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Sample records for african republic congo

  1. Human African Trypanosomiasis Transmission, Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo

    PubMed Central

    Diabakana, Philemon Mansinsa; Mesu, Victor Kande Betu Ku; Manzambi, Emile Zola; Ollivier, Gaelle; Asonganyi, Tazoacha; Cuny, Gerard; Grébaut, Pascal

    2006-01-01

    To investigate the epidemiology of human African trypanosomiasis (sleeping sickness) in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo, 2 entomologic surveys were conducted in 2005. Trypanosoma brucei gambiense and human-blood meals were found in tsetse fly midguts, which suggested active disease transmission. Vector control should be used to improve human African trypanosomiasis control efforts. PMID:17326955

  2. [Human African trypanosomiasis in the urban milieu: the example of Kinshasa, Democratic Republic if the Congo, in 1998 and 1999].

    PubMed

    Bilengue, C M; Meso, V K; Louis, F J; Lucas, P

    2001-01-01

    Human African trypanosomiasis is an essentially rural disease. Occurrence in urban areas is uncommon except in cities that reproduce rural conditions conducive to the survival of glossinidae, i.e., forest and water. This is the case in neighborhoods near the zoo in Brazzaville, People's Republic of the Congo and in the residual mangrove forest in Conakry, Guinea. In Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of the Congo, an average of 39 cases were reported annually from 1970 to 1995. This figure increased to 254 in 1996 and 226 in 1997. This sharp rise led authorities to organize screening operations in some neighborhoods of the capital city. Results documented 433 cases in 1998 and 912 cases in 1999. The highest prevalence was found in outlying areas. This finding was probably related to focus of screening in these locations and to the practice of market gardening on plots surrounding the city. Placement of 276 insect traps along the Ndjili River led to the capture of 42,231 glossinidae over a 4 month period. Taken together, these findings indicate that the conditions necessary for active disease transmission are now reunited and that priority should be given to intensifying screening operations and information campaigns to health care providers working in the city.

  3. Treatment outcomes and risk factors for relapse in patients with early-stage human African trypanosomiasis (HAT) in the Republic of the Congo.

    PubMed Central

    Balasegaram, Manica; Harris, Steve; Checchi, Francesco; Hamel, Catherine; Karunakara, Unni

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: In 2002-03, the Republic of the Congo increased the threshold separating stage 1 and 2 cases of human African trypanosomiasis (HAT) from a cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) white cell count of 5 cells/mm(3) to 10 cells/mm(3). We aimed to assess whether the increased threshold of 10 cells/mm(3) is a safe indicator of stage 2 disease. METHODS: We assessed patients treated for stage 1 HAT caused by Trypanosoma brucei gambiense in the Republic of the Congo between April 2001 and April 2005. Patients with 0-10 cells/mm(3) in CSF were classed as stage 1 and treated with pentamidine. Patients with CSF of > 10 cells/mm(3) were classed as stage 2 and treated with either melarsoprol or eflornithine. We did a retrospective analysis of all patients treated after the September 2002 increase in threshold for classification of HAT disease stage 2, and who were eligible for at least 1 year of follow-up. Primary outcome was survival without death or relapse within 1 year of discharge. Risk factors for treatment failure, in particular CSF white cell count on diagnosis, were assessed. FINDINGS: Between September 2002 to April 2004, 692 patients eligible for our analysis were treated with pentamidine. All were discharged alive. Relapse rate was 5% (n = 33). The only identified risk factor for relapse was a CSF white cell count of 6-10 cells/mm(3) rather than 0-5 cells/mm(3) (adjusted hazard ratio 3.27 (95% confidence interval, 1.52-7.01); P = 0.002). CONCLUSION: A threshold of 5 white cells/mm(3) in CSF is safer than 10 cells/mm(3) to determine stage 2 HAT and reduce risk of relapse. PMID:17128357

  4. Contrasting biogeochemical characteristics of right-bank tributaries of the Oubangui River, and a comparison with the mainstem river (Congo basin, Central African Republic).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouillon, Steven; Yambélé, Athanase; Gillikin, David P.; Teodoru, Cristian; Darchambeau, François; Lambert, Thibault; Borges, Alberto V.

    2014-05-01

    The Oubangui is a major right-bank tributary of the Congo River, draining an area of ~500,000 km² of mainly wooded savannahs. Here, we describe data on the physico-chemical characteristics and biogeochemistry of contrasting tributaries within the central Oubangui catchment collected during 3 field surveys between 2010 and 2012, with land use ranging from wooded savannahs to humid tropical rainforest. Compared to data from two years of sampling at high temporal resolution on the mainstem river in Bangui (Central African Republic), these tributaries show a remarkably wide range of biogeochemical signatures, from highly diluted blackwaters (low turbidity, pH, conductivity and total alkalinity (TA)) in rivers draining dense rainforests to those more typical for (sub)tropical savannah systems. Based on carbon stable isotope data (δ13C), the majority of sites show a corresponding dominance of C3-derived organic matter, with a tendency for increased C4 contributions the more turbid sites such as the Mpoko River. δ13C of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) were generally similar to those of particulate organic carbon (POC) across the different tributaries. δ13C of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) ranged between -28.1 ‰ in low-TA rainforest (blackwater) rivers to -5.8 ‰ in the mainstem Oubangui. These variations were strongly correlated to both partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2) and to the estimated contribution of carbonate weathering to total alkalinity, suggesting an important control of the dominant weathering regime (silicate versus carbonate weathering) on DIC and CO2 fluxes. All tributaries were consistently oversaturated in dissolved greenhouse gases (CH4, N2O, and CO2) with respect to atmospheric equilibrium, with highest levels observed in rivers draining rainforest vegetation. The high diversity observed within this subcatchment of the Congo River basin is equivalent to that observed in much larger, heterogeneous catchments, and underscores the importance of

  5. African Swine Fever Virus p72 Genotype IX in Domestic Pigs, Congo, 2009

    PubMed Central

    Anchuelo, Raquel; Pelayo, Virginia; Poudevigne, Frédéric; Leon, Tati; Nzoussi, Jacques; Bishop, Richard; Pérez, Covadonga; Soler, Alejandro; Nieto, Raquel; Martín, Hilario; Arias, Marisa

    2011-01-01

    African swine fever virus p72 genotype IX, associated with outbreaks in eastern Africa, is cocirculating in the Republic of the Congo with West African genotype I. Data suggest that viruses from eastern Africa are moving into western Africa, increasing the threat of outbreaks caused by novel viruses in this region. PMID:21801650

  6. A molecular phylogeny of Equatorial African Lacertidae, with the description of a new genus and species from eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo.

    PubMed

    Greenbaum, Eli; Villanueva, Cesar O; Kusamba, Chifundera; Aristote, Mwenebatu M; Branch, William R

    2011-11-01

    Currently, four species of the lacertid lizard genus Adolfus are known from Central and East Africa. We sequenced up to 2,825 bp of two mitochondrial (16S and cyt b) and two nuclear (c-mos and RAG1) genes from 41 samples of Adolfus (representing every species), two species each of Gastropholis and Holaspis, and in separate analyses combined this data with GenBank sequences of all other Eremiadini genera and four Lacertini outgroups. Data from DNA sequences were analyzed with maximum parsimony (PAUP), maximum-likelihood (RAxML) and Bayesian inference (MrBayes) criteria. Results demonstrated that Adolfus is not monophyletic: A. africanus (type species), A. alleni and A. jacksoni are sister taxa, whereas A. vauereselli and a new species from the Itombwe Plateau of Democratic Republic of the Congo are in a separate lineage. Holaspis and Gastropholis were recovered in separate clades. Based on this molecular data, relatively substantial sequence divergence and multiple morphological differences, we describe a new genus of lacertid for the lineage including A. vauereselli and the new Itombwe species. The recognition of this new, endemic genus underscores the conservation importance of the Albertine Rift, especially the Itombwe Plateau, a unique region that is severely threatened by unchecked deforestation, mining and poaching.

  7. A molecular phylogeny of Equatorial African Lacertidae, with the description of a new genus and species from eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo

    PubMed Central

    Greenbaum, Eli; Villanueva, Cesar O.; Kusamba, Chifundera; Aristote, Mwenebatu M.; Branch, William R.

    2011-01-01

    Currently, four species of the lacertid lizard genus Adolfus are known from Central and East Africa. We sequenced up to 2,825 bp of two mitochondrial (16S and cyt b) and two nuclear (c-mos and RAG1) genes from 41 samples of Adolfus (representing every species), two species each of Gastropholis and Holaspis, and in separate analyses combined this data with GenBank sequences of all other Eremiadini genera and four Lacertini outgroups. Data from DNA sequences were analyzed with maximum parsimony (PAUP), maximum-likelihood (RAxML) and Bayesian inference (MrBayes) criteria. Results demonstrated that Adolfus is not monophyletic: A. africanus (type species), A. alleni and A. jacksoni are sister taxa, whereas A. vauereselli and a new species from the Itombwe Plateau of Democratic Republic of the Congo are in a separate lineage. Holaspis and Gastropholis were recovered in separate clades. Based on this molecular data, relatively substantial sequence divergence and multiple morphological differences, we describe a new genus of lacertid for the lineage including A. vauereselli and the new Itombwe species. The recognition of this new, endemic genus underscores the conservation importance of the Albertine Rift, especially the Itombwe Plateau, a unique region that is severely threatened by unchecked deforestation, mining and poaching. PMID:22121299

  8. Sediment-hosted stratabound copper assessment of the Neoproterozoic Roan Group, central African copperbelt, Katanga Basin, Democratic Republic of the Congo and Zambia: Chapter T in Global mineral resource assessment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zientek, Michael L.; Bliss, James D.; Broughton, David W.; Christie, Michael; Denning, Paul D.; Hayes, Timothy S.; Hitzman, Murray W.; Horton, John D.; Frost-Killian, Susan; Jack, Douglas J.; Master, Sharad; Parks, Heather L.; Taylor, Cliff D.; Wilson, Anna B.; Wintzer, Niki E.; Woodhead, Jon

    2014-01-01

    This study estimates the location, quality, and quantity of undiscovered copper in stratabound deposits within the Neoproterozoic Roan Group of the Katanga Basin in the Democratic Republic of the Congo and Zambia. The study area encompasses the Central African Copperbelt, the greatest sediment-hosted copper-cobalt province in the world, containing 152 million metric tons of copper in greater than 80 deposits. This study (1) delineates permissive areas (tracts) where undiscovered sediment-hosted stratabound copper deposits may occur within 2 kilometers of the surface, (2) provides a database of known sediment-hosted stratabound copper deposits and prospects, (3) estimates numbers of undiscovered deposits within these permissive tracts at several levels of confidence, and (4) provides probabilistic estimates of amounts of copper and mineralized rock that could be contained in undiscovered deposits within each tract. The assessment, conducted in January 2010 using a three-part form of mineral resource assessment, indicates that a substantial amount of undiscovered copper resources might occur in sediment-hosted stratabound copper deposits within the Roan Group in the Katanga Basin. Monte Carlo simulation results that combine grade and tonnage models with estimates of undiscovered deposits indicate that the mean estimate of undiscovered copper in the study area is 168 million metric tons, which is slightly greater than the known resources at 152 million metric tons. Furthermore, significant value can be expected from associated metals, particularly cobalt. Tracts in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) have potential to contain near-surface, undiscovered deposits. Monte Carlo simulation results indicate a mean value of 37 million metric tons of undiscovered copper may be present in significant prospects.

  9. Central African Republic.

    PubMed

    1989-11-01

    The Central African Republic contains 242,000 square miles, which rolling terrain almost 2000 feet above sea level. The climate is tropical, and it has a population of 2.8 million people with a 2.5% growth rate. There are more than 80 ethnic groups including Baya 34%, Banda 28%, Sara 10%, Mandja 9%, Mboum 9%, and M'Baka 7%. The religions are traditional African 35%, protestant 25%, Roman Catholic 25%, and Muslim 15%, and the languages are French and Sangho. The infant mortality rate is 143/1000, with expectancy at 49 years and a 40% literacy rate. The work force of 1 million is 70% agricultural, industry 6% and commerce and service 6% and government 3%. The government consists of a president assisted by cabinet ministers and a single party. Natural resources include diamonds, uranium, timber, gold, and oil, and major industries are beverages, textiles, and soap. Agricultural products feature coffee, cotton, peanuts, tobacco, food crops and livestock. Most of the population live in rural areas and most of the 80 ethnic groups have their own language. This is one of the world's least developed countries, with a per capita income of $375/year. The main problems with development are the poor transportation infrastructure, and the weak internal and international marketing systems. The US and various international organizations have aided in agriculture development, health programs, and family planning. US investment is mainly in diamond and gold mining, and although oil drilling has been successful it is not economically feasible at current prices.

  10. Background Report on Eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo

    SciTech Connect

    Warren, Tracy A

    2011-05-01

    Each month, approximately 45,000 people die from violence, hunger, disease, and other effects of displacement as a result of war in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC). The country is often said to be plagued by a 'resource curse.' During each period in history since its discovery by the West, the DRC has possessed the resources the world craves and the world has sought these without regard for the consequences to the Congolese people. The catastrophic consequences of Congo's history of natural resource exploitation are the direct and indirect death of millions of Congolese people. The current war in Congo is multi-causal in nature but explanations are often reduced to describing it as an ethic conflict based on objective grievance. Objective grievance such as inequality, ethnic tensions, land disputes, and lack of democracy do exist, but they are neither necessary nor sufficient to explain the cause of the violent conflict, and more importantly, they fall short in explaining why this conflict has continued for years. The reality is the conflict is an economic war in which the trade of conflict minerals, gold and the 3Ts (tin, tantalum, tungsten), is directly linked to the financial sustainability of the groups fighting each other in eastern DRC. Objective grievance is a by-product of the conflict, used to create a false but plausible moral justification to continue violence. This paper examines the history of conflict in the DRC and the socio-economic variables contributing to the current war fought over conflict minerals.

  11. Democratic Republic of the Congo: undoing government by predation.

    PubMed

    Rackley, Edward B

    2006-12-01

    This paper draws on two periods of field research, conducted in 2004, to consider the state of governance in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC). The first measures the paralysing impact of illegal taxation on riverine trade in the western provinces; the second documents civilian attempts to seek safety from violence in the troubled east, and evaluates third-party efforts to provide protection and security. Analysis of study findings suggests that the DRC's current governance crisis is neither historically novel nor driven exclusively by mineral resources, extraction rights or trafficking. Rather, government by predation is an endemic and systematic feature of the civil and military administration, ensuring the daily economic survival of soldiers and officials, who are able to wield their authority in a 'riskfree' environment, without oversight or accountability. The paper's conclusion tries to make sense of the persistence of corruption in social and political life, and assess the capacity of ordinary citizens to reverse their predicament. PMID:17100751

  12. Ebola Virus Disease, Democratic Republic of the Congo, 2014

    PubMed Central

    Nanclares, Carolina; Kapetshi, Jimmy; Lionetto, Fanshen; de la Rosa, Olimpia; Tamfun, Jean-Jacques Muyembe; Alia, Miriam; Kobinger, Gary

    2016-01-01

    During July–November 2014, the Democratic Republic of the Congo underwent its seventh Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreak. The etiologic agent was Zaire Ebola virus; 66 cases were reported (overall case-fatality rate 74.2%). Through a retrospective observational study of confirmed EVD in 25 patients admitted to either of 2 Ebola treatment centers, we described clinical features and investigated correlates associated with death. Clinical features were mainly generic. At admission, 76% of patients had >1 gastrointestinal symptom and 28% >1 hemorrhagic symptom. The case-fatality rate in this group was 48% and was higher for female patients (67%). Cox regression analysis correlated death with initial low cycle threshold, indicating high viral load. Cycle threshold was a robust predictor of death, as were fever, hiccups, diarrhea, dyspnea, dehydration, disorientation, hematemesis, bloody feces during hospitalization, and anorexia in recent medical history. Differences from other outbreaks could suggest guidance for optimizing clinical management and disease control. PMID:27533284

  13. Ebola Virus Disease, Democratic Republic of the Congo, 2014.

    PubMed

    Nanclares, Carolina; Kapetshi, Jimmy; Lionetto, Fanshen; de la Rosa, Olimpia; Tamfun, Jean-Jacques Muyembe; Alia, Miriam; Kobinger, Gary; Bernasconi, Andrea

    2016-09-01

    During July-November 2014, the Democratic Republic of the Congo underwent its seventh Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreak. The etiologic agent was Zaire Ebola virus; 66 cases were reported (overall case-fatality rate 74.2%). Through a retrospective observational study of confirmed EVD in 25 patients admitted to either of 2 Ebola treatment centers, we described clinical features and investigated correlates associated with death. Clinical features were mainly generic. At admission, 76% of patients had >1 gastrointestinal symptom and 28% >1 hemorrhagic symptom. The case-fatality rate in this group was 48% and was higher for female patients (67%). Cox regression analysis correlated death with initial low cycle threshold, indicating high viral load. Cycle threshold was a robust predictor of death, as were fever, hiccups, diarrhea, dyspnea, dehydration, disorientation, hematemesis, bloody feces during hospitalization, and anorexia in recent medical history. Differences from other outbreaks could suggest guidance for optimizing clinical management and disease control. PMID:27533284

  14. Democratic Republic of the Congo: undoing government by predation.

    PubMed

    Rackley, Edward B

    2006-12-01

    This paper draws on two periods of field research, conducted in 2004, to consider the state of governance in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC). The first measures the paralysing impact of illegal taxation on riverine trade in the western provinces; the second documents civilian attempts to seek safety from violence in the troubled east, and evaluates third-party efforts to provide protection and security. Analysis of study findings suggests that the DRC's current governance crisis is neither historically novel nor driven exclusively by mineral resources, extraction rights or trafficking. Rather, government by predation is an endemic and systematic feature of the civil and military administration, ensuring the daily economic survival of soldiers and officials, who are able to wield their authority in a 'riskfree' environment, without oversight or accountability. The paper's conclusion tries to make sense of the persistence of corruption in social and political life, and assess the capacity of ordinary citizens to reverse their predicament.

  15. Performance of Microscopy for the Diagnosis of Malaria and Human African Trypanosomiasis by Diagnostic Laboratories in the Democratic Republic of the Congo: Results of a Nation-Wide External Quality Assessment.

    PubMed

    Mukadi, Pierre; Lejon, Veerle; Barbé, Barbara; Gillet, Philippe; Nyembo, Christophe; Lukuka, Albert; Likwela, Joris; Lumbala, Crispin; Mbaruku, Justin; Vander Veken, Wim; Mumba, Dieudonné; Lutumba, Pascal; Muyembe, Jean-Jacques; Jacobs, Jan

    2016-01-01

    The present External Quality Assessment (EQA) assessed microscopy of blood parasites among diagnostic laboratories in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. The EQA addressed 445 participants in 10/11 provinces (October 2013-April 2014). Participants were sent a panel of five slides and asked to return a routinely stained slide which was assessed for quality of preparation and staining. Response rate was 89.9% (400/445). For slide 1 (no parasites), 30.6% participants reported malaria, mostly Plasmodium falciparum. Only 11.0% participants reported slide 2 (Plasmodium malariae) correctly, 71.0% reported "malaria" or "Plasmodium falciparum" (considered acceptable). Slide 3 contained Plasmodium falciparum (109/μl) and Trypanosoma brucei brucei trypomastigotes: they were each reported by 32.5% and 16.5% participants respectively, 6.0% reported both. Slide 4 (Trypanosoma) was recognised by 44.9% participants. Slide 5 (Plasmodium ovale) was correctly reported by 6.2% participants, another 68.8% replied "malaria" or "Plasmodium falciparum" (considered acceptable). Only 13.6% of routine slides returned were correctly prepared and stained. The proportion of correct/acceptable scores for at least 4/5 slides was higher among EQA-experienced participants compared to first time participants (40.9% versus 22.4%, p = 0.001) and higher among those being trained < 2 years ago compared to those who were not (42.9% versus 26.3%, p = 0.01). Among diagnostic laboratories in Democratic Republic of the Congo, performance of blood parasite microscopy including non-falciparum species and Trypanosoma was poor. Recent training and previous EQA participation were associated with a better performance.

  16. Performance of Microscopy for the Diagnosis of Malaria and Human African Trypanosomiasis by Diagnostic Laboratories in the Democratic Republic of the Congo: Results of a Nation-Wide External Quality Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Mukadi, Pierre; Lejon, Veerle; Barbé, Barbara; Gillet, Philippe; Nyembo, Christophe; Lukuka, Albert; Likwela, Joris; Lumbala, Crispin; Mbaruku, Justin; Vander Veken, Wim; Mumba, Dieudonné; Lutumba, Pascal; Muyembe, Jean-Jacques; Jacobs, Jan

    2016-01-01

    The present External Quality Assessment (EQA) assessed microscopy of blood parasites among diagnostic laboratories in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. The EQA addressed 445 participants in 10/11 provinces (October 2013–April 2014). Participants were sent a panel of five slides and asked to return a routinely stained slide which was assessed for quality of preparation and staining. Response rate was 89.9% (400/445). For slide 1 (no parasites), 30.6% participants reported malaria, mostly Plasmodium falciparum. Only 11.0% participants reported slide 2 (Plasmodium malariae) correctly, 71.0% reported “malaria” or “Plasmodium falciparum” (considered acceptable). Slide 3 contained Plasmodium falciparum (109/μl) and Trypanosoma brucei brucei trypomastigotes: they were each reported by 32.5% and 16.5% participants respectively, 6.0% reported both. Slide 4 (Trypanosoma) was recognised by 44.9% participants. Slide 5 (Plasmodium ovale) was correctly reported by 6.2% participants, another 68.8% replied “malaria” or “Plasmodium falciparum” (considered acceptable). Only 13.6% of routine slides returned were correctly prepared and stained. The proportion of correct/acceptable scores for at least 4/5 slides was higher among EQA-experienced participants compared to first time participants (40.9% versus 22.4%, p = 0.001) and higher among those being trained < 2 years ago compared to those who were not (42.9% versus 26.3%, p = 0.01). Among diagnostic laboratories in Democratic Republic of the Congo, performance of blood parasite microscopy including non-falciparum species and Trypanosoma was poor. Recent training and previous EQA participation were associated with a better performance. PMID:26788725

  17. Petrocephalus boboto and Petrocephalus arnegardi, two new species of African electric fish (Osteoglossomorpha, Mormyridae) from the Congo River basin.

    PubMed

    Lavoué, Sébastien; Sullivan, John P

    2014-01-01

    A specimen of the African weakly electric fish genus Petrocephalus (Osteoglossomorpha, Mormyridae) collected in the Congo River at Yangambi, Orientale Province, Democratic Republic of Congo, is described as a new species. Petrocephalus boboto sp. n. can be distinguished from other Central African species of Petrocephalus by a combination of the following characteristics: three distinct black spots on the body, one at the origin of the pectoral fin, one at the origin of the caudal fin and one below the anterior base of the dorsal fin; Nakenrosette and Khelrosette electroreceptor clusters distinct on head but Augenrosette cluster reduced in size; 23 branched dorsal rays, 34 branched anal rays, and electric organ discharge waveform triphasic. Petrocephalus boboto sp. n. most closely resembles the holotype of Petrocephalus binotatus but is easily distinguished from it by its smaller mouth. A comparative molecular analysis including 21 other Petrocephalus species shows Petrocephalus boboto sp. n. to be genetically distinctive and to represent a deep lineage in the genus. Two specimens of Petrocephalus collected at Yangambi are morphologically similar and genetically closely related to specimens previously assigned to Petrocephalus binotatus, collected in the northwestern Congo River basin within Odzala-Kokua National Park, Republic of the Congo. This prompts us to formally describe a new species from these collections, Petrocephalus arnegardi sp. n., that, although similar to the holotype of Petrocephalus binotatus, can be distinguished from it by its smaller mouth and shorter interorbital width.

  18. Petrocephalus boboto and Petrocephalus arnegardi, two new species of African electric fish (Osteoglossomorpha, Mormyridae) from the Congo River basin

    PubMed Central

    Lavoué, Sébastien; Sullivan, John P.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract A specimen of the African weakly electric fish genus Petrocephalus (Osteoglossomorpha, Mormyridae) collected in the Congo River at Yangambi, Orientale Province, Democratic Republic of Congo, is described as a new species. Petrocephalus boboto sp. n. can be distinguished from other Central African species of Petrocephalus by a combination of the following characteristics: three distinct black spots on the body, one at the origin of the pectoral fin, one at the origin of the caudal fin and one below the anterior base of the dorsal fin; Nakenrosette and Khelrosette electroreceptor clusters distinct on head but Augenrosette cluster reduced in size; 23 branched dorsal rays, 34 branched anal rays, and electric organ discharge waveform triphasic. Petrocephalus boboto sp. n. most closely resembles the holotype of Petrocephalus binotatus but is easily distinguished from it by its smaller mouth. A comparative molecular analysis including 21 other Petrocephalus species shows Petrocephalus boboto sp. n. to be genetically distinctive and to represent a deep lineage in the genus. Two specimens of Petrocephalus collected at Yangambi are morphologically similar and genetically closely related to specimens previously assigned to Petrocephalus binotatus, collected in the northwestern Congo River basin within Odzala-Kokua National Park, Republic of the Congo. This prompts us to formally describe a new species from these collections, Petrocephalus arnegardi sp. n., that, although similar to the holotype of Petrocephalus binotatus, can be distinguished from it by its smaller mouth and shorter interorbital width. PMID:24843255

  19. Ocular Pentastomiasis in the Democratic Republic of the Congo

    PubMed Central

    Sulyok, Mihály; Rózsa, Lajos; Bodó, Imre

    2014-01-01

    Ocular pentastomiasis is a rare infection caused by the larval stage of pentastomids, an unusual group of crustacean-related parasites. Zoonotic pentastomids have a distinct geographical distribution and utilize reptiles or canids as final hosts. Recently, an increasing number of human abdominal infections have been reported in Africa, where pentastomiasis is an emerging, though severely neglected, tropical disease. Here we describe four ocular infections caused by pentastomids from the Democratic Republic of the Congo. Two cases underwent surgery and an Armillifer grandis infection was detected by morphological and molecular approaches. Thus far, 15 other cases of ocular pentastomiasis have been reported worldwide. Twelve cases were caused by Armillifer sp., recorded almost exclusively in Africa, where such infections occur as a consequence of hunting and consuming snakes, their final hosts. Seven further cases were caused by Linguatula serrata, a cosmopolitan pentastomid whose final hosts are usually canids. Intraocular infections caused permanent visual damage in 69% and a total loss of vision in 31% of reported cases. In contrast, ocular adnexal cases had a benign clinical course. Further research is required to estimate the burden, therapeutic options and pathogenesis of this neglected disease. PMID:25058608

  20. Ocular pentastomiasis in the Democratic Republic of the Congo.

    PubMed

    Sulyok, Mihály; Rózsa, Lajos; Bodó, Imre; Tappe, Dennis; Hardi, Richard

    2014-07-01

    Ocular pentastomiasis is a rare infection caused by the larval stage of pentastomids, an unusual group of crustacean-related parasites. Zoonotic pentastomids have a distinct geographical distribution and utilize reptiles or canids as final hosts. Recently, an increasing number of human abdominal infections have been reported in Africa, where pentastomiasis is an emerging, though severely neglected, tropical disease. Here we describe four ocular infections caused by pentastomids from the Democratic Republic of the Congo. Two cases underwent surgery and an Armillifer grandis infection was detected by morphological and molecular approaches. Thus far, 15 other cases of ocular pentastomiasis have been reported worldwide. Twelve cases were caused by Armillifer sp., recorded almost exclusively in Africa, where such infections occur as a consequence of hunting and consuming snakes, their final hosts. Seven further cases were caused by Linguatula serrata, a cosmopolitan pentastomid whose final hosts are usually canids. Intraocular infections caused permanent visual damage in 69% and a total loss of vision in 31% of reported cases. In contrast, ocular adnexal cases had a benign clinical course. Further research is required to estimate the burden, therapeutic options and pathogenesis of this neglected disease. PMID:25058608

  1. 76 FR 63935 - Notification of the Removal of Conditions of Entry on Vessels Arriving From the Republic of Congo

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-14

    ... Register, (74 FR 45230), announcing that it had determined that ports in the Republic of Congo were not.... Salerno, USCG, Deputy Commandant for Operations. [FR Doc. 2011-26602 Filed 10-13-11; 8:45 a BILLING CODE... Republic of Congo AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard announces that it...

  2. Chimpanzee tool technology in the Goualougo Triangle, Republic of Congo.

    PubMed

    Sanz, Crickette M; Morgan, David B

    2007-04-01

    With the exception of humans, chimpanzees show the most diverse and complex tool-using repertoires of all extant species. Specific tool repertoires differ between wild chimpanzee populations, but no apparent genetic or environmental factors have emerged as definitive forces shaping variation between populations. However, identification of such patterns has likely been hindered by a lack of information from chimpanzee taxa residing in central Africa. We report our observations of the technological system of chimpanzees in the Goualougo Triangle, located in the Republic of Congo, which is the first study to compile a complete tool repertoire from the Lower Guinean subspecies of chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes troglodytes). Between 1999 and 2006, we documented the tool use of chimpanzees by direct observations, remote video monitoring, and collections of tool assemblages. We observed 22 different types of tool behavior, almost half of which were habitual (shown repeatedly by several individuals) or customary (shown by most members of at least one age-sex class). Several behaviors considered universals among chimpanzees were confirmed in this population, but we also report the first observations of known individuals using tools to perforate termite nests, puncture termite nests, pound for honey, and use leafy twigs for rain cover. Tool behavior in this chimpanzee population ranged from simple tasks to hierarchical sequences. We report three different tool sets and a high degree of tool-material selectivity for particular tasks, which are otherwise rare in wild chimpanzees. Chimpanzees in the Goualougo Triangle are shown to have one of the largest and most complex tool repertoires reported in wild chimpanzee populations. We highlight new insights from this chimpanzee population to our understanding of ape technological systems and evolutionary models of tool-using behavior.

  3. Risk Factors Associated with Ebola and Marburg Viruses Seroprevalence in Blood Donors in the Republic of Congo

    PubMed Central

    Moyen, Nanikaly; Thirion, Laurence; Emmerich, Petra; Dzia-Lepfoundzou, Amelia; Richet, Hervé; Boehmann, Yannik; Dimi, Yannick; Gallian, Pierre; Gould, Ernest A.; Günther, Stephan; de Lamballerie, Xavier

    2015-01-01

    Background Ebola and Marburg viruses (family Filoviridae, genera Ebolavirus and Marburgvirus) cause haemorrhagic fevers in humans, often associated with high mortality rates. The presence of antibodies to Ebola virus (EBOV) and Marburg virus (MARV) has been reported in some African countries in individuals without a history of haemorrhagic fever. In this study, we present a MARV and EBOV seroprevalence study conducted amongst blood donors in the Republic of Congo and the analysis of risk factors for contact with EBOV. Methodology and Findings In 2011, we conducted a MARV and EBOV seroprevalence study amongst 809 blood donors recruited in rural (75; 9.3%) and urban (734; 90.7%) areas of the Republic of Congo. Serum titres of IgG antibodies to MARV and EBOV were assessed by indirect double-immunofluorescence microscopy. MARV seroprevalence was 0.5% (4 in 809) without any identified risk factors. Prevalence of IgG to EBOV was 2.5%, peaking at 4% in rural areas and in Pointe Noire. Independent risk factors identified by multivariate analysis were contact with bats and exposure to birds. Conclusions/Significance This MARV and EBOV serological survey performed in the Republic of Congo identifies a probable role for environmental determinants of exposure to EBOV. It highlights the requirement for extending our understanding of the ecological and epidemiological risk of bats (previously identified as a potential ecological reservoir) and birds as vectors of EBOV to humans, and characterising the protection potentially afforded by EBOV-specific antibodies as detected in blood donors. PMID:26047124

  4. Schistosomiasis in the Democratic Republic of Congo: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Madinga, Joule; Linsuke, Sylvie; Mpabanzi, Liliane; Meurs, Lynn; Kanobana, Kirezi; Speybroeck, Niko; Lutumba, Pascal; Polman, Katja

    2015-01-01

    Schistosomiasis is a poverty-related parasitic infection, leading to chronic ill-health. For more than a century, schistosomiasis has been known to be endemic in certain provinces of the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). However, a clear overview on the status of the disease within the country is currently lacking, which is seriously hampering control. Here, we review the available information on schistosomiasis in DRC of the past 60 years. Findings and data gaps are discussed in the perspective of upcoming control activities.An electronic literature search via PubMed complemented by manual search of non-peer-reviewed articles was conducted up to January 2015. The search concerned all relevant records related to schistosomiasis in the DRC from January 1955 onwards. A total of 155 records were found, of which 30 met the inclusion criteria. Results were summarized by geographical region, mapped, and compared with those reported sixty years ago. The available data reported schistosomiasis in some areas located in 10 of the 11 provinces of DRC. Three species of Schistosoma were found: S. mansoni, S. haematobium and S. intercalatum. The prevalence of schistosomiasis varied greatly between regions and between villages, with high values of up to 95 % observed in some communities. The overall trend over 60 years points to the spread of schistosomiasis to formerly non-endemic areas. The prevalence of schistosomiasis has increased in rural endemic areas and decreased in urban/peri-urban endemic areas of Kinshasa. Hepatosplenomegaly, urinary tract lesions and anaemia were commonly reported in schistosomiasis endemic areas but not always associated with infection status.The present review confirms that schistosomiasis is still endemic in DRC. However, available data are scattered across time and space and studies lack methodological uniformity, hampering a reliable estimation of the current status of schistosomiasis in DRC. There is a clear need for updated prevalence data

  5. Schistosomiasis in the Democratic Republic of Congo: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Madinga, Joule; Linsuke, Sylvie; Mpabanzi, Liliane; Meurs, Lynn; Kanobana, Kirezi; Speybroeck, Niko; Lutumba, Pascal; Polman, Katja

    2015-11-19

    Schistosomiasis is a poverty-related parasitic infection, leading to chronic ill-health. For more than a century, schistosomiasis has been known to be endemic in certain provinces of the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). However, a clear overview on the status of the disease within the country is currently lacking, which is seriously hampering control. Here, we review the available information on schistosomiasis in DRC of the past 60 years. Findings and data gaps are discussed in the perspective of upcoming control activities.An electronic literature search via PubMed complemented by manual search of non-peer-reviewed articles was conducted up to January 2015. The search concerned all relevant records related to schistosomiasis in the DRC from January 1955 onwards. A total of 155 records were found, of which 30 met the inclusion criteria. Results were summarized by geographical region, mapped, and compared with those reported sixty years ago. The available data reported schistosomiasis in some areas located in 10 of the 11 provinces of DRC. Three species of Schistosoma were found: S. mansoni, S. haematobium and S. intercalatum. The prevalence of schistosomiasis varied greatly between regions and between villages, with high values of up to 95 % observed in some communities. The overall trend over 60 years points to the spread of schistosomiasis to formerly non-endemic areas. The prevalence of schistosomiasis has increased in rural endemic areas and decreased in urban/peri-urban endemic areas of Kinshasa. Hepatosplenomegaly, urinary tract lesions and anaemia were commonly reported in schistosomiasis endemic areas but not always associated with infection status.The present review confirms that schistosomiasis is still endemic in DRC. However, available data are scattered across time and space and studies lack methodological uniformity, hampering a reliable estimation of the current status of schistosomiasis in DRC. There is a clear need for updated prevalence data

  6. Rape as a weapon of war in the Democratic Republic of the Congo.

    PubMed

    Brown, Carly

    2012-01-01

    The Democratic Republic of the Congo has been appropriately acknowledged as "the rape capital of the world." While the country has been trapped in conflict, the use of rape as a weapon of war has been rampant and unyielding. The sexual violence inflicted upon women has been nothing less than brutal and destructive, physically, socially, and psychologically. This paper analyzes the use of rape as a weapon of war in the Congo, taking into context the ongoing war, cultural and social situations that facilitate its existence, and the many consequences the victims are forced to endure. Drawing information from various academic journals, articles, and field research from international organizations, this paper paints a concise picture of the sexual atrocities occurring in the Democratic Republic of the Congo.

  7. Invasive Salmonella enterica serotype typhimurium infections, Democratic Republic of the Congo, 2007-2011.

    PubMed

    Ley, Benedikt; Le Hello, Simon; Lunguya, Octavie; Lejon, Veerle; Muyembe, Jean-Jacques; Weill, François-Xavier; Jacobs, Jan

    2014-04-01

    Infection with Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium sequence type (ST) 313 is associated with high rates of drug resistance, bloodstream infections, and death. To determine whether ST313 is dominant in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, we studied 180 isolates collected during 2007-2011; 96% belonged to CRISPOL type CT28, which is associated with ST313.

  8. Invasive Salmonella enterica serotype typhimurium infections, Democratic Republic of the Congo, 2007-2011.

    PubMed

    Ley, Benedikt; Le Hello, Simon; Lunguya, Octavie; Lejon, Veerle; Muyembe, Jean-Jacques; Weill, François-Xavier; Jacobs, Jan

    2014-04-01

    Infection with Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium sequence type (ST) 313 is associated with high rates of drug resistance, bloodstream infections, and death. To determine whether ST313 is dominant in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, we studied 180 isolates collected during 2007-2011; 96% belonged to CRISPOL type CT28, which is associated with ST313. PMID:24655438

  9. Rights of the Child in the Democratic Republic of the Congo.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cosandey, Olivier

    This report to the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child contains observations of the World Organisation Against Torture (OMCT) concerning the application of the Convention by Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC). The report's introductory summary asserts that although the DRC has ratified the Convention and other international…

  10. New Information and Communication Technologies in the Democratic Republic of Congo: Strategies and Measures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banza, Nsomwe-a- Nfunkwa

    2006-01-01

    This article will primarily allow a definition of the strategic development of ICT in the Democratic Republic of Congo, to be put forward. For the most part it involves the precision of many types of measures and strategies (such as institutional, regulatory, infrastructural measures), human resources, the development of content and partnerships,…

  11. Antimicrobial Drug Resistance of Vibrio cholerae, Democratic Republic of the Congo.

    PubMed

    Miwanda, Berthe; Moore, Sandra; Muyembe, Jean-Jacques; Nguefack-Tsague, Georges; Kabangwa, Ickel Kakongo; Ndjakani, Daniel Yassa; Mutreja, Ankur; Thomson, Nicholas; Thefenne, Helene; Garnotel, Eric; Tshapenda, Gaston; Kakongo, Denis Kandolo; Kalambayi, Guy; Piarroux, Renaud

    2015-05-01

    We analyzed 1,093 Vibrio cholerae isolates from the Democratic Republic of the Congo during 1997-2012 and found increasing antimicrobial drug resistance over time. Our study also demonstrated that the 2011-2012 epidemic was caused by an El Tor variant clonal complex with a single antimicrobial drug susceptibility profile.

  12. Factors Affecting Performance of Agricultural Extension: Evidence from Democratic Republic of Congo

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ragasa, Catherine; Ulimwengu, John; Randriamamonjy, Josee; Badibanga, Thaddee

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: As part of the institutional reforms and agricultural restructuring in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), this paper provides an assessment of the performance of the agricultural extension system as well as factors explaining it. Method: This paper involves key informants' interviews and surveys of 107 extension organizations and 162…

  13. HIV infection and risk factors among the armed forces personnel stationed in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo.

    PubMed

    Rimoin, A W; Hoff, N A; Djoko, C F; Kisalu, N K; Kashamuka, M; Tamoufe, U; LeBreton, M; Kayembe, P K; Muyembe, J J; Kitchen, C R; Saylors, K; Fair, J; Doshi, R; Papworth, E; Mpoudi-Ngole, E; Grillo, M P; Tshala, F; Peeters, M; Wolfe, N D

    2015-03-01

    Despite recent declines in HIV incidence, sub-Saharan Africa remains the most heavily affected region in the global HIV/AIDS epidemic. Estimates of HIV prevalence in African military personnel are scarce and inconsistent. We conducted a serosurvey between June and September 2007 among 4043 Armed Forces personnel of the Democratic Republic of Congo (FARDC) stationed in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) to determine the prevalence of HIV and syphilis infections and describe associated risk behaviours. Participants provided blood for HIV and syphilis testing and responded to a demographic and risk factor questionnaire. The prevalence of HIV was 3.8% and the prevalence of syphilis was 11.9%. Women were more likely than men to be HIV positive, (7.5% vs. 3.6% respectively, aOR: 1.66, 95% C.I: 1.21-2.28, p < 0.05). Factors significantly associated with HIV infection included gender and self-reported genital ulcers in the 12 months before date of enrollment. The prevalence of HIV in the military appears to be higher than the general population in DRC (3.8% vs. 1.3%, respectively), with women at increased risk of infection.

