering, and increase HIV testing among heterosexually active African-American men living in high HIV prevalence areas of New York City. The intervention integrated empowerment, social identity, and rational choices theories and focused on four major content areas: HIV/AIDS testing and education; condom skills training; key relational and behavioral turning points; and masculinity and fatherhood. PMID:23016501

  4. Novel 180- and 480-Base-Pair Insertions in African and African-American Strains of Helicobacter pylori

    PubMed Central

    McNulty, Shannon L.; Mole, Beth M.; Dailidiene, Daiva; Segal, Issy; Ally, Reid; Mistry, Rajesh; Secka, Ousman; Adegbola, Richard A.; Thomas, Julian E.; Lenarcic, Erik M.; Peek, Richard M.; Berg, Douglas E.; Forsyth, Mark H.

    2004-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori is a genetically diverse bacterial species that chronically infects human stomachs and sometimes causes severe gastroduodenal disease. Studies of polymorphic DNA sequences can suggest geographic origins of individual strains. Here, we describe a 180-bp insertion (ins180), which is just after the translation stop of a gene of unknown function, near the promoter of jhp0152-jhp0151 two-component signal transduction genes in strain J99, and absent from this site in strain 26695. This ins180 insertion was found in 9 of 9 Gambian (West African), 9 of 20 (45%) South African, and 9 of 40 (23%) Spanish strains but in only 2 of 20 (10%) North American strains and none of 20 Lithuanian, 20 Indian, and 20 Japanese strains. Four South African isolates that lacked ins180 and that belonged to an unusual outlier group contained a 480-bp insertion at this site (ins480), whereas none of 181 other strains screened contained ins480. In further tests 56% (10 of 18) of strains from African Americans but only 17% (3 of 18) of strains from Caucasian Americans carried ins180 (P < 0.05). Thus, the H. pylori strains of modern African Americans seem to retain traces of African roots, despite the multiple generations since their ancestors were taken from West Africa. Fragmentary ins180-like sequences were found at numerous sites in H. pylori genomes, always between genes. Such sequences might affect regulation of transcription and could facilitate genome rearrangement by homologous recombination. Apparent differences between African-American and Caucasian-American H. pylori gene pools may bear on our understanding of H. pylori transmission and disease outcome. PMID:15583296

  5. Novel 180- and 480-base-pair insertions in African and African-American strains of Helicobacter pylori.

    PubMed

    McNulty, Shannon L; Mole, Beth M; Dailidiene, Daiva; Segal, Issy; Ally, Reid; Mistry, Rajesh; Secka, Ousman; Adegbola, Richard A; Thomas, Julian E; Lenarcic, Erik M; Peek, Richard M; Berg, Douglas E; Forsyth, Mark H

    2004-12-01

    Helicobacter pylori is a genetically diverse bacterial species that chronically infects human stomachs and sometimes causes severe gastroduodenal disease. Studies of polymorphic DNA sequences can suggest geographic origins of individual strains. Here, we describe a 180-bp insertion (ins180), which is just after the translation stop of a gene of unknown function, near the promoter of jhp0152-jhp0151 two-component signal transduction genes in strain J99, and absent from this site in strain 26695. This ins180 insertion was found in 9 of 9 Gambian (West African), 9 of 20 (45%) South African, and 9 of 40 (23%) Spanish strains but in only 2 of 20 (10%) North American strains and none of 20 Lithuanian, 20 Indian, and 20 Japanese strains. Four South African isolates that lacked ins180 and that belonged to an unusual outlier group contained a 480-bp insertion at this site (ins480), whereas none of 181 other strains screened contained ins480. In further tests 56% (10 of 18) of strains from African Americans but only 17% (3 of 18) of strains from Caucasian Americans carried ins180 (P < 0.05). Thus, the H. pylori strains of modern African Americans seem to retain traces of African roots, despite the multiple generations since their ancestors were taken from West Africa. Fragmentary ins180-like sequences were found at numerous sites in H. pylori genomes, always between genes. Such sequences might affect regulation of transcription and could facilitate genome rearrangement by homologous recombination. Apparent differences between African-American and Caucasian-American H. pylori gene pools may bear on our understanding of H. pylori transmission and disease outcome.

  6. Using a Smartphone-Based Ecological Momentary Assessment Protocol With Community Dwelling Older African Americans.

    PubMed

    Fritz, Heather; Tarraf, Wassim; Saleh, Dan J; Cutchin, Malcolm P

    2017-09-01

    Little is known about the feasibility of smartphone-based Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA) approaches to collect psychosocial data from older populations, especially disadvantaged older populations. In response to this gap, this report provides evidence of the feasibility and utility of a smartphone-based EMA approach for real-time assessment with older African Americans. In addition, we share lessons learned about how to improve utility. Ninety-seven older African Americans ages 55 and older (range: 55-95 years) used an Android smartphone loaded with an EMA application to provide data about their everyday activities and stress four times per day for seven consecutive days. Exit interviews early in the study suggested enhancements to the EMA interface. Adherence was demonstrated with response completion rates of 92-98% on EMA measures and no participant attrition based on the EMA protocol. Our findings suggest using a smartphone-based EMA approach for data collection is feasible and has utility with older African Americans. We most likely enhanced adherence by testing, training, monitoring, and adapting the EMA protocol using input from older adults early in the EMA design process.

  7. Race, race-based discrimination, and health outcomes among African Americans.

    PubMed

    Mays, Vickie M; Cochran, Susan D; Barnes, Namdi W

    2007-01-01

    Persistent and vexing health disadvantages accrue to African Americans despite decades of work to erase the effects of race discrimination in this country. Participating in these efforts, psychologists and other social scientists have hypothesized that African Americans' continuing experiences with racism and discrimination may lie at the root of the many well-documented race-based physical health disparities that affect this population. With newly emerging methodologies in both measurement of contextual factors and functional neuroscience, an opportunity now exists to cleave together a comprehensive understanding of the ways in which discrimination has harmful effects on health. In this article, we review emerging work that locates the cause of race-based health disparities in the external effects of the contextual social space on the internal world of brain functioning and physiologic response. These approaches reflect the growing interdisciplinary nature of psychology in general, and the field of race relations in particular.

  8. Preliminary examination of a cartoon-based hostile attributional bias measure for urban African American boys.

    PubMed

    Leff, Stephen S; Lefler, Elizabeth K; Khera, Gagan S; Paskewich, Brooke; Jawad, Abbas F

    2012-06-01

    The current study illustrates how researchers developed and validated a cartoon-based adaptation of a written hostile attributional bias measure for a sample of urban, low-income, African American boys. A series of studies were conducted to develop cartoon illustrations to accompany a standard written hostile attributional bias vignette measure (Study 1), to determine initial psychometric properties (Study 2) and acceptability (Study 3), and to conduct a test-retest reliability trial of the adapted measure in a separate sample (Study 4). These studies utilize a participatory action research approach to measurement design and adaptation, and suggest that collaborations between researchers and key school stakeholders can lead to measures that are psychometrically strong, developmentally appropriate, and culturally sensitive. In addition, the cartoon-based hostile attributional bias measure appears to have promise as an assessment and/or outcome measure for aggression and bullying prevention programs conducted with urban African American boys.

  9. Preliminary Examination of a Cartoon-Based Hostile Attributional Bias Measure for Urban African American Boys

    PubMed Central

    Leff, Stephen S.; Lefler, Elizabeth K.; Khera, Gagan S.; Paskewich, Brooke; Jawad, Abbas F.

    2014-01-01

    The current study illustrates how researchers developed and validated a cartoon-based adaptation of a written hostile attributional bias measure for a sample of urban, low-income, African American boys. A series of studies were conducted to develop cartoon illustrations to accompany a standard written hostile attributional bias vignette measure (Study 1), to determine initial psychometric properties (Study 2) and acceptability (Study 3), and to conduct a test-retest reliability trial of the adapted measure in a separate sample (Study 4). These studies utilize a participatory action research approach to measurement design and adaptation, and suggest that collaborations between researchers and key school stakeholders can lead to measures that are psychometrically strong, developmentally appropriate, and culturally sensitive. In addition, the cartoon-based hostile attributional bias measure appears to have promise as an assessment and/or outcome measure for aggression and bullying prevention programs conducted with urban African American boys. PMID:21800228

  10. Race, Race-Based Discrimination, and Health Outcomes Among African Americans

    PubMed Central

    Mays, Vickie M.; Cochran, Susan D.; Barnes, Namdi W.

    2014-01-01

    Persistent and vexing health disadvantages accrue to African Americans despite decades of work to erase the effects of race discrimination in this country. Participating in these efforts, psychologists and other social scientists have hypothesized that African Americans’ continuing experiences with racism and discrimination may lie at the root of the many well-documented race-based physical health disparities that affect this population. With newly emerging methodologies in both measurement of contextual factors and functional neuroscience, an opportunity now exists to cleave together a comprehensive understanding of the ways in which discrimination has harmful effects on health. In this article, we review emerging work that locates the cause of race-based health disparities in the external effects of the contextual social space on the internal world of brain functioning and physiologic response. These approaches reflect the growing interdisciplinary nature of psychology in general, and the field of race relations in particular. PMID:16953796

  11. Target-based drug discovery for human African trypanosomiasis: selection of molecular target and chemical matter.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, Ian H

    2014-01-01

    Target-based approaches for human African trypanosomiasis (HAT) and related parasites can be a valuable route for drug discovery for these diseases. However, care needs to be taken in selection of both the actual drug target and the chemical matter that is developed. In this article, potential criteria to aid target selection are described. Then the physiochemical properties of typical oral drugs are discussed and compared to those of known anti-parasitics.

  12. Feasibility of utilizing pedometer diaries in a rural African American community-based walking intervention for health promotion

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Purpose: Limited research is available on the feasibility or effectiveness of utilizing pedometer diaries in community-based interventions targeting rural, low socioeconomic, African American populations. The objectives of this walking intervention study were to assess participant adherence to maint...

  13. African American Church Based HIV Testing and Linkage to Care: Assets, Challenges, and Needs

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Jennifer M.; Thompson, Keitra; Rogers, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    The US National HIV AIDS strategy promotes the use of faith communities to lessen the burden of HIV in African American communities. One specific strategy presented in the strategy is the use of these non-traditional venues for HIV testing and co-location of services. African American churches can be at the forefront of this endeavour through the provision of HIV testing and linkage to care. However, there are few interventions to promote the churches’ involvement in both HIV testing and linkage to care. We conducted 4 focus groups (n=39), 4 interviews, and 116 surveys in a mixed methods study to examine the feasibility of a church based HIV testing and linkage to care intervention in Philadelphia, PA, USA. Our objectives were to examine the: (1) available assets, (2) challenges and barriers, and (3) needs associated with church-based HIV testing and linkage to care. Analyses revealed several factors of importance including the role of the church as an access point for testing in low-income neighbourhoods, challenges in openly discussing the relationship between sexuality and HIV, and buy-in among church leadership. These findings can support intervention development and necessitate situating African American church based HIV testing and linkage to care interventions within a multi-level framework. PMID:26652165

  14. Experiences of African-American Women with Smartphone-Based Ecological Momentary Assessment.

    PubMed

    Jones, Kelly K; Zenk, Shannon N; McDonald, Ashley; Corte, Colleen

    2016-07-01

    Smartphone-based ecological momentary assessment (EMA), or real-time, repeated sampling of participants' states, behaviors, or experiences over time, is a promising approach to understanding obesity-related behaviors in African-American women-a population with the highest obesity prevalence. In this study, we explored participants' experiences with this methodology. In this secondary analysis of data, 100 African-American women participated in seven consecutive days of EMA data collection. Measures related to acceptability (technical challenges, daily burden, emotional responses, willingness to participate in future studies) and data quality (reporting accuracy, behavior reactivity, adherence), as well as demographics, were collected. While there were few demographic differences, women who were unemployed, had the lowest educational levels, or had the lowest per capita income reported the greatest enjoyment with mobile technology-based EMA, while at the same time reporting the highest levels of challenge with use of the equipment. Participants consistently indicated willingness to participate in future EMA studies and indicated that the study method was acceptable. EMA methodology produced data of sufficient quality. Findings suggest future studies using smartphone-based EMA with African-American women are feasible. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. African American church-based HIV testing and linkage to care: assets, challenges and needs.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Jennifer M; Thompson, Keitra; Rogers, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    The US National HIV AIDS strategy promotes the use of faith communities to lessen the burden of HIV in African American communities. One specific strategy presented is the use of these non-traditional venues for HIV testing and co-location of services. African American churches can be at the forefront of this endeavour through the provision of HIV testing and linkage to care. However, there are few interventions to promote the churches' involvement in both HIV testing and linkage to care. We conducted 4 focus groups (n = 39 participants), 4 interviews and 116 surveys in a mixed-methods study to examine the feasibility of a church-based HIV testing and linkage to care intervention in Philadelphia, PA, USA. Our objectives were to examine: (1) available assets, (2) challenges and barriers and (3) needs associated with church-based HIV testing and linkage to care. Analyses revealed several factors of importance, including the role of the church as an access point for testing in low-income neighbourhoods, challenges in openly discussing the relationship between sexuality and HIV, and buy-in among church leadership. These findings can support intervention development and necessitate situating African American church-based HIV testing and linkage to care interventions within a multi-level framework.

  16. Community-based participatory research principles for the African American community

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Selina A.; Whitehead, Mary S.; Sheats, Joyce Q.; Ansa, Benjamin E.; Coughlin, Steven S.; Blumenthal, Daniel S.

    2015-01-01

    Background Numerous sets of principles have been developed to guide the conduct of community-based participatory research (CBPR). However, they tend to be written in language that is most appropriate for academics and other research professionals; they may not help lay people from the community understand CBPR. Methods Many community members of the National Black Leadership Initiative on Cancer assisting with the Educational Program to Increase Colorectal Cancer Screening (EPICS) had little understanding of CBPR. We engaged community members in developing culturally-specific principles for conducting academic-community collaborative research. Results We developed a set of CBPR principles intended to resonate with African-American community members. Conclusions Applying NBLIC-developed CBPR principles contributed to developing and implementing an intervention to increase colorectal cancer screening among African Americans. PMID:26336653

  17. Breast care screening for underserved African American women: Community-based participatory approach.

    PubMed

    Davis, Cindy; Darby, Kathleen; Moore, Matthew; Cadet, Tamara; Brown, Gwendolynn

    2017-01-01

    Traditional health promotion models often do not take into account the importance of shared cultural backgrounds, beliefs, and experiences unique to underserved African American women when designing community-based cancer screening and prevention programs. Thus, the purpose of this study was the development, implementation, and evaluation of a community-based participatory research (CBPR) program designed to increase breast cancer screening awareness in an underserved African American population by providing culturally appropriate social support and information. The study includes 357 African American women who participated in the program and completed the 6-month follow-up questionnaire. The program consisted of a 45-minute play, using community members and storytelling to honor and incorporate five different cultural experiences (skits) with breast care and cancer. Overall, findings indicate that the educational intervention was effective. In addition, these findings are consistent with the literature that suggests that educational interventions that include knowledge to alleviate concerns, dispel myths, and create awareness can increase breast cancer screening participation rates. Furthermore, these findings confirm the importance of CBPR in health promotion activities in reducing health and cancer disparities.

  18. “Church-Based Health Programs for Mental Disorders among African Americans: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Hankerson, Sidney H.; Weissman, Myrna M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective African Americans, compared to White Americans, underutilize traditional mental health services. A systematic review is presented of studies involving church-based health promotion programs (CBHPP) for mental disorders among African Americans to assess the feasibility of utilizing such programs to address racial disparities in mental health care. Methods A literature review of MEDLINE, PsycINFO, CINAHL, and ATLA Religion databases was conducted to identify articles published between January 1, 1980 and December 31, 2009. Inclusion criteria included the following: studies were conducted in a church; primary objective(s) involved assessment, perceptions/attitudes, education, prevention, group support, or treatment for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual-IV mental disorders or their correlates; number of participants was reported; qualitative and/or quantitative data were reported; and African Americans were the target population. Results Of 1,451 studies identified, 191 studies were eligible for formal review. Only eight studies met inclusion criteria for this review. The majority of studies focused on substance related disorders (n=5), were designed to assess the effects of a specific intervention (n=6), and targeted adults (n=6). One study focused on depression and was limited by a small sample size of seven participants. Conclusion Although CBHPP have been successful in addressing racial disparities for several chronic medical conditions, the published literature on CBHPP for mental disorders is extremely limited. More intensive research is needed to establish the feasibility and acceptability of utilizing church-based health programs as a possible resource for screening and treatment to improve disparities in mental health care for African Americans. PMID:22388529

  19. Heart, body, and soul: a church-based smoking-cessation program for Urban African Americans.

    PubMed

    Stillman, F A; Bone, L R; Rand, C; Levine, D M; Becker, D M

    1993-05-01

    This article provides a descriptive overview of the implementation process of the Heart, Body, and Soul program. The program objective was to test strategies to reduce the prevalence of cigarette smoking among urban African Americans in East Baltimore. This study constitutes a prospective randomized trial among inner-city African Americans designed to improve quit rates among church attenders. A random-digit-dialing survey was conducted to establish baseline levels of self-reported cigarette smoking, examine attendant attitudes, and determine the presence of known cardiovascular risk factors among community residents of the catchment area. A similar survey was conducted among churchgoers to establish a baseline. Twenty-two churches were recruited and randomly assigned to either intensive or minimal (self-help) intervention strategies. Baseline health screenings were held in all participating churches. Innovative culturally specific smoking cessation strategies mediated through lay volunteers from participating churches were implemented in the intensive intervention churches. Pastors of all churches were directly involved in all aspects of the planning and implementation process. A total of 29 volunteer lay smoking-cessation specialists were trained and successfully implemented the intensive interventions in churches. An additional 272 church members were trained to conduct their church's health screenings. The essential component of this successful implementation process were building trust and acceptance and providing the technical support to encourage smoking-cessation strategies. This description of the project is presented to assist others involved in church-based trials in urban African American communities.

  20. Community-based strategies for recruiting older, African Americans into a behavioral intervention study

    PubMed Central

    Ellish, Nancy J.; Scott, Deborah; Royak-Schaler, Renee; Higginbotham, Eve J.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To describe community-based strategies that were effective in recruiting older, African-Americans into a behavioral intervention study designed to increase eye examination behavior. Methods Sites were identified that targeted older African-Americans, including senior centers, senior housing, and church groups. We conducted presentations at these sites, networked with community organizations, placed ads on the radio and in newspapers, and attended health fairs. Potential participants also called us in response to flyers and through word of mouth. Results We conducted 147 activities at 118 sites. A total of 688 potential participants were screened, with 330 (48%) enrolling, 33% ineligible, and 19% not interested. Highest enrollment rates were for word of mouth (69%), flyers (67%), and senior centers (66%). Barriers to participation included hesitancy of seniors to leave their apartments to attend presentations and competing health issues taking precedence over eye concerns. Conclusions A multi-faceted recruitment approach, incorporating both direct and indirect activities at a variety of sites, should be used to recruit older African Americans into a behavioral intervention study. Establishing relationships in the community, both prior to initiating recruitment activities and as an ongoing process, was important to the study’s success. PMID:19998638

  1. Community-based strategies for recruiting older, African Americans into a behavioral intervention study.

    PubMed

    Ellish, Nancy J; Scott, Deborah; Royak-Schaler, Renee; Higginbotham, Eve J

    2009-11-01

    To describe community-based strategies that were effective in recruiting older African Americans into a behavioral intervention study designed to increase eye examination behavior. Sites were identified that targeted older African-Americans, including senior centers, senior housing, and church groups. We conducted presentations at these sites, networked with community organizations, placed ads on the radio and in newspapers, and attended health fairs. Potential participants also called us in response to flyers and through word of mouth. We conducted 147 activities at 118 sites. A total of 688 potential participants were screened, with 330 (48%) enrolling, 33% ineligible, and 19% not interested. Highest enrollment rates were for word of mouth (69%), flyers (67%), and senior centers (66%). Barriers to participation included hesitancy of seniors to leave their apartments to attend presentations and competing health issues taking precedence over eye concerns. A multifaceted recruitment approach incorporating both direct and indirect activities at a variety of sites should be used to recruit older African Americans into a behavioral intervention study. Establishing relationships in the community, both prior to initiating recruitment activities and as an ongoing process, was important to the study's success.

  2. Methodological Overview of an African American Couple-Based HIV/STD Prevention Trial

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Objective To provide an overview of the NIMH Multisite HIV/STD Prevention Trial for African American Couples conducted in four urban areas: Atlanta, Los Angeles, New York, and Philadelphia. The rationale, study design methods, proposed data analyses, and study management are described. Design This is a two arm randomized Trial, implementing a modified randomized block design, to evaluate the efficacy of a couples based intervention designed for HIV serodiscordant African American couples. Methods The study phases consisted of formative work, pilot studies, and a randomized clinical trial. The sample is 535 HIV serodiscordant heterosexual African American couples. There are two theoretically derived behavioral interventions with eight group and individual sessions: the Eban HIV/STD Risk Reduction Intervention (treatment) versus the Eban Health Promotion Intervention (control). The treatment intervention was couples based and focused on HIV/STD risk reduction while the control was individual based and focused on health promotion. The two study conditions were structurally similar in length and types of activities. At baseline, participants completed an Audio Computer-assisted Self Interview (ACASI) interview as well as interviewer-administered questionnaire, and provided biological specimens to assess for STDs. Similar follow-up assessments were conducted immediately after the intervention, at 6 months, and at 12 months. Results The Trial results will be analyzed across the four sites by randomization assignment. Generalized estimating equations (GEE) and mixed effects modeling (MEM) are planned to test: (1) the effects of the intervention on STD incidence and condom use as well as on mediator variables of these outcomes, and (2) whether the effects of the intervention differ depending on key moderator variables (e.g., gender of the HIV-seropositive partners, length of relationship, psychological distress, sexual abuse history, and substance abuse history

  3. A preliminary evaluation of a community-based campaign to increase awareness of concurrency and HIV transmission in African American and African-Born communities.

    PubMed

    Andrasik, Michele Peake; Clad, Rachel; Bove, Joanna; Tsegaselassie, Solomon; Morris, Martina

    2015-10-01

    We evaluate an innovative grassroots community-based campaign in Seattle, WA focused on educating African American and African-born communities about concurrent partnerships and HIV transmission. Respondents completed a short self-administered questionnaire on a handheld personal digital assistant to evaluate the reach, acceptability and preliminary efficacy of the campaign. Of those who remembered seeing the campaign materials (82 %), social networks were the most common source of exposure (80 %). Respondents rated campaign materials very visually attractive (86 %), very interesting (91 %), and very important for themselves (90 %) and their community (93 %). Respondents reported that the campaign increased their knowledge about concurrency (84 %), changed their attitudes about it (77 %), and 65 % said it was likely or very likely that they would change their behavior as a result. This inexpensive grassroots campaign demonstrated extensive reach in the local black community and was able to move beyond individual exposure and into social networks.

  4. Cost-Effectiveness of a Community-Integrated Home Based Depression Intervention in Older African Americans

    PubMed Central

    Pizzi, Laura T.; Jutkowitz, Eric; Frick, Kevin D.; Suh, Dong-Churl; Prioli, Katherine M.; Gitlin, Laura N.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To test the cost-effectiveness of a home-based depression program, Beat the Blues (BTB). Design We conducted a cost-effectiveness analysis as part of a previously reported randomized controlled trial that tested BTB versus a wait-list control group. Setting Community-dwelling older African American adults. Participants African Americans who were ≥55 years of age, English speaking, cognitively intact (MMSE ≥24), and had depressive symptoms (PHQ-9 score ≥5) (N=129). Intervention Participants randomly assigned to BTB received up to 10 home visits over a period of 4 months by licensed social workers who provided care management, referral/linkage, stress reduction, depression education, and behavioral activation to help participants achieve self-identified goals. Measurements Incremental cost effectiveness ratios (ICERs) of BTB versus wait-list controls during the 4-month study period. The primary ICER was defined as cost/quality-adjusted life year using the EQ-5D and secondarily using the HUI-3. Additional ICERs were calculated using clinical measures (cost per depression improvement, cost per depression remission). Costs included BTB intervention, depression-related healthcare visits and medications, caregiver time, and social services. Results BTB cost per participant per month was $146. Base case ICERs were $64,896 per QALY (EQ-5D) and $36,875 per QALY (HUI-3). Incremental cost per depression improvement was $2,906 and per remission was $3,507. Univariate and probabilistic sensitivity analyses yielded cost/QALY range of $20,500-$76,500. Conclusion Based on the range of cost effectiveness values resulting from this study, BTB is a cost-effective treatment for managing depressive symptoms in older African Americans that compares favorably with the cost effectiveness of previously tested approaches. PMID:25516025

  5. Urban African-American middle school science students: Does standards-based teaching make a difference?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butler Kahle, Jane; Meece, Judith; Scantlebury, Kathryn

    2000-11-01

    The current reform movement in science education promotes standards-based teaching, including the use of inquiry, problem solving, and open-ended questioning, to improve student achievement. This study examines the influence of standards-based teaching practices on the achievement of urban, African-American, middle school science students. Science classes of teachers who had participated in the professional development (n = 8) of Ohio's statewide systemic initiative (SSI) were matched with classes of teachers (n = 10) who had not participated. Data were gathered using group-administered questionnaires and achievement tests that were specifically designed for Ohio's SSI. Analyses indicate that teachers who frequently used standards-based teaching practices positively influenced urban, African-American students' science achievement and attitudes, especially for boys. Additionally, teachers' involvement in the SSI's professional development was positively related to the reported use of standards-based teaching practices in the classroom. The findings support the efficacy of high-quality professional development to change teaching practices and to enhance student learning.

  6. NEEMA: a school-based diabetes risk prevention program designed for African-American children.

    PubMed Central

    Shaw-Perry, Mary; Horner, Charlotte; Treviño, Roberto P.; Sosa, Erica T.; Hernandez, Irene; Bhardwaj, Abhishek

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To conduct formative assessment and preliminary biological impact of a school-based diabetes risk prevention program for African-American children during a 14-week study. METHODS: NEEMA is a school-based diabetes prevention program tailored for African-American children. The NEEMA is implemented via four social networks-classroom (Health and Physical Education Class), after school (Health Club), home (Family Fun Fair) and school cafeteria (Food Service Program). Formative assessment data were collected through semistructured interviews with physical education (PE) teachers and a pre-to-post design was used to measure biological impact. Fasting capillary glucose, height, weight, body mass index, percent body fat and fitness data were collected from a sample of 58 fourth-grade students. The six elementary schools had > 40% African-American enrollment and were located in low-income neighborhoods. RESULTS: Face-to-face interview data revealed diabetes, obesity and food insufficiency as major health concerns among PE teachers. Teachers also cited large classes and short PE periods as major challenges for implementing the program. From baseline to follow-up, fitness laps increased from 16.40 (SD = 9.98) to 23.72 (SD = 14.79) (p < 0.000), fasting capillary glucose decreased from 89.17 mg/dl (SD = 10.05) to 83.50 mg/dl (SD = 11.26) (p < 0.000), and percent body fat decreased from 27.26 (SD=12.89) to 26.68 (SD = 11.67) (p < 0.537). CONCLUSION: The NEEMA pilot study provided teacher feedback useful for revising the NEEMA health curricula and positive preliminary impact of the NEEMA PE class on children's fitness and blood glucose levels. PMID:17444425

  7. NEEMA: a school-based diabetes risk prevention program designed for African-American children.

    PubMed

    Shaw-Perry, Mary; Horner, Charlotte; Treviño, Roberto P; Sosa, Erica T; Hernandez, Irene; Bhardwaj, Abhishek

    2007-04-01

    To conduct formative assessment and preliminary biological impact of a school-based diabetes risk prevention program for African-American children during a 14-week study. NEEMA is a school-based diabetes prevention program tailored for African-American children. The NEEMA is implemented via four social networks-classroom (Health and Physical Education Class), after school (Health Club), home (Family Fun Fair) and school cafeteria (Food Service Program). Formative assessment data were collected through semistructured interviews with physical education (PE) teachers and a pre-to-post design was used to measure biological impact. Fasting capillary glucose, height, weight, body mass index, percent body fat and fitness data were collected from a sample of 58 fourth-grade students. The six elementary schools had > 40% African-American enrollment and were located in low-income neighborhoods. Face-to-face interview data revealed diabetes, obesity and food insufficiency as major health concerns among PE teachers. Teachers also cited large classes and short PE periods as major challenges for implementing the program. From baseline to follow-up, fitness laps increased from 16.40 (SD = 9.98) to 23.72 (SD = 14.79) (p < 0.000), fasting capillary glucose decreased from 89.17 mg/dl (SD = 10.05) to 83.50 mg/dl (SD = 11.26) (p < 0.000), and percent body fat decreased from 27.26 (SD=12.89) to 26.68 (SD = 11.67) (p < 0.537). The NEEMA pilot study provided teacher feedback useful for revising the NEEMA health curricula and positive preliminary impact of the NEEMA PE class on children's fitness and blood glucose levels.

  8. Phylogeographic analysis of African swine fever virus based on the p72 gene sequence.

    PubMed

    Muangkram, Y; Sukmak, M; Wajjwalku, W

    2015-05-04

    African swine fever virus (ASFV) outbreak has been considered as an emerging and re-emerging disease for almost a century. Diagnostically, simple polymerase chain reaction and sequencing-based molecular detection could be employed for both viral identification and genotyping. This study established a novel phylogenetic analysis and epidemiology comparison based on 205 bp of p72 gene sequences. Based on this partial p72 fragment, an updated list of 44 different genotypes from a total of 516 ASFV sequences compiled from GenBank was generated. Nucleotide diversity was 0.04325 ± 0.00231. The analysis of spatial genetic variation divided the ASFV populations of the African continent into four clades (clade A: central and upper eastern Africa; clade B: eastern Africa; clade C: eastern and southern Africa; and clade D: southern Africa). These results and the developed protocol could serve as useful molecular tools for ASFV diagnosis from degraded DNA or putrefied samples, and also provide the phylogeographic perspective to identify the origin of viral outbreaks, facilitating the decision planning to limit their spread.

  9. Financial Exploitation and Psychological Mistreatment Among Older Adults: Differences Between African Americans and Non-African Americans in a Population-Based Survey

    PubMed Central

    Beach, Scott R.; Schulz, Richard; Castle, Nicholas G.; Rosen, Jules

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To examine racial differences in (a) the prevalence of financial exploitation and psychological mistreatment since turning 60 and in the past 6 months and (b) the experience—perpetrator, frequency, and degree of upset—of psychological mistreatment in the past 6 months. Design and methods: Random digit dial telephone recruitment and population-based survey (telephone and in-person) of 903 adults aged 60 years and older in Allegheny County (Pittsburgh), Pennsylvania (693 non-African American and 210 African American). Covariates included sex, age, education, marital status, household composition, cognitive function, instrumental activities of daily living/activities of daily living difficulties, and depression symptoms. Results: Prevalence rates were significantly higher for African Americans than for non-African Americans for financial exploitation since turning 60 (23.0% vs. 8.4%) and in the past 6 months (12.9% vs. 2.4%) and for psychological mistreatment since turning 60 (24.4% vs. 13.2%) and in the past 6 months (16.1% vs. 7.2%). These differences remained once all covariates were controlled in logistic regression models. There were also racial differences in the experience of psychological mistreatment in the past 6 months. Risk for clinical depression was also a consistent predictor of financial exploitation and psychological mistreatment. Implications: Although the results will need to be replicated in national surveys, the study suggests that racial differences in elder mistreatment are a potentially serious issue deserving of continued attention from researchers, health providers, and social service professionals. PMID:20650947

  10. What's God got to do with it? Engaging African-American faith-based institutions in HIV prevention.

    PubMed

    Nunn, Amy; Cornwall, Alexandra; Thomas, Gladys; Callahan, Pastor Leslie; Waller, Pastor Alyn; Friend, Rafiyq; Broadnax, Pastor Jay; Flanigan, Timothy

    2013-01-01

    African-Americans are disproportionately infected and affected by HIV/AIDS. Although faith-based institutions play critical leadership roles in the African-American community, the faith-based response to HIV/AIDS has historically been lacking. We explore recent successful strategies of a citywide HIV/AIDS awareness and testing campaign developed in partnership with 40 African-American faith-based institutions in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, a city with some of the USA's highest HIV infection rates. Drawing on important lessons from the campaign and subsequent efforts to sustain the campaign's momentum with a citywide HIV testing, treatment and awareness programme, we provide a road map for engaging African-American faith communities in HIV prevention that includes partnering with faith leaders, engaging the media to raise awareness, destigmatising HIV/AIDS and encouraging HIV testing, and conducting educational and HIV testing events at houses of worship. African-American faith-based institutions have a critical role to play in raising awareness about the HIV/AIDS epidemic and reducing racial disparities in HIV infection.

  11. Project Joy: faith based cardiovascular health promotion for African American women.

    PubMed Central

    Yanek, L. R.; Becker, D. M.; Moy, T. F.; Gittelsohn, J.; Koffman, D. M.

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The authors tested the impact on cardiovascular risk profiles of African American women ages 40 years and older after one year of participation in one of three church-based nutrition and physical activity strategies: a standard behavioral group intervention, the standard intervention supplemented with spiritual strategies, or self-help strategies. METHODS: Women were screened at baseline and after one year of participation. The authors analyzed intention-to-treat within group and between groups using a generalized estimating equations adjustment for intra-church clustering. Because spiritual strategies were added to the standard intervention by participants themselves, the results from both active groups were similar and, thus, combined for comparisons with the self-help group. RESULTS: A total of 529 women from 16 churches enrolled. Intervention participants exhibited significant improvements in body weight (-1.1 lbs), waist circumference (-0.66 inches), systolic blood pressure (-1.6 mmHg), dietary energy (-117 kcal), dietary total fat (-8 g), and sodium intake (-145 mg). The self-help group did not. In the active intervention group, women in the top decile for weight loss at one year had even larger, clinically meaningful changes in risk outcomes (-19.8 lbs). CONCLUSIONS: Intervention participants achieved clinically important improvements in cardiovascular disease risk profiles one year after program initiation, which did not occur in the self-help group. Church-based interventions can significantly benefit the cardiovascular health of African American women. PMID:11889276

  12. Identification of probiotic microorganisms in South African products using PCR-based DGGE analysis.

    PubMed

    Theunissen, J; Britz, T J; Torriani, S; Witthuhn, R C

    2005-01-15

    Probiotic microorganisms in commercial yoghurts and other food products are currently identified by traditional methods such as growth on selective media, morphological and biochemical characteristics. In this study, PCR-based DGGE analysis was used for the rapid and accurate identification of probiotic microorganisms from South African yoghurts and lyophilized preparations in capsule and tablet form. To identify the microorganisms present in these products, the DGGE profiles obtained were compared to two reference markers (A and B) composed of five lactobacilli and seven Bifidobacterium species, respectively. The results obtained were confirmed by species-specific PCR, as well as sequence analyses of unknown bands not present in the reference markers. It was found that only 54.5% of the probiotic yoghurts contained the microorganisms stated on the label compared to only a third (33.3%) of the lyophilized probiotic products. Some Bifidobacterium species were incorrectly identified and various microorganisms were detected that were not listed on the label. Sequence analyses confirmed the presence of Streptococcus spp. other than the yoghurt starter, Streptococcus thermophilus, in some of these products and in some instances label information was vague and non-scientific. PCR-based DGGE analyses proved to be a valuable culture-independent approach for the rapid and specific identification of the microbial species present in South African probiotic products.

  13. African medicinal plants in the search for new drugs based on ethnobotanical leads.

    PubMed

    Iwu, M M

    1994-01-01

    In the African world view the natural environment is a living entity whose components are intrinsically bound to mankind. Dietary plants, spices and common herbs dominate the materia medica, in contrast with modern orthodox medicine which uses many regulated poisons. Drug development based on ethnobotanical leads has followed two paths: the classical approach of identification of single plant species with biologically active compounds and the characterization and standardization of traditional recipes for reformulation as medicines. The first approach has led to the recognition of many African plants as medicines and the isolation of several biologically active molecules; examples range from the well physostigmine (from Physostigma venonosum) used for the treatment of glaucoma to the recently identified antiviral agents from Ancistrocladus abbreviatus. The second approach which aims at optimization of mixed remedies as formulated dosage forms is perhaps more relevant to the needs of the poor rural populations but has remained largely ignored. Drug development programmes based on ethnobotanical leads must provide for just and fair compensation for individual informants and local communities.

  14. The Role of Game Based Learning in the Health Literacy of African American Adolescent Males

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connell, Judith; Knight, Margaret

    2012-01-01

    Twenty-first century literacy is more than being able to encode for spelling ability, decode for reading comprehension, and calculate for numeric reasoning. It demands the skills to negotiate the world of technology. Health literacy is lower than general literacy, and general literacy is lower among African American males than the overall population. The authors discuss the prospects of incorporating Game Based Learning approaches into strategies for teaching health literacy. Results of a survey administered to youth to determine their level of involvement in video game playing indicate that key elements must be in place to ensure that a game will be played. These include action, strategy, and entertainment. Future investigation will examine the knowledge level of African American adolescent males of the nexus of certain concepts of climate change and health literacy. Climate change has significant implications for human health. This understanding will produce a scientifically based foundation for curricular and instructional decisions that include GBL. Results of this study will be used to design a video game concept and will contribute to the body of knowledge concerning environmental justice and empower individuals to make informed decisions about their own health and those they influence.

  15. A Contextualized Approach to Faith-Based HIV Risk Reduction for African American Women

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Jennifer M.; Rogers, Christopher K.; Bellinger, Dawn; Thompson, Keitra

    2016-01-01

    HIV/AIDS has a devastating impact on African Americans (AA), particularly women and young adults. We sought to characterize risks, barriers, content and delivery needs for a faith-based intervention to reduce HIV risk among AA women ages 18–25. In a convergent parallel mixed methods study we conducted four focus groups (n=38) and surveyed 71 young adult women. Data were collected across 4 AA churches for a total of 109 participants. We found the majority of women in this sample were engaged in behaviors that put them at risk for contracting HIV, struggled with religiously based barriers and matters of sexuality, and had a desire to incorporate their intimate relationships, parenting and financial burdens into faith-based HIV risk reduction interventions (RRIs). Incorporating additional social context related factors into HIV RRIs for young AA women is critical to adapting and developing HIV interventions to reduce risk among young adult women in faith settings. PMID:26879828

  16. A Faith-Based and Cultural Approach to Promoting Self-Efficacy and Regular Exercise in Older African American Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quinn, Mary Ellen; Guion, W. Kent

    2010-01-01

    The health benefits of regular exercise are well documented, yet there has been limited success in the promotion of regular exercise in older African American women. Based on theoretical and evidence-based findings, the authors recommend a behavioral self-efficacy approach to guide exercise interventions in this high-risk population. Interventions…

  17. Practitioners' Perceptions of Culturally Responsive School-Based Mental Health Services for Low-Income African American Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harper, Erin; Kruger, Ann Cale; Hamilton, Chela; Meyers, Joel; Truscott, Stephen D.; Varjas, Kris

    2016-01-01

    School-based mental health practitioners are positioned to address low-income urban African American girls' mental health needs through culturally responsive services. Despite the importance of culturally reflective practice, it is understudied. We asked school-based mental health practitioners (N = 7) to reflect on barriers and facilitators to…

  18. A Faith-Based and Cultural Approach to Promoting Self-Efficacy and Regular Exercise in Older African American Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quinn, Mary Ellen; Guion, W. Kent

    2010-01-01

    The health benefits of regular exercise are well documented, yet there has been limited success in the promotion of regular exercise in older African American women. Based on theoretical and evidence-based findings, the authors recommend a behavioral self-efficacy approach to guide exercise interventions in this high-risk population. Interventions…

  19. Extracting dirt from water: a strengths-based approach to religion for African American same-gender-loving men.

    PubMed

    Lassiter, Jonathan Mathias

    2014-02-01

    Religion is one of the most powerful and ubiquitous forces in African American same-gender-loving (SGL) men's lives. Research indicates that it has both positive and negative influences on the health behaviors and outcomes of this population. This paper presents a review of the literature that examines religion as a risk and protective factor for African American SGL men. A strengths-based approach to religion that aims to utilize its protective qualities and weaken its relation to risk is proposed. Finally, recommendations are presented for the use of a strengths-based approach to religion in clinical work and research.

  20. Compassion-Based Meditation in African Americans: Self-Criticism Mediates Changes in Depression.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Suzanne B; Goodnight, Bradley L; Zhang, Huaiyu; Daboin, Irene; Patterson, Bobbi; Kaslow, Nadine J

    2017-03-21

    This study examines self-criticism as a mechanism through which compassion meditation reduces depressive symptoms in low-income African American men and women (N = 59) who had recently attempted suicide. After completing several measures, including the Levels of Self-Criticism Scale and Beck Depression Inventory-II, participants were randomly assigned to receive either a six-session compassion meditation (CM) group (Grady Compassion and Meditation Program) or a six-session support group. As predicted, path analysis results showed that treatment condition led to changes in self-criticism from pre- to posttreatment, with those receiving CM showing greater reductions in levels of self-criticism than those randomized to the support group. Path analyses also revealed that changes in self-criticism fully mediated the link between condition and changes in depressive symptoms. These findings highlight the importance and value of targeting levels of self-criticism in compassion-based interventions to reduce the depressive symptoms of suicidal African Americans.

  1. Efficacy of a DVD-Based Smoking Cessation Intervention for African Americans

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Elizabeth A.; Robinson, Robert G.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Previous research suggests that African American smokers may have improved outcomes if interventions are culturally specific. However, few interventions sufficiently address the unique needs of this population in a format with large reach potential. The purpose of this study was to test the efficacy of a newly developed digital video disc (DVD)-based cessation intervention targeting African Americans. Methods: In a 2-arm randomized trial, smokers (N = 140) were randomly assigned to view either the new Pathways to Freedom (PTF) DVD or a standard control DVD. Participants were assessed at baseline, immediately postviewing the DVD, and at a 1-month follow-up. The primary outcomes were feasibility and process variables, including intervention evaluations, readiness to quit, and risk perceptions, and smoking-related behavior changes were examined as secondary outcomes. Results: Findings demonstrated the hypothesized positive effects of the PTF DVD compared with the control DVD on content evaluations, risk perceptions, and readiness to quit at follow-up. Conclusions: We found initial evidence for the efficacy of the PTF DVD as a stand-alone intervention. Future research will test the efficacy of the DVD for smoking cessation in a larger randomized trial. The ultimate goal of this research is to validate a new intervention for an underserved community of smokers that can be used in multiple settings, such as community health clinics, primary care, quitlines, cessation clinics, and seminars/workshops. PMID:24838844

  2. Health empowerment technologies (HET): building a web-based tool to empower older African American patient-doctor relationships.

    PubMed

    Winbush, Greta Berry; McDougle, Leon; Labranche, Lynda; Khan, Sidra; Tolliver, Sophia

    2013-11-01

    Responding to health and digital inequities among older African Americans, a customized web-based mobile health information intervention is being developed for this vulnerable group and their doctors as part of the Health Empowerment Technologies (HET) Project. The belief is an empowered patient-doctor relationship leads to more improved health outcomes than patient empowerment alone. Using health information technology to empower both older African Americans and their doctors by increasing health literacy and computer capacities of both is the major HET study aim. A focus group of older African American patients and one of their doctors yielded data to help build the HET. Thematic analysis of opinions and preferences about the content and structure of the HET revealed concordance and asymmetry among the patients and doctors. While challenges prevail in its construction, building this ethnicity-specific web-based health information technology presents the opportunity to integrate health information technology in clinical encounters for every patient.

  3. Structure-based design of pteridine reductase inhibitors targeting African sleeping sickness and the leishmaniases.

    PubMed

    Tulloch, Lindsay B; Martini, Viviane P; Iulek, Jorge; Huggan, Judith K; Lee, Jeong Hwan; Gibson, Colin L; Smith, Terry K; Suckling, Colin J; Hunter, William N

    2010-01-14

    Pteridine reductase (PTR1) is a target for drug development against Trypanosoma and Leishmania species, parasites that cause serious tropical diseases and for which therapies are inadequate. We adopted a structure-based approach to the design of novel PTR1 inhibitors based on three molecular scaffolds. A series of compounds, most newly synthesized, were identified as inhibitors with PTR1-species specific properties explained by structural differences between the T. brucei and L. major enzymes. The most potent inhibitors target T. brucei PTR1, and two compounds displayed antiparasite activity against the bloodstream form of the parasite. PTR1 contributes to antifolate drug resistance by providing a molecular bypass of dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) inhibition. Therefore, combining PTR1 and DHFR inhibitors might improve therapeutic efficacy. We tested two new compounds with known DHFR inhibitors. A synergistic effect was observed for one particular combination highlighting the potential of such an approach for treatment of African sleeping sickness.

  4. A web-based, tailored asthma management program for urban African-American high school students.

    PubMed

    Joseph, Christine L M; Peterson, Edward; Havstad, Suzanne; Johnson, Christine C; Hoerauf, Sarah; Stringer, Sonja; Gibson-Scipio, Wanda; Ownby, Dennis R; Elston-Lafata, Jennifer; Pallonen, Unto; Strecher, Victor

    2007-05-01

    Urban African-American youth, aged 15-19 years, have asthma fatality rates that are higher than in whites and younger children, yet few programs target this population. Traditionally, urban youth are believed to be difficult to engage in health-related programs, both in terms of connecting and convincing. Develop and evaluate a multimedia, web-based asthma management program to specifically target urban high school students. The program uses "tailoring," in conjunction with theory-based models, to alter behavior through individualized health messages based on the user's beliefs, attitudes, and personal barriers to change. High school students reporting asthma symptoms were randomized to receive the tailored program (treatment) or to access generic asthma websites (control). The program was made available on school computers. Functional status and medical care use were measured at study initiation and 12 months postbaseline, as were selected management behaviors. The intervention period was 180 days (calculated from baseline). A total of 314 students were randomized (98% African American, 49% Medicaid enrollees; mean age, 15.2 yr). At 12 months, treatment students reported fewer symptom-days, symptom-nights, school days missed, restricted-activity days, and hospitalizations for asthma when compared with control students; adjusted relative risk and 95% confidence intervals were as follows: 0.5 (0.4-0.8), p = 0.003; 0.4 (0.2-0.8), p = 0.009; 0.3 (0.1-0.7), p = 0.006; 0.5 (0.3-0.8), p = 0.02; and 0.2 (0.2-0.9), p = 0.01, respectively. Positive behaviors were more frequently noted among treatment students compared with control students. Cost estimates for program delivery were $6.66 per participating treatment group student. A web-based, tailored approach to changing negative asthma management behaviors is economical, feasible, and effective in improving asthma outcomes in a traditionally hard-to-reach population.

  5. The Trophic Life Cycle Stage of the Opportunistic Fungal Pathogen Pneumocystis murina Hinders the Ability of Dendritic Cells To Stimulate CD4(+) T Cell Responses.

    PubMed

    Evans, Heather M; Simpson, Andrew; Shen, Shu; Stromberg, Arnold J; Pickett, Carol L; Garvy, Beth A

    2017-10-01

    The life cycle of the opportunistic fungal pathogen Pneumocystis murina consists of a trophic stage and an ascus-like cystic stage. Infection with the cyst stage induces proinflammatory immune responses, while trophic forms suppress the cytokine response to multiple pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs), including β-glucan. A targeted gene expression assay was used to evaluate the dendritic cell response following stimulation with trophic forms alone, with a normal mixture of trophic forms and cysts, or with β-glucan. We demonstrate that stimulation with trophic forms downregulated the expression of multiple genes normally associated with the response to infection, including genes encoding transcription factors. Trophic forms also suppressed the expression of genes related to antigen processing and presentation, including the gene encoding the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II transactivator, CIITA. Stimulation of dendritic cells with trophic forms, but not a mixture of trophic forms and cysts, reduced the expression of MHC class II and the costimulatory molecule CD40 on the surface of the cells. These defects in the expression of MHC class II and costimulatory molecules corresponded with a reduced capacity for trophic form-loaded dendritic cells to stimulate CD4(+) T cell proliferation and polarization. These data are consistent with the delayed innate and adaptive responses previously observed in immunocompetent mice inoculated with trophic forms compared to responses in mice inoculated with a mixture of trophic forms and cysts. We propose that trophic forms broadly inhibit the ability of dendritic cells to fulfill their role as antigen-presenting cells. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  6. Skills-Based, Interactive Computer Interventions to Prevent HIV Infection Among African-American and Hispanic Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Schinke, Steven P.; Orlandi, Mario A.

    2010-01-01

    The spread of the acquired immunodeficiency virus (AIDS) virus, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, is increasingly evident. Despite the attention that HIV infection has received, few effective prevention strategies have been developed. The present paper reviews the epidemiology of AIDS among African-American and Hispanic adolescents. From epidemiological data, the authors argue for preventive approaches to reduce the risks of HIV transmission among African-American and Hispanic adolescents. Emphasizing culturally sensitive prevention strategies, the authors describe an intervention for these adolescents that combines skills-based and interactive computer approaches. PMID:20589223

  7. Skills-Based, Interactive Computer Interventions to Prevent HIV Infection Among African-American and Hispanic Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Schinke, Steven P; Orlandi, Mario A

    1990-01-01

    The spread of the acquired immunodeficiency virus (AIDS) virus, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, is increasingly evident. Despite the attention that HIV infection has received, few effective prevention strategies have been developed. The present paper reviews the epidemiology of AIDS among African-American and Hispanic adolescents. From epidemiological data, the authors argue for preventive approaches to reduce the risks of HIV transmission among African-American and Hispanic adolescents. Emphasizing culturally sensitive prevention strategies, the authors describe an intervention for these adolescents that combines skills-based and interactive computer approaches.

  8. The role of traditional foods in food-based dietary guidelines - A South African case study on maas (cultured milk).

    PubMed

    Du Plooy, Z; Schönfeldt, H C; Hall, N

    2018-01-01

    With the revision of the South African food-based dietary guidelines (FBDGs) a new guideline specifically recommending the daily consumption of dairy products including maas (cultured milk) was introduced. This paper aims to evaluate the relevance of including maas as a traditional food product in the FBDGs. It was found that maas is a culturally relevant and traditional food product in South Africa. The nutrient profile of maas has changed notably over time since the first nutrient analysis was performed in 1995. The health benefits of maas, together with its popularity and its cultural relevance as part of the South African diet, make maas a suitable traditional food product to be included in the South African FBDGs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. [African agriculture faced with global changes: researches and innovations based on ecological sciences].

    PubMed

    Masse, Dominique; Ndour Badiane, Yacine; Hien, Edmond; Akpo, Léonard-Élie; Assigbetsé, Komi; Bilgo, Ablassé; Diédhiou, Ibrahima; Hien, Victor; Lardy, Lydie

    2013-01-01

    In the context of environmental and socio-economic changes, the agriculture of Sub-Saharan African countries will have to ensure food security of the population, while reducing its environmental footprint. The biophysical and social systems of agricultural production are complex. Innovative agricultural practices will be based on an intensification of ecological processes that determine the functioning of the soil-plant system, farmers' fields and agro-ecosystems. This ecological engineering approach is useful to take up the challenge of Sub-Saharan agricultures in the future, as shown in researches conducted by IESOL International Joint Lab "Intensification of agricultural soils in West Africa" (ISRA, UCAD, TU, OU, INERA, IRD). Copyright © 2013 Académie des sciences. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Recruiting African American men for cancer screening studies: applying a culturally based model.

    PubMed

    Abernethy, Alexis D; Magat, Maricar M; Houston, Tina R; Arnold, Harold L; Bjorck, Jeffrey P; Gorsuch, Richard L

    2005-08-01

    In a study of psychosocial factors related to prostate cancer screening (PCS) of African American men, researchers achieved significant success in recruitment. Key strategies included addressing specific barriers to PCS for African American men and placing recruitment efforts in a conceptual framework that addressed cultural issues (PEN-3 model). To conduct cancer prevention research in the African American community, to engage in health promotion in collaboration with churches, and to recruit African American men, a culturally competent approach that incorporates the values of the community is essential. Implications for addressing specific barriers to recruitment and building partnerships in health promotion research are discussed.

  11. A Qualitative Evaluation of a Faith-Based Breast and Cervical Cancer Screening Intervention for African American Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, Alicia K.; Berrios, Nerida; Darnell, Julie S.; Calhoun, Elizabeth

    2006-01-01

    This article presents a formative evaluation of a CDC Racial and Ethnic Approaches to Community Health (REACH) 2010 faith-based breast and cervical cancer early detection and prevention intervention for African American women living in urban communities. Focus groups were conducted with a sample of women (N = 94) recruited from each church…

  12. Perceptions of African American Faculty in Kinesiology-Based Programs at Predominantly White American Institutions of Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burden, Joe W., Jr.; Harrison, Louis, Jr.; Hodge, Samuel R.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the perceptions of African American faculty on their organizational socialization in kinesiology-based (i.e., sport pedagogy, exercise physiology, motor behavior, sport management/history) programs at predominantly White American (1) institutions of higher education (PW-IHE). Participants were 9 African…

  13. Perceptions of African American Faculty in Kinesiology-Based Programs at Predominantly White American Institutions of Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burden, Joe W., Jr.; Harrison, Louis, Jr.; Hodge, Samuel R.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the perceptions of African American faculty on their organizational socialization in kinesiology-based (i.e., sport pedagogy, exercise physiology, motor behavior, sport management/history) programs at predominantly White American (1) institutions of higher education (PW-IHE). Participants were 9 African…

  14. Racism, Parent Support, and Math-Based Career Interests, Efficacy, and Outcome Expectations among African American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliman-Brissett, Annette E.; Turner, Sherri L.

    2010-01-01

    Using an extended model of social cognitive career theory, this study investigated ways in which African American middle school adolescents perceive racism and the associations among various aspects of perceptions of racism, other background factors, and math-based career interests, efficacy, and outcome expectations. Results indicated that…

  15. A Qualitative Evaluation of a Faith-Based Breast and Cervical Cancer Screening Intervention for African American Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, Alicia K.; Berrios, Nerida; Darnell, Julie S.; Calhoun, Elizabeth

    2006-01-01

    This article presents a formative evaluation of a CDC Racial and Ethnic Approaches to Community Health (REACH) 2010 faith-based breast and cervical cancer early detection and prevention intervention for African American women living in urban communities. Focus groups were conducted with a sample of women (N = 94) recruited from each church…

  16. School-based Management of Chronic Asthma Among Inner-city African-American Schoolchildren in Dallas, Texas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McEwen, Melanie; Johnson, Pauline; Neatherlin, Jacque; Millard, Mark W.; Lawrence, Gretchen

    1998-01-01

    Examined the efficacy of a school-based asthma management program to prevent exacerbation of symptoms in inner-city, African-American students. Students visited the school clinic twice daily for treatment with inhaled anti-inflammatory medication and measurement of respiratory peak flow rates. Regular use of inhaled anti-inflammatory medication…

  17. School-based Management of Chronic Asthma Among Inner-city African-American Schoolchildren in Dallas, Texas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McEwen, Melanie; Johnson, Pauline; Neatherlin, Jacque; Millard, Mark W.; Lawrence, Gretchen

    1998-01-01

    Examined the efficacy of a school-based asthma management program to prevent exacerbation of symptoms in inner-city, African-American students. Students visited the school clinic twice daily for treatment with inhaled anti-inflammatory medication and measurement of respiratory peak flow rates. Regular use of inhaled anti-inflammatory medication…

  18. A church-based pilot study designed to improve dietary quality for rural, Lower Mississippi Delta, African American Adults

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    To assess the feasibility of implementing a six-month, church-based, dietary, pilot intervention, called Delta Body and Soul (DBS), for African American (AA) adults in the Lower Mississippi Delta (LMD) region of Mississippi. Effectiveness of the intervention to improve diet quality [measured using t...

  19. Project ORE: A Friendship-Based Intervention to Prevent HIV/STI in Urban African American Adolescent Females

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dolcini, M. Margaret; Harper, Gary W.; Boyer, Cherrie B.; Pollack, Lance M.

    2010-01-01

    There is an urgent need for continued innovation in the design of HIV/STI prevention interventions for African American females, a group at high risk for STIs and HIV. In particular, attention to social development and to culture is needed. The present study reports on a group randomized controlled trial of a friendship-based HIV/STI prevention…

  20. Feasibility of an 8-week African American Web-based Pilot Program Promoting Healthy Eating Behaviors: Family Eats

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    To assess log-on rates and change in mediating variables achieved from a web-based nutrition intervention for African American families, a parent and 9- to 12-year-old daughter (n=67 families) completed questionnaires measuring dietary change mediating variables. Overall log-on rate was 59%. Signifi...

  1. Project ORE: A Friendship-Based Intervention to Prevent HIV/STI in Urban African American Adolescent Females

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dolcini, M. Margaret; Harper, Gary W.; Boyer, Cherrie B.; Pollack, Lance M.

    2010-01-01

    There is an urgent need for continued innovation in the design of HIV/STI prevention interventions for African American females, a group at high risk for STIs and HIV. In particular, attention to social development and to culture is needed. The present study reports on a group randomized controlled trial of a friendship-based HIV/STI prevention…

  2. PCR detection of African horse sickness virus serogroup based on genome segment three sequence analysis.

    PubMed

    Aradaib, Imadeldin E

    2009-07-01

    A nested reverse transcriptase (RT) polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), for rapid detection of African horse sickness virus (AHSV) double-stranded ribonucleic acid (dsRNA) in cell culture and tissue samples, was developed and evaluated. Using an outer pair of primers (P1 and P2), selected from genome segment three of AHSV serotype 6 (AHSV-6), the RT-PCR-based assay resulted in amplification of a 890 base pair (bp) primary PCR product. RNAs from the nine vaccine strains of AHSV, and a number of AHSV field isolates including the Central African isolates of AHSV-9 and AHSV-6, propagated in cell cultures, were detected by this assay. A second pair of nested primers (P3 and P4) was used to produce a 240-bp PCR product. The RT-PCR described below detected as little as 0.1 fg of AHSV RNA, which is equivalent to six viral particles. The nested amplification confirmed the integrity of the primary PCR product and increased the sensitivity of the PCR assay by at least 1000-fold. Application of this RT-PCR assay to clinical samples resulted in direct detection of AHSV dsRNA from blood and a variety of tissue samples collected from equines infected experimentally and naturally. The specificity studies indicated that the primary or the nested PCR products were not amplified from, closely related orbiviruses including, bluetongue virus (BTV) prototypes serotypes 1, 2, 4, 10, 16 and 17; epizootic hemorrhagic disease of deer virus (EHDV) prototypes serotypes 1 and 2; EHDV-318, Sudanese isolates of palyam serogroup of orbiviruses; total nucleic acid extracts from uninfected Vero cells; or unfractionated blood from horses and donkeys that were AHSV-seronegative and virus isolation negative. The RT-PCR provides a valuable tool for study of the epidemiology of AHSV and can be recommended for rapid diagnosis during an outbreak of the disease among susceptible equines.

  3. Gene-Based Sequencing Identifies Lipid-Influencing Variants with Ethnicity-Specific Effects in African Americans

    PubMed Central

    Bentley, Amy R.; Chen, Guanjie; Shriner, Daniel; Doumatey, Ayo P.; Zhou, Jie; Huang, Hanxia; Mullikin, James C.; Blakesley, Robert W.; Hansen, Nancy F.; Bouffard, Gerard G.; Cherukuri, Praveen F.; Maskeri, Baishali; Young, Alice C.; Adeyemo, Adebowale; Rotimi, Charles N.

    2014-01-01

    Although a considerable proportion of serum lipids loci identified in European ancestry individuals (EA) replicate in African Americans (AA), interethnic differences in the distribution of serum lipids suggest that some genetic determinants differ by ethnicity. We conducted a comprehensive evaluation of five lipid candidate genes to identify variants with ethnicity-specific effects. We sequenced ABCA1, LCAT, LPL, PON1, and SERPINE1 in 48 AA individuals with extreme serum lipid concentrations (high HDLC/low TG or low HDLC/high TG). Identified variants were genotyped in the full population-based sample of AA (n = 1694) and tested for an association with serum lipids. rs328 (LPL) and correlated variants were associated with higher HDLC and lower TG. Interestingly, a stronger effect was observed on a “European” vs. “African” genetic background at this locus. To investigate this effect, we evaluated the region among West Africans (WA). For TG, the effect size among WA was the same in AA with only African local ancestry (2–3% lower TG), while the larger association among AA with local European ancestry matched previous reports in EA (10%). For HDLC, there was no association with rs328 in AA with only African local ancestry or in WA, while the association among AA with European local ancestry was much greater than what has been observed for EA (15 vs. ∼5 mg/dl), suggesting an interaction with an environmental or genetic factor that differs by ethnicity. Beyond this ancestry effect, the importance of African ancestry-focused, sequence-based work was also highlighted by serum lipid associations of variants that were in higher frequency (or present only) among those of African ancestry. By beginning our study with the sequence variation present in AA individuals, investigating local ancestry effects, and seeking replication in WA, we were able to comprehensively evaluate the role of a set of candidate genes in serum lipids in AA. PMID:24603370

  4. Straight Talk: HIV Prevention for African-American Heterosexual Men--Theoretical Bases and Intervention Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frye, Victoria; Bonner, Sebastian; Williams, Kim; Henny, Kirk; Bond, Keosha; Lucy, Debbie; Cupid, Malik; Smith, Stephen; Koblin, Beryl A.