  14. First Reported Chikungunya Fever Outbreak in the Republic of Congo, 2011

    PubMed Central

    Pastorino, Boris; Nougairede, Antoine; Thirion, Laurence; Mombouli, Jean-Vivien; Dimi, Yannick; Leparc-Goffart, Isabelle; Capobianchi, Maria Rosaria; Lepfoundzou, Amelia Dzia; de Lamballerie, Xavier

    2014-01-01

    Background Chikungunya is an Aedes -borne disease characterised by febrile arthralgia and responsible for massive outbreaks. We present a prospective clinical cohort study and a retrospective serological study relating to a CHIK outbreak, in the Republic of Congo in 2011. Methodology and Findings We analysed 317 suspected cases, of which 308 (97.2%) lived in the city of Brazzaville (66.6% in the South area). Amongst them, 37 (11.7%) were CHIKV+ve patients (i.e., biologically confirmed by a real-time RT-PCR assay), of whom 36 (97.3%) had fever, 22 (66.7%) myalgia and 32 (86.5%) arthralgia. All tested negative for dengue. The distribution of incident cases within Brazzaville districts was compared with CHIKV seroprevalence before the outbreak (34.4% in 517 blood donors), providing evidence for previous circulation of CHIKV. We applied a CHIK clinical score to 126 patients recruited within the two first day of illness (including 28 CHIKV+ves (22.2%)) with sensitivity (78.6%) and specificity (72.4%) values comparing with those of the referent study in Reunion Island. The negative predictive value was high (92%), but the positive predictive value (45%) indicate poor potential contribution to medical practice to identify CHIKV+ve patients in low prevalence outbreaks. However, the score allowed a slightly more accurate follow-up of the evolution of the outbreak than the criterion "fever+arthralgia". The complete sequencing of a Congolase isolate (Brazza_MRS1) demonstrated belonging to the East/Central/South African lineage and was further used for producing a robust genome-scale CHIKV phylogenetic analysis. Conclusions/Significance We describe the first Chikungunya outbreak declared in the Republic of Congo. The seroprevalence study conducted amongst blood donors before outbreak provided evidence for previous CHIKV circulation. We suggest that a more systematic survey of the entomological situation and of arbovirus circulation is necessary in Central Africa for better

  15. Human Monkeypox in the Kivus, a Conflict Region of the Democratic Republic of the Congo

    PubMed Central

    McCollum, Andrea M.; Nakazawa, Yoshinori; Ndongala, Guy Mutombo; Pukuta, Elisabeth; Karhemere, Stomy; Lushima, Robert Shongo; Ilunga, Benoit Kebela; Kabamba, Joelle; Wilkins, Kimberly; Gao, Jinxin; Li, Yu; Emerson, Ginny; Damon, Inger K.; Carroll, Darin S.; Reynolds, Mary G.; Malekani, Jean; Tamfum, Jean-Jacques Muyembe

    2015-01-01

    Monkeypox (MPX) is a zoonotic Orthopoxvirus infection endemic in central and western Africa. Human MPX cases occur in the central and northern regions of the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), and this is the first report of confirmed MPX cases in the forested areas of North and South Kivu Provinces, with a detailed epidemiological investigation for one case. The location of each case is within areas predicted to be suitable for MPX virus transmission based on an ecological niche model. Phylogenetic analysis places these viruses in the Congo Basin clade. PMID:26283752

  16. Redescriptions of three species of freshwater crabs from the Democratic Republic of Congo, Central Africa (Brachyura: Potamoidea: Potamonautidae).

    PubMed

    Cumberlidge, Neil

    2015-06-16

    The taxonomy of three species of freshwater crabs from the Upper Congo River in the Democratic Republic of Congo, Potamonautes congoensis (Rathbun, 1921), P. langi (Rathbun, 1921), and P. stanleyensis (Rathbun, 1921), is revised based on examination of the holotypes. Updated diagnoses, illustrations, and distribution maps are provided for these species, and their conservation status is discussed.

  17. Mai-Mai militia and sexual violence in Democratic Republic of the Congo.

    PubMed

    Guy, Kitwe Mulunda

    2014-01-01

    This article sets the reasons for the brutal violence against women. It focuses on three field sites providing insight into Mai-Mai motivations and their attitudes toward sexual violence. According to most sources, 5.5 million people have died since the beginning of the war in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) in 1994, and rape is used as a weapon of destruction. More than 15,000 rapes were reported in the DRC in the last year--accounts of these rapes include descriptions of horrific acts, such as mutilation and the killing of unborn children. The sexual violence is so severe in the DRC that some have described rape in the country as the worst in the world. Sexual violence has long lasting consequences and far-reaching impacts on individual survivors, their families, and their communities in the Democratic Republic of the Congo.

  18. Comparative Cytogenetics of the Congo African Grey Parrot (Psittacus erithacus).

    PubMed

    Seibold-Torres, Cassandra; Owens, Elaine; Chowdhary, Renuka; Ferguson-Smith, Malcolm A; Tizard, Ian; Raudsepp, Terje

    2015-01-01

    The Congo African grey parrot (Psittacus erithacus, PER) is an endemic species of Central Africa, valued for its intelligence and listed as vulnerable due to poaching and habitat destruction. Improved knowledge about the P. erithacus genome is needed to address key biological questions and conservation of this species. The P. erithacus genome was studied using conventional and molecular cytogenetic approaches including Zoo-FISH. P. erithacus has a 'typical' parrot karyotype with 2n = 62-64 and 8 pairs of macrochromosomes. A distinct feature was a sharp macro-microchromosome boundary. Telomeric sequences were present at all chromosome ends and interstitially in PER2q, the latter coinciding with a C-band. NORs mapped to 4 pairs of microchromosomes which is in contrast to a single NOR in ancestral type avian karyotypes. Zoo-FISH with chicken macrochromosomes GGA1-9 and Z revealed patterns of conserved synteny similar to many other avian groups, though neighboring synteny combinations of GGA6/7, 8/9, and 1/4 were distinctive only to parrots. Overall, P. erithacus shared more Zoo-FISH patterns with neotropical macaws than Australian species such as cockatiel and budgerigar. The observations suggest that Psittaciformes karyotypes have undergone more extensive evolutionary rearrangements compared to the majority of other avian genomes.

  19. Comparative Cytogenetics of the Congo African Grey Parrot (Psittacus erithacus).

    PubMed

    Seibold-Torres, Cassandra; Owens, Elaine; Chowdhary, Renuka; Ferguson-Smith, Malcolm A; Tizard, Ian; Raudsepp, Terje

    2015-01-01

    The Congo African grey parrot (Psittacus erithacus, PER) is an endemic species of Central Africa, valued for its intelligence and listed as vulnerable due to poaching and habitat destruction. Improved knowledge about the P. erithacus genome is needed to address key biological questions and conservation of this species. The P. erithacus genome was studied using conventional and molecular cytogenetic approaches including Zoo-FISH. P. erithacus has a 'typical' parrot karyotype with 2n = 62-64 and 8 pairs of macrochromosomes. A distinct feature was a sharp macro-microchromosome boundary. Telomeric sequences were present at all chromosome ends and interstitially in PER2q, the latter coinciding with a C-band. NORs mapped to 4 pairs of microchromosomes which is in contrast to a single NOR in ancestral type avian karyotypes. Zoo-FISH with chicken macrochromosomes GGA1-9 and Z revealed patterns of conserved synteny similar to many other avian groups, though neighboring synteny combinations of GGA6/7, 8/9, and 1/4 were distinctive only to parrots. Overall, P. erithacus shared more Zoo-FISH patterns with neotropical macaws than Australian species such as cockatiel and budgerigar. The observations suggest that Psittaciformes karyotypes have undergone more extensive evolutionary rearrangements compared to the majority of other avian genomes. PMID:26894300

  20. Referral hospitals in the Democratic Republic of Congo as complex adaptive systems: similar program, different dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Karemere, Hermès; Ribesse, Nathalie; Kahindo, Jean-Bosco; Macq, Jean

    2015-01-01

    Introduction In many African countries, first referral hospitals received little attention from development agencies until recently. We report the evolution of two of them in an unstable region like Eastern Democratic Republic of Congo when receiving the support from development aid program. Specifically, we aimed at studying how actors’ network and institutional framework evolved over time and what could matter the most when looking at their performance in such an environment. Methods We performed two cases studies between 2006 and 2010. We used multiple sources of data: reports to document events; health information system for hospital services production, and “key-informants” interviews to interpret the relation between interventions and services production. Our analysis was inspired from complex adaptive system theory. It started from the analysis of events implementation, to explore interaction process between the main agents in each hospital, and the consequence it could have on hospital health services production. This led to the development of new theoretical propositions. Results Two events implemented in the frame of the development aid program were identified by most of the key-informants interviewed as having the greatest impact on hospital performance: the development of a hospital plan and the performance based financing. They resulted in contrasting interaction process between the main agents between the two hospitals. Two groups of services production were reviewed: consultation at outpatient department and admissions, and surgery. The evolution of both groups of services production were different between both hospitals. Conclusion By studying two first referral hospitals through the lens of a Complex Adaptive System, their performance in a context of development aid takes a different meaning. Success is not only measured through increased hospital production but through meaningful process of hospital agents’” network adaptation. Expected

  1. Spatial analysis from remotely sensed observations of Congo basin of East African high Land to drain water using gravity for sustainable management of low laying Chad basin of Central Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Modu, B.; Herbert, B.

    2014-11-01

    The Chad basin which covers an area of about 2.4 million kilometer square is one of the largest drainage basins in Africa in the centre of Lake Chad .This basin was formed as a result of rifting and drifting episode, as such it has no outlet to the oceans or seas. It contains large area of desert from the north to the west. The basin covers in part seven countries such as Chad, Nigeria, Central African Republic, Cameroun, Niger, Sudan and Algeria. It is named Chad basin because 43.9% falls in Chad republic. Since its formation, the basin continues to experienced water shortage due to the activities of Dams combination, increase in irrigations and general reduction in rainfall. Chad basin needs an external water source for it to be function at sustainable level, hence needs for exploitation of higher east African river basin called Congo basin; which covers an area of 3.7 million square km lies in an astride the equator in west-central Africa-world second largest river basin after Amazon. The Congo River almost pans around republic of Congo, the democratic republic of Congo, the Central African Republic, western Zambia, northern Angola, part of Cameroun, and Tanzania. The remotely sensed imagery analysis and observation revealed that Congo basin is on the elevation of 275 to 460 meters and the Chad basin is on elevation of 240 meters. This implies that water can be drained from Congo basin via headrace down to the Chad basin for the water sustainability.

  2. Two new Phrynobatrachus species (Amphibia: Anura: Phrynobatrachidae) from the Republic of the Congo.

    PubMed

    Rödel, Mark-Oliver; Burger, Marius; Zassi-Boulou, Ange Ghislain; Emmrich, Mike; Penner, Johannes; Barej, Michael F

    2015-01-01

    We describe two new species of puddle frogs, genus Phrynobatrachus, from the south-western Republic of the Congo. One of them, P. horsti sp. nov., occurs also in neighbouring Gabon and is morphologically most similar to the Cameroonian P. ruthbeateae. It differs from the latter species by smaller males with longer thighs and shanks. The new species comprises various colour morphs but always has less conspicuous black borders between flanks and belly than P. ruthbeateae. The distinct and large black axillary blotch of P. ruthbeateae is either much smaller in P. horsti sp. nov., or broken into numerous irregularly shaped smaller dots. Similarly, a black transversal line at the anterior ventral border of thighs and the black face mask is less distinct and irregularly delimitated in P. horsti sp. nov. when compared to P. ruthbeateae. The mean genetic difference in the sampled region of the 16S rRNA gene between P. horsti sp. nov. and 40 other western African congeners range from 3.66-18.10%. The second new species, P. mayokoensis sp. nov., differs from all other known congeners by the combination of a compact and warty body, the absence of a spiny eyelid tubercle and pedal webbing, a conspicuous black triangle on throat and anterior part of the belly, and a distinct large red blotch on the anterior-proximal surface of the thighs. It exhibited a mean genetic difference in the 16S rRNA to 40 other western African congeners ranging from 1.34-16.98%. The genetically most similar sequence stems from a GenBank entry of a Gabonese frog, determined as P. ogoensis. A comparison of the new species with P. ogoensis syntypes confirmed their specific distinctiveness, most convincingly underlined by the absence of pedal webbing in the new species and the pronounced pedal webbing in P. ogoensis. The GenBank entry thus most likely is based on a misidentification and P. mayokoensis sp. nov. may also occur in neighbouring Gabon. The discovery of the two new frog species is further

  3. Charcoal-inferred Holocene fire and vegetation history linked to drought periods in the Democratic Republic of Congo.

    PubMed

    Hubau, Wannes; Van den Bulcke, Jan; Van Acker, Joris; Beeckman, Hans

    2015-06-01

    The impact of Holocene drought events on the presumably stable Central African rainforest remains largely unexplored, in particular the significance of fire. High-quality sedimentary archives are scarce, and palynological records mostly integrate over large regional scales subject to different fire regimes. Here, we demonstrate a direct temporal link between Holocene droughts, palaeofire and vegetation change within present-day Central African rainforest, using records of identified charcoal fragments extracted from soil in the southern Mayumbe forest (Democratic Republic of Congo). We find three distinct periods of local palaeofire occurrence: 7.8-6.8 ka BP, 2.3-1.5 ka BP, 0.8 ka BP - present. These periods are linked to well-known Holocene drought anomalies: the 8.2 ka BP event, the 3rd millennium BP rainforest crisis and the Mediaeval Climate Anomaly. During and after these Holocene droughts, the Central African rainforest landscape was characterized by a fragmented pattern with fire-prone open patches. Some fires occurred during the drought anomalies although most fires seem to lag behind them, which suggests that the open patches remained fire-prone after the actual climate anomalies. Charcoal identifications indicate that mature rainforest patches did persist through the Early to Mid-Holocene climatic transition, the subsequent Holocene thermal optimum and the third millennium BP rainforest crisis, until 0.8 ka BP. However, disturbance and fragmentation were probably more prominent near the boundary of the southern Mayumbe forest. Furthermore, the dominance of pioneer and woodland savanna taxa in younger charcoal assemblages indicates that rainforest regeneration was hampered by increasingly severe drought conditions after 0.8 ka BP. These results support the notion of a dynamic forest ecosystem at multicentury time scales across the Central African rainforest.

  4. Dorstenialuamensis (Moraceae), a new species from eastern Democratic Republic of Congo.

    PubMed

    Leal, Miguel E

    2014-01-01

    A new species of Dorstenia L. (Moraceae), Dorstenialuamensis M.E.Leal, is described from the Luama Wildlife Reserve, west of Lake Tanganyika and north of the town of Kalemie in the eastern part of the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). This species is endemic to the region and differs from any of the other species by its fernlike lithophytic habit and lack of latex. A description and illustration of this species is presented here. Dorstenialuamensis M.E.Leal inhabits moist and shady vertical rock faces close to small waterfalls in the forest; the species is distributed in small populations within the type locality, and merits the conservation status of endangered (EN).

  5. Rape as a strategy of war in the Democratic Republic of the Congo.

    PubMed

    Mukwege, Denis Mukengere; Mohamed-Ahmed, Olaa; Fitchett, Joseph R

    2010-09-01

    The Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) is tremendously wealthy. Abundant in gold, diamonds, tantalum, tin, copper, zinc and cobalt, the natural resources in Africa's third largest country are not equally benefiting the people. The DRC should sustainably be making use of their natural resources to develop the country, whose health, education and transport systems all suffer to this day from the effects of conflict. Instead, the DRC is divided with rebels, corrupt governments and foreign investors all fighting in one way or another for control over the country's wealth. The following article focuses on the emergence of rape as a strategy of war in the DRC.

  6. [Nutrition survey in the Republic of the Congo: results from a national survey conducted in 1987].

    PubMed

    Cornu, A; Delpeuch, F; Simondon, F; Goma, I; Massamba, J P; Tchibindat, F; Bailey, K V

    1991-01-01

    .8% (CI = 32.9-44.7) in the southern forests of Mayombe and Chaillu. The diet also varied, the frequency of animal protein consumption on the preceding day ranging from 76.3% to 59.1% in the different zones. The Republic of the Congo differs from other African countries in having relatively lower rates of stunting but an astonishingly high prevalence of wasting.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)

  7. REDD+ projects in the Democratic Republic of Congo: impacts on future emissions, income and biodiversity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mosnier, Aline; Bocqueho, Geraldine; Mant, Rebecca; Obersteiner, Michael; Havlik, Petr; Kapos, Val; Fritz, Steffen; Botrill, Leo

    2014-05-01

    The Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) encompasses a large rainforest area which has been rather preserved up to now. However, pressure on the forests is increasing with high population growth, transition toward political stability and the abundance of minerals in the country. REDD+ is a developing mechanism under the UNFCCC that aims to support developing countries that want to make efforts to reduce their emissions from deforestation and forest degradation. The REDD+ strategy in DRC combines an independent national fund and independent REDD+ projects at the local level that are at the initial stage of implementation. The objective of this paper is to assess i) emissions reduction due to the implementation of the REDD+ pilot projects taking into account potential leakage and ii) potential co-benefits of REDD+ pilot projects in terms of biodiversity and rural income by 2030. We use the land use economic model CongoBIOM adapted from GLOBIOM which represents land-based activities and land use changes at a 50x50km resolution level. It includes domestic and international demand for agricultural products, fuel wood and minerals which are the main deforestation drivers in the Congo Basin region. Finally, we run a sensitivity analysis on emissions from land use change according to three different above and below ground living biomass estimates: downscaled FAO, NASA and WHRC.

  8. Sparks creating light? Strengthening peripheral disease surveillance in the Democratic Republic of Congo

    PubMed Central

    Mossoko, M.; Nyakio Kakusu, J. P.; Nyembo, J.; Mangion, J. P.; Van Laeken, D.; Van den Bergh, R.; Van den Boogaard, W.; Manzi, M.; Kibango, W. K.; Hermans, V.; Beijnsberger, J.; Lambert, V.; Kitenge, E.

    2016-01-01

    Setting: The Democratic Republic of Congo suffers from an amalgam of disease outbreaks and other medical emergencies. An efficient response to these relies strongly on the national surveillance system. The Pool d'Urgence Congo (PUC, Congo Emergency Team) of Médecins Sans Frontières is a project that responds to emergencies in highly remote areas through short-term vertical interventions, during which it uses the opportunity of its presence to reinforce the local surveillance system. Objective: To investigate whether the ancillary strengthening of the peripheral surveillance system during short-term interventions leads to improved disease notification. Design: A descriptive paired study measuring disease notification before and after 12 PUC interventions in 2013–2014. Results: A significant increase in disease notification was observed after seven mass-vaccination campaigns and was sustained over 6 months. For the remaining five smaller-scaled interventions, no significant effects were observed. Conclusion: The observed improvements after even short-term interventions underline, on the one hand, how external emergency actors can positively affect the system through their punctuated actions, and, on the other hand, the dire need for investment in surveillance at peripheral level. PMID:27358796

  9. Human seroprevalence indicating hantavirus infections in tropical rainforests of Côte d’Ivoire and Democratic Republic of Congo

    PubMed Central

    Witkowski, Peter T.; Leendertz, Siv A. J.; Auste, Brita; Akoua-Koffi, Chantal; Schubert, Grit; Klempa, Boris; Muyembe-Tamfum, Jean-Jacques; Karhemere, Stomy; Leendertz, Fabian H.; Krüger, Detlev H.

    2015-01-01

    Hantaviruses are members of the Bunyaviridae family carried by small mammals and causing human hemorrhagic fevers worldwide. In Western Africa, where a variety of hemorrhagic fever viruses occurs, indigenous hantaviruses have been molecularly found in animal reservoirs such as rodents, shrews, and bats since 2006. To investigate the human contact to hantaviruses carried by these hosts and to assess the public health relevance of hantaviruses for humans living in the tropical rainforest regions of Western and Central Africa, we performed a cross-sectional seroprevalence study in the region of Taï National Park in Côte d’Ivoire and the Bandundu region near the Salonga National Park in the Democratic Republic (DR) of Congo. Serum samples were initially screened with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays using nucleoproteins of several hantaviruses as diagnostic antigens. Positive results were confirmed by Western blotting and immunofluorescence testing. Seroprevalence rates of 3.9% (27/687) and 2.4% (7/295), respectively, were found in the investigated regions in Côte d’Ivoire and the DR Congo. In Côte d’Ivoire, this value was significantly higher than the seroprevalence rates previously reported from the neighboring country Guinea as well as from South Africa. Our study indicates an exposure of humans to hantaviruses in West and Central African tropical rainforest areas. In order to pinpoint the possible existence and frequency of clinical disease caused by hantaviruses in this region of the world, systematic investigations of patients with fever and renal or respiratory symptoms are required. PMID:26052326

  10. Human seroprevalence indicating hantavirus infections in tropical rainforests of Côte d'Ivoire and Democratic Republic of Congo.

    PubMed

    Witkowski, Peter T; Leendertz, Siv A J; Auste, Brita; Akoua-Koffi, Chantal; Schubert, Grit; Klempa, Boris; Muyembe-Tamfum, Jean-Jacques; Karhemere, Stomy; Leendertz, Fabian H; Krüger, Detlev H

    2015-01-01

    Hantaviruses are members of the Bunyaviridae family carried by small mammals and causing human hemorrhagic fevers worldwide. In Western Africa, where a variety of hemorrhagic fever viruses occurs, indigenous hantaviruses have been molecularly found in animal reservoirs such as rodents, shrews, and bats since 2006. To investigate the human contact to hantaviruses carried by these hosts and to assess the public health relevance of hantaviruses for humans living in the tropical rainforest regions of Western and Central Africa, we performed a cross-sectional seroprevalence study in the region of Taï National Park in Côte d'Ivoire and the Bandundu region near the Salonga National Park in the Democratic Republic (DR) of Congo. Serum samples were initially screened with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays using nucleoproteins of several hantaviruses as diagnostic antigens. Positive results were confirmed by Western blotting and immunofluorescence testing. Seroprevalence rates of 3.9% (27/687) and 2.4% (7/295), respectively, were found in the investigated regions in Côte d'Ivoire and the DR Congo. In Côte d'Ivoire, this value was significantly higher than the seroprevalence rates previously reported from the neighboring country Guinea as well as from South Africa. Our study indicates an exposure of humans to hantaviruses in West and Central African tropical rainforest areas. In order to pinpoint the possible existence and frequency of clinical disease caused by hantaviruses in this region of the world, systematic investigations of patients with fever and renal or respiratory symptoms are required.

  11. Taenia solium Cysticercosis in the Democratic Republic of Congo: How Does Pork Trade Affect the Transmission of the Parasite?

    PubMed Central

    Kabwe, Constantin; Maketa, Vivi; Lukanu, Philippe; Lutumba, Pascal; Polman, Katja; Matondo, Peter; Speybroeck, Niko; Dorny, Pierre; Sumbu, Julienne

    2010-01-01

    Background Taenia solium, a zoonotic parasite that is endemic in most developing countries where pork is consumed, is recognised as the main cause of acquired epilepsy in these regions. T. solium has been reported in almost all of the neighboring countries of Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) but data on the current prevalence of the disease in the country itself are lacking. This study, focusing on porcine cysticercosis (CC), makes part of a first initiative to assess whether cysticercosis is indeed actually present in DRC. Methods An epidemiological study on porcine CC was conducted (1) on urban markets of Kinshasa where pork is sold and (2) in villages in Bas-Congo province where pigs are traditionally reared. Tongue inspection and ELISA for the detection of circulating antigen of the larval stage of T. solium were used to assess the prevalence of active CC in both study sites. Findings The overall prevalence of pigs with active cysticercosis did not significantly differ between the market and the village study sites (38.8 [CI95%: 34–43] versus 41.2% [CI95%: 33–49], respectively). However, tongue cysticercosis was only found in the village study site together with a significantly higher intensity of infection (detected by ELISA). Interpretation Pigs reared at village level are sold for consumption on Kinshasa markets, but it seems that highly infected animals are excluded at a certain level in the pig trade chain. Indeed, preliminary informal surveys on common practices conducted in parallel revealed that pig farmers and/or buyers select the low infected animals and exclude those who are positive by tongue inspection at village level. This study provides the only recent evidence of CC presence in DRC and gives the first estimates to fill an important gap on the African taeniasis/cysticercosis distribution map. PMID:20838646

  12. Human seroprevalence indicating hantavirus infections in tropical rainforests of Côte d'Ivoire and Democratic Republic of Congo.

    PubMed

    Witkowski, Peter T; Leendertz, Siv A J; Auste, Brita; Akoua-Koffi, Chantal; Schubert, Grit; Klempa, Boris; Muyembe-Tamfum, Jean-Jacques; Karhemere, Stomy; Leendertz, Fabian H; Krüger, Detlev H

    2015-01-01

    Hantaviruses are members of the Bunyaviridae family carried by small mammals and causing human hemorrhagic fevers worldwide. In Western Africa, where a variety of hemorrhagic fever viruses occurs, indigenous hantaviruses have been molecularly found in animal reservoirs such as rodents, shrews, and bats since 2006. To investigate the human contact to hantaviruses carried by these hosts and to assess the public health relevance of hantaviruses for humans living in the tropical rainforest regions of Western and Central Africa, we performed a cross-sectional seroprevalence study in the region of Taï National Park in Côte d'Ivoire and the Bandundu region near the Salonga National Park in the Democratic Republic (DR) of Congo. Serum samples were initially screened with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays using nucleoproteins of several hantaviruses as diagnostic antigens. Positive results were confirmed by Western blotting and immunofluorescence testing. Seroprevalence rates of 3.9% (27/687) and 2.4% (7/295), respectively, were found in the investigated regions in Côte d'Ivoire and the DR Congo. In Côte d'Ivoire, this value was significantly higher than the seroprevalence rates previously reported from the neighboring country Guinea as well as from South Africa. Our study indicates an exposure of humans to hantaviruses in West and Central African tropical rainforest areas. In order to pinpoint the possible existence and frequency of clinical disease caused by hantaviruses in this region of the world, systematic investigations of patients with fever and renal or respiratory symptoms are required. PMID:26052326

  13. Retinoblastoma in the Democratic Republic of Congo: 20-Year Review from a Tertiary Hospital in Kinshasa

    PubMed Central

    Kazadi Lukusa, Aimé; Aloni, Michel Ntetani; Kadima-Tshimanga, Bertin; Mvitu-Muaka, Moïse; Gini Ehungu, Jean Lambert; Ngiyulu, René; Ekulu Mfutu, Pépé; Budiongo Nzazi, Aléine

    2012-01-01

    Background. To determine clinical profile and management of retinoblastoma among children at Kinshasa in Democratic Republic of Congo. Patients and methods. The medical records of patients with a diagnosis of retinoblastoma seen at the University Hospital of Kinshasa from January 1985 till December 2005 were retrospectively reviewed. Demographic profile, clinical data, modes of treatment and outcome were analysed. Results. A total of 49 children, of whom 40 had adequate data on record were identified as retinoblastoma (28 males and 12 females). Nine cases had bilateral disease. The median age at the first symptoms was 9 months (range, 1 month to 6 years) for unilateral retinoblastoma and 18 months (range, 1 month to 3.5 years) for bilateral retinoblastoma. The median age at the first oncology consultation was 2.4 years (range, 6 months to 6 years) for unilateral retinoblastoma and 2.4years (range, 9 months to 4 years) for bilateral disease. Leukokoria was present in 67.5% of subjects. Seventy-five percent abandoned the treatment. The mortality was 92.5%. Conclusion. In Democratic Republic of Congo, retinoblastoma remains a life threatening disease characterized by late referral to a specialized unit and affordability of chemotherapy; all leading to an extension of the disease and high mortality. PMID:22619679

  14. Conservation Education and Environmental Communication in Great Ape Re-Introduction Projects: Two Cases from the Republic of Congo

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cartwright, Barbara J.; Wall, John E.; Kaya, J. A. Placide

    2012-01-01

    Among species recovery tools available, re-introduction of animals to the wild is one of the more complex. Since the mid-1990s two successful great ape re-introductions have taken place in the Republic of Congo, leading some conservationists to revisit re-introduction as a strategy. This research explored the role of conservation education and…

  15. Antiretroviral Treatment Program Retention among HIV-Infected Children in the Democratic Republic of Congo

    PubMed Central

    Ditekemena, John; Luhata, Christophe; Bonane, William; Kiumbu, Modeste; Tshefu, Antoinette; Colebunders, Robert; Koole, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    Background Retaining patients with HIV infection in care is still a major challenge in sub- Saharan Africa, particularly in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) where the antiretroviral treatment (ART) coverage is low. Monitoring retention is an important tool for evaluating the quality of care. Methods and Findings A review of medical records of HIV -infected children was performed in three health facilities in the DRC: the Amo-Congo Health center, the Monkole Clinic in Kinshasa, and the HEAL Africa Clinic in Goma. Medical records of 720 children were included. Kaplan Meier curves were constructed with the probability of retention at 6 months, 1 year, 2 years and 3 years. Retention rates were: 88.2% (95% CI: 85.1%–90.8%) at 6 months; 85% (95% CI: 81.5%–87.6%) at one year; 79.4% (95%CI: 75.5%–82.8%) at two years and 74.7% (95% CI: 70.5%–78.5%) at 3 years. The retention varied across study sites: 88.2%, 66.6% and 92.5% at 6 months; 84%, 59% and 90% at 12 months and 75.7%, 56.3% and 85.8% at 24 months respectively for Amo-Congo/Kasavubu, Monkole facility and HEAL Africa. After multivariable Cox regression four variables remained independently associated with attrition: study site, CD4 cell count <350 cells/µL, children younger than 2 years and children whose caregivers were member of an independent church. Conclusions Attrition remains a challenge for pediatric HIV positive patients in ART programs in DRC. In addition, the low coverage of pediatric treatment exacerbates the situation of pediatric HIV/AIDS. PMID:25541707

  16. An outbreak of West Nile fever among migrants in Kisangani, Democratic Republic of Congo.

    PubMed

    Nur, Y A; Groen, J; Heuvelmans, H; Tuynman, W; Copra, C; Osterhaus, A D

    1999-12-01

    In February 1998, an outbreak of acute febrile illness was reported from the Kapalata military camp in Kisangani, the Democratic Republic of Congo. The illness was characterized by an acute onset of fever associated with severe headache, arthralgia, backache, neurologic signs, abdominal pain, and coughing. In 1 individual, hemorrhagic manifestations were observed. The neurologic signs included an altered level of consciousness, convulsions, and coma. Malaria was initially suspected, but the patients showed negative blood films and failed to respond to antimicrobial drugs. A total of 35 sera collected from the military patients in the acute phase were tested for the presence of IgM against vector-borne agents. Serum IgM antibodies against West Nile fever virus were found in 23 patients (66%), against Chikungunya virus in 12 patients (34%), against dengue virus in 1 patient (3%), and against Rickettsia typhi in 1 patient (3%). All sera were negative for IgM antibody against Rift Valley fever virus, Crimean Congo hemorrhagic fever virus, and Sindbis virus. These data suggest that infections with West Nile fever virus have been the main cause of the outbreak.

  17. Dorstenialuamensis (Moraceae), a new species from eastern Democratic Republic of Congo.

    PubMed

    Leal, Miguel E

    2014-01-01

    A new species of Dorstenia L. (Moraceae), Dorstenialuamensis M.E.Leal, is described from the Luama Wildlife Reserve, west of Lake Tanganyika and north of the town of Kalemie in the eastern part of the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). This species is endemic to the region and differs from any of the other species by its fernlike lithophytic habit and lack of latex. A description and illustration of this species is presented here. Dorstenialuamensis M.E.Leal inhabits moist and shady vertical rock faces close to small waterfalls in the forest; the species is distributed in small populations within the type locality, and merits the conservation status of endangered (EN). PMID:25383011

  18. Co-infections in Visceral Pentastomiasis, Democratic Republic of the Congo.

    PubMed

    Tappe, Dennis; Sulyok, Mihály; Riu, Therese; Rózsa, Lajos; Bodó, Imre; Schoen, Christoph; Muntau, Birgit; Babocsay, Gergely; Hardi, Richard

    2016-08-01

    Snakeborne Armillifer pentastomiasis is an emerging human parasitic infection in rural tropical areas where snake meat is eaten. After a series of severe ocular A. grandis larval infections and anecdotal abdominal infection in Sankuru District, Democratic Republic of the Congo, during 2014-2015, we systematically investigated possible pentastomid etiology in patients who underwent surgery in the region. Histologic and molecular analyses by established pentastomid 18S rDNA- and newly developed Armillifer-specific cytochrome oxidase PCRs revealed larval pentastomid lesions in 3.7% of patients. Some persons had A. armillatus and A. grandis co-infections. Another pentastomid larva, Raillietiella sp., was molecularly detected in 1 patient who had concomitant A. grandis and A. armillatus infection. The PCRs used were suitable for detecting pentastomid species even in highly necrotic tissues. Phylogenetic analyses of Armillifer cytochrome oxidase genes detected multiple local strains.

  19. Co-infections in Visceral Pentastomiasis, Democratic Republic of the Congo

    PubMed Central

    Sulyok, Mihály; Riu, Therese; Rózsa, Lajos; Bodó, Imre; Schoen, Christoph; Muntau, Birgit; Babocsay, Gergely; Hardi, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Snakeborne Armillifer pentastomiasis is an emerging human parasitic infection in rural tropical areas where snake meat is eaten. After a series of severe ocular A. grandis larval infections and anecdotal abdominal infection in Sankuru District, Democratic Republic of the Congo, during 2014–2015, we systematically investigated possible pentastomid etiology in patients who underwent surgery in the region. Histologic and molecular analyses by established pentastomid 18S rDNA- and newly developed Armillifer-specific cytochrome oxidase PCRs revealed larval pentastomid lesions in 3.7% of patients. Some persons had A. armillatus and A. grandis co-infections. Another pentastomid larva, Raillietiella sp., was molecularly detected in 1 patient who had concomitant A. grandis and A. armillatus infection. The PCRs used were suitable for detecting pentastomid species even in highly necrotic tissues. Phylogenetic analyses of Armillifer cytochrome oxidase genes detected multiple local strains. PMID:27434739

  20. Dorstenia luamensis (Moraceae), a new species from eastern Democratic Republic of Congo

    PubMed Central

    Leal, Miguel E.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract A new species of Dorstenia L. (Moraceae), Dorstenia luamensis M.E.Leal, is described from the Luama Wildlife Reserve, west of Lake Tanganyika and north of the town of Kalemie in the eastern part of the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). This species is endemic to the region and differs from any of the other species by its fernlike lithophytic habit and lack of latex. A description and illustration of this species is presented here. Dorstenia luamensis M.E.Leal inhabits moist and shady vertical rock faces close to small waterfalls in the forest; the species is distributed in small populations within the type locality, and merits the conservation status of endangered (EN). PMID:25383011

  1. Battles on women's bodies: war, rape and traumatisation in eastern Democratic Republic of Congo.

    PubMed

    Trenholm, J E; Olsson, P; Ahlberg, B M

    2011-01-01

    Rape has been used as a weapon in the conflict in eastern Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) in unprecedented ways. Research into the phenomenon of war-rape is limited, particularly in this context. The aim of this study was to explore perceptions of local leaders in eastern DRC concerning rape and raped women in the war context. Local leaders were chosen for their ability to both reflect and influence their constituencies. Interviews were conducted with 10 local leaders and transcripts subjected to qualitative content analysis. The study suggests that mass raping and the methods of perpetration created a chaos effectively destroying communities and the entire society and that humanitarian aid was often inappropriate. Furthermore, an exclusive focus on raped women missed the extent of traumatisation entire communities suffered. More significantly, the lack of political will, corruption, greed and inappropriate aid creates a tangled web serving to intensify the war. This complexity has implications for humanitarian interventions including public health.

  2. Co-infections in Visceral Pentastomiasis, Democratic Republic of the Congo.

    PubMed

    Tappe, Dennis; Sulyok, Mihály; Riu, Therese; Rózsa, Lajos; Bodó, Imre; Schoen, Christoph; Muntau, Birgit; Babocsay, Gergely; Hardi, Richard

    2016-08-01

    Snakeborne Armillifer pentastomiasis is an emerging human parasitic infection in rural tropical areas where snake meat is eaten. After a series of severe ocular A. grandis larval infections and anecdotal abdominal infection in Sankuru District, Democratic Republic of the Congo, during 2014-2015, we systematically investigated possible pentastomid etiology in patients who underwent surgery in the region. Histologic and molecular analyses by established pentastomid 18S rDNA- and newly developed Armillifer-specific cytochrome oxidase PCRs revealed larval pentastomid lesions in 3.7% of patients. Some persons had A. armillatus and A. grandis co-infections. Another pentastomid larva, Raillietiella sp., was molecularly detected in 1 patient who had concomitant A. grandis and A. armillatus infection. The PCRs used were suitable for detecting pentastomid species even in highly necrotic tissues. Phylogenetic analyses of Armillifer cytochrome oxidase genes detected multiple local strains. PMID:27434739

  3. [Parasitologic survey of schistosomiasis due to Schistosoma mansoni in Katana, Democratic Republic of Congo].

    PubMed

    Baluku, B; Bagalwa, M; Bisimwa, B

    2000-01-01

    It is now widely recognized that development of irrigation projects in endemic areas for schistosomiasis invariably leads to a recrudescence of the disease by increasing the habitat of the intermediate snail host of Schistosoma mansoni. This fatality was again demonstrated by experience in the Katana region of the Democratic Republic of Congo where development of 43 fresh water reservoirs for raising Tilapia nilotica led to multiplication of Biomphalaria pfeifferi. A parasitological study was conducted in three new villages around these basins and in neighboring villages. Stool examinations were performed in a total of 787 people. Infestation rates were 8.1 p. 100 and 4 p. 100 respectively. Infestation exceeded 25 p. 100 in children between the ages of 10 and 14 years. These findings underline the need for preventive measures.

  4. Melarsoprol versus eflornithine for treating late-stage Gambian trypanosomiasis in the Republic of the Congo.

    PubMed Central

    Balasegaram, Manica; Harris, Steve; Checchi, Francesco; Ghorashian, Sara; Hamel, Catherine; Karunakara, Unni

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare the effectiveness of melarsoprol and eflornithine in treating late-stage Gambian trypanosomiasis in the Republic of the Congo. METHODS: We analysed the outcomes of death during treatment and relapse within 1 year of discharge for 288 patients treated with eflornithine, 311 patients treated with the standard melarsoprol regimen and 62 patients treated with a short-course (10-day) melarsoprol regimen between April 2001 and April 2005. FINDINGS: A total of 1.7% (5/288) of patients treated with eflornithine died compared with 4.8% (15/311) of those treated with standard melarsoprol and 6.5% (4/62) of those treated with short-course melarsoprol. Patients treated with eflornithine tended to be younger and were more likely to have trypanosomes or higher white blood cell counts in their cerebrospinal fluid. The cumulated incidence of relapse among patients who attended at least one follow-up visit 1 year after discharge was 8.1% (11/136) for those treated with eflornithine, 14% (36/258) for those treated with standard melarsoprol and 15.5% (9/58) for those treated with shortcourse melarsoprol. In a multivariate analysis, when compared with eflornithine, standard melarsoprol was found to be a risk factor for both death (odds ratio (OR) = 2.87; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.03-8.00) and relapse (hazard ratio (HR) = 2.47; 95% CI = 1.22-5.03); when compared with eflornithine, short-course melarsoprol was also found to be a risk factor for death (OR = 3.90; 95% CI = 1.02-14.98) and relapse (HR = 6.65; 95% CI = 2.61-16.94). CONCLUSION: The effectiveness of melarsoprol treatment appears to have diminished. Eflornithine seems to be a better first-line therapy for treating late-stage Gambian trypanosomiasis in the Republic of the Congo. PMID:17128358

  5. Trace metal distributions in the sediments from river-reservoir systems: case of the Congo River and Lake Ma Vallée, Kinshasa (Democratic Republic of Congo).

    PubMed

    Mwanamoki, Paola M; Devarajan, Naresh; Niane, Birane; Ngelinkoto, Patience; Thevenon, Florian; Nlandu, José W; Mpiana, Pius T; Prabakar, Kandasamy; Mubedi, Josué I; Kabele, Christophe G; Wildi, Walter; Poté, John

    2015-01-01

    The contamination of drinking water resources by toxic metals is a major problem in many parts of the world, particularly in dense populated areas of developing countries that lack wastewater treatment facilities. The present study characterizes the recent evolution with time of some contaminants deposited in the Congo River and Lake Ma Vallée, both located in the vicinity of the large city of Kinshasa, capital of Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). Physicochemical parameters including grain size distribution, organic matter and trace element concentrations were measured in sediment cores sampled from Congo River (n = 3) and Lake Ma Vallée (n = 2). The maximum concentration of trace elements in sediment profiles was found in the samples from the sites of Pool Malebo, with the values of 107.2, 111.7, 88.6, 39.3, 15.4, 6.1 and 4.7 mg kg(-1) for Cr, Ni, Zn, Cu, Pb, As and Hg, respectively. This site, which is characterized by intense human activities, is especially well known for the construction of numerous boats that are used for regular navigation on Congo River. Concerning Lake Ma Vallée, the concentration of all metals are generally low, with maximum values of 26.3, 53.6, 16.1, 15.3, 6.5 and 1.8 mg kg(-1) for Cr, Ni, Zn, Cu, Pb and As, respectively. However, the comparison of the metal profiles retrieved from the different sampled cores also reveals specific variations. The results of this study point out the sediment pollution by toxic metals in the Congo River Basin. This research presents useful tools for the evaluation of sediment contamination of river-reservoir systems.

  6. A biomass representative land cover classification for the Democratic Republic of Congo derived from the Forets D'Afrique Central Evaluee par Teledetection (FACET) data set

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molinario, G.; Hansen, M.; Potapov, P.; Altstatt, A. L.; Justice, C. O.

    2012-12-01

    The FACET forest cover and forest cover loss 2000-2005-2010 data set has been produced by South Dakota State University, the University of Maryland and the Kinshasa-based Observatoire Satellital des Forets D'Afrique Central (OSFAC) with funding from the USAID Central African Regional Program for the Environment (CARPE). The product is now available or being finalized for the DRC, the ROC and Gabon with plans to complete all Congo Basin countries. While FACET provides unprecedented synoptic detail in the extent of Congo Basin forest and the forest cover loss, additional information is required to stratify land cover into types indicative of biomass content. Analysis of the FACET patterns of deforestation, more detailed remote sensing analysis of biophysical attributes within the FACET land cover classes and GIS-derived classes of degradation obtained through variable distance buffers based on relevant literature and ground truth data are combined with the existing FACET classes to produce a ranking of land cover from low biomass to high biomass for the Democratic Republic of Congo. The resulting classification can be used in all Reduced Emissions from Degradation and Deforestation (REDD) pre-inventory phases when baseline forest cover needs to be known and the location and amount of forest biomass inventory plots needs to be designed. FACET cover loss classes were kept in the classification and can provide the Monitoring, Reporting and Verification tools needed for REDD projects. The project will be demonstrated for the Maringa Lopori Wamba Landscape of the DRC where this work was funded by the African Wildlife Foundation to support the design of a REDD pilot project.

  7. Prevalence of vitamin A deficiency in pregnant and lactating women in the Republic of Congo.

    PubMed

    Samba, Claude; Tchibindat, Félicité; Gourmel, Bernard; Houzé, Patrick; Malvy, Denis

    2013-03-01

    Vitamin A status in a sample of pregnant and lactating women living in several representative regions of Congo was assessed and compared between August and September 2004. This survey was conducted using a randomized two-stage cluster-sampling method with stratification on 90 clusters, each consisting of at least 15 women. Vitamin A status was determined in a total of 1,054 individuals, using the impression cytology with transfer (ICT) test, the modified relative dose response test (MRDR test) on dried blood spots (DBS), and clinical examination to detect signs of xerophthalmia. The clinical criterion defining vitamin A deficiency was the presence of active xerophthalmia (Bitot's spots [X1B]), active corneal disease), and/or night blindness (XN stage). The prevalence of clinical signs of stage XN and X1B xerophthalmia in the Republic of Congo was found to be 16% and 19% respectively. The prevalence of clinical signs (X1B) was greater in the rural north than in urban areas, with a gradient running from urban (5%) to rural area (33%); 27% of all the ICT tests showed that the subjects were suffering from vitamin A deficiency. The deficiency rates were significantly higher (p < 0.001) in urban surroundings (Brazzaville) than in the rural northern regions. The biochemical MRDR test showed the presence of vitamin A deficiency (> or = 0.06) in 26% of the mothers in Brazzaville compared to 6% in the town of Kouilou; 44% of the women had retinol levels of < 10 microg/dL in the rural north whereas these percentages were significantly lower in the urban areas surveyed (chi-square = 62.30, p < 0.001). A significant correlation was found to exist (p < 0.001) between the ICT test and the MRDR test on DBS. In the population as a whole, 30% of the mothers suffering from malarial attack had abnormally low MRDR levels (> or = 0.06) compared to no malaria. The results of the present study confirm that vitamin A deficiency is a serious public-health issue in pregnant and lactating

  8. Metasomatic mantle origin for Mbuji-Mayi and Kundelungu garnet and clinopyroxene megacrysts (Democratic Republic of Congo)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pivin, M.; Féménias, O.; Demaiffe, D.

    2009-11-01

    Mbuji-Mayi (east Kasai province) and Kundelungu (Shaba province) are the two kimberlite fields known for a long time in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). Mbuji-Mayi intrudes the Archean basement (Congo-Kasai Craton) and is diamond-rich, whereas Kundelungu cuts across Paleoproterozoic basement (Bangweulu block) and is diamond-poor. The megacryst suites (or discrete nodule suites) of both fields include garnet and clinopyroxene megacrysts. The pyrope-rich megacrysts can be subdivided in three groups on the basis of their Cr contents: low-Cr (0.00-1.79 wt.%Cr 2O 3; Mg #: 72.8-84.0); medium-Cr (1.93-5.16 wt.%Cr 2O 3; Mg #: 76.2-86.3) and high-Cr (5.42-7.10 wt.%Cr 2O 3; Mg #: 79.2-84.6). There are no significant geochemical differences between the garnets from Mbuji-Mayi and from Kundelungu. Polymineral inclusions composed of K-rich hydrated phases (phlogopite and amphibole), fresh glass and Cr-spinels are identified in garnets from all three groups, in both localities, which suggest a common origin. Two groups of diopside megacrysts from Mbuji-Mayi are distinguished on the basis of their Ca content: low-Ca (Ca #: 39.5-42.1; 0.61-0.92 wt.%Cr 2O 3) and medium-Ca (Ca #: 44.1-48.5; 0.41-1.09 wt.%Cr 2O 3); they differ from a third group of high-Cr diopsides (Ca #: 47.1-49.4; 1.31-2.77 wt.%Cr 2O 3). The major element compositions of DRC megacrysts are distinct from those of many other megacryst suites worldwide: the clinopyroxenes are lower in Fe and Ti and higher in Mg and the garnets contain more Cr and significantly less Ti, Fe and Al. These DRC megacryst compositions are intermediate between those of peridotite minerals and those of kimberlite megacrysts from other localities. Most garnets have "normal" REE profiles ((La/Yb) N = 0.003-0.027), whereas clinopyroxenes display relative LREE enrichment ((La/Yb) N = 5.1-43.2). The REE patterns of garnet and clinopyroxene megacrysts are similar to those from metasomatized South African mantle lherzolites. The differences

  9. Phytochemical analysis and biological evaluation of selected African propolis samples from Cameroon and Congo.

    PubMed

    Papachroni, Danai; Graikou, Konstantia; Kosalec, Ivan; Damianakos, Harilaos; Ingram, Verina; Chinou, Ioanna

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was the chemical analysis of four selected samples of African propolis (Congo and Cameroon) and their biological evaluation. Twenty-one secondary metabolites belonging to four different chemical groups were isolated from the 70% ethanolic extracts of propolis and their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectral evidence. Three triterpenes and two diprenyl-flavonoids were identified from Congo propolis, which has been investigated for the first time, while thirteen triterpenes, three diprenyl-flavonoids, two monoterpenic alcohols and one fatty acid ester have been identified from Cameroon propolis samples. To our knowledge, the identified diprenyl-flavonoids, as well as five of the isolated and determined triterpenes, are reported for the first time in propolis. Moreover, the total polyphenol content was estimated in all extracts and the antimicrobial activities of all four extracts were studied against six Gram-positive and -negative bacteria and three pathogenic fungi, showing an interesting antibacterial profile.

  10. Collaborative Medical Engagement and Needs Assessment in the Democratic Republic of the Congo: A Preliminary Report from Muanda

    PubMed Central

    Lesho, Emil; Okito, Edmond Amisi; Mann, Kelly; McCullough, Michael; Hesse, Elisabeth

    2014-01-01

    The Democratic Republic of the Congo is the second largest and fourth most populous country in Africa. More than two decades of ongoing conflicts have degraded its healthcare system. A broad range of tropical diseases, along with opportunities for collaborative medical engagements (CMEs), are prevalent. However, reports from such events in this country are sparse. In June 2013, a CME was conducted in the western town of Muanda. Twenty-two hours of didactic sessions were collaboratively presented, and 158 patients were collaboratively evaluated. Durable dental and respiratory equipment, infrastructure improvements, and training opportunities were the top needs identified by the providers. Whether the regional referral hospital received sustainable benefit remains under investigation. However, the approach and needs assessment described herein provide a framework for future engagements or assistance. This CME established a precedence of medical partnership in the region because it led to the largest multidisciplinary joint collaboration in the history of the Democratic Republic of the Congo. PMID:24534813

  11. Intellectual and developmental disabilities in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of the Congo: causality and implications for resilience and support.

    PubMed

    Aldersey, Heather M; Turnbull, H Rutherford; Turnbull, Ann P

    2014-06-01

    This article reports results of a 7-month qualitative study on intellectual and related developmental disabilities in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of the Congo, particularly as they relate to the causes and meaning of intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD). This study raises important questions related to the understanding of resilience of persons affected by IDD and the nature and purpose of support they use or desire.

  12. Spatial Patterns of Forest Cover Loss in the Democratic Republic of Congo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molinario, G.; Hansen, M.; Potapov, P.; Justice, C. O.

    2013-12-01

    Three groups of metrics of spatial patterns of forest cover loss were calculated for the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). While other studies had previously assessed landscape patterns in the Congo Basin, they had done so for small areas due to data limitations. The input data for this study, the Forets d;Afrique Central Evaluee par Teledetection(FACET), allowed the analysis to be performed at the national level. FACET is a landsat-scale dataset giving an unprecedented synoptic view of forest cover and forest cover loss for the DRC for three time periods: 2000, 2005 and 2010. The three groups of metrics evaluated the following spatial characteristics of forest cover loss for the same standard 1.5km unit of area: proportions of typologies of forest lost, forest fragmentation and proximity of forest loss patches from other land cover types. Results indicate that there are several different typologies of forest cover loss in the DRC, and offer quantitative explanations of these differences, providing a valuable locally-relevant tool for land use planning, available at the national level. Spatial patterns of forest cover loss highlight differences between areas of high primary forest loss due to agriculture conversion in frontier deforestation, such as in the east of the country, areas of equivalent primary and secondary forest loss emanating from the rural complex and areas of variable proportions of primary and secondary forest loss but important ecological repercussions of forest fragmentation due to isolated, but systematic forest perforations. Typologies of spatial patterns of forest cover loss are presented as well as their correlated drivers, and ecological, conservation and land use planning considerations are discussed.

  13. Mapping Biomass for REDD in the Largest Forest of Central Africa: the Democratic Republic of Congo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shapiro, Aurelie; Saatchi, Sassan

    2014-05-01

    With the support of the International Climate Initiative (ICI) of the Federal Ministry of the Environment, Conservation, and Nuclear Security, the implementation of the German Development Bank KfW, the World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF) Germany, the University of California Los Angeles (UCLA) and local DRC partners will produce a national scale biomass map for the entire forest coverage of the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) along with feasibility assessments of different forest protection measures within a framework of a REDD+ model project. The « Carbon Map and Model (CO2M&M) » project will produce a national forest biomass map for the DRC, which will enable quantitative assessments of carbon stocks and emissions in the largest forest of the Congo Basin. This effort will support the national REDD (Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Degradation) program in DRC, which plays a major role in sustainable development and poverty alleviation. This map will be developed from field data, complemented by airborne LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) and aerial photos, systematically sampled throughout the forests of the DRC and up-scaled to satellite images to accurately estimate carbon content in all forested areas. The second component of the project is to develop specific approaches for model REDD projects in key landscapes. This project represents the largest LiDAR-derived mapping effort in Africa, under unprecedented logistical constraints, which will provide one of the poorest nations in the world with the richest airborne and satellites derived datasets for analyzing forest structure, biomass and biodiversity.

  14. Charcoal records reveal past occurrences of disturbances in the forests of the Kisangani region, Democratic Republic of the Congo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tshibamba Mukendi, John; Hubau, Wannes; Ntahobavuka, Honorine; Boyemba Bosela, Faustin; De Cannière, Charles; Beeckman, Hans

    2014-05-01

    Past disturbances have modified local density, structure and floristic composition of Central African rainforests. As such, these perturbations represent a driving force for forest dynamics and they were presumably at the origin of present-day forest mosaics. One of the most prominent disturbances within the forest is fire, leaving behind charcoal as a witness of past forest dynamics. Quantification and identification of ancient charcoal fragments found in soil layers (= pedoanthracology) allows a detailed reconstruction of forest history, including the possible occurrence of past perturbations. The primary objective of this study is to present palaeoenvironmental evidence for the existence of past disturbances in the forests of the Kisangani region (Democratic Republic of the Congo) using a pedoanthracological approach. We quantified and identified charcoal fragments from pedoanthracological excavations in the Yangambi, Yoko, Masako and Kole forest regions. Charcoal sampling was conducted in pit intervals of 10 cm, whereby pottery fragments were also registered and quantified. Floristic identifications were conducted using former protocols based on wood anatomy, which is largely preserved after charcoalification. 14 excavations were conducted and charcoal was found in most pit intervals. Specifically, 52 out of 56 sampled intervals from the Yangambi forest contained charcoal, along with 47 pit intervals from the Yoko forest reserve, 34 pit intervals from the Masako forest and 16 from the Kole forest. Highest specific anthracomasses were recorded in Yoko (167 mg charcoal per kg soil), followed by Yangambi (133 mg/kg), Masako (71,89 mg/kg) and finally Kole (42,4 mg/kg). Charcoal identifications point at a manifest presence of the family of Fabaceae (Caesalpinioideae). This family is characteristic for the tropical humid rainforest. The presence of charcoal fragments from these taxa, associated with pottery sherds on different depths within the profiles, suggests

  15. Description and consequences of sexual violence in Ituri province, Democratic Republic of Congo

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The war in eastern Democratic Republic of Congo has been the subject of numerous studies related to the problem of sexual violence. Historically, such violence is known to be part of strategic war plans to conquer and destroy communities, but it is now unfortunately prevalent in times of relative calm. Methods We describe the characteristics and consequences of sexual violence in Ituri province of Democratic Republic of Congo through the retrospective analysis of 2,565 patients who received medical care in the Médecins Sans Frontières sexual violence clinic in the capital of Ituri province, Bunia, between September 2005 and December 2006. Using a standardised questionnaire, we report patients' demographics, number and status of aggressor(s), forced detention and violent threats among other variables for all patients presenting for medical consultation after a sexually violent event during this period. Results Ninety-six percent of our cohort were female and 29.3% minors, 18-29 years was the most represented age group. Acts of sexual violence (n = 2,565) were reported to be mainly perpetrated by men with military affiliations (73%), although civilians were implicated in 21% of crimes. The attack was perpetrated by two or more persons in over 74% of cases and most commonly perpetrators were unknown armed males, (87.2%). Male victims accounted for 4% (n = 103) of our cohort. Forty-eight percent of our patients reported being attacked whilst performing daily domestic duties outside the home and 18% of victims being detained by their perpetrators, the majority of whom were held for less than 2 weeks (61.6%). Conclusions The characteristics of sexually violent acts in Ituri province during this period cannot be simply explained as a 'weapon of war' as described in the literature, meaning the use of sexual violence within a military strategy where it is employed under the orders of a commander to harm a particular community. Whilst the majority of aggressions

  16. Crystal structure study of a cobaltoan dolomite from Kolwezi, Democratic Republic of Congo.

    PubMed

    Perchiazzi, Natale

    2015-03-01

    A structural study has been undertaken on a cobaltoan dolomite, with chemical formula CaMg0.83Co0.17(CO3)2 (cal-cium magnesium cobalt dicarbonate), from Kolwezi, Democratic Republic of Congo. Pale-pink euhedral cobaltoan dolomite was associated with kolwezite [(Cu1.33Co0.67)(CO3)(OH)2] and cobaltoan malachite [(Cu,Co)2(CO3)(OH)2]. A crystal with a Co:Mg ratio of 1:5.6 (SEM/EDAX measurement), twinned on (11 -2 0) was used for crystal structural refinement. The refinement of the structural model of Reeder & Wenk [Am. Mineral. (1983 ▶), 68, 769-776; Ca at site 3a with site symmetry -3; Mg site at site 3b with site symmetry -3; C at site 6c with site symmetry 3; O at site 18f with site symmetry 1] showed that Co is totally incorporated in the Mg site, with refined occupancy Mg0.83Co0.17, which compares with Mg0.85Co0.15 from chemical data. The Co substitution reflects in the expansion of the cell volume, with a pronounced increasing of the c cell parameter. PMID:25844202

  17. Seed predation by bonobos (Pan paniscus) at Kokolopori, Democratic Republic of the Congo.

    PubMed

    Georgiev, Alexander V; Thompson, Melissa Emery; Lokasola, Albert Lotana; Wrangham, Richard W

    2011-10-01

    We compared the feeding ecology of the Hali-Hali community of bonobos (Pan paniscus) at Kokolopori, a new field site in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, between two periods 5 months apart. During the first study period (SP1), bonobos relied heavily on the dry seeds of Guibourtia (Caesalpiniaceae), mostly eaten from the ground. The second period (SP2) was characterized by high consumption of ripe tree fruit. Terrestrial herbaceous vegetation (THV) contributed little to the diet in either study period. The low amount of ripe fruit and the high reliance on seeds in the diet during SP1 were associated with high cortisol production and low levels of urinary C-peptide in females, suggesting nutritional stress. However, female gregariousness was not constrained during the fruit-poor period, probably because high seed abundance on the ground ameliorated scramble feeding competition. This is the first description of extensive seed predation by bonobos. It suggests that bonobo feeding ecology may be more similar to that of chimpanzees than previously recognized.

  18. [How to optimize the efficiency of international sanitary aid in the Democratic Republic of Congo].

    PubMed

    Kuwekita, Joseph Manzambi; Bruyère, Olivier; Guillaume, Michèle; Gosset, Christiane; Reginster, Jean-Yves

    2015-01-01

    Analysis of national health insurance accounts in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) clearly shows the importance of international sanitary aid, particularlyfor thefunding ofgeneral referral hospitals, the management of inpatients with AIDS, administration of health zones andfunding of preventive care providers. It The targeted changes described in this article could possibly optimize the efficiency ofinternational aidfor the DRC population, mainly for disorders considered to be a health care priority (i.e. malaria, AIDS, tuberculosis) as well as in the fight against malnutrition. Recommendations target the implementation of procedures for control offood chain security, changes in lifestyle and dietary habits of the population but also comprise extensive restructuring of the health care administration. A dramatic change of the structure in charge of drug distribution as well as eradication of the transfer of part of public health structure income to public health administrative personnel could result in the allocation of significantfunds to thefight against the most important diseases. Better collaboration between the various departments in charge of health care professional training, together with enhanced responsibility of health care personnel is essential. Independent and respected non-governmental organizations should be involved in an audit process, targeting all aspects of the current DRC health system. Eventually, in an equal opportunity perspective, taking into consideration the very high degree of poverty ofDRC inhabitants, implementation of health insurance programmes, use ofgeneric drugs and generalization ofmicro-credit initiatives should also be implemented.

  19. [How to optimize the efficiency of international sanitary aid in the Democratic Republic of Congo].

    PubMed

    Kuwekita, Joseph Manzambi; Bruyère, Olivier; Guillaume, Michèle; Gosset, Christiane; Reginster, Jean-Yves

    2015-01-01

    Analysis of national health insurance accounts in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) clearly shows the importance of international sanitary aid, particularlyfor thefunding ofgeneral referral hospitals, the management of inpatients with AIDS, administration of health zones andfunding of preventive care providers. It The targeted changes described in this article could possibly optimize the efficiency ofinternational aidfor the DRC population, mainly for disorders considered to be a health care priority (i.e. malaria, AIDS, tuberculosis) as well as in the fight against malnutrition. Recommendations target the implementation of procedures for control offood chain security, changes in lifestyle and dietary habits of the population but also comprise extensive restructuring of the health care administration. A dramatic change of the structure in charge of drug distribution as well as eradication of the transfer of part of public health structure income to public health administrative personnel could result in the allocation of significantfunds to thefight against the most important diseases. Better collaboration between the various departments in charge of health care professional training, together with enhanced responsibility of health care personnel is essential. Independent and respected non-governmental organizations should be involved in an audit process, targeting all aspects of the current DRC health system. Eventually, in an equal opportunity perspective, taking into consideration the very high degree of poverty ofDRC inhabitants, implementation of health insurance programmes, use ofgeneric drugs and generalization ofmicro-credit initiatives should also be implemented. PMID:26164963

  20. Estimates and Determinants of Sexual Violence Against Women in the Democratic Republic of Congo

    PubMed Central

    Palermo, Tia; Bredenkamp, Caryn

    2011-01-01

    Objectives. We sought to provide data-based estimates of sexual violence in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) and describe risk factors for such violence. Methods. We used nationally representative household survey data from 3436 women selected to answer the domestic violence module who took part in the 2007 DRC Demographic and Health Survey along with population estimates to estimate levels of sexual violence. We used multivariate logistic regression to analyze correlates of sexual violence. Results. Approximately 1.69 to 1.80 million women reported having been raped in their lifetime (with 407 397–433 785 women reporting having been raped in the preceding 12 months), and approximately 3.07 to 3.37 million women reported experiencing intimate partner sexual violence. Reports of sexual violence were largely independent of individual-level background factors. However, compared with women in Kinshasa, women in Nord-Kivu were significantly more likely to report all types of sexual violence. Conclusions. Not only is sexual violence more generalized than previously thought, but our findings suggest that future policies and programs should focus on abuse within families and eliminate the acceptance of and impunity surrounding sexual violence nationwide while also maintaining and enhancing efforts to stop militias from perpetrating rape. PMID:21566049

  1. Prevalence of River Epilepsy in the Orientale Province in the Democratic Republic of the Congo

    PubMed Central

    Colebunders, Robert; Tepage, Floribert; Rood, Ente; Mandro, Michel; Abatih, Emmanuel Nji; Musinya, Gisele; Mambandu, Germain; Kabeya, José; Komba, Michel; Levick, Bethany; Mokili, John L; Laudisoit, Anne

    2016-01-01

    Background An increased prevalence of epilepsy has been reported in many onchocerciasis endemic areas. Objective To determine the prevalence and distribution of epilepsy in an onchocerciasis endemic region in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC). Design/Methods An epilepsy prevalence study was carried out in 2014, in two localities of the Bas-Uélé district, an onchocerciasis endemic region in the Orientale Province of the DRC. Risk factors for epilepsy were identified using a random effects logistic regression model and the distribution of epilepsy cases was investigated using the Moran’s I statistic of spatial auto-correlation. Results Among the 12,776 individuals of Dingila, 373 (2.9%) individuals with epilepsy were identified. In a house-to-house survey in Titule, 68 (2.3%) of the 2,908 people who participated in the survey were found to present episodes of epilepsy. Epilepsy showed a marked spatial pattern with clustering of cases occurring within and between adjacent households. Individual risk of epilepsy was found to be associated with living close to the nearest fast flowing river where blackflies (Diptera: Simuliidae)–the vector of Onchocerca volvulus–oviposit and breed. Conclusions The prevalence of epilepsy in villages in the Bas-Uélé district in the DRC was higher than in non-onchocerciasis endemic regions in Africa. Living close to a blackflies infested river was found to be a risk factor for epilepsy. PMID:27139245

  2. Intimate partner violence, modern contraceptive use and conflict in the Democratic Republic of the Congo.

    PubMed

    Kidman, Rachel; Palermo, Tia; Bertrand, Jane

    2015-05-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) has been found to be negatively associated with contraceptive use in developing countries, but evidence from Africa is mixed. This study examines whether the above association differs in conflict settings, which have the potential for both higher levels of violence and more limited access to family planning. We use nationally representative data from the Democratic Republic of the Congo to examine the relationship between individual- and community-level IPV and modern contraceptive use, and to explore whether conflict modifies the relationship between IPV and contraceptive use. Nationally, only 6% of women reported current modern contraceptive use, while 53% reported experiencing physical IPV and 32% reported experiencing sexual IPV. In multivariate models, we found that individual-level sexual IPV was positively associated with current using modern contraceptive use, but that a combined measure of physical and sexual IPV did not demonstrate a similar association. Community-level IPV was not associated with individual-level contraceptive use. Conflict exposure was neither an independent predictor nor modifier of contraceptive use. Results suggest improved access to family planning should be a priority for programming in DRC, and efforts should ensure that sufficient resources are allocated towards the reproductive health needs of women in both conflict and non-conflict regions.

  3. Ebola virus disease in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, 1976-2014

    PubMed Central

    Rosello, Alicia; Mossoko, Mathias; Flasche, Stefan; Van Hoek, Albert Jan; Mbala, Placide; Camacho, Anton; Funk, Sebastian; Kucharski, Adam; Ilunga, Benoit Kebela; Edmunds, W John; Piot, Peter; Baguelin, Marc; Muyembe Tamfum, Jean-Jacques

    2015-01-01

    The Democratic Republic of the Congo has experienced the most outbreaks of Ebola virus disease since the virus' discovery in 1976. This article provides for the first time a description and a line list for all outbreaks in this country, comprising 996 cases. Compared to patients over 15 years old, the odds of dying were significantly lower in patients aged 5 to 15 and higher in children under five (with 100% mortality in those under 2 years old). The odds of dying increased by 11% per day that a patient was not hospitalised. Outbreaks with an initially high reproduction number, R (>3), were rapidly brought under control, whilst outbreaks with a lower initial R caused longer and generally larger outbreaks. These findings can inform the choice of target age groups for interventions and highlight the importance of both reducing the delay between symptom onset and hospitalisation and rapid national and international response. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.09015.001 PMID:26525597

  4. Occupational radiation exposures of artisans mining columbite-tantalite in the eastern Democratic Republic of Congo.

    PubMed

    Mustapha, A O; Mbuzukongira, P; Mangala, M J

    2007-06-01

    Artisans in Masisi and other parts of the North Kivu province in the eastern Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) mine columbite-tantalite mineral ores (also called 'coltan') for the tantalum content. The potential occupational radiation exposures in the course of this operation, due to the presence of naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM), have been investigated in this screening survey. Activity concentrations of the naturally occurring radionuclides in samples of coltan were measured using gamma-ray spectrometry. The average values in Bq g(-1) are 10.75 +/- 5.11 for (238)U, 7.06 +/- 3.39 for (226)Ra, 1.75 +/- 0.85 for (232)Th, and 1.63 +/- 0.52 for (40)K. Based on these values and the working scenarios involved in artisanal coltan mining, the occupational doses that may accrue from a variety of exposure pathways were determined by model calculations. The results, assuming conservative dust load and dilution factors, indicate that grinding and sieving coltan can give rise to high occupational doses, up to 18 mSv per annum on average. PMID:17664663

  5. Human rabies: a descriptive observation of 21 children in Kinshasa, the Democratic Republic of Congo

    PubMed Central

    Muyila, Delphin I; Aloni, Michel N; Lose-Ekanga, Marie Josée; Nzita, Jules M; Kalala-Mbikay, Alexandre; Bongo, Henri L; Esako, Mathilde N; Malonga-Biapi, Jean Pierre; Mputu-Dibwe, BenoÎt; Aloni, Muriel L; Ekila, Mathilde B

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Human rabies has recently emerged as a significant public health threat in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). However, there is little epidemiological information on human rabies especially in children. Methods: We performed at Pediatrics Department of General Reference hospital of Kinshasa between December 2008 and July 2009, a retrospective study to assess the incidence and to describe their clinical aspects and outcome. Results: A total of 21 cases were observed, rather three cases per month. There were 12 boys (57.1%) and 9 girls (42.9%). Biting animal was found to be dog in all cases (100%). The dog was not immunized in all of cases. On admission, all patients (100%) showed furious rabies manifestations. Only two (9.5%) had their wounds treated and received an anti-rabies vaccine (ARV) after the bite incident. Two (9.5%) patients received rabies immunoglobulin (RIG). The case-fatality rate was 100%. Conclusions: The disease emerges as a new major public health problem because of a lack of knowledge regarding rabies risk, the poor management of dog bites. Preventative vaccination for rabies should be recommended in the population of Kinshasa, area at high risk to contract rabies, particularly in children. PMID:25417907

  6. Late Stone Age human remains from Ishango (Democratic Republic of Congo): New insights on Late Pleistocene modern human diversity in Africa.

    PubMed

    Crevecoeur, I; Brooks, A; Ribot, I; Cornelissen, E; Semal, P

    2016-07-01

    Although questions of modern human origins and dispersal are subject to intense research within and outside Africa, the processes of modern human diversification during the Late Pleistocene are most often discussed within the context of recent human genetic data. This situation is due largely to the dearth of human fossil remains dating to the final Pleistocene in Africa and their almost total absence from West and Central Africa, thus limiting our perception of modern human diversification within Africa before the Holocene. Here, we present a morphometric comparative analysis of the earliest Late Pleistocene modern human remains from the Central African site of Ishango in the Democratic Republic of Congo. The early Late Stone Age layer (eLSA) of this site, dated to the Last Glacial Maximum (25-20 Ky), contains more than one hundred fragmentary human remains. The exceptional associated archaeological context suggests these remains derived from a community of hunter-fisher-gatherers exhibiting complex social and cognitive behaviors including substantial reliance on aquatic resources, development of fishing technology, possible mathematical notations and repetitive use of space, likely on a seasonal basis. Comparisons with large samples of Late Pleistocene and early Holocene modern human fossils from Africa and Eurasia show that the Ishango human remains exhibit distinctive characteristics and a higher phenotypic diversity in contrast to recent African populations. In many aspects, as is true for the inner ear conformation, these eLSA human remains have more affinities with Middle to early Late Pleistocene fossils worldwide than with extant local African populations. In addition, cross-sectional geometric properties of the long bones are consistent with archaeological evidence suggesting reduced terrestrial mobility resulting from greater investment in and use of aquatic resources. Our results on the Ishango human remains provide insights into past African modern

  7. Timeliness of yellow fever surveillance, Central African Republic.

    PubMed

    Rachas, Antoine; Nakouné, Emmanuel; Bouscaillou, Julie; Paireau, Juliette; Selekon, Benjamin; Senekian, Dominique; Fontanet, Arnaud; Kazanji, Mirdad

    2014-06-01

    During January 2007-July 2012, a total of 3,220 suspected yellow fever cases were reported in the Central African Republic; 55 were confirmed and 11 case-patients died. Mean delay between onset of jaundice and case confirmation was 16.6 days. Delay between disease onset and blood collection could be reduced by increasing awareness of the population.

  8. Pox-like lesions and haemorrhagic fever in two concurrent cases in the Central African Republic: case investigation and management in difficult circumstances

    PubMed Central

    Froeschl, Guenter; Kayembe, Pitchou Kasongo

    2015-01-01

    Cases of monkeypox in humans are frequently reported from the Democratic Republic of Congo. The few reports from the Central African Republic have been limited to cases in the far South closely bordering the Congos. Team members of an international medical organisation have suspected clinically two human cases of MPX, associated with clinical signs of coagulopathy and haemorrhage in the North of the country. Key findings were history of a squirrel, fever and vesicular dermal eruptions. Subsequently patients developed profuse epistaxis and hematemesis, associated with clinical signs of shock. Both patients were isolated and treated symptomatically. Samples were sent to a regional reference laboratory, who initially issued a confirmation of the suspected diagnosis of MPX in both cases. The result was later revised, and additional analyses of samples could not confirm the diagnosis. PMID:26664524

  9. The geography of malaria genetics in the Democratic Republic of Congo: A complex and fragmented landscape.

    PubMed

    Carrel, Margaret; Patel, Jaymin; Taylor, Steve M; Janko, Mark; Mwandagalirwa, Melchior Kashamuka; Tshefu, Antoinette K; Escalante, Ananias A; McCollum, Andrea; Alam, Md Tauqeer; Udhayakumar, Venkatachalam; Meshnick, Steven; Emch, Michael

    2015-05-01

    Understanding how malaria parasites move between populations is important, particularly given the potential for malaria to be reintroduced into areas where it was previously eliminated. We examine the distribution of malaria genetics across seven sites within the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) and two nearby countries, Ghana and Kenya, in order to understand how the relatedness of malaria parasites varies across space, and whether there are barriers to the flow of malaria parasites within the DRC or across borders. Parasite DNA was retrieved from dried blood spots from 7 Demographic and Health Survey sample clusters in the DRC. Malaria genetic characteristics of parasites from Ghana and Kenya were also obtained. For each of 9 geographic sites (7 DRC, 1 Ghana and 1 Kenya), a pair-wise RST statistic was calculated, indicating the genetic distance between malaria parasites found in those locations. Mapping genetics across the spatial extent of the study area indicates a complex genetic landscape, where relatedness between two proximal sites may be relatively high (RST > 0.64) or low (RST < 0.05), and where distal sites also exhibit both high and low genetic similarity. Mantel's tests suggest that malaria genetics differ as geographic distances increase. Principal Coordinate Analysis suggests that genetically related samples are not co-located. Barrier analysis reveals no significant barriers to gene flow between locations. Malaria genetics in the DRC have a complex and fragmented landscape. Limited exchange of genes across space is reflected in greater genetic distance between malaria parasites isolated at greater geographic distances. There is, however, evidence for close genetic ties between distally located sample locations, indicating that movement of malaria parasites and flow of genes is being driven by factors other than distance decay. This research demonstrates the contributions that spatial disease ecology and landscape genetics can make to

  10. Sensibility analysis of VORIS lava-flow simulations: application to Nyamulagira volcano, Democratic Republic of Congo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Syavulisembo, A. M.; Havenith, H.-B.; Smets, B.; d'Oreye, N.; Marti, J.

    2015-03-01

    Assessment and management of volcanic risk are important scientific, economic, and political issues, especially in densely populated areas threatened by volcanoes. The Virunga area in the Democratic Republic of Congo, with over 1 million inhabitants, has to cope permanently with the threat posed by the active Nyamulagira and Nyiragongo volcanoes. During the past century, Nyamulagira erupted at intervals of 1-4 years - mostly in the form of lava flows - at least 30 times. Its summit and flank eruptions lasted for periods of a few days up to more than two years, and produced lava flows sometimes reaching distances of over 20 km from the volcano, thereby affecting very large areas and having a serious impact on the region of Virunga. In order to identify a useful tool for lava flow hazard assessment at the Goma Volcano Observatory (GVO), we tested VORIS 2.0.1 (Felpeto et al., 2007), a freely available software (http://www.gvb-csic.es) based on a probabilistic model that considers topography as the main parameter controlling lava flow propagation. We tested different Digital Elevation Models (DEM) - SRTM1, SRTM3, and ASTER GDEM - to analyze the sensibility of the input parameters of VORIS 2.0.1 in simulation of recent historical lava-flow for which the pre-eruption topography is known. The results obtained show that VORIS 2.0.1 is a quick, easy-to-use tool for simulating lava-flow eruptions and replicates to a high degree of accuracy the eruptions tested. In practice, these results will be used by GVO to calibrate VORIS model for lava flow path forecasting during new eruptions, hence contributing to a better volcanic crisis management.

  11. Sexual Violence toward Children and Youth in War-Torn Eastern Democratic Republic of Congo

    PubMed Central

    Malemo Kalisya, Luc; Lussy Justin, Paluku; Kimona, Christophe; Nyavandu, Kavira; Mukekulu Eugenie, Kamabu; Jonathan, Kasereka Muhindo Lusi; Claude, Kasereka Masumbuko; Hawkes, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Background The epidemic of gender-based violence in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) has garnered popular media attention, but is incompletely described in the medical literature to date. In particular, the relative importance of militarized compared to civilian rape and the impact on vulnerable populations merits further study. We describe a retrospective case series of sexual abuse among children and youth in eastern DRC. Methods Medical records of patients treated for sexual assault at HEAL Africa Hospital, Goma, DRC between 2006 and 2008 were reviewed. Information extracted from the chart record was summarized using descriptive statistics, with comparative statistics to examine differences between pediatric (≤18 yrs) and adult patients. Findings 440 pediatric and 54 adult sexual abuse cases were identified. Children and youth were more often assaulted by someone known to the family (74% vs 30%, OR 6.7 [95%CI 3.6–12], p<0.001), and less frequently by military personnel (13% vs 48%, OR 0.14 [95%CI 0.075–0.26], p<0.001). Delayed presentation for medical care (>72 hours after the assault) was more common in pediatric patients (53% vs 33%, OR 2.2 [95%CI 1.2–4.0], p = 0.007). Physical signs of sexual abuse, including lesions of the posterior fourchette, hymeneal tears, and anal lesions, were more commonly observed in children and youth (84% vs 69%, OR 2.3 [95%CI 1.3–4.4], p = 0.006). Nine (2.9%) pediatrics patients were HIV-positive at presentation, compared to 5.3% of adults (p = 0.34). Interpretation World media attention has focused on violent rape as a weapon of war in the DRC. Our data highlight some neglected but important and distinct aspects of the ongoing epidemic of sexual violence: sexual abuse of children and youth. PMID:21267467

  12. [Blood transfusion in the Democratic Republic of Congo: efforts and challenges].

    PubMed

    Kabinda Maotela, J; Ramazani, S Y; Misingi, P; Dramaix-Wilmet, M

    2015-01-01

    The authors trace the history of blood transfusion in the Democratic Republic of Congo, as inherited through the colonial organization of the health system. The current configuration of transfusion system begins with the drafting of the national blood transfusion policy and the establishment of a national technical office within the Ministry of Health to coordinate transfusion activities and of its agents in each province. Despite countless difficulties, several positive points were noted. These involve essentially the drafting of all the necessary documents and standards and the integration of the blood safety system into the country's health system. Initially, the blood transfusion system applied a vertical approach, but with the reform of the country's health system, the performance of blood safety became transversal. In the 12 years from 2001 to 2012, it mobilized 112,882 volunteer blood donors; more than 80% of blood products were checked for safety and covered all blood needs; and 81,806 HIV infections were avoided by routine testing of blood products. During the same period, 7560 people were trained in blood transfusion. The prevalence of viral markers among donors has diminished sharply. Thus, HIV prevalence decreased from 4.7% to 2.1% between 2001 and 2012 that of hepatitis B dropped from 7.1% to 3.5% during the same period, and hepatitis C from 11.8% to 2.3% from 2004 to 2012. Despite this performance, enormous efforts are still required, for the organization of blood safety monitoring, the establishment of a safe supply of reagents and supplies, for sustaining the dynamics of voluntary associations of blood donors, and finally for providing stable funding for these blood safety activities. PMID:26742551

  13. Geospatial Information Informs Bonobo (pan Paniscus) Conservation Efforts in the Democratic Republic of the Congo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nackoney, J.; Hickey, J.; Williams, D.; Facheux, C.; Dupain, J.