    2012-01-01

    In the United States, racial disparities in HIV/AIDS are stark. Although African Americans comprise an estimated 14% of the U.S. population, they made up 52% of new HIV cases among adults and adolescents diagnosed in 2009. Heterosexual transmission is now the second leading cause of HIV in the United States. African Americans made up a full…

  5. Faith-Based Adult Learning Initiatives for Diabetes Education in the African American Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaillard, Trudy

    2006-01-01

    Historically, religion and spirituality have been major influences in the social, cultural, and political lives of African Americans. Spirituality is deeply embedded into their rich cultural heritage, and it is intertwined into all aspects of their life, including beliefs about health and illness. For African Americans, health and illness are a…

  6. Recruiting African American Men for Cancer Screening Studies: Applying a Culturally Based Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abernethy, Alexis D.; Magat, Maricar M.; Houston, Tina R.; Arnold, Harold L., Jr.; Bjorck, Jeffrey P.; Gorsuch, Richard L.

    2005-01-01

    In a study of psychosocial factors related to prostate cancer screening (PCS) of African American men, researchers achieved significant success in recruitment. Key strategies included addressing specific barriers to PCS for African American men and placing recruitment efforts in a conceptual framework that addressed cultural issues (PEN-3 model).…

  7. Straight Talk: HIV Prevention for African-American Heterosexual Men--Theoretical Bases and Intervention Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frye, Victoria; Bonner, Sebastian; Williams, Kim; Henny, Kirk; Bond, Keosha; Lucy, Debbie; Cupid, Malik; Smith, Stephen; Koblin, Beryl A.

    2012-01-01

    In the United States, racial disparities in HIV/AIDS are stark. Although African Americans comprise an estimated 14% of the U.S. population, they made up 52% of new HIV cases among adults and adolescents diagnosed in 2009. Heterosexual transmission is now the second leading cause of HIV in the United States. African Americans made up a full…

  8. Faith-Based Adult Learning Initiatives for Diabetes Education in the African American Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaillard, Trudy

    2006-01-01

    Historically, religion and spirituality have been major influences in the social, cultural, and political lives of African Americans. Spirituality is deeply embedded into their rich cultural heritage, and it is intertwined into all aspects of their life, including beliefs about health and illness. For African Americans, health and illness are a…

  9. Recruiting African American Men for Cancer Screening Studies: Applying a Culturally Based Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abernethy, Alexis D.; Magat, Maricar M.; Houston, Tina R.; Arnold, Harold L., Jr.; Bjorck, Jeffrey P.; Gorsuch, Richard L.

    2005-01-01

    In a study of psychosocial factors related to prostate cancer screening (PCS) of African American men, researchers achieved significant success in recruitment. Key strategies included addressing specific barriers to PCS for African American men and placing recruitment efforts in a conceptual framework that addressed cultural issues (PEN-3 model).…

  10. Helping Moms, Saving Babies: Faith-Based Partnerships to Reduce Prematurity in the African American Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, LaToya L.

    2008-01-01

    The March of Dimes, Texas Chapter, partnered with the faith community to pilot Honey Child[SM], a prenatal education program for African American women. The program is designed to combat prematurity, which is the leading cause of death for African American infants. Honey Child uses a spiritual approach to promote prenatal health through…

  11. Helping Moms, Saving Babies: Faith-Based Partnerships to Reduce Prematurity in the African American Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, LaToya L.

    2008-01-01

    The March of Dimes, Texas Chapter, partnered with the faith community to pilot Honey Child[SM], a prenatal education program for African American women. The program is designed to combat prematurity, which is the leading cause of death for African American infants. Honey Child uses a spiritual approach to promote prenatal health through…

  12. A Model for Differential Perceptions of Competence Based on Skin Tone among African Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breland, Alfiee M.

    1998-01-01

    Combines a review of the psychological and sociohistorical literature on African-American color consciousness with a model that explains how it may contribute to differential outcomes for group members. Hypothesizes that attractive individuals are viewed as more competent, and that African Americans who approximate European-American standards of…

  13. Mapping the East African Ionosphere Using Ground-based GPS TEC Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mengist, Chalachew Kindie; Kim, Yong Ha; Yeshita, Baylie Damtie; Workayehu, Abyiot Bires

    2016-03-01

    The East African ionosphere (3°S-18°N, 32°E-50°E) was mapped using Total Electron Content (TEC) measurements from ground-based GPS receivers situated at Asmara, Mekelle, Bahir Dar, Robe, Arbaminch, and Nairobi. Assuming a thin shell ionosphere at 350 km altitude, we project the Ionospheric Pierce Point (IPP) of a slant TEC measurement with an elevation angle of >10° to its corresponding location on the map. We then infer the estimated values at any point of interest from the vertical TEC values at the projected locations by means of interpolation. The total number of projected IPPs is in the range of 24-66 at any one time. Since the distribution of the projected IPPs is irregularly spaced, we have used an inverse distance weighted interpolation method to obtain a spatial grid resolution of 1°×1° latitude and longitude, respectively. The TEC maps were generated for the year 2008, with a 2 hr temporal resolution. We note that TEC varies diurnally, with a peak in the late afternoon (at 1700 LT), due to the equatorial ionospheric anomaly. We have observed higher TEC values at low latitudes in both hemispheres compared to the magnetic equatorial region, capturing the ionospheric distribution of the equatorial anomaly. We have also confirmed the equatorial seasonal variation in the ionosphere, characterized by minimum TEC values during the solstices and maximum values during the equinoxes. We evaluate the reliability of the map, demonstrating a mean error (difference between the measured and interpolated values) range of 0.04-0.2 TECU (Total Electron Content Unit). As more measured TEC values become available in this region, the TEC map will be more reliable, thereby allowing us to study in detail the equatorial ionosphere of the African sector, where ionospheric measurements are currently very few.

  14. Efficacy of a DVD-based smoking cessation intervention for African Americans.

    PubMed

    Webb Hooper, Monica; Baker, Elizabeth A; Robinson, Robert G

    2014-10-01

    Previous research suggests that African American smokers may have improved outcomes if interventions are culturally specific. However, few interventions sufficiently address the unique needs of this population in a format with large reach potential. The purpose of this study was to test the efficacy of a newly developed digital video disc (DVD)-based cessation intervention targeting African Americans. In a 2-arm randomized trial, smokers (N = 140) were randomly assigned to view either the new Pathways to Freedom (PTF) DVD or a standard control DVD. Participants were assessed at baseline, immediately postviewing the DVD, and at a 1-month follow-up. The primary outcomes were feasibility and process variables, including intervention evaluations, readiness to quit, and risk perceptions, and smoking-related behavior changes were examined as secondary outcomes. Findings demonstrated the hypothesized positive effects of the PTF DVD compared with the control DVD on content evaluations, risk perceptions, and readiness to quit at follow-up. We found initial evidence for the efficacy of the PTF DVD as a stand-alone intervention. Future research will test the efficacy of the DVD for smoking cessation in a larger randomized trial. The ultimate goal of this research is to validate a new intervention for an underserved community of smokers that can be used in multiple settings, such as community health clinics, primary care, quitlines, cessation clinics, and seminars/workshops. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Pilot Trial of a Home-based Physical Activity Program for African American Women.

    PubMed

    Pekmezi, Dori; Ainsworth, Cole; Joseph, Rodney P; Williams, Victoria; Desmond, Renee; Meneses, Karen; Marcus, Bess; Demark-Wahnefried, Wendy

    2017-07-12

    To assess the feasibility of a Home-based, Individually-tailored Physical activity Print (HIPP) intervention for African American women in the Deep South. A pilot randomized trial of the HIPP intervention (N=43) vs. wellness contact control (N=41) was conducted. Recruitment, retention, and adherence were examined, along with physical activity (7-Day PARs, accelerometers) and related psychosocial variables at baseline and 6 months. The sample included 84 overweight/obese African American women aged 50-69 in Birmingham, AL. Retention was high at 6 months (90%). Most participants reported being satisfied with the HIPP program and finding it helpful (91.67%). There were no significant between group differences in physical activity (p=0.22); however, HIPP participants reported larger increases (M=+73.9 minutes/week, SD=90.9) in moderate intensity or greater physical activity from baseline to 6 months than the control group (+41.5, SD=64.4). The HIPP group also reported significantly greater improvements in physical activity goal-setting (p=.02) and enjoyment (p=.04) from baseline to 6 months than the control group. There were no other significant between group differences [6MWT, weight, physical activity planning, behavioral processes, stage of change]; however, trends in the data for cognitive processes, self-efficacy, outcome expectations, and family support for physical activity indicated small improvements for HIPP participants (P> .05) and declines for control participants. Significant decreases in decisional balance (p=0.01) and friend support (p=0.03) from baseline to six months were observed in the control arm and not the intervention arm. The HIPP intervention has great potential as a low cost, high reach method for reducing physical activity-related health disparities. The lack of improvement in some domains may indicate that additional resources are needed to help this target population reach national guidelines.

  16. Outcome Evaluation of "Family Eats": An Eight-Session Web-Based Program Promoting Healthy Home Food Environments and Dietary Behaviors for African American Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cullen, Karen Weber; Thompson, Debbe; Chen, Tzu-An

    2017-01-01

    This article presents the results of a randomized clinical trial evaluating the eight-session "Family Eats" web-based intervention promoting healthy home food environments for African American families. African American families (n = 126) with 8- to 12-year-old children completed online baseline questionnaires and were randomized into…

  17. Outcome evaluation of Family Eats: An eight-session web-based program promoting healthy home food environments and dietary behaviors for African American families

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This article presents the results of a randomized clinical trial evaluating the eight-session Family Eats web-based intervention promoting healthy home food environments for African American families. African American families (n=126) with 8- to 12-year-old children completed online baseline questio...

  18. Outcome Evaluation of "Family Eats": An Eight-Session Web-Based Program Promoting Healthy Home Food Environments and Dietary Behaviors for African American Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cullen, Karen Weber; Thompson, Debbe; Chen, Tzu-An

    2017-01-01

    This article presents the results of a randomized clinical trial evaluating the eight-session "Family Eats" web-based intervention promoting healthy home food environments for African American families. African American families (n = 126) with 8- to 12-year-old children completed online baseline questionnaires and were randomized into…

  19. Intimate partner violence and HIV risk factors among African American and African Caribbean women in clinic-based settings

    PubMed Central

    Stockman, Jamila K.; Lucea, Marguerite B.; Draughon, Jessica E.; Sabri, Bushra; Anderson, Jocelyn C.; Bertrand, Desiree; Campbell, Doris W.; Callwood, Gloria B.; Campbell, Jacquelyn C.

    2012-01-01

    Despite progress against intimate partner violence (IPV) and HIV/AIDS in the past two decades, both epidemics remain major public health problems, particularly among women of color. The objective of this study was to assess the relationship between recent IPV and HIV risk factors (sexual and drug risk behaviors, STIs, condom use and negotiation) among women of African descent. We conducted a comparative case-control study in women’s health clinics in Baltimore, Maryland and St. Thomas and St. Croix, US Virgin Islands (USVI). Women aged 18–55 years who experienced physical and/or sexual IPV in the past two years (Baltimore, n=107; USVI, n=235) were compared to women who never experienced any form of abuse (Baltimore, n=207; USVI, n=119). Logistic regression identified correlates of recent IPV by site. In both sites, having a partner with concurrent sex partners was independently associated with a history of recent IPV (Baltimore, AOR: 3.91, 95% CI:1.79–8.55 and USVI, AOR: 2.25, 95% CI:1.11–4.56). In Baltimore, factors independently associated with recent IPV were lifetime casual sex partners (AOR: 1.99, 95% CI: 1.11–3.57), exchange sex partners (AOR: 5.26, 95% CI:1.92–14.42), infrequent condom use during vaginal sex (AOR: 0.24, 95% CI:0.08–0.72), and infrequent condom use during anal sex (AOR: 0.29, 95% CI:0.09–0.93). In contrast, in the USVI, having a concurrent sex partner (AOR: 3.33, 95% CI:1.46–7.60), frequent condom use during vaginal sex (AOR: 1.97, 95% CI:1.06–3.65), frequent condom use during anal sex (AOR: 6.29, 95% CI:1.57–25.23), drug use (AOR: 3.16, 95% CI:1.00–10.06), and a past-year STI (AOR: 2.68, 95% CI:1.25–5.72) were associated with recent IPV history. The divergent results by site warrant further investigation into the potential influence of culture, norms, and intentions on the relationships examined. Nonetheless, study findings support a critical need to continue the development and implementation of culturally tailored

  20. Sisters Together: Move More, Eat Better: a community-based health awareness program for African-American women.

    PubMed

    Curtis, Leslie; Brown, Zaneta G; Gill, Jennifer E

    2008-12-01

    Statistics indicate that African-American women have the highest rate of obesity among all racial groups. In response, the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK) developed "Sisters Together: Move More, Eat Better," a national program that encourages African-American women to maintain a healthy weight by becoming more physically active and by eating healthier foods. "Sisters Together" programs are run locally by individuals or community groups in locations such as churches and health departments. The NIDDK offers culturally relevant materials and technical assistance to program leaders, including a recently updated program guide. The guide walks leaders through program planning, promotion, implementation, and evaluation. It is based on obesity, nutrition, and physical activity research; evidence-based programs for African-American women; and proven health communication strategies. The guide is consumer friendly, using clear language and real-life examples. "Sisters Together" programs encourage African-American women and their families to improve their eating habits and their physical activity habits.

  1. A Community-Based Wellness Program to Reduce Depression in African-Americans: results from a pilot-intervention

    PubMed Central

    Nicolaidis, Christina; McKeever, Corliss; Meucci, Sandra

    2014-01-01

    Background African-Americans are less likely than non-Hispanic Whites to find antidepressants acceptable or seek care for depression. Objective To develop and pilot-test a culturally-tailored, community-based, psycho-educational wellness and exercise promotion program to reduce depressive symptoms in African-Americans. Methods Participants were African-Americans with moderate depressive symptoms, who were interested in exercise, but were not exercising regularly. They attended a 6-week psycho-educational group program during which they set personal activity goals and learned depression self-management skills. We conducted pre- and post-intervention surveys and post-intervention feedback sessions. Results 21 African-Americans participated in the intervention. The program had excellent attendance and satisfaction. We found a large reduction in depressive symptoms, with mean Patient Health Questionnaire-9 scores dropping from 14.8 to 7.1 (p<0.0001), and increases in exercise and depression self-efficacy and behaviors. Conclusions This pilot-study offers promising preliminary evidence to inform further research on the use of community-based, culturally tailored wellness programs to address depression. PMID:23793245

  2. A Web-based, Tailored Asthma Management Program for Urban African-American High School Students

    PubMed Central

    Joseph, Christine L. M.; Peterson, Edward; Havstad, Suzanne; Johnson, Christine C.; Hoerauf, Sarah; Stringer, Sonja; Gibson-Scipio, Wanda; Ownby, Dennis R.; Elston-Lafata, Jennifer; Pallonen, Unto; Strecher, Victor

    2007-01-01

    Rationale: Urban African-American youth, aged 15–19 years, have asthma fatality rates that are higher than in whites and younger children, yet few programs target this population. Traditionally, urban youth are believed to be difficult to engage in health-related programs, both in terms of connecting and convincing. Objectives: Develop and evaluate a multimedia, web-based asthma management program to specifically target urban high school students. The program uses “tailoring,” in conjunction with theory-based models, to alter behavior through individualized health messages based on the user's beliefs, attitudes, and personal barriers to change. Methods: High school students reporting asthma symptoms were randomized to receive the tailored program (treatment) or to access generic asthma websites (control). The program was made available on school computers. Measurements and Main Results: Functional status and medical care use were measured at study initiation and 12 months postbaseline, as were selected management behaviors. The intervention period was 180 days (calculated from baseline). A total of 314 students were randomized (98% African American, 49% Medicaid enrollees; mean age, 15.2 yr). At 12 months, treatment students reported fewer symptom-days, symptom-nights, school days missed, restricted-activity days, and hospitalizations for asthma when compared with control students; adjusted relative risk and 95% confidence intervals were as follows: 0.5 (0.4–0.8), p = 0.003; 0.4 (0.2–0.8), p = 0.009; 0.3 (0.1–0.7), p = 0.006; 0.5 (0.3–0.8), p = 0.02; and 0.2 (0.2–0.9), p = 0.01, respectively. Positive behaviors were more frequently noted among treatment students compared with control students. Cost estimates for program delivery were $6.66 per participating treatment group student. Conclusions: A web-based, tailored approach to changing negative asthma management behaviors is economical, feasible, and effective in improving asthma outcomes in a

  3. Perceived stress following race-based discrimination at work is associated with hypertension in African-Americans. The metro Atlanta heart disease study, 1999-2001.

    PubMed

    Din-Dzietham, Rebecca; Nembhard, Wendy N; Collins, Rakale; Davis, Sharon K

    2004-02-01

    There is increasing evidence of an association between stress related to job strain and hypertension. However little data exist on stress from racism and race-based discrimination at work (RBDW). The objective of this study was to investigate whether blood pressure (BP) outcomes are positively associated with stressful racism towards African-Americans from non-African-Americans as well as RBDW from other African-Americans. The metro Atlanta heart disease study was a population-based study which included 356 African-American men and women, aged >/=21 years, residing in metropolitan Atlanta, Georgia during 1999-2001. Perceived stress was self-reported by 197 participants for racism from non-African-Americans and 95 for RBDW from other African-Americans. Sitting systolic (SBP) and diastolic (DBP) BP were taken at a clinic visit and was the average of the last two of three BP measures. Hypertension was self-reported as physician-diagnosed high BP on 2 or more visits. Logistic and least-squares linear regression models were fit accordingly and separately for each type of stress, adjusting for age, gender, body mass index, and coping abilities. The likelihood of hypertension significantly increased with higher levels of perceived stress following racism from non-African-Americans, but not from RBDW from other African-Americans; adjusted odd ratios (95% CI) were 1.4 (1.0, 1.9) and 1.2 (0.8, 1.5) per unit increment of stress. The adjusted magnitude of SBP and DBP increase between low and very high level of stress, conversely, was greater when RBDW originated from African-Americans than racism from non-African-Americans. Stressful racism and RBDW encounters are associated with increased SBP and DBP and increased likelihood of hypertension in African-Americans. Future studies with a larger sample size are warranted to further explore these findings for mechanistic understanding and occupational policy consideration regarding stress risk reduction.

  4. Acculturation and drug addiction stigma among Latinos and African Americans: An examination of a church-based sample

    PubMed Central

    Flórez, Karen R.; Derose, Kathryn Pitkin; Breslau, Joshua; Griffin, Beth Ann; Haas, Ann C.; Kanouse, David E.; Stucky, Brian D.; Williams, Malcolm V.

    2015-01-01

    Background Substance use patterns among Latinos likely reflect changes in attitudes resulting from acculturation, but little is known about Latinos’ attitudes regarding drug addiction. Methods We surveyed a church-based sample of Latinos and African Americans (N=1,235) about attitudes toward drug addiction and socio-demographics. Linear regression models compared Latino subgroups with African-Americans. Results In adjusted models, Latinos had significantly higher drug addiction stigma scores compared to African Americans across all subgroups (U.S.-born Latinos, β = 0.22, p<.05; foreign-born Latinos with high English proficiency, β = 0.30, p<.05; and foreign-born Latinos with low English proficiency, β =0.49, p<.001). Additionally, Latinos with low English proficiency had significantly higher mean levels of drug use stigma compared Latinos with high proficiency (both foreign-born and U.S.-born). Discussion In this church-affiliated sample, Latinos’ drug addiction stigma decreases with acculturation, but remains higher among the most acculturated Latinos compared to African-Americans. These attitudes may pose a barrier to treatment for Latino drug users. PMID:25612923

  5. Acculturation and Drug Use Stigma Among Latinos and African Americans: An Examination of a Church-Based Sample.

    PubMed

    Flórez, Karen R; Derose, Kathryn Pitkin; Breslau, Joshua; Griffin, Beth Ann; Haas, Ann C; Kanouse, David E; Stucky, Brian D; Williams, Malcolm V

    2015-12-01

    Substance use patterns among Latinos likely reflect changes in attitudes resulting from acculturation, but little is known about Latinos' attitudes regarding drug addiction. We surveyed a church-based sample of Latinos and African Americans (N = 1,235) about attitudes toward drug addiction and socio-demographics. Linear regression models compared Latino subgroups with African-Americans. In adjusted models, Latinos had significantly higher drug addiction stigma scores compared to African Americans across all subgroups (US-born Latinos, β = 0.22, p < .05; foreign-born Latinos with high English proficiency, β = 0.30, p < .05; and foreign-born Latinos with low English proficiency, β = 0.49, p < .001). Additionally, Latinos with low English proficiency had significantly higher mean levels of drug use stigma compared Latinos with high proficiency (both foreign-born and US-born). In this church-affiliated sample, Latinos' drug addiction stigma decreases with acculturation, but remains higher among the most acculturated Latinos compared to African-Americans. These attitudes may pose a barrier to treatment for Latino drug users.

  6. Epidemiological features of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis in a large clinic-based African American population.

    PubMed

    Kazamel, Mohamed; Cutter, Gary; Claussen, Gwendolyn; Alsharabati, Mohammad; Oh, Shin J; Lu, Liang; King, Peter H

    2013-09-01

    Our objective was to identify the main clinical and epidemiological features of ALS in a large cohort of African American (AA) patients and compare them to Caucasian (CA) patients in a clinic-based population. We retrospectively identified 207 patients who were diagnosed with ALS based on the revised El Escorial criteria (60 AA and 147 CA subjects). Patients were seen in the Neuromuscular Division at the University Medical Center. We compared epidemiological and clinical features of these two groups, focusing on age of onset and diagnosis, clinical presentation and survival. Results showed that AA patients had a significantly younger age of disease onset (55 years vs. 61 years for CA, p = 0.011) and were diagnosed at an earlier age (56 years vs. 62 years, p = 0.012). In younger ALS patients (< 45 years of age), there was a significant difference in gender frequency, with females predominating in the AA population and males in the CA population (p = 0.025). In a multivariable Cox proportional hazard model, survival rates were not different between the groups. In both groups, survival significantly increased with younger age. In conclusion, AA patients presented at an earlier age, but there was no difference in survival compared to CA patients. A gender reversal occurred in younger ALS patients, with AA patients more likely to be female and CA patients more likely to be male.

  7. Evaluating the implementation of peer counseling in a church-based dietary intervention for African Americans.

    PubMed

    Allicock, Marlyn; Campbell, Marci K; Valle, Carmina G; Barlow, Jameta N; Carr, Carol; Meier, Andrea; Gizlice, Ziya

    2010-10-01

    Body & Soul, an evidence-based nutrition program for African Americans churches, is currently being disseminated nationally and free of charge by the National Cancer Institute. For dissemination feasibility, the peer counseling training is done via DVD rather than by live trainers. We describe implementation and process evaluation of the peer counseling component under real world conditions. The study sample included 11 churches (6 early intervention, 5 delayed intervention) in 6 states. Data sources included training observations, post-training debriefing sessions, coordinator interviews, and church participant surveys. Survey data analysis examined associations between exposure to peer counseling and change in dietary intake. Qualitative data were analyzed using the constant comparative method. Eight of 11 churches initiated the peer counseling program. Recall of talking with a peer counselor was associated with significantly (p<.02) greater fruit and vegetable intake. Data indicate sub-optimal program execution after peer counselor training. Inconsistent implementation of the peer counseling intervention is likely to dilute program effectiveness in changing nutrition behaviors. Disseminating evidence-based programs may require added resources, training, quality control, and technical assistance for improving program uptake. Similar to earlier research phases, systematic efforts at the dissemination phase are needed for program success. (c) 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Fit body and soul: a church-based behavioral lifestyle program for diabetes prevention in African Americans.

    PubMed

    Dodani, Sunita; Kramer, M Kaye; Williams, Lovoria; Crawford, Stacey; Kriska, Andrea

    2009-01-01

    Faith-based initiatives for lifestyle change show promise in helping to promote healthy behaviors in African American communities. It has been suggested that faith communities and programs within faith communities can influence health care practices and health care planning especially in high risk, minority populations. African American individuals are more likely to attend and participate in faith-based services than Whites from similar backgrounds. Our proposed intervention, Fit Body and Soul, has been adopted and modified from the proven diabetes prevention program (DPP) lifestyle intervention program, and uses the church-community experiences of the "Body and Soul" study as a faith-based effort. The intervention has been developed keeping in mind the church mission and goal of being spiritually healthy and has adopted bible scripture to develop a 12-session intervention. In this article, we present the development of the church-based Fit Body and Soul behavioral lifestyle intervention using community-based participatory research in partnership with African American churches.

  9. African American Suicide

    MedlinePlus

    African American Suicide Fact Sheet Based on 2012 Data (2014) Overview • In 2012, 2,357 African Americans completed suicide in the U.S. Of these, 1,908 (80. ... rate of 9.23 per 100,000). The suicide rate for females was 1.99 per 100, ...

  10. Comparative Effectiveness of a Faith-Based HIV Intervention for African American Women: Importance of Enhancing Religious Social Capital

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, LaShun R.; Braxton, Nikia D.; Er, Deja L.; Conner, Anita C.; Renfro, Tiffaney L.; Rubtsova, Anna A.; Hardin, James W.; DiClemente, Ralph J.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. We assessed the effectiveness of P4 for Women, a faith-based HIV intervention. Methods. We used a 2-arm comparative effectiveness trial involving 134 African American women aged 18 to 34 years to compare the effectiveness of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention–defined evidence-based Sisters Informing Sisters about Topics on AIDS (SISTA) HIV intervention with P4 for Women, an adapted faith-based version of SISTA. Participants were recruited from a large black church in Atlanta, Georgia, and completed assessments at baseline and follow-up. Results. Both SISTA and P4 for Women had statistically significant effects on this study’s primary outcome—consistent condom use in the past 90 days—as well as other sexual behaviors. However, P4 for Women also had statistically significant effects on the number of weeks women were abstinent, on all psychosocial mediators, and most noteworthy, on all measures of religious social capital. Results were achieved by enhancing structural social capital through ministry participation, religious values and norms, linking trust and by reducing negative religious coping. High intervention attendance may indicate the feasibility of conducting faith-based HIV prevention research for African American women. Conclusions. P4 for Women enhanced abstinence and safer sex practices as well as religious social capital, and was more acceptable than SISTA. Such efforts may assist faith leaders in responding to the HIV epidemic in African American women. PMID:24134367

  11. Describing students of the African Diaspora: Understanding micro and meso level science learning as gateways to standards based discourse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehner, Ed

    2007-04-01

    In much of the educational literature, researchers make little distinction between African-American students and students of the African Diaspora who immigrated to the United States. Failing to describe these salient student differences serves to perpetuate an inaccurate view of African-American school life. In today's large cities, students of the African Diaspora are frequently learning science in settings that are devoid of the resources and tools to fully support their success. While much of the scholarship unites these disparate groups, this article details the distinctive learning culture created when students from several groups of the African Diaspora learn biology together in a Brooklyn Suspension Center. Specifically this work explains how one student, Gabriel, functions in a biology class. A self-described black-Panamanian, Gabriel had tacitly resigned to not learning science, which then, in effect, precluded him from any further associated courses of study in science, and may have excluded him from the possibility of a science related career. This ethnography follows Gabriel's science learning as he engaged in cogenerative dialogue with teachers to create aligned learning and teaching practices. During the 5 months of this research, Gabriel drew upon his unique lifeworld and the depth of his hybridized cultural identity to produce limited, but nonetheless important demonstrations of science. Coexistent with his involvement in cogenerative dialogue, Gabriel helped to construct many classroom practices that supported a dynamic learning environment which produced small yet concrete examples of standards based biology. This study supports further investigation by the science education community to consider ways that students' lifeworld experiences can serve to structure and transform the urban science classroom.

  12. African and Non-African Admixture Components in African Americans and An African Caribbean Population

    PubMed Central

    Murray, Tanda; Beaty, Terri H.; Mathias, Rasika A.; Rafaels, Nicholas; Grant, Audrey Virginia; Faruque, Mezbah U.; Watson, Harold R.; Ruczinski, Ingo; Dunston, Georgia M.; Barnes, Kathleen C.

    2013-01-01

    Admixture is a potential source of confounding in genetic association studies, so it becomes important to detect and estimate admixture in a sample of unrelated individuals. Populations of African descent in the US and the Caribbean share similar historical backgrounds but the distributions of African admixture may differ. We selected 416 ancestry informative markers (AIMs) to estimate and compare admixture proportions using STRUCTURE in 906 unrelated African Americans (AAs) and 294 Barbadians (ACs) from a study of asthma. This analysis showed AAs on average were 72.5% African, 19.6% European and 8% Asian, while ACs were 77.4% African, 15.9% European, and 6.7% Asian which were significantly different. A principal components analysis based on these AIMs yielded one primary eigenvector that explained 54.04% of the variation and captured a gradient from West African to European admixture. This principal component was highly correlated with African vs. European ancestry as estimated by STRUCTURE (r2 = 0.992, r2 = 0.912, respectively). To investigate other African contributions to African American and Barbadian admixture, we performed PCA on ~14,000 (14k) genome-wide SNPs in AAs, ACs, Yorubans, Luhya and Maasai African groups, and estimated genetic distances (FST). We found AAs and ACs were closest genetically (FST = 0.008), and both were closer to the Yorubans than the other East African populations. In our sample of individuals of African descent, ~400 well-defined AIMs were just as good for detecting substructure as ~14,000 random SNPs drawn from a genome-wide panel of markers. PMID:20717976

  13. African and non-African admixture components in African Americans and an African Caribbean population.

    PubMed

    Murray, Tanda; Beaty, Terri H; Mathias, Rasika A; Rafaels, Nicholas; Grant, Audrey Virginia; Faruque, Mezbah U; Watson, Harold R; Ruczinski, Ingo; Dunston, Georgia M; Barnes, Kathleen C

    2010-09-01

    Admixture is a potential source of confounding in genetic association studies, so it becomes important to detect and estimate admixture in a sample of unrelated individuals. Populations of African descent in the US and the Caribbean share similar historical backgrounds but the distributions of African admixture may differ. We selected 416 ancestry informative markers (AIMs) to estimate and compare admixture proportions using STRUCTURE in 906 unrelated African Americans (AAs) and 294 Barbadians (ACs) from a study of asthma. This analysis showed AAs on average were 72.5% African, 19.6% European and 8% Asian, while ACs were 77.4% African, 15.9% European, and 6.7% Asian which were significantly different. A principal components analysis based on these AIMs yielded one primary eigenvector that explained 54.04% of the variation and captured a gradient from West African to European admixture. This principal component was highly correlated with African vs. European ancestry as estimated by STRUCTURE (r(2)=0.992, r(2)=0.912, respectively). To investigate other African contributions to African American and Barbadian admixture, we performed PCA on approximately 14,000 (14k) genome-wide SNPs in AAs, ACs, Yorubans, Luhya and Maasai African groups, and estimated genetic distances (F(ST)). We found AAs and ACs were closest genetically (F(ST)=0.008), and both were closer to the Yorubans than the other East African populations. In our sample of individuals of African descent, approximately 400 well-defined AIMs were just as good for detecting substructure as approximately 14,000 random SNPs drawn from a genome-wide panel of markers. (c) 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  14. Perceptions of African American faculty in kinesiology-based programs at predominantly White American institutions of higher education.

    PubMed

    Burden, Joe W; Harrison, Louis; Hodge, Samuel R

    2005-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the perceptions of African American faculty on their organizational socialization in kinesiology-based (i.e., sport pedagogy, exercise physiology, motor behavior, sport management/history) programs at predominantly White American institutions of higher education (PW-IHE). Participants were 9 African American tenure-track faculty members from various kinesiology-based programs at PW-IHE. Data were gathered via interviewing and analyzed within the framework of critical race theory (Ladson-Billings, 2000). Findings are presented using storytelling and thematic narratives. Interviews with the participants revealed four major recurring themes with regard to: (a) resources, opportunities, and power structures; (b) programmatic neglects and faculty mentoring needs; (c) social isolation, disengagement, and intellectual inferiority issues; and (d) double standards, marginalization, and scholarship biases. This study suggests that faculty and administrators at PW-IHE should develop sensitivity toward organizational socialization issues relevant to faculty of color.

  15. Derivation of an observation-based map of North African dust emission

    SciTech Connect

    Evan, Amato T.; Fiedler, Stephanie; Zhao, Chun; Menut, Laurent; Schepanski, Kerstin; Flamant, C.; Doherty, Owen

    2015-03-01

    Changes in the emission, transport and deposition of aeolian dust have profound effects on regional climate, so that characterizing the lifecycle of dust in observations and improving the representation of dust in global climate models is necessary. A fundamental aspect of characterizing the dust cycle is quantifying surface dust fluxes, yet no spatially explicit estimates of this flux exist for the World’s major source regions. Here we present a novel technique for creating a map of the annual mean emitted dust flux for North Africa based on retrievals of dust storm frequency from the Meteosat Second Generation Spinning Enhanced Visible and InfraRed Imager (SEVIRI) and the relationship between dust storm frequency and emitted mass flux derived from the output of five models that simulate dust. Our results suggest that 64 (±16)% of all dust emitted from North Africa is from the Bodélé depression, and that 13 (±3)% of the North African dust flux is from a depression lying in the lee of the Aïr and Hoggar Mountains, making this area the second most important region of emission within North Africa.

  16. Derivation of an observation-based map of North African dust emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evan, Amato T.; Fiedler, Stephanie; Zhao, Chun; Menut, Laurent; Schepanski, Kerstin; Flamant, Cyrille; Doherty, Owen

    2015-03-01

    Changes in the emission, transport and deposition of aeolian dust have profound effects on regional climate, so that characterizing the lifecycle of dust in observations and improving the representation of dust in global climate models is necessary. A fundamental aspect of characterizing the dust cycle is quantifying surface dust fluxes, yet no spatially explicit estimates of this flux exist for the World's major source regions. Here we present a novel technique for creating a map of the annual mean emitted dust flux for North Africa based on retrievals of dust storm frequency from the Meteosat Second Generation Spinning Enhanced Visible and InfraRed Imager (SEVIRI) and the relationship between dust storm frequency and emitted mass flux derived from the output of five models that simulate dust. Our results suggest that 64 (±16)% of all dust emitted from North Africa is from the Bodélé depression, and that 13 (±3)% of the North African dust flux is from a depression lying in the lee of the Aïr and Hoggar Mountains, making this area the second most important region of emission within North Africa.

  17. Firearm and Nonfirearm Homicide in 5 South African Cities: A Retrospective Population-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Mary Lou; Myers, Jonathan E.

    2014-01-01

    Objective. We assessed the effectiveness of South Africa’s Firearm Control Act (FCA), passed in 2000, on firearm homicide rates compared with rates of nonfirearm homicide across 5 South African cities from 2001 to 2005. Methods. We conducted a retrospective population-based study of 37 067 firearm and nonfirearm homicide cases. Generalized linear models helped estimate and compare time trends of firearm and nonfirearm homicides, adjusting for age, sex, race, day of week, city, year of death, and population size. Results. There was a statistically significant decreasing trend regarding firearm homicides from 2001, with an adjusted year-on-year homicide rate ratio of 0.864 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.848, 0.880), representing a decrease of 13.6% per annum. The year-on-year decrease in nonfirearm homicide rates was also significant, but considerably lower at 0.976 (95% CI = 0.954, 0.997). Results suggest that 4585 (95% CI = 4427, 4723) lives were saved across 5 cities from 2001 to 2005 because of the FCA. Conclusions. Strength, timing and consistent decline suggest stricter gun control mediated by the FCA accounted for a significant decrease in homicide overall, and firearm homicide in particular, during the study period. PMID:24432917

  18. Decreasing Substance use Risk among African American Youth: Parent-based Mechanisms of Change.

    PubMed

    Beach, Steven R H; Barton, Allen W; Lei, Man Kit; Mandara, Jelani; Wells, Ashley C; Kogan, Steven M; Brody, Gene H

    2016-07-01

    African American couples (N = 139; 67.7 % married; with children between the ages of 9 and 14) were randomly assigned to (a) a culturally sensitive, couple- and parenting-focused program designed to prevent stress-spillover (n = 70) or (b) an information-only control condition in which couples received self-help materials (n = 69). Eight months after baseline, youth whose parents participated in the program, compared with control youth, reported increased parental monitoring, positive racial socialization, and positive self-concept, as well as decreased conduct problems and self-reported substance use. Changes in youth-reported parenting behavior partially mediated the effect of the intervention on conduct problems and fully mediated its impact on positive self-concept, but did not mediate effects on lifetime substance use initiation. Results suggest the potential for a culturally sensitive family-based intervention targeting adults' couple and parenting processes to enhance multiple parenting behaviors as well as decrease youths' substance use onset and vulnerability.

  19. Firearm and nonfirearm homicide in 5 South African cities: a retrospective population-based study.

    PubMed

    Matzopoulos, Richard G; Thompson, Mary Lou; Myers, Jonathan E

    2014-03-01

    We assessed the effectiveness of South Africa's Firearm Control Act (FCA), passed in 2000, on firearm homicide rates compared with rates of nonfirearm homicide across 5 South African cities from 2001 to 2005. We conducted a retrospective population-based study of 37 067 firearm and nonfirearm homicide cases. Generalized linear models helped estimate and compare time trends of firearm and nonfirearm homicides, adjusting for age, sex, race, day of week, city, year of death, and population size. There was a statistically significant decreasing trend regarding firearm homicides from 2001, with an adjusted year-on-year homicide rate ratio of 0.864 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.848, 0.880), representing a decrease of 13.6% per annum. The year-on-year decrease in nonfirearm homicide rates was also significant, but considerably lower at 0.976 (95% CI = 0.954, 0.997). Results suggest that 4585 (95% CI = 4427, 4723) lives were saved across 5 cities from 2001 to 2005 because of the FCA. Strength, timing and consistent decline suggest stricter gun control mediated by the FCA accounted for a significant decrease in homicide overall, and firearm homicide in particular, during the study period.

  20. Twelve-Day Reinforcement-Based Memory Retention in African Cichlids (Labidochromis caeruleus)

    PubMed Central

    Ingraham, Erica; Anderson, Nicole D.; Hurd, Peter L.; Hamilton, Trevor J.

    2016-01-01

    The formation of long-term memories for food sources is essential for the survival of most animals. Long-term memory formation in mammalian species has been demonstrated through a variety of conditioning tasks, however, the nature of long-term memory in fish is less known. In the current study, we explored whether African cichlids (Labidochromis caeruleus) could form memories for food-reinforced stimuli that last for 12 days. During the training sessions, fish were reinforced for approaching an upward drifting line grating. After a rest period of 12 days, fish demonstrated a significant preference for the upward drifting grating. To determine whether this preference could also be reversed, fish were then reinforced for approaching a downward drifting line grating after a 20-day rest period. When tested 12 days later, there were no significant differences in preference for either stimulus; however, following a second training period for the downward stimulus, there was a significant preference for the downward drifting grating. This suggests that cichlids are able to form reversible discrimination-based memories for food-reinforced stimuli that remain consolidated for at least 12 days. PMID:27582695

  1. Prevalence of Plasmodium spp. in malaria asymptomatic African migrants assessed by nucleic acid sequence based amplification

    PubMed Central

    Marangi, Marianna; Di Tullio, Rocco; Mens, Pètra F; Martinelli, Domenico; Fazio, Vincenzina; Angarano, Gioacchino; Schallig, Henk DFH; Giangaspero, Annunziata; Scotto, Gaetano

    2009-01-01

    Background Malaria is one of the most important infectious diseases in the world. Although most cases are found distributed in the tropical regions of Africa, Asia, Central and South Americas, there is in Europe a significant increase in the number of imported cases in non-endemic countries, in particular due to the higher mobility in today's society. Methods The prevalence of a possible asymptomatic infection with Plasmodium species was assessed using Nucleic Acid Sequence Based Amplification (NASBA) assays on clinical samples collected from 195 study cases with no clinical signs related to malaria and coming from sub-Saharan African regions to Southern Italy. In addition, base-line demographic, clinical and socio-economic information was collected from study participants who also underwent a full clinical examination. Results Sixty-two study subjects (31.8%) were found positive for Plasmodium using a pan Plasmodium specific NASBA which can detect all four Plasmodium species causing human disease, based on the small subunit 18S rRNA gene (18S NASBA). Twenty-four samples (38%) of the 62 18S NASBA positive study cases were found positive with a Pfs25 mRNA NASBA, which is specific for the detection of gametocytes of Plasmodium falciparum. A statistically significant association was observed between 18S NASBA positivity and splenomegaly, hepatomegaly and leukopaenia and country of origin. Conclusion This study showed that a substantial proportion of people originating from malaria endemic countries harbor malaria parasites in their blood. If transmission conditions are available, they could potentially be a reservoir. Thefore, health authorities should pay special attention to the health of this potential risk group and aim to improve their health conditions. PMID:19138412

  2. Community Trial of a Faith-Based Lifestyle Intervention to Prevent Diabetes among African-Americans*

    PubMed Central

    Sattin, Richard W.; Williams, Lovoria B.; Dias, James; Garvin, Jane T.; Marion, Lucy; Joshua, Thomas V.; Kriska, Andrea; Kramer, M. Kaye; Narayan, K.M. Venkat

    2015-01-01

    About 75% of African Americans (AAs) ages 20 or older are overweight and nearly 50% are obese, but community-based programs to reduce diabetes risk in AAs are rare. Our objective was to reduce weight and fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and increase physical activity (PA) from baseline to week-12 and to month-12 among overweight AA parishioners through a faith-based adaptation of the Diabetes Prevention Program called Fit Body and Soul (FBAS). We conducted a single-blinded, cluster randomized, community trial in 20 AA churches enrolling 604 AAs, aged 20 to 64 years with BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2 and without diabetes. The church (and their parishioners) was randomized to FBAS or health education (HE). FBAS participants had a significant difference in adjusted weight loss compared with those in HE (2.62 kg vs. 0.50 kg, p=0.001) at 12-weeks and (2.39 kg vs. −0.465 kg, p=0.005) at 12-months and were more likely (13%) than HE participants (3%) to achieve a 7% weight loss (p<0.001) at 12-weeks and a 7% weight loss (19% vs. 8%, p<0.001) at 12-months. There were no significant differences in FPG and PA between arms. Of the 15.2% of participants with baseline pre-diabetes, those in FBAS had, however, a significant decline in FPG (10.93 mg/dl) at 12-weeks compared with the 4.22 mg/dl increase in HE (p=0.017), and these differences became larger at 12-months (FBAS, 12.38 mg/dl decrease; HE, 4.44 mg/dl increase)(p=0.021). Our faith-based adaptation of the DPP led to a significant reduction in weight overall and in FPG among pre-diabetes participants. PMID:26215167

  3. Genotyping African haplotypes in ATM using a co-spotted single-base extension assay.

    PubMed

    Jain, Maneesh; Thorstenson, Yvonne R; Faulkner, David M; Pourmand, Nader; Jones, Ted; Au, Melinda; Oefner, Peter J; White, Kevin P; Davis, Ronald W

    2003-09-01

    Human genetic analysis, including population genetic studies, increasingly calls for cost-effective, high-throughput methods for the rapid screening of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) across many individuals. The modified single-base extension assay described here (arrayed SBE) is a highly accurate and robust method for SNP genotyping that can deliver genotypes at 3.5 cents each, following PCR. Specifically, amino-modified probe/target pairs were prehybridized, then co-spotted in a microarray format prior to enzymatic addition of allele-specific nucleotides. Probe/target identity was determined solely by its physical location on the array rather than by hybridization to a complementary target, resulting in a call rate of 99-100%. These innovations result in an inexpensive, accurate assay with exceptional signal-to-noise ratios, depending on the glass surface employed. Comparison of glass slides from three different manufacturers indicated that aldehyde-based Zyomyx slides provided superior performance for this assay. Arrayed SBE was applied to study the geographic distribution of three African-specific haplotypes in the human ATM gene. Four selectively neutral markers, which define the haplotypes H5, H6, and H7, were screened in a total of 415 individuals. Region-specific haplotype frequencies were consistent with patterns of human migration across and outside of Africa, suggesting a possible haplotype origin in East Africa. Arrayed SBE was a robust tool for this analysis that could be applied to any situation requiring the genotyping of a few SNPs in many individuals. Copyright 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  4. The birds, the bees, and the Bible: single African American mothers' perceptions of a faith-based sexuality educaton program.

    PubMed

    Cornelius, Judith Bacchus

    2009-01-01

    This exploratory study examined single mothers' ideas on the development of a faith-based sexuality program. Twenty African American single mothers with adolescent children (11 to 13 years of age) who were of the same faith and members of one church, participated in two focus groups about how a faith-based sexuality program could be designed and implemented. The findings call attention to the need for research on the design of faith-based sexuality education programs for ethnic minority families headed by single mothers.

  5. No evidence for a large difference in ALS frequency in populations of African and European origin: a population based study in inner city London.

    PubMed

    Rojas-Garcia, Ricardo; Scott, Kirsten M; Roche, Jose Carlos; Scotton, William; Martin, Naomi; Janssen, Anna; Goldstein, Laura H; Leigh, P Nigel; Ellis, Cathy M; Shaw, Christopher E; Al-Chalabi, Ammar

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Previous studies have suggested a lower incidence of ALS in people of African origin. We used a population based register in an urban setting from inner city London postcodes where there is a large population of people of African ancestry to compare the frequency of ALS in people of European and African origin. Population statistics stratified by age, gender and ethnicity were obtained from the 2001 census. Incidence and prevalence were calculated in each ethnic group. Results showed that in a population of 683,194, of which 22% were of African ancestry, 88 individuals with ALS were identified over a seven-year period, including 14 people with African ancestry. The adjusted incidence in people of African ancestry was 1.35 per 100,000 person-years (95% CI 0.72-2.3) and in those of European ancestry 1.97 per 100,000 person-years (95% CI 1.55-2.48). In conclusion, in this small population based study we could not detect a difference in rates of ALS between people of African ancestry and those of European ancestry.

  6. Development of a spiritually based educational program to increase colorectal cancer screening among African American men and women.

    PubMed

    Holt, Cheryl L; Roberts, Chastity; Scarinci, Isabel; Wiley, Shereta R; Eloubeidi, Mohamad; Crowther, Martha; Bolland, John; Litaker, Mark S; Southward, Vivian; Coughlin, Steven S

    2009-07-01

    This study describes the development of a spiritually based intervention to increase colorectal cancer screening through African American churches by framing the health message with spiritual themes and scripture. The intervention development phase consisted of ideas from an advisory panel and core content identified in focus groups. In the pilot-testing phase, prototypes of the intervention materials were tested for graphic appeal in additional focus groups, and content was tested for acceptability and comprehension in cognitive interviews. Participants preferred materials showing a variety of African Americans in real settings, bright color schemes, and an uplifting message emphasizing prevention and early detection. Spiritual themes such as stewardship over the body, being well to serve God, and using faith to overcome fear, were well received. The materials were then finalized for implementation and will be used by community health advisors to encourage screening.

  7. A pilot community-based intensive smoking cessation intervention in African Americans: feasibility, acceptability and early outcome indicators.

    PubMed

    King, Andrea; Sánchez-Johnsen, Lisa; Van Orman, Sarah; Cao, Dingcai; Matthews, Alicia

    2008-02-01

    Few intensive and community-based smoking cessation treatment programs have been designed for African-American smokers, a group who experiences numerous health disparities associated with cigarette smoking. The purpose of this study was to examine the feasibility, acceptability and biochemically verified early outcome indicators in a community-based comprehensive smoking cessation program in 50 urban, low- and middle-income African-American smokers. The intervention was an intensive six-session group program delivered in the community and a one-month supply of the transdermal nicotine patch. Results showed 74% of enrolled participants completed the program and 51% of participants were highly adherent to patch use guidelines. Intent-to-treat analyses revealed that 34% of participants were biochemically confirmed as having quit smoking at one month post quit date. Smoking urges and depressive symptoms also declined significantly during the first month. At three- and six-month follow-up, biochemically confirmed quit rates were 22% and 18%, respectively. Adherence to nicotine patch use, higher ratings of the perceived helpfulness of self-monitoring tasks (wrap sheets) and lower depression scores at baseline all significantly predicted quitting success during the first month of treatment (all p's<0.05). Larger studies are warranted to examine targeted treatment elements and individual difference factors to enhance cessation outcomes in African-American smokers.

  8. Development of a single base extension method to resolve Y chromosome haplogroups in sub-Saharan African populations

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The ability of the Y chromosome to retain a record of its evolution has seen it become an essential tool of molecular anthropology. In the last few years, however, it has also found use in forensic genetics, providing information on the geographic origin of individuals. This has been aided by the development of efficient screening methods and an increased knowledge of geographic distribution. In this study, we describe the development of single base extension assays used to resolve 61 Y chromosome haplogroups, mainly within haplogroups A, B and E, found in Africa. Results Seven multiplex assays, which incorporated 60 Y chromosome markers, were developed. These resolved Y chromosomes to 61 terminal branches of the major African haplogroups A, B and E, while also including a few Eurasian haplogroups found occasionally in African males. Following its validation, the assays were used to screen 683 individuals from Southern Africa, including south eastern Bantu speakers (BAN), Khoe-San (KS) and South African Whites (SAW). Of the 61 haplogroups that the assays collectively resolved, 26 were found in the 683 samples. While haplogroup sharing was common between the BAN and KS, the frequencies of these haplogroups varied appreciably. Both groups showed low levels of assimilation of Eurasian haplogroups and only two individuals in the SAW clearly had Y chromosomes of African ancestry. Conclusions The use of these single base extension assays in screening increased haplogroup resolution and sampling throughput, while saving time and DNA. Their use, together with the screening of short tandem repeat markers would considerably improve resolution, thus refining the geographic ancestry of individuals. PMID:21092339

  9. Community engagement with African American clergy: faith-based model for culturally competent practice.

    PubMed

    Stansbury, Kim L; Marshall, Gillian L; Hall, Jodi; Simpson, Gaynell M; Bullock, Karen

    2017-08-21

    The intent of this exploratory qualitative study was to examine African American Baptist clergy's pastoral care to older congregants with mental disorders. Critical Race Theory was the guiding framework in this study. A purposive sample of 18 African American clergy participated in one-on-one interviews. Collectively, all participants were active in the provision of mental health to older congregants with mental disorders. The primary emergent theme 'shepherding the flock' the central phenomenon uncovered in the data, was used to organize a model of pastoral care, which is presented in this paper. Findings from this study supported results from previous studies on the integral role of the Church and clergy in the African American community. Moreover, this study highlights the importance of internal ministries in the Church and the need for further study and potential partnership opportunity.

  10. Validation of satellite-based precipitation estimates over different African River Basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thiemig, V.; Rojas, R.; Levizzani, V.; De Roo, A.

    2012-04-01

    Satellite-based precipitation products have become increasingly available and accessible in near real-time, encouraging the scientific community increasingly to use these data to replace or supplement sparse ground observations. Six satellite-based rainfall estimates (SRFE), namely, CMORPH, RFE 2.0, TRMM 3B42, GPROF 6.0, PERSIANN, GSMaP-MKV, and one reanalysis product (ERA-interim) are validated against rain gauge data over four partly sparsely-gauged African river basins (Zambezi, Volta, Juba-Shabelle and Baro-Akobo). The objective is to provide the scientific community using SRFE as input data for hydro-meteorological applications an intercomparable validation study of these products over different hydro-climatological conditions in Africa. The validation focuses on the general ability of the SRFE products to reproduce daily and monthly rainfall and, particularly, on rainfall characteristics that are relevant to hydro-meteorological applications, such as, annual catchment totals, spatial distribution pattern within the river basin, seasonality of precipitation, number of rainy days per year, and timing and amount of heavy rainfall events. The accuracy of those products is assessed using a ground observation network, comprising of 203 stations with daily records between 2003 and 2006 (data coverage: <25, 25- 50, 50-75 and >75 % of data for 38, 13, 18 and 31 % of stations, respectively). Considering the time and space variability of the different rainfall characteristics as well as the conventional hydrological working units, the validation is done on three spatially-aggregated levels: point, subcatchment, and river basin. For the latter two the ground observations are interpolated using Kriging with External Drift, where the drift is defined as the terrain elevation. The performance is measured using standard statistical measures (MAE, RMSE, pBIAS, r, and NSeff) as well as visual inspection. The examined products showed depending on the spatially-aggregated level

  11. Obesity and prostate cancer aggressiveness among African and Caucasian Americans in a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Su, L Joseph; Arab, Lenore; Steck, Susan E; Fontham, Elizabeth T H; Schroeder, Jane C; Bensen, Jeannette T; Mohler, James L

    2011-05-01

    This study evaluated obesity and prostate cancer aggressiveness relationship in a population-based incident prostate cancer study. The North Carolina-Louisiana Prostate Cancer Project includes medical records data for classification of prostate cancer aggressiveness at diagnosis by using clinical criteria for 1,049 African American (AA) and 1,083 Caucasian American (CA) participants. An association between prostate cancer aggressiveness and obesity, measured using body mass indices (BMI) and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), was assessed using ORs and 95% CIs adjusted for confounders. A significantly positive association was found between prostate cancer aggressiveness and obesity. The ORs for high aggressive prostate cancer among prediagnosis obese and severely obese were 1.48 (95% CI = 1.02-2.16) and 1.98 (95% CI = 1.31-2.97), respectively, compared with normal weight research subjects. Race-stratified results suggested the association is stronger among CAs. Interaction model showed that normal weight AAs had more aggressive prostate cancer than normal weight CAs (OR = 2.69, 95% CI = 1.36-5.30); severe obesity was associated with aggressive disease in AAs (OR = 3.90, 95% CI = 1.97-7.75). WHR > 0.98 among all research subjects adjusted for race was significantly associated with high aggressive prostate cancer (OR = 1.42, 95% CI = 1.00-2.00) when compared with WHR < 0.90. The stratified result is less clear among AAs. This study shows a positive association between obesity and aggressive prostate cancer. AAs have more aggressive prostate cancer in general than CAs even at normal weight. Therefore, the association between obesity and aggressiveness is not as evident in AAs as in CAs. This study provides a unique opportunity to examine impact of race on obesity and high aggressive prostate cancer relationship. ©2011 AACR.

  12. A multi-center population-based case-control study of ovarian cancer in African-American women: the African American Cancer Epidemiology Study (AACES).

    PubMed

    Schildkraut, Joellen M; Alberg, Anthony J; Bandera, Elisa V; Barnholtz-Sloan, Jill; Bondy, Melissa; Cote, Michelle L; Funkhouser, Ellen; Peters, Edward; Schwartz, Ann G; Terry, Paul; Wallace, Kristin; Akushevich, Lucy; Wang, Frances; Crankshaw, Sydnee; Moorman, Patricia G

    2014-09-22

    Ovarian cancer (OVCA) is the leading cause of death from gynecological cancer, with poorer survival for African American (AA) women compared to whites. However, little is known about risk factors for OVCA in AA. To study the epidemiology of OVCA in this population, we started a collaborative effort in 10 sites in the US. Here we describe the study and highlight the challenges of conducting a study of a lethal disease in a minority population. The African American Cancer Epidemiology Study (AACES) is an ongoing, population-based case-control study of OVCA in AA in 10 geographic locations, aiming to recruit 850 women with invasive epithelial OVCA and 850 controls age- and geographically-matched to cases. Rapid case ascertainment and random-digit-dialing systems are in place to ascertain cases and controls, respectively. A telephone survey focuses on risk factors as well as factors of particular relevance for AAs. Food-frequency questionnaires, follow-up surveys, biospecimens and medical records are also obtained. Current accrual of 403 AA OVCA cases and 639 controls exceeds that of any existing study to date. We observed a high proportion (15%) of deceased non-responders among the cases that in part is explained by advanced stage at diagnosis. A logistic regression model did not support that socio-economic status was a factor in advanced stage at diagnosis. Most risk factor associations were in the expected direction and magnitude. High BMI was associated with ovarian cancer risk, with multivariable adjusted ORs and 95% CIs of 1.50 (0.99-2.27) for obese and 1.27 (0.85- 1.91) for morbidly obese women compared to normal/underweight women. AACES targets a rare tumor in AAs and addresses issues most relevant to this population. The importance of the study is accentuated by the high proportion of OVCA cases ascertained as deceased. Our analyses indicated that obesity, highly prevalent in this population (>60% of the cases), was associated with increased OVCA risk. While

  13. Feasibility and Acceptability of an Internet-Based, African Dance-Modified Yoga Program for African-American Women with or at Risk for Metabolic Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Candace C; Taylor, Ann Gill; Anderson, Joel G; Jones, Randy A; Whaley, Diane E

    2014-01-01

    African-American (AA) women are the segment of the population that experiences the highest mortality from metabolic syndrome (MetS). Yoga decreases risk of MetS, yet there have been no yoga studies of AA women with or at risk for MetS. The purpose of this 4-week study was to test the feasibility and acceptability of a culturally tailored, Internet-based intervention, yogic dance (YD), using digital videos in a sample of AA women (ages 35-64) at risk for or with MetS. The investigators examined the rates of accrual, attrition, and reasons for attrition; the feasibility of using the Internet to deliver the intervention; the acceptability of the intervention as structured; and any other benefits and/or limitations of YD. The study used a single-group, mixed-methods design underpinned by social constructivist theory and Pender's Health Promotion Model. Twenty-four women provided consent to enroll in the study. After completing in-person semi-structured interviews and Internet-based measures, including the Physical Activity Readiness Questionnaire, and the modified International Physical Activity Questionnaire, consented participants engaged in 4-weeks of the yogic dance intervention via daily video-based instructions located on the study Web site. After the intervention, four women participated in focus groups to voice their perceptions of barriers to and benefits from YD and the acceptability of using the YD intervention. The investigators analyzed focus group data using content/thematic analysis and validated themes with baseline semi-structured interviews. The majority of the women (79%) found YD acceptable. Themes that emerged from the descriptive data include: (1) Culture is an important aspect of yogic dance; and (2) Increased social support would enhance yogic dance participation. The integrated results from this feasibility study will inform research exploring the complex correlates that influence health behaviors in AA women. PMID:25593785

  14. Feasibility and Acceptability of an Internet-Based, African Dance-Modified Yoga Program for African-American Women with or at Risk for Metabolic Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Candace C; Taylor, Ann Gill; Anderson, Joel G; Jones, Randy A; Whaley, Diane E

    African-American (AA) women are the segment of the population that experiences the highest mortality from metabolic syndrome (MetS). Yoga decreases risk of MetS, yet there have been no yoga studies of AA women with or at risk for MetS. The purpose of this 4-week study was to test the feasibility and acceptability of a culturally tailored, Internet-based intervention, yogic dance (YD), using digital videos in a sample of AA women (ages 35-64) at risk for or with MetS. The investigators examined the rates of accrual, attrition, and reasons for attrition; the feasibility of using the Internet to deliver the intervention; the acceptability of the intervention as structured; and any other benefits and/or limitations of YD. The study used a single-group, mixed-methods design underpinned by social constructivist theory and Pender's Health Promotion Model. Twenty-four women provided consent to enroll in the study. After completing in-person semi-structured interviews and Internet-based measures, including the Physical Activity Readiness Questionnaire, and the modified International Physical Activity Questionnaire, consented participants engaged in 4-weeks of the yogic dance intervention via daily video-based instructions located on the study Web site. After the intervention, four women participated in focus groups to voice their perceptions of barriers to and benefits from YD and the acceptability of using the YD intervention. The investigators analyzed focus group data using content/thematic analysis and validated themes with baseline semi-structured interviews. The majority of the women (79%) found YD acceptable. Themes that emerged from the descriptive data include: (1) Culture is an important aspect of yogic dance; and (2) Increased social support would enhance yogic dance participation. The integrated results from this feasibility study will inform research exploring the complex correlates that influence health behaviors in AA women.

  15. Church-based obesity treatment for African-American women improves adherence.

    PubMed

    Sbrocco, Tracy; Carter, Michele M; Lewis, Evelyn L; Vaughn, Nicole A; Kalupa, Kimberly L; King, Sandra; Suchday, Sonia; Osborn, Robyn L; Cintrón, Jennifer A

    2005-01-01

    This study compared adherence to Behavioral Choice Treatment (BCT), a 12-week obesity treatment program that promotes weight loss and exercise, among 22 Caucasian-American and 10 African-American overweight women in a university setting to 10 African-American overweight women in a church setting. Behavioral Choice Treatment (BCT) promotes moderate behavior change that can be comfortably and therefore permanently maintained. Participants obtained feedback from computerized eating diaries and kept exercise logs. Results indicated that both university groups exhibited comparable eating pathology at pre- and post-treatment and comparable weight loss, despite the African-American sample attending fewer sessions. The African-American church group exhibited less disordered eating attitudes, less interpersonal distrust (eg, reluctance to form close relationships or sense of alienation) at pre-treatment, and experienced significantly greater weight loss than either university group. All groups lost weight and maintained these losses at 12-month follow-up. Preliminary results suggest treatment setting may play an important role in treatment adherence and sample characteristics.