    2014-12-01

    The bonobo (Pan paniscus), a great ape that is endemic to the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), has been listed as Endangered on the IUCN Red List since 2007. Hunting and habitat loss are primary threats. Two recent wars and ongoing conflicts in the DRC have resulted in political and economic instability that hampers on-the-ground work, thereby accentuating the importance of spatial data and maps as tools for monitoring threats remotely and prioritizing locations for safeguarding bonobo habitat. Several regional and rangewide efforts have leveraged the utility of existing spatial data to help focus limited resources for effective broad-scale conservation of these great apes. At local scales, we developed spatial models to identify locations of highest hunting pressure, predict future human settlement and agricultural expansion, map areas of highest conservation value to bonobos, and identify the connective corridors linking them. We identified 42 least-disturbed wildland blocks meeting the minimum home range size needed for bonobos, and 32 potential corridors. At the range-wide scale, we developed a first range-wide spatial model of suitable conditions for the bonobo; this was a major contribution to the development of a Bonobo Conservation Strategy for 2012-2022, recently published by IUCN. The model used a forest edge density metric and other biotic and abiotic variables in conjunction with bonobo nest data collected during 2003-2010 by over 40 bonobo researchers. Approximately 28% of the range was predicted suitable; of that, about 27.5% was located in official protected areas. Highlighting these examples, this presentation will discuss the conservation status of bonobos and how spatial data and models are being utilized for the formation of strategic conservation plans.

  14. Combining satellite, aerial and ground measurements to assess forest carbon stocks in Democratic Republic of Congo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beaumont, Benjamin; Bouvy, Alban; Stephenne, Nathalie; Mathoux, Pierre; Bastin, Jean-François; Baudot, Yves; Akkermans, Tom

    2015-04-01

    Monitoring tropical forest carbon stocks changes has been a rising topic in the recent years as a result of REDD+ mechanisms negotiations. Such monitoring will be mandatory for each project/country willing to benefit from these financial incentives in the future. Aerial and satellite remote sensing technologies offer cost advantages in implementing large scale forest inventories. Despite the recent progress made in the use of airborne LiDAR for carbon stocks estimation, no widely operational and cost effective method has yet been delivered for central Africa forest monitoring. Within the Maï Ndombe region of Democratic Republic of Congo, the EO4REDD project develops a method combining satellite, aerial and ground measurements. This combination is done in three steps: [1] mapping and quantifying forest cover changes using an object-based semi-automatic change detection (deforestation and forest degradation) methodology based on very high resolution satellite imagery (RapidEye), [2] developing an allometric linear model for above ground biomass measurements based on dendrometric parameters (tree crown areas and heights) extracted from airborne stereoscopic image pairs and calibrated using ground measurements of individual trees on a data set of 18 one hectare plots and [3] relating these two products to assess carbon stocks changes at a regional scale. Given the high accuracies obtained in [1] (> 80% for deforestation and 77% for forest degradation) and the suitable, but still to be improved with a larger calibrating sample, model (R² of 0.7) obtained in [2], EO4REDD products can be seen as a valid and replicable option for carbon stocks monitoring in tropical forests. Further improvements are planned to strengthen the cost effectiveness value and the REDD+ suitability in the second phase of EO4REDD. This second phase will include [A] specific model developments per forest type; [B] measurements of afforestation, reforestation and natural regeneration processes and

  15. ETHICS OF MANDATORY PREMARITAL HIV TESTING IN AFRICA: THE CASE OF GOMA, DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF CONGO

    PubMed Central

    RENNIE, STUART; MUPENDA, BAVON

    2015-01-01

    Despite decades of prevention efforts, millions of persons worldwide continue to become infected by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) every year. This urgent problem of global epidemic control has recently lead to significant changes in HIV testing policies. Provider-initiated approaches to HIV testing have been embraced by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the World Health Organization, such as those that routinely inform persons that they will be tested for HIV unless they explicitly refuse (‘opt out’). While these policies appear to increase uptake of testing, they raise a number of ethical concerns that have been debated in journals and at international AIDS conferences. However, one special form of ‘provider-initiated’ testing is being practiced and promoted in various parts of the world, and has advocates within international health agencies, but has received little attention in the bioethical literature: mandatory premarital HIV testing. This article analyses some of the key ethical issues related to mandatory premarital HIV testing in resource-poor settings with generalized HIV epidemics. We will first briefly mention some mandatory HIV premarital testing proposals, policies and practices worldwide, and offer a number of conceptual and factual distinctions to help distinguish different types of mandatory testing policies. Using premarital testing in Goma (Democratic Republic of Congo) as a point of departure, we will use influential public health ethics principles to evaluate different forms of mandatory testing. We conclude by making concrete recommendations concerning the place of mandatory premarital testing in the struggle against HIV/AIDS. PMID:19143089

  16. Impact of sexual violence on children in the Eastern Democratic Republic of Congo.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Brett D; Collins, Lisa; VanRooyen, Michael J; Joyce, Nina; Mukwege, Denis; Bartels, Susan

    2011-01-01

    The conflict in the Eastern Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) has been particularly devastating for children and has been typified by high levels of sexual and gender-based violence (SGBV). In this study, we seek to characterize the patterns and impact of sexual violence on children in the Eastern DRC. Semi-structured questionnaires were administered among a convenience sample of women <18 years of age presenting for post-sexual-violence care at Panzi Hospital in South Kivu, DRC. Analysis included quantitative and qualitative methods to describe the characteristics of the violence, perpetrators, and survivors and to illuminate common themes within the narratives. A total of 389 survivors of SGBV under the age of 18 were interviewed between 2004 and 2008. These paediatric survivors were more likely than adult survivors to have experienced gang rape, been attacked by a civilian perpetrator, and been assaulted during the day. Survivor and perpetrator characteristics were further stratified by type of attack. Reports of violence perpetrated by civilians increased 39-fold while reports of violence perpetrated by armed combatants decreased by 70% between 2004 and 2008. Qualitative analysis of the narratives revealed common themes, such as physical signs and symptoms among SGBV survivors (23.9%), pregnancy resulting from rape (19.3%), perpetrators being brought to justice (18.3%), and neighbourhood men as perpetrators (17.7%). Children in the Eastern DRC continue to face significant threats of sexual violence. By understanding the patterns of this violence, local and international approaches could be more effectively implemented to protect these vulnerable children.

  17. Normal grief and its correlates in Lubumbashi, an urban city in the Democratic Republic of Congo

    PubMed Central

    Joe, Katabwa Kabongo; Mapatano, Mala Ali; Manyonga, Tshibangu; Mwadianvita, Costa Kazadi; Valérien, Mutombo; Stanis, Wembonyama; Kavulu, Mukendi; Espérance, Kashala

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Grief is a universal experience faced at one time or another by most people during their lives. Response to grief and bereavement losses can lead to psychiatric disorders such as mood disorders, post traumatic responses, insomnia loss of appetite, anxiety, and depression. The aim of our study is to value in our community the physical and psychological complications of a normal grief. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study from March 2012 to September 2012 in Lubumbashi, Democratic Republic of Congo. Two questionnaires, the Hamilton Anxiety Scale and the Beck Depression Inventory scale were used as screening tool. A snow ball sampling method was performed and the questionnaires were administered only to those who consented to participate in the study. Results A total of 78 subjects were included in the study of which 87.2% were aged between 14-50 years old. The majority of the subjects were female 65.4%, and about a quarter (28%) was unemployed. The main correlates of the grief reported in the present study were being treated as witchcraft or accused to be responsible of a death (68%), being rejected by family and not being allowed to inherit (32%). Being homeless was reported in 26%. The main psychological symptoms reported were psychological distress after 1 year (65%) and related physical health problems after the death (72%). Depression and mild anxiety were the most reported disorders, with respectively 92.3% and 74.4% of the subjects. Conclusion Grief in Lubumbashi is associated with a large number of psychological, social and health problems. Health problems such as gastric is, high blood pressure were often reported. Being accused of witchcraft remains the main social impact. Depression and anxiety were the most psychological problem associated with grief. PMID:27583088

  18. Factors that influence contraceptive use amongst women in Vanga health district, Democratic Republic of Congo

    PubMed Central

    Izale, Kangale; Fina, Jean-Pierre L.; Tumbo, John

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background Contraception is often necessary in order to plan for children and without it there is a risk of unplanned pregnancies. In the Democratic Republic of Congo, this often results in abortions by untrained persons with resultant morbidity and mortality. Aim To investigate the factors that influence contraceptive use amongst women of childbearing age in the Vanga health zone. Methods Cross-sectional survey using interviewer-administered questionnaires. Results Of the 384 women recruited, a majority (46.1%) were in the 31–40 year age group; 52% had reached primary school and 88% did not have formal employment. One hundred and forty of the participants reported current use of contraception, with 60% of them using modern methods of contraception; 36.1% of them had begun using contraception before the age of 20; and the most common methods were oral contraceptive pills and injection, each accounting for 22.9%. There was variation in the duration of contraceptive use and the main reason for using contraception was to space children. Of the participants, 20.7% had been using contraception for more than two years. Seventy-seven (31.5%) of the women reported they did not use contraception because of a fear of side effects. Forty-four (18%) reported that they are unable to afford contraception, 38 (15.6%) had husbands who disapproved of contraceptive usage, 26 (10.6%) had a fear of infertility, 18 (7.4%) practised a religion that did not allow them to use contraception and 12 of the women (4.9%) did not use contraception because it was unavailable to them. Conclusion Barriers to contraception in our study were fears of side effects and infertility, cost, male partner's objection, unavailability of contraception and religious beliefs. PMID:26245398

  19. Acute flaccid paralysis surveillance indicators in the Democratic Republic of Congo during 2008-2014

    PubMed Central

    Membo, Hugo Kavunga; Mweene, Aaron; Sadeuh-Mba, Serge Alain; Masumu, Justin; Yogolelo, Riziki; Ngendabanyikwa, Norbert; Sokolua, Eddy; Sagamiko, Fred; Simulundu, Edgar; Ahuka, Steve; Muyembe, Jean Jacques

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The last wild poliovirus (WPV) case in Africa was reported in July 2014, thus underscoring the tremendous progress towards polio eradication worldwide. This study aimed to analyze the results of a seven-year surveillance of Acute Flaccid Paralysis (AFP) in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) and to identify potential gaps that need to be addressed. Methods Epidemiological and virological data obtained from AFP surveillance among AFP cases less than 15 years from January 2008 to December 2014 in DRC were retrospectively considered and analyzed in this study. Results Of the 13,749 AFP cases investigated, 58.9% received at least three doses of oral polio vaccine (OPV), 7.3% never received OPV, while the status of 18.3% was unknown. Analysis of surveillance performances showed that all, but two, indicators were below the required WHO-specified targets. Non-polio enterovirus (NPEV) isolation rate was consistently below the minimum requirement at ≥10% and the proportions of stool specimens that reached the laboratory within 72 hours of being sent were always below 15% (WHO target is ≥80%). Virus isolation and differentiation showed that 1.5% of AFP cases were infected by WPVs, 5.5% by Sabin strains, 0.5% by vaccine-derived polioviruses (VDPVs) and 7.2% by NPEVs. Conclusion Our findings indicate that additional efforts are needed to address the timeliness of adequate stool specimens’ arrival to the laboratory. It remains essential to maintain high polio vaccine coverage and high AFP surveillance standards to ensure rapid detection and containment of either WPV importation or VDPV re-emergence in DRC. PMID:27642491

  20. The geography of malaria genetics in the Democratic Republic of Congo: A complex and fragmented landscape

    PubMed Central

    Carrel, Margaret; Patel, Jaymin; Taylor, Steve M.; Janko, Mark; Mwandagalirwa, Melchior Kashamuka; Tshefu, Antoinette K.; Escalante, Ananias A.; McCollum, Andrea; Alam, Md Tauqeer; Udhayakumar, Venkatachalam; Meshnick, Steven; Emch, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Understanding how malaria parasites move between populations is important, particularly given the potential for malaria to be reintroduced into areas where it was previously eliminated. We examine the distribution of malaria genetics across seven sites within the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) and two nearby countries, Ghana and Kenya, in order to understand how the relatedness of malaria parasites varies across space, and whether there are barriers to the flow of malaria parasites within the DRC or across borders. Parasite DNA was retrieved from dried blood spots from 7 Demographic and Health Survey sample clusters in the DRC. Malaria genetic characteristics of parasites from Ghana and Kenya were also obtained. For each of 9 geographic sites (7 DRC, 1 Ghana and 1 Kenya), a pair-wise RST statistic was calculated, indicating the genetic distance between malaria parasites found in those locations. Mapping genetics across the spatial extent of the study area indicates a complex genetic landscape, where relatedness between two proximal sites may be relatively high (RST > 0.64) or low (RST < 0.05), and where distal sites also exhibit both high and low genetic similarity. Mantel’s tests suggest that malaria genetics differ as geographic distances increase. Principal Coordinate Analysis suggests that genetically related samples are not co-located. Barrier analysis reveals no significant barriers to gene flow between locations. Malaria genetics in the DRC have a complex and fragmented landscape. Limited exchange of genes across space is reflected in greater genetic distance between malaria parasites isolated at greater geographic distances. There is, however, evidence for close genetic ties between distally located sample locations, indicating that movement of malaria parasites and flow of genes is being driven by factors other than distance decay. This research demonstrates the contributions that spatial disease ecology and landscape genetics can make to

  1. Occupational Stress among Textile Workers in the Democratic Republic of Congo

    PubMed Central

    Kitronza, Panda Lukongo; Mairiaux, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Context: In the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), scientific studies on occupational health are scarce. The present study aims at estimating the level of occupational stress, as well as associated factors, in a textile company. Methods: We performed a cross-sectional survey among textile workers in DRC. Data (N = 192 subjects) were collected through a self-questionnaire validated for the assessment of stress (Karasek and Siegrist’s scale); supplemented by a medical examination. Frequencies and odds ratios (ORs) were estimated for descriptive analyses. Adjusted ORs were calculated through a logistic regression model to investigate associations between socio-demographic and organisational variables and stress. Results: Our study highlighted a high level of stress among individuals: 28% of them were suffering from stress, according to Karasek, and 22%, when applying Siegrist’s model. A 14%-isostrain was calculated when considering all workers. A statistically significant association was observed between stress and age, seniority and perceived non-adaptation to work, considering both approaches. Furthermore, when job strain was determined according to Karasek, it was related to the worker status, the poor perception of organisation and alcohol consumption, while stress estimated by applying Siegrist’s model showed an association with education level and the occurrence of cardiac symptoms. Conclusion: The present study provides of stress among individuals through both models. Several socio-professional factors are associated with stress, which determines populations at risk. The results revealed that both stress models offer complementary information, thus increasing the probability to model workers’ health more exactly and to make recommendations on prevention and management. PMID:26865824

  2. Combined Spectroscopic Analysis of Beads from the Tombs of Kindoki, Lower Congo Province (Democratic Republic of the Congo).

    PubMed

    Rousaki, Anastasia; Coccato, Alessia; Verhaeghe, Charlotte; Clist, Bernard-Olivier; Bostoen, Koen; Vandenabeele, Peter; Moens, Luc

    2016-01-01

    Raman spectroscopy and X-ray fluorescence (XRF) analysis are commonly applied to archaeological objects as a fast and nondestructive way to characterize the materials. Here, micro-Raman spectroscopy and chemometrics on handheld XRF results were used to completely characterize beads found during archaeological excavations in the Congo. Metallic objects, organogenic materials, and glass beads were studied. Special attention was paid to the glassy materials, as they seem to be of European production. The matrix family and crystalline phases assemblage, as well as the results from principal components analysis on the elemental data, were used to define groups of beads of similar composition, and therefore probably of similar origin. This research project establishes the feasibility of this approach to archaeological glasses, and can be used to confirm and support the bead typologies used by archaeologists.

  3. Combined Spectroscopic Analysis of Beads from the Tombs of Kindoki, Lower Congo Province (Democratic Republic of the Congo).

    PubMed

    Rousaki, Anastasia; Coccato, Alessia; Verhaeghe, Charlotte; Clist, Bernard-Olivier; Bostoen, Koen; Vandenabeele, Peter; Moens, Luc

    2016-01-01

    Raman spectroscopy and X-ray fluorescence (XRF) analysis are commonly applied to archaeological objects as a fast and nondestructive way to characterize the materials. Here, micro-Raman spectroscopy and chemometrics on handheld XRF results were used to completely characterize beads found during archaeological excavations in the Congo. Metallic objects, organogenic materials, and glass beads were studied. Special attention was paid to the glassy materials, as they seem to be of European production. The matrix family and crystalline phases assemblage, as well as the results from principal components analysis on the elemental data, were used to define groups of beads of similar composition, and therefore probably of similar origin. This research project establishes the feasibility of this approach to archaeological glasses, and can be used to confirm and support the bead typologies used by archaeologists. PMID:26767635

  4. Raman spectroscopy as a tool to characterize heterogenite (CoO·OH) (Katanga Province, Democratic Republic of Congo)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burlet, C.; Vanbrabant, Y.; Goethals, H.; Thys, T.; Dupin, L.

    2011-10-01

    Natural heterogenite (CoO·OH) samples were studied by Raman microspectroscopy, electronic microprobe and Electronic BackScattered Diffraction (EBSD). Raw samples and polished sections were made from 10 mines covering the Katanga copperbelt (Katanga Province, Democratic Republic of Congo). Four typical Raman responses have been obtained leading to investigate the laser-induced dehydroxylation of heterogenite into a Co-spinel structure. The results are also compared with EBSD patterns from oven heated heterogenite samples. A close relationship was established between the chemical substitutions of Co by mainly Cu, Ni, Mn and Al and their impact on the mineral Raman response.

  5. Raman spectroscopy as a tool to characterize heterogenite (CoO·OH) (Katanga Province, Democratic Republic of Congo).

    PubMed

    Burlet, C; Vanbrabant, Y; Goethals, H; Thys, T; Dupin, L

    2011-10-01

    Natural heterogenite (CoO·OH) samples were studied by Raman microspectroscopy, electronic microprobe and Electronic BackScattered Diffraction (EBSD). Raw samples and polished sections were made from 10 mines covering the Katanga copperbelt (Katanga Province, Democratic Republic of Congo). Four typical Raman responses have been obtained leading to investigate the laser-induced dehydroxylation of heterogenite into a Co-spinel structure. The results are also compared with EBSD patterns from oven heated heterogenite samples. A close relationship was established between the chemical substitutions of Co by mainly Cu, Ni, Mn and Al and their impact on the mineral Raman response. PMID:21497546

  6. Evidence for widespread infection of African bats with Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever-like viruses.

    PubMed

    Müller, Marcel A; Devignot, Stéphanie; Lattwein, Erik; Corman, Victor Max; Maganga, Gaël D; Gloza-Rausch, Florian; Binger, Tabea; Vallo, Peter; Emmerich, Petra; Cottontail, Veronika M; Tschapka, Marco; Oppong, Samuel; Drexler, Jan Felix; Weber, Friedemann; Leroy, Eric M; Drosten, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Crimean Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV) is a highly virulent tick-borne pathogen that causes hemorrhagic fever in humans. The geographic range of human CCHF cases largely reflects the presence of ticks. However, highly similar CCHFV lineages occur in geographically distant regions. Tick-infested migratory birds have been suggested, but not confirmed, to contribute to the dispersal. Bats have recently been shown to carry nairoviruses distinct from CCHFV. In order to assess the presence of CCHFV in a wide range of bat species over a wide geographic range, we analyzed 1,135 sera from 16 different bat species collected in Congo, Gabon, Ghana, Germany, and Panama. Using a CCHFV glycoprotein-based indirect immunofluorescence test (IIFT), we identified reactive antibodies in 10.0% (114/1,135) of tested bats, pertaining to 12/16 tested species. Depending on the species, 3.6%-42.9% of cave-dwelling bats and 0.6%-7.1% of foliage-living bats were seropositive (two-tailed t-test, p = 0.0447 cave versus foliage). 11/30 IIFT-reactive sera from 10 different African bat species had neutralizing activity in a virus-like particle assay. Neutralization of full CCHFV was confirmed in 5 of 7 sera. Widespread infection of cave-dwelling bats may indicate a role for bats in the life cycle and geographic dispersal of CCHFV. PMID:27217069

  7. Evidence for widespread infection of African bats with Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever-like viruses

    PubMed Central

    Müller, Marcel A.; Devignot, Stéphanie; Lattwein, Erik; Corman, Victor Max; Maganga, Gaël D.; Gloza-Rausch, Florian; Binger, Tabea; Vallo, Peter; Emmerich, Petra; Cottontail, Veronika M.; Tschapka, Marco; Oppong, Samuel; Drexler, Jan Felix; Weber, Friedemann; Leroy, Eric M.; Drosten, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Crimean Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV) is a highly virulent tick-borne pathogen that causes hemorrhagic fever in humans. The geographic range of human CCHF cases largely reflects the presence of ticks. However, highly similar CCHFV lineages occur in geographically distant regions. Tick-infested migratory birds have been suggested, but not confirmed, to contribute to the dispersal. Bats have recently been shown to carry nairoviruses distinct from CCHFV. In order to assess the presence of CCHFV in a wide range of bat species over a wide geographic range, we analyzed 1,135 sera from 16 different bat species collected in Congo, Gabon, Ghana, Germany, and Panama. Using a CCHFV glycoprotein-based indirect immunofluorescence test (IIFT), we identified reactive antibodies in 10.0% (114/1,135) of tested bats, pertaining to 12/16 tested species. Depending on the species, 3.6%–42.9% of cave-dwelling bats and 0.6%–7.1% of foliage-living bats were seropositive (two-tailed t-test, p = 0.0447 cave versus foliage). 11/30 IIFT-reactive sera from 10 different African bat species had neutralizing activity in a virus-like particle assay. Neutralization of full CCHFV was confirmed in 5 of 7 sera. Widespread infection of cave-dwelling bats may indicate a role for bats in the life cycle and geographic dispersal of CCHFV. PMID:27217069

  8. The association between posttraumatic stress symptoms and functional impairment during ongoing conflict in the Democratic Republic of Congo

    PubMed Central

    Veling, Wim; Hall, Brian J.; Joosse, Petra

    2016-01-01

    The Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) has suffered from a bloody conflict for more than a decade. More than 5,400,000 people died from war-related causes since 1998 and exposure to violence was wide-spread. This study investigated the impact of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms on perceived health and physical and social functioning, filling an important gap in the current literature. Data were collected from a sample of 93 adults living in Bunia, Eastern Democratic Republic of Congo. Structured in-person interviews included the PTSD section of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview and the World Health Organization Disability Assessment Scale. Additional questions were included to assess social resources. Study recruitment was balanced to achieve equal representation of both sexes and each quarter of town. Forty percent met symptom criteria for probable PTSD. Individuals with PTSD reported poor perceived general health and had high disability scores compared to those without PTSD. Of the three PTSD symptom clusters, hyperarousal was most strongly associated with disability. Individuals with PTSD were significantly more emotionally affected by their health problems than those without PTSD (85% versus 41%), had more difficulties in activities involving social contact (54% versus 16%) and in doing their daily work (54% versus 20%). The impact of war-related violence on mental health is severe in the DRC. Psychosocial interventions developed in conflict areas might be best targeted primarily to supporting social functioning and reducing hyperarousal. Implications for clinical treatment and future directions are discussed. PMID:23500002

  9. Patterns of Congenital Malformations and Barriers to Care in Eastern Democratic Republic of Congo

    PubMed Central

    Malemo Kalisya, Luc; Nyavandu, Kavira; Machumu, Bahati; Kwiratuwe, Sylvain; Rej, Peter H.

    2015-01-01

    Background An increase of congenital anomalies in the eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) has been reported. Congenital malformations (CMs) are not uncommon among newborns and, if left untreated, can contribute to increased neonate morbidity and mortality. Methods Medical records of all individuals admitted with a diagnosed CM to HEAL Africa Teaching Hospital (Goma, DRC) from 2002 to 2014 (n=1301) were reviewed. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics to summarize chart records, and inferential statistics to investigate significant barriers to earlier treatment. Results Since 2012, the number of patients treated each year for CMs has increased by over 200% compared to the average annual number of cases treated from 2002-2011. Though delayed presentation of patients to HEAL Hospital was very obvious, with an average age of 8.2 years. We find that patient age has been significantly decreasing (p=0.037) over time. The average distance separating patients from HEAL Hospital was 178 km, with approximately one third living 350 km or further from the treatment center. Distance is the most significant (p=3.33x10-6) barrier to earlier treatment. When controlling for an interaction between gender and the use of mercy funds, we also find that female patients are at a significant (p=1.04x10-3) disadvantage to undergo earlier corrective surgery. This disadvantage is further illustrated by our finding that 89% of women and girls, and over 81% of all patients, required mercy funds to cover the cost of surgery in 2014. Lastly, the mortality rate for surgery was low and averaged less than 1.0%. Conclusion Despite a formal end to the war in 2009, and an overall increase in individuals undergoing corrective surgery, distance, poverty, and gender are still massive barriers to CM care at HEAL Hospital, Goma, DRC. We find that patients have been successfully treated earlier by HEAL, although the average age of CM correction in 2014 (4.9 years) is still above average

  10. A Resource Planning Analysis of District Hospital Surgical Services in the Democratic Republic of the Congo

    PubMed Central

    Sion, Melanie; Rajan, Dheepa; Kalambay, Hyppolite; Lokonga, Jean-Pierre; Bulakali, Joseph; Mossoko, Mathias; Kwete, Dieudonne; Schmets, Gerard; Kelley, Edward; Elongo, Tarcisse; Sambo, Luis; Cherian, Meena

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background: The impact of surgical conditions on global health, particularly on vulnerable populations, is gaining recognition. However, only 3.5% of the 234.2 million cases per year of major surgery are performed in countries where the world's poorest third reside, such as the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC). Methods: Data on the availability of anesthesia and surgical services were gathered from 12 DRC district hospitals using the World Health Organization's (WHO's) Emergency and Essential Surgical Care Situation Analysis Tool. We complemented these data with an analysis of the costs of surgical services in a Congolese norms-based district hospital as well as in 2 of the 12 hospitals in which we conducted the situational analysis (Demba and Kabare District Hospitals). For the cost analysis, we used WHO's integrated Healthcare Technology Package tool. Results: Of the 32 surgical interventions surveyed, only 2 of the 12 hospitals provided all essential services. The deficits in procedures varied from no deficits to 17 services that could not be provided, with an average of 7 essential procedures unavailable. Many of the hospitals did not have basic infrastructure such as running water and electricity; 9 of 12 had no or interrupted water and 7 of 12 had no or interrupted electricity. On average, 21% of lifesaving surgical interventions were absent from the facilities, compared with the model normative hospital. According to the normative hospital, all surgical services would cost US$2.17 per inhabitant per year, representing 33.3% of the total patient caseload but only 18.3% of the total district hospital operating budget. At Demba Hospital, the operating budget required for surgical interventions was US$0.08 per inhabitant per year, and at Kabare Hospital, US$0.69 per inhabitant per year. Conclusion: A significant portion of the health problems addressed at Congolese district hospitals is surgical in nature, but there is a current inability to meet

  11. A case study of risk factors for lymphatic filariasis in the Republic of Congo

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Little is known regarding risk factors for lymphatic filariasis (LF) in Central Africa. We studied the epidemiology of LF in an endemic village in the Republic of Congo. Methods Dependent variables were Wuchereria bancrofti antigenemia (ICT card test) and microfilaremia (night blood smears). The following factors were investigated: sex, age, bed net, latrines, source of water, uptake of anthelmintic drugs, hunting/fishing activities, and occasionally sleeping in the bush. Mixed multivariate logistic regression models were used. Results 134 of 774 subjects aged ≥ 5 years (17.3%) had W. bancrofti antigenemia and 41 (5.3%) had microfilaremia (mf). Infection rates increased with age up to roughly 20 years and remained stable thereafter. Multivariate analysis of antigenemia demonstrated an increased risk for males (OR = 2.0 [1.3-3.0]) and for people who hunt or fish (OR = 1.5 [1.0-2.4]) and a protective effect of latrines (OR = 0.5 [0.4-0.8]). Among males, those hunting or fishing at night had an increased risk for antigenemia (OR = 1.9 [1.1-3.5]), and use of latrines was protective (OR = 0.5 [0.3-0.9]). For females, bed nets were protective (OR = 0.4 [0.1-0.9]), and there was a strong household effect (intraclass correlation coefficient [ICC]: 0.24). When mf was used as the dependent variable, males had a higher risk for infection (OR = 5.4 [2.1-13.4]), latrines had a protective effect (OR = 0.4 [0.1-0.9]) and there was a marked household effect (ICC = 0.49). Conclusions Age, sex, and occupation-dependent exposure to mosquitoes were important risk factors for infection with W. bancrofti in this study. It is likely that men often acquire infection in high transmission areas outside of the village, while children and women are infected in areas with lower transmission inside or near the village. Additional studies are needed to determine whether these findings apply to other areas in Central Africa. PMID:24984769

  12. Overview of Animal Rabies in Kinshasa Province in the Democratic Republic of Congo

    PubMed Central

    Twabela, Augustin Tshibwabwa; Lombe, Boniface Pongombo; Hankanga, Careen

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Rabies is one of the major public health problems mostly affecting developing countries in Africa and Asia where 99.9% of all rabies related human deaths are recorded each year. In Democratic Republic of Congo, repeated outbreaks have been reported. Despite this, there is little reliable epidemiological data about rabies in the country for the development of effective control strategies. Materials and Methods A retrospective study was carried out in Kinshasa Province during a period of five years (2009–2013) to describe the proportion of rabid animals and the species involved in rabies transmission and maintenance. The survey also aimed at describing the spatial-temporal distribution of rabies. To gather information, the daily registers of institutions involved in rabies diagnosis were reviewed and each rabies case was traced back to area of occurrence for collection of geographic coordinates. Results and Discussion A total of 5,053 attacks were registered involving six animal species including dog, cat, monkey, rabbit, rat, and pig. Based on clinical observations, rabies was reported in dogs and cats while data obtained from the laboratory confirmed rabies cases included dogs, cats and a goat. The annual distribution showed a significant decrease of rabies cases from 2009 up to 2011 and a later increase up to 2013. There was no difference in rabies occurrence between seasons (p = 0.721). Rabies cases were three times higher in peri-urban zone than in urban zone OR = 3.4 (95% CI: 2.3–5.1). The positive proportion of rabies was 2.6% (95% CI: 2.1–3) based on clinical evidence and 65.9% (95% CI: 50–79.5) for laboratory confirmed cases. Conclusion and Suggestion This study confirms the endemicity of rabies in Kinshasa where occurrence of rabies cases was related to human population density and lifestyle. In order to control rabies, there is need to set up a surveillance program and implement efficient mass vaccination campaigns of susceptible

  13. Feasibility Analysis of an Evidence-Based Positive Prevention Intervention for Youth Living with HIV/AIDS in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of the Congo

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, L.; Maman, S.; Pettifor, A.; Chalachala, J. L.; Edmonds, A.; Golin, C. E.; Moracco, K.; Behets, F.

    2013-01-01

    We evaluated the feasibility of a Positive Prevention intervention adapted for youth living with HIV/AIDS (YLWH) ages 15-24 in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of the Congo. We conducted in-depth interviews and focus group discussions with intervention facilitators and YLWH participants on the following four areas of a feasibility framework:…

  14. Sulphur isotope constraints on formation conditions of the Luiswishi ore deposit, Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lerouge, C.; Cailteux, J.; Kampunzu, A. B.; Milesi, J. P.; Fléhoc, C.

    2005-07-01

    Luiswishi is a Congo-type Neoproterozoic sediment-hosted stratiform Cu-Co ore deposit of the Central Africa Copperbelt, located northwest of Lubumbashi (DRC). The ores form two main Cu-Co orebodies hosted by the Mines Subgroup, one in the lower part of the Kamoto Formation and the other at the base of the Dolomitic Shales Formation. Sulphides occur essentially as early parallel layers of chalcopyrite and carrolite, and secondarily as late stockwork sulphides cross-cutting the bedding and the early sulphide generation. Both types of stratiform and stockwork chalcopyrite and carrolite were systematically analyzed for sulphur isotopes, along the lithostratigraphic succession of the Mine Series. The quite similar δ 34S values of stratiform sulphides and late stockwork sulphides suggest an in situ recrystallization or a slight remobilization of stockwork sulphides without attainment of isotopic equilibrium between different sulphide phases (chalcopyrite and carrolite). The distribution of δ 34S values (-14.4‰ to +17.5‰) combined with the lithology indicates a strong stratigraphic control of the sulphur isotope signature, supporting bacterial sulphate reduction during early diagenesis of the host sediments, in a shallow marine to lacustrine environment. Petrological features combined with sulphur isotopic data of sulphides at Luiswishi and previous results on nodules of anhydrite in the Mine Series indicate a dominant seawater/lacustrine origin for sulphates, precluding a possible hydrothermal participation. The high positive δ 34S values of sulphides in the lower orebody at Luiswishi, hosted in massive chloritic-dolomitic siltite (known as Grey R.A.T.), fine-grained stratified dolostone (D.Strat.) and silicified-stromatolitic dolomites alternating with chloritic-dolomitic silty beds (R.S.F.), suggest that they were probably deposited during a period of regression in a basin cut off from seawater. The variations of δ 34S values (i.e. the decrease of δ 34S values

  15. Investigation on possible transmission of monkeys' Plasmodium to human in a populations living in the equatorial rainforest of the Democratic republic of Congo.

    PubMed

    Mvumbi, Dieudonné Makaba; Lengu Bobanga, Thierry; Umesumbu, Solange Efundu; Kunyu, Billy Shako; Ntumba Kayembe, Jean-Marie; Situakibanza, Nani-Tuma H; Mvumbi, Georges Lelo; Melin, Pierrette; De Mol, Patrick; Hayette, Marie-Pierre

    2016-04-01

    Plasmodiums are protozoa that may infect various hosts. Only five species are now recognized as naturally parasitizing humans: Plasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium vivax, Plasmodium malariae, Plasmodium ovale and Plasmodium knowlesi. This fifth species, P. knowlesi, previously identified as naturally parasitizing the monkey Macaca fascicularis, has been microscopically confused for a long time with P. malariae or P. falciparum and it was not possible to correctly differentiate them until the advent of molecular biology. To date, natural human infections with P. knowlesi only occur in Southeast Asia and a similar phenomenon of natural transmission of simian plasmodium to humans has not been reported elsewhere. This study was conducted to investigate a possible transmission of African small monkey's plasmodium to humans in populations living near the rainforest of the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) where several species of non-human primates are living. Two successive real-time PCRs were identified in the literature and used in combination for purpose. Only P. falciparum was found in this study. However, studies with larger samples and with more advanced techniques should be conducted. PMID:27141437

  16. Investigation on possible transmission of monkeys' Plasmodium to human in a populations living in the equatorial rainforest of the Democratic republic of Congo

    PubMed Central

    Mvumbi, Dieudonné Makaba; Lengu Bobanga, Thierry; Umesumbu, Solange Efundu; Kunyu, Billy Shako; Ntumba Kayembe, Jean-Marie; Situakibanza, Nani-Tuma H.; Mvumbi, Georges Lelo; Melin, Pierrette; De Mol, Patrick; Hayette, Marie-Pierre

    2015-01-01

    Plasmodiums are protozoa that may infect various hosts. Only five species are now recognized as naturally parasitizing humans: Plasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium vivax, Plasmodium malariae, Plasmodium ovale and Plasmodium knowlesi. This fifth species, P. knowlesi, previously identified as naturally parasitizing the monkey Macaca fascicularis, has been microscopically confused for a long time with P. malariae or P. falciparum and it was not possible to correctly differentiate them until the advent of molecular biology. To date, natural human infections with P. knowlesi only occur in Southeast Asia and a similar phenomenon of natural transmission of simian plasmodium to humans has not been reported elsewhere. This study was conducted to investigate a possible transmission of African small monkey's plasmodium to humans in populations living near the rainforest of the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) where several species of non-human primates are living. Two successive real-time PCRs were identified in the literature and used in combination for purpose. Only P. falciparum was found in this study. However, studies with larger samples and with more advanced techniques should be conducted. PMID:27141437

  17. Micropaleontology and chemostratigraphy of the Neoproterozoic Mbuji-Mayi Supergroup, Democratic Republic of Congo.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baludikay, Blaise; Bekker, Andrey; Baudet, Daniel; Asael, Dan; Storme, Jean-Yves; Javaux, Emmanuelle

    2014-05-01

    The Mbuji-Mayi Supergroup, deposited between 1170 ± 22 Ma and ca. 800 Ma [1], outcrops in the eastern Oriental Kasai Province and western Katanga Province of the Democratic Republic of Congo. It is the youngest Precambrian unit of the Kasai block and was deposited in the SE-NW trending failed-rift Sankuru-Mbuji-Mayi-Lomami-Lovoy basin filled with siliciclastic and carbonate sediments. In the northern part of this basin (Oriental Kasai Province), the Mbuji-Mayi Supergroup rests unconformably upon the Archean Dibaya Granite Complex, but in the southern part (northeastern Katanga Province), it overlies the Mesoproterozoic Kibaran Supergroup. The Supergroup is divided into two groups: the lower, ~ 500-m thick siliciclastics-rich BI Group and the upper, ~ 1000-m thick carbonate-rich BII Group. Our own and previous sedimentological observations [2] indicate facies ranging from subtidal, low-energy stromatolitic environments to overlying intertidal to supratidal evaporitic settings of lagoon and sabkha. In order to characterize the diversity of microfossil assemblages, their paleobiology and paleoecology as well as redox conditions in their depositional setting, we have sampled three drill cores (KAFUKU 15, B13 KANSHI, and S70 LUBI) from the collections of the Royal Museum for Central Africa (RMAC). Our biostratigraphic and chemostratigraphic data also provide further constraints on the age of the Mbuji-Mayi Supergroup. Here we present preliminary data on microfossil diversity from the Kanshi drill core and carbon isotope chemostratigraphy for all three drill cores. The well-preserved and diverse assemblage of acritarchs and filamentous forms includes prokaryotes and eukaryotes, and is similar to other coeval assemblages described worldwide outside of Africa. The presence of the acanthomorph acritarch Trachyhystrichosphaera aimika is significant as it is indicative of the late Meso- to early Neoproterozoic age elsewhere, and is reported for the first time in Central

  18. Genetic Evidence of Importation of Drug-Resistant Plasmodium falciparum to Guatemala from the Democratic Republic of the Congo

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Steve M.; Juliao, Patricia C.; Parobek, Christian M.; Janko, Mark; Gonzalez, Luis Demetrio; Ortiz, Lucia; Padilla, Norma; Tshefu, Antoinette K.; Emch, Michael; Udhayakumar, Venkatachalam; Lindblade, Kim; Meshnick, Steven R.

    2014-01-01

    Imported malaria threatens control and elimination efforts in countries that have low rates of transmission. In 2010, an outbreak of Plasmodium falciparum malaria was reported among United Nations peacekeeping soldiers from Guatemala who had recently returned from the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC). Epidemiologic evidence suggested that the soldiers were infected in the DRC, but local transmission could not be ruled out in all cases. We used population genetic analyses of neutral microsatellites to determine the outbreak source. Genetic relatedness was compared among parasites found in samples from the soldiers and parasite populations collected in the DRC and Guatemala; parasites identified in the soldiers were more closely related to those from the DRC. A phylogenetic clustering analysis confirms this identification with >99.9% confidence. Thus, results support the hypothesis that the soldiers likely imported malaria from the DRC. This study demonstrates the utility of molecular genotyping in outbreak investigations. PMID:24856348

  19. Farming the battlefield: the meanings of war, cattle and soil in South Kivu, Democratic Republic of the Congo.

    PubMed

    Cox, T Paul

    2012-04-01

    Prior to 1996 and the Congolese wars, exploitative land policies pushed farmers in the eastern highlands of the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) into a vulnerable position, with cattle manure sustaining intensive cultivation. This exposed households to a complete breakdown in mixed farming as cattle became targets of war. This study of villages in South Kivu offers an inside understanding of continuity and change in farming practices in a region where there are no easy solutions, and it assesses how the province lost its present and where farmers look when they glance to the future. For farmers, who hold a broad view of soil fertility, the casualties of war were not only people and cattle but also the land itself, which has enduring scars. Perceiving a rupture in tradition, South Kivu farmers are searching desperately for new livelihoods that are built on education instead of livestock, setting aside old ethnic signifiers to seek a future beyond protracted conflict.

  20. Coprophagy in wild bonobos (Pan paniscus) at Wamba in the Democratic Republic of the Congo: a possibly adaptive strategy?

    PubMed

    Sakamaki, Tetsuya

    2010-01-01

    Four cases of coprophagy and two cases of fecal inspection were identified during the 1142 h of observing wild bonobos at Wamba in the Luo Scientific Reserve in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. At least 5 females in the study group practiced coprophagy and/or fecal inspection. According to our daily behavioral observations, boredom and stress, insufficient roughage, and the search for essential nutrients could not explain the coprophagy. Several episodes observed in this study indicated that bonobos might have sought and ingested certain valuable food items, such as hard Dialium seeds, in feces during relatively lean seasons. Although coprophagy occurred only rarely among wild bonobos, this practice appeared to represent a possibly adaptive feeding strategy during periods of food scarcity rather than a behavioral abnormality.

  1. Risk of Sexual Violence: Perspectives and Experiences of Women in a Hospital in the Democratic Republic of Congo.

    PubMed

    Zihindula, Ganzamungu; Maharaj, Pranitha

    2015-08-01

    Sexual violence in conflict situations is gaining worldwide recognition as a human rights issue. There is growing awareness and concern about the risks associated with sexual violence against women. This study was conducted in order to explore the perceptions and experiences of the risk of sexual violence in the Democratic Republic of Congo. The study draws on qualitative, in-depth interviews with women at a hospital in Bukavu. The findings show that women suffered humiliation, torture and beatings during their rape. Most women were raped by a number of men and others were forced to have sex with close family members. The rapist often used extreme brutality against the women which had major long-term consequences for women including unwanted pregnancies and/or HIV/AIDS. Many of the women experienced great uncertainty about their future and that of their children.

  2. Extended Human-to-Human Transmission during a Monkeypox Outbreak in the Democratic Republic of the Congo

    PubMed Central

    Osadebe, Lynda; Katomba, Jacques; Likofata, Jacques; Mukadi, Daniel; Monroe, Benjamin; Doty, Jeffrey; Hughes, Christine Marie; Kabamba, Joelle; Malekani, Jean; Bomponda, Pierre Lokwa; Lokota, Jules Inonga; Balilo, Marcel Pie; Likafi, Toutou; Lushima, Robert Shongo; Ilunga, Benoit Kebela; Nkawa, Frida; Pukuta, Elisabeth; Karhemere, Stomy; Tamfum, Jean-Jacques Muyembe; Nguete, Beatrice; Wemakoy, Emile Okitolonda; McCollum, Andrea M.; Reynolds, Mary G.

    2016-01-01

    A 600-fold increase in monkeypox cases occurred in the Bokungu Health Zone of the Democratic Republic of the Congo during the second half of 2013; this increase prompted an outbreak investigation. A total of 104 possible cases were reported from this health zone; among 60 suspected cases that were tested, 50 (48.1%) cases were confirmed by laboratory testing, and 10 (9.6%) tested negative for monkeypox virus (MPXV) infection. The household attack rate (i.e., rate of persons living with an infected person that develop symptoms of MPXV infection) was 50%. Nine families showed >1 transmission event, and >6 transmission events occurred within this health zone. Mean incubation period was 8 days (range 4–14 days). The high attack rate and transmission observed in this study reinforce the importance of surveillance and rapid identification of monkeypox cases. Community education and training are needed to prevent transmission of MPXV infection during outbreaks. PMID:27191380

  3. Sociocultural determinants of anticipated vaccine acceptance for acute watery diarrhea in early childhood in Katanga Province, Democratic Republic of Congo.

    PubMed

    Merten, Sonja; Schaetti, Christian; Manianga, Cele; Lapika, Bruno; Hutubessy, Raymond; Chaignat, Claire-Lise; Weiss, Mitchell

    2013-09-01

    Rotavirus and oral cholera vaccines have the potential to reduce diarrhea-related child mortality in low-income settings and are recommended by the World Health Organization. Uptake of vaccination depends on community support, and is based on local priorities. This study investigates local perceptions of acute watery diarrhea in childhood and anticipated vaccine acceptance in two sites in the Democratic Republic of Congo. In 2010, 360 randomly selected non-affected adults were interviewed by using a semi-structured questionnaire. Witchcraft and breastfeeding were perceived as potential cause of acute watery diarrhea by 51% and 48% of respondents. Despite misperceptions, anticipated vaccine acceptance at no cost was 99%. The strongest predictor of anticipated vaccine acceptance if costs were assumed was the educational level of the respondents. Results suggest that the introduction of vaccines is a local priority and local (mis)perceptions of illness do not compromise vaccine acceptability if the vaccine is affordable. PMID:23878187

  4. High prevalence of Rickettsia typhi and Bartonella species in rats and fleas, Kisangani, Democratic Republic of the Congo.

    PubMed

    Laudisoit, Anne; Falay, Dadi; Amundala, Nicaise; Akaibe, Dudu; de Bellocq, Joëlle Goüy; Van Houtte, Natalie; Breno, Matteo; Verheyen, Erik; Wilschut, Liesbeth; Parola, Philippe; Raoult, Didier; Socolovschi, Cristina

    2014-03-01

    The prevalence and identity of Rickettsia and Bartonella in urban rat and flea populations were evaluated in Kisangani, Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) by molecular tools. An overall prevalence of 17% Bartonella species and 13% Rickettsia typhi, the agent of murine typhus, was found in the cosmopolitan rat species, Rattus rattus and Rattus norvegicus that were infested by a majority of Xenopsylla cheopis fleas. Bartonella queenslandensis, Bartonella elizabethae, and three Bartonella genotypes were identified by sequencing in rat specimens, mostly in R. rattus. Rickettsia typhi was detected in 72% of X. cheopis pools, the main vector and reservoir of this zoonotic pathogen. Co-infections were observed in rodents, suggesting a common mammalian host shared by R. typhi and Bartonella spp. Thus, both infections are endemic in DRC and the medical staffs need to be aware knowing the high prevalence of impoverished populations or immunocompromised inhabitants in this area.

  5. High Prevalence of Rickettsia typhi and Bartonella Species in Rats and Fleas, Kisangani, Democratic Republic of the Congo

    PubMed Central

    Laudisoit, Anne; Falay, Dadi; Amundala, Nicaise; Akaibe, Dudu; de Bellocq, Joëlle Goüy; Van Houtte, Natalie; Breno, Matteo; Verheyen, Erik; Wilschut, Liesbeth; Parola, Philippe; Raoult, Didier; Socolovschi, Cristina

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence and identity of Rickettsia and Bartonella in urban rat and flea populations were evaluated in Kisangani, Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) by molecular tools. An overall prevalence of 17% Bartonella species and 13% Rickettsia typhi, the agent of murine typhus, was found in the cosmopolitan rat species, Rattus rattus and Rattus norvegicus that were infested by a majority of Xenopsylla cheopis fleas. Bartonella queenslandensis, Bartonella elizabethae, and three Bartonella genotypes were identified by sequencing in rat specimens, mostly in R. rattus. Rickettsia typhi was detected in 72% of X. cheopis pools, the main vector and reservoir of this zoonotic pathogen. Co-infections were observed in rodents, suggesting a common mammalian host shared by R. typhi and Bartonella spp. Thus, both infections are endemic in DRC and the medical staffs need to be aware knowing the high prevalence of impoverished populations or immunocompromised inhabitants in this area. PMID:24445202

  6. Doing good, but looking bad? Local perceptions of two humanitarian organisations in eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo.

    PubMed

    Dijkzeul, Dennis; Wakenge, Claude Iguma

    2010-10-01

    This paper examines local perceptions of two international humanitarian organisations, the International Rescue Committee (IRC) and Malteser International, in the eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) (formerly known as Zaire). At times, the self-perception of these organisations differs considerably from the perceptions of local beneficiaries and stakeholders. This study begins by reviewing the current status of research on local perceptions of externally-introduced humanitarian action. It goes on to discuss the local perceptions of the IRC and Malteser International, as well as the origins of these perceptions, and to show that three different narratives are used by local actors to explain their different perceptions. The paper ends with an examination of the factors that help to account for the differences in perceptions and of the implications of this type of research for humanitarian principles and management, as well as for the study of local perceptions.

  7. Sociocultural Determinants of Anticipated Vaccine Acceptance for Acute Watery Diarrhea in Early Childhood in Katanga Province, Democratic Republic of Congo

    PubMed Central

    Merten, Sonja; Schaetti, Christian; Manianga, Cele; Lapika, Bruno; Hutubessy, Raymond; Chaignat, Claire-Lise; Weiss, Mitchell

    2013-01-01

    Rotavirus and oral cholera vaccines have the potential to reduce diarrhea-related child mortality in low-income settings and are recommended by the World Health Organization. Uptake of vaccination depends on community support, and is based on local priorities. This study investigates local perceptions of acute watery diarrhea in childhood and anticipated vaccine acceptance in two sites in the Democratic Republic of Congo. In 2010, 360 randomly selected non-affected adults were interviewed by using a semi-structured questionnaire. Witchcraft and breastfeeding were perceived as potential cause of acute watery diarrhea by 51% and 48% of respondents. Despite misperceptions, anticipated vaccine acceptance at no cost was 99%. The strongest predictor of anticipated vaccine acceptance if costs were assumed was the educational level of the respondents. Results suggest that the introduction of vaccines is a local priority and local (mis)perceptions of illness do not compromise vaccine acceptability if the vaccine is affordable. PMID:23878187

  8. Genetic Evidence of Importation of Drug-Resistant Plasmodium falciparum to Guatemala from the Democratic Republic of the Congo.

    PubMed

    Patel, Jaymin C; Taylor, Steve M; Juliao, Patricia C; Parobek, Christian M; Janko, Mark; Gonzalez, Luis Demetrio; Ortiz, Lucia; Padilla, Norma; Tshefu, Antoinette K; Emch, Michael; Udhayakumar, Venkatachalam; Lindblade, Kim; Meshnick, Steven R

    2014-06-01

    Imported malaria threatens control and elimination efforts in countries that have low rates of transmission. In 2010, an outbreak of Plasmodium falciparum malaria was reported among United Nations peacekeeping soldiers from Guatemala who had recently returned from the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC). Epidemiologic evidence suggested that the soldiers were infected in the DRC, but local transmission could not be ruled out in all cases. We used population genetic analyses of neutral microsatellites to determine the outbreak source. Genetic relatedness was compared among parasites found in samples from the soldiers and parasite populations collected in the DRC and Guatemala; parasites identified in the soldiers were more closely related to those from the DRC. A phylogenetic clustering analysis confirms this identification with >99.9% confidence. Thus, results support the hypothesis that the soldiers likely imported malaria from the DRC. This study demonstrates the utility of molecular genotyping in outbreak investigations.

  9. Measles in the Democratic Republic of Congo: an urgent wake-up call to adapt vaccination implementation strategies.

    PubMed

    Gerard, S P; Kyrousis, E; Zachariah, R

    2014-03-21

    All countries in Africa have made a commitment to eliminate measles by 2020. This is laudable, as measles elimination will have a crucial impact on reducing childhood mortality. An important operational challenge is the resurgence of measles outbreaks in a number of countries; one of the main reasons for this is that many children are being missed by vaccination programmes. In the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), outbreaks continue unabated despite repeated vaccination campaigns and high reported coverage by the Ministry of Health. This paper brings into question the effectiveness of the current approach and the need for better reflection on bottlenecks and strategies that can address this issue. If we are to eliminate measles by 2020, there will be a need for impetus, a need for decisive action to reach that goal and prevent unnecessary childhood deaths in countries such as the DRC.

  10. Delayed Anemia after Treatment with Injectable Artesunate in the Democratic Republic of the Congo: A Manageable Issue

    PubMed Central

    Burri, Christian; Ferrari, Giovanfrancesco; Ntuku, Henry Maggi; Kitoto, Antoinette Tshefu; Duparc, Stephan; Hugo, Pierre; Mitembo, Didier Kalemwa; Lengeler, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Cases of delayed hemolytic anemia have been described after treatment with injectable artesunate, the current World Health Organization (WHO)–recommended first-line drug for the treatment of severe malaria. A total of 350 patients (215 [61.4%] < 5 years of age and 135 [38.6%] ≥ 5 years of age) were followed-up after treatment with injectable artesunate for severe malaria in hospitals and health centers of the Democratic Republic of the Congo. Complete series of hemoglobin (Hb) measurements were available for 201 patients. A decrease in Hb levels between 2 and 5 g/dL was detected in 23 (11.4%) patients during the follow-up period. For five patients, Hb levels decreased below 5 g/dL during at least one follow-up visit. All cases of delayed anemia were clinically manageable and resolved within one month. PMID:25071004

  11. Genetic Evidence of Importation of Drug-Resistant Plasmodium falciparum to Guatemala from the Democratic Republic of the Congo.

    PubMed

    Patel, Jaymin C; Taylor, Steve M; Juliao, Patricia C; Parobek, Christian M; Janko, Mark; Gonzalez, Luis Demetrio; Ortiz, Lucia; Padilla, Norma; Tshefu, Antoinette K; Emch, Michael; Udhayakumar, Venkatachalam; Lindblade, Kim; Meshnick, Steven R

    2014-06-01

    Imported malaria threatens control and elimination efforts in countries that have low rates of transmission. In 2010, an outbreak of Plasmodium falciparum malaria was reported among United Nations peacekeeping soldiers from Guatemala who had recently returned from the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC). Epidemiologic evidence suggested that the soldiers were infected in the DRC, but local transmission could not be ruled out in all cases. We used population genetic analyses of neutral microsatellites to determine the outbreak source. Genetic relatedness was compared among parasites found in samples from the soldiers and parasite populations collected in the DRC and Guatemala; parasites identified in the soldiers were more closely related to those from the DRC. A phylogenetic clustering analysis confirms this identification with >99.9% confidence. Thus, results support the hypothesis that the soldiers likely imported malaria from the DRC. This study demonstrates the utility of molecular genotyping in outbreak investigations. PMID:24856348

  12. Field investigations of an outbreak of Ebola hemorrhagic fever, Kikwit, Democratic Republic of the Congo, 1995: arthropod studies.

    PubMed

    Reiter, P; Turell, M; Coleman, R; Miller, B; Maupin, G; Liz, J; Kuehne, A; Barth, J; Geisbert, J; Dohm, D; Glick, J; Pecor, J; Robbins, R; Jahrling, P; Peters, C; Ksiazek, T

    1999-02-01

    During the final weeks of a 6-month epidemic of Ebola hemorrhagic fever in Kikwit, Democratic Republic of the Congo, an extensive collection of arthropods was made in an attempt to learn more of the natural history of the disease. A reconstruction of the activities of the likely primary case, a 42-year-old man who lived in the city, indicated that he probably acquired his infection in a partly forested area 15 km from his home. Collections were made throughout this area, along the route he followed from the city, and at various sites in the city itself. No Ebola virus was isolated, but a description of the collections and the ecotopes involved is given for comparison with future studies of other outbreaks.

  13. A Qualitative Analysis of Disclosure Patterns among Women with Sexual Violence-Related Pregnancies in Eastern Democratic Republic of Congo

    PubMed Central

    Onyango, Monica Adhiambo

    2016-01-01

    The Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) has experienced nearly two decades of civil conflict in the Eastern regions of North and South Kivu. This conflict has been notorious for the use of sexual violence as a weapon of war, leading in many cases to pregnancy after rape. The objectives of this analysis were: 1) to describe patterns of sexual violence-related pregnancy (SVRP) disclosure; 2) to consider why survivors chose to disclose to particular individuals; and 3) to examine the dialogue around SVRPs between women with SVRPs and their confidants. In South Kivu Province, Democratic Republic of Congo, two sub-groups of sexual violence survivors completed qualitative interviews, those currently raising a child from an SVRP (parenting group, N = 38) and those who had terminated an SVRP (termination group, N = 17). The findings show that a majority of SVRPs were conceived when participants were held in sexual captivity for prolonged periods of time. The SVRPs were disclosed to friends, family members, other sexual violence survivors, community members, spouses, health care providers, or perpetrators. The confidants were most often chosen because they were perceived by the participants as being discreet, trusted, and supportive. The confidants often provided advice about continuing or terminating the SVRP. Trust and discretion are the most important factors determining to whom women with SVRPs disclose their pregnancies. The vital role of confidants in giving support after disclosure cannot be overlooked. Providing opportunities for survivors to safely disclose their SVRPs, including to health care providers, is a necessary first step in allowing them to access safe and comprehensive post-assault care and services. PMID:27741262

  14. Situation Report--Bahrain, Central African Republic, Gabon, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Lesotho, Libya, Saudi Arabia, Swaziland, Syria, Yemen Arab Republic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).

    Data relating to population and family planning in twelve foreign countries are presented in these situation reports. Countries included are Bahrain, Central African Republic, Gabon, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Lesotho, Libya, Saudi Arabia, Swaziland, Syria, and Yemen Arab Republic. Information is provided, where appropriate and available, under two…

  15. [Psychological impact on French soldiers in the Central African Republic].

    PubMed

    Le Pape, Erwan; de Montleau, Franck

    2015-01-01

    The many constraints and psychologically demanding situations to which French soldiers are subjected (living conditions, operational pace, scenes of exaction, hostile crowds, combat situations) have justified a psychiatrist being posted to the theatre of operation Sangaris, in the Central African Republic, soon after the military intervention began. While the psychiatrist's activity is typical of psychiatry in operational situations,.the configuration of the conflict- a civil war - and its impact on the psyche of the soldiers making up the task force have resulted in these practices being adapted and acknowledgement of the need to update skills. PMID:25975167

  16. Isotopic characterization of the Precambrian carbonate aquifers under the city of Bangui (Central African Republic)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huneau, Frederic; Djebebe-Ndjiguim, Chantal-Laure; Foto, Eric; Ito, Mari; Celle-Jeanton, Helene; Garel, Emilie; Mabingui, Joseph

    2013-04-01

    The city of Bangui, the capital of the Central African Republic, is located on the right bank of the Ubangi River which is the northernmost tributary of the Congo River. From its foundation in 1889 this city has always suffered from serious problems of water management. This is related to the specificity of the site configuration (steep hills surrounding a large swampy flat valley poorly drained) and to the urbanisation process responsible for the waterproofing of soils and the associated increased runoff processes under tropical humid condition.This paper presents the results of a geochemical and isotopic survey carried out in 2011 aiming at evaluating the type and chemical quality of the groundwater resources of the Bangui region. By combining geological, hydrogeochemical and isotopic data it appears that the underground of Bangui seems favourable to the development of a secured and sustainable water supply from groundwater provided that the conditions of exploitation would be constrained by the local authorities. The deep fractured (and locally kastified) Precambrian carbonate aquifers known as Bimbo and Fatima formations are identified as target resources considering the relatively good quality of the resource from the chemical point of view, and the semi-confined structure of the aquifer preventing the mixing with shallow aquifers already strongly impacted by domestic and industrial pollutions.

  17. Rhabdochona spp. (Nematoda: Rhabdochonidae) from fishes in the Central African Republic, including three new species.

    PubMed

    Moravec, Frantisek; Jirků, Miloslav

    2014-04-01

    Based on light and scanning electron microscopical studies, three new, one already known and one not identified species of the nematode genus Rhabdochona Railliet, 1916 are reported from the intestine of freshwater fishes in Dzanga-Sangha Protected Areas (Congo River basin), the Central African Republic: Rhabdochona (Rhabdochona) centroafricana sp. n. from Barbus miolepis Boulenger, R. (R.) marcusenii sp. n. from Marcusenius greshoffii (Schilthuis), R. (Globochona) paski Baylis, 1928 from Phenacogrammus aurantiacus (Pellegrin) (new host record), R. (G.) tricuspidata sp. n. from Raiamas christvi (Boulenger) and Rhabdochona (G.) sp. (only females) from Epiplatys multifasciatus (Boulenger). Rhabdochona centroafricana is mainly characterised by the length of the left spicule (333 microm) and the presence of the operculum bearing a conspicuous gelatinous formation on one of egg poles, R. marcusenii by the length of the left spicule (453-486 microm) and the presence of a single broad filament on one egg pole only and R. tricuspidata by the body with marked cuticular ornamentations and deirids branching into three prongs. A key to valid species of Rhabdochona parasitic in fishes of Africa is provided.

  18. Genetic characterization of Chikungunya virus in the Central African Republic.

    PubMed

    Desdouits, Marion; Kamgang, Basile; Berthet, Nicolas; Tricou, Vianney; Ngoagouni, Carine; Gessain, Antoine; Manuguerra, Jean-Claude; Nakouné, Emmanuel; Kazanji, Mirdad

    2015-07-01

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is an alphavirus transmitted by the bite of mosquito vectors. Over the past 10 years, the virus has gained mutations that enhance its transmissibility by the Aedes albopictus vector, resulting in massive outbreaks in the Indian Ocean, Asia and Central Africa. Recent introduction of competent A. albopictus vectors into the Central African Republic (CAR) pose a threat of a Chikungunya fever (CHIKF) epidemic in this region. We undertook this study to assess the genetic diversity and background of CHIKV strains isolated in the CAR between 1975 and 1984 and also to estimate the ability of local strains to adapt to A. albopictus. Our results suggest that, local CHIKV strains have a genetic background compatible with quick adaptation to A. albopictus, as previously observed in other Central African countries. Intense surveillance of the human and vector populations is necessary to prevent or anticipate the emergence of a massive CHIKF epidemic in the CAR.

  19. Language Policy and Practice in the Multilingual Southern African Development Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mooko, Theophilus

    2009-01-01

    This study explores the language policy and practice of the Southern African Development Community (SADC), an African regional economic organisation made up of 14 member states (Angola, Botswana, Democratic Republic of Congo, Lesotho, Madagascar, Malawi, Mauritius, Mozambique, Namibia, South Africa, Swaziland, United Republic of Tanzania, Zambia…

  20. [Exploratory study of road safety in Brazzaville and Pointe-Noire in Republic of the Congo].

    PubMed

    Batala Mpondo, Georges; Bouanga, Marianne; Saya, Yvette Marie Clarisse; Maurice, Pierre; Burigusa, Guillaume

    2014-01-01

    Although road accidents in the Congo are reaching alarming levels (2,720 accidents in 2010 and 3,126 accidents in 2011), especially with the massive arrival of "Jakarta" mopeds, no evaluation has been conducted to identify and understand the factors responsible for this problem. This article reports the results of an exploratory study conducted in Brazzaville and Pointe-Noire based on information collected from existing documents and by semidirective questionnaire of people from various sectors able to elucidate the problem of road safety. Using William Haddon's matrix, the parameters investigated were : road user behaviour ; environmental and technological factors ; characteristics of road accident victims ; quality of care ; intervention times and organization of prevention. This study demonstrated the absence of a road safety policy in Congo. It also showed that the main factors responsible for road accidents are behavioural (failure to wear safety belts, failure to comply with road signs, fatigue, use of a telephone while driving, etc.), followed by environmental and technological factors (insufficient traffic lights, absence of sidewalks, disorganized occupation of roads, general state of vehicles). This study shows that, in order to improve road safety in the Congo, it is essential to promote the development of national road safety policies and an action plan, intervention on the determinants of road accidents, and a change of road user behaviours (compulsory use of safety belts, ban on the use of a telephone and smoking while driving, etc.). Effective organization of the management of road accident victims and allocation of a budget to implement a road safety policy are also necessary.

  1. [Street children in Bukavu, Democratic Republic of the Congo: causes for leaving home].

    PubMed

    Witumbula Katambwe, V; Kizanda, F; Wabatinga Kyalemaninwa, G

    2009-06-01

    The purpose of this report is to describe the results of a survey conducted in 2004 among a cohort of 310 street children in Bukavu DR Congo to determine sociodemographic features and the reasons that led them to leave the homes of their parents. The causes were school dropout due either to the inability of the parents to pay or refusal to study, death or separation of parents, family dispute, feelings of injustice or discrimination within the family, and a desire for freedom. Street life depersonalizes children, subjects them to the law of the strongest, and exposes them to drugs and prostitution.

  2. Improving financial access to health care in the Kisantu district in the Democratic Republic of Congo: acting upon complexity

    PubMed Central

    Stasse, Stéphanie; Vita, Dany; Kimfuta, Jacques; da Silveira, Valèria Campos; Bossyns, Paul; Criel, Bart

    2015-01-01

    Background Comzmercialization of health care has contributed to widen inequities between the rich and the poor, especially in settings with suboptimal regulatory frameworks of the health sector. Poorly regulated fee-for-service payment systems generate inequity and initiate a vicious circle in which access to quality health care gradually deteriorates. Although the abolition of user fees is high on the international health policy agenda, the sudden removal of user fees may have disrupting effects on the health system and may not be affordable or sustainable in resource-constrained countries, such as the Democratic Republic of Congo. Methods and Results Between 2008 and 2011, the Belgian development aid agency (BTC) launched a set of reforms in the Kisantu district, in the province of Bas Congo, through an action-research process deemed appropriate for the implementation of change within open complex systems such as the Kisantu local health system. Moreover, the entire process contributed to strengthen the stewardship capacity of the Kisantu district management team. The reforms mainly comprised the rationalization of resources and the regulation of health services financing. Flat fees per episode of disease were introduced as an alternative to fee-for-service payments by patients. A financial subsidy from BTC allowed to reduce the height of the flat fees. The provision of the subsidy was made conditional upon a range of measures to rationalize the use of resources. Conclusions The results in terms of enhancing people access to quality health care were immediate and substantial. The Kisantu experience demonstrates that a systems approach is essential in addressing complex problems. It provides useful lessons for other districts in the country. PMID:25563450

  3. Malnutrition among children under the age of five in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC): does geographic location matter?

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Although there are inequalities in child health and survival in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), the influence of distal determinants such as geographic location on children's nutritional status is still unclear. We investigate the impact of geographic location on child nutritional status by mapping the residual net effect of malnutrition while accounting for important risk factors. Methods We examine spatial variation in under-five malnutrition with flexible geo-additive semi-parametric mixed model while simultaneously controlling for spatial dependence and possibly nonlinear effects of covariates within a simultaneous, coherent regression framework based on Markov Chain Monte Carlo techniques. Individual data records were constructed for children. Each record represents a child and consists of nutritional status information and a list of covariates. For the 8,992 children born within the last five years before the survey, 3,663 children have information on anthropometric measures. Our novel empirical approach is able to flexibly determine to what extent the substantial spatial pattern of malnutrition is driven by detectable factors such as socioeconomic factors and can be attributable to unmeasured factors such as conflicts, political, environmental and cultural factors. Results Although childhood malnutrition was more pronounced in all provinces of the DRC, after accounting for the location's effects, geographic differences were significant: malnutrition was significantly higher in rural areas compared to urban centres and this difference persisted after multiple adjustments. The findings suggest that models of nutritional intervention must be carefully specified with regard to residential location. Conclusion Childhood malnutrition is spatially structured and rates remain very high in the provinces that rely on the mining industry and comparable to the level seen in Eastern provinces under conflicts. Even in provinces such as Bas-Congo that

  4. From Health Advice to Taboo: Community Perspectives on the Treatment of Sleeping Sickness in the Democratic Republic of Congo, a Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Mpanya, Alain; Hendrickx, David; Baloji, Sylvain; Lumbala, Crispin; da Luz, Raquel Inocêncio; Boelaert, Marleen; Lutumba, Pascal

    2015-01-01

    Background Socio-cultural and economic factors constitute real barriers for uptake of screening and treatment of Human African Trypanosomiasis (HAT) in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). Better understanding and addressing these barriers may enhance the effectiveness of HAT control. Methods We performed a qualitative study consisting of semi-structured interviews and focus group discussions in the Bandundu and Kasaï Oriental provinces, two provinces lagging behind in the HAT elimination effort. Our study population included current and former HAT patients, as well as healthcare providers and program managers of the national HAT control program. All interviews and discussions were voice recorded on a digital device and data were analysed with the ATLAS.ti software. Findings Health workers and community members quoted a number of prohibitions that have to be respected for six months after HAT treatment: no work, no sexual intercourse, no hot food, not walking in the sun. Violating these restrictions is believed to cause serious, and sometimes deadly, complications. These strong prohibitions are well-known by the community and lead some people to avoid HAT screening campaigns, for fear of having to observe such taboos in case of diagnosis. Discussion The restrictions originally aimed to mitigate the severe adverse effects of the melarsoprol regimen, but are not evidence-based and became obsolete with the new safer drugs. Correct health information regarding HAT treatment is essential. Health providers should address the perspective of the community in a constant dialogue to keep abreast of unintended transformations of meaning. PMID:25856578

  5. [Preliminary results of an herpetology investigation in sugar cane plantation in Democratic Republic of Congo].

    PubMed

    Malukisa, J; Collet, M; Bokata, S; Odio, W

    2005-11-01

    Out of the 3,000 species of snakes described in the world, 163 are currently known from D.R. of Congo. We performed a systematic survey in sugar-cane plantations of the Sugar Company of Kwilu-Ngongo (Bas-Congo), located at 160 km South-West from Kinshasa and exploiting nearly 10,000 ha. The plantation is divided into 3 sectors in the middle of which we deposited barrels filled of formaldehyde. All the employees of the Sugar Company of Kwilu-Ngongo were requested to collect encountered snakes and put them in the nearest barrel. Between August 9th and September 21st, 2004, we collected 36 snakes in two different sites, revealing the presence of 3 families and 12 species. The most abundant species in Causus maculatus (47% in the first site--Point 8--and 29% in the second site--Point 13). The most poisonous and dangerous species were captured only in the first site--point 8, and were Dendroaspis jamesoni and Naja melanoleuca, both young. PMID:16402584

  6. Heterogenite vs asbolane: a mineralogical study of cobalt oxides from the DRC (Democratic Republic of the Congo)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burlet, Christian; Vanbrabant, Yves; Decree, Sophie

    2014-05-01

    The largest cobalt ore reserves are located in DRC, the Democratic Republic of Congo. Most of cobalt is observed as black cobaltic oxide minerals: heterogenite [HCoO2] and asbolane [(Ni,Co)2-xMn(O,OH)4.nH2O] which are hardly differentiable since they exhibit similar macroscopic habit and textures. These minerals are frequently observed in similar environment (oxidized horizon of ore deposits) and they are commonly poorly-crystallized limiting their study with XRD. Their chemical composition is also not very well-constrained since they exhibit significant chemical substitutions with cations as Cu, Co, Ni, Mn. Our observations on a set of heterogenite and asbolane samples from DRC combined with samples from other localities shows that each phase, even under an amorphous form, can be readily distinguished by Raman microspectrometry. This technique is therefore attractive during ore deposit characterization campaigns or during the follow-up extraction operations where it is important to distinguish the main constituting Co-phase(s). The main advantage of this technique is its speed since no sample preparation is required during the collection Raman spectra that usually last few tens of seconds. The method provides information at a μm-scale and several points are thus required to fully characterize ore batches composed of different mineralogical phases. Our petrographical observations show also that asbolane and heterogenite mineralogical phases can coexist at a μm-scale as two distinct phases into 'heterogenite' ore. The distinction between heterogenite and asbolane from our sample set can also be conducted on a chemical base showing that heterogenite represents the richer Co-phase with variable Cu concentrations. By contrast, only Mn traces are usually observed in heterogenite minerals from DRC except in few samples, but always in lower concentration than in asbolane. The latter shows variable Mn/(Mn+Co) ratio between 0.85 and 0.3 and the decrease of this value is

  7. Contribution to the knowledge of Afrotropical Dryinidae, Embolemidae and Sclerogibbidae (Hymenoptera), with description of new species from Central African Republic and Uganda.

    PubMed

    Olmi, Massimo; van Noort, Simon; Guglielmino, Adalgisa

    2016-01-01

    , 1963 (Sclerogibbidae); from Ivory Coast: Adryinus oweni Olmi, 1984 (Gonatopodinae); from Cameroon and South Africa: Gonatopus operosus Olmi, 1993 (Gonatopodinae); from Democratic Republic of the Congo and Zambia: Neodryinus antiquus Benoit, 1954 (Gonatopodinae); from South Africa: Anteon striatum Olmi, 2005b (Anteoninae). Including the above new records, 23 species of Dryinidae (previously six), two species of Embolemidae (previously none) and three species of Sclerogibbidae (previously two) are now known from Central African Republic. For Uganda, 39 species of Dryinidae (previously 23), one species of Embolemidae (previously none) and four species of Sclerogibbidae (previously four) are now known. Additional new faunistic records are provided for Cameroon, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Ivory Coast, Mali, South Africa and Zambia. PMID:27110196

  8. Contribution to the knowledge of Afrotropical Dryinidae, Embolemidae and Sclerogibbidae (Hymenoptera), with description of new species from Central African Republic and Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Olmi, Massimo; van Noort, Simon; Guglielmino, Adalgisa

    2016-01-01

    Benoit, 1963 (Sclerogibbidae); from Ivory Coast: Adryinus oweni Olmi, 1984 (Gonatopodinae); from Cameroon and South Africa: Gonatopus operosus Olmi, 1993 (Gonatopodinae); from Democratic Republic of the Congo and Zambia: Neodryinus antiquus Benoit, 1954 (Gonatopodinae); from South Africa: Anteon striatum Olmi, 2005b (Anteoninae). Including the above new records, 23 species of Dryinidae (previously six), two species of Embolemidae (previously none) and three species of Sclerogibbidae (previously two) are now known from Central African Republic. For Uganda, 39 species of Dryinidae (previously 23), one species of Embolemidae (previously none) and four species of Sclerogibbidae (previously four) are now known. Additional new faunistic records are provided for Cameroon, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Ivory Coast, Mali, South Africa and Zambia. PMID:27110196

  9. [Impact of war on civilian population health. Republic of the Congo, December 1998-February 2000].

    PubMed

    Salignon, P; Legros, D

    2002-01-01

    Congo Brazzaville was racked by civil war between 1998 and 2000. Fighting forced a large part of the population to flee from the capital, Brazzaville. Starting in 1999 many people began coming back to the city in dire physical and psychological condition. With little or no press coverage, this return went largely unnoticed by the general public. Volunteers from Médecins Sans Frontières were present not only to provide assistance and care to these war victims but also as to bear witness so that this tragedy should not be forgotten. By means of epidemiological surveys in the field, workers were able to paint a "picture of suffering" and to document the violence and deprivation inflicted mainly on the civilian population. This article summarizes the findings of this investigation.

  10. Yellow fever risk assessment in the Central African Republic.

    PubMed

    Ramos Junior, Alberto Novaes; Heukelbach, Jorg

    2015-04-01

    Yellow fever still causes high burden in several areas of sub-Saharan Africa and Latin America. There are few well-designed epidemiological studies and limited data about yellow fever in Africa. Staples et al., in a recently published paper in Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine & Hygiene, performed a nationwide study in the Central African Republic (CAR) assessing infection risk and the operational impact of preventive measures. The rapid assessment of human, non-human and mosquito data call attention to the potential risk of future yellow fever outbreaks in the CAR and elsewhere. The study reinforces the need for intensified applied and operational research to address problems and human capacity needs in the realm of neglected tropical diseases in the post-2015 agenda.

  11. Yellow fever risk assessment in the Central African Republic.

    PubMed

    Ramos Junior, Alberto Novaes; Heukelbach, Jorg

    2015-04-01

    Yellow fever still causes high burden in several areas of sub-Saharan Africa and Latin America. There are few well-designed epidemiological studies and limited data about yellow fever in Africa. Staples et al., in a recently published paper in Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine & Hygiene, performed a nationwide study in the Central African Republic (CAR) assessing infection risk and the operational impact of preventive measures. The rapid assessment of human, non-human and mosquito data call attention to the potential risk of future yellow fever outbreaks in the CAR and elsewhere. The study reinforces the need for intensified applied and operational research to address problems and human capacity needs in the realm of neglected tropical diseases in the post-2015 agenda. PMID:25732754

  12. Introduction of Monkeypox into a Community and Household: Risk Factors and Zoonotic Reservoirs in the Democratic Republic of the Congo

    PubMed Central

    Nolen, Leisha Diane; Osadebe, Lynda; Katomba, Jacques; Likofata, Jacques; Mukadi, Daniel; Monroe, Benjamin; Doty, Jeffrey; Kalemba, Lem's; Malekani, Jean; Kabamba, Joelle; Bomponda, Pierre Lokwa; Lokota, Jules Inonga; Balilo, Marcel Pie; Likafi, Toutou; Lushima, Robert Shongo; Tamfum, Jean-Jacques Muyembe; Okitolonda, Emile Wemakoy; McCollum, Andrea M.; Reynolds, Mary G.

    2015-01-01

    An increased incidence of monkeypox (MPX) infections in the Democratic Republic of the Congo was noted by the regional surveillance system in October 2013. Little information exists regarding how MPX is introduced into the community and the factors associated with transmission within the household. Sixty-eight wild animals were collected and tested for Orthopoxvirus. Two of three rope squirrels (Funisciurus sp.) were positive for antibodies to Orthopoxviruses; however, no increased risk was associated with the consumption or preparation of rope squirrels. A retrospective cohort investigation and a case–control investigation were performed to identify risk factors affecting the introduction of monkeypox virus (MPXV) into the community and transmission within the home. School-age males were the individuals most frequently identified as the first person infected in the household and were the group most frequently affected overall. Risk factors of acquiring MPXV in a household included sleeping in the same room or bed, or using the same plate or cup as the primary case. There was no significant risk associated with eating or processing of wild animals. Activities associated with an increased risk of MPXV transmission all have potential for virus exposure to the mucosa. PMID:26013374

  13. Modelling nitrate pollution pressure using a multivariate statistical approach: the case of Kinshasa groundwater body, Democratic Republic of Congo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mfumu Kihumba, Antoine; Ndembo Longo, Jean; Vanclooster, Marnik

    2016-03-01

    A multivariate statistical modelling approach was applied to explain the anthropogenic pressure of nitrate pollution on the Kinshasa groundwater body (Democratic Republic of Congo). Multiple regression and regression tree models were compared and used to identify major environmental factors that control the groundwater nitrate concentration in this region. The analyses were made in terms of physical attributes related to the topography, land use, geology and hydrogeology in the capture zone of different groundwater sampling stations. For the nitrate data, groundwater datasets from two different surveys were used. The statistical models identified the topography, the residential area, the service land (cemetery), and the surface-water land-use classes as major factors explaining nitrate occurrence in the groundwater. Also, groundwater nitrate pollution depends not on one single factor but on the combined influence of factors representing nitrogen loading sources and aquifer susceptibility characteristics. The groundwater nitrate pressure was better predicted with the regression tree model than with the multiple regression model. Furthermore, the results elucidated the sensitivity of the model performance towards the method of delineation of the capture zones. For pollution modelling at the monitoring points, therefore, it is better to identify capture-zone shapes based on a conceptual hydrogeological model rather than to adopt arbitrary circular capture zones.

  14. [Socioeconomic impact of armed conflict on the health of women and children in the Democratic Republic of the Congo].

    PubMed

    Omba Kalonda, J C

    2011-04-01

    Since 1996, the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) has been the theatre of armed conflict. More than 5.4 millions have died and 500,000 to 1,000,000 women have been raped. As a result of permanent insecurity including frequent massacres, burning of villages and plundering of personal property and crops, millions of Congolese people especially in eastern regions have been displaced with around 1.3 million in internal refugee camps. Rural populations have abandoned farming that was the main source of employment, food, and income. The purpose of this paper is to describe the socioeconomic impact of this armed conflict particularly on the health of women and children. Consequences include i) decreased food production, ii) worsening food insecurity and malnutrition, iii) reduced household income, and iv) inadequate health care leading to epidemic outbreaks of diseases such as cholera, measles, and meningitis. Food insecurity and poverty affect around 70% of the population. Chronic malnutrition and growth retardation affect 38% of children. The mortality rate for children under 5 has reached 205 per 1000 live births. Other than achieving lasting peace that is a prerequisite for development in the DRC, the main priority must be to provide victims with multiform assistance aimed at restarting the economy and ensuring food self-sufficiency, thereby reducing both malnutrition and child mortality. Better access to healthcare and to psychosocial, medical, and legal services is also needed for rape victims.