  16. Stroma-Based Prognosticators Incorporating Differences between African and European Americans

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-10-01

    time for reviewing instructions, searching existing data sources, gathering and maintaining the data needed, and completing and reviewing this...cancer progression. The disease is of different epidemiology in African Americans (AA) and European Americans (EA) and they also differ in the...prognosticators from training set. months Status Subtask 1: Regulatory review and approval processes, including local Institutional Review

  17. Investing in Africa's Youth (Based on the African Economic Outlook 2008). Policy Insights No. 62

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wegner, Lucia

    2008-01-01

    Some 133 million young people (half of Africa's young) are illiterate; many have few or no skills. Such figures tell their own story: African youth need vocational training. This brief reports that technical and vocational systems in Africa are poorly funded and managed, and advocates for the integration of skill-development strategies into…

  18. Project-Based Learning about Nutrition with Technology in an African-American Middle School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banks, Sibyl

    2010-01-01

    In the last few years, there has been a growing problem with the prevalence of being overweight. This is becoming an accepted lifestyle in the African American community, and has begun to impact not just adults, but also adolescents and young children. There are problems associated with being overweight or obese that could have lifetime…

  19. Church-Based Obesity Treatment for African-American Women Improves Adherence

    PubMed Central

    Sbrocco, Tracy; Carter, Michele M.; Lewis, Evelyn L.; Vaughn, Nicole A.; Kalupa, Kimberly L.; King, Sandra; Suchday, Sonia; Osborn, Robyn L.; Cintrón, Jennifer A.

    2009-01-01

    This study compared adherence to Behavioral Choice Treatment (BCT), a 12-week obesity treatment program that promotes weight loss and exercise, among 22 Caucasian-American and 10 African-American overweight women in a university setting to 10 African-American overweight women in a church setting. Behavioral Choice Treatment (BCT) promotes moderate behavior change that can be comfortably and therefore permanently maintained.14 Participants obtained feedback from computerized eating diaries and kept exercise logs. Results indicated that both university groups exhibited comparable eating pathology at pre-and post-treatment and comparable weight loss, despite the African-American sample attending fewer sessions. The African-American church group exhibited less disordered eating attitudes, less interpersonal distrust (eg, reluctance to form close relationships or sense of alienation) at pre-treatment, and experienced significantly greater weight loss than either university group. All groups lost weight and maintained these losses at 12-month follow-up. Preliminary results suggest treatment setting may play an important role in treatment adherence and sample characteristics. PMID:15825971

  20. A Strengths-Based Parenting Intervention with Low-Income African American Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheely-Moore, Angela I.; Bratton, Sue C.

    2010-01-01

    With the propensity of African American children at higher risk for academic success due to their disproportionate rate of school discipline problems compared to their peers, school counselors are challenged to provide culturally and developmentally responsive services for this population. This article provides a brief rationale for the use of a…

  1. Linking Home-School Dissonance to School-Based Outcomes for African American High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tyler, Kenneth; Brown-Wright, Lynda; Stevens-Watkins, Danelle; Thomas, Deneia; Stevens, Ruby; Roan-Belle, Clarissa; Gadson, Nadia; Smith, La Toya

    2010-01-01

    The current study examined associations between home-school dissonance and several academic and psychological variables among 239 African American high school students. Regression analyses revealed that home-school dissonance significantly predicted multiple academic and psychological variables, including academic cheating, disruptive classroom…

  2. Discovering Africa through Internet-Based Geographic Information Systems: A Pan-African Summit Simulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milson, Andrew J.; Gilbert, Kathleen M.; Earle, Brian D.

    2007-01-01

    In the United States, people get very little news about Africa, and what news they do get is about war or famine, with little historical information or context. In this article, the authors describe how they developed and implemented a Pan-African Summit simulation project in order to give their approximately 100, 9th-grade students (in five World…

  3. Wine and vinegar-based attractants for the African fig fly (Diptera: Drosophilidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The African fig fly (AFF), Zaprionus indianus Gupta (Diptera: Drosophilidae), is an invasive fruit pest that has spread rapidly through much of the eastern United States after first being detected in Florida in 2005. This drosophilid is a primary pest of figs in Brazil, so there were initial concern...

  4. A Strengths-Based Parenting Intervention with Low-Income African American Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheely-Moore, Angela I.; Bratton, Sue C.

    2010-01-01

    With the propensity of African American children at higher risk for academic success due to their disproportionate rate of school discipline problems compared to their peers, school counselors are challenged to provide culturally and developmentally responsive services for this population. This article provides a brief rationale for the use of a…

  5. The Benefits of a Friendship-Based HIV/STI Prevention Intervention for African American Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harper, Gary W.; Dolcini, M. Margaret; Benhorin, Shira; Watson, Susan E.; Boyer, Cherrie B.

    2014-01-01

    This article presents findings from a qualitative evaluation of an HIV/STI (sexually transmitted infection) prevention intervention for urban African American youth (Project ÒRÉ), which was delivered to groups of 3 to 8 adolescents who were members of the same friendship network. Sixteen focus groups (N = 63) were conducted with youth following…

  6. Community-based breast cancer intervention program for older African American women in beauty salons.

    PubMed

    Forte, D A

    1995-01-01

    African American women are at high risk for morbidity and mortality from breast cancer. African American women ages 50 and older have been a difficult group to reach through conventional breast cancer intervention programs. Cultural and health beliefs that differ from mainstream society are reported to be factors contributing to the low rates of breast screening among this group. In addition to these attitudinal factors, older African American women are disproportionately represented among uninsured and under-insured Americans. As a result, cost becomes a barrier to mammography screening for many of these women. This project proposes to increase breast cancer screening awareness and provide a referral or free breast screening, or both, for African American women ages 50 and older. This information will be offered in the culturally familiar setting of local beauty salons. The culturally sensitive educational pamphlets developed by the National Cancer Institute (NCI) and video developed by the NCI-funded project, Cancer Prevention Research Unit, will be used to promote mammography, clinical breast examinations, and breast self-examination. Providers staffing a mobile mammography van provided by Dr. Anitha Mitchell of the Association of Black Women Physicians through a grant from the Breast and Cervical Cancer Control Program, funded by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, will perform mammograms for women on site during scheduled intervals. A followup telephone survey will be conducted.

  7. The Benefits of a Friendship-Based HIV/STI Prevention Intervention for African American Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harper, Gary W.; Dolcini, M. Margaret; Benhorin, Shira; Watson, Susan E.; Boyer, Cherrie B.

    2014-01-01

    This article presents findings from a qualitative evaluation of an HIV/STI (sexually transmitted infection) prevention intervention for urban African American youth (Project ÒRÉ), which was delivered to groups of 3 to 8 adolescents who were members of the same friendship network. Sixteen focus groups (N = 63) were conducted with youth following…

  8. Applied Research Centres at South African Universities. The Relationship between 'Base' Internal Structures and Network 'Superstructures'

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, David

    2005-01-01

    This article considers the way in which applied research centres and units at South African higher education institutions enhance their networks with industry, government and community organizations. The findings from 12 case studies of research groupings at higher education institutions in Cape Town support the author's argument for a more…

  9. Linking Home-School Dissonance to School-Based Outcomes for African American High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tyler, Kenneth; Brown-Wright, Lynda; Stevens-Watkins, Danelle; Thomas, Deneia; Stevens, Ruby; Roan-Belle, Clarissa; Gadson, Nadia; Smith, La Toya

    2010-01-01

    The current study examined associations between home-school dissonance and several academic and psychological variables among 239 African American high school students. Regression analyses revealed that home-school dissonance significantly predicted multiple academic and psychological variables, including academic cheating, disruptive classroom…

  10. Discovering Africa through Internet-Based Geographic Information Systems: A Pan-African Summit Simulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milson, Andrew J.; Gilbert, Kathleen M.; Earle, Brian D.

    2007-01-01

    In the United States, people get very little news about Africa, and what news they do get is about war or famine, with little historical information or context. In this article, the authors describe how they developed and implemented a Pan-African Summit simulation project in order to give their approximately 100, 9th-grade students (in five World…

  11. Investing in Africa's Youth (Based on the African Economic Outlook 2008). Policy Insights No. 62

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wegner, Lucia

    2008-01-01

    Some 133 million young people (half of Africa's young) are illiterate; many have few or no skills. Such figures tell their own story: African youth need vocational training. This brief reports that technical and vocational systems in Africa are poorly funded and managed, and advocates for the integration of skill-development strategies into…

  12. Trial of labour and vaginal birth after previous caesarean section: A population based study of Eastern African immigrants in Victoria, Australia.

    PubMed

    Belihu, Fetene B; Small, Rhonda; Davey, Mary-Ann

    2017-03-01

    Variations in caesarean section (CS) between some immigrant groups and receiving country populations have been widely reported. Often, African immigrant women are at higher risk of CS than the receiving population in developed countries. However, evidence about subsequent mode of birth following CS for African women post-migration is lacking. The objective of this study was to examine differences in attempted and successful vaginal birth after previous caesarean (VBAC) for Eastern African immigrants (Eritrea, Ethiopia, Somalia and Sudan) compared with Australian-born women. A population-based observational study was conducted using the Victorian Perinatal Data Collection. Pearson's chi-square test and logistic regression analysis were performed to generate adjusted odds ratios for attempted and successful VBAC. Victoria, Australia. 554 Eastern African immigrants and 24,587 Australian-born eligible women with previous CS having singleton births in public care. 41.5% of Eastern African immigrant women and 26.1% Australian-born women attempted a VBAC with 50.9% of Eastern African immigrants and 60.5% of Australian-born women being successful. After adjusting for maternal demographic characteristics and available clinical confounding factors, Eastern African immigrants were more likely to attempt (ORadj 1.94, 95% CI 1.57-2.47) but less likely to succeed (ORadj 0.54 95% CI 0.41-0.71) in having a VBAC. There are disparities in attempted and successful VBAC between Eastern African origin and Australian-born women. Unsuccessful VBAC attempt is more common among Eastern African immigrants, suggesting the need for improved strategies to select and support potential candidates for vaginal birth among these immigrants to enhance success and reduce potential complications associated with failed VBAC attempt. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. African American Advanced Placement chemistry students and their developing study habits: A phenomenologically-based interpretive study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rasmussen, Natalie D.

    The academic achievement gap between African American and White students has gained much attention in recent years. Much has been written about the causes of and reasons for this problem ranging from the vestigial effects of slavery to poor parenting. Much less has been written or understood about its solution. While it is impossible for educators to change the pasts of their African American students, it is possible to effect change for the few minutes in which they are in direct contact with them each day. If African American science students are taught effective study skills and habits, then perhaps they might have the tools to close the achievement gap themselves. The participants in this phenomenologically based interpretive study were five African American Advanced Placement Chemistry students from an inner-city high school. Three in-depth interviews were conducted with each of the participants during the beginning, middle and end of a semester. The purpose of the interviews was to locate the students in terms of their thought processes, experiences and perceived barriers concerning the nature and practice of effective study and retention of chemistry content. The interviews were recorded and transcribed. The texts were then analyzed for common themes. Five common themes emerged from the interviews. These were: (1) Homework vs. Study: a distinction between homework---which students knew how to approach; and study---which they did not. (2) Student Effort: their changing perception of adequate and effective study practices while in a rigorous course. (3) Teacher Rigor: they perceived high expectations and challenging work as a sign of respect from their teachers. (4) Parental Involvement: students' admission that they desired more input from parents regarding their academic performance. (5) Racial Considerations: their need to disprove negative stereotypes and their personal observations regarding racial differences in studying. A discussion of the themes and

  14. Comparative assessment of absolute cardiovascular disease risk characterization from non-laboratory-based risk assessment in South African populations

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background All rigorous primary cardiovascular disease (CVD) prevention guidelines recommend absolute CVD risk scores to identify high- and low-risk patients, but laboratory testing can be impractical in low- and middle-income countries. The purpose of this study was to compare the ranking performance of a simple, non-laboratory-based risk score to laboratory-based scores in various South African populations. Methods We calculated and compared 10-year CVD (or coronary heart disease (CHD)) risk for 14,772 adults from thirteen cross-sectional South African populations (data collected from 1987 to 2009). Risk characterization performance for the non-laboratory-based score was assessed by comparing rankings of risk with six laboratory-based scores (three versions of Framingham risk, SCORE for high- and low-risk countries, and CUORE) using Spearman rank correlation and percent of population equivalently characterized as ‘high’ or ‘low’ risk. Total 10-year non-laboratory-based risk of CVD death was also calculated for a representative cross-section from the 1998 South African Demographic Health Survey (DHS, n = 9,379) to estimate the national burden of CVD mortality risk. Results Spearman correlation coefficients for the non-laboratory-based score with the laboratory-based scores ranged from 0.88 to 0.986. Using conventional thresholds for CVD risk (10% to 20% 10-year CVD risk), 90% to 92% of men and 94% to 97% of women were equivalently characterized as ‘high’ or ‘low’ risk using the non-laboratory-based and Framingham (2008) CVD risk score. These results were robust across the six risk scores evaluated and the thirteen cross-sectional datasets, with few exceptions (lower agreement between the non-laboratory-based and Framingham (1991) CHD risk scores). Approximately 18% of adults in the DHS population were characterized as ‘high CVD risk’ (10-year CVD death risk >20%) using the non-laboratory-based score. Conclusions We found a high level of

  15. Adaptation of a Couple-Based HIV Intervention for Methamphetamine-Involved African American Men who have Sex with Men

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Elwin; El-Bassel, Nabila; Donald McVinney, L.; Fontaine, Yves-Michel; Hess, Leona

    2010-01-01

    In the U.S., incidence of HIV infection among men who have sex with men (MSM) has steadily increased since the 1990s. This points to a need for innovation to address both emerging trends as well as longer-standing disparities in HIV risk and transmission among MSM, such as the elevated rates of HIV/STIs among African American MSM and methamphetamine users. While couple-based sexual risk reduction interventions are a promising avenue to reduce HIV/STI transmission, prior research has been almost exclusively with heterosexual couples. We sought to adapt an existing, evidence-based intervention—originally developed and tested with heterosexual couples—for a new target population consisting of African American MSM in a longer-term same-sex relationship where at least one partner uses methamphetamine. The adaptation process primarily drew from data obtained from a series of focus groups with 8 couples from the target population. Attention is given to the methods used to overcome challenges faced in this adaptation process: limited time, a lead investigator who is phenotypically different from the target population, a dearth of descriptive information on the experiences and worldviews among the target population, and a concomitant lack of topical experts. We also describe a visualization tool used to ensure that the adaptation process promotes and maintains adherence to the theory that guides the intervention and behavior change. The process culminated with an intervention adapted for the new target population as well as preliminary indications that a couple-based sexual-risk reduction intervention for African American, methamphetamine-involved male couples is feasible and attractive. PMID:20657720

  16. Age Determination by Back Length for African Savanna Elephants: Extending Age Assessment Techniques for Aerial-Based Surveys

    PubMed Central

    Trimble, Morgan J.; van Aarde, Rudi J.; Ferreira, Sam M.; Nørgaard, Camilla F.; Fourie, Johan; Lee, Phyllis C.; Moss, Cynthia J.

    2011-01-01

    Determining the age of individuals in a population can lead to a better understanding of population dynamics through age structure analysis and estimation of age-specific fecundity and survival rates. Shoulder height has been used to accurately assign age to free-ranging African savanna elephants. However, back length may provide an analog measurable in aerial-based surveys. We assessed the relationship between back length and age for known-age elephants in Amboseli National Park, Kenya, and Addo Elephant National Park, South Africa. We also compared age- and sex-specific back lengths between these populations and compared adult female back lengths across 11 widely dispersed populations in five African countries. Sex-specific Von Bertalanffy growth curves provided a good fit to the back length data of known-age individuals. Based on back length, accurate ages could be assigned relatively precisely for females up to 23 years of age and males up to 17. The female back length curve allowed more precise age assignment to older females than the curve for shoulder height does, probably because of divergence between the respective growth curves. However, this did not appear to be the case for males, but the sample of known-age males was limited to ≤27 years. Age- and sex-specific back lengths were similar in Amboseli National Park and Addo Elephant National Park. Furthermore, while adult female back lengths in the three Zambian populations were generally shorter than in other populations, back lengths in the remaining eight populations did not differ significantly, in support of claims that growth patterns of African savanna elephants are similar over wide geographic regions. Thus, the growth curves presented here should allow researchers to use aerial-based surveys to assign ages to elephants with greater precision than previously possible and, therefore, to estimate population variables. PMID:22028925

  17. Age determination by back length for African savanna elephants: extending age assessment techniques for aerial-based surveys.

    PubMed

    Trimble, Morgan J; van Aarde, Rudi J; Ferreira, Sam M; Nørgaard, Camilla F; Fourie, Johan; Lee, Phyllis C; Moss, Cynthia J

    2011-01-01

    Determining the age of individuals in a population can lead to a better understanding of population dynamics through age structure analysis and estimation of age-specific fecundity and survival rates. Shoulder height has been used to accurately assign age to free-ranging African savanna elephants. However, back length may provide an analog measurable in aerial-based surveys. We assessed the relationship between back length and age for known-age elephants in Amboseli National Park, Kenya, and Addo Elephant National Park, South Africa. We also compared age- and sex-specific back lengths between these populations and compared adult female back lengths across 11 widely dispersed populations in five African countries. Sex-specific Von Bertalanffy growth curves provided a good fit to the back length data of known-age individuals. Based on back length, accurate ages could be assigned relatively precisely for females up to 23 years of age and males up to 17. The female back length curve allowed more precise age assignment to older females than the curve for shoulder height does, probably because of divergence between the respective growth curves. However, this did not appear to be the case for males, but the sample of known-age males was limited to ≤27 years. Age- and sex-specific back lengths were similar in Amboseli National Park and Addo Elephant National Park. Furthermore, while adult female back lengths in the three Zambian populations were generally shorter than in other populations, back lengths in the remaining eight populations did not differ significantly, in support of claims that growth patterns of African savanna elephants are similar over wide geographic regions. Thus, the growth curves presented here should allow researchers to use aerial-based surveys to assign ages to elephants with greater precision than previously possible and, therefore, to estimate population variables.

  18. Advancing the Africentric paradigm shift discourse: building toward evidence-based Africentric interventions in social work practice with African Americans.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, Dorie J; Harvey, Aminifu R; Belgrave, Faye Z

    2009-07-01

    For over a decade, a number of social work scholars have advocated for an Africentric paradigm shift in social work practice with African Americans; yet the paradigm shift has been slow in coming with respect to infusing Africentric theory and interventions into social work practice, education, and research. Interventions that infuse Africentric values (such as interdependence, collectivism, transformation, and spirituality) have been shown to create significant change across a number of areas important to social work practice with African Americans. However, a barrier to the full integration of Africentric models into social work practice is that Africentric programs lack cohesive documentation and replication and, thus, have limited potential to be established as evidence-based practices. The authors present an overview of various Africentric interventions, including their program components and methods of evaluation, with the aim of establishing guideposts or next steps in developing a discourse on Africentric interventions that are promising best practices or are emerging as evidence-based practices. The authors conclude with implications for social work practice, education, and research and a call for Africentric scholars to engage in increased discussion, dissemination of manualized treatments, and collaborative research to build the evidence-based Africentric knowledge base and foster replication of studies.

  19. Feasibility of a web-based training system for peer community health advisors in cancer early detection among african americans.

    PubMed

    Santos, Sherie Lou Z; Tagai, Erin K; Wang, Min Qi; Scheirer, Mary Ann; Slade, Jimmie L; Holt, Cheryl L

    2014-12-01

    We describe the feasibility of a Web-based portal for training peer community health advisors (CHAs). We conducted a community-based implementation trial in African American churches between 2012 and 2014. The Web-based portal allows CHAs to log in and view 13 training videos, preparing them to deliver 3 cancer early detection workshops in their churches. Of 8 churches, 6 completed the training, each certifying 2 CHAs. These CHAs took an average of 26 days to complete the training, requiring little technical assistance. Additional technical assistance was required to implement the workshops. The Web-based system appears to be a feasible method for training lay individuals for the CHA role and has implications for increasing the reach of evidence-based interventions.

  20. Diagnosis of human African trypanosomiasis and visceral leishmaniasis based on the detection of anti-parasite-enzyme antibodies.

    PubMed

    Borowy, N K; Schell, D; Schäfer, C; Overath, P

    1991-08-01

    A sensitive diagnostic assay for parasitic infections based on the detection of anti-enzyme antibodies is presented. All serum antibodies produced in response to parasite antigens are immobilized via their Fc domain on matrix-bound protein G. Incubation of the immobilized antibodies with saturating amounts of parasite extract results in the binding of all recognized antigens, including those directed against a specific and readily measurable enzyme. The amount of bound enzyme is proportional to the anti-enzyme antibody concentration in the serum. The application of this principle is demonstrated for the diagnosis of both human African trypanosomiasis and visceral leishmaniasis by the detection of antibodies against parasite acid phosphatases.

  1. Development of an Empirically Based Preventive Intervention for Depression in Preadolescent African American Girls.

    PubMed

    Duffy, Sophia; Brown, Tasha M; Katsonga-Phiri, Tiamo; Bouris, Alida; Grant, Kathryn E; Keenan, Kate

    2016-05-01

    We describe the development, feasibility, and acceptability of a novel preventive intervention for depression in African American girls living in urban poverty. Our approach targeted individual and interpersonal vulnerabilities that have been shown to confer risk for depression in samples of African American girls living in low-income, urban settings, including suppression of negative emotion and lack of assertiveness with peers, memory for positive emotion, active coping, and family connection. Focus groups and an open trial were conducted to refine the goals and mechanisms for skill building. A randomized controlled trial (RCT) of the new program (Cities Mother-Daughter Project) was conducted with 3rd-5th grade students from Chicago Public Schools (CPS). Three cycles of screening, randomization, and deployment were conducted to assess feasibility, satisfaction, and usability. Results indicate that feasibility was weak; whereas, satisfaction and usability were high. Future directions for testing efficacy are discussed.

  2. Joy of living: a community-based mental health promotion program for African American elders.

    PubMed

    Crewe, Sandra Edmonds

    2007-01-01

    African American elders are often acknowledged for their resilience in overcoming discrimination. Because of their unique historical experience, many have relied upon family support and spirituality to address mental health problems and have shunned professional mental health services. Despite the strengths of African American elders, there are mental health needs that require professional intervention. This article specifically discusses a mental health promotion program sponsored by the Mental Health Association of the District of Columbia. It provides a description of the program and an evaluation of its outcomes. An analysis of pre and post intervention evaluations (n = 228) shows success of the intervention in raising participant awareness of normal and abnormal mental health as well as resources available to them.

  3. Collaborative Development of Clinical Trials Education Programs for African American Community-Based Organizations

    PubMed Central

    Blakeney, Natasha; Michaels, Margo; Green, Melissa; Richmond, Al; Long, Debra; Robinson, William; Corbie-Smith, Giselle

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes the use of a unique ”Learning and Feedback” approach to tailor cancer clinical trials education programs for Community Bridges, a peer training intervention designed for African American communities in North Carolina. Generic community education modules were demonstrated with key community leaders who were designated as trainers. Quantitative and qualitative assessments were provided on understanding of content, comfort with material and cultural relevance. The generic materials were adapted into three revised modules, all featuring key messages about cancer clinical trials, discussion regarding distrust of medical research, common misconceptions about trials, patient protections, and a call to action to prompt increased inquiry about locally available trials. The revised modules were then used as part of a train-the-trainer program with 12 African American community leaders. ENACCT’s use of the Learning and Feedback process is an innovative method for culturally adapting clinical trials education. PMID:24906502

  4. Collaborative development of clinical trials education programs for African-American community-based organizations.

    PubMed

    Blakeney, Natasha; Michaels, Margo; Green, Melissa; Richmond, Alan; Long, Debra; Robinson, William S; Spicer, Carmelita; Elliott-Bynum, Sharon; Corbie-Smith, Giselle

    2015-06-01

    This paper describes the use of a unique "Learning and Feedbackˮ approach to customize cancer clinical trials education programs for Community Bridges, a peer training intervention designed for African-American communities in North Carolina. Generic community education modules were demonstrated with key community leaders who were designated as trainers. Quantitative and qualitative assessments were provided on understanding of content, comfort with material, and cultural relevance. The generic materials were adapted into three revised modules, all featuring key messages about cancer clinical trials, discussion regarding distrust of medical research, common misconceptions about trials, patient protections, and a call to action to prompt increased inquiry about locally available trials. The revised modules were then used as part of a train-the-trainer program with 12 African-American community leaders. ENACCT's use of the Learning and Feedback process is an innovative method for culturally adapting clinical trials education.

  5. An ICT-Based Diabetes Management System Tested for Health Care Delivery in the African Context

    PubMed Central

    Takenga, Claude; Berndt, Rolf-Dietrich; Musongya, Olivier; Kitero, Joël; Katoke, Remi; Molo, Kakule; Kazingufu, Basile; Meni, Malikwisha; Vikandy, Mambo; Takenga, Henri

    2014-01-01

    The demand for new healthcare services is growing rapidly. Improving accessibility of the African population to diabetes care seems to be a big challenge in most countries where the number of care centers and medical staff is reduced. Information and communication technologies (ICT) have great potential to address some of these challenges faced by several countries in providing accessible, cost-effective, and high-quality health care services. This paper presents the Mobil Diab system which is a telemedical approach proposed for the management of long-term diseases. The system applies modern mobile and web technologies which overcome geographical barriers, and increase access to health care services. The idea of the system is to involve patients in the therapy process and motivate them for an active participation. For validation of the system in African context, a trial was conducted in the Democratic Republic of Congo. 40 Subjects with diabetes divided randomly into control and intervention groups were included in the test. Results show that Mobil Diab is suitable for African countries and presents a number of benefits for the population and public health care system. It improves clinical management and delivery of diabetes care services by enhancing access, quality, motivation, reassurance, efficiency, and cost-effectiveness. PMID:25136358

  6. An ICT-Based Diabetes Management System Tested for Health Care Delivery in the African Context.

    PubMed

    Takenga, Claude; Berndt, Rolf-Dietrich; Musongya, Olivier; Kitero, Joël; Katoke, Remi; Molo, Kakule; Kazingufu, Basile; Meni, Malikwisha; Vikandy, Mambo; Takenga, Henri

    2014-01-01

    The demand for new healthcare services is growing rapidly. Improving accessibility of the African population to diabetes care seems to be a big challenge in most countries where the number of care centers and medical staff is reduced. Information and communication technologies (ICT) have great potential to address some of these challenges faced by several countries in providing accessible, cost-effective, and high-quality health care services. This paper presents the Mobil Diab system which is a telemedical approach proposed for the management of long-term diseases. The system applies modern mobile and web technologies which overcome geographical barriers, and increase access to health care services. The idea of the system is to involve patients in the therapy process and motivate them for an active participation. For validation of the system in African context, a trial was conducted in the Democratic Republic of Congo. 40 Subjects with diabetes divided randomly into control and intervention groups were included in the test. Results show that Mobil Diab is suitable for African countries and presents a number of benefits for the population and public health care system. It improves clinical management and delivery of diabetes care services by enhancing access, quality, motivation, reassurance, efficiency, and cost-effectiveness.

  7. Ancestry informative marker panels for African Americans based on subsets of commercially available SNP arrays.

    PubMed

    Tandon, Arti; Patterson, Nick; Reich, David

    2011-01-01

    Admixture mapping is a widely used method for localizing disease genes in African Americans. Most current methods for inferring ancestry at each locus in the genome use a few thousand single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that are very different in frequency between West Africans and European Americans, and that are required to not be in linkage disequilibrium in the ancestral populations. Modern SNP arrays provide data on hundreds of thousands of SNPs per sample, and to use these to infer ancestry, using many of the standard methods, it is necessary to choose subsets of the SNPs for analysis. Here we present panels of about 4,300 ancestry informative markers (AIMs) that are subsets respectively of SNPs on the Illumina 1 M, Illumina 650, Illumina 610, Affymetrix 6.0 and Affymetrix 5.0 arrays. To validate the usefulness of these panels, we applied them to samples that are different from the ones used to select the SNPs. The panels provide about 80% of the maximum information about African or European ancestry, even with up to 10% missing data. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  8. Highly elevated PSA and dietary PhIP intake in a prospective clinic-based study among African Americans.

    PubMed

    Bogen, K T; Keating, G A; Chan, J M; Paine, L J; Simms, E L; Nelson, D O; Holly, E A

    2007-01-01

    African-American men die from prostate cancer (PC) nearly twice as often as white US men and consume about twice as much of the predominant US dietary heterocyclic amine, 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP), a genotoxic rat-prostate carcinogen found primarily in well-cooked chicken and beef. To investigate the hypothesis that PhIP exposure increases PC risk, an ongoing prospective clinic-based study compared PC screening outcomes with survey-based estimates of dietary PhIP intake among 40-70-year-old African-American men with no prior PC in Oakland, CA. They completed food-frequency and meat-cooking/consumption questionnaires and had a prostate-specific antigen (PSA) test and digital-rectal exam. Results for 392 men indicated a 17 (+/-17) ng/kg day mean (+/-1 s.d.) daily intake of PhIP, about twice that of white US men of similar age. PhIP intake was attributable mostly to chicken (61%) and positively associated (R(2)=0.32, P<0.0001) with saturated fat intake. An odds ratio (95% confidence interval) of 31 (3.1-690) for highly elevated PSA > or =20 ng/ml was observed in the highest 15% vs lowest 50% of estimated daily PhIP intake (> or =30 vs < or =10 ng/kg day) among men 50+ years old (P=0.0002 for trend) and remained significant after adjustment for self-reported family history of (brother or father) PC, saturated fat intake and total energy intake. PSA measures were higher in African-American men with positive family history (P=0.007 all men, P<0.0001 highest PSA quartile). These preliminary results are consistent with a positive association between PhIP intake and highly elevated PSA, supporting the hypothesis that dietary intervention may help reduce PC risk.

  9. Breathing retraining for African-American adolescents with asthma: a pilot study of a school-based randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Bignall, Whitney Janee Raglin; Luberto, Christina Marie; Cornette, Adrianne Falkenberg; Haj-Hamed, Monzer; Cotton, Sian

    2015-01-01

    Asthma affects approximately seven million children/adolescents in the USA, with African-American children disproportionately affected. Breathing retraining techniques have been shown to improve asthma outcomes in adults, though research in youth is limited. The purpose of this pilot study was to test the feasibility and preliminary efficacy of a school-based randomized controlled trial of breathing retraining for asthma outcomes and anxiety symptoms in a sample of urban, African-American adolescents. Adolescents were randomized into either the intervention group (20-min breathing retraining plus education) or control group (20-min standard education). Participants completed two study visits, one month apart. Asthma control, asthma quality of life and lung functioning (FEV1 and peak flow) were the primary outcomes, and state anxiety (pre-post the intervention) and trait anxiety (over the one-month period) were the secondary outcomes. Thirty-three African-American adolescents participated in the study, with a 90% retention rate between visit 1 and visit 2. Asthma control and asthma quality of life, significantly improved over time (p ≤ 0.01) with no differences between intervention and control groups. State anxiety significantly decreased (p ≤ 0.01) immediately post intervention at both time points with no differences between groups. There were no significant differences found in lung functioning or trait anxiety over the one-month time period. These preliminary results suggest that breathing retraining is a feasible, acceptable and potentially efficacious intervention (although no significant differences between groups were found) for improving asthma symptoms in urban adolescents with asthma in a school-based setting.

  10. Gene-based analysis identified the gene ZNF248 is associated with late-onset asthma in African Americans.

    PubMed

    Wang, Leyao; Salinas, Yasmmyn D; DeWan, Andrew T

    2016-07-01

    Late-onset asthma (LOA) has distinct characteristics and its pathogenesis might rely on unique pathways. Although current studies are focused primarily on childhood asthma, more research is needed to show the mechanisms underlying LOA. To conduct genomewide association analysis and gene-based analysis to identify single-nucleotide polymorphisms and genes associated with LOA. The Women's Health Initiative (WHI) observational cohort and the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) were used to identify subjects with LOA. The association between LOA and body mass index and smoking was evaluated. In the discovery stage of the genetic analysis, 1,218 African American subjects from WHI with genotype data (271 cases and 947 controls) were used for single-nucleotide polymorphism and gene-based association analyses. Significant or suggestive results were subsequently investigated in an independent African American population from MESA (38 cases and 806 controls). In WHI, the relative odds for LOA in obese vs normal-weight subjects was 2.55 (95% confidence interval 1.74-3.76). Ever smokers also had greater odds for LOA compared with never smokers (odds ratio 1.59, 95% confidence interval 1.21-2.09). The same trends were observed in MESA. In WHI, 6 single-nucleotide polymorphisms were associated with LOA at a genomewide-suggestive significance level (P < 1.0 × 10(-5)). The gene ZNF248 was associated with LOA and reached genomewide significance (P = 4.0 × 10(-7)). In MESA, the association between ZNF248 and LOA was successfully replicated (P = .015). Smoking and obesity are risk factors for LOA. ZNF248 confers increased susceptibility to LOA in African Americans. Copyright © 2016 American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Measuring preferences for analgesic treatment for cancer pain: how do African-Americans and Whites perform on choice-based conjoint (CBC) analysis experiments?

    PubMed

    Meghani, Salimah H; Chittams, Jesse; Hanlon, Alexandra L; Curry, Joseph

    2013-10-18

    Conjoint Analysis (CA) can serve as an important tool to study health disparities and unique factors underlying decision-making in diverse subgroups. However, methodological advancements are needed in exploiting this application of CA. We compared the internal and external predictive validity and inter-temporal stability of Choice-based-Conjoint (CBC) analysis between African-Americans and Whites in the clinical context of preferences for analgesic treatment for cancer pain. We conducted a prospective study with repeated-measures at two time-points (T1 = baseline; T2 = 3-months). African-Americans (n = 102); and Whites (n = 139) with cancer-related pain were recruited from outpatient oncology clinics in Philadelphia. Informed by pilot work, a computer-assisted CBC experiment was developed using 5 attributes of analgesic treatment: type of analgesic; expected pain relief; type of side-effects; severity of side-effects; and out-of-pocket cost. The design included 2 choice alternatives, 12 random tasks, 2 holdout tasks, and maximum of 6 levels per attribute. The internal and external predictive validity of CBC was estimated using Root Likelihood (RLH) and Mean Absolute Error (MAE), respectively. Inter-temporal stability was assessed using Cohen's kappa. Whites predominantly traded based on "pain relief" whereas African-Americans traded based on "type of side-effects". At both time-points, the internal validity (RLH) was slightly higher for Whites than for African-Americans. The RLH for African-Americans improved at T2, possibly due to the learning effect. Lexicographic (dominant) behavior was observed in 29% of choice datasets; Whites were more likely than African-Americans to engage in a lexicographic behavior (60% vs. 40%). External validity (MAE) was slightly better for African-Americans than for Whites at both time-points (MAE: T1 = 3.04% for African-Americans and 4.02% for Whites; T2 = 8.04% for African-Americans; 10.24% for Whites). At T2, the MAE increased for

  12. YOUR Blessed Health: a faith-based CBPR approach to addressing HIV/AIDS among African Americans.

    PubMed

    Griffith, Derek M; Pichon, Latrice C; Campbell, Bettina; Allen, Julie Ober

    2010-06-01

    Despite substantial federal, state, and local efforts to reduce the transmission of HIV/AIDS, African Americans experience higher rates of infection than any other ethnic or racial group in the United States. It is imperative to develop culturally and ecologically sensitive interventions to meet the sexual health needs of this population. Capitalizing on the assets, resources, and strengths of faith-based organizations, YOUR Blessed Health (YBH) is a community-based participatory research project developed to increase HIV/AIDS awareness and reduce HIV-related stigma among the African American faith community in Flint, Michigan. This article describes the historical context and development of YBH, discusses the results of the pilot study, and illustrates how YBH grew into a community mobilization effort led by faith leaders and their congregations to address HIV/AIDS. YBH highlights the importance of developing and testing intervention models that originate from community-based organizations to address complex and sensitive health issues among marginalized populations.

  13. Compliance and acceptability of maintaining a 6-month pedometer diary in a rural, African American community-based walking intervention.

    PubMed

    Zoellner, Jamie; Powers, Alicia; Avis-Williams, Amanda; Ndirangu, Murugi; Strickland, Earline; Yadrick, Kathy

    2009-07-01

    Limited research has been done on the compliance and acceptability of maintaining pedometer diaries for an extensive time frame in community-based interventions targeting minority populations. Community "coaches" led participants in a 6-month community-based walking intervention that included wearing pedometers and maintaining pedometer diaries for the study duration. Descriptive statistics and ANOVA tests were used to evaluate compliance rates for maintaining diaries and daily step counts. After the intervention, focus groups were used to explore opinions regarding pedometers. Audiotapes were transcribed and evaluated using systematic content analysis. The 8 coaches and 75 enrolled walking participants were primarily African American (98%) women (94%). Overall, the group (N = 83) submitted 85% of all possible pedometer diaries and recorded 73% of all possible daily step counts. Walking-group members were significantly (P < .01) more compliant if their coach was also compliant. Identified benefits of wearing pedometers and maintaining diaries outnumbered the barriers. Participants were enthusiastic about wearing the pedometers and indicated that the weekly diaries provided a source of motivation. This research suggests pedometer diaries are a viable intervention tool and research method for community-based physical activity interventions targeting African Americans and highlights the need for social support to promote pedometer diary compliance.

  14. Asthma inhaler use and barriers in a population-based sample of African-American and white adolescents.

    PubMed

    Yeatts, K; Maier, W; Shy, C

    2000-01-01

    There is little information on inhaler medication and barriers to use among a population-based sample of adolescents and whether possible variations in asthma treatment by ethnic group exist. We describe the prevalence of inhaler use and identify barriers for proper use of asthma medication in a population-based sample of adolescents of which 34% are African-American. A cross-sectional survey using the ISAAC (International Survey of Asthma and Allergies in Children) questionnaire was conducted in a school population-based sample (n = 2056) of 13 to 14-year-old eight grade students in the Charlotte-Mecklenburg, North Carolina public school system. Questions were asked about symptom prevalence, asthma diagnosis, inhaler use, and barriers to care. Fourteen percent of the children (296/2056) reported using an inhaler in the last 12 months with no differences among African-American children and white children. Twenty-six percent of inhaler users were not allowed to carry their medication on their person while at school. Girls were more likely to be allowed to carry their inhalers at school and diagnosed asthmatic girls had a higher prevalence of wheezing in the last year (47%) compared with diagnosed asthmatic boys (35%). Smoking prevalence was higher in inhaler users (26%) compared to the study population (19%). Inhaler use is high in this population. Adolescents using inhalers need to reduce their smoking levels. Schools need to reevaluate their policies on the use of inhalers at school.

  15. The Comparative Effects of Function-Based versus Nonfunction-Based Interventions on the Social Behavior of African American Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mustian, April Leigh

    2010-01-01

    Disproportionality has been a persistent problem in special education for decades. Despite mandates outlined in the Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act (IDEA, 2004), African American students continue to be disproportionately represented in the Emotional Disturbance (ED) category in special education (e.g., Skiba,…

  16. African Ancestry Is Associated with Asthma Risk in African Americans

    PubMed Central

    Pino-Yanes, María; Wade, Michael S.; Pérez-Méndez, Lina; Kittles, Rick A.; Wang, Deli; Papaiahgari, Srinivas; Ford, Jean G.; Kumar, Rajesh; Garcia, Joe G. N.

    2012-01-01

    Background Asthma is a common complex condition with clear racial and ethnic differences in both prevalence and severity. Asthma consultation rates, mortality, and severe symptoms are greatly increased in African descent populations of developed countries. African ancestry has been associated with asthma, total serum IgE and lower pulmonary function in African-admixed populations. To replicate previous findings, here we aimed to examine whether African ancestry was associated with asthma susceptibility in African Americans. In addition, we examined for the first time whether African ancestry was associated with asthma exacerbations. Methodology/Principal Findings After filtering for self-reported ancestry and genotype data quality, samples from 1,117 self-reported African-American individuals from New York and Baltimore (394 cases, 481 controls), and Chicago (321 cases followed for asthma exacerbations) were analyzed. Genetic ancestry was estimated based on ancestry informative markers (AIMs) selected for being highly divergent among European and West African populations (95 AIMs for New York and Baltimore, and 66 independent AIMs for Chicago). Among case-control samples, the mean African ancestry was significantly higher in asthmatics than in non-asthmatics (82.0±14.0% vs. 77.8±18.1%, mean difference 4.2% [95% confidence interval (CI):2.0–6.4], p<0.0001). This association remained significant after adjusting for potential confounders (odds ratio: 4.55, 95% CI: 1.69–12.29, p = 0.003). African ancestry failed to show an association with asthma exacerbations (p = 0.965) using a model based on longitudinal data of the number of exacerbations followed over 1.5 years. Conclusions/Significance These data replicate previous findings indicating that African ancestry constitutes a risk factor for asthma and suggest that elevated asthma rates in African Americans can be partially attributed to African genetic ancestry. PMID:22235241

  17. African ancestry is associated with asthma risk in African Americans.

    PubMed

    Flores, Carlos; Ma, Shwu-Fan; Pino-Yanes, María; Wade, Michael S; Pérez-Méndez, Lina; Kittles, Rick A; Wang, Deli; Papaiahgari, Srinivas; Ford, Jean G; Kumar, Rajesh; Garcia, Joe G N

    2012-01-01

    Asthma is a common complex condition with clear racial and ethnic differences in both prevalence and severity. Asthma consultation rates, mortality, and severe symptoms are greatly increased in African descent populations of developed countries. African ancestry has been associated with asthma, total serum IgE and lower pulmonary function in African-admixed populations. To replicate previous findings, here we aimed to examine whether African ancestry was associated with asthma susceptibility in African Americans. In addition, we examined for the first time whether African ancestry was associated with asthma exacerbations. After filtering for self-reported ancestry and genotype data quality, samples from 1,117 self-reported African-American individuals from New York and Baltimore (394 cases, 481 controls), and Chicago (321 cases followed for asthma exacerbations) were analyzed. Genetic ancestry was estimated based on ancestry informative markers (AIMs) selected for being highly divergent among European and West African populations (95 AIMs for New York and Baltimore, and 66 independent AIMs for Chicago). Among case-control samples, the mean African ancestry was significantly higher in asthmatics than in non-asthmatics (82.0±14.0% vs. 77.8±18.1%, mean difference 4.2% [95% confidence interval (CI):2.0-6.4], p<0.0001). This association remained significant after adjusting for potential confounders (odds ratio: 4.55, 95% CI: 1.69-12.29, p = 0.003). African ancestry failed to show an association with asthma exacerbations (p = 0.965) using a model based on longitudinal data of the number of exacerbations followed over 1.5 years. These data replicate previous findings indicating that African ancestry constitutes a risk factor for asthma and suggest that elevated asthma rates in African Americans can be partially attributed to African genetic ancestry.

  18. Spatiotemporal analysis of urban growth in three African capital cities: A grid-cell-based analysis using remote sensing data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, Hao; Estoque, Ronald C.; Murayama, Yuji

    2016-11-01

    Spatiotemporal analysis of urban growth patterns and dynamics is important not only in urban geography but also in landscape and urban planning and sustainability studies. Based on remote sensing-derived land-cover maps and LandScan population data of two time points (ca. 2000 and 2014), this study examines the spatiotemporal patterns and dynamics of the urban growth of three rapidly urbanizing African capital cities, namely, Bamako (Mali), Cairo (Egypt) and Nairobi (Kenya). A grid-cell-based analysis technique was employed to integrate the LandScan population and land-cover data, creating grid maps of population density and the density of each land-cover category. The results revealed that Bamako's urban (built-up) area has been expanding at a rate of 5.37% per year. Nairobi had a lower annual expansion rate (4.99%), but had a higher rate compared to Cairo (2.79%). Bamako's urban expansion was at the expense of its bareland and green spaces (i.e., cropland, grassland and forest), whereas the urban expansions of Cairo and Nairobi were at the cost of their bareland. In all three cities, there was a weak, but significant positive relationship between urban expansion (change in built-up density) and population growth (change in population density). Overall, this study provides an overview of the spatial patterns and dynamics of urban growth in these three African capitals, which might be useful in the context of urban studies and landscape and urban planning.

  19. Development, implementation and evaluation of a unique African-American faith-based approach to increase automobile restraint use.

    PubMed Central

    Falcone, Richard A.; Brentley, Anita L.; Ricketts, Crystal D.; Allen, Sheryl E.; Garcia, Victor F.

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Despite generalized intervention programs, restraint use among African Americans remains below national levels, especially among children. This study describes the development and implementation of a community participatory faith-based youth injury prevention program. METHODS: Through a partnership with the African-American faith-based community and our injury prevention group, a unique multigenerational intervention program was developed targeting motor vehicle restraint use. Once developed, the program was initially evaluated by comparing outcomes between control and intervention churches. The main objective was to observe adult and pediatric restraint use before and after program implementation. RESULTS: Overall, there was excellent recognition and participation in the program. Following program implementation, significant improvements were observed in restraint use compared to control churches. In particular, there was a 72% reduction in unrestrained children, a 25% increase in children being secured in the rear-seat position and a nearly 20% increase in driver restraint use. CONCLUSIONS: The development and implementation of a culturally sensitive intervention program can significantly improve restraint use in a minority population. Partnering with the community in all phases of the program is essential to its success. PMID:16916133

  20. In their own voices: rural African American youth speak out about community-based HIV prevention interventions.

    PubMed

    Coker-Appiah, Dionne Smith; Akers, Aletha Y; Banks, Bahby; Albritton, Tashuna; Leniek, Karyn; Wynn, Mysha; Youmans, Selena E; Parker, Donald; Ellison, Arlinda; Henderson, Stacey; Stith, Doris; Council, Barbara; Oxendine-Pitt, Patricia; Corbie-Smith, Giselle

    2009-01-01

    The HIV epidemic is a major public health problem in the United States, particularly among rural African American adolescents and young adults. We sought to explore young, rural African American's perspectives about key programmatic components to consider when designing youth-targeted, community- based HIV prevention interventions. We report data from four focus groups with adolescents and young adults aged 16 to 24 (n = 38) conducted as part of a community-based participatory research (CBPR) project designed to develop multilevel HIV risk reduction interventions in two rural North Carolina communities with high HIV rates. Analysis was performed by academic and community partners using a modified grounded theory approach to content analysis. Interventions should target preadolescents and early adolescents rather than older adolescents and young adults in an effort to "catch them while they're young." Intervention developers should obtain input from local young people regarding critical programmatic components, such as whom to employ as study recruiters and intervention leaders; intervention format and delivery options, acceptable recruitment and intervention locations, and incentive structures. Participants believe selecting community collaborators representing varied community sectors is critical. Important barriers to address included limited transportation, discomfort communicating about sexual issues, lack of community interest in HIV prevention, and unwillingness to acknowledge and address sexual activity among adolescents. When designing HIV/AIDS prevention interventions, targeting young people, it is important to form academic-community partnerships that ensure young people's perspectives are integral to the intervention development process.

  1. A Preliminary Investigation into the Effect of Standards-Based Grading on the Academic Performance of African-American Students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bradbury-Bailey, Mary

    With the implementation of No Child Left Behind came a wave of educational reform intended for those working with student populations whose academic performance seemed to indicate an alienation from the educational process. Central to these reforms was the implementation of standards-based instruction and their accompanying standardized assessments; however, in one area reform seemed nonexistent---the teacher's gradebook. (Erickson, 2010, Marzano, 2006; Scriffiny, 2008). Given the link between the grading process and achievement motivation, Ames (1992) suggested the use of practices that promote mastery goal orientation. The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of standards-based grading system as a factor contributing to mastery goal orientation on the academic performance of urban African American students. To determine the degree of impact, this study first compared the course content averages and End-of-Course-Test (EOCT) scores for science classes using a traditional grading system to those using a standards-based grading system by employing an Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA). While there was an increase in all grading areas, two showed a significant difference---the Physical Science course content average (p = 0.024) and ix the Biology EOCT scores (p = 0.0876). These gains suggest that standards-based grading can have a positive impact on the academic performance of African American students. Secondly, this study examined the correlation between the course content averages and the EOCT scores for both the traditional and standards-based grading system; for both Physical Science and Biology, there was a stronger correlation between these two scores for the standards-based grading system.

  2. Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction for Low-Income, Predominantly African American Women with PTSD and a History of Intimate Partner Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dutton, Mary Ann; Bermudez, Diana; Matas, Armely; Majid, Haseeb; Myers, Neely L.

    2013-01-01

    In this article, we consider the use of Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR; Kabat-Zinn, 1991) as a community-based intervention for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among low-income, predominantly African American women with a history of intimate partner violence (IPV). The results of a pilot randomized clinical trial (RCT) of MBSR as an…

  3. Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction for Low-Income, Predominantly African American Women with PTSD and a History of Intimate Partner Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dutton, Mary Ann; Bermudez, Diana; Matas, Armely; Majid, Haseeb; Myers, Neely L.

    2013-01-01

    In this article, we consider the use of Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR; Kabat-Zinn, 1991) as a community-based intervention for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among low-income, predominantly African American women with a history of intimate partner violence (IPV). The results of a pilot randomized clinical trial (RCT) of MBSR as an…

  4. School- and community-based associations to hypermasculine attitudes in African American adolescent males.

    PubMed

    Cunningham, Michael; Swanson, Dena Phillips; Hayes, Demarquis M

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the role of hypermasculinity as a form of reactive coping among urban African American adolescent males (ages 12-17) and assessed the extent to which hypermasculinity is influenced by youth appraisals of how adults in their school and community perceive them. Two research questions were addressed: (a) Do adolescent males who report negative community and school experiences use hypermasculine attitudes as a coping response? (b) Do the effects of perceived negative school and community experiences persist, if they are present at all? Participants in the study were 241 African American adolescent males who attended public schools in a large southeastern city. Associating youth-reported questionnaires on perceived teacher expectations and perceptions of community challenges from one wave of data on hypermasculine attitudes within the same year and 2 years later, the results indicate that hypermasculinity attitudes stem from negative perceptions in the community and school contexts. Also, hypermasculinity attitudes were associated with these negatively perceived experiences across time. When examined longitudinally, negative experiences in the community had a stronger relation to hypermasculinity than similar experiences at school.

  5. Increasing the number of African American PhDs in the sciences and engineering: a strengths-based approach.

    PubMed

    Maton, Kenneth I; Hrabowski, Freeman A

    2004-09-01

    Fifty years after Brown v. Board of Education, the percentage of African American students who receive PhDs in natural science, technology, engineering, or mathematics (STEM) fields remains disappointingly low. A multifaceted, strengths-based approach to intervention and research that holds great promise for increasing the number of African American students who achieve at the highest levels academically is described. This work began in 1988 with the development of the Meyerhoff Scholars Program for undergraduate minority STEM majors at the University of Maryland, Baltimore County (UMBC). If current PhD receipt rates of program graduates continue, UMBC will in all likelihood become the leading predominantly White baccalaureate-origin university for Black STEM PhDs in the nation. The program is described and outcome and process findings from its ongoing evaluation are highlighted. The parenting practices that helped these youths to overcome the odds and achieve at the highest levels prior to coming to college are also examined. ((c) 2004 APA, all rights reserved)

  6. Mediators of the impact of a home-based intervention (beat the blues) on depressive symptoms among older African Americans.

    PubMed

    Gitlin, Laura N; Roth, David L; Huang, Jin

    2014-09-01

    Older African Americans (N = 208) with depressive symptoms were randomly assigned to a home-based nonpharmacologic intervention (Beat the Blues, or BTB) or wait-list control group. BTB was delivered by licensed social workers and involved up to 10 home visits focused on care management, referral and linkage, depression knowledge and efficacy in symptom recognition, instruction in stress reduction techniques, and behavioral activation through identification of personal goals and action plans for achieving them. Structured interviews by assessors masked to study assignment were used to assess changes in depressive symptoms (main trial endpoint), behavioral activation, depression knowledge, formal care service utilization, and anxiety (mediators) at baseline and 4 months. At 4 months, the intervention had a positive effect on depressive symptoms and all mediators except formal care service utilization. Structural equation models indicated that increased activation, enhanced depression knowledge, and decreased anxiety each independently mediated a significant proportion of the intervention's impact on depressive symptoms as assessed with 2 different measures (PHQ-9 and CES-D). These 3 factors also jointly explained over 60% of the intervention's total effect on both indicators of depressive symptoms. Our findings suggest that most of the impact of BTB on depressive symptoms is driven by enhancing activation or becoming active, reducing anxiety, and improving depression knowledge/efficacy. The intervention components appear to work in concert and may be mutually necessary for maximal benefits from treatment to occur. Implications for designing tailored interventions to address depressive symptoms among older African Americans are discussed.

  7. Pubertal timing and sexual risk behaviors among rural African American male youth: testing a model based on life history theory.

    PubMed

    Kogan, Steven M; Cho, Junhan; Simons, Leslie Gordon; Allen, Kimberly A; Beach, Steven R H; Simons, Ronald L; Gibbons, Frederick X

    2015-04-01

    Life History Theory (LHT), a branch of evolutionary biology, describes how organisms maximize their reproductive success in response to environmental conditions. This theory suggests that challenging environmental conditions will lead to early pubertal maturation, which in turn predicts heightened risky sexual behavior. Although largely confirmed among female adolescents, results with male youth are inconsistent. We tested a set of predictions based on LHT with a sample of 375 African American male youth assessed three times from age 11 to age 16. Harsh, unpredictable community environments and harsh, inconsistent, or unregulated parenting at age 11 were hypothesized to predict pubertal maturation at age 13; pubertal maturation was hypothesized to forecast risky sexual behavior, including early onset of intercourse, substance use during sexual activity, and lifetime numbers of sexual partners. Results were consistent with our hypotheses. Among African American male youth, community environments were a modest but significant predictor of pubertal timing. Among those youth with high negative emotionality, both parenting and community factors predicted pubertal timing. Pubertal timing at age 13 forecast risky sexual behavior at age 16. Results of analyses conducted to determine whether environmental effects on sexual risk behavior were mediated by pubertal timing were not significant. This suggests that, although evolutionary mechanisms may affect pubertal development via contextual influences for sensitive youth, the factors that predict sexual risk behavior depend less on pubertal maturation than LHT suggests.

  8. Community Engaged Lifestyle Modification Research: Engaging Diabetic and Prediabetic African American Women in Community-Based Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Bazzell, Anya; Dean, Juanita; McLawhorn, James T.; Stroud, Jareese Lee

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. The I Am Woman (IAW) Program is a community-based, culturally responsive, and gender-specific nutrition, obesity, and diabetes educational prevention program designed for African American women (AAW). Chronic nutrition-related health conditions such as excess body weight, diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease, and some forms of cancer are common among many African American women. Methods. IAW engaged AAW at risk for such deleterious health conditions by developing a health education intervention that aimed to support weight loss and management, improve knowledge about healthy lifestyle behavioral choices, and facilitate increased access to comprehensive healthcare. This Community Health Worker- (CHW-) led program enrolled 79 AAW aged 18 and older in a 7-week group health education intervention. Results. Following the intervention, results indicated that participants had greater knowledge about nutrition and health, strategies for prevention and management of obesity and diabetes, increased engagement in exercise and fitness activities, and decreased blood pressure, weight, body, and mass index. Cholesterol levels remained relatively unchanged. Additionally, AAW visited a primary care doctor more frequently and indicated greater interest in addressing their health concerns. Conclusion. This model of prevention appears to be a promising approach for increasing awareness about ways to improve the health and well-being of AAW. PMID:27493797

  9. The Healthy African American Families (HAAF) Project: From Community-Based Participatory Research To Community-Partnered Participatory Research

    PubMed Central

    Ferré, Cynthia D.; Jones, Loretta; Norris, Keith C.; Rowley, Diane L.

    2013-01-01

    During the past two decades, there has been an increased use of community-based participatory research in public health activities, especially as part of efforts to understand health disparities affecting communities of color. This article describes the history and lessons learned of a long-standing community participatory project, Healthy African American Families (HAAF), in Los Angeles, California. HAAF evolved from a partnership formed by a community advisory board, university, and federal health agency to an independent, incorporated community organization that facilitates and brokers research and health promotion activities within its community. HAAF created mechanisms for community education and networks of community relationships and reciprocity through which mutual support, research, and interventions are integrated. These sustained, institutionalized relationships unite resources and both community and scientific expertise in a community-partnered participatory research model to address multiple health problems in the community, including preterm birth, HIV, asthma, depression, and diabetes. The HAAF participatory process builds on existing community resiliency and resources and on centuries of self-help, problem-solving, cooperative action, and community activism within the African American community. HAAF demonstrates how community-partnered participatory research can be a mechanism for directing power, collective action, system change, and social justice in the process of addressing health disparities at the community level. PMID:20629240

  10. Problem-based learning in undergraduate medical education: can we really implement it in the West African subregion?

    PubMed

    Gukas, I D

    2007-01-01

    A major global pedagogical shift has occurred in the way medicine is taught over the last half a century. Problem-based learning (PBL) has emerged as one of the most popular, of these learner-centred new methods. To examine the evolution and educational principles of PBL and the feasibility of implementing it in the West African subregion. Key literature detailing the history, educational value and principle behind PBL were reviewed. Issues regarding the implication of implementing PBL to West Africa were deduced and suggestions made for the way forward. Since its introduction in McMaster University in Canada in the 60s, PBL has spread all over world. It is rooted in sound educational theories like the Kolb's experiential learning, adult education, collaborative learning, contextual learning and constructivism. Compared to traditionally trained students, PBL students find learning more enjoyable and develop better relational and professional skills. They show more causal reasoning in diagnosis and become better lifelong learners. Issues that may affect its implementation in West Africa include high start up costs, lack of supporting educational technology and relative lack of medical school managers with appropriate medical education background to assess and evaluate such innovations. The evidence for the need for a change from the traditional method of training is overwhelming. Implementation of PBL as an educational method in medical training in the West African subregion is both desirable and practicable if we address some of the issues outlined above.

  11. Reducing refugee mental health disparities: a community-based intervention to address postmigration stressors with African adults.

    PubMed

    Goodkind, Jessica R; Hess, Julia M; Isakson, Brian; LaNoue, Marianna; Githinji, Ann; Roche, Natalie; Vadnais, Kathryn; Parker, Danielle P

    2014-08-01

    Refugees resettled in the United States have disproportionately high rates of psychological distress. Research has demonstrated the roles of postmigration stressors, including lack of meaningful social roles, poverty, unemployment, lack of environmental mastery, discrimination, limited English proficiency, and social isolation. We report a multimethod, within-group longitudinal pilot study involving the adaptation for African refugees of a community-based advocacy and learning intervention to address postmigration stressors. We found the intervention to be feasible, acceptable, and appropriate for African refugees. Growth trajectory analysis revealed significant decreases in participants' psychological distress and increases in quality of life, and also provided preliminary evidence of intervention mechanisms of change through the detection of mediating relationships whereby increased quality of life was mediated by increases in enculturation, English proficiency, and social support. Qualitative data helped to support and explain the quantitative data. Results demonstrate the importance of addressing the sociopolitical context of resettlement to promote the mental health of refugees and suggest a culturally appropriate, and replicable model for doing so.

  12. School-Based Racial and Gender Discrimination among African American Adolescents: Exploring Gender Variation in Frequency and Implications for Adjustment

    PubMed Central

    Chavous, Tabbye M.; Griffin, Tiffany M.

    2012-01-01

    The present study examined school-based racial and gender discrimination experiences among African American adolescents in Grade 8 (n = 204 girls; n = 209 boys). A primary goal was exploring gender variation in frequency of both types of discrimination and associations of discrimination with academic and psychological functioning among girls and boys. Girls and boys did not vary in reported racial discrimination frequency, but boys reported more gender discrimination experiences. Multiple regression analyses within gender groups indicated that among girls and boys, racial discrimination and gender discrimination predicted higher depressive symptoms and school importance and racial discrimination predicted self-esteem. Racial and gender discrimination were also negatively associated with grade point average among boys but were not significantly associated in girls’ analyses. Significant gender discrimination X racial discrimination interactions resulted in the girls’ models predicting psychological outcomes and in boys’ models predicting academic achievement. Taken together, findings suggest the importance of considering gender- and race-related experiences in understanding academic and psychological adjustment among African American adolescents. PMID:22837794

  13. Reducing Refugee Mental Health Disparities: A Community-Based Intervention to Address Post-Migration Stressors With African Adults

    PubMed Central

    Goodkind, Jessica R.; Hess, Julia M.; Isakson, Brian; LaNoue, Marianna; Githinji, Ann; Roche, Natalie; Vadnais, Kathryn; Parker, Danielle P.