  15. Persistence and genetic stability of Ebola virus during the outbreak in Kikwit, Democratic Republic of the Congo, 1995.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, L L; De Roo, A; Guimard, Y; Trappier, S G; Sanchez, A; Bressler, D; Williams, A J; Rowe, A K; Bertolli, J; Khan, A S; Ksiazek, T G; Peters, C J; Nichol, S T

    1999-02-01

    Ebola virus persistence was examined in body fluids from 12 convalescent patients by virus isolation and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) during the 1995 Ebola hemorrhagic fever outbreak in Kikwit, Democratic Republic of the Congo. Virus RNA could be detected for up to 33 days in vaginal, rectal, and conjunctival swabs of 1 patient and up to 101 days in the seminal fluid of 4 patients. Infectious virus was detected in 1 seminal fluid sample obtained 82 days after disease onset. Sequence analysis of an RT-PCR fragment of the most variable region of the glycoprotein gene amplified from 9 patients revealed no nucleotide changes. The patient samples were selected so that they would include some from a suspected line of transmission with at least three human-to-human passages, some from 5 survivors and 4 deceased patients, and 2 from patients who provided multiple samples through convalescence. There was no evidence of different virus variants cocirculating during the outbreak or of genetic variation accumulating during human-to-human passage or during prolonged persistence in individual patients. PMID:9988181

  16. Female sociality during the daytime birth of a wild bonobo at Luikotale, Democratic Republic of the Congo.

    PubMed

    Douglas, Pamela Heidi

    2014-10-01

    Parturition is one of the most important yet least observed events in studies of primate life history and reproduction. Here, I report the first documented observation of a bonobo (Pan paniscus) birth event in the wild, at the Luikotale Bonobo Project field site, Democratic Republic of the Congo. The nulliparous mother's behaviour before, during and after parturition is described, along with reactions of other community members to the birth and the neonate. Data were collected through focal-animal observations, and the events postpartum were photo-documented. The behaviour and spatial distribution of party members were recorded using scan samples. Parturition occurred during the late morning in a social context, with parous females in close proximity to the parturient mother. Placentophagia occurred immediately after delivery, and the parturient shared the placenta with two of the attending females. I compare this observation with reports of parturition in captive bonobos, and highlight the observed female sociality and social support during the birth event. Plausible adaptive advantages of parturition occurring in a social context are discussed, and accrued observations of birth events in wild and free-ranging primates suggest that females may give birth within proximity of others more frequently than previously thought. This account contributes rare empirical data for examining the interface between female sociality and parturition, and the evolution of parturitional behaviours in primates. PMID:25007717

  17. Determinants of Antenatal Care Attendance among Pregnant Women Living in Endemic Malaria Settings: Experience from the Democratic Republic of Congo

    PubMed Central

    Manianga, Célestin; Kapanga, Serge; Mona, Esther; Pululu, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    Background. Antenatal care (ANC) attendance helps pregnant women to benefit from preventive and curative services. Methods. Determinants for ANC attendance were identified through a cross-sectional survey in the Democratic Republic of Congo. Sociocultural bottlenecks were assessed via focus groups discussion of married men and women. Results. In this survey, 28 of the 500 interviewed pregnant women (5.6%) did not attend ANC services and 82.4% booked over the first trimester. The first visit is positively influenced by the reproductive age (OR: 0.52, 95% CI(0.28–0.95), p < 0.04), the educational level (OR: 0.41,95% CI(0.17–0.97), p < 0.04), the nearby health center (OR: 0.43, 95% CI(0.2–0.92), p < 0.03), and the presence of a male partner (OR: 10.48, 95% CI(2.1–52.23), p < 0.001). The barriers to early booking were (i) the cost of service; (ii) the appearance or individual income; (iii) the geographical inaccessibility or distance to health facilities; (iv) social and religious prohibitions; (v) the stigmatization from other women when conceiving in the late ages or young or while still lactating (parity); (vi) the time for waiting for services. Conclusion. The early ANC attendance is delayed among poor women with little education and living alone. PMID:27703482

  18. Prevalence of Schistosoma mansoni Infection in Four Health Areas of Kisantu Health Zone, Democratic Republic of the Congo

    PubMed Central

    Mbanzulu Makola, K.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Schistosomiasis is a public health problem in Democratic Republic of the Congo but estimates of its prevalence vary widely. The aim of this study was to determine prevalence of Schistosoma mansoni infection and associated risk factors among children in 4 health areas of Kisantu health zone. Methods. A cross-sectional study was carried out in 4 health areas of Kisantu health zone. 388 children randomly selected were screened for S. mansoni using Kato Katz technique and the sociodemographic data was collected. Data were entered and encoded using software EpiData version 3.1. Analysis was performed using SPSS version 21 software. Results. The prevalence of S. mansoni was 26.5% (103); almost two-thirds (63) (61.2%) had light infection intensity. A significant association was found between S. mansoni infection and age (p = 0.005), educational level (p = 0.001), and practices of swimming/bathing (p < 0.001) and using water from river/lake/stream for domestic use (p < 0.001). Kipasa health area had high prevalence of schistosomiasis (64.6%) (64/99; 95% CI 54.4–74.0) compared to other health areas. Conclusion. Schistosoma mansoni infection still remains a public health problem in these areas. There is a need to promote health education and promote behavioral changes in children towards schistosomiasis. PMID:27579346

  19. Changing spatial patterns and increasing rurality of HIV prevalence in the Democratic Republic of the Congo between 2007 and 2013.

    PubMed

    Carrel, Margaret; Janko, Mark; Mwandagalirwa, Melchior Kashamuka; Morgan, Camille; Fwamba, Franck; Muwonga, Jérémie; Tshefu, Antoinette K; Meshnick, Steven; Emch, Michael

    2016-05-01

    The Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) has one of the lowest HIV prevalence in sub-Saharan Africa, estimated at 1.1% [0.9-1.3] of adults aged 15-49 in 2013 (UNAIDS). Within the 2 million km(2) country, however, there exists spatial variation in HIV prevalence, with the highest HIV prevalence observed in the large cities of Kinshasa and Lubumbashi. Globally, HIV is an increasingly rural disease, diffusing outwards from urban centers of high HIV prevalence to places where HIV was previously absent or present at very low levels. Utilizing data collected during Demographic and Health Surveillance (DHS) in 2007 and 2013 in the DRC, we sought to update the map of HIV prevalence in the DRC as well as to explore whether HIV in the DRC is an increasingly rural disease or remains confined to urban areas. Bayesian kriging and regression indicate that HIV prevalence in rural areas of the DRC is higher in 2013 than in 2007 and that increased distance to an urban area is no longer protective against HIV as it was in 2007. These findings suggest that HIV education, testing and prevention efforts need to diffuse from urban to rural areas just as HIV is doing. PMID:26974234

  20. Preventing vertical transmission of HIV in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of the Congo: a baseline survey of 18 antenatal clinics.

    PubMed Central

    Behets, Frieda Mtf; Matendo, Richard; Vaz, Lara Me; Kilese, Nick; Nanlele, Diderot; Kokolomami, Jack; Okitolando, Emile W.; Van Rie, Annelies

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the content and delivery of essential antenatal services before implementation of programmes for prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). METHODS: We assessed 18 antenatal care centres (eight public units and ten managed by nongovernmental organizations) in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of the Congo. We used a survey to capture information about the number and type of antenatal health workers, infrastructure capacity and the delivery of basic antenatal care services such as: nutritional counselling; tetanus toxoid vaccination; prevention and management of anaemia, malaria, sexually transmitted infections, and tuberculosis; and counselling for postpartum contraception. FINDINGS: Antenatal care units differed with respect to size, capacity, cost, service delivery systems and content. For instance, 17 of the 18 sites offered anaemia screening but only two sites included the cost in the card that gives access to antenatal care. Nine of the clinics (50%) reported providing the malaria prophyalxis sulfadoxine pyrimethamine as per national policy. Four (22%) of the sites offered syphilis screening. CONCLUSION: Scaling up PMTCT programmes in under-resourced settings requires evaluation and strengthening of existing basic antenatal care service delivery. PMID:17242833

  1. Filarial Antigenemia and Loa loa Night Blood Microfilaremia in an Area Without Bancroftian Filariasis in the Democratic Republic of Congo

    PubMed Central

    Bakajika, Didier K.; Nigo, Maurice M.; Lotsima, Jean Pierre; Masikini, Germain A.; Fischer, Kerstin; Lloyd, Melanie M.; Weil, Gary J.; Fischer, Peter U.

    2014-01-01

    Implementation of mass drug administration for lymphatic filariasis (LF) has been delayed in central Africa because of incomplete mapping and coendemic loiasis. We mapped two regions in eastern Democratic Republic of Congo that were suspected to have LF. Night blood samples were collected from 2,724 subjects in 30 villages. Filarial antigenemia rates by card test exceeded 1% in 28 villages (range = 0–14%). Prevalence rates for large sheathed microfilariae (Mf) ranged from 4% to 40%; Mansonella perstans rates ranged from 22% to 98%. Large Mf were exclusively Loa loa by microscopy, and only 1 of 337 samples tested by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) was positive for Wuchereria bancrofti DNA. Filarial antigen positivity was strongly associated with high L. loa Mf counts. Periodicity studies revealed atypical patterns, with no significant diurnal periodicity in some individuals. Thus, methods routinely used for LF mapping may not be reliable in areas in central Africa that are highly endemic for loiasis. PMID:25223938

  2. Filarial antigenemia and Loa loa night blood microfilaremia in an area without bancroftian filariasis in the Democratic Republic of Congo.

    PubMed

    Bakajika, Didier K; Nigo, Maurice M; Lotsima, Jean Pierre; Masikini, Germain A; Fischer, Kerstin; Lloyd, Melanie M; Weil, Gary J; Fischer, Peter U

    2014-12-01

    Implementation of mass drug administration for lymphatic filariasis (LF) has been delayed in central Africa because of incomplete mapping and coendemic loiasis. We mapped two regions in eastern Democratic Republic of Congo that were suspected to have LF. Night blood samples were collected from 2,724 subjects in 30 villages. Filarial antigenemia rates by card test exceeded 1% in 28 villages (range = 0-14%). Prevalence rates for large sheathed microfilariae (Mf) ranged from 4% to 40%; Mansonella perstans rates ranged from 22% to 98%. Large Mf were exclusively Loa loa by microscopy, and only 1 of 337 samples tested by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) was positive for Wuchereria bancrofti DNA. Filarial antigen positivity was strongly associated with high L. loa Mf counts. Periodicity studies revealed atypical patterns, with no significant diurnal periodicity in some individuals. Thus, methods routinely used for LF mapping may not be reliable in areas in central Africa that are highly endemic for loiasis. PMID:25223938

  3. Environmental impact evaluation of the stem bark extract of Maesa lanceolata used in Democratic Republic of Congo.

    PubMed

    Bagalwa, M; Chifundera, K

    2007-12-01

    This study has been carried out in order to evaluate new chemical drugs from plants for biocidal activity before use to avoid noxious effect on human beings and animals or plants and also to prevent the worsing of environment. In fact, many natural products endowed with biological active principles are obtained from plant material used in the holistic medicines. Presently, scientists pay attention to the study of plant extracts hoping to discover cheaper and efficient new drugs for health care and for pest control. On this point of view, the safety tests of extract from Maesa lanceolata (Myrsinaceae) candidate for snails control in the Democratic Republic of Congo, were undertaken. Portion of powdered steam barks was extracted with EtOH to obtain saponins that were submitted to tests. Saponins were fractionated by using TLC techniques and biocidal activity tests were performed on fishes, molluscs and mousquitoes. Saponins exhibited powerful biocidal activity against aquatic adult insects (Aeschnidae, Coenagrionidae, Hydrobidae), moustiquitoes (Anopheles gambiae, Anopheles funestus, Culex sp), snails (Biomphalaria pfeiffeiri and Lymnae natalensis), furcocercariae of Schistosoma mansoni and fish (Haplochromis sp, Oreochromis nilotica and Oreochromis macrochi)r. As results, Maesa lanceolata (Myrsinaceae) contains a saponin-mixture endowed with molluscicidal activity at a dose of 1mg/l. It may be a real candidate for snail control programs but it is harmful to aquatic biota. Attention must be paid to its utilization to avoid the ecological disturbance in the environment, especially when indigenous populations use it for fishing during the dry season. PMID:17928180

  4. Prevalence of Schistosoma mansoni Infection in Four Health Areas of Kisantu Health Zone, Democratic Republic of the Congo.

    PubMed

    Khonde Kumbu, R; Mbanzulu Makola, K; Bin, Lu

    2016-01-01

    Background. Schistosomiasis is a public health problem in Democratic Republic of the Congo but estimates of its prevalence vary widely. The aim of this study was to determine prevalence of Schistosoma mansoni infection and associated risk factors among children in 4 health areas of Kisantu health zone. Methods. A cross-sectional study was carried out in 4 health areas of Kisantu health zone. 388 children randomly selected were screened for S. mansoni using Kato Katz technique and the sociodemographic data was collected. Data were entered and encoded using software EpiData version 3.1. Analysis was performed using SPSS version 21 software. Results. The prevalence of S. mansoni was 26.5% (103); almost two-thirds (63) (61.2%) had light infection intensity. A significant association was found between S. mansoni infection and age (p = 0.005), educational level (p = 0.001), and practices of swimming/bathing (p < 0.001) and using water from river/lake/stream for domestic use (p < 0.001). Kipasa health area had high prevalence of schistosomiasis (64.6%) (64/99; 95% CI 54.4-74.0) compared to other health areas. Conclusion. Schistosoma mansoni infection still remains a public health problem in these areas. There is a need to promote health education and promote behavioral changes in children towards schistosomiasis. PMID:27579346

  5. Adenovirus and Herpesvirus Diversity in Free-Ranging Great Apes in the Sangha Region of the Republic of Congo

    PubMed Central

    Seimon, Tracie A.; Olson, Sarah H.; Lee, Kerry Jo; Rosen, Gail; Ondzie, Alain; Cameron, Kenneth; Reed, Patricia; Anthony, Simon J.; Joly, Damien O.; McAloose, Denise; Lipkin, W. Ian

    2015-01-01

    Infectious diseases have caused die-offs in both free-ranging gorillas and chimpanzees. Understanding pathogen diversity and disease ecology is therefore critical for conserving these endangered animals. To determine viral diversity in free-ranging, non-habituated gorillas and chimpanzees in the Republic of Congo, genetic testing was performed on great-ape fecal samples collected near Odzala-Kokoua National Park. Samples were analyzed to determine ape species, identify individuals in the population, and to test for the presence of herpesviruses, adenoviruses, poxviruses, bocaviruses, flaviviruses, paramyxoviruses, coronaviruses, filoviruses, and simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV). We identified 19 DNA viruses representing two viral families, Herpesviridae and Adenoviridae, of which three herpesviruses had not been previously described. Co-detections of multiple herpesviruses and/or adenoviruses were present in both gorillas and chimpanzees. Cytomegalovirus (CMV) and lymphocryptovirus (LCV) were found primarily in the context of co-association with each other and adenoviruses. Using viral discovery curves for herpesviruses and adenoviruses, the total viral richness in the sample population of gorillas and chimpanzees was estimated to be a minimum of 23 viruses, corresponding to a detection rate of 83%. These findings represent the first description of DNA viral diversity in feces from free-ranging gorillas and chimpanzees in or near the Odzala-Kokoua National Park and form a basis for understanding the types of viruses circulating among great apes in this region. PMID:25781992

  6. Female sociality during the daytime birth of a wild bonobo at Luikotale, Democratic Republic of the Congo.

    PubMed

    Douglas, Pamela Heidi

    2014-10-01

    Parturition is one of the most important yet least observed events in studies of primate life history and reproduction. Here, I report the first documented observation of a bonobo (Pan paniscus) birth event in the wild, at the Luikotale Bonobo Project field site, Democratic Republic of the Congo. The nulliparous mother's behaviour before, during and after parturition is described, along with reactions of other community members to the birth and the neonate. Data were collected through focal-animal observations, and the events postpartum were photo-documented. The behaviour and spatial distribution of party members were recorded using scan samples. Parturition occurred during the late morning in a social context, with parous females in close proximity to the parturient mother. Placentophagia occurred immediately after delivery, and the parturient shared the placenta with two of the attending females. I compare this observation with reports of parturition in captive bonobos, and highlight the observed female sociality and social support during the birth event. Plausible adaptive advantages of parturition occurring in a social context are discussed, and accrued observations of birth events in wild and free-ranging primates suggest that females may give birth within proximity of others more frequently than previously thought. This account contributes rare empirical data for examining the interface between female sociality and parturition, and the evolution of parturitional behaviours in primates.

  7. A cross-sectional survey of Plasmodium falciparum pfcrt mutant haplotypes in the Democratic Republic of Congo.

    PubMed

    Antonia, Alejandro L; Taylor, Steve M; Janko, Mark; Emch, Michael; Tshefu, Antoinette K; Meshnick, Steven R

    2014-06-01

    In the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), artesunate-amodiaquine is first-line therapy for falciparum malaria; little is known about the prevalence of molecular markers of parasite drug resistance. Across the DRC, we genotyped 166 parasites in Plasmodium falciparum chloroquine resistance transporter (pfcrt) using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and sequencing. Of these parasites, 73 (44%) parasites were pure wild-type CVMNK, 55 (31%) parasites were chloroquine-resistant CVIET: , 35 (21.1%) parasites were mixed CVMNK and CVIET: , and 3 parasites were other genotypes. Ninety-two infections (55.4%) harbored the pfcrt K76T: substitution that is highly correlated with chloroquine failure. The amodiaquine-resistant S: VMNT: haplotype was absent. Geographically, pfcrt haplotypes were not clearly clustered. Chloroquine accounted for 19.4% of antimalarial use, and amodiaquine accounted for 15.3% of antimalarial use; there were no associations between drug use and mutant haplotype prevalence. In the DRC, our molecular survey indicates that resistance to chloroquine is substantial but that resistance to amodiaquine is absent. These contrasting findings highlight the need for molecular surveillance of drug resistance to inform malaria control policies.

  8. Identification of different trypanosome species in the mid-guts of tsetse flies of the Malanga (Kimpese) sleeping sickness focus of the Democratic Republic of Congo

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The Malanga sleeping sickness focus of the Democratic Republic of Congo has shown an epidemic evolution of disease during the last century. However, following case detection and treatment, the prevalence of the disease decreased considerably. No active survey has been undertaken in this focus for a couple of years. To understand the current epidemiological status of sleeping sickness as well as the animal African trypanosomiasis in the Malanga focus, we undertook the identification of tsetse blood meals as well as different trypanosome species in flies trapped in this focus. Methods Pyramidal traps were use to trap tsetse flies. All flies caught were identified and live flies were dissected and their mid-guts collected. Fly mid-gut was used for the molecular identification of the blood meal source, as well as for the presence of different trypanosome species. Results About 949 Glossina palpalis palpalis were trapped; 296 (31.2%) of which were dissected, 60 (20.3%) blood meals collected and 57 (19.3%) trypanosome infections identified. The infection rates were 13.4%, 5.1%, 3.5% and 0.4% for Trypanosoma congolense savannah type, Trypanosoma brucei s.l., Trypanosoma congolense forest type and Trypanosoma vivax, respectively. Three mixed infections including Trypanosoma brucei s.l. and Trypanosoma congolense savannah type, and one mixed infection of Trypanosoma vivax and Trypanosoma congolense savannah type were identified. Eleven Trypanosoma brucei gambiense infections were identified; indicating an active circulation of this trypanosome subspecies. Of all the identified blood meals, about 58.3% were identified as being taken on pigs, while 33.3% and 8.3% were from man and other mammals, respectively. Conclusion The presence of Trypanosoma brucei in tsetse mid-guts associated with human blood meals is indicative of an active transmission of this parasite between tsetse and man. The considerable number of pig blood meals combined with the circulation of

  9. Sparks creating light? Strengthening peripheral disease surveillance in the Democratic Republic of Congo.

    PubMed

    Benedetti, G; Mossoko, M; Nyakio Kakusu, J P; Nyembo, J; Mangion, J P; Van Laeken, D; Van den Bergh, R; Van den Boogaard, W; Manzi, M; Kibango, W K; Hermans, V; Beijnsberger, J; Lambert, V; Kitenge, E

    2016-06-21

    Contexte : La République Démocratique du Congo souffre d'un amalgame de flambées épidémiques et d'autres urgences médicales. Une réponse efficace à ces problèmes est basée sur le système national de surveillance. Le Pool d'Urgence Congo (PUC) de Médecins Sans Frontières est un projet répondant aux urgences dans les zones très reculées grâce à des interventions verticales à court terme, pendant lesquelles le projet met à profit l'opportunité de sa présence pour renforcer le système de surveillance local.Objectif : Vérifier si le renforcement complémentaire du système de surveillance périphérique pendant des interventions à court terme amène une amélioration de la notification des maladies.Schéma : Une étude descriptive par paires mesurant la notification des maladies avant et après 12 interventions PUC en 2013–2014.Résultats : Une augmentation significative de la notification des maladies a été observée après sept campagnes de vaccination de masse et elle s'est maintenue pendant 6 mois. En ce qui concerne les cinq interventions restantes à plus petite échelle, aucun effet significatif n'a été observé.Conclusion : Les améliorations observées, même après des interventions à court terme, soulignent d'un côté comment des acteurs externes de l'urgence peuvent affecter positivement le système à travers leurs actions ponctuelles et, d'un autre côté, le besoin pressant d'investir dans la surveillance au niveau périphérique.

  10. Population structure and group composition of western lowland gorillas in north-western Republic of Congo.

    PubMed

    Magliocca, F; Querouil, S; Gautier-Hion, A

    1999-01-01

    Population studies are an essential part of conservation actions. Under exceptional observation conditions we studied a western lowland gorilla population visiting the Maya salt-clearing (north of the Parc national d'Odzala, P.N.O., Congo) over an 8 month period; 36 groups and 18 solitary individuals (a total of 420 individuals) have been identified visiting the clearing, which suggests a high gorilla density in the region. Ninety-six percent of the gorillas entered the clearing in groups. One-male groups had a mean size of 11.2. Ninety percent of solitary individuals were silver-back males. Compared with other populations of both lowland gorillas and mountain gorillas, the Maya population had the highest immature rate and the highest number of infants per female. Ecological correlates that could explain the attractiveness of the Maya clearing are discussed. The present status and the renewal rate of the Maya population indicate the need for further studies and confirm the importance of developing eco-tourism in this region as part of the sustainable park management activities developed by the ECOFAC programme (European Union). The results also provide arguments to support the proposal for extending the P.N.O. to include this region, which is rich in salt-clearings and attracts many other key-species of mammal such as forest elephants.

  11. User cost of Caesarean section: case study of Bunia, Democratic Republic of Congo.

    PubMed

    Deboutte, Danielle; O'Dempsey, Tim; Mann, Gillian; Faragher, Brian

    2015-01-01

    The study estimated the user cost of Caesarean section (CS), a major component of emergency obstetric care (EmOC), in a post conflict situation in Bunia, DR Congo, 2008. A case control study used a structured questionnaire to compare women who had a CS (cases) with women who had a vaginal delivery (controls). Service information was recorded in 20 facilities providing obstetric care. Maternal and perinatal deaths, including those outside health facilities, were recorded and verified. The user cost of CS was estimated at four hospitals, one of them managed by an international non-governmental organization offering EmOC free of charge, compared to the user cost of women who had a vaginal delivery. Among paying users, the mean healthcare cost was $US68.0 for CS and $US12.1 for vaginal delivery; mean transport cost to and from the hospital was $US11.7 for cases and $US3.2 for controls. The mean monthly family income was $US75.5. The user cost of CS placed an important financial burden on patients and their families. During transition from humanitarian to developmental assistance, donors and the State should shore up the EmOC budget to avoid an increase in maternal and perinatal mortality. PMID:23861204

  12. Dry gas vents (“mazuku”) in Goma region (North-Kivu, Democratic Republic of Congo): Formation and risk assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smets, Benoît; Tedesco, Dario; Kervyn, François; Kies, Antoine; Vaselli, Orlando; Yalire, Mathieu Mapendano

    2010-12-01

    The word " mazuku" in Swahili means "evil wind". It corresponds to lowland (depressions) where carbon dioxide is released and, being heavier than air, accumulates at high - often lethal - concentrations (10 vol.% of CO 2 in atmosphere can be considered as the deadly threshold, even for a short time exposure). Mazuku are abundant in Goma and surrounding areas and particularly in the area south of the large volcanic edifices of Nyiragongo and Nyamulagira volcanoes located in the most eastern part of DR Congo, W branch of the East African Rift System (EARS). Our extensive field surveys have indicated that mazuku are concentrated within to and around the densely populated city of Goma close to the N shores of Lake Kivu, mainly near fault or fissure networks. At a more local scale, depressions allowing CO 2-rich gas accumulation are created by lava flow superposition, lava tunnels or cavity collapses, or directly associated with open fractures. People are killed by mazuku every year. Given political and social unrest coupled with the current important demographic and urban growths around Goma, the risks associated to mazuku are increasing accordingly. Mazuku are currently the most important natural risk in terms of human loss for the area and there is an urgent need for further research, more systematic mapping and monitoring of mazuku and for appropriate risk management to be implemented. This paper summarizes the current scientific knowledge on mazuku as well as new advances and a preliminary risk assessment performed recently in the frame of the GORISK project.

  13. Yombo field exploration model, peoples Republic of the Congo, west Africa

    SciTech Connect

    Nibbelink, K.A.; Sorgenfrei, M.C.; Rice, D.E. )

    1993-09-01

    Yombo field in the Congo is sourced from the lacustrine shales of the presalt rift stage and produces from the Albian and Cenomanian, postsalt, Sendji carbonate and Tchala Sandstone. The Yombo prospect exploration model included an upper Sendji stratigraphic trap with two components and a structural nose. The buried hill component of the trap is formed by topographic relief on the reservoir below the top Sendji unconformity. The lower Sendji slump blocks provide a high on which the upper Sendji grainstone shoal facies develop. Both depositional relief and erosion during the top Sendji unconformity contribute to the topography. An isochron thick in the overlying Tchala valley-fill sediments defined a drainage pattern on the unconformity around the buried hill of the underlying upper Sendji. The facies change component is formed by the pinch-out of the grainstone shoal reservoir facies into porous, but impermeable lagoonal dolomite interbedded with anhydrite and shale. Capillary pressure measurements on the 16% porosity, 0.1 md permeability lagoonal dolomite, along with pore throat radius and buoyancy calculations, demonstrated this facies could trap a significant column of low-gravity oil at shallow depth. The Tchala Sandstone contains several separate hydrocarbon accumulations. A stratigraphic trap in the lower Tchala is formed by marine and tidal channel sandstones pinching out into lagoonal shales. The nearshore marine sandstones of the upper Tchala contain additional hydrocarbons in structural and stratigraphic traps. The stratigraphic pinch-out that cross the Yombo nose trap a significant hydrocarbon accumulation, even though the four-way structural closure is relatively small.

  14. Water Supply Interruptions and Suspected Cholera Incidence: A Time-Series Regression in the Democratic Republic of the Congo

    PubMed Central

    Jeandron, Aurélie; Saidi, Jaime Mufitini; Kapama, Alois; Burhole, Manu; Birembano, Freddy; Vandevelde, Thierry; Gasparrini, Antonio; Armstrong, Ben; Cairncross, Sandy; Ensink, Jeroen H. J.

    2015-01-01

    Background The eastern provinces of the Democratic Republic of the Congo have been identified as endemic areas for cholera transmission, and despite continuous control efforts, they continue to experience regular cholera outbreaks that occasionally spread to the rest of the country. In a region where access to improved water sources is particularly poor, the question of which improvements in water access should be prioritized to address cholera transmission remains unresolved. This study aimed at investigating the temporal association between water supply interruptions and Cholera Treatment Centre (CTC) admissions in a medium-sized town. Methods and Findings Time-series patterns of daily incidence of suspected cholera cases admitted to the Cholera Treatment Centre in Uvira in South Kivu Province between 2009 and 2014 were examined in relation to the daily variations in volume of water supplied by the town water treatment plant. Quasi-poisson regression and distributed lag nonlinear models up to 12 d were used, adjusting for daily precipitation rates, day of the week, and seasonal variations. A total of 5,745 patients over 5 y of age with acute watery diarrhoea symptoms were admitted to the CTC over the study period of 1,946 d. Following a day without tap water supply, the suspected cholera incidence rate increased on average by 155% over the next 12 d, corresponding to a rate ratio of 2.55 (95% CI: 1.54–4.24), compared to the incidence experienced after a day with optimal production (defined as the 95th percentile—4,794 m3). Suspected cholera cases attributable to a suboptimal tap water supply reached 23.2% of total admissions (95% CI 11.4%–33.2%). Although generally reporting less admissions to the CTC, neighbourhoods with a higher consumption of tap water were more affected by water supply interruptions, with a rate ratio of 3.71 (95% CI: 1.91–7.20) and an attributable fraction of cases of 31.4% (95% CI: 17.3%–42.5%). The analysis did not suggest any

  15. Paying health workers for performance in a fragmented, fragile state: reflections from Katanga Province, Democratic Republic of Congo.

    PubMed

    Fox, Sarah; Witter, Sophie; Wylde, Emily; Mafuta, Eric; Lievens, Tomas

    2014-01-01

    The health financing system in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) presents an extreme example of low government investment, high dependency on user fees and poor harmonization across donors. Within this context, performance-based financing mechanisms are being implemented by various donors in the expectation that they will improve health worker motivation and service delivery performance. Drawing on qualitative and quantitative data at different levels of the health system, this study focuses on one such programme in Katanga Province, which combines paying for performance (P4P) with a reduction in fees to users. Despite adding considerably to facility resources (providing the majority of the resources in the case study facilities), there was no evidence of benefits in terms of any of the service inputs, processes or outputs measured. The findings suggest that the positive effects on health worker motivation cannot be taken as a given, particularly, when staff are often expected to increase their workload to achieve the performance objectives and when another source of income, the income from user fees, may be reduced due to a fall in the prices of services. Moreover, in a context where health workers were already almost entirely dependent on users for their remuneration before the donor programme was introduced, the incentive effects of a performance contract may be muted. In addition, other income sources have particular value for staff, it seems-even though salaries and government allowances were low, and frequently delayed, health workers were highly dissatisfied at not receiving them. Salaries were seen as a more assured and long-term source of funding and an important recognition of their role as agents of the state. The authors conclude that while there may be a role for P4P in fragile contexts such as the DRC, to be effective it needs to be rooted in wider financing and human resource policy reforms.

  16. Pyrochlores from the Lueshe carbonatite complex (Democratic Republic of Congo): a geochemical record of different alteration stages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nasraoui, M.; Bilal, E.

    2000-04-01

    Magmatic pyrochlores from the Lueshe syenite-carbonatite complex from the northeastern part of Democratic Republic of Congo (ex-Zaı̈re) are characterized by Ta/Nb ratios in an increasing order from pyroxenite, calcite-carbonatite (sövite), silicate xenoliths (nodules) to syenite. Substitutions involving Nb, Ta, Ti and REE have been precisely described. Hydrothermal alteration of Lueshe pyrochlore involves the substitution of Na ++F -=VA+VY and Ca+O=VA+VY (VA=A-site vacancy and VY=Y-site vacancy). In calcite carbonatite, hydrothermal alteration of pyrochlore took place during and after the precipitation of ancylite-(Ce), strontianite, celestite, baryte and fayalite according to a fluid composition of relatively low pH, aNa +, aCa 2+ and aHF, and high aSr 2+ and aLREE 3+. The supergene alteration is characterized by complete leaching of Na, Ca and F and partial incorporation of K, Ba, Sr and Ce resulting in the formation of kali-, bario-, strontio- and ceriopyrochlore respectively. The Na-poor pyrochlore may be an intermediate variety corresponding to an alteration stage between the hydrothermal and weathered pyrochlores. The IR spectroscopic study has indicated that the weathered pyrochlore is a hydrated variety containing two bands of OH vibration modes at 3413 and 1630 cm -1. During hydrothermal and supergene alterations, the cations at B-site remain relatively constant. The variable chemical compositions of the pyrochlores from the Lueshe complex represent geochemical memories of the different alteration conditions including the variation in the oxidation-reduction environment.

  17. Experiences of female survivors of sexual violence in eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo: a mixed-methods study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The conflict in eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) is the deadliest since World War II. Over a decade of fighting amongst an array of armed groups has resulted in extensive human rights abuses, particularly the widespread use of sexual violence against women. Methods Using a mixed-methods approach, we surveyed a non-random sample of 255 women attending a referral hospital and two local non-governmental organizations to characterize their experiences of sexual and gender-based violence (SGBV). We then conducted focus groups of 48 women survivors of SGBV to elaborate on survey findings. Quantitative and qualitative data underwent thematic and statistical analysis respectively. Findings Of the women surveyed, 193 (75.7%) experienced rape. Twenty-nine percent of raped women were rejected by their families and 6% by their communities. Thirteen percent of women had a child from rape. Widowhood, husband abandonment, gang rape, and having a child from rape were significant risk factors for social rejection. Mixed methods findings show rape survivors were seen as "contaminated" with HIV, contributing to their isolation and over 95% could not access prophylactic care in time. Receiving support from their husbands after rape was protective against survivors' feelings of shame and social isolation. Interpretation Rape results not only in physical and psychological trauma, but can destroy family and community structures. Women face significant obstacles in seeking services after rape. Interventions offering long-term solutions for hyper-vulnerable women are vital, but lacking; reintegration programs on SGBV for women, men, and communities are also needed. PMID:22047181

  18. National-scale estimation of gross forest aboveground carbon loss: a case study of the Democratic Republic of the Congo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tyukavina, A.; Stehman, S. V.; Potapov, P. V.; Turubanova, S. A.; Baccini, A.; Goetz, S. J.; Laporte, N. T.; Houghton, R. A.; Hansen, M. C.

    2013-12-01

    Recent advances in remote sensing enable the mapping and monitoring of carbon stocks without relying on extensive in situ measurements. The Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) is among the countries where national forest inventories (NFI) are either non-existent or out of date. Here we demonstrate a method for estimating national-scale gross forest aboveground carbon (AGC) loss and associated uncertainties using remotely sensed-derived forest cover loss and biomass carbon density data. Lidar data were used as a surrogate for NFI plot measurements to estimate carbon stocks and AGC loss based on forest type and activity data derived using time-series multispectral imagery. Specifically, DRC forest type and loss from the FACET (Forêts d’Afrique Centrale Evaluées par Télédétection) product, created using Landsat data, were related to carbon data derived from the Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS). Validation data for FACET forest area loss were created at a 30-m spatial resolution and compared to the 60-m spatial resolution FACET map. We produced two gross AGC loss estimates for the DRC for the last decade (2000-2010): a map-scale estimate (53.3 ± 9.8 Tg C yr-1) accounting for whole-pixel classification errors in the 60-m resolution FACET forest cover change product, and a sub-grid estimate (72.1 ± 12.7 Tg C yr-1) that took into account 60-m cells that experienced partial forest loss. Our sub-grid forest cover and AGC loss estimates, which included smaller-scale forest disturbances, exceed published assessments. Results raise the issue of scale in forest cover change mapping and validation, and subsequent impacts on remotely sensed carbon stock change estimation, particularly for smallholder dominated systems such as the DRC.

  19. The Challenges of Research Informed Consent in Socio-Economically Vulnerable Populations: A Viewpoint From the Democratic Republic of Congo.

    PubMed

    Kalabuanga, Marion; Ravinetto, Raffaella; Maketa, Vivi; Muhindo Mavoko, Hypolite; Fungula, Blaise; Inocêncio da Luz, Raquel; Van Geertruyden, Jean-Pierre; Lutumba, Pascal

    2016-08-01

    In medical research, the ethical principle of respect for persons is operationalized into the process of informed consent. The consent tools should be contextualized and adapted to the different socio-cultural environment, especially when research crosses the traditional boundaries and reaches poor communities. We look at the challenges experienced in the malaria Quinact trial, conducted in the Democratic Republic of Congo, and describe some lessons learned, related to the definition of acceptable representative, the role of independent witness and the impact of socio-economic vulnerability. To ensure children's protection, consent is required by the parents or, in their absence, by a legally mandated representative. In our setting, children's responsibility is often entrusted permanently or temporarily to relatives or friends without a tribunal mandate. Hence, a notion of 'culturally acceptable representative' under supervision of the local Ethics Committee may be more suitable. To ensure protection of illiterate subjects, an independent witness is required to confirm that the consent was freely given. However, in low-literacy contexts, potential witnesses often don't have any previous relationship with patient and there may be power-unbalance in their relationship, rather than genuine dialogue. In poor communities, trial participation may be seen as an opportunity to secure access to healthcare. Poverty may also lead to 'competition' to access the research-related benefits, with a risk of disturbance at societal or household level. Adjusting consent procedures to sociocultural and socioeconomic realities is essential for fulfilling the underlying ethical principles. This requires a collaborative dialogue between researchers, regulators and ethics committees.

  20. Qualitative study exploring surgical team members' perception of patient safety in conflict-ridden Eastern Democratic Republic of Congo

    PubMed Central

    Labat, Francoise; Sharma, Anjali

    2016-01-01

    Objective To identify potential barriers to patient safety (PS) interventions from the perspective of surgical team members working in an operating theatre in Eastern Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). Design In-depth interviews were conducted and analysed using qualitative content analysis. Setting Governmental referral teaching hospital in Eastern DRC. Participants We purposively selected 2–4 national and expatriate surgical team members from each specialisation. Of the 31 eligible surgical health workers (HWs), 17 volunteered to be interviewed. Results Economics issues affected PS throughout the entire health system, from human resources and hospital management, to access to healthcare for patients. Surgical team members seemed embedded in a paternalistic organisational structure and blame culture accompanied by perceived inefficient support services and low salaries. The armed conflict did not only worsen these system failures, it also carried direct threats to patients and HWs, and resulted in complex indirect consequences compromising PS. The increased corruption within health organisations, and population impoverishment and substance abuse among health staff adversely altered safe care. Simultaneously, HWs’ reported resilience and resourcefulness to address barrier to PS. Participants had varying views on external aid depending on its relevance. Conclusions The complex links between war and PS emphasise the importance of a comprehensive approach including occupational health to strengthen HWs' resilience, external clinical audits to limit corruption, and educational programmes in PS to support patient-centred care and address blame culture. Finally, improvement of equity in the health financing system seems essential to ensure access to healthcare and safe perioperative outcomes for all. PMID:27113232

  1. Importation of chloroquine-resistant Plasmodium falciparum by Guatemalan peacekeepers returning from the Democratic Republic of the Congo

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Malaria elimination is being pursued in five of seven Central American countries. Military personnel returning from peacekeeping missions in sub-Saharan Africa could import chloroquine-resistant Plasmodium falciparum, posing a threat to elimination and to the continued efficacy of first-line chloroquine (CQ) treatment in these countries. This report describes the importation of P. falciparum from among 150 Guatemalan army special forces and support staff who spent ten months on a United Nations’ peacekeeping mission in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) in 2010. Methods Investigators reviewed patients’ medical charts and interviewed members of the contingent to identify malaria cases and risk factors for malaria acquisition. Clinical specimens were tested for malaria; isolated parasites were characterized molecularly for CQ resistance. Results Investigators identified 12 cases (8%) of laboratory-confirmed P. falciparum infection within the contingent; one case was from a soldier infected with a CQ-resistant pfcrt genotype resulting in his death. None of the contingent used an insecticide-treated bed net (ITN) or completely adhered to malaria chemoprophylaxis while in the DRC. Conclusion This report highlights the need to promote use of malaria prevention measures, in particular ITNs and chemoprophylaxis, among peacekeepers stationed in malaria-endemic areas. Countries attempting to eliminate malaria should consider appropriate methods to screen peacekeepers returning from endemic areas for malaria infections. Cases of malaria in travellers, immigrants and soldiers returning to Central America from countries with CQ-resistant malaria should be assumed to be carry resistant parasites and receive appropriate anti-malarial therapy to prevent severe disease and death. PMID:24060234

  2. Genotypes of rubella virus and the epidemiology of rubella infections in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, 2004-2013.

    PubMed

    Pukuta, Elizabeth; Waku-Kouomou, Diane; Abernathy, Emily; Illunga, Benoit Kebela; Obama, Ricardo; Mondonge, Vital; Dahl, Benjamin A; Maresha, Balcha G; Icenogle, Joseph; Muyembe, Jean-Jacques

    2016-10-01

    Rubella is a viral infection that may cause fetal death or congenital defects, known as congenital rubella syndrome (CRS), during early pregnancy. The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends that countries assess the burden of rubella and CRS, including the determination of genotypes of circulating viruses. The goal of this study was to identify the genotypes of rubella viruses in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC). Serum or throat swab samples were collected through the measles surveillance system. Sera that tested negative for measles IgM antibody were tested for rubella IgM antibody. Serum collected within 4 days of rash onset and throat swabs were screened by real-time RT-PCR for rubella virus RNA. For positive samples, an amplicon of the E1 glycoprotein gene was amplified by RT-PCR and sequenced. 11733 sera were tested for rubella IgM and 2816 (24%) were positive; 145 (5%) were tested for the presence of rubella RNA by real-time RT-PCR and 10 (7%) were positive. Seventeen throat swabs were analyzed by RT-PCR and three were positive. Sequences were obtained from eight of the positive samples. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the DRC rubella viruses belonged to genotypes 1B, 1E, 1G, and 2B. This report provides the first information on the genotypes of rubella virus circulating in the DRC. These data contribute to a better understanding of rubella burden and the dynamics of rubella virus circulation in Africa. Efforts to establish rubella surveillance in the DRC are needed to support rubella elimination in Africa. J. Med. Virol. 88:1677-1684, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Effect of HIV-1 infection on tuberculosis and fertility in a large workforce in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of the Congo.

    PubMed

    Ryder, R W; Batter, V; Kaseka, N; Behets, F; Sequeira, D; M'Boly, E; Kanda, M; Tshibambe, M; Morgan, M

    2000-06-01

    To determine the effect of an HIV counseling service on the incidence of HIV and tuberculosis infection and on the fertility rate in a large workforce cohort of adult men and women from Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo (formerly Zaire), we conducted a 2-year prospective longitudinal cohort study, two large Kinshasa businesses (a commercial bank and a textile factory). We determined baseline HIV-1 seroprevalence, HIV-1 and tuberculosis mortality/morbidity, and fertility rates during 24 months of follow-up on 8866 employees and 6411 wives of male employees. The baseline HIV-1 seroprevalence was 2.8% in male employees (n = 6657), 8.4% in female employees (n = 417), and 2.4% in the wives of male employees (n = 4692). The HIV-1 seroincidence per 100 person-years of follow-up in these three groups was 0.9, 0.5 and 0.8, respectively. The incidence of tuberculosis was 2.4/100 person years in persistently seropositive individuals compared with a 0.38 rate in persistently seronegative individuals (p < 0.01). The annual fertility rate in persistently seronegative women was 250.0/1000 women compared with a rate of 140/1000 in persistently seropositive women (p < 0.001). Forty-eight (44%) of 105 male employees and 17 (26%) of 60 wives of male workers who died during follow-up were HIV-1 seropositive. HIV infection was responsible for nearly one half of all deaths in this large workforce. Tuberculosis incidence was six times higher in HIV-1-infected compared with uninfected individuals. Counseling of HIV-infected women and their husbands appeared to be effective as their cumulative fertility rate was 44% lower than the rate in similarly aged uninfected women.

  4. High human exposure to pyrene (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon) in Kinshasa, a capital of the Democratic Republic of Congo

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Data on human exposure to chemicals in Africa are scarce. A biomonitoring study was conducted in a representative sample of the population in Kinshasa (Democratic Republic of Congo) to document exposure to polycyclic aromatics hydrocarbons. Methods 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OHP) was measured by HPLC fluorescence in spot urine samples from 220 individuals (50.5% women), aged 6–70 years living in the urban area and from 50 additional subjects from the sub-rural area of Kinshasa. Data were compiled as geometric means and selected percentiles, expressed without (μg/L) or with creatinine adjustment (μg/g cr). Multiple regression analyses were applied to factors (creatinine, grilled meat habits and smoking habits) influencing 1-OHP (stepwise procedure, criteria: probability F to enter ≤ 0.05 and probability F to remove ≥ 0.10). Results According to the regression models, creatinine, grilled meat habits and smoking habits contribute to explain 45% of the variation in population’s urinary 1-OHP by the environmental exposure. Overall, living in urban area of Kinshasa was associated with increased levels of 1-OHP in urine as compared to a population living in the sub-rural area [GM: 1.8 μg/L (n = 220) versus 1.4 μg/L (n = 50), p < 0.01] as well as compared to the reference values from databases involving American or German populations. Conclusion This study reveals the high pyrene (PAH) exposure of the Kinshasa population. However, more work, with a rigorous design in the exposed population (monitoring of air concentrations and identifying other sources of pyrene –PAH exposure), is needed to establish further documentation. PMID:23782930

  5. Genotypes of rubella virus and the epidemiology of rubella infections in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, 2004-2013.

    PubMed

    Pukuta, Elizabeth; Waku-Kouomou, Diane; Abernathy, Emily; Illunga, Benoit Kebela; Obama, Ricardo; Mondonge, Vital; Dahl, Benjamin A; Maresha, Balcha G; Icenogle, Joseph; Muyembe, Jean-Jacques

    2016-10-01

    Rubella is a viral infection that may cause fetal death or congenital defects, known as congenital rubella syndrome (CRS), during early pregnancy. The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends that countries assess the burden of rubella and CRS, including the determination of genotypes of circulating viruses. The goal of this study was to identify the genotypes of rubella viruses in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC). Serum or throat swab samples were collected through the measles surveillance system. Sera that tested negative for measles IgM antibody were tested for rubella IgM antibody. Serum collected within 4 days of rash onset and throat swabs were screened by real-time RT-PCR for rubella virus RNA. For positive samples, an amplicon of the E1 glycoprotein gene was amplified by RT-PCR and sequenced. 11733 sera were tested for rubella IgM and 2816 (24%) were positive; 145 (5%) were tested for the presence of rubella RNA by real-time RT-PCR and 10 (7%) were positive. Seventeen throat swabs were analyzed by RT-PCR and three were positive. Sequences were obtained from eight of the positive samples. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the DRC rubella viruses belonged to genotypes 1B, 1E, 1G, and 2B. This report provides the first information on the genotypes of rubella virus circulating in the DRC. These data contribute to a better understanding of rubella burden and the dynamics of rubella virus circulation in Africa. Efforts to establish rubella surveillance in the DRC are needed to support rubella elimination in Africa. J. Med. Virol. 88:1677-1684, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27479298

  6. Adherence to Artemisinin Combination Therapy for the treatment of uncomplicated malaria in the Democratic Republic of the Congo

    PubMed Central

    Siddiqui, M. Ruby; Willis, Andrew; Bil, Karla; Singh, Jatinder; Mukomena Sompwe, Eric; Ariti, Cono

    2015-01-01

    Between 2011 and 2013 the number of recorded malaria cases had more than doubled, and between 2009 and 2013 had increased almost 4-fold in MSF-OCA (Médecins sans Frontières – Operational Centre Amsterdam) programmes in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC). The reasons for this rise are unclear. Incorrect intake of Artemisinin Combination Therapy (ACT) could result in failure to treat the infection and potential recurrence. An adherence study was carried out to assess whether patients were completing the full course of ACT. One hundred and eight malaria patients in Shamwana, Katanga province, DRC were visited in their households the day after ACT was supposed to be completed. They were asked a series of questions about ACT administration and the blister pack was observed (if available). Sixty seven (62.0%) patients were considered probably adherent. This did not take into account the patients that vomited or spat their pills or took them at the incorrect time of day, in which case adherence dropped to 46 (42.6%). The most common reason that patients gave for incomplete/incorrect intake was that they were vomiting or felt unwell (10 patients (24.4%), although the reasons were not recorded for 22 (53.7%) patients). This indicates that there may be poor understanding of the importance of completing the treatment or that the side effects of ACT were significant enough to over-ride the pharmacy instructions. Adherence to ACT was poor in this setting. Health education messages emphasising the need to complete ACT even if patients vomit doses, feel unwell or their health conditions improve should be promoted. PMID:25949803

  7. Mental Health Disorders Among Women Victims of Conflict-Related Sexual Violence in the Democratic Republic of Congo.

    PubMed

    Dossa, Nissou Ines; Zunzunegui, Maria Victoria; Hatem, Marie; Fraser, William Donald

    2015-08-01

    To assess the effects of sexual violence (SV) in armed conflicts on women's mental health, on its own and in conjunction with reproductive health issues such as fistula or chronic pelvic pain (CPP). A cross-sectional population-based study of 320 women living in Goma, the Democratic Republic of Congo, aged 15 to 45 years, was conducted. Women who experienced conflict-related sexual violence (CRSV) were compared with those who experienced non-conflict-related sexual violence (NCRSV) and those who never experienced such acts. Data were gathered through individual interviews by local staff using standardized questionnaires. The outcomes investigated were post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms severity and psychological distress symptoms (PDS) severity. Experience of SV in either context was associated with more severe PDS (p < .0001). Only CRSV was associated with more severe PTSD symptoms (p < .0001). Women who suffered from fistula or CPP also had a higher PDS score mean (p < .0001 and p = .007) and a higher PTSD symptoms score mean (p < .0001, for both reproductive health issues). Multivariate analyses showed that compared with women who never experienced SV and never suffered from fistula or CPP, those who experienced CRSV and suffered from fistula or CPP had the most severe PDS and PTSD symptoms after adjustment for potential confounders. The differences in PDS and PTSD symptoms severity were all significant (p < .0001). Psychological and physical health care are urgently needed for women who experienced CRSV, particularly those with additional issues of fistula or CPP. Current interventions should simultaneously seek to improve both reproductive and mental health.

  8. Comparison of West African and Congo Basin Monkeypox Viruses in BALB/c and C57BL/6 Mice

    PubMed Central

    Hutson, Christina L.; Abel, Jason A.; Carroll, Darin S.; Olson, Victoria A.; Braden, Zachary H.; Hughes, Christine M.; Dillon, Michael; Hopkins, Consuelo; Karem, Kevin L.; Damon, Inger K.; Osorio, Jorge E.

    2010-01-01

    Although monkeypox virus (MPXV) studies in wild rodents and non-human primates have generated important knowledge regarding MPXV pathogenesis and inferences about disease transmission, it might be easier to dissect the importance of virulence factors and correlates of protection to MPXV in an inbred mouse model. Herein, we compared the two clades of MPXV via two routes of infection in the BALB/c and C57BL/6 inbred mice strains. Our studies show that similar to previous animal studies, the Congo Basin strain of MPXV was more virulent than West African MPXV in both mouse strains as evidenced by clinical signs. Although animals did not develop lesions as seen in human MPX infections, localized signs were apparent with the foot pad route of inoculation, primarily in the form of edema at the site of inoculation; while the Congo Basin intranasal route of infection led to generalized symptoms, primarily weight loss. We have determined that future studies with MPXV and laboratory mice would be very beneficial in understanding the pathogenesis of MPXV, in particular if used in in vivo imaging studies. Although this mouse model may not suffice as a model of human MPX disease, with an appropriate inbred mouse model, we can unravel many unknown aspects of MPX pathogenesis, including virulence factors, disease progression in rodent hosts, and viral shedding from infected animals. In addition, such a model can be utilized to test antivirals and the next generation of orthopoxvirus vaccines for their ability to alter the course of disease. PMID:20111702

  9. Risk for family rejection and associated mental health outcomes among conflict-affected adult women living in rural eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo.

    PubMed

    Kohli, Anjalee; Perrin, Nancy A; Mpanano, Remy Mitima; Mullany, Luke C; Murhula, Clovis Mitima; Binkurhorhwa, Arsène Kajabika; Mirindi, Alfred Bacikengi; Banywesize, Jean Heri; Bufole, Nadine Mwinja; Ntwali, Eric Mpanano; Glass, Nancy

    2014-01-01

    Stigma due to sexual violence includes family rejection, a complex outcome including economic, behavioral, and physical components. We explored the relationship among conflict-related trauma, family rejection, and mental health in adult women living in rural eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo, who participate in a livestock-based microfinance program, Pigs for Peace. Exposure to multiple and different types of conflict-related trauma, including sexual assault, was associated with increased likelihood of family rejection, which in turn was associated with poorer mental health outcomes. Design of appropriate and effective interventions will require understanding family relationships and exposure to different types of trauma in postconflict environments. PMID:24660941

  10. Game over! Wildlife collapse in northern Central African Republic.

    PubMed

    Bouché, Philippe; Nzapa Mbeti Mange, Roland; Tankalet, Floride; Zowoya, Florent; Lejeune, Philippe; Vermeulen, Cédric

    2012-11-01

    The wildlife populations of northern Central African Republic (CAR) have long suffered intense uncontrolled hunting. Socio-political turmoil in northern CAR that started in 2002 resulted in a rebellion in 2006. An aerial sample count was carried out in northern CAR after the ceasefire to assess the impact of this troubled period on wildlife. The survey was flown at the end of the dry season in February-March 2010. It covered a landscape complex of 95,000 km² comprising national parks, hunting reserves and community hunting areas. Comparison with earlier surveys revealed a dramatic decline of wildlife: the numbers of large mammals fell by 94% in 30 years, probably due to poaching, loss of habitat and diseases brought by illegal movements of cattle. Elephant (Loxodonta africana), Reduncinae and topi (Damaliscus lunatus) populations showed the greatest decline (each over 90%). Other species declined by 70-80% during the same period. The future of wildlife in this area is dark without a strong commitment to provide adequate funding and quickly implement of determined field management. Reinforced cooperation with neighbouring Chad and Sudan is required since they are facing similar problems.

  11. Game over! Wildlife collapse in northern Central African Republic.

    PubMed

    Bouché, Philippe; Nzapa Mbeti Mange, Roland; Tankalet, Floride; Zowoya, Florent; Lejeune, Philippe; Vermeulen, Cédric

    2012-11-01

    The wildlife populations of northern Central African Republic (CAR) have long suffered intense uncontrolled hunting. Socio-political turmoil in northern CAR that started in 2002 resulted in a rebellion in 2006. An aerial sample count was carried out in northern CAR after the ceasefire to assess the impact of this troubled period on wildlife. The survey was flown at the end of the dry season in February-March 2010. It covered a landscape complex of 95,000 km² comprising national parks, hunting reserves and community hunting areas. Comparison with earlier surveys revealed a dramatic decline of wildlife: the numbers of large mammals fell by 94% in 30 years, probably due to poaching, loss of habitat and diseases brought by illegal movements of cattle. Elephant (Loxodonta africana), Reduncinae and topi (Damaliscus lunatus) populations showed the greatest decline (each over 90%). Other species declined by 70-80% during the same period. The future of wildlife in this area is dark without a strong commitment to provide adequate funding and quickly implement of determined field management. Reinforced cooperation with neighbouring Chad and Sudan is required since they are facing similar problems. PMID:22170159

  12. Lesula: A New Species of Cercopithecus Monkey Endemic to the Democratic Republic of Congo and Implications for Conservation of Congo’s Central Basin

    PubMed Central

    Hart, John A.; Detwiler, Kate M.; Gilbert, Christopher C.; Burrell, Andrew S.; Fuller, James L.; Emetshu, Maurice; Hart, Terese B.; Vosper, Ashley; Sargis, Eric J.; Tosi, Anthony J.

    2012-01-01

    In June 2007, a previously undescribed monkey known locally as “lesula” was found in the forests of the middle Lomami Basin in central Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). We describe this new species as Cercopithecus lomamiensis sp. nov., and provide data on its distribution, morphology, genetics, ecology and behavior. C. lomamiensis is restricted to the lowland rain forests of central DRC between the middle Lomami and the upper Tshuapa Rivers. Morphological and molecular data confirm that C. lomamiensis is distinct from its nearest congener, C. hamlyni, from which it is separated geographically by both the Congo (Lualaba) and the Lomami Rivers. C. lomamiensis, like C. hamlyni, is semi-terrestrial with a diet containing terrestrial herbaceous vegetation. The discovery of C. lomamiensis highlights the biogeographic significance and importance for conservation of central Congo’s interfluvial TL2 region, defined from the upper Tshuapa River through the Lomami Basin to the Congo (Lualaba) River. The TL2 region has been found to contain a high diversity of anthropoid primates including three forms, in addition to C. lomamiensis, that are endemic to the area. We recommend the common name, lesula, for this new species, as it is the vernacular name used over most of its known range. PMID:22984482

  13. Correlates of syphilis seropositivity and risk for syphilis-associated adverse pregnancy outcomes among women attending antenatal care clinics in the Democratic Republic of Congo.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Melanie M; Ebrahim, Shahul; Abiola, Nadine; Kinkodi, Didine Kaba; Mpingulu, Minlangu; Kabuayi, Jean Pierre; Ekofo, Felly; Newman, Daniel R; Peterman, Thomas A; Kamb, Mary L; Sidibe, Kassim

    2014-09-01

    Screening and treatment for syphilis among pregnant women is the primary means of prevention of congenital syphilis. Sentinel surveillance for syphilis can inform these prevention efforts. We reviewed antenatal syphilis screening results to assess trends and to identify correlates of seropositivity among women attending antenatal care clinics in the Democratic Republic of Congo during 2011. Syphilis seropositivity among the 17,669 women attending the antenatal care clinics during 2011 was 4.2% (range 0.4%-16.9%). Syphilis seropositivity was significantly higher among women attending rural clinics (5.0%) as compared to urban clinics (3.0%) and those tested in antenatal care clinics in the provinces of Equateur (7.6%) and Orientale (7.7%) as compared to other provinces (p < 0.001). Based on the antenatal care syphilis seroprevalence and national pregnancy estimates, we estimate that approximately 128,591 pregnant women countrywide would have tested seropositive for syphilis during 2011. Over 85,000 adverse pregnancy outcomes would have resulted from these maternal infections, assuming prenatal syphilis diagnosis and treatment were not available. The prevalence of syphilis was highest in rural areas, but exceeded 1% in every area, indicating a need to assure screening and treatment throughout Democratic Republic of Congo. These sentinel surveillance estimates can be used to guide national congenital syphilis prevention efforts.

  14. High School Students Are a Target Group for Fight against Self-Medication with Antimalarial Drugs: A Pilot Study in University of Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo

    PubMed Central

    Kabongo Kamitalu, Ramsès; Aloni, Michel Ntetani

    2016-01-01

    Aim. To assess the self-medication against malaria infection in population of Congolese students in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). Methods. A cross-sectional study was carried out in University of Kinshasa, Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo. Medical records of all students with malaria admitted to Centre de Santé Universitaire of University of Kinshasa from January 1, 2008, to April 30, 2008, were reviewed retrospectively. Results. The median age of the patients was 25.4 years (range: from 18 to 36 years). The majority of them were male (67.9%). Artemisinin-based combination treatments (ACTs) was the most used self-prescribed antimalarial drugs. However, self-medication was associated with the ingestion of quinine in 19.9% of cases. No case of ingestion of artesunate/artemether in monotherapy was found. All the medicines taken were registered in DRC. In this series, self-prescribed antimalarial was very irrational in terms of dose and duration of treatment. Conclusion. This paper highlights self-medication by a group who should be aware of malaria treatment protocols. The level of self-prescribing quinine is relatively high among students and is disturbing for a molecule reserved for severe disease in Congolese health care policy in management of malaria. PMID:27340411

  15. Knowledge, attitude and practice about cancer of the uterine cervix among women living in Kinshasa, the Democratic Republic of Congo

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Cervical cancer is the most frequent cancer of women in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). Nevertheless, the level of women’s awareness about cervical cancer is unknown. Knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) are important elements for designing and monitoring screening programs. The study purpose was to estimate KAP on cervical cancer and to identify associated factors. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in Kinshasa, DRC, including 524 women aged 16–78 years (median age 28; interquartile range 22–35). The women were interviewed at home by trained field workers using a standardized questionnaire. The women’s score on knowledge, attitude and practice were dichotomized as sufficient or insufficient. We used binary and multiple logistic regression to assess associations between obtaining sufficient scores and a series of socio-demographic factors: age, residence, marital status, education, occupation, religion, and parity. Results The women’s score on knowledge was not significantly correlated with their score on practice (Spearman’s rho = 0.08; P > 0.05). Obtaining a sufficient score on knowledge was positively associated with higher education (adjusted odds ratio (OR) 7.65; 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 3.31-17.66) and formal employment (adjusted OR 3.35; 95% CI 1.85-6.09); it was negatively associated with being single (adjusted OR 0.44; 95% CI 0.24-0.81) and living in the eastern, western and northern zone of Kinshasa compared to the city centre. The attitude score was associated with place of residence (adjusted OR for east Kinshasa: 0.49; 95% CI 0.27-0.86 and for south Kinshasa: 0.48; 95% CI 0.27-0.85) and with religion (adjusted OR 0.55; 95% CI 0.35-0.86 for women with a religion other than Catholicism or Protestantism compared to Catholics). Regarding practice, there were negative associations between a sufficient score on practice and being single (adjusted OR 0.24; 95% CI 0.13-0.41) and living in the eastern

  16. Reduced perinatal mortality following enhanced training of birth attendants in the Democratic Republic of Congo: a time-dependent effect

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background In many developing countries, the majority of births are attended by traditional birth attendants, who lack formal training in neonatal resuscitation and other essential care required by the newly born infant. In these countries, the major causes of neonatal mortality are birth asphyxia, infection, and low-birth-weight/prematurity. Death from these causes is potentially modifiable using low-cost interventions, including neonatal resuscitation training. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect on perinatal mortality of training birth attendants in a rural area of the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) using two established programs. Methods This study, a secondary analysis of DRC-specific data collected during a multi-country study, was conducted in two phases. The effect of training using the WHO Essential Newborn Care (ENC) program was evaluated using an active baseline design, followed by a cluster randomized trial of training using an adaptation of a neonatal resuscitation program (NRP). The perinatal mortality rates before ENC, after ENC training, and after randomization to additional NRP training or continued care were compared. In addition, the influence of time following resuscitation training was investigated by examining change in perinatal mortality during sequential three-month increments following ENC training. Results More than two-thirds of deliveries were attended by traditional birth attendants and occurred in homes; these proportions decreased after ENC training. There was no apparent decline in perinatal mortality when the outcome of all deliveries prior to ENC training was compared to those after ENC but before NRP training. However, there was a gradual but significant decline in perinatal mortality during the year following ENC training (RR 0.73; 95% CI: 0.56-0.96), which was independently associated with time following training. The decline was attributable to a decline in early neonatal mortality. NRP training had no

  17. Use of facility assessment data to improve reproductive health service delivery in the Democratic Republic of the Congo

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Prolonged exposure to war has severely impacted the provision of health services in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC). Health infrastructure has been destroyed, health workers have fled and government support to health care services has been made difficult by ongoing conflict. Poor reproductive health (RH) indicators illustrate the effect that the prolonged crisis in DRC has had on the on the reproductive health (RH) of Congolese women. In 2007, with support from the RAISE Initiative, the International Rescue Committee (IRC) and CARE conducted baseline assessments of public hospitals to evaluate their capacities to meet the RH needs of the local populations and to determine availability, utilization and quality of RH services including emergency obstetric care (EmOC) and family planning (FP). Methods Data were collected from facility assessments at nine general referral hospitals in five provinces in the DRC during March, April and November 2007. Interviews, observation and clinical record review were used to assess the general infrastructure, EmOC and FP services provided, and the infection prevention environment in each of the facilities. Results None of the nine hospitals met the criteria for classification as an EmOC facility (either basic or comprehensive). Most facilities lacked any FP services. Shortage of trained staff, essential supplies and medicines and poor infection prevention practices were consistently documented. All facilities had poor systems for routine monitoring of RH services, especially with regard to EmOC. Conclusions Women's lives can be saved and their well-being improved with functioning RH services. As the DRC stabilizes, IRC and CARE in partnership with the local Ministry of Health and other service provision partners are improving RH services by: 1) providing necessary equipment and renovations to health facilities; 2) improving supply management systems; 3) providing comprehensive competency-based training for

  18. Lac Télé structure, Republic of Congo: Geological setting of a cryptozoological and biodiversity hotspot, and evidence against an impact origin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Master, Sharad

    2010-11-01

    Lac Télé is a large lake, ˜5.6 km in diameter, with an ovoid shape, situated at 17°10'E, 1°20'N, in the great tropical rain forest region of the Republic of Congo. This lake has attracted widespread attention, mainly because of the legends among the local people that it harbours a strange animal known as the Mokele-Mbembe, but also because it is situated in a region that is a hotbed of biodiversity and conservation efforts with respect to various endangered mammalian species, including gorillas and chimpanzees. Because of its appearance, Lac Télé has been regarded as a possible meteorite impact structure. Various expeditions, studying cryptozoology, conservation ecology, biodiversity, and the impact hypothesis, have visited Lac Télé in the past several decades. The Lac Télé structure is located in the NW part of the intracratonic Congo Basin, in a region dominated by Holocene alluvium, dense tropical rain forest, and swamps which form part of the basin of the Likouala aux Herbes, a multi-branched meandering river flowing over very low gradients into the Sangha river, a major tributary of the Congo river. Previous bathymetric studies have shown that the average depth of Lac Télé is only 4 m, including organic-rich silty sediments. The structure is that of a flat-bottomed dish. Modelling of the Lac Télé as an impact structure indicates a number of features which ought to be present. The absence of any of these features, coupled with the irregular ovoid shape, the palynological record, and the location of the structure at the intersection of major regional lineaments, is regarded as evidence against the impact hypothesis. Lac Télé as an isolated lake ecosystem is not unique in the Congo Basin, and there are several other similar small shallow isolated lakes surrounded by rain forest and marshes, some of which formed by damming of drainage systems by neotectonic faults. It is suggested that the formation of Lac Télé may be related to its location

  19. Epidemiology of chicken anemia virus in Central African Republic and Cameroon

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Although chicken anemia virus (CAV) has been detected on all continents, little is known about this virus in sub-Saharan Africa. This study aimed to detect and characterize CAV for the first time in Central African Republic and in Cameroon. Results An overall flock seroprevalence of 36.7% was found in Central African Republic during the 2008–2010 period. Virus prevalences were 34.2% (2008), 14.3% (2009) and 10.4% (2010) in Central African Republic and 39% (2007) and 34.9% (2009) in Cameroon. CAV DNA was found in cloacal swabs of 76.9% of seropositive chickens, suggesting that these animals excreted the virus despite antibodies. On the basis of VP1 sequences, most of the strains in Central African Republic and Cameroon belonged to 9 distinct phylogenetic clusters at the nucleotide level and were not intermixed with strains from other continent. Several cases of mixed infections in flocks and individual chickens were identified. Conclusions Our results suggest multiple introductions of CAV in each country that later spread and diverged locally. Mixed genotype infections together with the observation of CAV DNA in cloacal samples despite antibodies suggest a suboptimal protection by antibodies or virus persistence. PMID:22958546

  20. Bacteria Isolated From the Skin of Congo African Grey Parrots ( Psittacus erithacus ), Budgerigars ( Melopsittacus undulatus ), and Cockatiels ( Nymphicus hollandicus ).

    PubMed

    Lamb, Stephanie; Sobczynski, Alicia; Starks, Darius; Sitinas, Nicholas

    2014-12-01

    Little is known about the normal bacterial flora of the skin of birds. To identify the bacterial organisms that reside on the integument of companion psittacine birds in a normal physiologic state, skin cultures were taken from 75 psittacine birds comprising 25 Congo African grey parrots ( Psittacus erithacus ), 25 budgerigars ( Melopsittacus undulatus ), and 25 cockatiels ( Nymphicus hollandicus ). All birds were adults and in good health with no underlying identifiable diseases, had not been on antibiotics in the preceding 2 months or longer, and had no skin or feather abnormalities. Cultures were taken from the axillary region and incubated on bovine blood agar plates. Positive cultures were identified for 52 out of 75 birds, and a total of 89 bacterial colonies grew. The most frequently identified bacterial organisms belonged to the genus Staphylococcus followed by Corynebacterium. Several other genera of bacteria were also isolated. Of the 89 bacterial colonies, 25 were identified to the species level and 50 to the genus level, and 14 were identified as either a nonfermenter or coliform. PMID:25843464

  1. Mycobacterium ulcerans Infection (Buruli Ulcer) on the Face: A Comparative Analysis of 13 Clinically Suspected Cases from the Democratic Republic of Congo

    PubMed Central

    Phanzu, Delphin M.; Mahema, Roger L.; Suykerbuyk, Patrick; Imposo, Désiré-Hubert B.; Lehman, Linda F.; Nduwamahoro, Elie; Meyers, Wayne M.; Boelaert, Marleen; Portaels, Françoise

    2011-01-01

    We report our experience in managing 13 consecutive clinically suspected cases of Buruli ulcer on the face treated at the hospital of the Institut Médical Evangélique at Kimpese, Democratic Republic of Congo diagnosed during 2003–2007. During specific antibiotherapy, facial edema diminished, thus minimizing the subsequent extent of surgery and severe disfigurations. The following complications were observed: 1) lagophthalmos from scarring in four patients and associated ectropion in three of them; 2) blindness in one eye in one patient; 3) disfiguring exposure of teeth and gums resulting from excision of the left labial commissure that affected speech, drinking, and eating in one patient; and 4) dissemination of Mycobacterium ulcerans infection in three patients. Our study highlights the importance of this clinical presentation of Buruli ulcer, and the need for health workers in disease-endemic areas to be aware of the special challenges management of Buruli ulcer on the face presents. PMID:22144452

  2. A search for Ebola virus in animals in the Democratic Republic of the Congo and Cameroon: ecologic, virologic, and serologic surveys, 1979-1980. Ebola Virus Study Teams.

    PubMed

    Breman, J G; Johnson, K M; van der Groen, G; Robbins, C B; Szczeniowski, M V; Ruti, K; Webb, P A; Meier, F; Heymann, D L

    1999-02-01

    More than 30 years after the first outbreak of Marburg virus disease in Germany and Yugoslavia and 20 years after Ebola hemorrhagic fever first occurred in central Africa, the natural history of filoviruses remains unknown. In 1979 and 1980, animals in the Democratic Republic of the Congo and Cameroon were collected during the dry season near the site of the 1976 Ebola hemorrhagic fever epidemic. The study objectives were to identify local animals and search for evidence of Ebola virus in their tissues. A total of 1664 animals representing 117 species was collected, including >400 bats and 500 rodents. Vero and CV-1 cells and IFA and RIA were used for virus and antibody detection, respectively. No evidence of Ebola virus infection was found. This study was limited in time and animal collections and excluded insects and plants. Long-term, prospective, multidisciplinary comparative studies will yield more information than will repeat short forays on the ecology of filoviruses. PMID:9988177

  3. Applying community-based participatory research to better understand and improve kinship care practices: insights from the Democratic Republic of Congo, Nigeria, and Sierra Leone.

    PubMed

    Chukwudozie, Oge; Feinstein, Clare; Jensen, Celina; OʼKane, Claire; Pina, Silvia; Skovdal, Morten; Smith, Rebecca

    2015-01-01

    While the principles behind community-based participatory research are firmly established, the process of taking community-based participatory research with children and youth to scale and integrating it into the programming of non-governmental organizations has been scarcely documented. This article reflects on the experiences of Save the Children in implementing a multicountry community-based participatory research program to increase understanding of kinship care in the Democratic Republic of Congo, Nigeria, and Sierra Leone. The article discusses challenges faced and lessons learned and highlights how the research process enabled action and advocacy initiatives at different levels-leading to an increase in support and policy attention for children living in kinship care.

  4. The Influence of Individual and Contextual Socioeconomic Status on Obstetric Care Utilization in the Democratic Republic of Congo: A Population-based Study

    PubMed Central

    Aremu, Olatunde; Lawoko, Stephen; Dalal, Koustuv

    2012-01-01

    Background: Maternal health care utilization continues to focus on the agenda of health care planners around the world, with high attention being paid to the developing countries. The devastating effect of maternal death at birth on the affected families is untold. This study examines the utilization of obstetric care in the Democratic Republic of Congo. Methods: We have used the nationally representative data from the 2007. Democratic Republic of Congo Demographic and Health Survey. Multilevel regression analysis has been applied to a nationally representative sample of 6,695 women, clustered around 299 communities in the country. Results: The results show that there are variations in the use of antenatal care and delivery care. Individual-level characteristics, such as women's occupation and household wealth status are shown to be associated with the use of antenatal care. Uptake of facility-based delivery has been seen to be dependent on the household wealth status, women's education, and partner's education. The effect of the neighborhoods’ socioeconomic disadvantage on the use of antenatal care and facility-based delivery are the same. Women from highly socioeconomically disadvantaged communities, compared to their counterparts from less socioeconomically disadvantaged neighborhoods, are less likely to utilize both the antenatal services and healthcare facility for child delivery. The result of this study has shown that both individual and contextual socioeconomic status play an important role in obstetric care uptake. Conclusion: Thus, intervention aimed at improving the utilization of obstetrics care should target both the individual economic abilities of the women and that of their environment when considering the demand side. PMID:22624085

  5. Collection and Utilization of Animal Carcasses Associated with zoonotic Disease in Tshuapa District, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, 2012.

    PubMed

    Monroe, Benjamin P; Doty, Jeffrey B; Moses, Cynthia; Ibata, Saturnin; Reynolds, Mary; Carroll, Darin

    2015-07-01

    The collection and consumption of animal carcasses is a common activity in forested areas of the Congo River basin and creates sustainability, conservation, and health concerns. Residents of the Tshuapa District reported collecting the remains of 5,878 animals from >30 species when surveyed about their wildlife consumption habits. Carcasses were discovered in varying degrees of decomposition and were often consumed at home or sold in local markets. The most commonly collected animals were Cricetomys gambianus (Northern giant pouched rat), Cercopithecus ascanius (red-tailed monkey), and Heliosciurus rufobrachium (red-legged sun squirrel). Many of the species recorded may be hosts of zoonotic pathogens, creating concern for spillover events.

  6. A pilot study of a family focused, psychosocial intervention with war-exposed youth at risk of attack and abduction in north-eastern Democratic Republic of Congo.

    PubMed

    O'Callaghan, Paul; Branham, Lindsay; Shannon, Ciarán; Betancourt, Theresa S; Dempster, Martin; McMullen, John

    2014-07-01

    Rural communities in the Haut-Uele Province of northern Democratic Republic of Congo live in constant danger of attack and/or abduction by units of the Lord's Resistance Army operating in the region. This pilot study sought to develop and evaluate a community-participative psychosocial intervention involving life skills and relaxation training and Mobile Cinema screenings with this war-affected population living under current threat. 159 war-affected children and young people (aged 7-18) from the villages of Kiliwa and Li-May in north-eastern DR Congo took part in this study. In total, 22% of participants had been abduction previously while 73% had a family member abducted. Symptoms of post-traumatic stress reactions, internalising problems, conduct problems and pro-social behaviour were assessed by blinded interviewers at pre- and post-intervention and at 3-month follow-up. Participants were randomised (with an accompanying caregiver) to 8 sessions of a group-based, community-participative, psychosocial intervention (n=79) carried out by supervised local, lay facilitators or a wait-list control group (n=80). Average seminar attendance rates were high: 88% for participants and 84% for caregivers. Drop-out was low: 97% of participants were assessed at post-intervention and 88% at 3 month follow-up. At post-test, participants reported significantly fewer symptoms of post-traumatic stress reactions compared to controls (Cohen's d=0.40). At 3 month follow up, large improvements in internalising symptoms and moderate improvements in pro-social scores were reported, with caregivers noting a moderate to large decline in conduct problems among the young people. Trial Registration clinicalTrials.gov, Identifier: NCT01542398. PMID:24636358

  7. A pilot study of a family focused, psychosocial intervention with war-exposed youth at risk of attack and abduction in north-eastern Democratic Republic of Congo.

    PubMed

    O'Callaghan, Paul; Branham, Lindsay; Shannon, Ciarán; Betancourt, Theresa S; Dempster, Martin; McMullen, John

    2014-07-01

    Rural communities in the Haut-Uele Province of northern Democratic Republic of Congo live in constant danger of attack and/or abduction by units of the Lord's Resistance Army operating in the region. This pilot study sought to develop and evaluate a community-participative psychosocial intervention involving life skills and relaxation training and Mobile Cinema screenings with this war-affected population living under current threat. 159 war-affected children and young people (aged 7-18) from the villages of Kiliwa and Li-May in north-eastern DR Congo took part in this study. In total, 22% of participants had been abduction previously while 73% had a family member abducted. Symptoms of post-traumatic stress reactions, internalising problems, conduct problems and pro-social behaviour were assessed by blinded interviewers at pre- and post-intervention and at 3-month follow-up. Participants were randomised (with an accompanying caregiver) to 8 sessions of a group-based, community-participative, psychosocial intervention (n=79) carried out by supervised local, lay facilitators or a wait-list control group (n=80). Average seminar attendance rates were high: 88% for participants and 84% for caregivers. Drop-out was low: 97% of participants were assessed at post-intervention and 88% at 3 month follow-up. At post-test, participants reported significantly fewer symptoms of post-traumatic stress reactions compared to controls (Cohen's d=0.40). At 3 month follow up, large improvements in internalising symptoms and moderate improvements in pro-social scores were reported, with caregivers noting a moderate to large decline in conduct problems among the young people. Trial Registration clinicalTrials.gov, Identifier: NCT01542398.

  8. Predictors of Persistent Anaemia in the First Year of Antiretroviral Therapy: A Retrospective Cohort Study from Goma, the Democratic Republic of Congo

    PubMed Central

    Akilimali, Pierre Zalagile; Kashala-Abotnes, Espérance; Musumari, Patou Masika; Kayembe, Patrick Kalambayi; Tylleskar, Thorkild; Mapatano, Mala Ali

    2015-01-01

    Background Anaemia is associated with adverse outcomes including early death in the first year of antiretroviral therapy (ART). This study reports on the factors associated with persistent anaemia among HIV-infected patients initiating ART in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DR Congo). Methods We conducted a retrospective cohort study and analyzed data from patients receiving HIV care between January 2004 and December 2012 at two major hospitals in Goma, DR Congo. Haemoglobin concentrations of all patients on ART regimen were obtained prior to and within one year of ART initiation. A logistic regression model was used to identify the predictors of persistent anaemia after 12 months of ART. Results Of 756 patients, 69% of patients were anaemic (IC95%: 65.7–72.3) at baseline. After 12 months of follow up, there was a 1.2 g/dl average increase of haemoglobin concentration (P < 0.001) with differences depending on the therapeutic regimen. Patients who received zidovudine (AZT) gained less than those who did not receive AZT (0.99 g/dl vs 1.33 g/dl; p< 0.001). Among 445 patient who had anaemia at the beginning, 33% (147/445) had the condition resolved. Among patients with anaemia at ART initiation, those who did not receive cotrimoxazole prophylaxis before starting ART(AOR 3.89; 95% CI 2.09–7.25; P < 0.001) and a AZT initial regimen (AOR 2.19; 95% CI 1.36–3.52; P < 0.001) were significantly at risk of persistent anaemia. Conclusions More than two thirds of patients had anaemia at baseline. The AZT-containing regimen and absence of cotrimoxazole prophylaxis before starting ART were associated with persistent anaemia 12 months, after initiation of treatment. Considering the large proportion of patients with persistence of anaemia at 12 months, we suggest that it is necessary to conduct a large study to assess anaemia among HIV-infected patients in Goma. PMID:26474481

  9. The impact of hospital and urban wastewaters on the bacteriological contamination of the water resources in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo.