    2014-01-01

    Refugees resettled in the United States have disproportionately high rates of psychological distress. Research has demonstrated the roles of post-migration stressors, including lack of meaningful social roles, poverty, unemployment, lack of environmental mastery, discrimination, limited English proficiency, and social isolation. We report a multi-method, within-group longitudinal pilot study involving the adaptation for African refugees of a community-based advocacy and learning intervention to address post-migration stressors. We found the intervention to be feasible, acceptable and appropriate for African refugees. Growth trajectory analysis revealed significant decreases in participants’ psychological distress and increases in quality of life, and also provided preliminary evidence of intervention mechanisms of change through the detection of mediating relationships whereby increased quality of life was mediated by increases in enculturation, English proficiency, and social support. Qualitative data helped to support and explain the quantitative data. Results demonstrate the importance of addressing the sociopolitical context of resettlement to promote the mental health of refugees and suggest a culturally-appropriate, and replicable model for doing so. PMID:24364594

  14. THE CHALLENGES OF SCHOOL-BASED YOUTH SUICIDE PREVENTION: EXPERIENCES AND PERCEPTIONS OF MENTAL HEALTH PROFESSIONALS IN SOUTH AFRICAN SCHOOLS

    PubMed Central

    Woolf, Maryke; Bantjes, Jason; Kagee, Ashraf

    2016-01-01

    Youth suicidal behaviour poses a significant public health concern. Mental health care professionals working in schools have an important role to play in youth suicide prevention initiatives, although little is known of the experiences of this group of professionals in the developing world. The aim of this study was to explore the experiences of mental health professionals working in South African schools and document their insights, attitudes and beliefs regarding youth suicidal behaviour. In-depth semi-structured interviews were conducted with seven school-based mental health care professionals and data were analysed using Thematic Analysis. Participants reported that they relied on a reactive strategy by responding to youths who were in crisis. They were challenged by a lack of support from faculty staff, lack of access to resources, and heavy caseloads. Findings highlight the need for a proactive and collaborative approach to suicide prevention among mental health care professionals, teachers and parents in South African schools and improved training and supervision. PMID:27990493

  15. A case study in collaborating with Atlanta-based African-American churches: a promising means for reaching inner-city substance users with rapid HIV testing.

    PubMed

    Whiters, David L; Santibanez, Scott; Dennison, David; Clark, H Westley

    2010-01-01

    This case study examined programmatic data from a federally funded faith-based rapid HIV testing initiative. In 2004, Recovery Consultants of Atlanta, Inc. (RCA, Inc.) began providing rapid HIV testing in collaboration with six Atlanta-based African-American churches. Of the 1,947 persons tested from January 2004 to July 2005, 1,872 (96.1%) were African-American, 1,247 (64%) were male, and 1,612 (82.8%) were between the age of 26 and 56. A total of 85 HIV-infected individuals were identified and 72 were identified as previously undiagnosed cases (positivity rate of 3.7%). This case study highlights and promotes rapid HIV testing offered in partnership with African American churches as a strategy for raising HIV awareness among inner-city substance users.

  16. African American community leaders' policy recommendations for reducing racial disparities in HIV infection, treatment, and care: results from a community-based participatory research project in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

    PubMed

    Nunn, Amy; Sanders, Julia; Carson, Lee; Thomas, Gladys; Cornwall, Alexandra; Towey, Caitlin; Lee, Hwajin; Tasco, Marian; Shabazz-El, Waheedah; Yolken, Annajane; Smith, Tyrone; Bell, Gary; Feller, Sophie; Smith, Erin; James, George; Shelton Dunston, Brenda; Green, Derek

    2015-01-01

    African Americans account for 45% of new HIV infections in the United States. Little empirical research investigates African American community leaders' normative recommendations for addressing these disparities. Philadelphia's HIV infection rate is 5 times the national average, nearly 70% of new infections are among African Americans, and 2% of African Americans in Philadelphia are living with HIV/AIDS. Using a community-based participatory research approach, we convened focus groups among 52 African American community leaders from diverse backgrounds to solicit normative recommendations for reducing Philadelphia's racial disparities in HIV infection. Leaders recommended that (a) Philadelphia's city government should raise awareness about HIV/AIDS with media campaigns featuring local leaders, (b) local HIV-prevention interventions should address social and structural factors influencing HIV risks rather than focus exclusively on mode of HIV transmission, (c) resources should be distributed to the most heavily affected neighborhoods of Philadelphia, and (d) faith institutions should play a critical role in HIV testing, treatment, and prevention efforts. We developed a policy memo highlighting these normative recommendations for how to enhance local HIV prevention policy. This policy memo led to Philadelphia City Council hearings about HIV/AIDS in October 2010 and subsequently informed local HIV/AIDS prevention policy and development of local HIV prevention interventions. This community-based participatory research case study offers important lessons for effectively engaging community leaders in research to promote HIV/AIDS policy change.

  17. A church-based pilot study designed to improve dietary quality for rural, lower Mississippi Delta, African American adults.

    PubMed

    Tussing-Humphreys, Lisa M; Thomson, Jessica L; Onufrak, Stephen J

    2015-04-01

    We piloted a 6-month, church-based, behavioral intervention, Delta Body and Soul (DBS), for African American (AA) adults in the Lower Mississippi Delta (LMD). DBS was designed to improve overall dietary quality in LMD AA adults. The intervention included six once monthly group-based educational sessions implemented by trained church members. Program implementation, session attendance, congregational feedback, and baseline and post-intervention, demographic, health, behavioral, and clinical parameters were assessed. Participants were predominately AA, female, and overweight or obese. Retention rate was 79 %. High adherence, defined as attendance at four or more educational sessions, was associated with dietary quality improvement and reduced blood glucose. Implementation of the DBS pilot intervention was feasible and may result in dietary quality and clinical improvements.

  18. Recommendations for a Culturally Relevant Internet-Based Tool to Promote Physical Activity Among Overweight Young African American Women, Alabama, 2010–2011

    PubMed Central

    Joseph, Rodney P.; Cherrington, Andrea; Cuffee, Yendelela; Knight, BernNadette; Lewis, Dwight; Allison, Jeroan J.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Innovative approaches are needed to promote physical activity among young adult overweight and obese African American women. We sought to describe key elements that African American women desire in a culturally relevant Internet-based tool to promote physical activity among overweight and obese young adult African American women. Methods A mixed-method approach combining nominal group technique and traditional focus groups was used to elicit recommendations for the development of an Internet-based physical activity promotion tool. Participants, ages 19 to 30 years, were enrolled in a major university. Nominal group technique sessions were conducted to identify themes viewed as key features for inclusion in a culturally relevant Internet-based tool. Confirmatory focus groups were conducted to verify and elicit more in-depth information on the themes. Results Twenty-nine women participated in nominal group (n = 13) and traditional focus group sessions (n = 16). Features that emerged to be included in a culturally relevant Internet-based physical activity promotion tool were personalized website pages, diverse body images on websites and in videos, motivational stories about physical activity and women similar to themselves in size and body shape, tips on hair care maintenance during physical activity, and online social support through social media (eg, Facebook, Twitter). Conclusion Incorporating existing social media tools and motivational stories from young adult African American women in Internet-based tools may increase the feasibility, acceptability, and success of Internet-based physical activity programs in this high-risk, understudied population. PMID:24433625

  19. Recommendations for a culturally relevant Internet-based tool to promote physical activity among overweight young African American women, Alabama, 2010-2011.

    PubMed

    Durant, Nefertiti H; Joseph, Rodney P; Cherrington, Andrea; Cuffee, Yendelela; Knight, BernNadette; Lewis, Dwight; Allison, Jeroan J

    2014-01-16

    Innovative approaches are needed to promote physical activity among young adult overweight and obese African American women. We sought to describe key elements that African American women desire in a culturally relevant Internet-based tool to promote physical activity among overweight and obese young adult African American women. A mixed-method approach combining nominal group technique and traditional focus groups was used to elicit recommendations for the development of an Internet-based physical activity promotion tool. Participants, ages 19 to 30 years, were enrolled in a major university. Nominal group technique sessions were conducted to identify themes viewed as key features for inclusion in a culturally relevant Internet-based tool. Confirmatory focus groups were conducted to verify and elicit more in-depth information on the themes. Twenty-nine women participated in nominal group (n = 13) and traditional focus group sessions (n = 16). Features that emerged to be included in a culturally relevant Internet-based physical activity promotion tool were personalized website pages, diverse body images on websites and in videos, motivational stories about physical activity and women similar to themselves in size and body shape, tips on hair care maintenance during physical activity, and online social support through social media (eg, Facebook, Twitter). Incorporating existing social media tools and motivational stories from young adult African American women in Internet-based tools may increase the feasibility, acceptability, and success of Internet-based physical activity programs in this high-risk, understudied population.

  20. Development of a theater-based nutrition and physical activity intervention for low-income, urban, African American adolescents.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Caree J; Mullis, Rebecca M; Hughes, Marilyn

    2010-01-01

    Childhood overweight is disproportionately worse in minority and low-income populations. Theater is a promising and effective tool for delivering health education to these underserved populations, but no known studies have examined the use of theater to promote both nutrition and physical activity to minority youth. To develop an interactive, theater-based intervention that conveys health messages to low-income, urban, African Americans and engages them in learning ways to adopt a healthy lifestyle. Community partners worked to develop a theater-based nutrition and physical activity intervention. A focus group provided urban adolescents' thoughts about their desires for the intervention. Based on input from all community partners, the group created a theater-based intervention. Researchers used a quasi-experimental (pre-/posttest) design with a community-based participatory research (CBPR) approach. Participants learned health messages through theater, dance, and music and gave feedback on the program sessions and materials. The program ended with a dinner theater performance showcasing information that students learned during the intervention. Participants received six theater-based health lessons. Learning objectives for each health education session were achieved. Each participant contributed to and performed in the final performance. All program participants were highly satisfied with the theater-based method of learning health messages. A community-academic partnership succeeded in developing a theater-based nutrition and physical activity intervention that satisfied participating adolescents.

  1. The Fertilizing Role of African Dust in the Amazon Rainforest: A First Multiyear Assessment Based on CALIPSO Lidar Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yu, Hongbin; Chin, Mian; Yuan, Tianle; Bian, Huisheng; Remer, Lorraine A.; Prospero, Joseph M.; Omar, Ali; Winker, David; Yang, Yuekui; Zhang, Yan; hide

    2015-01-01

    The productivity of the Amazon rainforest is constrained by the availability of nutrients, in particular phosphorus (P). Deposition of long-range transported African dust is recognized as a potentially important but poorly quantified source of phosphorus. This study provides a first multiyear satellite-based estimate of dust deposition into the Amazon Basin using three dimensional (3D) aerosol measurements over 2007-2013 from the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP). The 7-year average of dust deposition into the Amazon Basin is estimated to be 28 (8 to approximately 48) Tg a(exp -1) or 29 (8 to approximately 50) kg ha(exp -1) a(exp -1). The dust deposition shows significant interannual variation that is negatively correlated with the prior-year rainfall in the Sahel. The CALIOP-based multi-year mean estimate of dust deposition matches better with estimates from in-situ measurements and model simulations than a previous satellite-based estimate does. The closer agreement benefits from a more realistic geographic definition of the Amazon Basin and inclusion of meridional dust transport calculation in addition to the 3D nature of CALIOP aerosol measurements. The imported dust could provide about 0.022 (0.0060.037) Tg P of phosphorus per year, equivalent to 23 (7 to approximately 39) g P ha(exp -1) a(exp -1) to fertilize the Amazon rainforest. This out-of-Basin P input largely compensates the hydrological loss of P from the Basin, suggesting an important role of African dust in preventing phosphorus depletion on time scales of decades to centuries.

  2. School-based asthma: a study in an African American elementary school.

    PubMed

    Boyle, Joyceen S; Baker, R Randall; Kemp, Virginia H

    2004-07-01

    Chronic illnesses, such as asthma experienced by children, are difficult for families and school professionals to manage. This study explored beliefs about asthma and asthma management among schoolchildren, parents, and teachers in an African American school. Focus groups were conducted with schoolchildren, parents, and teachers. Data were analyzed by content analysis; segments of information were categorized into groups that were later abstracted into themes illustrating beliefs and behaviors about asthma. The children reported fear of not being able to breathe and the limitations of living with asthma. The teachers were concerned that they did not have a sufficient understanding of asthma to manage children's asthma during the school day. Parents described complex lifestyles and the challenges of asthma management.

  3. Nuclear and mtDNA-based phylogeny of southern African sand lizards, Pedioplanis (Sauria: Lacertidae).

    PubMed

    Makokha, Jane S; Bauer, Aaron M; Mayer, Werner; Matthee, Conrad A

    2007-08-01

    The diversity of lacertid lizards in Africa is highest in the southern African subcontinent, where over two-thirds of the species are endemic. With eleven currently recognized species, Pedioplanis is the most diverse among the southern African genera. In this study we use 2200 nucleotide positions derived from two mitochondrial markers (ND2 and 16S rRNA) and one nuclear gene (RAG-1) to (i) assess the phylogeny of Pedioplanis and (ii) estimate divergence time among lineages using the relaxed molecular clock method. Individual analyses of each gene separately supported different nodes in the phylogeny and the combined analysis yielded more well supported relationships. We present the first, well-resolved gene tree for the genus Pedioplanis and this is largely congruent with a phylogeny derived from morphology. Contrary to previous suggestions Heliobolus/Nucras are sister to Pedioplanis. The genus Pedioplanis is monophyletic, with P. burchelli/P. laticeps forming a clade that is sister to all the remaining congeners. Two distinct geographic lineages can be identified within the widespread P. namaquensis; one occurs in Namibia, while the other occurs in South Africa. The P. undata species complex is monophyletic, but one of its constituent species, P. inornata, is paraphyletic. Relationships among the subspecies of P. lineoocellata are much more complex than previously documented. An isolated population previously assigned to P. l. pulchella is paraphyletic and sister to the three named subspecies. The phylogeny identifies two biogeographical clades that probably diverged during the mid-Miocene, after the development of the Benguella Current. This probably led to habitat changes associated with climate and, in conjunction with physical barriers (Great Escarpment), contributed towards speciation within the genus Pedioplanis.

  4. African American community leaders' policy recommendations for reducing racial disparities in HIV infection, treatment and care: results from a community-based participatory research project in Philadelphia, PA

    PubMed Central

    Nunn, Amy; Sanders, Julia; Carson, Lee; Thomas, Gladys; Cornwall, Alexandra; Towey, Caitlin; Lee, Hwajin; Tasco, Marian; Shabazz-El, Waheedah; Yolken, Annajane; Smith, Tyrone; Bell, Gary; Feller, Sophie; Smith, Erin; James, George; Dunston, Brenda Shelton; Green, Derek

    2015-01-01

    African Americans account for 45% of new HIV infections in the United States. Little empirical research investigates African American community leaders' normative recommendations for addressing these disparities. Philadelphia's HIV infection rate is five times the national average, nearly 70% of new infections are among African Americans, and 2% of African Americans in Philadelphia are living with HIV/AIDS. Using a community-based participatory research (CBPR) approach, we convened focus groups among 52 African American community leaders from diverse backgrounds to solicit normative recommendations for reducing Philadelphia's racial disparities in HIV infection. Leaders recommended: 1) Philadelphia's city government should raise awareness about HIV/AIDS with media campaigns featuring local leaders; 2) Local HIV prevention interventions should address social and structural factors influencing HIV risks rather than focus exclusively on mode of HIV transmission; 3) Resources should be distributed to the most heavily impacted neighborhoods of Philadelphia; and 4) Faith institutions should play a critical role in HIV testing, treatment and prevention efforts. We developed a policy memo highlighting these normative recommendations for how to enhance local HIV prevention policy. This policy memo led to Philadelphia City Council hearings about HIV/AIDS in October 2010 and subsequently informed local HIV/AIDS prevention policy and development of local HIV prevention interventions. This CBPR case study offers important lessons for effectively engaging community leaders in research to promote HIV/AIDS policy change. PMID:24879446

  5. Condom use negotiation in heterosexual African American adults: responses to types of social power-based strategies.

    PubMed

    Otto-Salaj, Laura; Reed, Barbara; Brondino, Michael J; Gore-Felton, Cheryl; Kelly, Jeffrey A; Stevenson, L Yvonne

    2008-01-01

    This study examined gender differences and preferences in the use of and response to six different styles of condom use negotiation with a hypothetical sexual partner of the opposite gender. Participants were 51 heterosexually active African American adults attending an inner-city community center. Participants completed a semistructured qualitative interview in which they were presented with six negotiation strategies based on Raven's 1992 Power/Interaction Model of Interpersonal Influence. Results showed that female participants responded best to referent, reward, and legitimate strategies, and worst to informational tactics. Male participants responded best to reward strategies, and worst to coercion to use condoms. Further, responses given by a subset of participants indicated that use of negotiation tactics involving coercion to use condoms may result in negative or angry reactions. Response to strategies may vary with the value of the relationship as viewed by the target of negotiation. Implications for HIV prevention efforts are discussed.

  6. Community-based Participatory Research Examining the Health Care Needs of African Americans who are Homeless with Mental Illness

    PubMed Central

    Corrigan, Patrick; Pickett, Susan; Kraus, Dana; Burks, Raymond; Schmidt, Anne

    2017-01-01

    African Americans with mental illness who are homeless experience significant health risks and illnesses leading to high mortality and morbidity rates. A community-based participatory research (CBPR) team conducted a qualitative study to begin to describe these problems. Results from focus groups and key informant interviews of 42 individuals yielded 98 themes which were sorted into three categories: problems, solutions, and peer navigators. Results included a review of the problems and solutions which the community or people might adopt. An additional goal was to understand and develop impact of peer navigators for addressing health problems in this group. Results yielded a list of values in hiring peer navigators as well as skills and resources they might need to successfully do their job. Findings from the study are currently being used by the CBPR team to develop a peer navigator program for this community. PMID:25702732

  7. Cross-reactivity of secondary antibodies against African rodents and application for sero-surveillance.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Ichiro; Hang'ombe, Bernard Mudenda; Sawa, Hirofumi; Kobayashi, Shintaro; Orba, Yasuko; Ishii, Akihiro; Thomas, Yuka; Isozumi, Rie; Yoshimatsu, Kumiko; Mweene, Aaron S; Takada, Ayato; Sugimoto, Chihiro; Arikawa, Jiro

    2013-01-01

    A total of 466 rodents were captured in the Republic of Zambia from 2006 to 2010. Based on morphological observations and phylogenetic analyses of mitochondrial gene sequences, rodents were divided into 10 groups consisting of 39 Rattus rodents, 263 multimammate rats, 18 other Murinae rodents, 95 gerbils, 11 pouched mice, 1 giant-pouched rat, 38 fat mice and 1 dormouse. Rodent antibodies except that from Rattus were examined for their cross-reactivity to commercially available antibody detection reagents. Anti-mouse immunoglobulin G (IgG) was most cross-reactive to heterologous antibodies including multimammate rat, gerbil, pouched mouse and fat mouse. Thus, anti-mouse IgG would be a useful detection tool in serological examination of the Zambian rodent population. Preliminary sero-surveillance for plague, leptospirosis and hantavirus infection was performed by ELISA.

  8. Evaluation of a Faith-Based Culturally Relevant Program for African American Substance Users at Risk for HIV in the Southern United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacMaster, Samuel A.; Jones, Jenny L.; Rasch, Randolph F. R.; Crawford, Sharon L.; Thompson, Stephanie; Sanders, Edwin C., II

    2007-01-01

    Objective: This article provides an evaluation of a federally funded faith-based program that serves African Americans who use heroin and cocaine and are at risk for HIV/AIDS in Nashville, Tennessee. Methods: Data were collected from 163 individuals at baseline and 6- and 12-month follow-up interviews. A subset of participants (n = 51) completed…

  9. The Process of Adaptation of a Community-Level, Evidence-Based Intervention for HIV-Positive African American Men Who Have Sex with Men in Two Cities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Beatrice E.; Galbraith, Jennifer S.; Lund, Sharon M.; Hamilton, Autumn R.; Shankle, Michael D.

    2012-01-01

    We describe the process of adapting a community-level, evidence-based behavioral intervention (EBI), Community PROMISE, for HIV-positive African American men who have sex with men (AAMSM). The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Map of the Adaptation Process (MAP) guided the adaptation process for this new target population by two…

  10. An Evaluation Study of the Young Empowered Sisters (YES!) Program: Promoting Cultural Assets among African American Adolescent Girls through a Culturally Relevant School-Based Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Oseela; Davidson, William; McAdoo, Harriette

    2008-01-01

    The present study examines the effects of a culturally relevant school-based intervention in promoting cultural assets (i.e., ethnic identity, collectivist orientation, racism awareness, and liberatory youth activism) among a group of African American adolescent girls. The overall goal of the intervention was to promote cultural factors that can…

  11. Evaluation of a Faith-Based Culturally Relevant Program for African American Substance Users at Risk for HIV in the Southern United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacMaster, Samuel A.; Jones, Jenny L.; Rasch, Randolph F. R.; Crawford, Sharon L.; Thompson, Stephanie; Sanders, Edwin C., II

    2007-01-01

    Objective: This article provides an evaluation of a federally funded faith-based program that serves African Americans who use heroin and cocaine and are at risk for HIV/AIDS in Nashville, Tennessee. Methods: Data were collected from 163 individuals at baseline and 6- and 12-month follow-up interviews. A subset of participants (n = 51) completed…

  12. The Process of Adaptation of a Community-Level, Evidence-Based Intervention for HIV-Positive African American Men Who Have Sex with Men in Two Cities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Beatrice E.; Galbraith, Jennifer S.; Lund, Sharon M.; Hamilton, Autumn R.; Shankle, Michael D.

    2012-01-01

    We describe the process of adapting a community-level, evidence-based behavioral intervention (EBI), Community PROMISE, for HIV-positive African American men who have sex with men (AAMSM). The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Map of the Adaptation Process (MAP) guided the adaptation process for this new target population by two…

  13. Building a Registry of Research Volunteers among Older Urban African Americans: Recruitment Processes and Outcomes from a Community-Based Partnership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chadiha, Letha A.; Washington, Olivia G. M.; Lichtenberg, Peter A.; Green, Carmen R.; Daniels, Karen L.; Jackson, James S.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose of the study: An emerging strategy for increasing public participation in health research is volunteer registries. Using a community-based participatory research framework, we describe recruitment processes and outcomes in building a research volunteer registry of older urban African Americans. The specific research question examined…

  14. Protocol for systematic review of school-based interventions to prevent and control obesity in African learners

    PubMed Central

    Adom, Theodosia; Puoane, Thandi; De Villiers, Anniza; Kengne, André Pascal

    2017-01-01

    Introduction The increasing prevalence of obesity and overweight in childhood in developing countries is a public health concern to many governments. Schools play a significant role in the obesity epidemic as well as provide favourable environments for change in behaviours in childhood which can be carried on into adulthood. There is dearth of information on intervention studies in poor-resource settings. This review will summarise the available evidence on school-based interventions that focused on promoting healthy eating and physical activity among learners aged 6–15 years in Africa and to identify factors that lead to successful interventions or potential barriers to success of these programmes within the African context. Methods and analysis This protocol is developed following the guidelines of PRIMSA-P 2015. Relevant search terms and keywords generated from the subject headings and the African search filter will be used to conduct a comprehensive search of MEDLINE (PubMed), MEDLINE (EbscoHost), CINAHL (EbscoHost), Register Academic Search Complete (EbscoHost) and ISI Web of Science (Science Citation Index) for published literature on school-based interventions to prevent and control obesity in learners in Africa. Grey literature will be also be obtained. The searches will cover 1 January 2000 to 30 June 2016. No language limitations will be applied. Full-text articles of eligible studies will be screened. Risk of bias and quality of reporting will be assessed. Data will be extracted, synthesised and presented by country and major regional groupings. Meta-analysis will be conducted for identical variables across studies, where data allow. This protocol is developed following the guidelines of PRISMA-P 2015. Ethics and dissemination No primary data will be collected hence ethics is not a requirement. The findings will be submitted for publication in peer-reviewed journals, in conferences and in policy documents for decision-making, where needed. PMID

  15. Investing in Community-Based Education to Improve the Quality, Quantity, and Retention of Physicians in Three African Countries

    PubMed Central

    Talib, Zohray Moolani; Baingana, Rhona Kezabu; Sagay, Atiene Solomon; Van Schalkwyk, Susan Camille; Mehtsun, Sinit; Kiguli-Malwadde, Elsie

    2014-01-01

    Context The Medical Education Partnership Initiative (MEPI) is a $US 130 million program funded by the United States government supporting 13 African medical schools to increase the quantity, quality, and retention of physicians in underserved areas. This paper examines how community-based education (CBE) is evolving at MEPI schools to achieve these goals. Methods We utilized data from the first two years of site visits and surveys to characterize CBE efforts across the MEPI network and provide detailed descriptions of three models of CBE among the MEPI programs. Results There is widespread investment in CBE, with considerable diversity in the goals and characteristics of training activities among MEPI schools. Three examples described here show how schools are strengthening and evaluating different models of CBE to achieve MEPI goals. In Nigeria, students are being sent for clinical rotations to community hospitals to offload the tertiary hospital. In Uganda, the consistency and quality of teaching in CBE is being strengthened by adopting a competency-based curriculum and developing criteria for community sites. At Stellenbosch University in South Africa, students are now offered an elective year-long comprehensive rural immersion experience. Despite the diversity in CBE models, all schools are investing in e-learning and faculty development. Extensive evaluations are planned to examine the impact of CBE strategies on the health workforce and health services. Discussion The MEPI program is stimulating an evolution in CBE among African medical schools to improve the quality, quantity, and retention of physicians. Identifying the strategies within CBE that are reproducible, scalable and optimize outcomes will be instructive for health professions training programs across the continent. PMID:24200732

  16. School-Based Randomized Controlled Trial of an HIV/STD Risk-Reduction Intervention for South African Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Jemmott, John B.; Jemmott, Loretta S.; O’Leary, Ann; Ngwane, Zolani; Icard, Larry D.; Bellamy, Scarlett L.; Jones, Shasta F.; Landis, J. Richard; Heeren, G. Anita; Tyler, Joanne C.; Makiwane, Monde B.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives We tested the efficacy of a school-based HIV/STD risk-reduction intervention for South African adolescents. Design A cluster-randomized controlled design, with assessments of self-reported sexual behavior collected pre-intervention and 3, 6, and 12 months post-intervention. Setting Primary schools in a large Black township and a neighboring rural settlement in Eastern Cape Province, South Africa. Participants 9 of 17 matched-pairs of schools were randomly selected. Grade 6 learners with parent/guardian consent were eligible. Interventions Two 6-session interventions based on behavior-change theories and qualitative research: HIV/STD risk-reduction intervention targeted sexual-risk behaviors; attention-matched health-promotion control intervention targeted health issues unrelated to sexual behavior. Main Outcome Measures The primary outcome was self-report of unprotected vaginal intercourse in the previous 3 months averaged over the 3 follow-ups. Secondary outcomes were other sexual behaviors. Results A total of 1,057 (94.5%) of 1,118 eligible learners (mean age = 12.4 years) participated, with 96.7% retained at the 12-month follow-up. Generalized estimating equations analyses, adjusting for clustering from 18 schools, revealed that averaged over the 3 follow-ups a significantly smaller percentage of HIV/STD risk-reduction intervention participants reported having unprotected vaginal intercourse (OR = 0.51; 95% CI, 0.30-0.85), vaginal intercourse (OR = 0.62; 95% CI, 0.42-0.94), and multiple sexual partners (OR = 0.50; 95% CI, 0.28-0.89), when adjusted for baseline prevalences, compared with health-promotion control participants. Conclusions This is the first large-scale community-level randomized intervention trial to obtain significant effects on HIV/STD sexual-risk behavior among South African adolescents in the earliest stages of entry into sexual activity. PMID:20921349

  17. Resilience-based Diabetes Self-management Education: Perspectives From African American Participants, Community Leaders, and Healthcare Providers.

    PubMed

    Lehrer, H Matthew; Dubois, Susan K; Brown, Sharon A; Steinhardt, Mary A

    2017-08-01

    Purpose The purpose of this qualitative, focus group study was to further refine the Resilience-based Diabetes Self-management Education (RB-DSME) recruitment process and intervention, build greater trust in the community, and identify strategies to enhance its sustainability as a community-based intervention in African American church settings. Methods Six 2-hour focus groups (N = 55; 10 men and 45 women) were led by a trained moderator with a written guide to facilitate discussion. Two sessions were conducted with individuals diagnosed with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) who participated in previous RB-DSME pilot interventions and their family members, two sessions with local church leaders, and two sessions with community healthcare providers who care for patients with T2DM. Two independent reviewers performed content analysis to identify major themes using a grounded theory approach. The validity of core themes was enhanced by external review and subsequent discussions with two qualitative methods consultants. Results There was expressed interest and acceptability of the RB-DSME program. Church connection and pastor support were noted as key factors in building trust and enhancing recruitment, retention, and sustainability of the program. Core themes across all groups included the value of incentives, the need for foundational knowledge shared with genuine concern, teaching with visuals, dealing with denial, balancing the reality of adverse consequences with hope, the importance of social support, and addressing healthcare delivery barriers. Conclusion Focus groups documented the feasibility and potential effectiveness of RB-DSME interventions to enhance diabetes care in the African American community. In clinical practice, inclusion of these core themes may enhance T2DM self-care and treatment outcomes.

  18. In Their Own Voices: Rural African American Youth Speak Out About Community-Based HIV Prevention Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Coker-Appiah, Dionne Smith; Akers, Aletha Y.; Banks, Bahby; Albritton, Tashuna; Leniek, Karyn; Wynn, Mysha; Youmans, Selena E.; Parker, Donald; Ellison, Arlinda; Henderson, Stacey; Stith, Doris; Council, Barbara; Oxendine-Pitt, Patricia; Corbie-Smith, Giselle

    2010-01-01

    Background The HIV epidemic is a major public health problem in the United States, particularly among rural African American adolescents and young adults. Objectives We sought to explore young, rural African American’s perspectives about key programmatic components to consider when designing youth-targeted, community-based HIV prevention interventions. Methods We report data from four focus groups with adolescents and young adults aged 16 to 24 (n = 38) conducted as part of a community-based participatory research (CBPR) project designed to develop multilevel HIV risk reduction interventions in two rural North Carolina communities with high HIV rates. Analysis was performed by academic and community partners using a modified grounded theory approach to content analysis. Results Interventions should target preadolescents and early adolescents rather than older adolescents and young adults in an effort to “catch them while they’re young.” Intervention developers should obtain input from local young people regarding critical programmatic components, such as whom to employ as study recruiters and intervention leaders; intervention format and delivery options, acceptable recruitment and intervention locations, and incentive structures. Participants believe selecting community collaborators representing varied community sectors is critical. Important barriers to address included limited transportation, discomfort communicating about sexual issues, lack of community interest in HIV prevention, and unwillingness to acknowledge and address sexual activity among adolescents. Conclusion When designing HIV/AIDS prevention interventions, targeting young people, it is important to form academic–community partnerships that ensure young people’s perspectives are integral to the intervention development process. PMID:20097988

  19. In Their Own Voices: Rural African American Youth Speak Out About Community-Based HIV Prevention Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Coker-Appiah, Dionne Smith; Akers, Aletha Y.; Banks, Bahby; Albritton, Tashuna; Leniek, Karyn; Wynn, Mysha; Youmans, Selena E.; Parker, Donald; Ellison, Arlinda; Henderson, Stacey; Stith, Doris; Council, Barbara; Oxendine-Pitt, Patricia; Corbie-Smith, Giselle

    2014-01-01

    Background The HIV epidemic is a major public health problem in the United States, particularly among rural African American adolescents and young adults. Objectives We sought to explore young, rural African American’s perspectives about key programmatic components to consider when designing youth-targeted, community-based HIV prevention interventions. Methods We report data from four focus groups with adolescents and young adults aged 16 to 24 (n = 38) conducted as part of a community-based participatory research (CBPR) project designed to develop multilevel HIV risk reduction interventions in two rural North Carolina communities with high HIV rates. Analysis was performed by academic and community partners using a modified grounded theory approach to content analysis. Results Interventions should target preadolescents and early adolescents rather than older adolescents and young adults in an effort to “catch them while they’re young.” Intervention developers should obtain input from local young people regarding critical programmatic components, such as whom to employ as study recruiters and intervention leaders; intervention format and delivery options, acceptable recruitment and intervention locations, and incentive structures. Participants believe selecting community collaborators representing varied community sectors is critical. Important barriers to address included limited transportation, discomfort communicating about sexual issues, lack of community interest in HIV prevention, and unwillingness to acknowledge and address sexual activity among adolescents. Conclusion When designing HIV/AIDS prevention interventions, targeting young people, it is important to form academic–community partnerships that ensure young people’s perspectives are integral to the intervention development process. PMID:20097991

  20. Differences in primary health care use among sub-Saharan African immigrants in Norway: a register-based study.

    PubMed

    Diaz, Esperanza; Mbanya, Vivian N; Gele, Abdi A; Kumar, Bernadette

    2017-07-28

    Immigrants' utilization of primary health care (PHC) services differs from that of the host populations. However, immigrants are often classified in broad groups by continent of origin, and the heterogeneity within the same continent may hide variation in use among immigrant groups at a national level. Differences in utilization of PHC between sub-Saharan African immigrants have not received much attention. Registry-based study using merged data from the National Population Register and the Norwegian Health Economics Administration. African immigrants and their descendants registered in Norway in 2008 (36,366 persons) where included in this study. Using χ(2) test and logistic regression models, we assessed the differences in the use of PHC, including general practitioner (GP) and emergency room (ER) services, and the distribution of morbidity burden for immigrants from Somalia, Ethiopia, Eritrea, and Gambia. For the analyses, we used the number of visits and medical diagnoses from each consultation registered by the physician. Among the total studied population, 66.1% visited PHC within 1 year. The diagnoses registered were similar for all four immigrants groups, regardless of country of origin. Compared to immigrants from Somalia, the age and sex adjusted odds ratios (OR) for use of GP were significantly lower for Ethiopians (OR 0.91; 0.86-0.97), Eritreans (OR 0.85; 0.79-0.91), and Gambians (OR 0.88; 0.80-0.97). Similarly, we also observed lower use of ER among Ethiopians (OR 0.88; 0.81-0.95), Eritreans (OR 0.56; 0.51-0.62) and Gambians (OR 0.81; 0.71-0.92). However, immigrants from Somalia reduced their use of PHC with longer duration of stay in Norway. Differences between groups persisted after further adjustment for employment status. Despite the similarities in diagnoses among the sub-Saharan African immigrant groups in Norway, their use of PHC services differs by country of origin and length of stay. It is important to assess the reasons for the differences

  1. An analysis of the ruminal bacterial microbiota in West African Dwarf sheep fed grass- and tree-based diets.

    PubMed

    Omoniyi, L A; Jewell, K A; Isah, O A; Neumann, A P; Onwuka, C F I; Onagbesan, O M; Suen, G

    2014-05-01

    To measure the impact of supplementing a forage diet with tree-based browse on the ruminal bacterial communities of Nigerian West African Dwarf (WAD) sheep. Fifteen WAD sheep were fed a control diet of forage (Panicum maximum), with 12 animals shifted in groups of three to one of four browse-supplemented diets (Albizia saman, Bridelia micrantha, Ficus sur, or Gmelina arborea). These browse plants were shown in a concurrent but separate study to be reasonably nutritious (based on chemical composition and fibre constituents) and nontoxic (based on tannin, phytate, saponin, alkaloid and oxalate levels). Rumen liquids and solids for DNA extraction were collected via intubation from two animals in each group before and after dietary shift. Bacterial 16S rRNA gene regions V6-V8 were sequenced by 454 pyrosequencing. All communities were highly diverse and dominated by the phyla Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Tenericutes, Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria. All communities shared members of the genera Butryivibrio, Prevotella and Ruminococcus. Our analysis defined a core sets of bacteria shared by all animals, forage-fed animals and browse-fed animals. Community structure shifted dramatically in animals fed A. saman or G. arborea. The impact of tree-based browse on the ruminal bacterial community of Nigerian WAD sheep varies by browse species, likely due to differences in browse composition. Our study describes the first neotropical small ruminant bacterial microbiome and supports diet supplementation with specific tree-based browse for WAD sheep. © 2014 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  2. Genotyping-by-Sequencing-Based Genetic Analysis of African Rice Cultivars and Association Mapping of Blast Resistance Genes Against Magnaporthe oryzae Populations in Africa.

    PubMed

    Mgonja, Emmanuel M; Park, Chan Ho; Kang, Houxiang; Balimponya, Elias G; Opiyo, Stephen; Bellizzi, Maria; Mutiga, Samuel K; Rotich, Felix; Ganeshan, Veena Devi; Mabagala, Robert; Sneller, Clay; Correll, Jim; Zhou, Bo; Talbot, Nicholas J; Mitchell, Thomas K; Wang, Guo-Liang

    2017-09-01

    Understanding the genetic diversity of rice germplasm is important for the sustainable use of genetic materials in rice breeding and production. Africa is rich in rice genetic resources that can be utilized to boost rice productivity on the continent. A major constraint to rice production in Africa is rice blast, caused by the hemibiotrophic fungal pathogen Magnaporthe oryzae. In this report, we present the results of a genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS)-based diversity analysis of 190 African rice cultivars and an association mapping of blast resistance (R) genes and quantitative trait loci (QTLs). The 190 African cultivars were clustered into three groups based on the 184K single nucleotide polymorphisms generated by GBS. We inoculated the rice cultivars with six African M. oryzae isolates. Association mapping identified 25 genomic regions associated with blast resistance (RABRs) in the rice genome. Moreover, PCR analysis indicated that RABR_23 is associated with the Pi-ta gene on chromosome 12. Our study demonstrates that the combination of GBS-based genetic diversity population analysis and association mapping is effective in identifying rice blast R genes/QTLs that contribute to resistance against African populations of M. oryzae. The identified markers linked to the RABRs and 14 highly resistant cultivars in this study will be useful for rice breeding in Africa.

  3. RBANS Norms based on the Relationship of Age, Gender, Education, and WRAT-3 Reading to Performance within an Older African American Sample.

    PubMed

    Andreotti, Charissa; Hawkins, Keith A

    2015-01-01

    Due to factors including differences in educational opportunity, African Americans and Caucasians frequently differ on cognitive tests creating diagnostic error risks. Such differences have been found on the Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status (RBANS), and preliminary norms based on a small sample of African Americans have been generated. In a larger sample of community-dwelling older African Americans, we explored sources of variance including age, gender, common medical conditions, years of education, and reading level to generate norms stratified on the most relevant bases. Three hundred and fifty-five African Americans aged 55+ and living independently completed the RBANS and health, education, and psychosocial interviews. Hypertension and type 2 diabetes were unrelated to overall RBANS performance once age and education were accounted for. Age, education, and WRAT-3 Reading score (a proxy for scholastic attainment) were independent predictors of RBANS performance. Females performed better on List Learning, Story Memory, Fluency, Coding, List Recall, and List Recognition; males were superior on Line Orientation and Picture Naming. In addition to generating norms stratified by age, we provide descriptive statistics grouped by age and education, and by age and WRAT-3 Reading grade level, to provide clinicians with the opportunity to tailor their interpretation of scores based upon perceived best fit for their patient. Regression formulas are provided to address gender differences. To complement the standard index norms, we provide norms for alternative indexes representing additional an factor structure of cognitive domains.

  4. The Effects of School-Based Curricula on Reading Achievement of African American Males in Special Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Kenneth A.; Sadler, Camelia I.

    2009-01-01

    Longitudinal research on reading curricula and skills that predict future reading achievement for African American males in special education is quite limited. Using a national sample over a five-year period, this study highlights reading skills most associated with later reading achievement for African American males in special education. For…

  5. Infusing Culture into Practice: Developing and Implementing Evidence-Based Mental Health Services for African American Foster Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Briggs, Harold Eugene; McBeath, Bowen

    2010-01-01

    The lack of culturally appropriate health and mental health care has contributed to the large number of African American youth and families involved in the child welfare system. This article reviews the consequences of the insufficient access to culturally sensitive, evidence-supported interventions for African American foster youth. The authors…

  6. Fine-scale genetic structure and cryptic associations reveal evidence of kin-based sociality in the African forest elephant.

    PubMed

    Schuttler, Stephanie G; Philbrick, Jessica A; Jeffery, Kathryn J; Eggert, Lori S

    2014-01-01

    Spatial patterns of relatedness within animal populations are important in the evolution of mating and social systems, and have the potential to reveal information on species that are difficult to observe in the wild. This study examines the fine-scale genetic structure and connectivity of groups within African forest elephants, Loxodonta cyclotis, which are often difficult to observe due to forest habitat. We tested the hypothesis that genetic similarity will decline with increasing geographic distance, as we expect kin to be in closer proximity, using spatial autocorrelation analyses and Tau K(r) tests. Associations between individuals were investigated through a non-invasive genetic capture-recapture approach using network models, and were predicted to be more extensive than the small groups found in observational studies, similar to fission-fusion sociality found in African savanna (Loxodonta africana) and Asian (Elephas maximus) species. Dung samples were collected in Lopé National Park, Gabon in 2008 and 2010 and genotyped at 10 microsatellite loci, genetically sexed, and sequenced at the mitochondrial DNA control region. We conducted analyses on samples collected at three different temporal scales: a day, within six-day sampling sessions, and within each year. Spatial autocorrelation and Tau K(r) tests revealed genetic structure, but results were weak and inconsistent between sampling sessions. Positive spatial autocorrelation was found in distance classes of 0-5 km, and was strongest for the single day session. Despite weak genetic structure, individuals within groups were significantly more related to each other than to individuals between groups. Social networks revealed some components to have large, extensive groups of up to 22 individuals, and most groups were composed of individuals of the same matriline. Although fine-scale population genetic structure was weak, forest elephants are typically found in groups consisting of kin and based on matrilines

  7. Fine-Scale Genetic Structure and Cryptic Associations Reveal Evidence of Kin-Based Sociality in the African Forest Elephant

    PubMed Central

    Schuttler, Stephanie G.; Philbrick, Jessica A.; Jeffery, Kathryn J.; Eggert, Lori S.

    2014-01-01

    Spatial patterns of relatedness within animal populations are important in the evolution of mating and social systems, and have the potential to reveal information on species that are difficult to observe in the wild. This study examines the fine-scale genetic structure and connectivity of groups within African forest elephants, Loxodonta cyclotis, which are often difficult to observe due to forest habitat. We tested the hypothesis that genetic similarity will decline with increasing geographic distance, as we expect kin to be in closer proximity, using spatial autocorrelation analyses and Tau Kr tests. Associations between individuals were investigated through a non-invasive genetic capture-recapture approach using network models, and were predicted to be more extensive than the small groups found in observational studies, similar to fission-fusion sociality found in African savanna (Loxodonta africana) and Asian (Elephas maximus) species. Dung samples were collected in Lopé National Park, Gabon in 2008 and 2010 and genotyped at 10 microsatellite loci, genetically sexed, and sequenced at the mitochondrial DNA control region. We conducted analyses on samples collected at three different temporal scales: a day, within six-day sampling sessions, and within each year. Spatial autocorrelation and Tau Kr tests revealed genetic structure, but results were weak and inconsistent between sampling sessions. Positive spatial autocorrelation was found in distance classes of 0–5 km, and was strongest for the single day session. Despite weak genetic structure, individuals within groups were significantly more related to each other than to individuals between groups. Social networks revealed some components to have large, extensive groups of up to 22 individuals, and most groups were composed of individuals of the same matriline. Although fine-scale population genetic structure was weak, forest elephants are typically found in groups consisting of kin and based on matrilines

  8. Community-Based Participatory Research to Promote Healthy Diet and Nutrition and Prevent and Control Obesity Among African-Americans: a Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Coughlin, Steven S; Smith, Selina A

    2017-04-01

    The literature on community-based participatory research (CBPR) approaches for promoting healthy diet and nutrition and preventing and controlling obesity in African-American communities was systematically reviewed as part of the planning process for new research. CBPR studies of diet, nutrition, and weight management among African-Americans were identified from 1989 through October 31, 2015, using PubMed and the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL) databases and MeSH term and keyword searches. A total of 16 CBPR studies on healthy diet, nutrition, and weight management among African-Americans were identified; outcome evaluation results were available for all but two. Of the remaining 14 studies, 11 focused on adults, 1 on children, and 2 on both children and adults. Eight studies employed CBPR methods to address diet, nutrition, and weight management in church settings. Four had a cluster-randomized controlled design. Others had a pre-post test, quasi-experimental, or uncontrolled design. Only one study addressed four levels of the socioecological model; none addressed all five levels of the model. The studies identified in this review indicate that CBPR approaches can be effective for promoting healthy diet, nutrition, and weight management among African-American adults, but there is a need for additional studies with rigorous study designs that overcome methodologic limitations of many existing studies. There is only limited evidence for the effectiveness of CBPR approaches for promoting healthy eating and weight control among African-American children and adolescents. To address health disparities, additional CBPR studies are needed to promote healthy diet, nutrition, and weight management in African-American communities. Of particular interest are multilevel CBPR studies that include interventions aimed at multiple levels of the socioecological model.

  9. Safety improvements through Intelligent Transport Systems: a South African case study based on microscopic simulation modelling.

    PubMed

    Vanderschuren, Marianne

    2008-03-01

    Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS) can facilitate the delivery of a wide range of policy objectives. There are six main objectives/benefits identified in the international literature: Safety (reduction of (potential) crashes), mobility (reduction of delays and travel times), efficiency (optimise the use of existing infrastructure), productivity (cost saving), energy/environment and customer satisfaction [Mitretek Systems, 2001. Intelligent Transport System Benefits: 2001 update, Under Contract to the Federal Highway Administration, US Department of Transportation, Washington, DC, US]. In the South African context, there is an interest for measures that can reduce (potential) crashes. In South Africa the number of year on year traffic related fatalities is still increasing. In 2005 the number of fatalities was 15393 (from 14135 in 2004) while the estimated costs for the same period increased from R8.89-billion to R9.99-billion [RTMC, 2007. Interim Road Traffic and Fatal Crash Report 2006, Road Traffic Management Corporation, Pretoria, SA]. Given the extent of the road safety problem and the potential benefits of ITS, the need for further research is apparent. A study with regards to the potential of different types of models (macroscopic, mesoscopic and miscroscopic simulation models) led to the use of Paramics. Two corridors and three types of ITS measures were investigated and safety benefits were estimated.

  10. Development of a Luminex-Based DIVA Assay for Serological Detection of African Horse Sickness Virus in Horses.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Matamoros, A; Nieto-Pelegrín, E; Beck, C; Rivera-Arroyo, B; Lecollinet, S; Sailleau, C; Zientara, S; Sánchez-Vizcaíno, J M

    2016-08-01

    African horse sickness (AHS) is considered a fatal re-emergent vector-borne disease of horses. In the absence of any effective treatment for AHS, vaccination remains the most effective form of disease control. The new generation of vaccines, such as one based on purified, inactivated AHS virus (AHSV, serotype 4), which does not induce antibodies against non-structural protein 3 (NS3), enables the development of diagnostic methods that differentiate infected from vaccinated animals (DIVA assays). As detecting AHS in AHSV-free countries may lead to restrictions on international animal movements and thereby cause significant economic damage, these DIVA assays are crucial for reducing movement restrictions. In this article, we describe a Luminex-based multiplex assay for DIVA diagnosis of AHS, and we validate it in a duplex format to detect antibodies against structural protein 7 (VP7) and NS3 in serum samples from horses vaccinated with inactivated AHSV4 vaccine or infected with a live virus of the same serotype. Results of the Luminex-based assay for detecting anti-NS3 antibodies showed good positive correlation with results from an in-house enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Thus, the Luminex-based technique described here may allow multiplex DIVA antibody detection in a single sample in less than 2 h, and it may prove adaptable for the development of robust, multiplex serological assays.

  11. Over-Representation of the Pro-Arrhythmic, Sudden Death Predisposing Sodium Channel Polymorphism, S1103Y, in a Population-Based Cohort of African American Sudden Infant Death Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Van Norstrand, David W.; Tester, David J.; Ackerman, Michael J.

    2008-01-01

    Background The S1103Y-SCN5A polymorphism has been implicated as a pro-arrhythmic, sudden death predisposing risk factor in African Americans including one postmortem investigation of African American infants with sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS). Objective This study sought to assess whether or not the relatively African American-specific common polymorphism, S1103Y, in the SCN5A-encoded cardiac sodium channel is overrepresented in SIDS in African Americans. Methods Seventy-one cases from a population-based cohort of unexplained infant deaths among African Americans (37 females, 34 males, average age = 3 ± 2 months, range from birth to 11 months) were submitted to the Mayo Clinic Windland Smith Rice Sudden Death Genomics Laboratory for postmortem genetic testing. Polymerase chain reaction and a restriction digest assay was performed to genotype this cohort for S1103Y. Results Targeted mutational analysis of exon 18 in SCN5A of the African American SIDS cohort (n = 71) revealed the S1103Y polymorphism in 16/71 African American cases of SIDS (22.5%) compared to 135/1161 (11.6%) ostensibly healthy adult African Americans (p = 0.01). Conclusion This study provides an independent assessment of the prevalence of S1103Y-SCN5A among African American infants with a sudden, unexpected and unexplained death prior to their first birthday. Further scrutiny and quantification of the risk apparently associated with S1103Y seems warranted. PMID:18452875

  12. Recruitment of older African Americans for survey research: a process evaluation of the community and church-based strategy in The Durham Elders Project.

    PubMed

    Reed, Peter S; Foley, Kristie Long; Hatch, John; Mutran, Elizabeth J

    2003-02-01

    The disproportionately high burden of morbidity and mortality among older African Americans is due, in part, to a lack of understanding of the factors contributing to these outcomes. In order to more fully understand the factors that contribute to African American morbidity and mortality, researchers must identify strategies for increasing the inclusion of older African Americans in research on social and health phenomena. This article is a process evaluation describing the successes and challenges associated with recruitment of older African Americans into research. It considers an effort to nurture collaboration between university and community institutions to both facilitate research endeavors and offer meaningful and culturally-appropriate contributions to the community. The primary challenges discovered in this observational process evaluation of a church-based recruitment strategy include the effective coordination of a community research advisory board, ensuring participant autonomy, and reducing concerns of exploitation among potential participants. A strategy of coordinating a community research advisory board to incorporate the views of community members and to drive a church-based recruitment procedure provides a starting point for tapping into an immensely important segment of society historically ignored by the research community.

  13. Knowledge, group-based medical mistrust, future expectations, and perceived disadvantages of medical genetic testing: perspectives of Black African immigrants/refugees.

    PubMed

    Buseh, A; Kelber, S; Millon-Underwood, S; Stevens, P; Townsend, L

    2014-01-01

    Reasons for low participation of ethnic minorities in genetic studies are multifactorial and often poorly understood. Based on published literature, participation in genetic testing is low among Black African immigrants/refugees although they are purported to bear disproportionate disease burden. Thus, research involving Black African immigrant/refugee populations that examine their perspectives on participating in genetic studies is needed. This report examines and describes the knowledge of medical genetics, group-based medical mistrust, and future expectations of genetic research and the influence of these measures on the perceived disadvantages of genetic testing among Black African immigrants/refugees. Using a cross-sectional survey design, a nonprobability sample (n = 212) of Black African immigrants/refugees was administered a questionnaire. Participants ranged in age from 18 to 61 years (mean = 38.91, SD = 9.78). The questionnaire consisted of 5 instruments: (a) sociodemographic characteristics, (b) Knowledge of Medical Genetics scale, (c) Group-Based Medical Mistrust Scale, (d) Future Expectations/Anticipated Consequences of Genetics Research scale, and (e) Perceived Disadvantages of Genetic Testing scale. Participants were concerned that genetic research may result in scientists 'playing God,' interfering with the natural order of life. In multivariate analyses, the perceived disadvantages of genetic testing increased as medical mistrust and anticipated negative impacts of genetic testing increased. Increase in genetic knowledge contributed to a decrease in perceived disadvantages. Our findings suggest that recruitment of Black African immigrants/refugees in genetic studies should address potential low knowledge of genetics, concerns about medical mistrust, the expectations/anticipated consequences of genetic research, and the perceived disadvantages of genetic testing.

  14. Coffee consumption and prostate cancer aggressiveness among African and Caucasian Americans in a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Arab, Lenore; Su, L Joseph; Steck, Susan E; Ang, Alfonso; Fontham, Elizabeth T H; Bensen, Jeannette T; Mohler, James L

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluated the relationship between caffeinated and decaffeinated coffee and prostate cancer (CaP) aggressiveness using data from a population-based incident CaP study within the North Carolina-Louisiana Prostate Cancer Project (PCaP). Classification of CaP aggressiveness at diagnosis was based on clinical criteria for 1,049 African-American (AA) and 1,083 Caucasian-American (CA) research subjects. Coffee consumption was measured using a modified NCI Dietary History Questionnaire. No significant associations were found between CaP aggressiveness and consumption of either caffeinated or decaffeinated coffee. The OR for high aggressive CaP among consumers of more than 4 cups per day was 0.92 (95%CI = 0.61, 1.39), compared to non-coffee-drinkers. Results stratified by race found no significant associations and no noticeable trends in either AAs (P for trend = 0. 62) or CAs (P for trend = 0.42). In contrast to a recent report on a select population that has less complete information on CaP aggressiveness suggesting that coffee prevents aggressive CaP, this rapid case ascertainment population-based study, in a biracial population with differing risks of CaP did not demonstrate a protective relationship between high coffee consumption and risk of high aggressive CaP.

  15. The role of the nose and cranial base in profile assessment: a morphological comparison between native African and Caucasian samples.

    PubMed

    Dandajena, T; Chung, K W

    2012-08-01

    The purpose of this research was to evaluate the position of the nose and how it affects clinical judgment of the face in a native African sample. We considered the anatomic location of the nose with respect to the anterior cranial base (ACB) as well as to the maxillary lip, based on guidelines set down by Holdaway but slightly modified for purposes of this research. A comparison of the Shona to a Caucasian sample using selected parameters devised by Holdaway (pronasale to labrale superius) indicated that the Shona had a nose and ACB that were shorter than those of the comparative group of Caucasians. The short anterior cranial base was associated with a short and retro-positioned nose which resulted in deceptively protrusive lips when assessed using Ricketts' profile line. Whilst there was no difference in nose depth between the groups, the nasal angle of the Shona was larger than that of Caucasians, indicating an up-tipped nose. The position of the nose has a bearing on orthodontic treatment planning. Understanding the facial morphology of the Shona led us to conclude that conventional soft tissue measurements may not be applicable to all patients who present for orthodontic treatment, and that it may be necessary to advise the patient to seek other avenues for satisfactory management, which, depending on the chief complaint, may include surgical augmentation of the nose and chin.

  16. Therapeutic Potential of a Drum and Dance Ceremony Based on the African Ngoma Tradition.

    PubMed

    Vinesett, Ava L; Price, Miurel; Wilson, Kenneth H

    2015-08-01

    Ngoma ceremonies are used throughout Central and South Africa to help people address "difficult issues," including medical illness. They are examples of ceremonies that use strong rhythms and dance for this purpose in indigenous cultures throughout the world. This study sought to modify an ngoma ceremony to make it appropriate for biomedical use and to determine its acceptance and potential for benefit for people living in the United States. The Congolese Zebola ceremony, an African healing practice, was modified to be religion-neutral and to involve only moderate exercise. Seventeen participants were recruited for the current study. Most participants were living with a chronic illness (n=15), and a few had no medical diagnoses (n=2). Participants spent 10 minutes in a focused activity, such as meditation, yoga, or prayer. They then danced to the Congolese rhythm Zebola for an hour and a half, with a rest every 20 minutes. Afterward, they indicated whether the experience was positive, neutral, or negative and wrote a narrative describing their experience and what they saw as strengths and weaknesses of the ceremony. They then participated in a focus group discussion. Data from the narrative and focus group discussion were coded, tabulated, and analyzed for themes. Sixteen of seventeen participants found the ceremony to be a positive experience. None found the form uncomfortably foreign or disturbing. Participants described diverse benefits, including increased exercise tolerance, stress reduction, feelings of group support, and beneficial spiritual experiences. Further study of the modified ngoma ceremony is warranted. Global health programs should consider the potential benefits of transferring technologies in both directions rather than only from technologically advanced countries to less technologically advanced ones.

  17. Evaluation of a health setting-based stigma intervention in five African countries.

    PubMed

    Uys, Leana; Chirwa, Maureen; Kohi, Thecla; Greeff, Minrie; Naidoo, Joanne; Makoae, Lucia; Dlamini, Priscilla; Durrheim, Kevin; Cuca, Yvette; Holzemer, William L

    2009-12-01

    The study aim is to explore the results of an HIV stigma intervention in five African health care settings. A case study approach was used. The intervention consisted of bringing together a team of approximately 10 nurses and 10 people living with HIV or AIDS (PLHA) in each setting and facilitating a process in which they planned and implemented a stigma reduction intervention, involving both information giving and empowerment. Nurses (n = 134) completed a demographic questionnaire, the HIV/AIDS Stigma Instrument-Nurses (HASI-N), a self-efficacy scale, and a self-esteem scale, both before and after the intervention, and the team completed a similar set of instruments before and after the intervention, with the PLHA completing the HIV/AIDS Stigma Instrument for PLHA (HASI-P). The intervention as implemented in all five countries was inclusive, action-oriented, and well received. It led to understanding and mutual support between nurses and PLHA and created some momentum in all the settings for continued activity. PLHA involved in the intervention teams reported less stigma and increased self-esteem. Nurses in the intervention teams and those in the settings reported no reduction in stigma or increases in self- esteem and self-efficacy, but their HIV testing behavior increased significantly. This pilot study indicates that the stigma experience of PLHA can be decreased, but that the stigma experiences of nurses are less easy to change. Further evaluation research with control groups and larger samples and measuring change over longer periods of time is indicated.

  18. Therapeutic Potential of a Drum and Dance Ceremony Based on the African Ngoma Tradition

    PubMed Central

    Vinesett, Ava L.; Price, Miurel

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective: Ngoma ceremonies are used throughout Central and South Africa to help people address “difficult issues,” including medical illness. They are examples of ceremonies that use strong rhythms and dance for this purpose in indigenous cultures throughout the world. This study sought to modify an ngoma ceremony to make it appropriate for biomedical use and to determine its acceptance and potential for benefit for people living in the United States. Methods: The Congolese Zebola ceremony, an African healing practice, was modified to be religion-neutral and to involve only moderate exercise. Seventeen participants were recruited for the current study. Most participants were living with a chronic illness (n=15), and a few had no medical diagnoses (n=2). Participants spent 10 minutes in a focused activity, such as meditation, yoga, or prayer. They then danced to the Congolese rhythm Zebola for an hour and a half, with a rest every 20 minutes. Afterward, they indicated whether the experience was positive, neutral, or negative and wrote a narrative describing their experience and what they saw as strengths and weaknesses of the ceremony. They then participated in a focus group discussion. Data from the narrative and focus group discussion were coded, tabulated, and analyzed for themes. Results: Sixteen of seventeen participants found the ceremony to be a positive experience. None found the form uncomfortably foreign or disturbing. Participants described diverse benefits, including increased exercise tolerance, stress reduction, feelings of group support, and beneficial spiritual experiences. Conclusions: Further study of the modified ngoma ceremony is warranted. Global health programs should consider the potential benefits of transferring technologies in both directions rather than only from technologically advanced countries to less technologically advanced ones. PMID:26171652

  19. Evaluation of a Health Setting-Based Stigma Intervention in Five African Countries

    PubMed Central

    Uys, Leana; Chirwa, Maureen; Kohi, Thecla; Greeff, Minrie; Makoae, Lucia; Dlamini, Priscilla; Durrheim, Kevin; Cuca, Yvette; Holzemer, William L.

    2009-01-01

    Abstract The study aim is to explore the results of an HIV stigma intervention in five African health care settings. A case study approach was used. The intervention consisted of bringing together a team of approximately 10 nurses and 10 people living with HIV or AIDS (PLHA) in each setting and facilitating a process in which they planned and implemented a stigma reduction intervention, involving both information giving and empowerment. Nurses (n = 134) completed a demographic questionnaire, the HIV/AIDS Stigma Instrument-Nurses (HASI-N), a self-efficacy scale, and a self-esteem scale, both before and after the intervention, and the team completed a similar set of instruments before and after the intervention, with the PLHA completing the HIV/AIDS Stigma Instrument for PLHA (HASI-P). The intervention as implemented in all five countries was inclusive, action-oriented, and well received. It led to understanding and mutual support between nurses and PLHA and created some momentum in all the settings for continued activity. PLHA involved in the intervention teams reported less stigma and increased self-esteem. Nurses in the intervention teams and those in the settings reported no reduction in stigma or increases in self- esteem and self-efficacy, but their HIV testing behavior increased significantly. This pilot study indicates that the stigma experience of PLHA can be decreased, but that the stigma experiences of nurses are less easy to change. Further evaluation research with control groups and larger samples and measuring change over longer periods of time is indicated. PMID:20025515

  20. CpDNA-based species identification and phylogeography: application to African tropical tree species.

    PubMed

    Duminil, J; Heuertz, M; Doucet, J-L; Bourland, N; Cruaud, C; Gavory, F; Doumenge, C; Navascués, M; Hardy, O J

    2010-12-01

    Despite the importance of the African tropical rainforests as a hotspot of biodiversity, their history and the processes that have structured their biodiversity are understood poorly. With respect to past demographic processes, new insights can be gained through characterizing the distribution of genetic diversity. However, few studies of this type have been conducted in Central Africa, where the identification of species in the field can be difficult. We examine here the distribution of chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) diversity in Lower Guinea in two tree species that are difficult to distinguish, Erythrophleum ivorense and Erythrophleum suaveolens (Fabaceae). By using a blind-sampling approach and comparing molecular and morphological markers, we first identified retrospectively all sampled individuals and determined the limits of the distribution of each species. We then performed a phylogeographic study using the same genetic data set. The two species displayed essentially parapatric distributions that were correlated well with the rainfall gradient, which indicated different ecological requirements. In addition, a phylogeographic structure was found for E. suaveolens and, for both species, substantially higher levels of diversity and allelic endemism were observed in the south (Gabon) than in the north (Cameroon) of the Lower Guinea region. This finding indicated different histories of population demographics for the two species, which might reflect different responses to Quaternary climate changes. We suggest that a recent period of forest perturbation, which might have been caused by humans, favoured the spread of these two species and that their poor recruitment at present results from natural succession in their forest formations. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  1. School Counseling for African American Adolescents: The Alfred Adler Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sapp, Marty

    2010-01-01

    This article discusses how Adlerian counseling can be used as a form of school counseling for African American adolescents. Moreover, school counseling for African American adolescents is discussed within the context of African American culture. Due to the strength-based nature of Adlerian approach, it can capitalize on African American…

  2. School Counseling for African American Adolescents: The Alfred Adler Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sapp, Marty

    2010-01-01

    This article discusses how Adlerian counseling can be used as a form of school counseling for African American adolescents. Moreover, school counseling for African American adolescents is discussed within the context of African American culture. Due to the strength-based nature of Adlerian approach, it can capitalize on African American…

  3. Development of a spiritually based educational intervention to increase informed decision making for prostate cancer screening among church-attending African American men.

    PubMed

    Holt, Cheryl L; Wynn, Theresa A; Southward, Penny; Litaker, Mark S; Jeames, Sanford; Schulz, Emily

    2009-09-01

    One way of developing culturally relevant health communication in the African American church setting is to develop spiritually based interventions, in which the health message is framed by relevant spiritual themes and scripture. In this article we describe the development of a community health advisor(CHA)-led intervention aimed at increasing informed decision making (IDM) for prostate cancer screening among church-attending African American men. Full-color print educational booklets were developed and pilot tested with extensive community participation of church-attending African American men age-eligible for screening. The intervention development phase consisted of ideas solicited from an advisory panel of African American men (N = 10), who identified core content and developed the spiritual themes. In the intervention pilot testing phase, prototypes of the intervention materials were pilot tested for graphic appeal in two focus groups (N = 16), and content was tested for acceptability and comprehension using individual cognitive response interviews (N = 10). Recommendations were made for project branding and logo and for use of graphics of real people in the educational materials. Significant feedback was obtained from the focus groups, on the graphics, colors, fonts, continuity, titles, and booklet size/shape. The importance of working closely with the community when developing interventions is discussed, as well as the importance of pilot testing of educational materials.

  4. Efficacy and Mediation of a Theory-Based Physical Activity Intervention for African American Men Who Have Sex with Men: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jingwen; Jemmott, John B; O'Leary, Ann; Stevens, Robin; Jemmott, Loretta Sweet; Icard, Larry D; Hsu, Janet; Rutledge, Scott E

    2017-02-01

    Few trials have tested physical-activity interventions among sexual minorities, including African American men who have sex with men (MSM). We examined the efficacy and mediation of the Being Responsible for Ourselves (BRO) physical-activity intervention among African American MSM. African American MSM were randomized to the physical-activity intervention consisting of three 90-min one-on-one sessions or an attention-matched control intervention and completed pre-intervention, immediately post-intervention, and 6- and 12-month post-intervention audio computer-based surveys. Of the 595 participants, 503 completed the 12-month follow-up. Generalized estimating equation models revealed that the intervention increased self-reported physical activity compared with the control intervention, adjusted for pre-intervention physical activity. Mediation analyses suggested that the intervention increased reasoned action approach variables, subjective norm and self-efficacy, increasing intention immediately post-intervention, which increased physical activity during the follow-up period. Interventions targeting reasoned action approach variables may contribute to efforts to increase African American MSM's physical activity. The trial was registered with the ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier NCT02561286 .

  5. Development of a Spiritually Based Educational Intervention to Increase Informed Decision Making for Prostate Cancer Screening Among Church-Attending African American Men

    PubMed Central

    Holt, Cheryl L.; Wynn, Theresa A.; Southward, Penny; Litaker, Mark s.; Jeames, Sanford; Schulz, Emily

    2010-01-01

    One way of developing culturally relevant health communication in the African American church setting is to develop spiritually based interventions, in which the health message is framed by relevant spiritual themes and scripture. In this article we describe the development of a community health advisor (CHA)-led intervention aimed at increasing informed decision making (IDM) for prostate cancer screening among church-attending African American men. Full-color print educational booklets were developed and pilot tested with extensive community participation of church-attending African American men age-eligible for screening. The intervention development phase consisted of ideas solicited from an advisory panel of African American men (N = 10), who identified core content and developed the spiritual themes. In the intervention pilot testing phase, prototypes of the intervention materials were pilot tested for graphic appeal in two focus groups (N = 16), and content was tested for acceptability and comprehension using individual cognitive response interviews (N = 10). Recommendations were made for project branding and logo and for use of graphics of real people in the educational materials. Significant feedback was obtained from the focus groups, on the graphics, colors, fonts, continuity, titles, and booklet size/shape. The importance of working closely with the community when developing interventions is discussed, as well as the importance of pilot testing of educational materials. PMID:19731129

  6. Research Protocol: Development, implementation and evaluation of a cognitive behavioural therapy-based intervention programme for the management of anxiety symptoms in South African children with visual impairments

    PubMed Central

    Visagie, Lisa; Silverman, Wendy K.

    2015-01-01

    Background Childhood anxiety presents a serious mental health problem, and it is one of the most common forms of psychological distress reported by youth worldwide. The prevalence of anxiety symptoms amongst South African youth is reported to be significantly higher than in other parts of the world. These high prevalence rates become even more significant when viewed in terms of children with visual impairments, as it is suggested that children with physical disabilities may be more prone, than their non-disabled peers, for the development of psychological difficulties. Objectives The main aim of this study is to develop, implement and evaluate a specifically tailored anxiety intervention programme for use with South African children with visual impairments. Method A specifically tailored cognitive-behavioural therapy-based anxiety intervention, for 9–13 year old South African children with visual impairments, will be evaluated in two special schools. The study will employ a randomised wait-list control group design with pre- post- and follow-up intervention measures, with two groups each receiving a 10 session anxiety intervention programme. The main outcome measure relates to the participants’ symptoms of anxiety as indicated on the Revised Child Anxiety and Depression Scale. Conclusion If the anxiety intervention programme is found to be effective in reducing symptoms of anxiety, this universal intervention will lay down the foundation upon which future contextually sensitive (South African) anxiety intervention programmes can be built. PMID:28730026

  7. Intervention Mapping to Adapt Evidence-Based Interventions for Use in Practice: Increasing Mammography among African American Women

    PubMed Central

    Highfield, Linda; Hartman, Marieke A.; Mullen, Patricia Dolan; Rodriguez, Serena A.; Fernandez, Maria E.; Bartholomew, L. Kay

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes and demonstrates the use of the systematic planning process, Intervention Mapping, to adapt an evidence-based public health intervention (EBI). We used a simplified version of Intervention Mapping (IM Adapt) to increase an intervention's fit with a new setting and population. IM Adapt guides researchers and practitioners in selecting an EBI, making decisions about whether and what to adapt, and executing the adaptation while guarding the EBI's essential elements (those responsible for effectiveness). We present a case study of a project in which we used IM Adapt to find, adapt, implement, and evaluate an EBI to improve mammography adherence for African American women in a new practice setting in Houston, Texas. IM Adapt includes the following (1) assess needs and organizational capacity; (2) find EBIs; (3) plan adaptations based on fit assessments; (4) make adaptations; (5) plan for implementation; and (6) plan for evaluation of the adapted EBI. The case study shows an example of how public health researchers and practitioners can use the tool to make it easier to find and use EBIs, thus encouraging greater uptake. IM Adapt adds to existing dissemination and adaptation models by providing detailed guidance on how to decide on effective adaptation, while maintaining the essential elements of the EBI. PMID:26587531

  8. Prevalence and fate of Bacillus cereus in African traditional cereal-based foods used as infant foods.

    PubMed

    Humblot, Christèle; Perez-Pulido, Ruben; Akaki, David; Loiseau, Gérard; Guyot, Jean-Pierre

    2012-09-01

    The objective of the present work was to estimate the prevalence of Bacillus cereus group species in traditional cereal-based lactic acid-fermented slurries and nonfermented flours used to prepare infant foods in an African context. High counts on mannitol-egg yolk-polymixin agar medium were determined for the fermented slurries (median, 4.5 × 10(4) CFU/ml of slurry) compared with the nonfermented flours, most of whose counts were lower than 10(-1) CFU/g. Virulence genes were characterized in 60 isolates from 26 traditional cereal-based foods in Ouagadougou (Burkina Faso). Seventy-two and 38 % of isolates were positive for the complete set of genes coding for hemolysin BL and nonhemolytic enterotoxin, respectively, suggesting a high enterotoxigenic potential for these foodborne isolates. No potentially emetic toxin-producing strains were detected. Because of the high counts found for fermented slurries, survival tests with vegetative cells inoculated in fermented slurries were performed, which showed that growth of B. cereus was inhibited. This result suggests that fermentation in traditional production units is presumably not adequately controlled, enabling growth during any unit operations before fermentation, or even during the fermentation step, when the process was poorly controlled. However, adding nisin (0.1 mg/ml) enabled a 5-log reduction in the B. cereus population in 5 h, suggesting that the use of nisin could be a way to upgrade the hygienic quality of this type of food.

  9. Potential probiotic Pichia kudriavzevii strains and their ability to enhance folate content of traditional cereal-based African fermented food.

    PubMed

    Greppi, Anna; Saubade, Fabien; Botta, Cristian; Humblot, Christèle; Guyot, Jean-Pierre; Cocolin, Luca

    2017-04-01

    With the aim of selecting starter cultures with interesting probiotic potential and with the ability to produce folate in a food matrix, yeast strains isolated from fermented cereal-based African foods were investigated. A total of 93 yeast strains were screened for their tolerance to pH 2 and 0.3% of bile salts. Pichia kudriavzevii isolates gave the best results. Selected P. kudriavzevii strains were tested for survival to the simulated human digestion and for adhesion to Caco-2 cells. Moreover, presence of folate biosynthesis genes was verified and production of extra and intra-cellular folate determined during growth in culture medium. 31% of yeast strains could tolerate pH 2, while 99% bile salts. Survival rate after simulated digestion ranged between 11 and 45%, while adhesion rate between 12 and 40%. Folate production was mainly intracellular, maximum after 24 h of growth. To be closer to traditional cereal-based fermentations, a P. kudriavzevii strain with good probiotic potential was co-inoculated with Lactobacillus fermentum strains in a pearl millet gruel. This resulted in in situ folate production that peaked after 4 h. The use of strains with both probiotic and nutritional enrichment properties may have a greater impact for the consumers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Motion-based video monitoring for early detection of livestock diseases: The case of African swine fever.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Carrión, Eduardo; Martínez-Avilés, Marta; Ivorra, Benjamin; Martínez-López, Beatriz; Ramos, Ángel Manuel; Sánchez-Vizcaíno, José Manuel

    2017-01-01

    Early detection of infectious diseases can substantially reduce the health and economic impacts on livestock production. Here we describe a system for monitoring animal activity based on video and data processing techniques, in order to detect slowdown and weakening due to infection with African swine fever (ASF), one of the most significant threats to the pig industry. The system classifies and quantifies motion-based animal behaviour and daily activity in video sequences, allowing automated and non-intrusive surveillance in real-time. The aim of this system is to evaluate significant changes in animals' motion after being experimentally infected with ASF virus. Indeed, pig mobility declined progressively and fell significantly below pre-infection levels starting at four days after infection at a confidence level of 95%. Furthermore, daily motion decreased in infected animals by approximately 10% before the detection of the disease by clinical signs. These results show the promise of video processing techniques for real-time early detection of livestock infectious diseases.

  11. Expanding HIV Testing in African American Communities Through Community-Based Distribution of Home-Test Vouchers.

    PubMed

    Meyerson, Beth E; Carter, Gregory; Lawrence, Carrie; Jimison, Lawrence; Rush, Nate; Carter, Cedric; Coleman, Deidre; King, Aaron; Buckner, Debra; Harvey, Relton; Parker, Terrell; Gillespie, Anthony; Ohmit, Anita

    2016-03-01

    We investigated the implementation feasibility and effectiveness of community-based HIV home-test voucher distribution in three Indianapolis African American communities. Community-based organizations augmented traditional outreach methods to distribute vouchers for home HIV tests redeemable at three pharmacies during three distribution waves from February to April 30, 2015. Voucher redemption served as a proxy indicator of intent to test for HIV. 315 vouchers were distributed and 47 vouchers were redeemed for a 14.9% redemption rate. Distribution was 46% of plan. Vouchers were redeemed at all three pharmacies, and 21% of visits involved redemption of more than one voucher. The original team of seven distributors in three organizations reduced to a remaining five distributors in two organizations by wave 2. This study suggests that outreach organizations could implement HIV home test voucher distribution, and that people would redeem the vouchers at a pharmacy for an HIV test. Future studies should explore how voucher distribution can expand the current HIV testing system.

  12. Protocol for systematic review of school-based interventions to prevent and control obesity in African learners.

    PubMed

    Adom, Theodosia; Puoane, Thandi; De Villiers, Anniza; Kengne, André Pascal

    2017-03-27

    The increasing prevalence of obesity and overweight in childhood in developing countries is a public health concern to many governments. Schools play a significant role in the obesity epidemic as well as provide favourable environments for change in behaviours in childhood which can be carried on into adulthood. There is dearth of information on intervention studies in poor-resource settings. This review will summarise the available evidence on school-based interventions that focused on promoting healthy eating and physical activity among learners aged 6-15 years in Africa and to identify factors that lead to successful interventions or potential barriers to success of these programmes within the African context. This protocol is developed following the guidelines of PRIMSA-P 2015. Relevant search terms and keywords generated from the subject headings and the African search filter will be used to conduct a comprehensive search of MEDLINE (PubMed), MEDLINE (EbscoHost), CINAHL (EbscoHost), Register Academic Search Complete (EbscoHost) and ISI Web of Science (Science Citation Index) for published literature on school-based interventions to prevent and control obesity in learners in Africa. Grey literature will be also be obtained. The searches will cover 1 January 2000 to 30 June 2016. No language limitations will be applied. Full-text articles of eligible studies will be screened. Risk of bias and quality of reporting will be assessed. Data will be extracted, synthesised and presented by country and major regional groupings. Meta-analysis will be conducted for identical variables across studies, where data allow. This protocol is developed following the guidelines of PRISMA-P 2015. No primary data will be collected hence ethics is not a requirement. The findings will be submitted for publication in peer-reviewed journals, in conferences and in policy documents for decision-making, where needed. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use

  13. B cells modulate systemic responses to Pneumocystis murina lung infection and protect on-demand hematopoiesis via T cell-independent innate mechanisms when type I interferon signaling is absent.

    PubMed

    Hoyt, Teri R; Dobrinen, Erin; Kochetkova, Irina; Meissner, Nicole

    2015-02-01

    HIV infection results in a complex immunodeficiency due to loss of CD4(+) T cells, impaired type I interferon (IFN) responses, and B cell dysfunctions causing susceptibility to opportunistic infections such as Pneumocystis murina pneumonia and unexplained comorbidities, including bone marrow dysfunctions. Type I IFNs and B cells critically contribute to immunity to Pneumocystis lung infection. We recently also identified B cells as supporters of on-demand hematopoiesis following Pneumocystis infection that would otherwise be hampered due to systemic immune effects initiated in the context of a defective type I IFN system. While studying the role of type I IFNs in immunity to Pneumocystis infection, we discovered that mice lacking both lymphocytes and type I IFN receptor (IFrag(-/-)) developed progressive bone marrow failure following infection, while lymphocyte-competent type I IFN receptor-deficient mice (IFNAR(-/-)) showed transient bone marrow depression and extramedullary hematopoiesis. Lymphocyte reconstitution of lymphocyte-deficient IFrag(-/-) mice pointed to B cells as a key player in bone marrow protection. Here we define how B cells protect on-demand hematopoiesis following Pneumocystis lung infection in our model. We demonstrate that adoptive transfer of B cells into IFrag(-/-) mice protects early hematopoietic progenitor activity during systemic responses to Pneumocystis infection, thus promoting replenishment of depleted bone marrow cells. This activity is independent of CD4(+) T cell help and B cell receptor specificity and does not require B cell migration to bone marrow. Furthermore, we show that B cells protect on-demand hematopoiesis in part by induction of interleukin-10 (IL-10)- and IL-27-mediated mechanisms. Thus, our data demonstrate an important immune modulatory role of B cells during Pneumocystis lung infection that complement the modulatory role of type I IFNs to prevent systemic complications.

  14. Lung cancer disparities and African-Americans.

    PubMed

    Sin, Mo-Kyung

    2017-07-01

    African-Americans, as historically disadvantaged minorities, have more advanced stages of cancer when diagnosed, lower survival rates, and lower rates of accessing timely care than do Caucasians. Lung cancer incidence and mortality, in particular, are high among African-Americans. The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force recently released an evidence-based lung cancer screening technology called low-dose computerized tomography. High-risk African-Americans might benefit greatly from such screening but not many are aware of this technology. Public health nurses can play a key role in increasing awareness of the technology among African-American communities and encouraging qualified African-Americans to obtain screening. This study discusses issues with lung cancer and smoking among African-Americans, a recently released evidence-based lung cancer screening technology, and implications for public health nurses to enhance uptake of the new screening technology among high-risk African-Americans. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. African-American spirituality: a concept analysis.

    PubMed

    Newlin, Kelley; Knafl, Kathleen; Melkus, Gail D'Eramo

    2002-12-01

    Culturally competent care for African Americans requires sensitivity to spirituality as a component of the cultural context. To foster understanding, measurement, and delivery of the spiritual component of culturally competent care, this article presents an evolutionary concept analysis of African-American spirituality. The analysis is based on a sample of multidisciplinary research studies reflecting spirituality of African Americans. Findings indicate that African-American spirituality involves quintessential, internal, external, consoling, and transformative attributive dimensions. Findings are considered in relation to previous conceptual analyses of spirituality and suggest that defining attributes of African-American spirituality are both global and culturally prominent. Implications for practice and research are discussed.

  16. African Aesthetics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abiodun, Rowland

    2001-01-01

    No single traditional discipline can adequately supply answers to the many unresolved questions in African art history. Because of the aesthetic, cultural, historical, and, not infrequently, political biases, already built into the conception and development of Western art history, the discipline of art history as defined and practiced in the West…

  17. African Pentecostalism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrard, David J.

    2009-01-01

    The diversity of African Pentecostalism, its early colonial and missionary history and its current characteristics are described and analysed. Reference is made to methods of training and forms of leadership, and suggestions are made about the reasons for its growth and persistence. (Contains 19 notes.)

  18. African Aesthetics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abiodun, Rowland

    2001-01-01

    No single traditional discipline can adequately supply answers to the many unresolved questions in African art history. Because of the aesthetic, cultural, historical, and, not infrequently, political biases, already built into the conception and development of Western art history, the discipline of art history as defined and practiced in the West…

  19. Phylogenetic relationships, character evolution and biogeography of southern African members of Zygophyllum (Zygophyllaceae) based on three plastid regions.

    PubMed

    Bellstedt, D U; van Zyl, L; Marais, E M; Bytebier, B; de Villiers, C A; Makwarela, A M; Dreyer, L L

    2008-06-01

    The plastid coding rbcL and non-coding trnLF regions of 53 of 55 southern African Zygophyllum species were sequenced and used to evaluate the phylogenetic relationships within the southern African representatives of the genus. Published sequences of the same gene regions of Australian, Asian and North African Zygophyllum species were included to assess the relationships of the species from these regions to the southern African species. The addition of Z. stapffii from Namibia, found to be conspecific with Z. orbiculatum from Angola, lead to a greatly resolved tree. The molecular results were largely congruent with a recent sectional classification of the southern African species and supported their subdivision into subgenera Agrophyllum and Zygophyllum. Reconstruction of the character evolution of capsule dehiscence, seed attachment and seed mucilage showed that these characters allowed a division of southern African species into the two subgenera but that this could not be applied to species occurring elsewhere. Other morphological characters were found to vary and unique character combinations, rather than unique characters, were found to be of systematic value in sectional delimitation. The study suggests that repeated radiations from the horn of Africa to southern Africa and Asia and back lead to the present distribution of the taxa in the subfamily Zygophylloideae. Although this study supports some of the recent taxonomic changes in the group, the unresolved relationships between the proposed genera Tetraena and Roepera and those retained as Zygophyllum species suggest that changes to the taxonomy may have been premature.

  20. Evidence to support church-based health promotion programmes for African Canadians at risk for cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Tomlinson, Sherldine

    2011-12-01

    High quality management of cardiovascular disease is a critical health issue for people of African descent as this group is more likely than the general population to have greater coexisting cardiovascular comorbidities. The higher than average rates of cardiovascular conditions among Black populations are a cause for concern. In an effort to combat the disproportionate number of African Americans experiencing cardiovascular conditions a significant number of churches within the African American community have initiated health promotion programmes and/or services. Health organisations and agencies in the United States are keen to support and encourage these programmes for cardiovascular disease risk populations (i.e. African Americans and other minority groups, such as the Hispanic community). Indeed these health organisations and agencies recognise the need to promote healthier habits among African Americans and other minority groups as statistics continue to show health disparities among these populations within the US health care system. This paper attempts to encourage Canadian health agencies, organizations and practitioners to support similar CBHPPs initiatives for the African Canadian population. The historical significance of the church in Black Canadian communities is also examined.

  1. How old are African American women when they receive their first mammogram? Results from a church-based study.

    PubMed

    Bowie, Janice V; Wells, Anita M; Juon, Hee-Soon; Sydnor, Kim D; Rodriguez, Elisa M

    2008-08-01

    African American women in the U.S. have the highest breast cancer mortality though not the highest breast cancer incidence. This high mortality rate has been attributed in part to discrepancies in screening between African American and White women. Although this gap in mammography utilization is closing, little is known about what has been and is driving the screening practices of African American women, in particular age at first mammogram. This study examined the rates of breast cancer screening in an African American community sample from eight churches in greater Baltimore, Maryland and investigated the association between various factors and age at first mammogram. Participants were 213 women ages 22-89 years. About 77% of women had ever had a mammogram. Over 40% had their first mammogram before age 40. Women who first screened before age 40 had greater odds than women who had never screened of being knowledgeable about screening guidelines, of having received a physician recommendation to screen, and of having three or more female relatives who had been screened. Women who first screened at or after age 40 were more likely to have stronger religious beliefs of health than women who never had screened. These findings suggest the importance of reinforcing factors in screening behavior for African American women and have implications for physician training and public health education about breast cancer screening. A better understanding of African American women's mammography practice including early screening is needed to reduce this population's disproportionate breast cancer mortality risk.

  2. Childhood deprivation and later-life cognitive function in a population-based study of older rural South Africans.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Lindsay C; Glymour, M Maria; Kahn, Kathleen; Payne, Collin F; Wagner, Ryan G; Montana, Livia; Mateen, Farrah J; Tollman, Stephen M; Berkman, Lisa F

    2017-10-01

    Little research has evaluated the life course drivers of cognitive aging in South Africa. We investigated the relationships of self-rated childhood health and father's occupation during childhood with later-life cognitive function score and whether educational attainment mediated these relationships among older South Africans living in a former region of Apartheid-era racial segregation. Data were from baseline assessments of "Health and Aging in Africa: A Longitudinal Study of an INDEPTH Community" (HAALSI), a population-based study of 5059 men and women aged ≥40 years in 2015 in rural Agincourt sub-district, South Africa. Childhood health, father's occupation during childhood, and years of education were self-reported in study interviews. Cognitive measures assessed time orientation, numeracy, and word recall, which were included in a z-standardized latent cognitive function score variable. Linear regression models adjusted for age, sex, and country of birth were used to estimate the total and direct effects of each childhood risk factor, and the indirect effects mediated by years of education. Poor childhood health predicted lower cognitive scores (total effect = -0.28; 95% CI = -0.35, -0.21, versus good); this effect was not mediated by educational attainment. Having a father in a professional job during childhood, while rare (3% of sample), predicted better cognitive scores (total effect = 0.25; 95% CI = 0.10, 0.40, versus unskilled manual labor, 29% of sample). Half of this effect was mediated by educational attainment. Education was linearly associated with later-life cognitive function score (0.09; 95% CI = 0.09, 0.10 per year achieved). In this post-Apartheid, rural South African context, older adults with poor self-reported childhood health or whose father worked in unskilled manual labor had relatively poor cognitive outcomes. Educational attainment strongly predicted cognitive outcomes, and appeared to be, in part, a mechanism of social

  3. Developing an evidence-based decision support system for rational insecticide choice in the control of African malaria vectors.

    PubMed

    Coleman, Michael; Sharp, Brian; Seocharan, Ishen; Hemingway, Janet

    2006-07-01

    The emergence of Anopheles species resistant to insecticides widely used in vector control has the potential to impact directly on the control of malaria. This may have a particularly dramatic effect in Africa, where pyrethroids impregnated onto bed-nets are the dominant insecticides used for vector control. Because the same insecticides are used for crop pests, the extensive use and misuse of insecticides for agriculture has contributed to the resistance problem in some vectors. The potential for resistance to develop in African vectors has been apparent since the 1950s, but the scale of the problem has been poorly documented. A geographical information system-based decision support system for malaria control has recently been established in Africa and used operationally in Mozambique. The system incorporates climate data and disease transmission rates, but to date it has not incorporated spatial or temporal data on vector abundance or insecticide resistance. As a first step in incorporating this information, available published data on insecticide resistance in Africa has now been collated and incorporated into this decision support system. Data also are incorporated onto the openly available Mapping Malaria Risk in Africa (MARA) Web site (http://www.mara.org.za). New data, from a range of vector population-monitoring initiatives, can now be incorporated into this open access database to allow a spatial understanding of resistance distribution and its potential impact on disease transmission to benefit vector control programs.

  4. Urban African American youth exposed to community violence: a school-based anxiety preventive intervention efficacy study.

    PubMed

    Cooley-Strickland, Michele R; Griffin, Robert S; Darney, Dana; Otte, Katherine; Ko, Jean

    2011-01-01

    This study evaluated the efficacy of a school-based anxiety prevention program among urban children exposed to community violence. Students who attended Title 1 public elementary schools were screened. Ninety-eight 3rd-5th-grade students (ages 8-12; 48% female; 92% African American) were randomized into preventive intervention versus wait list comparison groups. Students attended 13 biweekly one-hour group sessions of a modified version of FRIENDS, a cognitive-behavioral anxiety intervention program. Results indicated that both intervention and control groups manifested significant reductions in anxiety symptomatology and total exposure to community violence, along with improved standardized reading achievement scores. Additional gains observed only in the intervention group were increased standardized mathematics achievement scores, decreased life stressors, and reduced victimization by community violence. The intervention was equally efficacious for both genders and for children exposed to higher, compared to lower, levels of community violence. Implications for comprehensive, culturally and contextually relevant prevention programs and research are discussed.

  5. Insights into the Management of Large Carnivores for Profitable Wildlife-Based Land Uses in African Savannas

    PubMed Central

    Funston, Paul J.; Groom, Rosemary J.; Lindsey, Peter A.

    2013-01-01

    Large African predators, especially lions (Panthera leo) and leopards (Panthera pardus), are financially valuable for ecotourism and trophy hunting operations on land also utilized for the production of other wildlife species for the same purpose. Predation of ungulates used for trophy hunting can create conflict with landholders and trade off thus exists between the value of lions and leopards and their impact on ungulate populations. Therefore productionist and conservation trade-offs are complexly graded and difficult to resolve. We investigated this with a risk-benefit analysis on a large private wildlife production area in Zimbabwe. Our model showed that lions result in substantial financial costs through predation on wild ungulates that may not be offset by profits from hunting them, whereas the returns from trophy hunting of leopards are projected to exceed the costs due to leopard predation. In the absence of additional income derived from photo-tourism the number of lions may need to be managed to minimize their impact. Lions drive important ecological processes, but there is a need to balance ecological and financial imperatives on wildlife ranches, community wildlife lands and other categories of multiple use land used for wildlife production. This will ensure the competitiveness of wildlife based land uses relative to alternatives. Our findings may thus be limited to conservancies, community land-use areas and commercial game ranches, which are expansive in Africa, and should not necessarily applied to areas where biodiversity conservation is the primary objective, even if hunting is allowed there. PMID:23527083

  6. Insights into the management of large carnivores for profitable wildlife-based land uses in African savannas.

    PubMed

    Funston, Paul J; Groom, Rosemary J; Lindsey, Peter A

    2013-01-01

    Large African predators, especially lions (Panthera leo) and leopards (Panthera pardus), are financially valuable for ecotourism and trophy hunting operations on land also utilized for the production of other wildlife species for the same purpose. Predation of ungulates used for trophy hunting can create conflict with landholders and trade off thus exists between the value of lions and leopards and their impact on ungulate populations. Therefore productionist and conservation trade-offs are complexly graded and difficult to resolve. We investigated this with a risk-benefit analysis on a large private wildlife production area in Zimbabwe. Our model showed that lions result in substantial financial costs through predation on wild ungulates that may not be offset by profits from hunting them, whereas the returns from trophy hunting of leopards are projected to exceed the costs due to leopard predation. In the absence of additional income derived from photo-tourism the number of lions may need to be managed to minimize their impact. Lions drive important ecological processes, but there is a need to balance ecological and financial imperatives on wildlife ranches, community wildlife lands and other categories of multiple use land used for wildlife production. This will ensure the competitiveness of wildlife based land uses relative to alternatives. Our findings may thus be limited to conservancies, community land-use areas and commercial game ranches, which are expansive in Africa, and should not necessarily applied to areas where biodiversity conservation is the primary objective, even if hunting is allowed there.

  7. School-based management of chronic asthma among inner-city African-American schoolchildren in Dallas, Texas.

    PubMed

    McEwen, M; Johnson, P; Neatherlin, J; Millard, M W; Lawrence, G

    1998-05-01

    Asthma, a chronic disease of the respiratory tract, affects approximately five percent of the U.S. population, including almost five million children. Childhood asthma has been identified as the leading cause of school absences. This study was to examined efficacy of a school-based program to prevent exacerbation of asthma symptoms and manage asthma in school children using measured doses of an inhaled anti-inflammatory medication. The sample consisted of 22 African-American children in one inner-city elementary school in Dallas, Texas, ages 5-12 years with confirmed diagnoses of asthma. For three months, each child came to the school clinic two times per day for medication administration and measurement of respiratory peak flow rates. Data were collected for a number of variables including bronchodilator use, school absences, self-report of asthma symptoms, and number of visits to the physician. During the study, mean peak flow rates improved approximately 15%, and bronchodilator use decreased 66%. Improvement also was evident in several other areas.

  8. Condom Use Negotiation in Heterosexual African-American Adults: Responses to Types of Social Power-Based Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Otto-Salaj, Laura L.; Reed, Barbara; Brondino, Michael J.; Gore-Felton, Cheryl; Kelly, Jeffrey A.; Stevenson, L. Yvonne

    2009-01-01

    Little research has been performed on how people respond to different strategies to negotiate condom use in sexual situations, and whether certain strategies tend to be perceived as more or less effective in condom use negotiation. This study examined gender differences and preferences in the use of and response to six different styles of condom use negotiation with a hypothetical sexual partner of the opposite gender. Participants were 51 heterosexually-active African-American men and women between the ages of 18 and 35, attending an inner-city community center. Study participants completed a semi-structured qualitative interview in which they were presented with six negotiation strategies —coercive, reward, legitimate, expert, referent, and informational--based on Raven’s 1992 Power/Interaction Model of Interpersonal Influence. Results showed that women participants responded best to referent, reward, and legitimate strategies, and worst to informational tactics. Men participants responded best to reward strategies, and worst to coercion to use condoms. Further, responses given by a subset of both women—and, to a greater extent, men--indicated that use of negotiation tactics involving coercion to use condoms may result in negative or angry reactions. Finally, response to strategies may vary with the value of the relationship as viewed by the target of negotiation. Implications for HIV prevention programs and media campaigns are discussed. PMID:18569536

  9. Outcomes-based Education in South African Curricular Reform: A Response to Jonathan Jansen.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, Mark

    1999-01-01

    Responds to the article "Curriculum Reform in South Africa: A Critical Analysis of Outcomes-Based Education" by Jonathan Jansen. States that "Curriculum 2005" too strongly emphasizes procedural knowledge. Proposes a less radical version of outcomes-based education in which teachers integrate propositional, procedural, and…

  10. Evaluating LSM-Based Water Budgets Over a West African Basin Assisted with a River Routing Scheme

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Getirana, Augusto C. V.; Boone, Aaron; Peugeot, Christophe

    2014-01-01

    Within the framework of the African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analysis (AMMA) Land Surface Model Intercomparison Project phase 2 (ALMIP-2), this study evaluates the water balance simulated by the Interactions between Soil, Biosphere, and Atmosphere (ISBA) over the upper Oum River basin, in Benin, using a mesoscale river routing scheme (RRS). The RRS is based on the nonlinear Muskingum Cunge method coupled with two linear reservoirs that simulate the time delay of both surface runoff and base flow that are produced by land surface models. On the basis of the evidence of a deep water-table recharge in that region,a reservoir representing the deep-water infiltration (DWI) is introduced. The hydrological processes of the basin are simulated for the 2005-08 AMMA field campaign period during which rainfall and stream flow data were intensively collected over the study area. Optimal RRS parameter sets were determined for three optimization experiments that were performed using daily stream flow at five gauges within the basin. Results demonstrate that the RRS simulates stream flow at all gauges with relative errors varying from -22% to 3% and Nash-Sutcliffe coefficients varying from 0.62 to 0.90. DWI varies from 24% to 67% of the base flow as a function of the sub-basin. The relatively simple reservoir DWI approach is quite robust, and further improvements would likely necessitate more complex solutions (e.g., considering seasonality and soil type in ISBA); thus, such modifications are recommended for future studies. Although the evaluation shows that the simulated stream flows are generally satisfactory, further field investigations are necessary to confirm some of the model assumptions.

  11. Genome-wide and gene-based association studies of anxiety disorders in European and African American samples.

    PubMed

    Otowa, Takeshi; Maher, Brion S; Aggen, Steven H; McClay, Joseph L; van den Oord, Edwin J; Hettema, John M

    2014-01-01

    Anxiety disorders (ADs) are common mental disorders caused by a combination of genetic and environmental factors. Since ADs are highly comorbid with each other, partially due to shared genetic basis, studying AD phenotypes in a coordinated manner may be a powerful strategy for identifying potential genetic loci for ADs. To detect these loci, we performed genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of ADs. In addition, as a complementary approach to single-locus analysis, we also conducted gene- and pathway-based analyses. GWAS data were derived from the control sample of the Molecular Genetics of Schizophrenia (MGS) project (2,540 European American and 849 African American subjects) genotyped on the Affymetrix GeneChip 6.0 array. We applied two phenotypic approaches: (1) categorical case-control comparisons (CC) based upon psychiatric diagnoses, and (2) quantitative phenotypic factor scores (FS) derived from a multivariate analysis combining information across the clinical phenotypes. Linear and logistic models were used to analyse the association with ADs using FS and CC traits, respectively. At the single locus level, no genome-wide significant association was found. A trans-population gene-based meta-analysis across both ethnic subsamples using FS identified three genes (MFAP3L on 4q32.3, NDUFAB1 and PALB2 on 16p12) with genome-wide significance (false discovery rate (FDR] <5%). At the pathway level, several terms such as transcription regulation, cytokine binding, and developmental process were significantly enriched in ADs (FDR <5%). Our approaches studying ADs as quantitative traits and utilizing the full GWAS data may be useful in identifying susceptibility genes and pathways for ADs.

  12. Satellite-based assessment of yield variation and its determinants in smallholder African systems

    PubMed Central

    Lobell, David B.

    2017-01-01

    The emergence of satellite sensors that can routinely observe millions of individual smallholder farms raises possibilities for monitoring and understanding agricultural productivity in many regions of the world. Here we demonstrate the potential to track smallholder maize yield variation in western Kenya, using a combination of 1-m Terra Bella imagery and intensive field sampling on thousands of fields over 2 y. We find that agreement between satellite-based and traditional field survey-based yield estimates depends significantly on the quality of the field-based measures, with agreement highest (R2 up to 0.4) when using precise field measures of plot area and when using larger fields for which rounding errors are smaller. We further show that satellite-based measures are able to detect positive yield responses to fertilizer and hybrid seed inputs and that the inferred responses are statistically indistinguishable from estimates based on survey-based yields. These results suggest that high-resolution satellite imagery can be used to make predictions of smallholder agricultural productivity that are roughly as accurate as the survey-based measures traditionally used in research and policy applications, and they indicate a substantial near-term potential to quickly generate useful datasets on productivity in smallholder systems, even with minimal or no field training data. Such datasets could rapidly accelerate learning about which interventions in smallholder systems have the most positive impact, thus enabling more rapid transformation of rural livelihoods. PMID:28202728

  13. African-American Biography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Ron

    1995-01-01

    Suggests sources of information for African American History Month for library media specialists who work with students in grades four through eight. Gale Research's "African-American Reference Library," which includes "African-America Biography,""African-American Chronology," and "African-American Almanac,"…

  14. A Smartphone-Based Approach for Triage of Human Papillomavirus-Positive Sub-Saharan African Women: A Prospective Study.

    PubMed

    Urner, Esther; Delavy, Martine; Catarino, Rosa; Viviano, Manuela; Meyer-Hamme, Ulrike; Benski, Anne-Caroline; Jinoro, Jeromine; Heriniainasolo, Josea Lea; Undurraga, Manuela; De Vuyst, Hugo; Combescure, Christophe; Vassilakos, Pierre; Petignat, Patrick

    2017-05-29

    Sub-Saharan African countries are marked by a high incidence of cervical cancer. Madagascar ranks 11th among the countries with the highest cervical cancer incidence worldwide. The aim of the study was to evaluate the performances of digital smartphone-based visual inspection with acetic acid (D-VIA) and Lugol's iodine (D-VILI) for diagnosing cervical precancer and cancer. Human papillomavirus (HPV)-positive women recruited through a cervical screening campaign had D-VIA and D-VILI examinations with endocervical curettage (ECC) and cervical biopsy. Three images were captured for each woman (native, D-VIA, D-VILI) using a smartphone camera. The images were randomly coded and distributed on 2 online databases (Google Forms). The D-VIA form included native and D-VIA images, and the D-VILI form included native and D-VILI images. Pathological cases were defined as cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2 or worse (CIN2+). Physicians rated the images as non-pathological or pathological. Using the ECC and cervical biopsy results as references, the sensitivity and specificity of D-VIA and D-VILI examinations for each and all physicians were calculated. Altogether, 15 clinicians assessed 240 images. Sensitivity was higher for the D-VIA interpretations (94.1%; 95% CI 81.6-98.3) than for the D-VILI interpretations (78.8%; 95% CI 54.1-92.1; P=.009). In contrast, the specificity was higher for the D-VILI interpretations (56.4%; 95% CI 38.3-72.9) than for the D-VIA interpretations (50.4%; 95% CI 35.9-64.8; P=.005). Smartphone-based image for triage of HPV-positive women is more accurate for detecting CIN2+ lesions with D-VIA than D-VILI, although with a small loss of specificity.

  15. Population Care Management and Team-Based Approach to Reduce Racial Disparities among African Americans/Blacks with Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Bartolome, Rowena E; Chen, Agnes; Handler, Joel; Platt, Sharon Takeda; Gould, Bernice

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: At Kaiser Permanente, national Equitable Care Health Outcomes (ECHO) Reports with a baseline measurement of 16 Healthcare Effectiveness Data and Information Set measures stratified by race and ethnicity showed a disparity of 8.1 percentage points in blood pressure (BP) control rates between African- American/black (black) and white members. The aims of this study were to describe a population care management team-based approach to improve BP control for large populations and to explain how a culturally tailored, patient-centered approach can address this racial disparity. Methods: These strategies were implemented through: 1) physician-led educational programs on treatment intensification, medication adherence, and consistent use of clinical practice guidelines; 2) building strong care teams by defining individual roles and responsibilities in hypertension management; 3) redesign of the care delivery system to expand access; and 4) programs on culturally tailored communication tools and self-management. Results: At a physician practice level where 65% of patients with hypertension were black, BP control rates (< 140/90 mmHg) for blacks improved from 76.6% to 81.4%, and control rates for whites increased from 82.9% to 84.2%. The racial gap narrowed from 6.3% to 2.8%. As these successful practices continue to spread throughout the program, the health disparity gap in BP control has decreased by 50%, from 8.1% to 3.9%. Conclusion: A sustainable program to collect self-reported race, ethnicity, and language preference data integrated with successful population care management programs provided the foundation for addressing health disparities. Cultural tailoring of a multilevel team-based approach closed the gap for blacks with hypertension. PMID:26824963

  16. Is Poverty Multidimensional? A Comparison of Income and Asset Based Measures in Five Southern African Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    von Maltzahn, Robyn; Durrheim, Kevin

    2008-01-01

    This paper contests the major emphasis placed on the multidimensional nature of poverty measurement. Instead, it argues that poverty pictures created by different measures and at different units of analysis tend to converge. This argument is derived from a comparison of poverty pictures created using income and asset-based measures at the national…

  17. Community-Based Approaches for Individuals with Mental Handicap: An African Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brouilette, Ron; Mariga, Lilian

    This booklet addresses issues concerning community-based rehabilitation (CBR) services for people with mental handicaps, especially in Africa. The first section explains CBR services, with subsections on overcoming exclusion, a definition, normalization and community participation, family participation, CBR and mental handicap projects in Africa,…

  18. Using Problem-Based Learning to Stimulate Entrepreneurial Awareness among Senior African Undergraduate Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swart, Arthur James

    2014-01-01

    Literature states that entrepreneurial awareness is required in countries where entrepreneurship is neither publicized nor acclaimed, which is currently the situation in South Africa. Entrepreneurial skills include the ability to market one's product by means of a sales poster while problem-based learning is viewed as fundamental to…

  19. Using Problem-Based Learning to Stimulate Entrepreneurial Awareness among Senior African Undergraduate Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swart, Arthur James

    2014-01-01

    Literature states that entrepreneurial awareness is required in countries where entrepreneurship is neither publicized nor acclaimed, which is currently the situation in South Africa. Entrepreneurial skills include the ability to market one's product by means of a sales poster while problem-based learning is viewed as fundamental to…

  20. Community-Based Learning to Support South African Early Group Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casper, Virginia; Lamb-Parker, Faith

    2012-01-01

    The Developing Families Project-South Africa (DFP-SA) is a community-based model of education and training for the care, support and education of vulnerable children birth-to-three and their caregivers, guardians and families in rural and peri-urban townships. The approach fosters interactive learning among community members about early care and…

  1. Homelessness among older african-american women: interpreting a serious social issue through the arts in community-based participatory action research.

    PubMed

    Feen-Calligan, Holly; Washington, Olivia G M; Moxley, David P

    2009-01-01

    This article describes the incorporation of the arts into a community-based participatory action research (CBPAR) project formulated to develop and test practices for helping homeless older African-American women. Studying how older African-American women become homeless has evolved into developing and testing promising interventions by the Leaving Homelessness Intervention Research Project (LHIRP). The women's participation in creative group activities helped them to communicate their experience with homelessness, express their concerns, develop personal strengths, and obtained mutual understanding. The use of multiple art forms has revealed a number of creative strengths among the participants, which have in turn inspired innovative artistic strategies and methodologies as part of the multiple methods that LHIRP incorporates. These interventions have been useful in helping participants resolve their homelessness. The role and benefit of the arts in CBPAR is described to show how creative activities help researchers and the public to better understand the complexities of homelessness.

  2. Intimate partner violence and HIV risk factors among African-American and African-Caribbean women in clinic-based settings.

    PubMed

    Stockman, Jamila K; Lucea, Marguerite B; Draughon, Jessica E; Sabri, Bushra; Anderson, Jocelyn C; Bertrand, Desiree; Campbell, Doris W; Callwood, Gloria B; Campbell, Jacquelyn C

    2013-01-01

    Despite progress against intimate partner violence (IPV) and HIV/AIDS in the past two decades, both epidemics remain major public health problems, particularly among women of color. The objective of this study was to assess the relationship between recent IPV and HIV risk factors (sexual and drug risk behaviors, sexually transmitted infections [STIs], condom use, and negotiation) among women of African descent. We conducted a comparative case-control study in women's health clinics in Baltimore, MD, USA and St. Thomas and St. Croix, US Virgin Islands (USVI). Women aged 18-55 years who experienced physical and/or sexual IPV in the past two years (Baltimore, n=107; USVI, n=235) were compared to women who never experienced any form of abuse (Baltimore, n=207; USVI, n=119). Logistic regression identified correlates of recent IPV by site. In both sites, having a partner with concurrent sex partners was independently associated with a history of recent IPV (Baltimore, AOR: 3.91, 95% CI: 1.79-8.55 and USVI, AOR: 2.25, 95% CI: 1.11-4.56). In Baltimore, factors independently associated with recent IPV were lifetime casual sex partners (AOR: 1.99, 95% CI: 1.11-3.57), exchange sex partners (AOR: 5.26, 95% CI: 1.92-14.42), infrequent condom use during vaginal sex (AOR: 0.24, 95% CI: 0.08-0.72), and infrequent condom use during anal sex (AOR: 0.29, 95% CI: 0.09-0.93). In contrast, in the USVI, having a concurrent sex partner (AOR: 3.33, 95% CI: 1.46-7.60), frequent condom use during vaginal sex (AOR: 1.97, 95% CI: 1.06-3.65), frequent condom use during anal sex (AOR: 6.29, 95% CI: 1.57-25.23), drug use (AOR: 3.16, 95% CI: 1.00-10.06), and a past-year STI (AOR: 2.68, 95% CI: 1.25-5.72) were associated with recent IPV history. The divergent results by site warrant further investigation into the potential influence of culture, norms, and intentions on the relationships examined. Nonetheless, study findings support a critical need to continue the development and implementation of

  3. A Randomized Trial to Evaluate the Efficacy of a Web-Based HIV Behavioral Intervention for High-Risk African American Women

    PubMed Central

    Billings, Douglas W.; Leaf, Samantha L.; Spencer, Joy; Crenshaw, Terrlynn; Brockington, Sheila; Dalal, Reeshad S.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop and test a cost-effective, scalable HIV behavioral intervention for African American women. Eighty-three African American women were recruited from a community health center and randomly assigned to either the web-based Safe Sistah program or to a delayed HIV education control condition. The primary outcome was self-reported condom use. Secondary measures assessed other aspects of the gender-focused training included in Safe Sistah. Participants completed self-report assessments prior to randomization, 1- and 4-months after their program experience. Across the entire study period, women in the experimental condition significantly increased their condom use relative to controls (F = 5.126, p = 0.027). Significant effects were also found for sexual communication, sex refusal, condom use after alcohol consumption, and HIV prevention knowledge. These findings indicate that this web-based program could be an important component in reducing the HIV disparities among African American women. PMID:25616838

  4. Racial disparities in sense of community and health status: implications in community-based participatory interventions targeting chronic disease in African Americans.

    PubMed

    Belue, Rhonda; Taylor-Richardson, Kelly D; Lin, Jin-Mann; McClellan, Linda; Hargreaves, Margaret K

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the relation between sense of community (SOC), sociodemographic characteristics, and health status to inform community-based interventions designed to prevent and reduce chronic disease in African Americans. A telephone survey was conducted with 1463 randomly selected residents in Nashville, Tenn. Respondents were majority female (69%), African American (59%), and single (59%), with a mean age of 55 (+/-17.61 years). African Americans have lower overall SOC scores, or lower scores on the domains related to perceived influence over community and sharing of common community values compared to Whites. High rates of chronic disease and low SES, combined with a low SOC, can hinder efforts to reduce and eliminate disparities. The goal of community-based participatory initiatives is to create programs that are sustainable by the target community after the funding is gone. Thus, to maximize the success, uptake, and sustainability of disease-specific interventions, it is imperative to incorporate assessment of SOC, identify factors that depress SOC, and engage in community collaboration to develop a plan to improve SOC.

  5. SiHLEWeb.com: Development and Usability Testing of an Evidence-Based HIV/STI Prevention Website for Female African-American Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Danielson, Carla Kmett; McCauley, Jenna L.; Gros, Kirstin Stauffacher; Jones, Andrea M.; Barr, Simone C.; Borkman, April L.; Bryant, Brittany G.; Ruggiero, Kenneth J.

    2014-01-01

    African-American adolescent girls are at disproportionate risk for HIV infection. Although numerous evidence-based risk-reduction interventions exist, dissemination and implementation resources remain limited, and prevention services remain notably inaccessible to the very populations at highest risk for HIV infection. Internet delivery of HIV risk-reduction programming has promise as a mechanism for extending the reach of existing prevention efforts and overcoming barriers associated with traditional service delivery. This article: (1) details the development process for the creation of SiHLEWeb, a web-adapted version of an evidence-based, culturally-informed HIV prevention program traditionally delivered to female African-American adolescents via an in-person group format; and (2) presents findings from quantitative and qualitative usability testing conducted among 18 African-American girls (13–18). Results suggest that users found the website improved knowledge and learning, was helpful, efficient to use, and generally attractive. Users reported some concerns about website navigation. Implications for internet delivery of health prevention programming are discussed. PMID:25167865

  6. A Randomized Trial to Evaluate the Efficacy of a Web-Based HIV Behavioral Intervention for High-Risk African American Women.

    PubMed

    Billings, Douglas W; Leaf, Samantha L; Spencer, Joy; Crenshaw, Terrlynn; Brockington, Sheila; Dalal, Reeshad S

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this study was to develop and test a cost-effective, scalable HIV behavioral intervention for African American women. Eighty-three African American women were recruited from a community health center and randomly assigned to either the web-based Safe Sistah program or to a delayed HIV education control condition. The primary outcome was self-reported condom use. Secondary measures assessed other aspects of the gender-focused training included in Safe Sistah. Participants completed self-report assessments prior to randomization, 1- and 4-months after their program experience. Across the entire study period, women in the experimental condition significantly increased their condom use relative to controls (F = 5.126, p = 0.027). Significant effects were also found for sexual communication, sex refusal, condom use after alcohol consumption, and HIV prevention knowledge. These findings indicate that this web-based program could be an important component in reducing the HIV disparities among African American women.

  7. Feasibility of delivering evidence-based HIV/STI prevention programming to a community sample of African American teen girls via the internet.

    PubMed

    Danielson, Carla Kmett; McCauley, Jenna L; Jones, Andrea M; Borkman, April L; Miller, Stephanie; Ruggiero, Kenneth J

    2013-10-01

    The current study examined the feasibility of an HIV/STI prevention intervention for African American female adolescents. The intervention SiHLEWeb is a web-based adaptation of the evidence-based intervention, Sistas, Informing, Healing, Living, and Empowering (SiHLE). Participants were 41 African American girls aged 13 to 18 years, recruited in collaboration with community partners (local high schools, Department of Juvenile Justice, child advocacy center, medical university). Results support the feasibility of recruitment, screening, and follow-up retention methods. The majority (63.4%) of recruited participants completed the intervention, taking an average of 4.5 (SD = 3.63) site visits. Completers of SiHLEWeb demonstrated increases in knowledge regarding HIV/STI risks and risk reduction behavior [t(18) = 4.74, p < .001], as well as significant increases in condom use self-efficacy [t(16) = 2.41, p = .03]. Findings provide preliminary support for the large-scale, randomized-controlled trial of the efficacy of SiHLEWeb to reduce high-risk sexual behavior among female African American adolescents.

  8. Aerosol patterns and aerosol-cloud-interactions off the West African Coast based on the A-train formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuchs, Julia; Bendix, Jörg; Cermak, Jan

    2013-04-01

    In this study, spatial and temporal aerosol patterns off the Western African coast are characterized and related to cloud properties, based on satellite data Atmospheric aerosols play a key role in atmospheric processes and influence our environmental system in a complex way. Their identification, characterization, transport patterns as well as their interactions with clouds pose major challenges. Especially the last aspect reveals major uncertainties in terms of the Earth's radiation budget as reported in the IPCC's Fourth Assessment Report (IPCC, 2007). Western and Southern Africa are dominated by two well-known source types of atmospheric aerosols. First, the Saharan Desert is the world's largest aeolian dust emitting source region. Second, biomass burning aerosol is commonly transported off-shore further south (Kaufman et al., 2005). Both aerosol types influence Earth's climate in different manners and can be detected by the MODIS (MODerate resolution Imaging Spectrometer) sensor onboard the EOS platforms as they propagate to the Central and Southern Atlantic. The motivation of this study was to reveal the seasonal pattern of the Saharan dust transport based on an observation period of 11 years and trying to explain the meteorological mechanisms. North African dust plumes are transported along a latitude of 19°N in July and 6°N in January. The seasonally fluctuating intensities adapt to the annual cycle of wind and precipitation regimes. A strong relationship is found between the spatial shift of the Azores High and the Saharan dust load over the middle Atlantic Ocean. Monthly Aerosol Optical Thickness products of Terra MODIS and NCEP-DOE (National Centers for Environmental Predictions) Reanalysis II data are used for this purpose. The relationship between aerosol and cloud droplet parameters is blurred by high sensitivities to aerosol size and composition (Feingold, 2003; McFiggans et al., 2006) as well as meteorological context (Ackerman et al., 2004

  9. A Comparison of a Spiritually Based And Non-Spiritually Based Educational Intervention for Informed Decision Making for Prostate Cancer Screening Among Church-Attending African-American Men

    PubMed Central

    Holt, Cheryl L.; Wynn, Theresa Ann; Litaker, Mark S.; Southward, Penny; Jeames, Sanford E.; Schulz, Emily K.

    2010-01-01

    This pilot study examined the efficacy of a spiritually based educational intervention for increasing informed decision making for prostate cancer screening among African-American men. The intervention appeared to be effective for some study outcomes, such as knowledge and self-efficacy for screening informed decision making. PMID:19718941

  10. Higher population-based incidence rates of triple-negative breast cancer among young African-American women : Implications for breast cancer screening recommendations.

    PubMed

    Amirikia, Kathryn C; Mills, Paul; Bush, Jason; Newman, Lisa A

    2011-06-15

    Differences in the breast cancer burden of African-American women compared with white American women are well documented. Recent controversies have emerged regarding age-appropriate mammographic screening guidelines, and these surveillance recommendations may influence future breast cancer disparities. The objective of the current study was to evaluate age-specific breast cancer stage distributions and incidence rates of triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) in a population-based tumor registry. The authors analyzed breast cancers from the California Cancer Registry (CCR) that were diagnosed between 1988 and 2006. The results were stratified by age and race/ethnicity, with white Americans identified as non-Hispanic whites (NHWs) and African Americans identified as non-Hispanic blacks (NHBs). Breast cancer stage distributions and TNBC incidence rates also were analyzed. In total, 375,761 invasive breast cancers were evaluated (including 276,938 in NHWs and 21,681 in NHBs). NHBs and Hispanics tended to be younger than NHWs (median ages 57 years, 54 years, and 64 years, respectively). Lifetime incidence rates were higher for NHWs compared with NHBs and Hispanics; however, for women aged <44 years, incidence was highest among NHBs. NHBs also had higher incidence rates of stage III and IV disease and a higher incidence of TNBC in all age categories. Population-based data demonstrated that African-American women had a more advanced stage distribution for breast cancer compared with white American women and higher incidence rates for TNBC. These patterns were observed for women ages 40 to 49 years and for older women, and they suggest that mammographic screening for the early detection of breast cancer will be particularly relevant for younger African-American women. Copyright © 2011 American Cancer Society.

  11. "Are You an African?" The Politics of Self-Construction in Status-Based Social Movements.

    PubMed

    McCorkel, Jill; Rodriquez, Jason

    2009-05-01

    Current debates over identity politics hinge on the question of whether status-based social movements encourage parochialism and self-interest or create possibilities for mutual recognition across lines of difference. Our article explores this question through comparative, ethnographic study of two racially progressive social movements, "pro-black" abolitionism and "conscious" hip hop. We argue that status-based social movements not only enable collective identity, but also the personal identities or selves of their participants. Beliefs about the self create openings and obstacles to mutual recognition and progressive social action. Our analysis centers on the challenges that an influx of progressive, anti-racist whites posed to each movement. We examine first how each movement configured movement participation and racial identity and then how whites crafted strategic narratives of the self to account for their participation in a status-based movement they were not directly implicated in. We conclude with an analysis of the implications of these narratives for a critical politics of recognition. Keywords: identity politics, social movements, race, self, hip hop.

  12. Transport pathways of CO in the African upper troposphere during the monsoon season: a study based upon the assimilation of spaceborne observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barret, B.; Ricaud, P.; Mari, C.; Attié, J.-L.; Bousserez, N.; Josse, B.; Le Flochmoën, E.; Livesey, N. J.; Massart, S.; Peuch, V.-H.; Piacentini, A.; Sauvage, B.; Thouret, V.; Cammas, J.-P.

    2008-06-01

    The transport pathways of carbon monoxide (CO) in the African Upper Troposphere (UT) during the West African Monsoon (WAM) is investigated through the assimilation of CO observations by the Aura Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) in the MOCAGE Chemistry Transport Model (CTM). The assimilation setup, based on a 3-D First Guess at Assimilation Time (3-D-FGAT) variational method is described. Comparisons between the assimilated CO fields and in situ airborne observations from the MOZAIC program between Europe and both Southern Africa and Southeast Asia show an overall good agreement around the lowermost pressure level sampled by MLS (~215 hPa). The 4-D assimilated fields averaged over the month of July 2006 have been used to determine the main dynamical processes responsible for the transport of CO in the African UT. The studied period corresponds to the second AMMA (African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analyses) aircraft campaign. At 220 hPa, the CO distribution is characterized by a latitudinal maximum around 5° N mostly driven by convective uplift of air masses impacted by biomass burning from Southern Africa, uplifted within the WAM region and vented predominantly southward by the upper branch of the winter hemisphere Hadley cell. Above 150 hPa, the African CO distribution is characterized by a broad maximum over northern Africa. This maximum is mostly controlled by the large scale UT circulation driven by the Asian Summer Monsoon (ASM) and characterized by the Asian Monsoon Anticyclone (AMA) centered at 30° N and the Tropical Easterly Jet (TEJ) on the southern flank of the anticyclone. Asian pollution uplifted to the UT over large region of Southeast Asia is trapped within the AMA and transported by the anticyclonic circulation over Northeast Africa. South of the AMA, the TEJ is responsible for the tranport of CO-enriched air masses from India and Southeast Asia over Africa. Using the high time resolution provided by the 4-D assimilated fields, we give evidence that the

  13. Transport pathways of CO in the African upper troposphere during the monsoon season: a study based upon the assimilation of spaceborne observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barret, B.; Ricaud, P.; Mari, C.; Attié, J.-L.; Bousserez, N.; Josse, B.; Le Flochmoën, E.; Livesey, N. J.; Massart, S.; Peuch, V.-H.; Piacentini, A.; Sauvage, B.; Thouret, V.; Cammas, J.-P.

    2008-02-01

    The transport pathways of carbon monoxide (CO) in the African Upper Troposphere (UT) during the West African Monsoon (WAM) is investigated through the assimilation of CO observations by the Aura Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) in the MOCAGE Chemistry Transport Model (CTM). The assimilation setup, based on a 3-D First Guess at Assimilation Time (3-D-FGAT) variational method is described. Comparisons between the assimilated CO fields and in situ airborne observations from the MOZAIC program between Europe and both Southern Africa and Southeast Asia show an overall good agreement around the lowermost pressure level sampled by MLS (~215 hPa). The 4-D assimilated fields averaged over the month of July 2006 have been used to determine the main dynamical processes responsible for the transport of CO in the African UT. The studied period corresponds to the second AMMA (African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analyses) aircraft campaign. At 220 hPa, the CO distribution is characterized by a latitudinal maximum around 5° N mostly driven by convective uplift of air masses impacted by biomass burning from Southern Africa, uplifted within the WAM region and vented predominantly southward by the upper branch of the winter hemisphere Hadley cell. Above 150 hPa, the African CO distribution is characterized by a broad maximum over northern Africa. This maximum is mostly controlled by the large scale UT circulation driven by the Asian Summer Monsoon (ASM) and characterized by the Asian Monsoon Anticyclone (AMA) centered at 30° N and the Tropical Easterly Jet (TEJ) on the southern flank of the anticyclone. Asian pollution uplifted to the UT over large region of Southeast Asia is trapped within the AMA and transported by the anticyclonic circulation over Northeast Africa. South of the AMA, the TEJ is responsible for the tranport of CO-enriched air masses from India and Southeast Asia over Africa. Using the high time resolution provided by the 4-D assimilated fields, we give evidence that the

  14. [Community-based distribution of injectable contraceptives in an African setting: community trial in Madagascar].

    PubMed

    Brunie, Aurélie; Hoke, Theresa Hatzell; Razafindravony, Bakolisoa

    2011-01-01

    Community-based distribution of family planning provides a way of reaching underserved populations in developing countries. This article reports findings from an introductory trial of community-based distribution of Depot Medroxyprogesterone Acetate (DMPA), a progestin-only injectable contraceptive. The project, conducted in Madagascar in 2007 in collaboration with the Malagasy government, was intended to test the safety, acceptability, and contribution to policy goals of adding contraceptive injections to the range of methods already offered by paraprofessional community-based health workers in rural areas. In total, 61 agents in 13 communities were trained and initiated service offering DMPA. The intervention was evaluated after 7 months. Data collection included interviews with agents, their supervisors, and a sample of 303 clients, and review of agents' records. In support of the objectives, the descriptive analysis primarily examined the quality of agents' services (safety), three-month reinjection rates (acceptability), and DMPA uptake (contribution). Interviews with agents to test knowledge about correct practices indicated that they are able to provide high quality services. To capture mastery of essential techniques, a composite quality score was calculated from agents' answers. The average score was 23.3 out a maximum possible of 27. All agents scored at least 18 points, and 80% of them received 22 points or more. Interviews with clients further confirmed that agents were competent. The majority of clients were satisfied with the services they received, and a very large proportion (94%) of the women eligible for a second injection received it from the agent. There were no complaints from the communities, and women reported that acceptability among their partners was also high. Finally, the program attracted new users: the 61 agents recruited a total of 1,662 women over six months, 41% of whom were not using family planning when they initiated DMPA

  15. Genetic diversity in South African Nguni cattle ecotypes based on microsatellite markers.

    PubMed

    Sanarana, Yandisiwe; Visser, Carina; Bosman, Lydia; Nephawe, Khathutshelo; Maiwashe, Azwihangwisi; van Marle-Köster, Este

    2016-02-01

    The Nguni cattle breed is a landrace breed adapted to different ecological regions of South Africa. A number of ecotypes are recognised based on phenotype within the breed, but it is not known if they are genetically distinct. In this study, molecular characterisation was performed on Makhathini (MAK), Pedi (PED), Shangaan (SHA) and Venda (VEN) Nguni cattle ecotypes. Two Nguni cattle populations, not kept as separate ecotypes, from the University of Fort Hare (UFH) and Agricultural Research Council Loskop South farm (LOS) were also included. Genotypic data was generated for 189 unrelated Nguni cattle selected based on pedigree records using 22 microsatellite markers. The expected heterozygosity values varied from 69 % (UFH) to 72 % (PED) with a mean number of alleles ranging from 6.0 to 6.9. The F ST estimate demonstrated that 4.8 % of the total genetic variation was due to the genetic differentiation between the populations and 92.2 % accounted for differences within the populations. The genetic distances and structure analysis revealed the closest relationship between MAK, PEDI and SHA ecotypes, followed by SHA and VEN. The UFH population clustered with the MAK ecotype, indicating that they are more genetically similar, while the LOS cattle grouped as a distinct cluster. Results suggest that the genetic differentiation between the PED and SHA ecotypes is low and can be regarded as one ecotype based on limited genetic differences. The results of this study can be applied as a point of reference for further genetic studies towards conservation of Nguni cattle ecotypes.

  16. Perceptions of gender-based violence among South African youth: implications for health promotion interventions

    PubMed Central

    Mosavel, M.; Ahmed, R.; Simon, C.

    2012-01-01

    Gender-based violence is a widespread problem in South Africa. Past structural inequities have created a climate conducive to violence against women. As an initial step toward developing a health promotion program, we conducted exploratory formative research to examine the barriers that affect the health and well-being of youth. Fourteen focus groups (nine with girls and five with boys) were conducted with 112 adolescents in a racially mixed community on the outskirts of Cape Town, South Africa. We utilized grounded theory and thematic analysis to examine the data. The impact of poverty, ubiquitous gendered violence, transactional sex and unsafe recreational spaces emerged as the major themes. The experiences of youth were consumed by issues of safety rather than the pursuit of other developmentally appropriate markers. Our findings suggest that health promotion programs should create safe spaces for youth and opportunities to critically question the assumptions and manifestations of a patriarchal society. Furthermore, the findings indicate that there is a strong need for multi-sectorial interventions directed at many levels to prevent gender-based violence. PMID:21733916

  17. Imputation-Based Meta-Analysis of Severe Malaria in Three African Populations

    PubMed Central

    Band, Gavin; Le, Quang Si; Jostins, Luke; Pirinen, Matti; Kivinen, Katja; Jallow, Muminatou; Sisay-Joof, Fatoumatta; Bojang, Kalifa; Pinder, Margaret; Sirugo, Giorgio; Conway, David J.; Nyirongo, Vysaul; Kachala, David; Molyneux, Malcolm; Taylor, Terrie; Ndila, Carolyne; Peshu, Norbert; Marsh, Kevin; Williams, Thomas N.; Alcock, Daniel; Andrews, Robert; Edkins, Sarah; Gray, Emma; Hubbart, Christina; Jeffreys, Anna; Rowlands, Kate; Schuldt, Kathrin; Clark, Taane G.; Small, Kerrin S.; Teo, Yik Ying; Kwiatkowski, Dominic P.; Rockett, Kirk A.; Barrett, Jeffrey C.; Spencer, Chris C. A.

    2013-01-01

    Combining data from genome-wide association studies (GWAS) conducted at different locations, using genotype imputation and fixed-effects meta-analysis, has been a powerful approach for dissecting complex disease genetics in populations of European ancestry. Here we investigate the feasibility of applying the same approach in Africa, where genetic diversity, both within and between populations, is far more extensive. We analyse genome-wide data from approximately 5,000 individuals with severe malaria and 7,000 population controls from three different locations in Africa. Our results show that the standard approach is well powered to detect known malaria susceptibility loci when sample sizes are large, and that modern methods for association analysis can control the potential confounding effects of population structure. We show that pattern of association around the haemoglobin S allele differs substantially across populations due to differences in haplotype structure. Motivated by these observations we consider new approaches to association analysis that might prove valuable for multicentre GWAS in Africa: we relax the assumptions of SNP–based fixed effect analysis; we apply Bayesian approaches to allow for heterogeneity in the effect of an allele on risk across studies; and we introduce a region-based test to allow for heterogeneity in the location of causal alleles. PMID:23717212

  18. "It's In My Veins": Exploring the Role of an Afrocentric, Popular Education-Based Training Program in the Empowerment of African American and African Community Health Workers in Oregon.

    PubMed

    Bridgeman-Bunyoli, Arika; Mitchell, S Renee; Bin Abdullah, AbdulʼHafeedh M; Schwoeffermann, Ty; Phoenix, Toliver; Goughnour, Cat; Hines-Norwood, Richard; Wiggins, Noelle

    2015-01-01

    The role racism and other social determinants of health play in the creation of health inequities in African American communities in the United States is increasingly understood. In this article, we explore the effectiveness of an Afrocentric, popular education-based community health worker (CHW) training program in creating positive change among CHW participants and their communities in Portland, Oregon. Findings suggest that CHW participants experienced 4 types of awakening, in addition to changes in their interaction with their family members and increased community involvement. The CHWs identified group bond, Afrocentrism, public health knowledge, popular education, facilitators, and time management as important elements of an effective training program for this community. Psychological empowerment, self-reported health status, and health behavior among participants generally increased over time, but changes were not statistically significant.

  19. Integration of Bayesian molecular clock methods and fossil-based soft bounds reveals early Cenozoic origin of African lacertid lizards

    PubMed Central

    Hipsley, Christy A; Himmelmann, Lin; Metzler, Dirk; Müller, Johannes

    2009-01-01

    Background Although current molecular clock methods offer greater flexibility in modelling evolutionary events, calibration of the clock with dates from the fossil record is still problematic for many groups. Here we implement several new approaches in molecular dating to estimate the evolutionary ages of Lacertidae, an Old World family of lizards with a poor fossil record and uncertain phylogeny. Four different models of rate variation are tested in a new program for Bayesian phylogenetic analysis called TreeTime, based on a combination of mitochondrial and nuclear gene sequences. We incorporate paleontological uncertainty into divergence estimates by expressing multiple calibration dates as a range of probabilistic distributions. We also test the reliability of our proposed calibrations by exploring effects of individual priors on posterior estimates. Results According to the most reliable model, as indicated by Bayes factor comparison, modern lacertids arose shortly after the K/T transition and entered Africa about 45 million years ago, with the majority of their African radiation occurring in the Eocene and Oligocene. Our findings indicate much earlier origins for these clades than previously reported, and we discuss our results in light of paleogeographic trends during the Cenozoic. Conclusion This study represents the first attempt to estimate evolutionary ages of a specific group of reptiles exhibiting uncertain phylogenetic relationships, molecular rate variation and a poor fossil record. Our results emphasize the sensitivity of molecular divergence dates to fossil calibrations, and support the use of combined molecular data sets and multiple, well-spaced dates from the fossil record as minimum node constraints. The bioinformatics program used here, TreeTime, is publicly available, and we recommend its use for molecular dating of taxa faced with similar challenges. PMID:19570207

  20. Mediation of effects of a theory-based behavioral intervention on self-reported physical activity in South African men.

    PubMed

    Jemmott, John B; Stephens-Shields, Alisa; O'Leary, Ann; Jemmott, Loretta Sweet; Teitelman, Anne; Ngwane, Zolani; Mtose, Xoliswa

    2015-03-01

    Increasing physical activity is an important public-health goal worldwide, but there are few published mediation analyses of physical-activity interventions in low-to-middle-income countries like South Africa undergoing a health transition involving markedly increased mortality from non-communicable diseases. This article reports secondary analyses on the mediation of a theory-of-planned-behavior-based behavioral intervention that increased self-reported physical activity in a trial with 1181 men in Eastern Cape Province, South Africa. Twenty-two matched-pairs of neighborhoods were randomly selected. Within pairs, neighborhoods were randomized to a health-promotion intervention or an attention-matched control intervention with baseline, immediate-post, and 6- and 12-month post-intervention assessments. Theory-of-planned-behavior constructs measured immediately post-intervention were tested as potential mediators of the primary outcome, self-reported physical activity averaged over the 6- and 12-month post-intervention assessments, using a product-of-coefficients approach in a generalized-estimating-equations framework. Data were collected in 2007-2010. Attitude, subjective norm, self-efficacy, and intention were significant mediators of intervention-induced increases in self-reported physical activity. The descriptive norm, not affected by the intervention, was not a mediator, but predicted increased self-reported physical activity. The results suggest that interventions targeting theory-of-planned-behavior constructs may contribute to efforts to increase physical activity to reduce the burden of non-communicable diseases among South African men. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Mediation and moderation of an efficacious theory-based abstinence-only intervention for African American adolescents.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jingwen; Jemmott, John B; Jemmott, Loretta Sweet

    2015-12-01

    This secondary data analysis sought to determine what mediated reductions in self-reported sexual initiation over the 24-month postintervention period in early adolescents who received "Promoting Health among Teens," a theory-based, abstinence-only intervention (Jemmott, Jemmott, & Fong, 2010). African American Grade 6 and 7 students at inner-city public middle schools were randomized to 1 of 5 interventions grounded in social-cognitive theory and the theory of reasoned action: 8-hr abstinence-only targeting reduced sexual intercourse; 8-hr safer-sex-only targeting increased condom use; 8-hr and 12-hr comprehensive interventions targeting sexual intercourse and condom use; 8-hr control intervention targeting physical activity and diet. Primary outcome was self-report of vaginal intercourse by 24 months postintervention. Potential mediators, assessed immediately postintervention, were theory-of-reasoned-action variables, including behavioral beliefs about positive consequences of abstinence and negative consequences of sex, intention to have sex, normative beliefs about sex, and HIV and sexually transmitted infection (STI) knowledge. We tested single and serial mediation models using the product-of-coefficients approach. Of 509 students reporting never having vaginal intercourse at baseline (324 girls and 185 boys; mean age = 11.8 years, SD = 0.8), 500 or 98.2% were included in serial mediation analyses. Consistent with the theory of reasoned action, the abstinence-only intervention increased positive behavioral beliefs about abstinence, which reduced intention to have sex, which in turn reduced sexual initiation. Negative behavioral beliefs about sex, normative beliefs about sex, and HIV/STI knowledge were not mediators. Abstinence-only interventions should stress the gains to be realized from abstinence rather than the deleterious consequences of sexual involvement. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  2. Mediation of Effects of a Theory-Based Behavioral Intervention on Self-Reported Physical Activity in South African Men

    PubMed Central

    Jemmott, John B.; Stephens, Alisa; O’Leary, Ann; Jemmott, Loretta Sweet; Teitelman, Anne; Ngwane, Zolani; Mtose, Xoliswa

    2015-01-01

    Objective Increasing physical activity is an important public-health goal worldwide, but there are few published mediation analyses of physical-activity interventions in low-to-middle-income countries like South Africa undergoing a health transition involving markedly increased mortality from non-communicable diseases. This article reports secondary analyses on the mediation of a theory-of-planned-behavior-based behavioral intervention that increased self-reported physical activity in a trial with 1,181 men in Eastern Cape Province, South Africa. Method Twenty-two matched-pairs of neighborhoods were randomly selected. Within pairs, neighborhoods were randomized to a health-promotion intervention or an attention-matched control intervention with baseline, immediate-post, and 6- and 12-month post-intervention assessments. Theory-of-planned-behavior constructs measured immediately post-intervention were tested as potential mediators of the primary outcome, self-reported physical activity averaged over the 6- and 12-month post-intervention assessments, using a product-of-coefficients approach in a generalized-estimating-equations framework. Data were collected in 2007–2010. Results Attitude, subjective norm, self-efficacy, and intention were significant mediators of intervention-induced increases in self-reported physical activity. The descriptive norm, not affected by the intervention, was not a mediator, but predicted increased self-reported physical activity. Conclusion The results suggest that interventions targeting theory-of-planned-behavior constructs may contribute to efforts to increase physical activity to reduce the burden of non-communicable diseases among South African men. PMID:25565482

  3. Genome-wide patterns of population structure and admixture in West Africans and African Americans

    PubMed Central

    Bryc, Katarzyna; Auton, Adam; Nelson, Matthew R.; Oksenberg, Jorge R.; Hauser, Stephen L.; Williams, Scott; Froment, Alain; Bodo, Jean-Marie; Wambebe, Charles; Tishkoff, Sarah A.; Bustamante, Carlos D.

    2009-01-01

    Quantifying patterns of population structure in Africans and African Americans illuminates the history of human populations and is critical for undertaking medical genomic studies on a global scale. To obtain a fine-scale genome-wide perspective of ancestry, we analyze Affymetrix GeneChip 500K genotype data from African Americans (n = 365) and individuals with ancestry from West Africa (n = 203 from 12 populations) and Europe (n = 400 from 42 countries). We find that population structure within the West African sample reflects primarily language and secondarily geographical distance, echoing the Bantu expansion. Among African Americans, analysis of genomic admixture by a principal component-based approach indicates that the median proportion of European ancestry is 18.5% (25th–75th percentiles: 11.6–27.7%), with very large variation among individuals. In the African-American sample as a whole, few autosomal regions showed exceptionally high or low mean African ancestry, but the X chromosome showed elevated levels of African ancestry, consistent with a sex-biased pattern of gene flow with an excess of European male and African female ancestry. We also find that genomic profiles of individual African Americans afford personalized ancestry reconstructions differentiating ancient vs. recent European and African ancestry. Finally, patterns of genetic similarity among inferred African segments of African-American genomes and genomes of contemporary African populations included in this study suggest African ancestry is most similar to non-Bantu Niger-Kordofanian-speaking populations, consistent with historical documents of the African Diaspora and trans-Atlantic slave trade. PMID:20080753

  4. Genome-wide patterns of population structure and admixture in West Africans and African Americans.

    PubMed

    Bryc, Katarzyna; Auton, Adam; Nelson, Matthew R; Oksenberg, Jorge R; Hauser, Stephen L; Williams, Scott; Froment, Alain; Bodo, Jean-Marie; Wambebe, Charles; Tishkoff, Sarah A; Bustamante, Carlos D

    2010-01-12

    Quantifying patterns of population structure in Africans and African Americans illuminates the history of human populations and is critical for undertaking medical genomic studies on a global scale. To obtain a fine-scale genome-wide perspective of ancestry, we analyze Affymetrix GeneChip 500K genotype data from African Americans (n = 365) and individuals with ancestry from West Africa (n = 203 from 12 populations) and Europe (n = 400 from 42 countries). We find that population structure within the West African sample reflects primarily language and secondarily geographical distance, echoing the Bantu expansion. Among African Americans, analysis of genomic admixture by a principal component-based approach indicates that the median proportion of European ancestry is 18.5% (25th-75th percentiles: 11.6-27.7%), with very large variation among individuals. In the African-American sample as a whole, few autosomal regions showed exceptionally high or low mean African ancestry, but the X chromosome showed elevated levels of African ancestry, consistent with a sex-biased pattern of gene flow with an excess of European male and African female ancestry. We also find that genomic profiles of individual African Americans afford personalized ancestry reconstructions differentiating ancient vs. recent European and African ancestry. Finally, patterns of genetic similarity among inferred African segments of African-American genomes and genomes of contemporary African populations included in this study suggest African ancestry is most similar to non-Bantu Niger-Kordofanian-speaking populations, consistent with historical documents of the African Diaspora and trans-Atlantic slave trade.

  5. Weight-based discrimination and medication adherence among low-income African Americans with hypertension: how much of the association is mediated by self-efficacy?

    PubMed

    Richardson, Michael P; Waring, Molly E; Wang, Monica L; Nobel, Lisa; Cuffee, Yendelela; Person, Sharina D; Hullett, Sandral; Kiefe, Catarina I; Allison, Jeroan J

    2014-01-01

    Much of the excessive morbidity and mortality from cardiovascular disease among African Americans results from low adherence to anti-hypertensive medications. Therefore, we examined the association between weight-based discrimination and medication adherence. We used cross-sectional data from low-income African Americans with hypertension. Ordinal logistic regression estimated the odds of medication non-adherence in relation to weight-based discrimination adjusted for age, sex, education, income, and weight. Of all participants (n = 780), the mean (SD) age was 53.7 (9.9) years and the mean (SD) weight was 210.1 (52.8) lbs. Reports of weight-based discrimination were frequent (28.2%). Weight-based discrimination (but not weight itself) was associated with medication non-adherence (OR: 1.94; 95% CI: 1.41-2.67). A substantial portion 38.9% (95% CI: 19.0%-79.0%) of the association between weight-based discrimination and medication non-adherence was mediated by medication self-efficacy. Self-efficacy is a potential explanatory factor for the association between reported weight-based discrimination and medication non-adherence. Future research should develop and test interventions to prevent weight-based discrimination at the societal, provider, and institutional levels.

  6. Out-of-pocket costs for facility-based maternity care in three African countries

    PubMed Central

    Perkins, Margaret; Brazier, Ellen; Themmen, Ellen; Bassane, Brahima; Diallo, Djeneba; Mutunga, Angeline; Mwakajonga, Tuntufye; Ngobola, Olipa

    2009-01-01

    Objective To estimate out-of-pocket medical expenses to women and families for maternity care at all levels of the health system in Burkina Faso, Kenya and Tanzania. Methods In a population-based survey in 2003, 6345 women who had given birth in the previous 24 months were interviewed about the costs incurred during childbirth. Three years later, in 2006, an additional 8302 women with recent deliveries were interviewed in the same districts to explore their maternity care-seeking experiences and associated costs. Findings The majority of women interviewed reported paying out-of-pocket costs for facility-based deliveries. Out-of-pocket costs were highest in Kenya (a mean of US$18.4 for normal and complicated deliveries), where 98% of women who delivered in a health facility had to pay some fees. In Burkina Faso, 92% of women reported paying some fees (mean of US$7.9). Costs were lowest in Tanzania, where 91% of women reported paying some fees (mean of US$5.1). In all three countries, women in the poorest wealth quintile did not pay significantly less for maternity costs than the wealthiest women. Costs for complicated delivery were double those for normal delivery in Burkina Faso and Kenya, and represented more than 16% of mean monthly household income in Burkina Faso, and 35% in Kenya. In Tanzania and Burkina Faso most institutional births were at mid-level government health facilities (health centres or dispensaries). In contrast, in Kenya, 42% of births were at government hospitals, and 28% were at private or mission facilities, contributing to the overall higher costs in this country compared with Burkina Faso and Tanzania. However, among women delivering in government health facilities in Kenya, reported out-of-pocket costs were significantly lower in 2006 than in 2003, indicating that a 2004 national policy eliminating user fees at mid- and lower-level government health facilities was having some impact. PMID:19346273

  7. Evaluation of an HIV prevention intervention for African Americans and Hispanics: findings from the VOICES/VOCES Community-based Organization Behavioral Outcomes Project.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Holly H; Patel-Larson, A; Green, K; Shapatava, E; Uhl, G; Kalayil, E J; Moore, A; Williams, W; Chen, B

    2011-11-01

    There is limited knowledge about whether the delivery of evidence-based, HIV prevention interventions in 'real world' settings will produce outcomes similar to efficacy trial outcomes. In this study, we describe longitudinal changes in sexual risk outcomes among African American and Hispanic participants in the Video Opportunities for Innovative Condom Education and Safer Sex (VOICES/VOCES) program at four CDC-funded agencies. VOICES/VOCES was delivered to 922 high-risk individuals in a variety of community settings such as substance abuse treatment centers, housing complex centers, private residences, shelters, clinics, and colleges. Significant risk reductions were consistently observed at 30- and 120-days post-intervention for all outcome measures (e.g., unprotected sex, self-reported STD infection). Risk reductions were strongest for African American participants, although Hispanic participants also reported reducing their risky behaviors. These results suggest that, over a decade after the first diffusion of VOICES/VOCES across the U.S. by CDC, this intervention remains an effective tool for reducing HIV risk behaviors among high-risk African American and Hispanic individuals.

  8. Model-based analyses of whole-genome data reveal a complex evolutionary history involving archaic introgression in Central African Pygmies.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, PingHsun; Woerner, August E; Wall, Jeffrey D; Lachance, Joseph; Tishkoff, Sarah A; Gutenkunst, Ryan N; Hammer, Michael F

    2016-03-01

    Comparisons of whole-genome sequences from ancient and contemporary samples have pointed to several instances of archaic admixture through interbreeding between the ancestors of modern non-Africans and now extinct hominids such as Neanderthals and Denisovans. One implication of these findings is that some adaptive features in contemporary humans may have entered the population via gene flow with archaic forms in Eurasia. Within Africa, fossil evidence suggests that anatomically modern humans (AMH) and various archaic forms coexisted for much of the last 200,000 yr; however, the absence of ancient DNA in Africa has limited our ability to make a direct comparison between archaic and modern human genomes. Here, we use statistical inference based on high coverage whole-genome data (greater than 60×) from contemporary African Pygmy hunter-gatherers as an alternative means to study the evolutionary history of the genus Homo. Using whole-genome simulations that consider demographic histories that include both isolation and gene flow with neighboring farming populations, our inference method rejects the hypothesis that the ancestors of AMH were genetically isolated in Africa, thus providing the first whole genome-level evidence of African archaic admixture. Our inferences also suggest a complex human evolutionary history in Africa, which involves at least a single admixture event from an unknown archaic population into the ancestors of AMH, likely within the last 30,000 yr.

  9. Effects of a Pilot Church-based Intervention to Reduce HIV Stigma and Promote HIV Testing among African Americans and Latinos

    PubMed Central

    Derose, Kathryn P.; Griffin, Beth Ann; Kanouse, David E.; Bogart, Laura M.; Williams, Malcolm V.; Haas, Ann C.; Flórez, Karen R.; Collins, Deborah Owens; Hawes-Dawson, Jennifer; Mata, Michael A.; Oden, Clyde W.; Stucky, Brian D.

    2016-01-01

    HIV-related stigma and mistrust contribute to HIV disparities. Addressing stigma with faith partners may be effective, but few church-based stigma reduction interventions have been tested. We implemented a pilot intervention with 3 Latino and 2 African American churches (4 in matched pairs) in high HIV prevalence areas of Los Angeles County to reduce HIV stigma and mistrust and increase HIV testing. The intervention included HIV education and peer leader workshops, pastor-delivered sermons on HIV with imagined contact scenarios, and HIV testing events. We surveyed congregants at baseline and 6 month follow-up (n=1235) and found statistically significant (p<.05) reductions in HIV stigma and mistrust in the Latino intervention churches but not in the African American intervention church nor overall across matched African American and Latino pairs. However, within matched pairs, intervention churches had much higher rates of HIV testing (p< .001). Stigma reduction and HIV testing may have synergistic effects in community settings. PMID:27000144

  10. Manganese superoxide dismutase Ala-9Val polymorphism and risk of breast cancer in a population-based case–control study of African Americans and whites

    PubMed Central

    Millikan, Robert C; Player, Jon; de Cotret, Allan René; Moorman, Patricia; Pittman, Gary; Vannappagari, Vani; Tse, Chiu-Kit J; Keku, Temitope

    2004-01-01

    Introduction A polymorphism in the manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) gene, Ala-9Val, has been examined in association with breast cancer risk in several epidemiologic studies. Results suggest that the Ala allele increases the risk of breast cancer and modifies the effects of environmental exposures that produce oxidative damage to DNA. Methods We examined the role of the MnSOD Ala-9Val polymorphism in a population-based case–control study of invasive and in situ breast cancer in North Carolina. Genotypes were evaluated for 2025 cases (760 African Americans and 1265 whites) and for 1812 controls (677 African Americans and 1135 whites). Results The odds ratio for MnSOD Ala/Ala versus any MnSOD Val genotypes was not elevated in African Americans (odds ratio = 0.9, 95% confidence interval = 0.7–1.2) or in whites (odds ratio = 1.0, 95% confidence interval = 0.8–1.2). Greater than additive joint effects were observed for the Ala/Ala genotype and smoking, radiation to the chest, and occupational exposure to ionizing radiation. Antagonism was observed between the Ala/Ala genotype and the use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Conclusions The MnSOD genotype may contribute to an increased risk of breast cancer in the presence of specific environmental exposures. These results provide further evidence for the importance of reactive oxygen species and of oxidative DNA damage in the etiology of breast cancer. PMID:15217492

  11. Model-based analyses of whole-genome data reveal a complex evolutionary history involving archaic introgression in Central African Pygmies

    PubMed Central

    Hsieh, PingHsun; Woerner, August E.; Wall, Jeffrey D.; Lachance, Joseph; Tishkoff, Sarah A.; Gutenkunst, Ryan N.; Hammer, Michael F.

    2016-01-01

    Comparisons of whole-genome sequences from ancient and contemporary samples have pointed to several instances of archaic admixture through interbreeding between the ancestors of modern non-Africans and now extinct hominids such as Neanderthals and Denisovans. One implication of these findings is that some adaptive features in contemporary humans may have entered the population via gene flow with archaic forms in Eurasia. Within Africa, fossil evidence suggests that anatomically modern humans (AMH) and various archaic forms coexisted for much of the last 200,000 yr; however, the absence of ancient DNA in Africa has limited our ability to make a direct comparison between archaic and modern human genomes. Here, we use statistical inference based on high coverage whole-genome data (greater than 60×) from contemporary African Pygmy hunter-gatherers as an alternative means to study the evolutionary history of the genus Homo. Using whole-genome simulations that consider demographic histories that include both isolation and gene flow with neighboring farming populations, our inference method rejects the hypothesis that the ancestors of AMH were genetically isolated in Africa, thus providing the first whole genome-level evidence of African archaic admixture. Our inferences also suggest a complex human evolutionary history in Africa, which involves at least a single admixture event from an unknown archaic population into the ancestors of AMH, likely within the last 30,000 yr. PMID:26888264

  12. Polymorphisms in nucleotide excision repair genes, smoking and breast cancer in African Americans and whites: a population-based case-control study.

    PubMed

    Mechanic, Leah E; Millikan, Robert C; Player, Jon; de Cotret, Allan René; Winkel, Scott; Worley, Kendra; Heard, Kristin; Heard, Kimberley; Tse, Chiu-Kit; Keku, Temitope

    2006-07-01

    Polymorphisms exist in several genes involved in nucleotide excision repair (NER), the principal pathway for removal of smoking-induced DNA damage. An epidemiologic study was conducted to determine whether these polymorphisms modify the association between smoking and breast cancer. DNA samples and exposure histories were analyzed as part of a large population-based case-control study of breast cancer in North Carolina. The study population included 2311 cases (894 African Americans, 1417 whites) and 2022 controls (788 African Americans, 1234 whites). Odds ratios (ORs) were calculated for breast cancer and smoking, and for breast cancer and nine non-synonymous coding polymorphisms in six NER genes (XPD codons 312 and 751, RAD23B codon 249, XPG codon 1104, XPC codon 939, XPF codons 415 and 662, and ERCC6 codons 1213 and 1230). Modification of ORs for smoking by single and combined NER genotypes was investigated. In this study population, smoking was more strongly associated with breast cancer in African American women compared with white women. Among African American women, the association of breast cancer and smoking was strongest among women with specific combinations of NER genotypes. Evidence for multiplicative interaction was found between combined NER genotypes and smoking dose (likelihood ratio test P = 0.06), duration (P = 0.09), time since cessation (P = 0.02), age at initiation (P = 0.04) and former smoking (P = 0.03). No interactions were observed in white women. Therefore, polymorphisms in NER genes may modify the relationship between breast cancer and smoking. These results are consistent with previous evidence of exposure-specific p53 mutations in breast tumors from current and former smokers, suggesting that smoking may play a role in breast cancer etiology.

  13. Competency-based medical education in two Sub-Saharan African medical schools

    PubMed Central

    Kiguli-Malwadde, Elsie; Olapade-Olaopa, E Oluwabunmi; Kiguli, Sarah; Chen, Candice; Sewankambo, Nelson K; Ogunniyi, Adesola O; Mukwaya, Solome; Omaswa, Francis

    2014-01-01

    Background Relatively little has been written on Medical Education in Sub-Saharan Africa, although there are over 170 medical schools in the region. A number of initiatives have been started to support medical education in the region to improve quality and quantity of medical graduates. These initiatives have led to curricular changes in the region, one of which is the introduction of Competency-Based Medical Education (CBME). Institutional reviews This paper presents two medical schools, Makerere University College of Health Sciences and College of Medicine, University of Ibadan, which successfully implemented CBME. The processes of curriculum revision are described and common themes are highlighted. Both schools used similar processes in developing their CBME curricula, with early and significant stakeholder involvement. Competencies were determined taking into consideration each country’s health and education systems. Final competency domains were similar between the two schools. Both schools established medical education departments to support their new curricula. New teaching methodologies and assessment methods were needed to support CBME, requiring investments in faculty training. Both schools received external funding to support CBME development and implementation. Conclusion CBME has emerged as an important change in medical education in Sub-Saharan Africa with schools adopting it as an approach to transformative medical education. Makerere University and the University of Ibadan have successfully adopted CBME and show that CBME can be implemented even for the low-resourced countries in Africa, supported by external investments to address the human resources gap. PMID:25525404

  14. Large scale prediction of soil properties in the West African yam belt based on mid-infrared soil spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baumann, Philipp; Lee, Juhwan; Paule Schönholzer, Laurie; Six, Johan; Frossard, Emmanuel

    2016-04-01

    Yam (Dioscorea sp.) is an important staple food in West Africa. Fertilizer applications have variable effects on yam tuber yields, and a management option solely based on application of mineral NPK fertilizers may bear the risk of increased organic matter mineralization. Therefore, innovative and sustainable nutrient management strategies need to be developed and evaluated for yam cultivation. The goal of this study was to establish a mid-infrared soil spectroscopic library and models to predict soil properties relevant to yam growth. Soils from yam fields at four different locations in Côte d'Ivoire and Burkina Faso that were representative of the West African yam belt were sampled. The project locations ranged from the humid forest zone (5.88 degrees N) to the northern Guinean savannah (11.07 degrees N). At each location, soils of 20 yam fields were sampled (0-30 cm). For the location in the humid forest zone additional 14 topsoil samples from positions that had been analyzed in the Land Degradation Surveillance Framework developed by ICRAF were included. In total, 94 soil samples were analyzed using established reference analysis protocols. Besides soils were milled and then scanned by fourier transform mid-infrared spectroscopy in the range between 400 and 4000 reciprocal cm. Using partial least squares (PLS) regression, PLS1 calibration models that included soils from the four locations were built using two thirds of the samples selected by Kennard-Stones sampling algorithm in the spectral principal component space. Models were independently validated with the remaining data set. Spectral models for total carbon, total nitrogen, total iron, total aluminum, total potassium, exchangeable calcium, and effective cation exchange capacity performed very well, which was indicated by R-squared values between 0.8 and 1.0 on both calibration and validation. For these soil properties, spectral models can be used for cost-effective, rapid, and accurate predictions

  15. Advancing the Africentric Paradigm Shift Discourse: Building toward Evidence-Based Africentric Interventions in Social Work Practice with African Americans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, Dorie J.; Harvey, Aminifu R.; Belgrave, Faye Z.

    2009-01-01

    For over a decade, a number of social work scholars have advocated for an Africentric paradigm shift in social work practice with African Americans; yet the paradigm shift has been slow in coming with respect to infusing Africentric theory and interventions into social work practice, education, and research. Interventions that infuse Africentric…

  16. A Mobile Device Based Intervention to Reduce the Influence of Smoking Cues Among African American Cigarette Smokers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-03-04

    Cendrine Robinson, M.S. Dissertation submitted to the Faculty of the Medical and Clinical Psychology Graduate Program Uniformed Services...dissertation. First, I thank the Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences (USUHS) and the Department of Medical and Clinical Psychology for...Waters, Associate Professor, Medical & Clinical Psychology Introduction: African American cigarette smokers have higher rates of lung cancer and

  17. YOUR Blessed Health: A Faith-Based CBPR Approach to Addressing HIV/AIDS among African Americans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffith, Derek M.; Pichon, Latrice C.; Campbell, Bettina; Allen, Julie Ober

    2010-01-01

    Despite substantial federal, state, and local efforts to reduce the transmission of HIV/AIDS, African Americans experience higher rates of infection than any other ethnic or racial group in the United States. It is imperative to develop culturally and ecologically sensitive interventions to meet the sexual health needs of this population.…

  18. The Overrepresentation of African-American Males in Special Education and the Effects on Self Esteem Based on Teachers' Perceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, DeJuan Dennis

    2013-01-01

    In this twenty-first century there is a disproportionate amount of African American males in special education in the U.S. This is a factor happening day by day affecting the achievement gap between Black and White students, especially males. The purpose of this study is to point out factors that contribute to the overrepresentation of African…

  19. Compiling an Evidence-Based Improvement Plan for the Support of Distance-Education Students at a Southern African University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Makhakhane, Bothephana; Wilkinson, Annette C.; Ndeya-Ndereya, Charity N.

    2016-01-01

    This article illustrates how an event guide can be used to organise, systematise and prioritise the large amount of findings from an extensive study. The study aimed to enhance student support at a distance-education institute in a Southern African country (Lesotho). In this case study an improvement-oriented evaluation of the strengths,…

  20. School-Based Exercise to Lower Blood Pressure in High-Risk African American Girls: Project Design and Baseline Findings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ewart, Craig K.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Describes effective methods for identifying and recruiting high risk African American ninth-grade girls to measure their fitness and assess the impact of fitness training on blood pressure. A multistage step test for fitness assessment in such girls is presented. The "Project Heart" aerobics class and control groups are described. (SM)

  1. Academic Achievement of African American Boys: A City-Wide, Community-Based Investigation of Risk and Resilience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fantuzzo, John; LeBoeuf, Whitney; Rouse, Heather; Chen, Chin-Chih

    2012-01-01

    In light of persistent Black-White achievement gaps for boys, this study examined publicly monitored risks believed to be associated with being behind academically for an entire subpopulation of African American boys in a large urban public school district. Also examined were indicators of academic engagement hypothesized to mediate the relations…

  2. YOUR Blessed Health: A Faith-Based CBPR Approach to Addressing HIV/AIDS among African Americans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffith, Derek M.; Pichon, Latrice C.; Campbell, Bettina; Allen, Julie Ober

    2010-01-01

    Despite substantial federal, state, and local efforts to reduce the transmission of HIV/AIDS, African Americans experience higher rates of infection than any other ethnic or racial group in the United States. It is imperative to develop culturally and ecologically sensitive interventions to meet the sexual health needs of this population.…

  3. Effects of Multimedia-Based Instructional Technology on African American Ninth Grade Students' Mastery of Algebra Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malik, Ishan Z.

    2011-01-01

    Urban African American students lack an abstract understanding of algebra and are below their academic level in comparison to other ethnic groups, and this is a pervasive problem (McKinney, Chappell, Berry, & Hickman, 2009). The purpose of this quantitative study using a quasi-experimental design was to determine whether the use of…

  4. School-Based Exercise to Lower Blood Pressure in High-Risk African American Girls: Project Design and Baseline Findings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ewart, Craig K.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Describes effective methods for identifying and recruiting high risk African American ninth-grade girls to measure their fitness and assess the impact of fitness training on blood pressure. A multistage step test for fitness assessment in such girls is presented. The "Project Heart" aerobics class and control groups are described. (SM)

  5. Effects of Multimedia-Based Instructional Technology on African American Ninth Grade Students' Mastery of Algebra Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malik, Ishan Z.

    2011-01-01

    Urban African American students lack an abstract understanding of algebra and are below their academic level in comparison to other ethnic groups, and this is a pervasive problem (McKinney, Chappell, Berry, & Hickman, 2009). The purpose of this quantitative study using a quasi-experimental design was to determine whether the use of…

  6. "God Has My Back": The Role of Faith-Based Institutions in Preparing African-American Students for College Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Placenti, Phillip M.

    2012-01-01

    African-American students are less likely to attend and successfully complete college than their Asian and White peers. Possible explanations for this disparity include racial and ethnic segregation, socioeconomic challenges, persistent shortages of qualified teachers, and scant access to college-preparatory curricula. In the context of such…

  7. Compiling an Evidence-Based Improvement Plan for the Support of Distance-Education Students at a Southern African University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Makhakhane, Bothephana; Wilkinson, Annette C.; Ndeya-Ndereya, Charity N.

    2016-01-01

    This article illustrates how an event guide can be used to organise, systematise and prioritise the large amount of findings from an extensive study. The study aimed to enhance student support at a distance-education institute in a Southern African country (Lesotho). In this case study an improvement-oriented evaluation of the strengths,…

  8. Evaluation of a Faith-Based Socioemotional Support Program for Parents of African American Youth with Antisocial Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Francis-Williams, Nicole

    2005-01-01

    Due to many of the stresses and societal challenges that African American parents face, parents who have children with antisocial behaviors need guidance and support to assist them with their children in the areas of parenting, academics, and social support. This study proposed a program that focuses on the parents and caregivers as vital persons…

  9. Tobago Prostate Survey: Prostate Cancer Risk in a Large Population-Based Study of Men of African Descent

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-06-01

    control studies suggest that sex hormone related polymorphisms and surrogate hormone measures are related to prostate cancer. This Tobago population...our hypothesis that, as observed in African American men, Afro-Caribbean men experience a high risk for prostate cancer. Results from the pilot case

  10. Connectivism in Learning Activity Design: Implications for Pedagogically-Based Technology Adoption in African Higher Education Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kizito, Rita Ndagire

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines the possible characteristics and the value of designing learning activities grounded in connectivism--an emerging learning theory. It is an exploratory attempt to connect the theory to the prevailing technology adoption archetypes used in African contexts with the aim of extracting influences that could shape pedagogical…

  11. Using Social Media to Measure the Contribution of Red List Species to the Nature-Based Tourism Potential of African Protected Areas

    PubMed Central

    Drakou, Evangelia G.; Burgess, Neil D.

    2015-01-01

    Cultural ecosystem services are defined by people’s perception of the environment, which make them hard to quantify systematically. Methods to describe cultural benefits from ecosystems typically include resource-demanding survey techniques, which are not suitable to assess cultural ecosystem services for large areas. In this paper we explore a method to quantify cultural benefits through the enjoyment of natured-based tourism, by assessing the potential tourism attractiveness of species for each protected area in Africa using the IUCN’s Red List of Threatened Species. We use the number of pictures of wildlife posted on a photo sharing website as a proxy for charisma, popularity, and ease of observation, as these factors combined are assumed to determine how attractive species are for the global wildlife tourist. Based on photo counts of 2473 African animals and plants, species that seem most attractive to nature-based tourism are the Lion, African Elephant and Leopard. Combining the photo counts with species range data, African protected areas with the highest potential to attract wildlife tourists based on attractive species occurrence were Samburu National Reserve in Kenya, Mukogodo Forest Reserve located just north of Mount Kenya, and Addo Elephant National Park in South-Africa. The proposed method requires only three data sources which are freely accessible and available online, which could make the proposed index tractable for large scale quantitative ecosystem service assessments. The index directly links species presence to the tourism potential of protected areas, making the connection between nature and human benefits explicit, but excludes other important contributing factors for tourism, such as accessibility and safety. This social media based index provides a broad understanding of those species that are popular globally; in many cases these are not the species of highest conservation concern. PMID:26068111

  12. Using Social Media to Measure the Contribution of Red List Species to the Nature-Based Tourism Potential of African Protected Areas.

    PubMed

    Willemen, Louise; Cottam, Andrew J; Drakou, Evangelia G; Burgess, Neil D

    2015-01-01

    Cultural ecosystem services are defined by people's perception of the environment, which make them hard to quantify systematically. Methods to describe cultural benefits from ecosystems typically include resource-demanding survey techniques, which are not suitable to assess cultural ecosystem services for large areas. In this paper we explore a method to quantify cultural benefits through the enjoyment of natured-based tourism, by assessing the potential tourism attractiveness of species for each protected area in Africa using the IUCN's Red List of Threatened Species. We use the number of pictures of wildlife posted on a photo sharing website as a proxy for charisma, popularity, and ease of observation, as these factors combined are assumed to determine how attractive species are for the global wildlife tourist. Based on photo counts of 2473 African animals and plants, species that seem most attractive to nature-based tourism are the Lion, African Elephant and Leopard. Combining the photo counts with species range data, African protected areas with the highest potential to attract wildlife tourists based on attractive species occurrence were Samburu National Reserve in Kenya, Mukogodo Forest Reserve located just north of Mount Kenya, and Addo Elephant National Park in South-Africa. The proposed method requires only three data sources which are freely accessible and available online, which could make the proposed index tractable for large scale quantitative ecosystem service assessments. The index directly links species presence to the tourism potential of protected areas, making the connection between nature and human benefits explicit, but excludes other important contributing factors for tourism, such as accessibility and safety. This social media based index provides a broad understanding of those species that are popular globally; in many cases these are not the species of highest conservation concern.

  13. Ignoring Authentic African Literature Means Ignoring Africans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romano, Carlin

    2005-01-01

    Africa produces imaginative and authentic literature whose texture makes it impossible to think of Africans as statistics. African writers, however have to struggle to get recognized in America due to their culture and other racial and social differences, hence suggesting that efforts should be made to give authentic African literature its due.

  14. Implementation of the fit body and soul, a church-based life style program for diabetes prevention in high-risk African Americans: a feasibility study.

    PubMed

    Dodani, S; Fields, J Z

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of a behavioral faith-based diabetes prevention program called the Fit Body and Soul program in a semi-urban African-American church using a community-based participatory approach. The 12-session Fit Body and Soul program was modified from the group lifestyle balance intervention that was modified from the successful National Institute of Health (NIH) funded Diabetes Prevention Program. The Fit Body and Soul program was implemented in a semi-urban African-American church community. Based on the results of physical examinations and increased body mass index (BMI > or = 25), 40 adult members of the church were identified as being at high risk for diabetes. Four church ministers, after receiving Fit Body and Soul program training for 2 days, served as study interventionists. The primary objective was weight loss of at least 5% by the end of the 12-session Fit Body and Soul intervention. Screening of church participants was conducted at the Gospel Water Branch Baptist Church in Augusta, Georgia. A total of 40 individuals having a BMI > or = 25 were selected. Of the 40, a total of 35 (87.5%) attended at least 10 sessions and provided information required for the study. Of the 35, a total of 48% lost at least 5% of baseline weight, 26% lost 7% or more, and 14% lost >10% of baseline weight. This pilot trial suggests that carrying out a larger Fit Body and Soul study in a faith-based setting, using behavioral lifestyle interventions, in the context of a diabetes prevention program for African American communities is feasible, as is the possibility that subjects in that larger study will achieve a clinically significant degree of weight loss.

  15. Africans in America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hart, Ayanna; Spangler, Earl

    This book introduces African-American history and culture to children. The first Africans in America came from many different regions and cultures, but became united in this country by being black, African, and slaves. Once in America, Africans began a long struggle for freedom which still continues. Slavery, the Civil War, emancipation, and the…

  16. African Outreach Workshop 1974.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Nancy J.

    This report discusses the 1974 African Outreach Workshop planned and coordinated by the African Studies Program at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. Its major aim was to assist teachers in developing curriculum units on African using materials available in their local community. A second aim was for the African Studies Program to…

  17. Reducing Low Birth Weight among African Americans in the Midwest: A Look at How Faith-Based Organizations Are Poised to Inform and Influence Health Communication on the Developmental Origins of Health and Disease (DOHaD).

    PubMed

    Lumpkins, Crystal Y; Saint Onge, Jarron M

    2017-02-04

    Low birth weight (LBW) rates remain the highest among African Americans despite public health efforts to address these disparities; with some of the highest racial disparities in the Midwest (Kansas). The Developmental Origins of Health and Disease (DOHaD) perspective offers an explanation for how LBW contributes to racial health disparities among African Americans and informs a community directed health communication framework for creating sustainable programs to address these disparities. Trusted community organizations such as faith-based organizations are well situated to explain health communication gaps that may occur over the life course. These entities are underutilized in core health promotion programming targeting underserved populations and can prove essential for addressing developmental origins of LBW among African Americans. Extrapolating from focus group data collected from African American church populations as part of a social marketing health promotion project on cancer prevention, we theoretically consider how a similar communication framework and approach may apply to address LBW disparities. Stratified focus groups (n = 9) were used to discover emergent themes about disease prevention, and subsequently applied to explore how faith-based organizations (FBOs) inform strategic health care (media) advocacy and health promotion that potentially apply to address LBW among African Americans. We argue that FBOs are poised to meet health promotion and health communication needs among African American women who face social barriers in health.

  18. Reducing Low Birth Weight among African Americans in the Midwest: A Look at How Faith-Based Organizations Are Poised to Inform and Influence Health Communication on the Developmental Origins of Health and Disease (DOHaD)

    PubMed Central

    Lumpkins, Crystal Y.; Saint Onge, Jarron M.

    2017-01-01

    Low birth weight (LBW) rates remain the highest among African Americans despite public health efforts to address these disparities; with some of the highest racial disparities in the Midwest (Kansas). The Developmental Origins of Health and Disease (DOHaD) perspective offers an explanation for how LBW contributes to racial health disparities among African Americans and informs a community directed health communication framework for creating sustainable programs to address these disparities. Trusted community organizations such as faith-based organizations are well situated to explain health communication gaps that may occur over the life course. These entities are underutilized in core health promotion programming targeting underserved populations and can prove essential for addressing developmental origins of LBW among African Americans. Extrapolating from focus group data collected from African American church populations as part of a social marketing health promotion project on cancer prevention, we theoretically consider how a similar communication framework and approach may apply to address LBW disparities. Stratified focus groups (n = 9) were used to discover emergent themes about disease prevention, and subsequently applied to explore how faith-based organizations (FBOs) inform strategic health care (media) advocacy and health promotion that potentially apply to address LBW among African Americans. We argue that FBOs are poised to meet health promotion and health communication needs among African American women who face social barriers in health. PMID:28165368

  19. Correlates of isolated nocturnal hypertension and target organ damage in a population-based cohort of African Americans: the Jackson Heart Study.

    PubMed

    Ogedegbe, Gbenga; Spruill, Tanya M; Sarpong, Daniel F; Agyemang, Charles; Chaplin, William; Pastva, Amy; Martins, David; Ravenell, Joseph; Pickering, Thomas G

    2013-08-01

    African Americans have higher rates of nocturnal hypertension and less nocturnal blood pressure (BP) dipping compared with whites. Although nocturnal hypertension is associated with increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, its clinical significance among those with normal daytime BP is unclear. This paper reports the prevalence and correlates of isolated nocturnal hypertension (INH) in a population-based cohort of African Americans enrolled in the Jackson Heart Study (JHS). The study sample included 425 untreated, normotensive and hypertensive JHS participants who underwent 24-hour ambulatory BP monitoring (ABPM), echocardiography, and 24-hour urine collection. Multiple logistic regression and 1-way analysis of variance models were used to test the hypothesis that those with INH have worse target organ damage reflected by greater left ventricular (LV) mass and proteinuria compared with normotensive participants. Based on 24-hour ABP profiles, 19.1% of participants had INH. In age and sex-adjusted models, participants with INH had greater LV mass compared with those who were normotensive (P = 0.02), as well as about 3 times the odds of LV hypertrophy and proteinuria (Ps < 0.10). However, multivariable adjustment reduced the magnitude and statistical significance of each of these differences. INH was associated with increased LV mass compared with normo tension in a population-based cohort of African Americans enrolled in the JHS. There were trends toward a greater likelihood of LV hyper trophy and proteinuria among participants with INH vs. those who were normotensive. The clinical significance of the noted target organ damage should be explored in this population.

  20. Coverage of nevirapine-based services to prevent mother-to-child HIV transmission in 4 African countries.

    PubMed

    Stringer, Elizabeth M; Ekouevi, Didier K; Coetzee, David; Tih, Pius M; Creek, Tracy L; Stinson, Kathryn; Giganti, Mark J; Welty, Thomas K; Chintu, Namwinga; Chi, Benjamin H; Wilfert, Catherine M; Shaffer, Nathan; Dabis, Francois; Stringer, Jeffrey S A

    2010-07-21

    Few studies have objectively evaluated the coverage of services to prevent transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) from mother to child. To measure the coverage of services to prevent mother-to-child HIV transmission in 4 African countries. Cross-sectional surveillance study of mother-infant pairs using umbilical cord blood samples collected between June 10, 2007, and October 30, 2008, from 43 randomly selected facilities (grouped as 25 service clusters) providing delivery services in Cameroon, Côte d'Ivoire, South Africa, and Zambia. All sites used at least single-dose nevirapine to prevent mother-to-child HIV transmission and some sites used additional prophylaxis drugs. Population nevirapine coverage, defined as the proportion of HIV-exposed infants in the sample with both maternal nevirapine ingestion (confirmed by cord blood chromatography) and infant nevirapine ingestion (confirmed by direct observation). A total of 27,893 cord blood specimens were tested, of which 3324 were HIV seropositive (12%). Complete data for cord blood nevirapine results were available on 3196 HIV-seropositive mother-infant pairs. Nevirapine coverage varied significantly by site (range: 0%-82%). Adjusted for country, the overall coverage estimate was 51% (95% confidence interval [CI], 49%-53%). In multivariable analysis, failed coverage of nevirapine-based services was significantly associated with maternal age younger than 20 years (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 1.44; 95% CI, 1.18-1.76) and maternal age between 20 and 25 years (AOR, 1.28; 95% CI, 1.07-1.54) vs maternal age of older than 30 years; 1 or fewer antenatal care visits (AOR, 2.91; 95% CI, 2.40-3.54), 2 or 3 antenatal care visits (AOR, 1.93; 95% CI, 1.60-2.33), and 4 or 5 antenatal care visits (AOR, 1.56; 95% CI, 1.34-1.80) vs 6 or more antenatal care visits; vaginal delivery (AOR, 1.22; 95% CI, 1.03-1.44) vs cesarean delivery; and infant birth weight of less than 2500 g (AOR, 1.34; 95% CI, 1.11-1.62) vs birth

  1. Communicating HIV/AIDS through African American churches in North Carolina: implications and recommendations for HIV/AIDS faith-based programs.

    PubMed

    Moore, DaKysha; Onsomu, Elijah O; Timmons, Shirley M; Abuya, Benta A; Moore, Christina

    2012-09-01

    This study explores HIV/AIDS communication strategies among church leaders at predominately African American churches in a metropolitan city and surrounding areas in North Carolina. The church leaders contacted for the study are members of an interfaith-based HIV/AIDS program. The researchers used semi-standardized interviews to explore how church leaders address HIV/AIDS in the church. The findings indicate that the seven church leaders who participated in the study use a variety of communication channels to disseminate HIV/AIDS information for congregants and their surrounding communities, which include both interpersonal and mass media.

  2. Identifying tagging SNPs for African specific genetic variation from the African Diaspora Genome.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Henry Richard; Hu, Yi-Juan; Gao, Jingjing; O'Connor, Timothy D; Abecasis, Gonçalo R; Wojcik, Genevieve L; Gignoux, Christopher R; Gourraud, Pierre-Antoine; Lizee, Antoine; Hansen, Mark; Genuario, Rob; Bullis, Dave; Lawley, Cindy; Kenny, Eimear E; Bustamante, Carlos; Beaty, Terri H; Mathias, Rasika A; Barnes, Kathleen C; Qin, Zhaohui S

    2017-04-21

    A primary goal of The Consortium on Asthma among African-ancestry Populations in the Americas (CAAPA) is to develop an 'African Diaspora Power Chip' (ADPC), a genotyping array consisting of tagging SNPs, useful in comprehensively identifying African specific genetic variation. This array is designed based on the novel variation identified in 642 CAAPA samples of African ancestry with high coverage whole genome sequence data (~30× depth). This novel variation extends the pattern of variation catalogued in the 1000 Genomes and Exome Sequencing Projects to a spectrum of populations representing the wide range of West African genomic diversity. These individuals from CAAPA also comprise a large swath of the African Diaspora population and incorporate historical genetic diversity covering nearly the entire Atlantic coast of the Americas. Here we show the results of designing and producing such a microchip array. This novel array covers African specific variation far better than other commercially available arrays, and will enable better GWAS analyses for researchers with individuals of African descent in their study populations. A recent study cataloging variation in continental African populations suggests this type of African-specific genotyping array is both necessary and valuable for facilitating large-scale GWAS in populations of African ancestry.

  3. Identifying tagging SNPs for African specific genetic variation from the African Diaspora Genome

    PubMed Central

    Johnston, Henry Richard; Hu, Yi-Juan; Gao, Jingjing; O’Connor, Timothy D.; Abecasis, Gonçalo R.; Wojcik, Genevieve L; Gignoux, Christopher R.; Gourraud, Pierre-Antoine; Lizee, Antoine; Hansen, Mark; Genuario, Rob; Bullis, Dave; Lawley, Cindy; Kenny, Eimear E.; Bustamante, Carlos; Beaty, Terri H.; Mathias, Rasika A.; Barnes, Kathleen C.; Qin, Zhaohui S.; Preethi Boorgula, Meher; Campbell, Monica; Chavan, Sameer; Ford, Jean G.; Foster, Cassandra; Gao, Li; Hansel, Nadia N.; Horowitz, Edward; Huang, Lili; Ortiz, Romina; Potee, Joseph; Rafaels, Nicholas; Ruczinski, Ingo; Scott, Alan F.; Taub, Margaret A.; Vergara, Candelaria; Levin, Albert M.; Padhukasahasram, Badri; Williams, L. Keoki; Dunston, Georgia M.; Faruque, Mezbah U.; Gietzen, Kimberly; Deshpande, Aniket; Grus, Wendy E.; Locke, Devin P.; Foreman, Marilyn G.; Avila, Pedro C.; Grammer, Leslie; Kim, Kwang-Youn A.; Kumar, Rajesh; Schleimer, Robert; De La Vega, Francisco M.; Shringarpure, Suyash S.; Musharoff, Shaila; Burchard, Esteban G.; Eng, Celeste; Hernandez, Ryan D.; Pino-Yanes, Maria; Torgerson, Dara G.; Szpiech, Zachary A.; Torres, Raul; Nicolae, Dan L.; Ober, Carole; Olopade, Christopher O; Olopade, Olufunmilayo; Oluwole, Oluwafemi; Arinola, Ganiyu; Song, Wei; Correa, Adolfo; Musani, Solomon; Wilson, James G.; Lange, Leslie A.; Akey, Joshua; Bamshad, Michael; Chong, Jessica; Fu, Wenqing; Nickerson, Deborah; Reiner, Alexander; Hartert, Tina; Ware, Lorraine B.; Bleecker, Eugene; Meyers, Deborah; Ortega, Victor E.; Maul, Pissamai; Maul, Trevor; Watson, Harold; Ilma Araujo, Maria; Riccio Oliveira, Ricardo; Caraballo, Luis; Marrugo, Javier; Martinez, Beatriz; Meza, Catherine; Ayestas, Gerardo; Francisco Herrera-Paz, Edwin; Landaverde-Torres, Pamela; Erazo, Said Omar Leiva; Martinez, Rosella; Mayorga, Alvaro; Mayorga, Luis F.; Mejia-Mejia, Delmy-Aracely; Ramos, Hector; Saenz, Allan; Varela, Gloria; Marina Vasquez, Olga; Ferguson, Trevor; Knight-Madden, Jennifer; Samms-Vaughan, Maureen; Wilks, Rainford J.; Adegnika, Akim; Ateba-Ngoa, Ulysse; Yazdanbakhsh, Maria

    2017-01-01

    A primary goal of The Consortium on Asthma among African-ancestry Populations in the Americas (CAAPA) is to develop an ‘African Diaspora Power Chip’ (ADPC), a genotyping array consisting of tagging SNPs, useful in comprehensively identifying African specific genetic variation. This array is designed based on the novel variation identified in 642 CAAPA samples of African ancestry with high coverage whole genome sequence data (~30× depth). This novel variation extends the pattern of variation catalogued in the 1000 Genomes and Exome Sequencing Projects to a spectrum of populations representing the wide range of West African genomic diversity. These individuals from CAAPA also comprise a large swath of the African Diaspora population and incorporate historical genetic diversity covering nearly the entire Atlantic coast of the Americas. Here we show the results of designing and producing such a microchip array. This novel array covers African specific variation far better than other commercially available arrays, and will enable better GWAS analyses for researchers with individuals of African descent in their study populations. A recent study cataloging variation in continental African populations suggests this type of African-specific genotyping array is both necessary and valuable for facilitating large-scale GWAS in populations of African ancestry. PMID:28429804

  4. Beliefs About Sex and Parent-Child-Church Sex Communication Among Church-Based African American Youth.

    PubMed

    Moore, Erin; Berkley-Patton, Jannette; Bohn, Alexandria; Hawes, Starlyn; Bowe-Thompson, Carole

    2015-10-01

    Parent-child sex communication has been shown to be protective against sexual risk among African American youth. The current study sought to use the theory of planned behavior as a framework for focus group discussions (N = 54 youth participants aged 12-19 years) to explore church youths' (a) sex beliefs and values (attitudes), (b) sources and evaluation of sex communication and education (subjective norms), (c) facilitator/barriers to adolescent sexual risk reduction and communication behaviors (perceived behavioral control), and (d) intentions to engage in these behaviors. Additionally, participants identified strategies for consideration in developing tailored parent-child-church sex communication education programs for use in African American churches. Themes suggested both positive and negative attitudes toward premarital sex and parents and churches as key sources of sex education and communication. Strategies to enhance parent-child-church sex communication are discussed in the context of these findings.

  5. South African maize production scenarios for 2055 using a combined empirical and process-based model approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Estes, L.; Bradley, B.; Oppenheimer, M.; Wilcove, D.; Beukes, H.; Schulze, R. E.; Tadross, M.

    2011-12-01

    In South Africa, a semi-arid country with a diverse agricultural sector, climate change is projected to negatively impact staple crop production. Our study examines future impacts to maize, South Africa's most widely grown staple crop. Working at finer spatial resolution than previous studies, we combine the process-based DSSAT4.5 and the empirical MAXENT models to study future maize suitability. Climate scenarios were based on 9 GCMs run under SRES A2 and B1 emissions scenarios down-scaled (using self-organizing maps) to 5838 locations. Soil properties were derived from textural and compositional data linked to 26422 landforms. DSSAT was run with typical dryland planting parameters and mean projected CO2 values. MAXENT was trained using aircraft-observed distributions and monthly climatologies data derived from downscaled daily records, with future rainfall increased by 10% to simulate CO2 related water-use efficiency gains. We assessed model accuracy based on correlations between model output and a satellite-derived yield proxy (integrated NDVI), and the overlap of modeled and observed maize field distributions. DSSAT yields were linearly correlated to mean integrated NDVI (R2 = 0.38), while MAXENT's relationship was logistic. Binary suitability maps based on thresholding model outputs were slightly more accurate for MAXENT (88%) than for DSSAT (87%) when compared to current maize field distribution. We created 18 suitability maps for each model (9 GCMs X 2 SRES) using projected changes relative to historical suitability thresholds. Future maps largely agreed in eastern South Africa, but disagreed strongly in the semi-arid west. Using a 95% confidence criterion (17 models agree), MAXENT showed a 241305 km2 suitability loss relative to its modeled historical suitability, while DSSAT showed a potential loss of only 112446 km2. Even the smaller potential loss highlighted by DSSAT is uncertain, given that DSSAT's mean (across all 18 climate scenarios) projected yield

  6. Adipose Stem Cell-Based Therapeutic Targeting of Residual Androgens in African Americans With Bone-Metastatic Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-01

    ABSTRACT The disproportionate incidence and mortality of prostate cancer (CaP) among African Americans ( AA ) in comparison to Caucasian American (CA...are not well understood. It is believed that high circulating androgens reported in AA men may account for such racial disparities. It has been...mass-index (BMI), which is significantly higher in AA -men, and the risk for aggressive CaP. Active steroidogenic pathways are active in adipocytes

  7. HIV testing and self-reported HIV status in South African MSM: Results from a community-based survey

    PubMed Central

    Sandfort, Theo G. M.; Nel, Juan; Rich, Eileen; Reddy, Vasu; Yi, Huso

    2009-01-01

    Objective To investigate the characteristics of South African men who have sex with men (MSM) who (1) have been tested for HIV and (2) are HIV-positive. Methods Data were collected among 1045 MSM in community surveys using questionnaires which were administered either face-to-face, mail, or on the internet. The mean age of the men was 29.9 years. The racial distribution was as follows: 35.3% black, 17.0% coloured, 5.3% Indian, and 41.1% white. Results The proportion of MSM that were HIV-tested was 69.7%; having been tested was independently associated with being older, being more open about one's homosexuality, and being homosexually instead of bisexually attracted; black MSM, students, and MSM living in KwaZulu-Natal were less likely to have been tested. Of the 728 MSM who had ever been tested, 14.1% (n=103) reported to be HIV-positive (9.9% of the total sample). Being HIV-positive is independently associated with two factors: men who were positive were more likely to have a lower level of education and to know other persons who were living with HIV/AIDS; race was not independently associated with HIV status among those who had been tested. Conclusions The likelihood of having been tested for HIV seems to decrease with increasing social vulnerability. Racially, the distribution of HIV among MSM seems to differ from that of the general South African population, suggesting that while intertwined with the heterosexual epidemic, there is also an epidemic among South African MSM with specific dynamics. These findings suggest that in-depth research is urgently needed to address the lack of understanding of HIV testing practices and HIV prevalence in South African MSM. PMID:19028940

  8. Expenditures on health research in sub-Saharan African countries: results of a questionnaire-based survey

    PubMed Central

    Zielinski, Chris; Mbondji, Peter Ebongue; Sanou, Issa; Kouvividila, Wenceslas; Lusamba-Dikassa, Paul-Samson

    2014-01-01

    Objective To estimate the sources of funds for health research (revenue) and the uses of these funds (expenditure). Design A structured questionnaire was used to solicit financial information from health research institutions. Setting Forty-two sub-Saharan African countries. Participants Key informants in 847 health research institutions in the 42 sub-Saharan African countries. Main outcome measures Expenditure on health research by institutions, funders and subject areas. Results An estimated total of US$ 302 million was spent on health research by institutions that responded to the survey in the World Health Organization (WHO) African Region for the biennium 2005–2006. The most notable funders for health research activities were external funding, ministries of health, other government ministries, own funds and non-profit institutions. Most types of health research performers spent significant portions of their resources on in-house research, with medical schools spending 82% and government agencies 62%. Hospitals spent 38% of their resources on management, and other institutions (universities, firms, etc.) spent 87% of their resources on capital investment. Research on human immunodeficiency virus/tuberculosis and malaria accounted for 30% of funds, followed by research on other communicable diseases and maternal, perinatal and nutritional conditions (23%). Conclusions Research on major health problems of the Region, such as communicable diseases, accounts for most of the research expenditures. However, the total expenditure is very low compared with other WHO regions. PMID:24914130

  9. Human African trypanosomiasis.

    PubMed

    Lejon, Veerle; Bentivoglio, Marina; Franco, José Ramon

    2013-01-01

    Human African trypanosomiasis or sleeping sickness is a neglected tropical disease that affects populations in sub-Saharan Africa. The disease is caused by infection with the gambiense and rhodesiense subspecies of the extracellular parasite Trypanosoma brucei, and is transmitted to humans by bites of infected tsetse flies. The disease evolves in two stages, the hemolymphatic and meningoencephalitic stages, the latter being defined by central nervous system infection after trypanosomal traversal of the blood-brain barrier. African trypanosomiasis, which leads to severe neuroinflammation, is fatal without treatment, but the available drugs are toxic and complicated to administer. The choice of medication is determined by the infecting parasite subspecies and disease stage. Clinical features include a constellation of nonspecific symptoms and signs with evolving neurological and psychiatric alterations and characteristic sleep-wake disturbances. Because of the clinical profile variability and insidiously progressive central nervous system involvement, disease staging is currently based on cerebrospinal fluid examination, which is usually performed after the finding of trypanosomes in blood or other body fluids. No vaccine being available, control of human African trypanosomiasis relies on diagnosis and treatment of infected patients, assisted by vector control. Better diagnostic tools and safer, easy to use drugs are needed to facilitate elimination of the disease.

  10. A practice-based trial of blood pressure control in African Americans (TLC-Clinic): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Schoenthaler, Antoinette; Luerassi, Leanne; Teresi, Jeanne A; Silver, Stephanie; Kong, Jian; Odedosu, Taiye; Trilling, Samantha; Errico, Anna; Uvwo, Oshevire; Sebek, Kimberly; Adekoya, Adetutu; Ogedegbe, Gbenga

    2011-12-22

    Poorly controlled hypertension (HTN) remains one of the most significant public health problems in the United States, in terms of morbidity, mortality, and economic burden. Despite compelling evidence supporting the beneficial effects of therapeutic lifestyle changes (TLC) for blood pressure (BP) reduction, the effectiveness of these approaches in primary care practices remains untested, especially among African Americans, who share a disproportionately greater burden of HTN-related outcomes. This randomized controlled trial tests the effectiveness of a practice-based comprehensive therapeutic lifestyle intervention, delivered through group-based counseling and motivational interviewing (MINT-TLC) versus Usual Care (UC) in 200 low-income, African Americans with uncontrolled hypertension. MINT-TLC is designed to help patients make appropriate lifestyle changes and develop skills to maintain these changes long-term. Patients in the MINT-TLC group attend 10 weekly group classes focused on healthy lifestyle changes (intensive phase); followed by 3 monthly individual motivational interviewing (MINT) sessions (maintenance phase). The intervention is delivered by trained research personnel with appropriate treatment fidelity procedures. Patients in the UC condition receive a single individual counseling session on healthy lifestyle changes and print versions of the intervention materials. The primary outcome is within-patient change in both systolic and diastolic BP from baseline to 6 months. In addition to BP control at 6 months, other secondary outcomes include changes in the following lifestyle behaviors from baseline to 6 months: a) physical activity, b) weight loss, c) number of daily servings of fruits and vegetables and d) 24-hour urinary sodium excretion. This vanguard trial will provide information on how to refine MINT-TLC and integrate it into a standard treatment protocol for hypertensive African Americans as a result of the data obtained; thus maximizing the

  11. PCR-based identification of eight Lactobacillus species and 18 hr-HPV genotypes in fixed cervical samples of South African women at risk of HIV and BV.

    PubMed

    Dols, Joke A M; Reid, Gregor; Kort, Remco; Schuren, Frank H J; Tempelman, Hugo; Bontekoe, Tj Romke; Korporaal, Hans; Van der Veer, E M; Smit, Pieter W; Boon, Mathilde E

    2012-06-01

    Vaginal lactobacilli assessed by PCR-based microarray and PCR-based genotyping of HPV in South African women at risk for HIV and BV. Vaginal lactobacilli can be defined by microarray techniques in fixed cervical samples of South African women. Cervical brush samples suspended in the coagulant fixative BoonFix of one hundred women attending a health centre for HIV testing in South Africa were available for this study. In the Ndlovu Medical Centre in Elandsdoorn, South Africa, identification of 18 hr-HPV genotypes was done using the INNO-LiPA method. An inventory of lactobacilli organisms was performed using microarray technology. On the basis of the Lactobacillus and Lactobacillus biofilm scoring, the cases were identified as Leiden bacterial vaginosis (BV) negative (BV-; n = 41), Leiden BV intermediate (BV±; n = 25), and Leiden BV positive (BV+; n = 34). Fifty-one women were HIV positive and 49 HIV negative. Out of the 51 HIV positive women, 35 were HPV infected. These 51 HIV positive women were frequently infected with HPV16 and HPV18. In addition, HPV35, HPV52, HPV33, and HPV66 were often detected in these samples. Lactobacillus salivarius and Lactobacillus iners were the most prevalent lactobacilli as established by the microarray technique. In women with HPV infection, the prevalence of Lactobacillus crispatus was significantly reduced. In both HIV and HPV infection, a similar (but not identical) shift in the composition of the lactobacillus flora was observed. We conclude that there is a shift in the composition of vaginal lactobacilli in HIV-infected women. Because of the prominence of HPV35, HPV52, HPV33, and HPV66, vaccination for exclusively HPV16 and HPV18 might be insufficient in South African HIV+ women.

  12. Baseline assessment of the health status and health behaviors of African Americans participating in the activities-for-life program: a community-based health intervention program.

    PubMed

    Paschal, Angelia M; Lewis, Rhonda K; Martin, Arneatha; Dennis-Shipp, Donna; Simpson, Donna Sanders

    2004-08-01

    Obesity is a serious problem in the United States and is associated with hypertension, diabetes, and other health problems such as heart disease and some forms of cancer. There is a higher prevalence of being overweight among African American adults than among their Caucasian counterparts. The objective of this study was to assess baseline health behaviors and health status (hypertension, body mass indices, cholesterol and blood sugar levels) of African Americans participating in a community-based health education and physical fitness program. The sample consisted of 1.34 African American adults (30% males) from a low-income urban area in the Midwest. A health survey was administered to assess their health behaviors and previously diagnosed health problems. Additional data was obtained from health screenings to obtain current information on height, weight, and blood sugar, blood pressure and cholesterol levels. In addition to the sample being markedly overweight and obese (30% and 60% respectively), the results of the health screenings indicated a disproportionate number of participants (62%) with hypertension; 74% of the male participants had high blood pressure. Moreover, the self-reported data suggested that the participants had poor eating habits, sedentary lifestyles, and previously diagnosed health conditions (hypertension, diabetes, and high cholesterol levels) that were comparable to the results of their health screenings. These findings suggest that culturally-relevant, community-based programs that incorporate both nutritionl education and physical fitness are needed in order to educate and motivate participants to decrease behaviors that put them at risk for obesity and other health related problems.

  13. A practice-based trial of blood pressure control in African Americans (TLC-Clinic): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Poorly controlled hypertension (HTN) remains one of the most significant public health problems in the United States, in terms of morbidity, mortality, and economic burden. Despite compelling evidence supporting the beneficial effects of therapeutic lifestyle changes (TLC) for blood pressure (BP) reduction, the effectiveness of these approaches in primary care practices remains untested, especially among African Americans, who share a disproportionately greater burden of HTN-related outcomes. Methods/Design This randomized controlled trial tests the effectiveness of a practice-based comprehensive therapeutic lifestyle intervention, delivered through group-based counseling and motivational interviewing (MINT-TLC) versus Usual Care (UC) in 200 low-income, African Americans with uncontrolled hypertension. MINT-TLC is designed to help patients make appropriate lifestyle changes and develop skills to maintain these changes long-term. Patients in the MINT-TLC group attend 10 weekly group classes focused on healthy lifestyle changes (intensive phase); followed by 3 monthly individual motivational interviewing (MINT) sessions (maintenance phase). The intervention is delivered by trained research personnel with appropriate treatment fidelity procedures. Patients in the UC condition receive a single individual counseling session on healthy lifestyle changes and print versions of the intervention materials. The primary outcome is within-patient change in both systolic and diastolic BP from baseline to 6 months. In addition to BP control at 6 months, other secondary outcomes include changes in the following lifestyle behaviors from baseline to 6 months: a) physical activity, b) weight loss, c) number of daily servings of fruits and vegetables and d) 24-hour urinary sodium excretion. Discussion This vanguard trial will provide information on how to refine MINT-TLC and integrate it into a standard treatment protocol for hypertensive African Americans as a result of

  14. A new species of the rodent genus Hylomyscus from Angola, with a distributional summary of the H. anselli species group (Muridae: Murinae: Praomyini).

    PubMed

    Carleton, Michael D; Banasiak, Rebecca A; Stanley, William T

    2015-11-10

    A new species of Hylomyscus, H. heinrichorum, is described from mountains in western Angola. Based on morphological traits and cranial morphometry, the new species is assigned to the H. anselli species group and is hypothesized to be most closely related to H. anselli Bishop proper, a species named from Zambia. Members of both the H. anselli and H. denniae species groups occupy the Afromontane Biotic Zone, found in various mountain systems to the south and east of the Congo Basin. Evidence is reviewed that supports the independent radiation of these two species groups within montane forest from different Guineo-Congolian ancestral stocks.

  15. A Brief, Clinic-Based, Safer Sex Intervention for Heterosexual African American Men Newly Diagnosed With an STD: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    DiClemente, Ralph J.; Charnigo, Richard; Snow, Gregory; Troutman, Adewale

    2009-01-01

    Objective. We evaluated the efficacy of a brief, clinic-based, safer sex program administered by a lay health adviser for young heterosexual African American men newly diagnosed with a sexually transmitted disease (STD). Methods. Subsequent to STD diagnosis, eligible men (N = 266; aged 18–29 years) were randomized to either a personalized, single-session intervention (delivered by a lay health adviser) or standard of care. We conducted behavioral assessments at baseline and 3 months postintervention (retention was 74.1%). We also conducted a 6-month clinic record review. Results. Compared to men randomized to the control condition, those receiving the intervention were significantly less likely to acquire subsequent STDs (50.4% vs 31.9%; P = .002) and more likely to report using condoms during last sexual intercourse (72.4% vs 53.9%; P = .008). They also reported fewer sexual partners (mean 2.06 vs 4.15; P < .001) and fewer acts of unprotected sex (mean 12.3 vs 29.4; P = .045). Based on a 9-point rating scale, men in the intervention group had higher proficiency scores for condom application skills (mean difference = 3.17; P < .001). Conclusion. A brief clinic-based intervention delivered by a lay health adviser may be an efficacious strategy to reduce incident STDs among young heterosexual African American men. PMID:19218185

  16. Employing a teen advisory board to adapt an evidence-based HIV/STD intervention for incarcerated African-American adolescent women.

    PubMed

    Latham, Teaniese P; Sales, Jessica M; Renfro, Tiffaney L; Boyce, Lorin S; Rose, Eve; Murray, Colleen C; Wingood, Gina M; DiClemente, Ralph J

    2012-10-01

    This manuscript assesses priorities and challenges of adolescent females by conducting a meeting with teen advisory board (TAB) members to collect information regarding their lives and experiences pre-, during and post-incarceration in a juvenile detention facility. Multiple themes emerged regarding the impact of incarceration on young African-American females, including experiencing a loss of personal liberties, the importance of making money upon release, unfaithfulness by partners on the 'outside', substance use and lack of control over their environment upon release, including parents, peers and male sexual partners. Based on feedback from TAB members, unique barriers and challenges were identified that suggested areas where adaptations to an evidenced-based HIV/sexually transmitted disease (STD) intervention would be justified to more adequately meet the needs of this particular subgroup of young African-American women. Adaptations to the evidence-based interventions included enhancing activities related to goal setting, emotion regulation skills, decision-making, recognizing and utilizing support networks and addressing the relationship between substance use and risky sexual behavior. Future health education efforts focusing on either the creation of new HIV/STD interventions or adaptations to existing interventions should consider utilizing advisory boards with members of the priority population at the earliest stages of intervention planning.

  17. The feasibility of a clinic-based parent intervention to prevent HIV, sexually transmitted infections, and unintended pregnancies among Latino and African American adolescents.

    PubMed

    Bouris, Alida; Guilamo-Ramos, Vincent; Jaccard, James; McCoy, Wanda; Aranda, Diane; Pickard, Angela; Boyer, Cherrie B

    2010-06-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the feasibility of conducting a parent-based intervention in a pediatric health clinic to prevent HIV, sexually transmitted infections (STIs), and unintended pregnancies among urban African American and Latino youth. Eight focus groups were conducted with health care providers, adolescent patients and the mothers of adolescent patients (n = 41) from December 2007 to February 2008. All participants were recruited from a community-based pediatric health clinic in the Bronx, New York. Content analysis of focus group transcripts identified results in three primary areas: (1) the role of parents and providers in preventing HIV, STDs and unintended pregnancies among adolescents, (2) feasibility of the intervention in the clinic setting; and (3) optimal recruitment, retention and intervention delivery strategies. Study results suggest that a parent-based intervention delivered in a community-based pediatric health clinic setting is feasible. Focused recommendations for intervention recruitment, delivery, and retention are provided.

  18. High-Level Cross-Resistance to Didanosine Observed in South African Children Failing an Abacavir- or Stavudine-Based 1st-Line Regimen

    PubMed Central

    Steegen, Kim; Levin, Leon; Ketseoglou, Irene; Bronze, Michelle; Papathanasopoulos, Maria A.; Carmona, Sergio; Stevens, Wendy

    2014-01-01

    Background The knowledge-base of emerging drug resistance profiles in children exposed to abacavir-based antiretroviral regimens in South Africa is very limited. This study investigated the suitability of didanosine-based 2nd-line regimens for children in the context of antiretroviral drug resistance patterns emerging after 1st-line virologic failure. Methods A retrospective dataset of 354 antiretroviral drug resistant genotypes from children failing either abacavir (n = 81) or stavudine (n = 273) based 1st-line regimens, was analysed. Samples were sent to the HIV genotyping laboratory at Charlotte Maxeke Johannesburg Academic Hospital, for routine testing. Pol sequences were submitted to the Stanford HIV drug resistance database for genotypic predictions. Results Children were exposed to abacavir or stavudine-based 1st-line regimens for an average of 21 and 36 months, respectively. The frequency of reduced susceptibility to didanosine was substantial in the abacavir-exposed group (69.1%).This reduced susceptibility was commonly attributed to L74V/I (n = 44) and to a lesser extent K65R (n = 10) mutations. Didanosine resistance was observed in 43.2% of patients exposed to stavudine-based regimens. In contrast, most children remained susceptible to stavudine regardless of exposure to abacavir (77.8%) or stavudine (74.7%). At least 80% of children remained susceptible to zidovudine irrespective of stavudine or abacavir-exposure. The presence of the K65R mutation was more common after abacavir pressure (12.3% vs 1.8%). Conclusion Analysis revealed that didanosine-based 2nd-line regimens have limitations for South African children, given the high frequency of mutations that confer cross-resistance to didanosine; especially after abacavir-exposure. This data has influenced South African paediatric treatment guidelines, which now recommend zidovudine-based 2nd-line regimens. PMID:24816790

  19. Engaging Youth through African-Derived Dance and Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franklin, Kikora

    2013-01-01

    This article provides a brief history of African and African-derived dance and culture and highlights the physical health, dance education, historical, and cultural benefits of a school-based program that incorporates African dance as its core component. The article also includes the phases of the programming and brings attention to potential…

  20. Engaging Youth through African-Derived Dance and Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franklin, Kikora

    2013-01-01

    This article provides a brief history of African and African-derived dance and culture and highlights the physical health, dance education, historical, and cultural benefits of a school-based program that incorporates African dance as its core component. The article also includes the phases of the programming and brings attention to potential…

  1. The African Storybook and Language Teacher Identity in Digital Times

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stranger--Johannessen, Espen; Norton, Bonny

    2017-01-01

    The African Storybook (ASb) is a digital initiative that promotes multilingual literacy for African children by providing openly licenced children's stories in multiple African languages, as well as English, French, and Portuguese. Based on Darvin and Norton's (2015) model of identity and investment, and drawing on the Douglas Fir Group's (2016)…

  2. The African Storybook and Language Teacher Identity in Digital Times

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stranger--Johannessen, Espen; Norton, Bonny

    2017-01-01

    The African Storybook (ASb) is a digital initiative that promotes multilingual literacy for African children by providing openly licenced children's stories in multiple African languages, as well as English, French, and Portuguese. Based on Darvin and Norton's (2015) model of identity and investment, and drawing on the Douglas Fir Group's (2016)…

  3. African Education Research. Part One: Issues and Patterns.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bigelow, Ross Edgar

    This study of 416 African Education Research (AER) projects was conducted to: (a) provide information on current studies by Africans on African education; (b) provide a framework for critical analysis of research based on a classification of the issues; and (c) provide a listing and discussion of continuing research resources which would aid…

  4. Feasibility and Acceptability of Smartphone-Based Ecological Momentary Assessment of Alcohol Use Among African American Men Who Have Sex With Men in Baltimore

    PubMed Central

    Kirk, Gregory; Bollinger, Robert; Chang, Larry; Chander, Geetanjali; Siconolfi, Daniel; Braxton, Sharif; Rudolph, Abby; Latkin, Carl

    2015-01-01

    Background Alcohol use is a risk factor for the acquisition of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) among African American men who have sex with men (MSM). Mobile phone-based ecological momentary assessments (EMA) could minimize bias due to retrospective recall and thus provide a better understanding of the social and structural context of alcohol use and its relationship with HIV-related risk behaviors in this population as well as other highly stigmatized populations. Objective We describe the study design and the implementation, feasibility, reactivity, and acceptability of an EMA study of alcohol use and HIV-related behaviors among African American MSM in Baltimore. Methods Participants were recruited through flyers and word-of-mouth in Baltimore from September 2013 to November 2014. Each participant was loaned an Android smartphone and instructed to respond to multiple prompts from the mobile app for 4 weeks. Data were collected through (1) random prompts delivered three times daily assessing participants’ location, activity, mood, and social context, (2) daily prompts capturing drinking and sex events occurring in the past 24 hours, and (3) event-contingent responses collecting participants’ self-reported episodes of drinking. Results A total of 16 participants enrolled in the study. The current analyses focused on 15 participants who completed at least 24 days of follow-up (mean follow-up time 29 days; range 24-35 days). Study participants (N=15) were a median 38 years of age (range 27-62 years) with low levels of income and educational attainment. Ten individuals self-reported living with HIV/AIDS, over half reported drinking alcohol at least 2-3 times a week, and a third reported binge drinking (ie, 6 or more drinks on one occasion) on a weekly basis. Based on the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) score, nearly half were classified as hazardous drinkers (score 8-15) and a fifth were likely dependent (score ≥16). A total of 140

  5. Feasibility and Acceptability of Smartphone-Based Ecological Momentary Assessment of Alcohol Use Among African American Men Who Have Sex With Men in Baltimore.

    PubMed

    Yang, Cui; Linas, Beth; Kirk, Gregory; Bollinger, Robert; Chang, Larry; Chander, Geetanjali; Siconolfi, Daniel; Braxton, Sharif; Rudolph, Abby; Latkin, Carl

    2015-06-17

    Alcohol use is a risk factor for the acquisition of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) among African American men who have sex with men (MSM). Mobile phone-based ecological momentary assessments (EMA) could minimize bias due to retrospective recall and thus provide a better understanding of the social and structural context of alcohol use and its relationship with HIV-related risk behaviors in this population as well as other highly stigmatized populations. We describe the study design and the implementation, feasibility, reactivity, and acceptability of an EMA study of alcohol use and HIV-related behaviors among African American MSM in Baltimore. Participants were recruited through flyers and word-of-mouth in Baltimore from September 2013 to November 2014. Each participant was loaned an Android smartphone and instructed to respond to multiple prompts from the mobile app for 4 weeks. Data were collected through (1) random prompts delivered three times daily assessing participants' location, activity, mood, and social context, (2) daily prompts capturing drinking and sex events occurring in the past 24 hours, and (3) event-contingent responses collecting participants' self-reported episodes of drinking. A total of 16 participants enrolled in the study. The current analyses focused on 15 participants who completed at least 24 days of follow-up (mean follow-up time 29 days; range 24-35 days). Study participants (N=15) were a median 38 years of age (range 27-62 years) with low levels of income and educational attainment. Ten individuals self-reported living with HIV/AIDS, over half reported drinking alcohol at least 2-3 times a week, and a third reported binge drinking (ie, 6 or more drinks on one occasion) on a weekly basis. Based on the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) score, nearly half were classified as hazardous drinkers (score 8-15) and a fifth were likely dependent (score ≥16). A total of 140 participant-initiated events were reported, and 75

  6. Lineage-specific responses of tooth shape in murine rodents (murinae, rodentia) to late Miocene dietary change in the Siwaliks of Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Yuri; Jacobs, Louis L; Flynn, Lawrence J

    2013-01-01

    Past ecological responses of mammals to climate change are recognized in the fossil record by adaptive significance of morphological variations. To understand the role of dietary behavior on functional adaptations of dental morphology in rodent evolution, we examine evolutionary change of tooth shape in late Miocene Siwalik murine rodents, which experienced a dietary shift toward C4 diets during late Miocene ecological change indicated by carbon isotopic evidence. Geometric morphometric analysis in the outline of upper first molars captures dichotomous lineages of Siwalik murines, in agreement with phylogenetic hypotheses of previous studies (two distinct clades: the Karnimata and Progonomys clades), and indicates lineage-specific functional responses to mechanical properties of their diets. Tooth shapes of the two clades are similar at their sympatric origin but deviate from each other with decreasing overlap through time. Shape change in the Karnimata clade is associated with greater efficiency of propalinal chewing for tough diets than in the Progonomys clade. Larger body mass in Karnimata may be related to exploitation of lower-quality food items, such as grasses, than in smaller-bodied Progonomys. The functional and ecophysiological aspects of Karnimata exploiting C4 grasses are concordant with their isotopic dietary preference relative to Progonomys. Lineage-specific selection was differentially greater in Karnimata, and a faster rate of shape change toward derived Karnimata facilitated inclusion of C4 grasses in the diet. Sympatric speciation in these clades is most plausibly explained by interspecific competition on resource utilization between the two, based on comparisons of our results with the carbon isotope data. Interspecific competition with Karnimata may have suppressed morphological innovation of the Progonomys clade. Pairwise analyses of morphological and carbon isotope data can uncover ecological causes of sympatric speciation and define

  7. Differences between African-American and Caucasian students on enrollment influences and barriers in kinesiology-based allied health education programs.

    PubMed

    Barfield, J P; Cobler, D C; Lam, Eddie T C; Zhang, James; Chitiyo, George

    2012-06-01

    Kinesiology departments have recently started to offer allied health education programs to attract additional students to teacher education units (9). Although allied health professions offer increased work opportunities, insufficient enrollment and training of minority students in these academic fields contribute to underrepresentation in the workforce (3). To improve workforce diversity, kinesiology departments must understand how enrollment influences and barriers differ by race among prospective students. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to identify differences in allied health education enrollment influences and enrollment barriers between minority and Caucasian students. Participants (n = 601) consisted of students enrolled in kinesiology-based allied health education programs. Multivariate ANOVA was used to compare group differences in enrollment decision making. "Personal influence," "career opportunity," and "physical self-efficacy" were all significantly stronger enrollment influences among African-American students than among Caucasian students, and "social influence," "experiential opportunity," "academic preparation," and "physical self-efficacy" were all perceived as significantly greater barriers compared with Caucasian students. Findings support the need to recruit African-American students through sport and physical education settings and to market program-based experiential opportunities.

  8. Feasibility and usability of a text message-based program for diabetes self-management in an urban African-American population.

    PubMed

    Dick, Jonathan J; Nundy, Shantanu; Solomon, Marla C; Bishop, Keisha N; Chin, Marshall H; Peek, Monica E

    2011-09-01

    We pilot-tested a text message-based diabetes care program in an urban African-American population in which automated text messages were sent to participants with personalized medication, foot care, and appointment reminders and text messages were received from participants on adherence. Eighteen patients participated in a 4-week pilot study. Baseline surveys collected data about demographics, historical cell phone usage, and adherence to core diabetes care measures. Exit interview surveys (using close-coded and open-ended questions) were administered to patients at the end of the program. A 1-month follow-up interview was conducted surveying patients on perceived self-efficacy. Wilcoxon signed-rank tests were used to compare baseline survey responses about self-management activities to those at the pilot's end and at 1-month follow-up. Eighteen urban African-American participants completed the pilot study. The average age was 55 and the average number of years with diabetes was 8. Half the participants were initially uncomfortable with text messaging. Example messages include "Did you take your diabetes medications today" and "How many times did you check your feet for wounds this week?" Participants averaged 220 text messages with the system, responded to messages 80% of the time, and on average responded within 6 minutes. Participants strongly agreed that text messaging was easy to perform and helped with diabetes self-care. Missed medication doses decreased from 1.6 per week to 0.6 (p = .003). Patient confidence in diabetes self-management was significantly increased during and 1 month after the pilot (p = .002, p = .008). Text messaging may be a feasible and useful approach to improve diabetes self-management in urban African Americans. © 2011 Diabetes Technology Society.

  9. Socioeconomic Status in Relation to the Risk of Ovarian Cancer in African-American Women: A Population-Based Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Alberg, Anthony J.; Moorman, Patricia G.; Crankshaw, Sydnee; Wang, Frances; Bandera, Elisa V.; Barnholtz-Sloan, Jill S.; Bondy, Melissa; Cartmell, Kathleen B.; Cote, Michelle L.; Ford, Marvella E.; Funkhouser, Ellen; Kelemen, Linda E.; Peters, Edward S.; Schwartz, Ann G.; Sterba, Katherine Regan; Terry, Paul; Wallace, Kristin; Schildkraut, Joellen M.

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the association between socioeconomic status and ovarian cancer in African-American women. We used a population-based case-control study design that included case patients with incident ovarian cancer (n = 513) and age- and area-matched control participants (n = 721) from 10 states who were recruited into the African American Cancer Epidemiology Study from December 2010 through December 2014. Questionnaires were administered via telephone, and study participants responded to questions about several characteristics, including years of education, family annual income, and risk factors for ovarian cancer. After adjustment for established ovarian cancer risk factors, women with a college degree or more education had an odds ratio of 0.71 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.51, 0.99) when compared with those with a high school diploma or less (P for trend = 0.02); women with family annual incomes of $75,000 or more had an odds ratio of 0.74 (95% CI: 0.47, 1.16) when compared with those with incomes less than $10,000 (P for trend = 0.055). When these variables were dichotomized, compared with women with a high school diploma or less, women with more education had an adjusted odds ratio of 0.72 (95% CI: 0.55, 0.93), and compared with women with an income less than $25,000, women with higher incomes had an adjusted odds ratio of 0.86 (95% CI: 0.66, 1.12). These findings suggest that ovarian cancer risk may be inversely associated with socioeconomic status among African-American women and highlight the need for additional evidence to more thoroughly characterize the association between socioeconomic status and ovarian cancer. PMID:27492896

  10. Development of a Microsphere-based Immunoassay for Serological Detection of African Horse Sickness Virus and Comparison with Other Diagnostic Techniques.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Matamoros, A; Beck, C; Kukielka, D; Lecollinet, S; Blaise-Boisseau, S; Garnier, A; Rueda, P; Zientara, S; Sánchez-Vizcaíno, J M

    2016-12-01

    African horse sickness (AHS) is a viral disease that causes high morbidity and mortality rates in susceptible Equidae and therefore significant economic losses. More rapid, sensitive and specific assays are required by diagnostic laboratories to support effective surveillance programmes. A novel microsphere-based immunoassay (Luminex assay) in which beads are coated with recombinant AHS virus (AHSV) structural protein 7 (VP7) has been developed for serological detection of antibodies against VP7 of any AHSV serotype. The performance of this assay was compared with that of a commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and commercial lateral flow assay (LFA) on a large panel of serum samples from uninfected horses (n = 92), from a reference library of all AHSV serotypes (n = 9), on samples from horses experimentally infected with AHSV (n = 114), and on samples from West African horses suspected of having AHS (n = 85). The Luminex assay gave the same negative results as ELISA when used to test the samples from uninfected horses. Both assays detected antibodies to all nine AHSV serotypes. In contrast, the Luminex assay detected a higher rate of anti-VP7 positivity in the West African field samples than did ELISA or LFA. The Luminex assay detected anti-VP7 positivity in experimentally infected horses at 7 days post-infection, compared to 13 days for ELISA. This novel immunoassay provides a platform for developing multiplex assays, in which the presence of antibodies against multiple ASHV antigens can be detected simultaneously. This would be useful for serotyping or for differentiating infected from vaccinated animals.

  11. Gene-based analysis of the fibroblast growth factor receptor signaling pathway in relation to breast cancer in African American women: the AMBER consortium.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Narváez, Edward A; Haddad, Stephen A; Lunetta, Kathryn L; Yao, Song; Bensen, Jeannette T; Sucheston-Campbell, Lara E; Hong, Chi-Chen; Haiman, Christopher A; Olshan, Andrew F; Ambrosone, Christine B; Palmer, Julie R

    2016-01-01

    We conducted gene-based analysis in 26 genes in the FGFR signaling pathway to identify genes carrying genetic variation affecting risk of breast cancer and the specific estrogen receptor (ER) subtypes. Tagging single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) for each gene were selected and genotyped on a customized Illumina Exome Array. Imputation was carried out using 1000 Genomes haplotypes. The analysis included 3237 SNPs in 3663 breast cancer cases (including 1983 ER-positive, and 1098 ER-negative) and 4687 controls from the African American Breast Cancer Epidemiology and Risk consortium, a collaborative project of four large studies of breast cancer in African American women (Carolina Breast Cancer Study, Black Women's Health Study, Women's Circle of Health Study, and Multiethnic Cohort). We used a multi-locus adaptive joint (AdaJoint) test to determine the association of each gene in the FGFR signaling pathway with overall breast cancer and ER subtypes. The FGF1 gene was significantly associated with risk of ER-negative breast cancer (P = 0.001). The FGFR2 gene was associated with risk of overall breast cancer (P = 0.002) and ER-positive breast cancer (P = 0.002). The FGF1 gene affects risk of ER-negative breast cancer in African American women. We confirmed the association of the FGFR2 gene with risk of overall and ER-positive breast cancer. These results highlight the importance of the FGFR signaling pathway in the pathogenesis of breast cancer, and suggest that different genes in the same pathway may be associated with different ER breast cancer subtypes.

  12. Gene-based analysis of the fibroblast growth factor receptor signaling pathway in relation to breast cancer in African American women: the AMBER consortium

    PubMed Central

    Ruiz-Narváez, Edward A.; Haddad, Stephen A.; Lunetta, Kathryn L.; Yao, Song; Bensen, Jeannette T.; Sucheston-Campbell, Lara E.; Hong, Chi-Chen; Haiman, Christopher A.; Olshan, Andrew F.; Ambrosone, Christine B.; Palmer, Julie R.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose We conducted gene-based analysis in 26 genes in the FGFR signaling pathway to identify genes carrying genetic variation affecting risk of breast cancer and the specific estrogen receptor (ER) subtypes. Methods Tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) for each gene were selected and genotyped on a customized Illumina Exome Array. Imputation was carried out using 1000 Genomes haplotypes. The analysis included 3,237 SNPs in 3,663 breast cancer cases (including 1,983 ER positive, and 1,098 ER-negative and 4,687 controls from the African American Breast Cancer Epidemiology and Risk consortium, a collaborative project of four large studies of breast cancer in African American women (Carolina Breast Cancer Study, Black Women's Health Study, Women's Circle of Health Study, and Multiethnic Cohort). We used a multi-locus adaptive joint (AdaJoint) test to determine the association of each gene in the FGFR signaling pathway with overall breast cancer and ER subtypes. Results The FGF1 gene was significantly associated with risk of ER negative breast cancer (P = 0.001). The FGFR2 gene was associated with risk of overall breast cancer (P = 0.002) and ER positive breast cancer (P = 0.002). Conclusions The FGF1 gene affects risk of ER negative breast cancer in African American women. We confirmed the association of the FGFR2 gene with risk of overall and ER positive breast cancer. These results highlight the importance of the FGFR signaling pathway in the pathogenesis of breast cancer, and suggest that different genes in the same pathway may be associated with different ER breast cancer subtypes. PMID:26743380

  13. Clinical Correlates and Prognostic Significance of Change in Standardized Left Ventricular Mass in a Community‐Based Cohort of African Americans

    PubMed Central

    Fox, Ervin R.; Musani, Solomon K.; Samdarshi, Tandaw E.; Taylor, Jared K.; Beard, Walter L.; Sarpong, Daniel F.; Xanthakis, Vanessa; McClendon, Eric E.; Liebson, Philip R.; Skelton, Thomas N.; Butler, Kenneth R.; Mosley, Thomas H.; Taylor, Herman; Vasan, Ramachandran S.

    2015-01-01

    Background Though left ventricular mass (LVM) predicts cardiovascular events (CVD) and mortality in African Americans, limited data exists on factors contributing to change in LVM and its prognostic significance. We hypothesized that baseline blood pressure (BP) and body mass index (BMI) and change in these variables over time are associated with longitudinal increases in LVM and that such increase is associated with greater incidence of CVD. Methods and Results We investigated the clinical correlates of change in standardized logarithmically transformed‐LVM indexed to height2.7 (log‐LVMI) and its association with incident CVD in 606 African Americans (mean age 58±6 years, 66% women) who attended serial examinations 8 years apart. Log‐LVMI and clinical covariates were standardized within sex to obtain z scores for both visits. Standardized log‐LVMI was modeled using linear regression (correlates of change in standardized log‐LVMI) and Cox proportional hazards regression (incidence of CVD [defined as coronary heart disease, stroke, heart failure and intermittent claudication]). Baseline clinical correlates (standardized log‐LVM, BMI, systolic BP) and change in systolic BP over time were significantly associated with 8‐year change in standardized log‐LVMI. In prospective analysis, change in standardized LVM was significantly (P=0.0011) associated with incident CVD (hazards ratio per unit standard deviation change log‐LVMI 1.51, 95% CI 1.18 to 1.93). Conclusions In our community‐based sample of African Americans, baseline BMI and BP, and change in BP on follow‐up were key determinants of increase in standardized log‐LVMI, which in turn carried an adverse prognosis, underscoring the need for greater control of BP and weight in this group. PMID:25655570

  14. Are there differences in risk factor profiles and frequency of CT/MRI-based infarcts among African American stroke patients with and without hypertension? A report from the African American Antiplatelet Stroke Prevention Study (AAASPS).

    PubMed Central

    Whittley, Chandra Y.; Gorelick, Philip B.; Raman, Rema; Harris, Jeffrey; Richardson, DeJuran

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND; African Americans (AAs) have a high risk of stroke and a high prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors. Little is known about stroke risk profiles among non-hypertensive AAs. METHODS: African American Antiplatelet Stroke Prevention Study (AAASPS) enrollees with a history of hypertension (htn) were compared to those without htn for history of traditional cardiovascular risk factors and number and distribution of CT/MRI infarcts. Estimated odds ratios are presented describing the association between selected risk factors and htn status. The estimated odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were obtained using multivariate logistic regression. RESULTS: The database for this analysis included 1012 patients with htn and 74 patients without htn. When compared to those with htn, those without htn were more commonly men (59% vs. 46%; p = 0.030), current cigarette smokers (55% vs. 37%; p = 0.001), were younger (median age: 59 years vs. 62 years; p = 0.064), had higher education (11.7 +/- 2.9 vs. 11.1 +/- 3.1; p = 0.024), had a higher number of acute strokes of unknown cause (23% vs. 13%; p=0.060), and less commonly had a history of diabetes (25% vs. 41%; p = 0.007). Those without htn had a lower mean number of old infarcts on MRI (0.94 +/- 1.40 vs. 1.45 +/- 1.60; p = 0.045), and a higher number of mean recent infarcts on CT (1.30 +/- 1.15 vs. 0.93 +/- 1.01; p = 0.031). Multivariate analysis to predict those without htn showed that these patients were more likely to be current cigarette smokers (OR = 2.89; CI = 1.60,5.49) and have higher education (OR = 1.08, CI = 0.996,1.17), and were less likely to have old CT/MRI-based infarcts (OR = 0.46; CI = 0.26,0.76). CONCLUSIONS: AAs without htn may have a different cardiovascular risk factor profile and CT/MRI profile than AAs with htn. This baseline profile among AAs without htn may predict lower stroke recurrence rates in this ongoing trial. PMID:12856908

  15. Race-related stress and hopelessness in community-based African American adults: Moderating role of social support.

    PubMed

    Odafe, Mary O; Salami, Temilola K; Walker, Rheeda L

    2017-10-01

    The mental health outcomes associated with racial discrimination are well documented in scientific literature. Despite strong links to mental illness, hopelessness is largely overlooked as a consequence of discrimination in empirical research. The current study examined the association of race-related stress and hopelessness in a community sample of African American adults. Utilizing a risk-resilience framework, we examined multiple dimensions of social support as plausible protective factors against the negative effects of race-related stress. Self-report measures of race-related stress (Index of Race Related Stress-Brief; Utsey & Ponterotto, 1996), hopelessness (Beck Hopelessness Scale; Beck, Weissman, Lester, & Trexler, 1974), and social support (Interpersonal Support Evaluation List; Cohen & Hoberman, 1983) were completed by a sample of African American adults (N = 243; mean age = 35.89 years). Multiple regression analyses were conducted to assess the main and interactive effects of race-related stress and three dimensions of social support (appraisal, belonging, and self-esteem) in relation to hopelessness ratings. All dimensions of social support were associated with self-reported hopelessness, with the self-esteem dimension emerging as the strongest predictor. Though self-esteem social support buffered the role of race-related stress on self-reported hopelessness, appraisal and belonging support did not. Individual and collective morale for one's racial group (via self-esteem social support) may be especially valuable for African Americans who face racial discrimination. Findings highlight the importance of culturally relevant factors that may ameliorate the effects of race-related stress. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. An African ethic for nursing?

    PubMed

    Haegert, S

    2000-11-01

    This article derives from a doctoral thesis in which a particular discourse was used as a 'paradigm case'. From this discourse an ethic set within a South African culture arose. Using many cultural 'voices' to aid the understanding of this narrative, the ethic shows that one can build on both a 'justice' and a 'care' ethic. With further development based on African culture one can take the ethic of care deeper and reveal 'layers of understanding'. Care, together with compassion, forms the foundation of morality. Nursing ethics has followed particular western moral philosophers. Often nursing ethics has been taught along the lines of Kohlberg's theory of morality, with its emphasis on rules, rights, duties and general obligations. These principles were universalistic, masculine and noncontextual. However, there is a new ethical movement among Thomist philosophers along the lines to be expounded in this article. Nurses such as Benner, Bevis, Dunlop, Fry and Gadow--to name but a few--have welcomed the concept of an 'ethic of care'. Gilligan's work gave a feminist view and situated ethics in the everyday aspects of responsiveness, responsibility, context and concern. Shutte's search for a 'philosophy for Africa' has resulted in finding similarities in Setiloane and in Senghor with those of Thomist philosophers. Using this African philosophy and a research participant's narrative, an African ethic evolves out of the African proverb: 'A person is a person through other persons', or its alternative rendering: 'I am because we are: we are because I am.' This hermeneutic narrative reveals 'the way affect imbues activity with ethical meaning' within the context of a black nursing sister in a rural South African hospital. It expands upon the above proverb and incorporates the South African constitutional idea of 'Ubuntu' (compassion and justice or humanness).

  17. African trypanosomiasis.

    PubMed

    Maudlin, I

    2006-12-01

    Trypanosomiasis remains one of the most serious constraints to economic development in sub-Saharan Africa and, as a consequence, related research has been subject to strong social and political as well as scientific influences. The epidemics of sleeping sickness that occurred at the turn of the 20th Century focussed research efforts on what became known as 'the colonial disease'. This focus is thought to have produced 'vertical' health services aimed at this one disease, while neglecting other important health issues. Given the scale of these epidemics, and the fact that the disease is fatal if left untreated, it is unsurprising that sleeping sickness dominated colonial medicine. Indeed, recent evidence indicates that, if anything, the colonial authorities greatly under-estimated the mortality attributable to sleeping sickness. Differences in approach to disease control between Francophone and Anglophone Africa, which in the past have been considered ideological, on examination prove to be logical, reflecting the underlying epidemiological divergence of East and West Africa. These epidemiological differences are ancient in origin, pre-dating the colonial period, and continue to the present day. Recent research has produced control solutions, for the African trypanosomiases of humans and livestock, that are effective, affordable and sustainable by small-holder farmers. Whether these simple solutions are allowed to fulfil their promise and become fully integrated into agricultural practice remains to be seen. After more than 100 years of effort, trypanosomiasis control remains a controversial topic, subject to the tides of fashion and politics.

  18. Evaluation of a mindfulness-based intervention program to decrease blood pressure in low-income African-American older adults.

    PubMed

    Palta, Priya; Page, G; Piferi, R L; Gill, J M; Hayat, M J; Connolly, A B; Szanton, S L

    2012-04-01

    Hypertension affects a large proportion of urban African-American older adults.While there have been great strides in drug development, many older adults do not have access to such medicines or do not take them. Mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR)has been shown to decrease blood pressure in some populations. This has not been tested in low-income, urban African-American older adults. Therefore, the primary purpose of this pilot study was to test the feasibility and acceptability of a mindfulness-based program for low income, minority older adults provided in residence. The secondary purpose was to learn if the mindfulness-based program produced differences in blood pressure between the intervention and control groups. Participants were at least 62 years old and residents of a low-income senior residence. All participants were African-American, and one was male.Twenty participants were randomized to the mindfulness-based intervention or a social support control group of the same duration and dose. Blood pressure was measured with the Omron automatic blood pressure machine at baseline and at the end of the 8-week intervention. A multivariate regression analysis was performed on the difference in scores between baseline and post-intervention blood pressure measurements, controlling for age,education, smoking status, and anti-hypertensive medication use. Effect sizes were calculated to quantify the magnitude of the relationship between participation in the mindfulness-based intervention and the outcome variable, blood pressure. Attendance remained 980%in all 8 weeks of both the intervention and the control groups. The average systolic blood pressure decreased for both groups post-intervention. Individuals in the intervention group exhibited a 21.92-mmHg lower systolic blood pressure compared to the social support control group post-intervention and this value was statistically significant(p=0.020). The average diastolic blood pressure decreased in the

  19. Pattern of breast cancer among white-American, African-American, and nonimmigrant west-African women.

    PubMed Central

    Ijaduola, T. G.; Smith, E. B.

    1998-01-01

    This study reviews the current understanding of the pattern of breast cancer among whites, African Americans, and West Africans who have never immigrated to the US to find better ways of improving the prevention, early detection, and care of breast cancer world-wide. In the United States, the behavior pattern of breast cancer in African-American women differs from that of white women. Among the three populations, breast cancer appears to be least common in nonimmigrant West-African women. The peak incidence in African Americans and West Africans occurs around the premenopausal period while it occurs postmenopausal period in whites. Also, unlike white women, West-African and African-American women present late for treatment with a greater cancer burden and consequently lower survival rates. The predominant histological type is infiltrating ductal carcinoma in the three groups but the highest percentage (33%) of infiltrating poorly differentiated anaplastic carcinoma occurs in West Africans. Menstrual and obstetric history, obesity, and high body mass index status appear to be greater specific risk factors among African Americans than among West Africans. African Americans and West Africans have three "Ls" in common: late stage in seeking treatment, lower age at peak incidence with severe tumor burden, and consequently lower survival rates. There is a need for more detailed population-based research at molecular levels to elucidate the basis for some of these features. PMID:9770955

  20. Spiritually Based Intervention to Increase Colorectal Cancer Screening among African Americans: Screening and Theory-Based Outcomes from a Randomized Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holt, Cheryl L.; Litaker, Mark S.; Scarinci, Isabel C.; Debnam, Katrina J.; McDavid, Chastity; McNeal, Sandre F.; Eloubeidi, Mohamad A.; Crowther, Martha; Bolland, John; Martin, Michelle Y.

    2013-01-01

    Colorectal cancer screening has clear benefits in terms of mortality reduction; however, it is still underutilized and especially among medically underserved populations, including African Americans, who also suffer a disproportionate colorectal cancer burden. This study consisted of a theory-driven (health belief model) spiritually based…

  1. Empowering Head Start African American and Latino Families: Promoting Strengths-Based Parenting Characteristics through Child Parent Relationship Training--An Evidence-Based Group Parenting Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheely-Moore, Angela I.; Ceballos, Peggy L.

    2011-01-01

    With the tendency of low-income African American and Latino children identified at-risk for school readiness and school success compared to their early-childhood counterparts, Head Start personnel are challenged to examine the role of family strengths in the promotion of academic success for these populations. This article provides a rationale for…

  2. Empowering Head Start African American and Latino Families: Promoting Strengths-Based Parenting Characteristics through Child Parent Relationship Training--An Evidence-Based Group Parenting Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheely-Moore, Angela I.; Ceballos, Peggy L.

    2011-01-01

    With the tendency of low-income African American and Latino children identified at-risk for school readiness and school success compared to their early-childhood counterparts, Head Start personnel are challenged to examine the role of family strengths in the promotion of academic success for these populations. This article provides a rationale for…

  3. Spiritually Based Intervention to Increase Colorectal Cancer Screening among African Americans: Screening and Theory-Based Outcomes from a Randomized Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holt, Cheryl L.; Litaker, Mark S.; Scarinci, Isabel C.; Debnam, Katrina J.; McDavid, Chastity; McNeal, Sandre F.; Eloubeidi, Mohamad A.; Crowther, Martha; Bolland, John; Martin, Michelle Y.

    2013-01-01

    Colorectal cancer screening has clear benefits in terms of mortality reduction; however, it is still underutilized and especially among medically underserved populations, including African Americans, who also suffer a disproportionate colorectal cancer burden. This study consisted of a theory-driven (health belief model) spiritually based…

  4. Academic achievement of African American boys: a city-wide, community-based investigation of risk and resilience.

    PubMed

    Fantuzzo, John; LeBoeuf, Whitney; Rouse, Heather; Chen, Chin-Chih

    2012-10-01

    In light of persistent Black-White achievement gaps for boys, this study examined publicly monitored risks believed to be associated with being behind academically for an entire subpopulation of African American boys in a large urban public school district. Also examined were indicators of academic engagement hypothesized to mediate the relations between risks and low achievement. Findings indicated that the Black-White achievement gap for boys was matched by a comparable difference in risk experiences. Multilevel linear regression models controlling for poverty found that both the type and accumulation of risk experiences explained a significant amount of variation in reading and mathematics achievement for the subpopulation of African American boys. Socio-familial risks were related to the poorest academic outcomes. Academic engagement indicators significantly mediated relations between risks and achievement. Implications of this research for collective school and community actions to make race, gender, and place matter in educational public policy were discussed. Copyright © 2012 Society for the Study of School Psychology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. A single base change explains the independent origin of and selection for the nonshattering gene in African rice domestication.

    PubMed

    Win, Khin Thanda; Yamagata, Yoshiyuki; Doi, Kazuyuki; Uyama, Kazuhiro; Nagai, Yasuko; Toda, Yosuke; Kani, Takahiro; Ashikari, Motoyuki; Yasui, Hideshi; Yoshimura, Atsushi

    2017-03-01

    Reduced seed shattering was a critical evolutionary step in crop domestication. Two cultivated rice species, Oryza sativa and Oryza glaberrima, were independently domesticated from the wild species Oryza rufipogon in Asia and Oryza barthii in Africa, respectively. A single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the c gene, which encodes a trihelix transcription factor, causes nonshattering in O. sativa. However, the genetic mechanism of nonshattering in O. glaberrima is poorly understood. We conducted an association analysis for the coding sequences of SH3/SH4 in AA- genome rice species and the mutation suggested to cause nonshattering was demonstrated to do so using a positional-cloning approach in the O. sativa genetic background. We found that the loss of seed shattering in O. glaberrima was caused by an SNP resulting in a truncated SH3/SH4 protein. This mutation appears to be endemic and to have spread in the African gene pool by hybridization with some O. barthii accessions. We showed that interaction between the O. sativa and O. glaberrima domestication alleles of SH3 in heterozygotes induces a 'throwback' seed-shattering phenotype similar to that in the wild species. Identification of the causative SNP provides new insights into the molecular basis of seed shattering in crops and may facilitate investigation of the history of African rice domestication. © 2016 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2016 New Phytologist Trust.

  6. Family PArtners in Lifestyle Support (PALS): Family-Based Weight Loss for African American Adults with Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Samuel-Hodge, Carmen D.; Holder-Cooper, Judith C.; Gizlice, Ziya; Davis, Gwendolyn; Steele, Sonia P.; Keyserling, Thomas C.; Kumanyika, Shiriki K.; Brantley, Phillip J.; Svetkey, Laura P.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To develop and test a family-centered behavioral weight loss intervention for African American adults with type 2 diabetes. Methods In this randomized trial, dyads consisting of African American adult with overweight or obesity and type 2 diabetes (index participant) paired with a family partner with overweight or obesity, but not diagnosed with diabetes, were assigned in a 2:1 ratio to a 20-week special intervention (SI) or delayed intervention (DI) control group. The primary outcome was weight loss among index participants at 20 weeks follow-up. Results One hundred-eight participants (54 dyads – 36 (SI) and 18 (DI) dyads) were enrolled: 81% females; mean age, 51 years; mean weight,103 kg; and mean BMI, 37 kg/m2. At post-intervention, 96 participants (89%) returned for follow-up measures. Among index participants, mean difference in weight loss between groups was −5.0 kg, p<.0001 (−3.6 kg loss among SI; 1.4 kg gain in DI). SI index participants showed significantly greater improvements in hemoglobin A1c, depressive symptoms, family interactions, and dietary, physical activity, and diabetes self-care behaviors. SI family partners also had significant weight loss (−3.9 kg (SI) vs. −1.0 kg (DI) p=0.02). Conclusions A family-centered, behavioral weight loss intervention led to clinically significant short-term weight loss among family dyads. PMID:27911049

  7. Advancing Understanding of the Characteristics and Capacity of African American Women Who Serve as Lay Health Advisors in Community-Based Settings.

    PubMed

    Shelton, Rachel C; Dunston, Sheba King; Leoce, Nicole; Jandorf, Lina; Thompson, Hayley S; Erwin, Deborah O

    2017-02-01

    Lay Health Advisor (LHA) programs hold tremendous promise for reducing health disparities and addressing social determinants of health in medically underserved communities, including African American populations. Very little is understood about the capacity of LHAs in these roles and the broader contributions they make to their communities. This article seeks to address this gap by describing the characteristics and capacity of a sample of 76 female African American LHAs from a nationally disseminated evidence-based LHA program for breast and cervical cancer screening (The National Witness Project), as well as potential differences between cancer survivors and nonsurvivors who serve as LHAs. A conceptual model for understanding LHA capacity and contributions in underserved communities at the individual, social, and organizational levels is presented. We describe LHA experiences and characteristics (e.g., experiences of mistrust and discrimination, racial pride, sociodemographics), capacity at the individual level (e.g., psychological and physical health, health behaviors), capacity at the social level (e.g., social networks, social support), and capacity at the organizational level (e.g., role-related competencies, self-efficacy, leadership, role benefits/challenges). Data were obtained through interview-administered telephone surveys between 2010 and 2011. Findings highlight the critical capacity that LHAs bring to their communities and the importance of supporting LHAs to sustain these programs and to address racial/ethnic health disparities.

  8. HIV/AIDS prevention, faith, and spirituality among black/African American and Latino communities in the United States: strengthening scientific faith-based efforts to shift the course of the epidemic and reduce HIV-related health disparities.

    PubMed

    Sutton, Madeline Y; Parks, Carolyn P

    2013-06-01

    Black/African American and Latino communities are disproportionately affected by the domestic HIV/AIDS epidemic. Blacks/African Americans and Latinos are also more likely to report a formal, religious, or faith affiliation when compared with non-Hispanic whites. As such, faith leaders and their institutions have been identified in the National HIV/AIDS Strategy as having a vital role to serve in reducing: (1) HIV-related health disparities and (2) the number of new HIV infections by promoting non-judgmental support for persons living with and at risk for HIV/AIDS and by serving as trusted information resources for their congregants and communities. We describe faith doctrines and faith-science partnerships that are increasing in support of faith-based HIV prevention and service delivery activities and discuss the vital role of these faith-based efforts in highly affected black/African American and Latino communities.

  9. GIS-based Identification of Urban Residential Hotspots to Flooding and the Quantification of the Uncertainties for two African Cities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jalayer, Fatemeh; De Risi, Raffaele; De Paola, Francesco; Iervolino, Iunio; Giugni, Maurizio; Topa, Maria Elena; Yonas, Nebyou; Nebebe, Alemu; Kibassa, Deusdedit; Cavan, Gina; Renner, Florian; Lindley, Sarah

    2013-04-01

    The hot spots in an urban setting can be defined as the zones exposed to significant risk due to climate-related extreme events such as flooding. Arguably, identifying the urban hot spots to flooding is one of the first steps in an integrated methodology for urban flood risk assessment and mitigation. The delineation of urban hotspots not only can provide useful information for the policy makers but also it can be useful as support information for indicating future urban dynamics and trends. This work employs two GIS-based frameworks for identifying the urban residential hot spots. This is done by overlaying a map of potentially flood prone areas (the topographic wetness index, TWI) and a map of urban morphology types (UMT) classified as residential. The topographic wetness index (TWI, Beven Qin et al. 2011) allows for the delineation of a portion of a hydrographic basin potentially exposed to flood inundation by identifying all the areas characterized by a topographic index that exceeds a given threshold. The urban morphological types (Pauleit and Duhme 2000, Gill et al. 2008, Cavan et al. 2012) form the foundation of a classification scheme which brings together facets of urban form and function. The application of the UMTs allows the delineation of geographical units. The distinction of UMTs at a 'meso'-scale (i.e. between the city level and that of the individual units) makes a suitable basis for the spatial analysis of cities. The TWI threshold value depends on the resolution of the digital elevation model (DEM), topology of the hydrographic basin (i.e. urban, peri-urban or rural) and the constructed infrastructure (Manfreda et al. 2011). This threshold value is usually calibrated based on the results of detailed delineation of the inundation profile for selected zones. In this study, the TWI threshold is calibrated based on the calculated inundation profiles for various return periods for selected zones within the basin through a Bayesian framework. The

  10. Impacts of tectonic and orbital forcing on East African climate: A comparison based on global climate model simulations.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaspar, F.; Prömmel, K.; Cubasch, U.

    2009-04-01

    Tectonic uplift and erosional denudation can have drastic effects on global and regional climate patterns, which in turn have a significant impact on ecosystems and the distribution of biogeographic zones. The interdisciplinary Research Unit RiftLink (www.riftlink.de) addresses the causes of rift-flank uplift in the East African Rift, its impact on climate changes in equatorial Africa, and the possible connection to the evolution of hominids. Understanding the mechanisms and origin of atmospheric moisture transport is essential for the interpretation of paleoclimatic proxies. Here, we present results from the climate modelling component of RiftLink. The global atmosphere-ocean model ECHO-G has been forced with topographic and orbital scenarios in order to evaluate the relative role of both factors for the past climate of East Africa. The model consists of the ECHAM4 atmosphere model at approx. 3.75° resolution coupled to the HOPE-G ocean model at approx. 2.8°. Forcing the model with a significantly reduced topography in Eastern and Southern Africa leads to a distinct increase in moisture transport from the Indian ocean into the eastern part of the continent and increased precipitation in Eastern Africa. Simulations with step-wise reduced height show that this climate change occurs continuously with the change in topography, i.e. an abrupt change of local climatic features with a critical height is not found. If these results are used for the interpretation of proxy data, it has do be considered that other forcing factors can lead to comparable changes in moisture availability. As an example, we tested the impact of changes in the Earth's orbit around the Sun. For these simulations, we forced the same climate model with the orbital configuration of the last interglacial (at 125,000 years before present, i.e. the Eemian interglacial) and the last glacial inception (at 115,000 years before present). The induced changes in the seasonal and spatial structure of

  11. Utilizing findings from a gender-based analysis to address chronic disease prevention and management among African-American women in a Michigan community.

    PubMed

    Lombard, Wendy; Burke, Jodi; Waddell, Sandra; Franke, Arthur

    2015-08-01

    This research note underscores the importance of including strategies to address gender-based disparities when planning and implementing community health improvement programs. Working in collaboration with the Inkster Partnership for a Healthier Community (IPHC), the National Kidney Foundation of Michigan conducted a gender-based analysis as part of its broader community health needs assessment efforts in Inkster, MI. The findings from these studies revealed significant challenges impacting women that were not being adequately addressed within the community. In response to these findings, the IPHC created a strategic action plan to respond to the highest priority needs by increasing community awareness of and linkages to resources that provide supportive services for low-income African-American women. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Black African Traditional Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zaslavsky, Claudia

    1970-01-01

    Discusses the traditional number systems and the origin of the number names used by several African peoples living south of the Sahara. Also included are limitations in African mathematical development, and possible topics for research. (RP)

  13. Suicide among African American Men.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joe, Sean; Kaplan, Mark S.

    2001-01-01

    Presents empirical contributions to the scholarship on African American suicide, particularly among men. Discusses the secular trends in suicide completion and method-specific suicide patterns; the prevalence of ideation and attempts; suicide-related risk factors; evidence-based recommendations for suicide prevention; the need for more effective…

  14. [African neurosurgery. 1: Historical outline].

    PubMed

    el Khamlichi, A

    1996-01-01

    This outline of the history of African Neurosurgery explains the role that North Africa has played in the Middle Ages in the development of Neurosurgery, the origins of the development of the latter in twentieth century, and the delay that African Neurosurgery still shows at the present time in the majority of African countries. On the papyrus of the pharaonic era, we have found the description of some neurosurgical procedures such as trephination and brain aspiration by a transphenoidal approach used before mummification. It is particularly trephination which summarizes the ancient history of African neurosurgery, as it was widely used throughout the continent, practised and taught by healers in African tribes. The technical concepts of trephination are based, to a great extent, on the descriptions of Arab physicians of the Middle Ages. It was at that time (Middle Ages) that several Arab physicians such as Avicenne, Rhazes, and Avenzhoer described many types of nervous system diseases and the techniques to treat them. But it was mainly Abulkassim Al Zahraoui (Abulkassis) who was the pioneer of neurosurgery as he devoted one volume of his treatise (made up of 30 volumes) to neurosurgery, a precise description of many aspects of neurosurgical pathology, its treatment, instruments and neurosurgical techniques. We have reported in this article five original extracts in Arabic which deal with skull fractures and their treatment, vertebro-medullary traumas and their treatment, hydrocephalus and its treatment, tumors of the skull vault and their treatment, and finally the basic knowledge of anatomy which is of great interest for a surgeon. The medical knowledge of that time which gave birth to medical schools and hospitals was transmitted progressively to Europe and played an important role in the development of medicine during the European Renaissance in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries. During colonization, neurosurgical practice started and developed in many

  15. The African Connection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oguntoyinbo, Lekan

    2012-01-01

    From student and faculty exchanges to joint research projects, U.S. universities maintain a broad spectrum of collaborative relationships with African universities. It's unclear how many U.S. colleges and universities have partnerships with African universities. The African Studies Association, an organization of scholars, doesn't keep that kind…

  16. The African Connection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oguntoyinbo, Lekan

    2012-01-01

    From student and faculty exchanges to joint research projects, U.S. universities maintain a broad spectrum of collaborative relationships with African universities. It's unclear how many U.S. colleges and universities have partnerships with African universities. The African Studies Association, an organization of scholars, doesn't keep that kind…

  17. Long term effects of community-based STI screening and mass media HIV prevention messages on sexual risk behaviors of African American adolescents.

    PubMed

    Sznitman, Sharon; Stanton, Bonita F; Vanable, Peter A; Carey, Michael P; Valois, Robert F; Brown, Larry K; DiClemente, Ralph; Hennessy, Michael; Salazar, Laura F; Romer, Daniel

    2011-11-01

    We examined the long-term effects of two interventions designed to reduce sexual risk behavior among African American adolescents. African American adolescents (N = 1383, ages 14-17) were recruited from community-based organizations over a period of 16 months in two northeastern and two southeastern mid-sized U.S. cities with high rates of sexually transmitted infection (STI). Participants were screened for three STIs (gonorrhea, chlamydia, and trichomoniasis) and completed an audio computer-assisted attitude, intention, and behavior self-interview. Youth who tested positive for an STI (8.3%) received treatment and risk reduction counseling. In addition, television and radio HIV-prevention messages were delivered during the recruitment period and 18 months of follow-up in one randomly selected city in each region. Analyses determined effects of the media program for those receiving a positive versus negative STI test result on number of sexual partners and occurrence of unprotected sex. Adolescents who tested STI-positive reduced their number of vaginal sex partners and the probability of unprotected sex over the first 6 months. However, in the absence of the mass media program, adolescents returned to their previously high levels of sexual risk behavior after 6 months. Adolescents who tested STI-positive and received the mass media program showed more stable reductions in unprotected sex. Community-based STI treatment and counseling can achieve significant, but short-lived reductions in sexual risk behavior among STI-positive youth. A culturally sensitive mass media program has the potential to achieve more stable reductions in sexual risk behavior and can help to optimize the effects of community-based STI screening.

  18. The Fertilizing Role of African Dust in the Amazon Rainforest. A First Multiyear Assessment Based on Data from Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, Hongbin; Chin, Mian; Yuan, Tianle; Bian, Huisheng; Remer, L. A.; Prospero, J.; Omar, Ali; Winker, D.; Yang, Yuekui; Zhang, Yan; Zhang, Zhibo; Zhao, Chun

    2015-03-18

    The productivity of the Amazon rainforest is constrained by the availability of nutrients, in particular phosphorus (P). Deposition of long-range transported African dust is recognized as a potentially important but poorly quantified source of phosphorus. This study provides a first multiyear satellite-based estimate of dust deposition into the Amazon Basin using three dimensional (3D) aerosol measurements over 2007-2013 from the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP). The 7-year average of dust deposition into the Amazon Basin is estimated to be 28 (8~48) Tg a-1 or 29 (8~50) kg ha-1 a-1. The dust deposition shows significant interannual variation that is negatively correlated with the prior-year rainfall in the Sahel. The CALIOP-based multi-year mean estimate of dust deposition matches better with estimates from in-situ measurements and model simulations than a previous satellite-based estimate does. The closer agreement benefits from a more realistic geographic definition of the Amazon Basin and inclusion of meridional dust transport calculation in addition to the 3D nature of CALIOP aerosol measurements. The imported dust could provide about 0.022 (0.006~0.037) Tg P of phosphorus per year, equivalent to 23 (7~39) g P ha-1 a-1 to fertilize the Amazon rainforest. This out-of-Basin P input is comparable to the hydrological loss of P from the Basin, suggesting an important role of African dust in preventing phosphorus depletion on time scales of decades to centuries.

  19. The fertilizing role of African dust in the Amazon rainforest: A first multiyear assessment based on data from Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Hongbin; Chin, Mian; Yuan, Tianle; Bian, Huisheng; Remer, Lorraine A.; Prospero, Joseph M.; Omar, Ali; Winker, David; Yang, Yuekui; Zhang, Yan; Zhang, Zhibo; Zhao, Chun

    2015-03-01

    The productivity of the Amazon rainforest is constrained by the availability of nutrients, in particular phosphorus (P). Deposition of long-range transported African dust is recognized as a potentially important but poorly quantified source of phosphorus. This study provides a first multiyear satellite-based estimate of dust deposition into the Amazon Basin using three-dimensional (3-D) aerosol measurements over 2007-2013 from the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP). The 7 year average of dust deposition into the Amazon Basin is estimated to be 28 (8-48) Tg a-1 or 29 (8-50) kg ha-1 a-1. The dust deposition shows significant interannual variation that is negatively correlated with the prior-year rainfall in the Sahel. The CALIOP-based multiyear mean estimate of dust deposition matches better with estimates from in situ measurements and model simulations than a previous satellite-based estimate does. The closer agreement benefits from a more realistic geographic definition of the Amazon Basin and inclusion of meridional dust transport calculation in addition to the 3-D nature of CALIOP aerosol measurements. The imported dust could provide about 0.022 (0.006-0.037) Tg P of phosphorus per year, equivalent to 23 (7-39) g P ha-1 a-1 to fertilize the Amazon rainforest. This out-of-basin phosphorus input is comparable to the hydrological loss of phosphorus from the basin, suggesting an important role of African dust in preventing phosphorus depletion on timescales of decades to centuries.

  20. The process associated with motivation of a home-based Wii Fit exercise program among sedentary African American women with systemic lupus erythematosus

    PubMed Central

    Yuen, Hon K.; Breland, Hazel L.; Vogtle, Laura K.; Holthaus, Katy; Kamen, Diane L.; Sword, David

    2012-01-01

    Objective To explore the process associated with the motivation for playing Wii Fit among patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Methods Individual in-depth semi-structured telephone interviews were conducted with 14 sedentary African American women with SLE to explore their experiences and reflect on their motivation for playing Wii Fit after completing a 10-week home-based Wii Fit exercise program. Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim, and analyzed using the constant comparative method to identify categories related to participants’ motivation. Three authors independently sorted, organized and coded transcript text into categories, then combined the categories into themes and subthemes. Results In addition to the two themes (Ethical principal of keeping a commitment, and Don’t want to let anyone down) generic to home-based exercise trials, we identified five themes (Enjoyment, Health Benefits, Sense of Accomplishment, Convenience, and Personalized) that revealed why the participants were motivated to play the Wii Fit. Enjoyment had three subthemes: Interactive, Challenging, and Competitive with an embedded social element. However, several participants commented they were not able to do many activities, master certain games, or figure out how to play some; as a result, they were bored with the limited selection of activities that they could do. Conclusions The motivational elements of the Wii Fit may contribute to improved exercise motivation and adherence in select sedentary African American women with SLE. Results provide a better understanding on the important elements to incorporate in the development of sustainable home-based exercise programs with interactive health video games for this population. PMID:23260612

  1. The process associated with motivation of a home-based Wii Fit exercise program among sedentary African American women with systemic lupus erythematosus.

    PubMed

    Yuen, Hon K; Breland, Hazel L; Vogtle, Laura K; Holthaus, Katy; Kamen, Diane L; Sword, David

    2013-01-01

    To explore the process associated with the motivation for playing Wii Fit among patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Individual in-depth semi-structured telephone interviews were conducted with 14 sedentary African American women with SLE to explore their experiences and reflect on their motivation for playing Wii Fit after completing a 10-week home-based Wii Fit exercise program. Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim, and analyzed using the constant comparative method to identify categories related to participants' motivation. Three authors independently sorted, organized and coded transcript text into categories, then combined the categories into themes and subthemes. In addition to the two themes (Ethical principal of keeping a commitment, and Don't want to let anyone down) generic to home-based exercise trials, we identified five themes (Enjoyment, Health Benefits, Sense of Accomplishment, Convenience, and Personalized) that revealed why the participants were motivated to play the Wii Fit. Enjoyment had three subthemes: Interactive, Challenging, and Competitive with an embedded social element. However, several participants commented they were not able to do many activities, master certain games, or figure out how to play some; as a result, they were bored with the limited selection of activities that they could do. The motivational elements of the Wii Fit may contribute to improved exercise motivation and adherence in select sedentary African American women with SLE. Results provide a better understanding on the important elements to incorporate in the development of sustainable home-based exercise programs with interactive health video games for this population. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Internalizing Antecedents and Consequences of Binge-Eating Behaviors in a Community-Based, Urban Sample of African American Females

    PubMed Central

    Musci, Rashelle J.; Hart, Shelley R.; Ialongo, Nicholas

    2015-01-01

    The etiology of problem-eating behaviors is often overlooked in research as it typically shares many symptoms with other more common psychiatric illnesses. Binge-eating problems are at the forefront of the popular media because of the connection to obesity; therefore, increased knowledge of binge eating problems, particularly the internalizing antecedents and consequences will have implications in a multitude of domains, including prevention programs aimed at physical and mental health. The current study examines the antecedents of binge-eating behaviors by exploring how the growth of internalizing symptoms influences the proximal outcome of a binge-eating inventory in a longitudinal sample of African American girls. Additional consequences of binge-eating problems are also explored. This study focuses on binge-eating problems in order to present valuable information for prevention scientists who wish to develop target individuals at high risk for internalizing problems such as suicide. PMID:23873475

  3. Peer Group and Text Message-Based Weight-Loss and Management Intervention for African American Women.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sohye; Schorr, Erica; Chi, Chih-Lin; Treat-Jacobson, Diane; Mathiason, Michelle A; Lindquist, Ruth

    2017-03-01

    About 80% of African American (AA) women are overweight or obese. Accessible and effective weight management programs targeting weight loss, weight maintenance and the prevention of weight regain are needed to improve health of AA women. A feasibility study was conducted to examine the feasibility, acceptability, and potential efficacy of a 16-week intervention protocol for weight loss and management that combined daily text messages and biweekly peer group sessions. Modest but statistically significant reductions were detected in weight and body mass index from baseline to 16 weeks. At baseline, 36% of participants were in action and maintenance stages in measures of the stages of change for weight loss and management; this percent increased to 82% at 16 weeks. Findings of this feasibility study provide preliminary evidence of an educational intervention that could motivate women and lead to successful behavior change, and successful weight loss and management for AA women.

  4. WIC-based interventions to promote breastfeeding among African-American Women in Baltimore: effects on breastfeeding initiation and continuation.

    PubMed

    Caulfield, L E; Gross, S M; Bentley, M E; Bronner, Y; Kessler, L; Jensen, J; Weathers, B; Paige, D M

    1998-03-01

    We evaluated the single and combined effects of introducing a motivational video and peer counseling into four matched WIC clinics on breastfeeding initiation and continuation at 7-10 days among African-American WIC participants. Of the 242 women with complete data, 48% initiated breastfeeding, but only 31% were still breastfeeding at 7-10 days. Initiation was associated with cesarean delivery, infant feeding instruction, no artificial milk discharge pack, attending the peer counselor only-intervention site, and intention to breastfeed. Continuation was influenced by infant feeding instruction, no artificial milk discharge pack, and intention to breastfeed. Overall, trends toward a positive impact of the breastfeeding promotion activities were evident but weak, and largely gone by 7-10 days postpartum.

  5. Brief communication: discrimination between European-American and African-American children based on deciduous dental metrics and morphology.

    PubMed

    Lease, Loren R; Sciulli, Paul W

    2005-01-01

    This study employs metric and morphological features of the deciduous dentition for discriminating between European-American and African-American children and providing allocation rules (regression equations). Five logistic regression equations are presented, with the percentage of correct allocation to group of between 90.1-92.6%. All five equations employ three metric traits (the mesiodistal diameters of the mandibular deciduous canines and anterior and posterior deciduous premolars) and one morphological feature (cusp number of the maxillary deciduous anterior premolar). In addition to these four variables, only two or three additional morphological features are added in carious combinations in the final equations. Correct allocation to group is 4-12% greater when combining metric and morphological features compared to using the features separately.

  6. Discussing Cancer: Communication with African Americans

    PubMed Central

    Caito, Nikki; Hood, Sula; Thompson, Vetta L. Sanders

    2015-01-01

    Regular screening for colorectal cancer (CRC) facilitates earlier detection, lowers mortality, and may reduce incidence through detection and removal of pre-cancerous polyps. Optimizing health professional delivery of CRC screening information and recommendations can assist in reducing CRC disparity in the African American community. This paper presents qualitative data on African Americans’ attitudes about health professional CRC communications based on the analysis of focus groups (N=79). Using a social-ecological framework, colorectal cancer and professional communication themes are examined to offer four general and nine cancer specific theoretically based and culturally appropriate strategies for improving health professional cancer communication with African Americans. PMID:25050658

  7. Human resources in health research institutions in sub-Saharan African countries: results of a questionnaire-based survey

    PubMed Central

    Zielinski, Chris; Mbondji, Peter Ebongue; Sanou, Issa; Kouvividila, Wenceslas; Lusamba-Dikassa, Paul-Samson

    2014-01-01

    Objective To describe human capacity and staff movement in national health research institutions in 42 sub-Saharan African countries. Design A structured questionnaire was used to solicit information on governance and stewardship from health research institutions. Setting Eight hundred and forty-seven health research institutions in 42 sub-Saharan African countries. Participants Key informants from 847 health research institutions. Main outcome measures The availability, mix and quality of human resources in health research institutions. Results On average, there were 122 females employed per respondent health research institution, compared with 159 males. For researchers, the equivalent figures were nine females to 17 males. The average annual gross salary of researchers varied between US$ 12,260 for staff with 5–10 years of experience and US$ 14,772 for the institution head. Of those researchers who had joined the institution in the previous 12 months, 55% were employed on a full-time basis. Of the researchers who left the institutions in the same period, 71% had a full-time contract. Among all those who left, those who left to a non-research sector and to another country accounted for two-thirds. Conclusions The study revealed significant gaps in the area of human capacity development for research in Africa. The results showed a serious shortage of qualified staff engaged in health research, with a dearth of staff that held at least a master’s degree or doctoral degree. Major efforts will be required to strengthen human resource capacity, including addressing the lack of motivation or time for research on the part of existing capable staff. PMID:24914131

  8. Relationships and evolution of the North African geckos, Geckonia and Tarentola (Reptilia: Gekkonidae), based on mitochondrial and nuclear DNA sequences.

    PubMed

    Carranza, S; Arnold, E N; Mateo, J A; Geniez, P

    2002-05-01

    Mitochondrial (cytochrome b and 12S rRNA) and nuclear (c-mos) genes, analyzed by a variety of methods, indicate that the distinctive northwest African gecko Geckonia chazaliae is a member of the Tarentola clade, being most closely related to the species of the western Canary and Cape Verde islands. Relationships in Tarentola as a whole are as follows: (T. americana ((T. mauritanica, T. angustimentalis) ((T. deserti, T. boehmei) ((T. b. boettgeri-South (T. b. boettgeri-North (T. b. bischoffi, T. b. hierrensis))) ((T. annularis, T. ephippiata) (Geckonia, T. delalandii, T. gomerensis, Cape Verde species)))))); nearly all nodes have high bootstrap support. Results confirm that T. americana of Cuba and the Bahamas separated at the most basal dichotomy of the phylogeny and give no positive support for the monophyly of the subgenera Tarentola s. str. and Makariogecko. The latter includes Geckonia and the subgenus Sahelogecko. Continental Tarentola appear to have invaded the Sahara desert from its northern edge. They have also colonized groups of Atlantic islands five times: a single invasion of the West Indies and three of the Canary islands, one of which then went on to invade the Cape Verde archipelago. The phylogeny corroborates anatomical evidence that the ground-dwelling Geckonia had a climbing ancestry, something that is paralleled in some southern African terrestrial gekkonids related to Pachydactylus. Distinctive derived features of Geckonia occur in other gekkonids that are ground dwelling in arid habitats and may be functionally related to this environment. The evolution of such features indicates that, although Tarentola is generally very uniform and may have been so for over 10 million years, this is not due to any overwhelming phylogenetic constraint. G. chazaliae should be included in Tarentola, as Tarentola chazaliae. 2002 Elsevier Science (USA).

  9. The SISTA pilot project: understanding the training and technical assistance needs of community-based organizations implementing HIV prevention interventions for African American women--implications for a capacity building strategy.

    PubMed

    Fuller, Taleria R; Brown, Mari; King, Winifred; Prather, Cynthia; Cazaubon, Janine; Mack, Justin; Russell, Brandi

    2007-01-01

    The disproportionate rates of HIV/AIDS among African American women in the U.S. signify the ongoing need for targeted HIV prevention interventions. Additionally, building the capacity of service providers to sustain prevention efforts is a major concern. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) conducted a pilot project to disseminate the Sisters Informing Sisters about Topics on AIDS (SISTA), an HIV prevention intervention designed for African American women. The project was to inform the diffusion process and examine the training and technical assistance needs of participating community-based organizations. Results demonstrated a need for extensive pre-planning and skills-building prior to implementation.

  10. Long-term monitoring of long-period seismicity and space-based SO2 observations at African lava lake volcanoes Nyiragongo and Nyamulagira (DR Congo)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrière, Julien; Oth, Adrien; Theys, Nicolas; d'Oreye, Nicolas; Kervyn, François

    2017-06-01

    Magma ascent that may lead to an eruption is commonly accompanied by variations of long-period seismic activity and SO2 degassing. Space-based measurements of SO2 emission rates represent a rapidly emerging and highly convenient approach for volcano monitoring; however, combining these long-term remote sensing observations with seismic data is still rare and, in particular, the potential of such a multidisciplinary approach as volcano monitoring tool remains largely unexplored. Here shallow magmatic activity and magma migration patterns at the two closely located African volcanoes Nyiragongo and Nyamulagira are inferred from a nearly 3 years long SO2 emissions record and seismic observations between April 2014 and February 2017. The discrimination of magma movements into shallow plumbing systems allows for signs of volcanic unrest to be deciphered on a daily time scale, even with limited instrumentation on site.

  11. Prevalence and Correlates of Depressive Symptoms and Resiliency among African American Women in a Community-Based Primary Health Care Center

    PubMed Central

    Holden, Kisha B.; Bradford, L. Dianne; Hall, Stephanie P.; Belton, Allyson S.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this cross-sectional pilot study was to determine the prevalence and correlates of depressive symptoms and resiliency among 290 African American women (AAW) in a community-based primary health care center. Descriptive statistics, Pearson product-moment correlation, and logistic regression analyses were conducted. Findings indicate that depressive symptoms are experienced by 49% of the participants, while 10% indicated a history of suicidal ideation. Participants had moderately high resiliency scores that had a statistically significant inverse relationship with depressive symptoms. This suggests that resiliency is potentially a protective factor for depressive symptoms. Depressive symptoms were positively correlated with participants’ diagnosis of at least one chronic disease. The strongest predictors of depressive symptoms were previous diagnoses of a mental health condition and unemployment. This study identifies risk and potential protective factors for depression among a clinic sample of AAW. PMID:24241263

  12. Change for Life/Cambia tu vida: A health promotion program based on the stages of change model for African descendent and Latino adults in New Hampshire.

    PubMed

    Smith, Chris; Ryan, Andrew

    2006-07-01

    Studies have shown that diabetes and cardiovascular disease can be controlled and prevented through the modification of behavioral risk factors. The transtheoretical model of behavior change, also known as the stages of change model, offers promise for designing behavior change interventions. However, this model has rarely been applied in group settings with minority communities. To address racial and ethnic disparities related to the risk for diabetes and cardiovascular disease, the New Hampshire REACH 2010 Initiative has designed and implemented Change for Life/Cambia tu vida, a health promotion program based on the stages of change model for African descendent and Latino residents of southern New Hampshire. The program guides participants through the five stages of change and provides resources to support healthy behavior change. We also sponsor periodic class reunions that help program graduates to maintain these healthy habits. This article describes curriculum development, participant feedback, and early pretest and posttest evaluation results from a standardized assessment.

  13. A Church-Based Diet and Physical Activity Intervention for Rural, Lower Mississippi Delta African American Adults: Delta Body and Soul Effectiveness Study, 2010–2011

    PubMed Central

    Thomson, Jessica L.; Mayo, Tanyatta; Edmond, Emanuel

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Obesity, diabetes, and hypertension have reached epidemic levels in the largely rural Lower Mississippi Delta (LMD) region. We assessed the effectiveness of a 6-month, church-based diet and physical activity intervention, conducted during 2010 through 2011, for improving diet quality (measured by the Healthy Eating Index-2005) and increasing physical activity of African American adults in the LMD region. Methods We used a quasi-experimental design in which 8 self-selected eligible churches were assigned to intervention or control. Assessments included dietary, physical activity, anthropometric, and clinical measures. Statistical tests for group comparisons included χ2, Fisher’s exact, and McNemar’s tests for categorical variables, and mixed-model regression analysis for continuous variables and modeling intervention effects. Results Retention rates were 85% (176 of 208) for control and 84% (163 of 195) for intervention churches. Diet quality components, including total fruit, total vegetables, and total quality improved significantly in both control (mean [standard deviation], 0.3 [1.8], 0.2 [1.1], and 3.4 [9.6], respectively) and intervention (0.6 [1.7], 0.3 [1.2], and 3.2 [9.7], respectively) groups, while significant increases in aerobic (22%) and strength/flexibility (24%) physical activity indicators were apparent in the intervention group only. Regression analysis indicated that intervention participation level and vehicle ownership were significant positive predictors of change for several diet quality components. Conclusion This church-based diet and physical activity intervention may be effective in improving diet quality and increasing physical activity of LMD African American adults. Components key to the success of such programs are participant engagement in educational sessions and vehicle access. PMID:23742940

  14. Theory-Based Behavioral Intervention Increases Self-Reported Physical Activity in South African Men: A Cluster-Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Jemmott, John B.; Jemmott, Loretta S.; Ngwane, Zolani; Zhang, Jingwen; Heeren, G. Anita; Icard, Larry D.; O’Leary, Ann; Mtose, Xoliswa; Teitelman, Anne; Carty, Craig

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine whether a health-promotion intervention increases South African men’s adherence to physical-activity guidelines. Method We utilized a cluster-randomized controlled trial design. Eligible clusters, residential neighborhoods near East London, South Africa, were matched in pairs. Within randomly selected pairs, neighborhoods were randomized to theory-based, culturally congruent health-promotion intervention encouraging physical activity or attention-matched HIV/STI risk-reduction control intervention. Men residing in the neighborhoods and reporting coitus in the previous 3 months were eligible. Primary outcome was self-reported individual-level adherence to physical-activity guidelines averaged over 6-month and 12-month post-intervention assessments. Data were collected in 2007–2010. Data collectors, but not facilitators or participants, were blind to group assignment. Results Primary outcome intention-to-treat analysis included 22 of 22 clusters and 537 of 572 men in the health-promotion intervention and 22 of 22 clusters and 569 of 609 men in the attention-control intervention. Model-estimated probability of meeting physical-activity guidelines was 51.0% in the health-promotion intervention and 44.7% in attention-matched control (OR = 1.34; 95% CI, 1.09–1.63), adjusting for baseline prevalence and clustering from 44 neighborhoods. Conclusion A theory-based culturally congruent intervention increased South African men’s self-reported physical activity, a key contributor to deaths from non-communicable diseases in South Africa. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01490359. PMID:24736094

  15. Theory-based behavioral intervention increases self-reported physical activity in South African men: a cluster-randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Jemmott, John B; Jemmott, Loretta S; Ngwane, Zolani; Zhang, Jingwen; Heeren, G Anita; Icard, Larry D; O'Leary, Ann; Mtose, Xoliswa; Teitelman, Anne; Carty, Craig

    2014-07-01

    To determine whether a health-promotion intervention increases South African men's adherence to physical-activity guidelines. We utilized a cluster-randomized controlled trial design. Eligible clusters, residential neighborhoods near East London, South Africa, were matched in pairs. Within randomly selected pairs, neighborhoods were randomized to theory-based, culturally congruent health-promotion intervention encouraging physical activity or attention-matched HIV/STI risk-reduction control intervention. Men residing in the neighborhoods and reporting coitus in the previous 3 months were eligible. Primary outcome was self-reported individual-level adherence to physical-activity guidelines averaged over 6-month and 12-month post-intervention assessments. Data were collected in 2007-2010. Data collectors, but not facilitators or participants, were blind to group assignment. Primary outcome intention-to-treat analysis included 22 of 22 clusters and 537 of 572 men in the health-promotion intervention and 22 of 22 clusters and 569 of 609 men in the attention-control intervention. Model-estimated probability of meeting physical-activity guidelines was 51.0% in the health-promotion intervention and 44.7% in attention-matched control (OR=1.34; 95% CI, 1.09-1.63), adjusting for baseline prevalence and clustering from 44 neighborhoods. A theory-based culturally congruent intervention increased South African men's self-reported physical activity, a key contributor to deaths from non-communicable diseases in South Africa. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01490359. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. A church-based diet and physical activity intervention for rural, lower Mississippi Delta African American adults: Delta Body and Soul effectiveness study, 2010-2011.

    PubMed

    Tussing-Humphreys, Lisa; Thomson, Jessica L; Mayo, Tanyatta; Edmond, Emanuel

    2013-06-06

    Obesity, diabetes, and hypertension have reached epidemic levels in the largely rural Lower Mississippi Delta (LMD) region. We assessed the effectiveness of a 6-month, church-based diet and physical activity intervention, conducted during 2010 through 2011, for improving diet quality (measured by the Healthy Eating Index-2005) and increasing physical activity of African American adults in the LMD region. We used a quasi-experimental design in which 8 self-selected eligible churches were assigned to intervention or control. Assessments included dietary, physical activity, anthropometric, and clinical measures. Statistical tests for group comparisons included χ(2), Fisher's exact, and McNemar's tests for categorical variables, and mixed-model regression analysis for continuous variables and modeling intervention effects. Retention rates were 85% (176 of 208) for control and 84% (163 of 195) for intervention churches. Diet quality components, including total fruit, total vegetables, and total quality improved significantly in both control (mean [standard deviation], 0.3 [1.8], 0.2 [1.1], and 3.4 [9.6], respectively) and intervention (0.6 [1.7], 0.3 [1.2], and 3.2 [9.7], respectively) groups, while significant increases in aerobic (22%) and strength/flexibility (24%) physical activity indicators were apparent in the intervention group only. Regression analysis indicated that intervention participation level and vehicle ownership were significant positive predictors of change for several diet quality components. This church-based diet and physical activity intervention may be effective in improving diet quality and increasing physical activity of LMD African American adults. Components key to the success of such programs are participant engagement in educational sessions and vehicle access.

  17. HMO employment and African-American physicians.

    PubMed Central

    Briscoe, Forrest; Konrad, Thomas R.

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To assess the level and determinants of African-American physicians' employment in health maintenance organizations (HMOs), particularly early in their careers. METHODS: We analyzed data from the 1991 and 1996 Young Physicians Surveys to assess racial differences in the likelihood of HMO employment (n = 3,705). Using multinomial logistic regression, we evaluated four explanations for an observed relationship between African-American physicians and HMO employment: human capital stratification among organizations, race-based affinity between physicians and patients, financial constraints due to debt burden, and different organizational hiring practices. Using binomial logistic regression, we also evaluated differences in the odds of being turned down for a prior practice position, of subsequently leaving the current practice organization and of later having career doubts. RESULTS: Without any controls, African-American physicians were 4.52 times more likely to practice in HMOs than Caucasian physicians. After controlling for human capital stratification, racial concordance and financial constraints, African-American physicians remained 2.48 times more likely to practice in HMOs than Caucasian physicians. In addition, 19.2% of African-American physicians in HMOs reported being turned down for another job, far more than any other racial/ethnic group in the HMO setting and any racial/ethnic group, including African-American physicians in the non-HMO setting (including all other practice locations). Five years later, those same African-American physicians from HMOs also reported significantly more turnover (7.50 times more likely than non-HMO African-American physicians to leave their current practice) and doubt about their careers (2.17 times more likely than non-HMO African-American physicians to express serious career doubts). CONCLUSIONS: African-American physicians were disproportionately hired into HMO settings, impacting their subsequent careers. PMID

  18. The Linking Lives Health Education Program: A Randomized Clinical Trial of a Parent-Based Tobacco Use Prevention Program for African American and Latino Youths

    PubMed Central

    Jaccard, James; Dittus, Patricia; Gonzalez, Bernardo; Bouris, Alida; Banspach, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    Objectives. We evaluated the effectiveness of a parent-based add-on component to a school-based intervention to prevent cigarette smoking among African American and Latino middle school youths. Methods. Mother–adolescent dyads (n = 1386) were randomly assigned to 2 groups: (1) a school-based smoking-prevention intervention or (2) the same intervention with a parent-based add-on component called Raising Smoke-Free Kids. Mothers in the experimental condition received the parent add-on component. Mothers in the control condition received information on selecting a high school. All adolescents received a version of Project Towards No Tobacco Use (TNT). The primary outcome was a reduction in adolescent cigarette smoking. Follow-up data were obtained from 1096 mother–adolescent dyads at 15 months postintervention. Results. At follow-up, the odds of smoking cigarettes were reduced by 42% for adolescents in the parent add-on condition versus the TNT-only condition. Mothers in the parent add-on condition were more likely than were mothers in the TNT-only condition to set rules about risk-sensitive social activities and to be perceived as trustworthy by their child. Group differences also were found in the frequency and quality of mother–adolescent communication. Conclusions. Including parent add-on components in school-based smoking prevention programs can reduce smoking behavior on the part of inner-city middle school youths. PMID:20634469

  19. East African ROAD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tekle, Kelali

    2016-10-01

    In the developing world astronomy had been treated as the science of elites. As a result of this overwhelming perception, astronomy compared with other applied sciences has got less attention and its role in development has been insignificant. However, the IAU General Assembly decision in 2009 opened new opportunity for countries and professionals to deeply look into Astronomy and its role in development. Then, the subsequent establishment of regional offices in the developing world is helping countries to integrate astronomy with other earth and space based sciences so as to progressively promote its scientific and development importance. Gradually nations have come to know that space is the frontier of tomorrow and the urgency of preeminence on space frontier starts at primary school and ascends to tertiary education. For this to happen, member nations in east African region have placed STEM education at the center of their education system. For instance, Ethiopian has changed University enrollment strategy to be in favor of science and engineering subjects, i.e. every year seventy percent of new University entrants join science and engineering fields while thirty percent social science and humanities. Such bold actions truly promote astronomy to be conceived as gateway to science and technology. To promote the concept of astronomy for development the East African regional office has actually aligned it activities to be in line with the focus areas identified by the IAU strategy (2010 to 2020).

  20. Evaluating the Effects of Vocational Training in Africa (based on the "African Economic Outlook 2008"), OECD Development Centre Policy Insights, No. 61

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kingombe, Christian

    2008-01-01

    The impact of vocational training on economic growth and poverty reduction in African countries is unknown. Without such knowledge, however, countries and donors cannot formulate appropriate policies. Even the 35 countries surveyed in the 2008 "African Economic Outlook" can only supply approximate data. More and better data are needed to…

  1. Evaluating the Effects of Vocational Training in Africa (based on the "African Economic Outlook 2008"), OECD Development Centre Policy Insights, No. 61

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kingombe, Christian

    2008-01-01

    The impact of vocational training on economic growth and poverty reduction in African countries is unknown. Without such knowledge, however, countries and donors cannot formulate appropriate policies. Even the 35 countries surveyed in the 2008 "African Economic Outlook" can only supply approximate data. More and better data are needed to…

  2. Combinations of Cytochrome P-450 Genotypes and Risk of Early-onset Lung Cancer in Caucasians and African Americans: A Population-based Study

    PubMed Central

    ML, Cote; AS, Wenzlaff; CH, Bock; SJ, Land; SK, Santer; DR, Schwartz; AG, Schwartz

    2007-01-01

    Polymorphisms in CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 genes in humans are associated with reduction of enzymatic activity towards several substrates, including those found in tobacco smoke. To investigate the potential role these polymorphisms have as modulators of early-onset lung cancer risk, a population-based case-control study involving early-onset lung cancer cases was performed. Biological samples were available for 383 individuals diagnosed prior to 50 years of age identified from the metropolitan Detroit Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) program and 449 age, race and sex-matched controls ascertained through random digit dialing. Genotype frequencies varied significantly by race for CYP1A1 exon 7 Ile462Val and CYP1B1 Leu432Val genotypes, so all analyses were stratified by race. No association was seen between lung cancer risk and polymorphisms in CYP1A1 MspI or CYP1B1 Leu432Val for Caucasians or African Americans, after adjusting for age at diagnosis, sex, pack years of smoking and family history of lung cancer. In Caucasians, those with the Ile/Val genotype at CYP1A1 exon 7 locus were at decreased risk of having lung cancer compared to those with the Ile/Ile genotype, after adjusting for age at diagnosis, sex, pack years of smoking and family history of cancer (OR=0.41 95% CI 0.19–0.90). These results were not replicated among the African American population, nor were they modified by amount of smoking. PMID:17174438

  3. PSA-Based Screening Outcomes, Dietary Heterocyclic Amine Exposure, and Prostate Cancer Risk in African Americans: Annual Report (Year 1 of 3)

    SciTech Connect

    Bogen, K T

    2006-01-18

    Prostate cancer (PC) is the second leading cause of male U.S. cancer deaths, with African-Americans having the highest rate of PC mortality worldwide, as well as more abnormal results from screening tests that correlate with current or eventual PC. A 3-year prospective clinic-based study is studying the performance of current (PSA and DRE) vs. (% free PSA) clinical biomarkers of PC risk in 400 African-American men 50 to 70 years of age who undergo PC screening in Oakland, CA (East Bay San Francisco area), as well as possible association of PC screening results for these men with their dietary exposures to the cancer-causing heterocyclic amine, 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) that forms when meat is cooked. This study expands an ongoing NIH-funded study (by the same research team) to add a new %-free-PSA test, results of which will be compared with PSA/DRE results and PhIP exposures estimated by dietary interviews. For 392 men studied under the NIH protocol, an odds ratio (95% CL) of 32 (3.2, 720) for highly elevated PSA ({ge}20 ng/mL) was observed in the highest 15% vs. the lower 50% of estimated daily PhIP intakes. Approximately 100 additional men have completed participation in the expanded NIH/DOD-supported study. This study will help define the potential value of improved screening and dietary/behavioral intervention to reduce PC risk, namely, prevention of PhIP intake by avoiding overcooked meats.

  4. Delivering a “Dose of Hope”: A Faith-Based Program to Increase Older African Americans’ Participation in Clinical Trials

    PubMed Central

    Omer, Saad B; Parker, Kimberly; Bolton, Marcus; Schamel, Jay; Shapiro, Eve; Owens, Lauren; Saint-Victor, Diane; Boggavarapu, Sahithi; Braxton, Nikia; Archibald, Matthew; Kalokhe, Ameeta S; Horton, Takeia; Root, Christin M; Fenimore, Vincent L; Anderson, Aaron M

    2015-01-01

    Background Underrepresentation of older-age racial and ethnic minorities in clinical research is a significant barrier to health in the United States, as it impedes medical research advancement of effective preventive and therapeutic strategies. Objective The objective of the study was to develop and test the feasibility of a community-developed faith-based intervention and evaluate its potential to increase the number of older African Americans in clinical research. Methods Using a cluster-randomized design, we worked with six matched churches to enroll at least 210 persons. We provided those in the intervention group churches with three educational sessions on the role of clinical trials in addressing health disparity topics, and those in the comparison group completed surveys at the same timepoints. All persons enrolled in the study received ongoing information via newsletters and direct outreach on an array of clinical studies seeking participants. We evaluated the short-, mid-, and longer-term effects of the interventional program on clinical trial-related outcomes (ie, screening and enrollment). Results From 2012 to 2013, we enrolled a balanced cohort of 221 persons in the program. At a 3-month follow-up, mean intention to seek information about clinical trials was higher than baseline in both treatment (mu=7.5/10; sigma=3.1) and control arms (mu=6.6/10; sigma=3.3), with the difference more pronounced in the treatment arm. The program demonstrated strong retention at 3-month (95.4%, 211/221) and 6-month timepoints (94.1%, 208/221). Conclusions The “Dose of Hope” program addressed an unmet need to reach an often overlooked audience of older African Americans who are members of churches and stimulate their interest in clinical trial participation. The program demonstrated its appeal in the delivery of effective messages and information about health disparities, and the role of clinical research in addressing these challenges. PMID:26036841

  5. Delivery Characteristics, Acceptability, and Depression Outcomes of a Home-based Depression Intervention for Older African Americans: The Get Busy Get Better Program.

    PubMed

    Gitlin, Laura N; Harris, Lynn Fields; McCoy, Megan C; Hess, Edward; Hauck, Walter W

    2016-10-01

    To facilitate replication, we examined delivery characteristics, acceptability, and depression outcomes of a home-based intervention, Get Busy Get Better, Helping Older Adults Beat the Blues (GBGB). GBGB, previously tested in a randomized trial, reduced depressive symptoms and enhanced quality of life in African Americans. A total of 208 African Americans aged above 55 years with Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) scores ≥5 on two subsequent screenings were randomized to receive GBGB immediately or 4 months later. GBGB involves up to 10 home sessions consisting of care management, referral/linkage, depression education/symptom recognition, stress reduction, and behavioral activation. Interventionists recorded delivery characteristics (dose, intensity) and perceived acceptability of sessions. Baseline and post-tests were used to characterize participants and examine associations between dose/intensity and depression scores. Participant satisfaction and perceived benefits were examined at 8 months. Of 208 participants, 181 (87%, mean age = 69.6) had treatment data. Of these, 165 (91.2%) had ≥3 treatment sessions (minimal dose). Participants had on average 8.1 sessions (SD = 2.6) for an average of 65.4min (SD = 18.3) each. Behavioral activation and care management were provided the most (average of six sessions for average duration = 17.9 and 22.2min per session respectively), although all participants received each treatment component. GBGB was perceived as highly acceptable and beneficial by interventionists and participants. More sessions and time in program were associated with greater symptom reduction. GBGB treatment components were highly acceptable to participants. Future implementation and sustainability challenges include staffing, training requirements, reimbursement limitations, competing agency programmatic priorities, and generalizability to other groups. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological

  6. Imputation of Exome Sequence Variants into Population- Based Samples and Blood-Cell-Trait-Associated Loci in African Americans: NHLBI GO Exome Sequencing Project

    PubMed Central

    Auer, Paul L.; Johnsen, Jill M.; Johnson, Andrew D.; Logsdon, Benjamin A.; Lange, Leslie A.; Nalls, Michael A.; Zhang, Guosheng; Franceschini, Nora; Fox, Keolu; Lange, Ethan M.; Rich, Stephen S.; O’Donnell, Christopher J.; Jackson, Rebecca D.; Wallace, Robert B.; Chen, Zhao; Graubert, Timothy A.; Wilson, James G.; Tang, Hua; Lettre, Guillaume; Reiner, Alex P.; Ganesh, Santhi K.; Li, Yun

    2012-01-01

    Researchers have successfully applied exome sequencing to discover causal variants in selected individuals with familial, highly penetrant disorders. We demonstrate the utility of exome sequencing followed by imputation for discovering low-frequency variants associated with complex quantitative traits. We performed exome sequencing in a reference panel of 761 African Americans and then imputed newly discovered variants into a larger sample of more than 13,000 African Americans for association testing with the blood cell traits hemoglobin, hematocrit, white blood count, and platelet count. First, we illustrate the feasibility of our approach by demonstrating genome-wide-significant associations for variants that are not covered by conventional genotyping arrays; for example, one such association is that between higher platelet count and an MPL c.117G>T (p.Lys39Asn) variant encoding a p.Lys39Asn amino acid substitution of the thrombpoietin receptor gene (p = 1.5 × 10−11). Second, we identified an association between missense variants of LCT and higher white blood count (p = 4 × 10−13). Third, we identified low-frequency coding variants that might account for allelic heterogeneity at several known blood cell-associated loci: MPL c.754T>C (p.Tyr252His) was associated with higher platelet count; CD36 c.975T>G (p.Tyr325∗) was associated with lower platelet count; and several missense variants at the α-globin gene locus were associated with lower hemoglobin. By identifying low-frequency missense variants associated with blood cell traits not previously reported by genome-wide association studies, we establish that exome sequencing followed by imputation is a powerful approach to dissecting complex, genetically heterogeneous traits in large population-based studies. PMID:23103231

  7. A GSM-based surface meteorology network in service of improved African hydrological data assimilation and drought forecasting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolf, A.; Falusi, J.; Caylor, K. K.; Sheffield, J.; Wood, E. F.

    2012-12-01

    The last few years have witnessed an explosion in consumer electronics, particularly mobile computing and telephony. This technological development has led to profound changes in (i) the cost of mobile computing platforms, (ii) the ubiquity of data connectivity, particularly in rural locales, and (iii) the knowledge gap for non-specialists to design, manufacture, and program electronics. Our group has developed a small, inexpensive, modular electronics platform that accomodates any number or flavor of sensors, coupled to a GSM transceiver to allow machine-to-machine communications of realtime meteorological data of hydrological relevance. This effort has particular import in Sub-Saharan Africa, where there is a pressing need for improved drought monitoring and forecasting, but a sparse surface meteorology which poorly constrains the forecast model. We present here our design of the sensor package and data architecture, as well as an implementation of the data assimilation system using the Princeton African Drought Monitor and Forecast system. It is shown that due to the relatively large uncertainties in the prior condition, that surface meteorological and soil moisture observations reduce posterior ensemble spread considerably with potential to extend the forecast horizon and be useful for taking action on emerging drought.

  8. Recurrence network-based time series analysis for identifying tipping points in Plio-Pleistocene African climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donges, J. F.; Donner, R. V.; Trauth, M. H.; Marwan, N.; Schellnhuber, H. J.; Kurths, J.

    2012-04-01

    The analysis of paleoclimate time series is usually affected by severe methodological problems, resulting primarily from non-equidistant sampling and uncertain age models. As an alternative to existing methods of time series analysis, the statistical properties of recurrence networks are promising candidates for characterizing a system's nonlinear dynamics and quantifying structural changes in its reconstructed phase space as time evolves. The results of recurrence network analysis are robust under changes in the age model and are not directly affected by non-equidistant sampling of the data. Specifically, we investigate three marine records of African climate variability during the Plio-Pleistocene. We detect several statistically significant dynamical transitions or tipping points and show that the obtained results are qualitatively robust under changes of the relevant parameters of our method, including detrending, size of the running window used for analysis, and embedding delay. Finally, relating the identified tipping points in paleoclimate-variability to speciation and extinction events in the available fossil record of human ancestors contributes to the understanding of climatic mechanisms driving human evolution in Africa during the past 5 million years.

  9. The Feasibility of a Clinic-Based Parent Intervention to Prevent HIV, Sexually Transmitted Infections, and Unintended Pregnancies Among Latino and African American Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Bouris, Alida; Jaccard, James; McCoy, Wanda; Aranda, Diane; Pickard, Angela; Boyer, Cherrie B.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract The purpose of the present study was to examine the feasibility of conducting a parent-based intervention in a pediatric health clinic to prevent HIV, sexually transmitted infections (STIs), and unintended pregnancies among urban African American and Latino youth. Eight focus groups were conducted with health care providers, adolescent patients and the mothers of adolescent patients (n = 41) from December 2007 to February 2008. All participants were recruited from a community-based pediatric health clinic in the Bronx, New York. Content analysis of focus group transcripts identified results in three primary areas: (1) the role of parents and providers in preventing HIV, STDs and unintended pregnancies among adolescents, (2) feasibility of the intervention in the clinic setting; and (3) optimal recruitment, retention and intervention delivery strategies. Study results suggest that a parent-based intervention delivered in a community-based pediatric health clinic setting is feasible. Focused recommendations for intervention recruitment, delivery, and retention are provided. PMID:20565322

  10. Characterizing the admixed African ancestry of African Americans.

    PubMed

    Zakharia, Fouad; Basu, Analabha; Absher, Devin; Assimes, Themistocles L; Go, Alan S; Hlatky, Mark A; Iribarren, Carlos; Knowles, Joshua W; Li, Jun; Narasimhan, Balasubramanian; Sidney, Steven; Southwick, Audrey; Myers, Richard M; Quertermous, Thomas; Risch, Neil; Tang, Hua

    2009-01-01

    Accurate, high-throughput genotyping allows the fine characterization of genetic ancestry. Here we applied recently developed statistical and computational techniques to the question of African ancestry in African Americans by using data on more than 450,000 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) genotyped in 94 Africans of diverse geographic origins included in the HGDP, as well as 136 African Americans and 38 European Americans participating in the Atherosclerotic Disease Vascular Function and Genetic Epidemiology (ADVANCE) study. To focus on African ancestry, we reduced the data to include only those genotypes in each African American determined statistically to be African in origin. From cluster analysis, we found that all the African Americans are admixed in their African components of ancestry, with the majority contributions being from West and West-Central Africa, and only modest variation in these African-ancestry proportions among individuals. Furthermore, by principal components analysis, we found little evidence of genetic structure within the African component of ancestry in African Americans. These results are consistent with historic mating patterns among African Americans that are largely uncorrelated to African ancestral origins, and they cast doubt on the general utility of mtDNA or Y-chromosome markers alone to delineate the full African ancestry of African Americans. Our results also indicate that the genetic architecture of African Americans is distinct from that of Africans, and that the greatest source of potential genetic stratification bias in case-control studies of African Americans derives from the proportion of European ancestry.

  11. Engaging African American men in empirically based marriage enrichment programs: lessons from two focus groups on the ProSAAM project.

    PubMed

    Hurt, Tera R; Beach, Steven R H; Stokes, LaTrena A; Bush, Perdeta L; Sheats, Kameron J; Robinson, Shayla G

    2012-07-01

    To better meet the needs of eligible African American men who were reluctant to enroll in a 5-year study called the Program for Strong African American Marriages (ProSAAM), we employed two focus groups to listen to the voices of a sample of the population being recruited and to explore their feedback about taking part in such a marriage enrichment program and how best to recruit other African American men. We explain our application of the focus group results to our recruitment of African American married couples for ProSAAM. The positive outcomes from the implementation of these results can provide potential ideas for those seeking innovative means to improve recruitment of African American men to programs that strengthen marital relationships.

  12. Acceptability of a Community-Based Outreach HIV-Testing Intervention Using Oral Fluid Collection Devices and Web-Based HIV Test Result Collection Among Sub-Saharan African Migrants: A Mixed-Method Study.

    PubMed

    Loos, Jasna; Manirankunda, Lazare; Platteau, Tom; Albers, Laura; Fransen, Katrien; Vermoesen, Tine; Namanya, Fiona; Nöstlinger, Christiana

    2016-08-04

    Late human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) diagnosis is common among sub-Saharan African migrants. To address their barriers to HIV testing uptake and improve timely HIV diagnoses and linkage to care, the outreach HIV testing intervention, "swab2know," was developed. It combined a community-based approach with innovative testing methods: oral fluid self-sampling and the choice between Web-based HIV test result collections using a secured website or post-test counseling at a sexual health clinic. The sessions included an informational speech delivered by a physician of sub-Saharan African origin and testimonies by community members living with HIV. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the intervention's acceptability among sub-Saharan African migrants and its potential to reach subgroups at higher risk for HIV infection and to identify facilitators and barriers for HIV testing uptake. This mixed-method study combined qualitative (participant observations and informal interviews with testers and nontesters) and quantitative data (paper-pencil survey, laboratory data, and result collection files). Data were analyzed using a content analytical approach for qualitative and univariate analysis for quantitative data. A total of 10 testing sessions were organized in sub-Saharan African migrant community venues in the city of Antwerp, Belgium, between December 2012 and June 2013. Overall, 18.2% of all people present (N=780) underwent HIV testing; 29.8% of them tested for HIV for the first time, 22.3% did not have a general practitioner, and 21.5% reported 2 or more sexual partners (last 3 months). Overall, 56.3% of participants chose to collect their HIV test results via the protected website. In total, 78.9% collected their results. The qualitative analysis of 137 participant observation field notes showed that personal needs and Internet literacy determined the choice of result collection method. Generally, the oral fluid collection devices were well accepted mainly

  13. Acceptability of a Community-Based Outreach HIV-Testing Intervention Using Oral Fluid Collection Devices and Web-Based HIV Test Result Collection Among Sub-Saharan African Migrants: A Mixed-Method Study

    PubMed Central

    Manirankunda, Lazare; Platteau, Tom; Albers, Laura; Fransen, Katrien; Vermoesen, Tine; Namanya, Fiona; Nöstlinger, Christiana

    2016-01-01

    Background Late human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) diagnosis is common among sub-Saharan African migrants. To address their barriers to HIV testing uptake and improve timely HIV diagnoses and linkage to care, the outreach HIV testing intervention, “swab2know,” was developed. It combined a community-based approach with innovative testing methods: oral fluid self-sampling and the choice between Web-based HIV test result collections using a secured website or post-test counseling at a sexual health clinic. The sessions included an informational speech delivered by a physician of sub-Saharan African origin and testimonies by community members living with HIV. Objectives The objectives of this study were to evaluate the intervention’s acceptability among sub-Saharan African migrants and its potential to reach subgroups at higher risk for HIV infection and to identify facilitators and barriers for HIV testing uptake. Methods This mixed-method study combined qualitative (participant observations and informal interviews with testers and nontesters) and quantitative data (paper–pencil survey, laboratory data, and result collection files). Data were analyzed using a content analytical approach for qualitative and univariate analysis for quantitative data. Results A total of 10 testing sessions were organized in sub-Saharan African migrant community venues in the city of Antwerp, Belgium, between December 2012 and June 2013. Overall, 18.2% of all people present (N=780) underwent HIV testing; 29.8% of them tested for HIV for the first time, 22.3% did not have a general practitioner, and 21.5% reported 2 or more sexual partners (last 3 months). Overall, 56.3% of participants chose to collect their HIV test results via the protected website. In total, 78.9% collected their results. The qualitative analysis of 137 participant observation field notes showed that personal needs and Internet literacy determined the choice of result collection method. Generally, the oral

  14. African American cancer patients' pain experience.

    PubMed

    Im, Eun-Ok; Lim, Hyun-Ju; Clark, Maresha; Chee, Wonshik

    2008-01-01

    Although very little is known about African American cancer patients' pain experience, a few studies have indicated that their cancer pain experience is unique and somewhat different from that of other ethnic groups. The purpose of the study reported in this article was to explore African American cancer patients' pain experience using an online forum. This study was a qualitative online forum designed from a feminist perspective and conducted among 11 African American cancer patients who were recruited through both Internet and real settings. Nine online forum topics were used to administer the 6-month online forum, and the data were analyzed using thematic analysis. Four themes emerged through the data analysis process. First, participants viewed cancer as a challenge in life that they should fight against. Second, cancer pain was differentiated from ordinary pain because cancer was stigmatized in their culture. Third, participants viewed that African Americans, especially women, were culturally raised to be strong, and this African American cultural heritage inhibited cancer patients from expressing pain and seeking help for pain management. Finally, the findings indicated certain changes in perspectives among African American cancer patients during the disease process, which might make them tolerate pain through praying to God and reading the Bible. Based on the findings, we suggest further studies among diverse groups of African American cancer patients, with a focus on cultural attitudes toward cancer pain and influences of family on cancer pain experience.

  15. The process of adaptation of a community-level, evidence-based intervention for HIV-positive African American men who have sex with men in two cities.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Beatrice E; Galbraith, Jennifer S; Lund, Sharon M; Hamilton, Autumn R; Shankle, Michael D

    2012-06-01

    We describe the process of adapting a community-level, evidence-based behavioral intervention (EBI), Community PROMISE, for HIV-positive African American men who have sex with men (AAMSM). The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Map of the Adaptation Process (MAP) guided the adaptation process for this new target population by two community-based organizations (CBOs) working in partnership with two research organizations. We describe five steps of the MAP, assessment, selection, preparation, pilot, and implementation, and the use of qualitative interviews, field observations, and a cross-sectional survey. We recommend: (1) development of a centralized interactive website, listserv, or other resources where agencies adapting EBIs can share tools, materials, experiences, lessons learned, and best practices; (2) strengthening Funding Opportunity Announcements by funding incrementally in phases linked to the MAP; and (3) research should examine (a) whether EBIs adapted by CBOs remain efficacious and (b) the best "fit" between the cultural and climate characteristics of effective collaborations between community- and research-based organizations.

  16. Multilocus family-based association analysis of seven candidate polymorphisms with essential hypertension in an african-derived semi-isolated brazilian population.

    PubMed

    Kimura, L; Angeli, C B; Auricchio, M T B M; Fernandes, G R; Pereira, A C; Vicente, J P; Pereira, T V; Mingroni-Netto, R C

    2012-01-01

    Background. It has been widely suggested that analyses considering multilocus effects would be crucial to characterize the relationship between gene variability and essential hypertension (EH). Objective. To test for the presence of multilocus effects between/among seven polymorphisms (six genes) on blood pressure-related traits in African-derived semi-isolated Brazilian populations (quilombos). Methods. Analyses were carried out using a family-based design in a sample of 652 participants (97 families). Seven variants were investigated: ACE (rs1799752), AGT (rs669), ADD2 (rs3755351), NOS3 (rs1799983), GNB3 (rs5441 and rs5443), and GRK4 (rs1801058). Sensitivity analyses were further performed under a case-control design with unrelated participants only. Results. None of the investigated variants were associated individually with both systolic and diastolic BP levels (SBP and DBP, respectively) or EH (as a binary outcome). Multifactor dimensionality reduction-based techniques revealed a marginal association of the combined effect of both GNB3 variants on DBP levels in a family-based design (P = 0.040), whereas a putative NOS3-GRK4 interaction also in relation to DBP levels was observed in the case-control design only (P = 0.004). Conclusion. Our results provide limited support for the hypothesis of multilocus effects between/among the studied variants on blood pressure in quilombos. Further larger studies are needed to validate our findings.

  17. Multilocus Family-Based Association Analysis of Seven Candidate Polymorphisms with Essential Hypertension in an African-Derived Semi-Isolated Brazilian Population

    PubMed Central

    Kimura, L.; Angeli, C. B.; Auricchio, M. T. B. M.; Fernandes, G. R.; Pereira, A. C.; Vicente, J. P.; Pereira, T. V.; Mingroni-Netto, R. C.

    2012-01-01

    Background. It has been widely suggested that analyses considering multilocus effects would be crucial to characterize the relationship between gene variability and essential hypertension (EH). Objective. To test for the presence of multilocus effects between/among seven polymorphisms (six genes) on blood pressure-related traits in African-derived semi-isolated Brazilian populations (quilombos). Methods. Analyses were carried out using a family-based design in a sample of 652 participants (97 families). Seven variants were investigated: ACE (rs1799752), AGT (rs669), ADD2 (rs3755351), NOS3 (rs1799983), GNB3 (rs5441 and rs5443), and GRK4 (rs1801058). Sensitivity analyses were further performed under a case-control design with unrelated participants only. Results. None of the investigated variants were associated individually with both systolic and diastolic BP levels (SBP and DBP, respectively) or EH (as a binary outcome). Multifactor dimensionality reduction-based techniques revealed a marginal association of the combined effect of both GNB3 variants on DBP levels in a family-based design (P = 0.040), whereas a putative NOS3-GRK4 interaction also in relation to DBP levels was observed in the case-control design only (P = 0.004). Conclusion. Our results provide limited support for the hypothesis of multilocus effects between/among the studied variants on blood pressure in quilombos. Further larger studies are needed to validate our findings. PMID:23056922

  18. Life-space and cognitive decline in a community-based sample of African American and Caucasian older adults.

    PubMed

    Crowe, Michael; Andel, Ross; Wadley, Virginia G; Okonkwo, Ozioma C; Sawyer, Patricia; Allman, Richard M

    2008-11-01

    Life-space, a measure of movement through one's environment, may be viewed as one aspect of environmental complexity for older adults. We examined the relationship between life-space and subsequent change in cognitive function. Participants were 624 community-dwelling Medicare beneficiaries (49% African American) who completed in-home assessments at baseline and follow-up 4 years later. The Life-Space Assessment was used at baseline to measure extent, frequency, and independence of participants' movement within and outside the home. Cognitive decline was measured with the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE). In a regression model adjusted for baseline MMSE, age, gender, race, residence (rural/urban), and education, greater life-space at baseline predicted reduced cognitive decline (beta = -.177, p <.001). This association remained statistically significant in subsequent models that examined what proportion of the observed association was explained by baseline physical activity, physical function, vascular risk factors, comorbidity, and psychosocial factors. Physical function accounted for the largest proportion (37.3%) of the association between life-space and cognitive decline. There was no significant interaction between life-space and race, gender, or age in predicting cognitive decline. In a logistic regression analysis, participants in the highest quartile of life-space had 53% reduced odds of substantial cognitive decline (> or =4 points on MMSE) compared to those in the lowest quartile. These preliminary findings suggest that life-space may be a useful identifier of older adults at risk for cognitive decline. Future research should investigate the potential reciprocal relationship between life-space and cognitive function as well as the interrelationship between these factors and physical function.

  19. A PCR-based survey of animal African trypanosomosis and selected piroplasm parasites of cattle and goats in Zambia.

    PubMed

    Musinguzi, Simon Peter; Suganuma, Keisuke; Asada, Masahito; Laohasinnarong, Dusit; Sivakumar, Thillaiampalam; Yokoyama, Naoaki; Namangala, Boniface; Sugimoto, Chihiro; Suzuki, Yasuhiko; Xuan, Xuenan; Inoue, Noboru

    2017-01-10

    We screened cattle and goats from the districts of Chama, Monze and Mumbwa in Zambia for animal African trypanosomes, Babesia bigemina and Theileria parva using PCRs; 38.1% of the samples tested positive for at least one of the parasite species. The most common parasite was Trypanosoma vivax (19.8%). Its incidence was significantly higher in goats than in cattle, (P<0.05). B. bigemina was found in samples from all the three areas, making it the most widespread of the parasites in Zambia. Among the tested samples, 12.0% of the positive samples were mixed infections. There were significant differences in the infection rates of T. vivax (Mumbwa had a significantly higher infection rate [39.6%, P<0.0001]), Th. parva (Monze had the only cases [P<0.0004]) and B. bigemina (Monze had a significantly higher infection rate [40.5%, P<0.0001]). According to the hematocrit values, the packed cell volume (%) among the cattle with mixed infections was significantly lower than that of the other cattle. The presence of multiple parasite species and mixed infections among the Zambian cattle and goat populations is of both clinical and economic importance to livestock farming. The absence of trypanosomosis among the samples from Monze can be attributed to tsetse eradication efforts that took place around Lake Kariba. This shows that the prevention and control of these parasitic diseases can have a significant impact on the disease status, which can translate directly into the improvement of the livestock sector in Zambia.

  20. The Association of C-Reactive Protein and Physical Activity Among a Church-Based Population of African Americans

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Swann Arp; Wirth, Michael D.; Khan, Samira; Murphy, E. Angela; Heiney, Sue P.; Davis, Lisa C.; Davis, Briana; Drayton, Ruby F.; Hurley, Thomas G.; Blair, Steven M.; Hébert, James R.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Regular physical activity can reduce systemic inflammation and, thereby, the burden of chronic inflammatory-related conditions. This study examined whether regular physical activity, measured subjectively (Rapid Assessment of Physical Activity [RAPA]) and objectively (Bodymedia’s SenseWear® activity monitor [SWA]), is associated with inflammatory or glycemic control markers. Methods Subjects were 345 participants of the Healthy Eating and Active Living in the Spirit (HEALS)