    PubMed

    Kilunga, Pitchouna I; Kayembe, John M; Laffite, Amandine; Thevenon, Florian; Devarajan, Naresh; Mulaji, Crispin K; Mubedi, Josué I; Yav, Zéphirin G; Otamonga, Jean-Paul; Mpiana, Pius T; Poté, John

    2016-10-14

    Although the United Nations General Assembly recognized in 2010 the right to safe and clean drinking water and sanitation as a human right that is essential to the full enjoyment of life and all other human rights, the contamination of water supplies with faecal pathogens is still a major and unsolved problem in many parts of the world. In this study, faecal indicator bacteria (FIB), including Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Enterococcus (ENT), were quantified over the period of June/July 2014 and June/July 2015 to assess the quality of hospital effluents (n = 3: H1, H2 and H3) and of rivers receiving wastewaters from the city of Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo. The water and sediment samples from the river-receiving systems were collected in, upstream and downstream of the hospital outlet pipe (HOP) discharge. The analysis of E. coli and ENT in water and sediment suspension was performed using the cultural membrane filter method. The FIB characterization was performed for general E. coli, Enterococcus faecalis(E. faecalis) and human-specific Bacteroides by PCR using specific primers. The results revealed very high FIB concentration in the hospital effluent waters, with E. coli reaching the values of 4.2 × 10(5), 16.1 × 10(5) and 5.9 × 10(5) CFU 100 mL(-1), for the hospital effluents from H1, H2, and H3, respectively; and Enterococcus reaching the values of 2.3 × 10(4), 10.9 × 10(4) and 4.1 × 10(4) CFU 100 mL(-1), respectively. Interestingly, the FIB levels in the water and sediment samples from river-receiving systems are spatially and temporally highly variable and present in some samples with higher values than the hospital effluents. The PCR assays for human-specific Bacteroides HF183/HF134 further indicate that more than 98% of bacteria were from human origin. The results of this research therefore confirm the hypothesis of our previous studies, indicating that in developing countries (e.g., Democratic Republic of Congo and South India), the

  10. The impact of hospital and urban wastewaters on the bacteriological contamination of the water resources in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo.

    PubMed

    Kilunga, Pitchouna I; Kayembe, John M; Laffite, Amandine; Thevenon, Florian; Devarajan, Naresh; Mulaji, Crispin K; Mubedi, Josué I; Yav, Zéphirin G; Otamonga, Jean-Paul; Mpiana, Pius T; Poté, John

    2016-10-14

    Although the United Nations General Assembly recognized in 2010 the right to safe and clean drinking water and sanitation as a human right that is essential to the full enjoyment of life and all other human rights, the contamination of water supplies with faecal pathogens is still a major and unsolved problem in many parts of the world. In this study, faecal indicator bacteria (FIB), including Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Enterococcus (ENT), were quantified over the period of June/July 2014 and June/July 2015 to assess the quality of hospital effluents (n = 3: H1, H2 and H3) and of rivers receiving wastewaters from the city of Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo. The water and sediment samples from the river-receiving systems were collected in, upstream and downstream of the hospital outlet pipe (HOP) discharge. The analysis of E. coli and ENT in water and sediment suspension was performed using the cultural membrane filter method. The FIB characterization was performed for general E. coli, Enterococcus faecalis(E. faecalis) and human-specific Bacteroides by PCR using specific primers. The results revealed very high FIB concentration in the hospital effluent waters, with E. coli reaching the values of 4.2 × 10(5), 16.1 × 10(5) and 5.9 × 10(5) CFU 100 mL(-1), for the hospital effluents from H1, H2, and H3, respectively; and Enterococcus reaching the values of 2.3 × 10(4), 10.9 × 10(4) and 4.1 × 10(4) CFU 100 mL(-1), respectively. Interestingly, the FIB levels in the water and sediment samples from river-receiving systems are spatially and temporally highly variable and present in some samples with higher values than the hospital effluents. The PCR assays for human-specific Bacteroides HF183/HF134 further indicate that more than 98% of bacteria were from human origin. The results of this research therefore confirm the hypothesis of our previous studies, indicating that in developing countries (e.g., Democratic Republic of Congo and South India), the

  11. High prevalence of sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine resistance-associated mutations in Plasmodium falciparum field isolates from pregnant women in Brazzaville, Republic of Congo.

    PubMed

    Koukouikila-Koussounda, Felix; Bakoua, Damien; Fesser, Anna; Nkombo, Michael; Vouvoungui, Christevy; Ntoumi, Francine

    2015-07-01

    Intermittent preventive treatment during pregnancy with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (IPTp-SP) has not been evaluated in the Republic of Congo since its implementation in 2006 and there is no published data on molecular markers of SP resistance among Plasmodium falciparum isolates from pregnant women. This first study in this country aimed to describe the prevalence of dihydrofolate reductase (dhfr) and dihydropteroate synthase (dhps) point mutations and haplotypes in P. falciparum isolates collected from pregnant women with asymptomatic infection. From March 2012 to December 2013, pregnant women attending Madibou health centre (in Southern Brazzaville) for antenatal visits were enrolled in this study after obtaining their written informed consent. Blood samples were collected and P. falciparum infections were characterized using PCR. A total of 363 pregnant women were enrolled. P. falciparum infection was detected in 67 (18.4%) samples as their PCR amplification of dhfr and dhps genes yielded bands and all the PCR products were successfully digested. Out of these 67 isolates, 59 (88%), 57 (85%) and 53 (79.1%) carried 51I, 59R and 108N dhfr mutant alleles, respectively. The prevalence of dhps 436A, 437G and 540E mutations were 67.1% (45/67), 98.5% (66/67) and 55.2% (37/67), respectively. More than one-half of the isolates carried quintuple mutations, with highly resistant haplotype dhfr51I/59R/108N + dhps437G/540E detected in 33% (22/67) whereas 25% (17/67) were found to carry sextuple mutations. We observed significantly higher frequencies of triple dhps mutations 436A/437G/540E and quintuple mutations dhfr51I/59R/108N+dhps437G/540E in isolates from women who received IPTp-SP than those who did not. Overall, this study shows high prevalence rates of SP-associated resistance mutations in P. falciparum isolates collected from pregnant women. The presence of the dhps mutant allele 540E and the high prevalence of isolates carrying quintuple dhfr/dhps mutations are here

  12. Modeling forest biomass of the Congo basin from extensive commercial inventories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molto, Quentin; Réjou-Méchain, Maxime; Bayol, Nicolas; Chevalier, Jean-François; Rossi, Vivien; Cornu, Guillaume; Benedet, Fabrice; Gond, Valery; Gourlet-Fleury, Sylvie

    2015-04-01

    Mapping the vegetation Carbon stocks is crucial to understand the global climate change. The Carbon stock maps have direct implications in economy and environmental policy. This is especially true in tropical forests where most of the uncertainties on carbon fluxes and stocks are concentrated. Substantial efforts have been done recently to map forest carbon in tropical areas, especially by using remote sensing-based approaches. However, there is no way to bypass a calibration step where biomass is locally measured through forest inventories. The great importance of this learning step and its possible issues has been documented, highlighting the importance of terrestrial datasets. In our work, we have gathered a very large dataset of forest inventories covering the Congo Basin. It consists of 73 000 0.5ha plots of commercial inventories covering 4 million hectares in Cameroon, Republic of Congo, Gabon, Central African Republic, and the Democratic Republic of the Congo. These terrestrial data are of great value to understand and model the spatial distribution of various forest properties, among which the Carbon stock. They can also make a great tool to control and improve the performance of the remote sensing methods. In our study, we rely on these plots to test the validity of previously published pantropical Carbon maps. After gathering the data with extra care due to the heterogeneous inventory methods, we used bioclimatic models, topography, and remote sensing observation to extrapolate the forest carbon estimates at the Congo basin scale.

  13. High Prevalence of Schistosoma mansoni in Six Health Areas of – Kasansa Health Zone, Democratic Republic of the Congo: Short Report

    PubMed Central

    Mupoyi, Sylvain; Mukele, Rodin; Mukunda, Faustin; Kabongo, Madeleine Mbuyi; Inocêncio da Luz, Raquel; Van Geertruyden, Jean-Pierre; Van Sprundel, Marc; Boelaert, Marleen; Polman, Katja; Lutumba, Pascal

    2014-01-01

    School-aged children suffer the most from schistosomiasis infection in sub Saharan Africa due to poverty and limited sanitary conditions. Mapping of disease burden is recommended and there is a need of updating prevalence data which is as old as 20 years in the Democratic Republic of Congo. An epidemiological and parasitological study was carried out in 2011 in the health zone of Kasansa. Six health areas (HA) were included in the study. In each health area, one primary school was selected. School-aged children were screened for S. mansoni infection using parallel Kato-Katz and direct microscopy techniques. A total of 335 school-aged children were screened. The average prevalence was 82.7% and ranged between 59.5–94.9%. Four of the six HAs had a prevalence level over 91%. Of all infected children, about half 112 (43.2%) had light parasite density. These results demonstrate that Schistosoma mansoni infection is a bigger problem than anticipated and there is an urgent need to implement effective control measures. PMID:25521351

  14. Antimicrobial resistance in human and animal pathogens in Zambia, Democratic Republic of Congo, Mozambique and Tanzania: an urgent need of a sustainable surveillance system

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    A review of the published and unpublished literature on bacterial resistance in human and animals was performed. Sixty-eight articles/reports from the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), Mozambique, Tanzania and Zambia were reviewed. The majority of these articles were from Tanzania. There is an increasing trend in the incidence of antibiotic resistance; of major concern is the increase in multidrug- resistant Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus, Vibrio cholera, non-typhoid Salmonella and other pathogens responsible for nosocomial infections. The increase in methicillin- resistant Staphylococcus aureus and extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) producers in the countries under review confirms the spread of these clones worldwide. Clinical microbiology services in these countries need to be strengthened in order to allow a coordinated surveillance for antimicrobial resistance and provide data for local treatment guidelines and for national policies to control antimicrobial resistance. While the present study does not provide conclusive evidence to associate the increasing trend in antibiotic resistance in humans with the use of antibiotics in animals, either as feed additives or veterinary prescription, we strongly recommend a one-health approach of systematic surveillance across the public and animal health sectors, as well as the adherence to the FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization)-OIE (World Organization of animal Health) –WHO(World Health Organization) recommendations for non-human antimicrobial usage. PMID:24119299

  15. Adaptation of a U.S. evidence-based Positive Prevention intervention for youth living with HIV/AIDS in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of the Congo

    PubMed Central

    Parker, L.; Maman, S.; Pettifor, A.; Chalachala, J.L.; Edmonds, A.; Golin, C.E.; Moracco, K.; Behets, F.

    2013-01-01

    Effective HIV prevention programs for people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWH) are important to reduce new infections and to ensure PLWH remain healthy. This paper describes the systematic adaptation of a U.S.-developed Evidence Based Intervention (EBI) using the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Map of Adaption Process for use at a Pediatric Hospital in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC). The adapted intervention, Supporting Youth and Motivating Positive Action or SYMPA, a six-session risk reduction intervention targeted for youth living with HIV/AIDS (YLWH) in Kinshasa was adapted from the Healthy Living Project and guided by the Social Action Theory. This paper describes the process of implementing the first four steps of the ADAPT framework (Assess, Select, Prepare, and Pilot). Our study has shown that an EBI developed and implemented in the U.S. can be adapted successfully for a different target population in a low-resource context through an iterative process following the CDC ADAPT framework. This process included reviewing existing literature, adapting and adding components, and focusing on increasing staff capacity. This paper provides a rare, detailed description of the adaptation process and may aid organizations seeking to adapt and implement HIV prevention EBIs in sub-Saharan Africa and beyond. PMID:23063699

  16. Identification and molecular characterization of new simian T cell lymphotropic viruses in nonhuman primates bushmeat from the Democratic Republic of Congo.

    PubMed

    Ahuka-Mundeke, Steve; Mbala-Kingebeni, Placide; Liegeois, Florian; Ayouba, Ahidjo; Lunguya-Metila, Octavie; Demba, Didace; Bilulu, Guy; Mbenzo-Abokome, Valentin; Inogwabini, Bila-Isia; Muyembe-Tamfum, Jean-Jacques; Delaporte, Eric; Peeters, Martine

    2012-06-01

    Four types of human T cell lymphotropic viruses (HTLV) have been described (HTLV-1 to HTLV-4) with three of them having closely related simian virus analogues named STLV-1, -2, and -3. To assess the risk of cross-species transmissions of STLVs from nonhuman primates to humans in the Democratic Republic of Congo, a total of 330 samples, derived from primate bushmeat, were collected at remote forest sites where people rely on bushmeat for subsistence. STLV prevalences and genetic diversity were estimated by PCR and sequence analysis of tax-rex and LTR fragments. Overall, 7.9% of nonhuman primate bushmeat is infected with STLVs. We documented new STLV-1 and STLV-3 variants in six out of the seven species tested and showed for the first time STLV infection in C. mona wolfi, C. ascanius whitesidei, L. aterrimus aterrimus, C. angolensis, and P. tholloni. Our results provide increasing evidence that the diversity and geographic distribution of PTLVs are much greater than previously thought.

  17. Observed Differences in the Human Footprint and Forest Fragmentation in the Primary Forest Area of the Democratic Republic of Congo: A Remote Sensing Study for 2000-2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molinario, G.

    2015-12-01

    Conflict in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) and neighboring countries has caused the displacement of people internally and internationally sometimes leading to drastic changes in the impact that traditional slash and burn shifting cultivation has on the forest ecosystem. In other areas, the lack of infrastructure and governance has isolated and protected areas of core forest from large scale exploitation. Observing specific patterns of forest fragmentation caused either by the expansion of existing rural complex areas or of isolated forest perforations has allowed us to track the differential growth of the human footprint throughout forested area of the country during the period 2000-2010. Our methodological approach involved the development of a model of shifting cultivation and forest fragmentation in which spatial rules applied morphological image processing to the Forets d'Afrique Central Evaluee par Teledetection (FACET) product. The result is a disaggregated classification of the primary forest into patch, edge, perforated, fragmented and core forest subtypes which we subsequently re-aggregated into homogenous anthropogenic macro-areas of rural complex and isolated forest perforations. We tracked how subsequent forest loss observed in 2005 and 2010 grew or shrunk these areas, presumably with differential impacts on the forest ecosystem. Using this approach we were able to map forest degradation by contextualizing the contribution of forest loss to change in different types of areas, highlighting how it can be greatly underestimated by a non contextualized per-pixel assessment of forest cover loss.

  18. Long-term disease surveillance in Bandundu region, Democratic Republic of the Congo: a model for early detection and prevention of Ebola hemorrhagic fever.

    PubMed

    Lloyd, E S; Zaki, S R; Rollin, P E; Tshioko, K; Bwaka, M A; Ksiazek, T G; Calain, P; Shieh, W J; Kondé, M K; Verchueren, E; Perry, H N; Manguindula, L; Kabwau, J; Ndambi, R; Peters, C J

    1999-02-01

    After the large-scale outbreak of Ebola hemorrhagic fever (EHF) in Bandundu region, Democratic Republic of the Congo, a program was developed to help detect and prevent future outbreaks of EHF in the region. The long-term surveillance and prevention strategy is based on early recognition by physicians, immediate initiation of enhanced barrier-nursing practices, and the use of an immunohistochemical diagnostic test performed on formalin-fixed skin specimens of patients who die of suspected viral hemorrhagic fever. The program was implemented in September 1995 during a 4-day workshop with 28 local physicians representing 17 of 22 health zones in the region. Specimen collection kits were distributed to clinics in participating health zones, and a follow-up evaluation was conducted after 6 months. The use of a formalin-fixed skin specimen for laboratory confirmation of EHF can provide an appropriate method for EHF surveillance when linked with physician training, use of viral hemorrhagic fever isolation precautions, and follow-up investigation. PMID:9988195

  19. Intestinal Helminths of Wild Bonobos in Forest-Savanna Mosaic: Risk Assessment of Cross-Species Transmission with Local People in the Democratic Republic of the Congo.

    PubMed

    Narat, Victor; Guillot, Jacques; Pennec, Flora; Lafosse, Sophie; Grüner, Anne Charlotte; Simmen, Bruno; Bokika Ngawolo, Jean Christophe; Krief, Sabrina

    2015-12-01

    Phylogenetic and geographic proximities between humans and apes pose a risk of zoonotic transmission of pathogens. Bonobos (Pan paniscus) of the Bolobo Territory, Democratic Republic of the Congo, live in a fragmented forest-savanna mosaic setting, a marginal habitat for this species used to living in dense forests. Human activities in the forest have increased the risk of contacts between humans and bonobos. Over 21 months (September 2010-October 2013), we monitored intestinal parasites in bonobo (n = 273) and in human (n = 79) fecal samples to acquire data on bonobo parasitology and to assess the risk of intestinal helminth transmission between these hosts. Coproscopy, DNA amplification, and sequencing of stored dried feces and larvae were performed to identify helminths. Little difference was observed in intestinal parasites of bonobos in this dryer habitat compared to those living in dense forests. Although Strongylids, Enterobius sp., and Capillaria sp. were found in both humans and bonobos, the species were different between the hosts according to egg size or molecular data. Thus, no evidence of helminth transmission between humans and bonobos was found. However, because humans and this threatened species share the same habitat, it is essential to continue to monitor this risk. PMID:26369331

  20. 'If your husband doesn't humiliate you, other people won't': gendered attitudes towards sexual violence in eastern Democratic Republic of Congo.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Jocelyn; Kabanga, Justin; Cragin, Will; Alcayna-Stevens, Lys; Haider, Sadia; Vanrooyen, Michael J

    2012-01-01

    More than a decade of fighting in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) has resulted in extensive human rights abuses, of which sexual and gender-based violence (SGBV) is one of the most salient and disturbing features. This paper uses qualitative data, based on 10 focus groups with 86 women and men to better understand gendered community perspectives on SGBV and its consequences in South Kivu. We conclude that for many survivors, rape has consequences far beyond the physiological and psychological trauma associated with the attack. Respondents say sexual violence has become a societal phenomenon, in which the community isolation and shame experienced as a result of the attack become as important as concerns about the attack itself. Male focus group participants explain their own feelings of shame and anger associated with knowing their female relatives were raped. These findings highlight the complexity of community reintegration for survivors and identify a number of programmatic and policy implications, such as the need for counselling for survivors of sexual violence with their families as well as individually; the importance of income-generating training; and the need for improved justice mechanisms to bring perpetrators to justice.

  1. A Congolese-US participatory action research partnership to rebuild the lives of rape survivors and their families in eastern Democratic Republic of Congo.

    PubMed

    Glass, Nancy; Ramazani, Paul; Tosha, Mafille; Mpanano, Mitima; Cinyabuguma, Matthias

    2012-01-01

    The Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) remains an all-too-potent reminder of how war, human rights violations and their related health and economic impacts can devastate a society. The last decade has seen the use of rape as a weapon of war in the DRC, where rebels and soldiers subject women and girls to brutalising attacks, rape, torture and mutilation. Survivors of sexual and gender-based violence (SGBV) are often further traumatised by infections, disease, poverty, stigma and social isolation. Substantial evidence exists showing an association between social determinants (e.g., poverty, stress and trauma, stigma, lack of access to health care) and health; however, limited research has been conducted to elucidate these relationships or to develop and test interventions to change social determinants of health, especially in conflict and post-conflict settings such as the DRC. The purpose of this article is to present a Congolese-US community-academic research partnership to obtain evidence to develop and implement a sustainable intervention to begin to address the social determinants of health, including poverty and traumatic stress for survivors of SGBV and their families in the South Kivu province of eastern DRC.

  2. Child soldiers as zones of violence in The Democratic Republic of Congo: three cases of medico-legal evidence of torture.

    PubMed

    Guy, Kitwe Mulunda

    2009-01-01

    This article sets medico legal light on torture of three former child soldiers by comparing torture methods, consequences of torture and medical observations. It is focused on these child soldiers as representatives of the many abuses of children as soldiers in armed groups. The three persons were child soldiers during 12 years in The Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) as members of three different armed groups. They were exposed to armed conflict events, experienced torture, and participated in atrocities, sexual abuse and traditional rituals during their role in armed conflict. They were psychologically distressed with unhealthy physical and mental states. The principles for working with child soldiers are described. The model addresses basic items: The confluence of the dimensions of the items will determine the specifics of medico legal evidence of torture in child soldiers, taking into consideration inputs that are required at the macro, community and individual levels. A primary goal is to prevent violence from occurring in child soldiers. Thus, much more deliberate effort is made to address the underlying causes of recruitment of children in armed groups in DRC and to invest more resources in conflict resolution before there is an outbreak of violence. Peace education tends to be introduced too late and does little to alleviate the use of children in armed conflict in DRC.

  3. Intestinal Helminths of Wild Bonobos in Forest-Savanna Mosaic: Risk Assessment of Cross-Species Transmission with Local People in the Democratic Republic of the Congo.

    PubMed

    Narat, Victor; Guillot, Jacques; Pennec, Flora; Lafosse, Sophie; Grüner, Anne Charlotte; Simmen, Bruno; Bokika Ngawolo, Jean Christophe; Krief, Sabrina

    2015-12-01

    Phylogenetic and geographic proximities between humans and apes pose a risk of zoonotic transmission of pathogens. Bonobos (Pan paniscus) of the Bolobo Territory, Democratic Republic of the Congo, live in a fragmented forest-savanna mosaic setting, a marginal habitat for this species used to living in dense forests. Human activities in the forest have increased the risk of contacts between humans and bonobos. Over 21 months (September 2010-October 2013), we monitored intestinal parasites in bonobo (n = 273) and in human (n = 79) fecal samples to acquire data on bonobo parasitology and to assess the risk of intestinal helminth transmission between these hosts. Coproscopy, DNA amplification, and sequencing of stored dried feces and larvae were performed to identify helminths. Little difference was observed in intestinal parasites of bonobos in this dryer habitat compared to those living in dense forests. Although Strongylids, Enterobius sp., and Capillaria sp. were found in both humans and bonobos, the species were different between the hosts according to egg size or molecular data. Thus, no evidence of helminth transmission between humans and bonobos was found. However, because humans and this threatened species share the same habitat, it is essential to continue to monitor this risk.

  4. The impact of two semiannual treatments with albendazole alone on lymphatic filariasis and soil-transmitted helminth infections: a community-based study in the Republic of Congo.

    PubMed

    Pion, Sébastien D S; Chesnais, Cédric B; Bopda, Jean; Louya, Frédéric; Fischer, Peter U; Majewski, Andrew C; Weil, Gary J; Boussinesq, Michel; Missamou, François

    2015-05-01

    Implementation of mass drug administration (MDA) with ivermectin plus albendazole (ALB) for lymphatic filariasis (LF) has been delayed in central Africa because of the risk of serious adverse events in subjects with high Loa loa microfilaremia. We conducted a community trial to assess the impact of semiannual MDA with ALB (400 mg) alone on LF and soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections in the Republic of Congo. Evaluation at 12 months showed that ALB MDA had not significantly reduced Wuchereria bancrofti antigenemia or microfilaria (mf) rates in the community (from 17.3% to 16.6% and from 5.3% to 4.2%, respectively). However, the geometric mean mf count in mf-positive subjects was reduced from 202.2 to 80.9 mf/mL (60% reduction, P = 0.01). The effect of ALB was impressive in 38 subjects who were mf-positive at baseline and retested at 12 months: 37% had total mf clearance, and individual mf densities were reduced by 73.0%. MDA also dramatically reduced the hookworm infection rate in the community from 6.5% to 0.6% (91% reduction), with less impressive effects on Ascaris and Trichuris. These preliminary results suggest that semiannual community MDA with ALB is a promising strategy for controlling LF and STH in areas with coendemic loiasis. PMID:25758650

  5. Conflict minerals from the Democratic Republic of the Congo: global tungsten processing plants, a critical part of the tungsten supply chain

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bermúdez-Lugo, Omayra

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) analyzes supply chains to identify and define major components of mineral and material flows from ore extraction, through intermediate forms, to a final product. Two major reasons necessitate these analyses: (1) to identify risks associated with the supply of critical and strategic minerals to the United States and (2) to provide greater supply chain transparency so that policymakers have the information necessary to ensure domestic legislation compliance. This fact sheet focuses on the latter. The USGS National Minerals Information Center has been asked by governmental and non-governmental organizations to provide information on tin, tantalum, tungsten, and gold (collectively known as “3TG minerals”) processing facilities worldwide in response to U.S. legislation aimed at removing the link between the trade in these minerals and civil unrest in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. Post beneficiation processing plants (smelters and refineries) of 3TG mineral ores and concentrates were identified by company and industry association representatives as being the link in the 3TG mineral supply chain through which these minerals can be traced to their source of origin (mine); determining the point of origin is critical to establishing a transparent conflict mineral supply chain. This fact sheet, the first in a series of 3TG mineral fact sheets, focuses on the tungsten supply chain by listing plants that consume tungsten concentrates to produce ammonium paratungstate and ferrotungsten worldwide.

  6. Discovery of a leptospirosis cluster amidst a pneumonic plague outbreak in a miners' camp in the Democratic Republic of the Congo.

    PubMed

    Bertherat, Eric; Mueller, Melissa J; Shako, Jean-Christophe; Picardeau, Mathieu

    2014-02-07

    Conditions in the Democratic Republic of the Congo provide an ideal environment for leptospirosis and plague, both of which can cause severe pulmonary manifestations. In December 2004, an outbreak of lethal pneumonia occurred in a local mining camp, affecting 130 persons and killing 57 of them. Clinical signs, fast disease spread, and initial laboratory investigations suggested pneumonic plague. While leptospirosis had not recently been described in the region, it was considered as a differential diagnosis. Anti-Leptospira antibodies were detected by microscopic agglutination test (MAT). A confirmed case of leptospirosis was defined as having consistent clinical signs and any one of the following: seroconversion or four-fold increase in MAT titre for paired serum samples, or a MAT titre ≥ 1:400 for acute-phase serum samples. Twenty-nine of the 54 patients or convalescents tested for leptospirosis were seropositive. Two cases showed a confirmed infection for both plague and leptospirosis. While evidence supports the plague nature of this outbreak, the results suggest that some of the suspected plague cases might be due to leptospirosis. In any case, this diagnosis will have to be evoked in the future if a similar outbreak occurs in this region of Africa.

  7. Nurses’ compliance with prevention of mother-to-child transmission national guidelines in selected sites in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo

    PubMed Central

    Brysiewicz, Petra

    2015-01-01

    Background The Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) implemented a prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) of HIV infection programme in maternal, newborn and child health (MNCH) services in 2001 with nurses as key personnel. To date there is no information in the DRC and specifically in Kinshasa with respect to compliance with PMTCT national guidelines. Aim The study aimed at describing nurses’ compliance with the PMTCT national guidelines in selected PMTCT sites of Kinshasa. Methods A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted in Kinshasa with 76 nurses in 18 selected PMTCT sites. The nurses’ compliance with PMTCT national guidelines was assessed using a healthcare provider self-reporting questionnaire developed by the researchers. Results The study showed that the mean score of nurses’ compliance with PMTCT national guidelines was 74% (95% CI: 69% – 78%) which progressively decreased and was significantly different across different MNCH services (p = 0.025). With respect to categories of PMTCT recommendations, nurses were compliant with those related to education in labour and delivery, and antenatal services. Sociodemographic characteristics such as training, length of service and category of nurses did not influence nurses’ compliance score. Conclusion These findings showed that nurses were noncompliant with PMTCT national guidelines, with the score level being 80% or more in the three MNCH services/units. Improvement of nurses’ ‘compliance with the PMTCT national guidelines requires effective monitoring of full integration of PMTCT as routine activities in MNCH care.

  8. First Detection of an Enterovirus C99 in a Captive Chimpanzee with Acute Flaccid Paralysis, from the Tchimpounga Chimpanzee Rehabilitation Center, Republic of Congo

    PubMed Central

    Mombo, Illich Manfred; Berthet, Nicolas; Lukashev, Alexander N.; Bleicker, Tobias; Brünink, Sebastian; Léger, Lucas; Atencia, Rebeca; Cox, Debby; Bouchier, Christiane; Durand, Patrick; Arnathau, Céline; Brazier, Lionel; Fair, Joseph N.; Schneider, Bradley S.; Drexler, Jan Felix; Prugnolle, Franck; Drosten, Christian; Renaud, François; Leroy, Eric M.; Rougeron, Virginie

    2015-01-01

    Enteroviruses, members of the Picornaviridae family, are ubiquitous viruses responsible for mild to severe infections in human populations around the world. In 2010 Pointe-Noire, Republic of Congo recorded an outbreak of acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) in the humans, caused by wild poliovirus type 1 (WPV1). One month later, in the Tchimpounga sanctuary near Pointe-Noire, a chimpanzee developed signs similar to AFP, with paralysis of the lower limbs. In the present work, we sought to identify the pathogen, including viral and bacterial agents, responsible for this illness. In order to identify the causative agent, we evaluated a fecal specimen by PCR and sequencing. A Human enterovirus C, specifically of the EV-C99 type was potentially responsible for the illness in this chimpanzee. To rule out other possible causative agents, we also investigated the bacteriome and the virome using next generation sequencing. The majority of bacterial reads obtained belonged to commensal bacteria (95%), and the mammalian virus reads matched mainly with viruses of the Picornaviridae family (99%), in which enteroviruses were the most abundant (99.6%). This study thus reports the first identification of a chimpanzee presenting AFP most likely caused by an enterovirus and demonstrates once again the cross-species transmission of a human pathogen to an ape. PMID:26301510

  9. Studies of crustal structure, seismic precursors to volcanic eruptions and earthquake hazard in the eastern provinces of the Democratic Republic of Congo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mavonga, T.; Zana, N.; Durrheim, R. J.

    2010-11-01

    In recent decades, civil wars in the eastern provinces of the Democratic Republic of Congo have caused massive social disruptions, which have been exacerbated by volcanic and earthquake disasters. Seismic data were gathered and analysed as part of an effort to monitor the volcanoes and quantitatively assess the earthquake hazard. This information can be used to regulate the settlement of displaced people and to "build back better". In order to investigate volcanic processes in the Virunga area, a local seismic velocity model was derived and used to relocate earthquake hypocenters. It was found that swarm-type seismicity, composed mainly of long-period earthquakes, preceded both the 2004 and 2006 eruptions of Nyamuragira. A steady increase in seismicity was observed to commence ten or eleven months prior to the eruption, which is attributed to the movement of magma in a deep conduit. In the last stage (1 or 2 months) before the eruption, the hypocenters of long-period earthquakes became shallower. Seismic hazard maps were prepared for the DRC using a 90-year catalogue compiled for homogeneous Mw magnitudes, various published attenuation relations, and the EZ-Frisk software package. The highest levels of seismic hazard were found in the Lake Tanganyika Rift seismic zone, where peak ground accelerations (PGA) in excess of 0.32 g, 0.22 g and 0.16 g are expected to occur with 2%, 5% and 10% chance of exceedance in 50 years, respectively.

  10. [Protein-energy malnutrition and malaria-related morbidity in children under 59 months in the Kivu region of the Democratic Republic of the Congo].

    PubMed

    Mitangala Ndeba, P; Hennart, P; D'Alessandro, U; Donnen, P; Porignon, D; Bisimwa Balaluka, G; Dramaix Wilmet, M

    2008-02-01

    In the Kivu region located in east of the Democratic Republic of the Congo, malnutrition and malaria is a major cause of morbidity and mortality. The relationship between malaria and malnutrition is unclear and has never been studied in the Kivu region. This report presents an analysis of data from 5695 children aged 0 to 5 years, admitted to the paediatric ward of Lwiro hospital between November 1992 and February 2004. The weight/age (W/A) index and weight/height (W/H) index expressed with standard deviation in relation to the reference median were calculated (Z score). The association between protein-energetic malnutrition and malaria infection and nutritional indicators was measured based on prevalence ratios determined by univariate analysis and adjusted Odds Ratio (OR) derived using a multivariate model. The prevalence of malaria at the time of admission was 35.8 % (n=5695). The W/A and W/H indexes and serum albumin level were correlated with malaria-related morbidity. Logistic regression showed that high malaria OR was associated with both anthropometric nutritional indicators [WHZ > -2: OR (CI 95 %) 1.7 (1.4-2.2)] [WAZ > -2: OR (CI 95 %) 1.3 (1.1-1.6)] and biological nutritional indicators [serum albumin > or = 23 g/L: OR (CI 95 %) 1.6 (1.2-2.1)]. Our findings indicate that malnourished children at admission have a lower risk of malaria infection.

  11. The Impact of Two Semiannual Treatments with Albendazole Alone on Lymphatic Filariasis and Soil-Transmitted Helminth Infections: A Community-Based Study in the Republic of Congo

    PubMed Central

    Pion, Sébastien D. S.; Chesnais, Cédric B.; Bopda, Jean; Louya, Frédéric; Fischer, Peter U.; Majewski, Andrew C.; Weil, Gary J.; Boussinesq, Michel; Missamou, François

    2015-01-01

    Implementation of mass drug administration (MDA) with ivermectin plus albendazole (ALB) for lymphatic filariasis (LF) has been delayed in central Africa because of the risk of serious adverse events in subjects with high Loa loa microfilaremia. We conducted a community trial to assess the impact of semiannual MDA with ALB (400 mg) alone on LF and soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections in the Republic of Congo. Evaluation at 12 months showed that ALB MDA had not significantly reduced Wuchereria bancrofti antigenemia or microfilaria (mf) rates in the community (from 17.3% to 16.6% and from 5.3% to 4.2%, respectively). However, the geometric mean mf count in mf-positive subjects was reduced from 202.2 to 80.9 mf/mL (60% reduction, P = 0.01). The effect of ALB was impressive in 38 subjects who were mf-positive at baseline and retested at 12 months: 37% had total mf clearance, and individual mf densities were reduced by 73.0%. MDA also dramatically reduced the hookworm infection rate in the community from 6.5% to 0.6% (91% reduction), with less impressive effects on Ascaris and Trichuris. These preliminary results suggest that semiannual community MDA with ALB is a promising strategy for controlling LF and STH in areas with coendemic loiasis. PMID:25758650

  12. 'There is fear but there is no other work': a preliminary qualitative exploration of the experience of sex workers in eastern Democratic Republic of Congo.

    PubMed

    Kiernan, Brendan; Mishori, Ranit; Masoda, Maurice

    2016-01-01

    Two decades of conflict and insecurity have had a devastating impact on many in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), including marginalised groups such as sex workers. In the province of North Kivu, many residents face desperate conditions that render them vulnerable to exploitation and abuse. As a result, many turn to the sex trade in what can often be described as 'survival sex'. This small-scale qualitative study explores the experience of urban sex workers in the eastern region of the DRC. Sex workers were recruited at their place of business and asked to participate in a semi-structured interview. Eight participants were recruited, including seven women and one man. Our analysis identified several themes: (1) economic hardship as a catalyst for joining the sex trade, (2) significant work-related violence and (3) a paucity of available resources or assistance. Responses to specific prompts indicated that sex workers do not trust law enforcement and there are significant barriers to both medical care and local resources. Further studies of this vulnerable population and its needs are encouraged in order to develop programmes that provide the means to manage the hazards of their work and obtain an alternative source of income.

  13. Behaviour of pregnant women towards the use of prenatal care services: a comparative study between China and the Democratic Republic of Congo.

    PubMed

    Sabine, Kabuyaya K; Li, Wentao; Jose, Mulwahali Wambale

    2013-09-01

    The present study aims to highlight and describe the elements of difference and/or similarity between China (Changchun) and the Democratic Republic of Congo (Kinshasa) concerning the behaviour of pregnant women in the use of prenatal care services. A cross-sectional investigation with a self-designed survey was carried out from September 2011 to March 2012 among pregnant women attending antenatal visits in Changchun and Kinshasa. Sixty pregnant women of childbearing age, with an uncomplicated pregnancy, attending prenatal visits in two hospitals and two community care centres were eligible for the study. Data were analysed using SPSS 13.0 software. Kinshasa 86.6% vs. Changchun 26.6% of pregnant women attended prenatal health education. In Changchun none of the responders (0%) have received tetanus vaccine, whereas in Kinshasa 90% were vaccinated against tetanus. Kinshasa 73.3% vs. Changchun 23.3% of pregnant women confirmed that they have performed the HIV test. The elements of difference found in our results were statistically significant P < 0.05. Prenatal health education can help pregnant women to have an appropriate awareness and improve their behaviour in the use of prenatal care services.

  14. Universal access: the benefits and challenges in bringing integrated HIV care to isolated and conflict affected populations in the Republic of Congo.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Daniel P; Mills, Clair; Hamel, Catherine; Ford, Nathan; Pottie, Kevin

    2009-01-07

    The Pool region of the Republic of Congo is an isolated, conflict-affected area with under-resourced and poorly functioning health care services. Despite significant AIDS-related mortality and morbidity in this area, and a national level commitment to universal HIV care, HIV has been largely neglected. In 2005 Médecins Sans Frontières decided to introduce HIV care activities. However, in this setting of high basic health care needs, limited medical resources and competing medical priorities, a vertical HIV programme was not suitable. This paper describes the process of integrating HIV care and treatment into basic health services, the clinical outcomes of 222 patients started on antiretroviral treatment (ART), and the benefits to communities and health care systems. Key lessons learned include the use of multi-skilled human resources, the step-wise implementation of HIV activities, the initial engagement of an HIV experienced staff member, the use of simplified and adapted testing, clinical and monitoring protocols and drug regimens, the introduction of more complex monitoring tools to simplify clinical management decisions and intensive staff education regarding the benefits of HIV integration. This project in a rural and remote conflict-affected setting demonstrates that integrated HIV programs can save lives and play a key role in helping to achieve universal access to ART in Africa.

  15. Object-based image analysis for the assessment of mineral extraction in conflict regions - a case study in the Democratic Republic of the Congo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kranz, Olaf; Schoepfer, Elisabeth; Spröhnle, Kristin; Lang, Stefan

    2016-06-01

    In this study object-based image analysis (OBIA) techniques were applied to assess land cover changes related to mineral extraction in a conflict-affected area of the eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) over a period of five years based on very high resolution (VHR) satellite data of different sensors. Object-based approaches explicitly consider spatio-temporal aspects which allow extracting important information to document mining activities. The use of remote sensing data as an independent, up-to-date and reliable data source provided hints on the general development of the mining sector in relation to socio-economic and political decisions. While in early 2010, the situation was still characterised by an intensification of mineral extraction, a mining ban between autumn 2010 and spring 2011 marked the starting point for a continuous decrease of mining activities. The latter can be substantiated through a decrease in the extend of the mining area as well as of the number of dwellings in the nearby settlement. A following demilitarisation and the mentioned need for accountability with respect to the origin of certain minerals led to organised, more industrialized exploitation. This development is likewise visible on satellite imagery as typical clearings within forested areas. The results of the continuous monitoring in turn facilitate non-governmental organisations (NGOs) to further foster the mentioned establishment of responsible supply chains by the mining industry throughout the entire period of investigation.

  16. Alluvial diamond resource potential and production capacity assessment of the Central African Republic

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chirico, Peter G.; Barthelemy, Francis; Ngbokoto, Francois A.

    2010-01-01

    In May of 2000, a meeting was convened in Kimberley, South Africa, and attended by representatives of the diamond industry and leaders of African governments to develop a certification process intended to assure that rough, exported diamonds were free of conflict concerns. This meeting was supported later in 2000 by the United Nations in a resolution adopted by the General Assembly. By 2002, the Kimberly Process Certification Scheme (KPCS) was ratified and signed by diamond-producing and diamond-importing countries. Over 70 countries were included as members of the KPCS at the end of 2007. To prevent trade in "conflict diamonds" while protecting legitimate trade, the KPCS requires that each country set up an internal system of controls to prevent conflict diamonds from entering any imported or exported shipments of rough diamonds. Every diamond or diamond shipment must be accompanied by a Kimberley Process (KP) certificate and be contained in tamper-proof packaging. The objective of this study was (1) to assess the naturally occurring endowment of diamonds in the Central African Republic (potential resources) based on geological evidence, previous studies, and recent field data and (2) to assess the diamond-production capacity and measure the intensity of mining activity. Several possible methods can be used to estimate the potential diamond resource. However, because there is generally a lack of sufficient and consistent data recording all diamond mining in the Central African Republic and because time to conduct fieldwork and accessibility to the diamond mining areas are limited, two different methodologies were used: the volume and grade approach and the content per kilometer approach. Estimates are that approximately 39,000,000 carats of alluvial diamonds remain in the eastern and western zones of the CAR combined. This amount is roughly twice the total amount of diamonds reportedly exported from the Central African Republic since 1931. Production capacity is

  17. First biologic and genetic characterization of Toxoplasma gondii isolates from chickens from Africa (Democratic Republic of Congo, Mali, Burkina Faso, and Kenya).

    PubMed

    Dubey, J P; Karhemere, S; Dahl, E; Sreekumar, C; Diabaté, A; Dabiré, K R; Vianna, M C B; Kwok, O C H; Lehmann, T

    2005-02-01

    The prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in free-ranging chickens (Gallus domesticus) is a good indicator of the prevalence of T. gondii oocysts in the soil because chickens feed from the ground. In the present study, prevalence of T. gondii in chickens from Democratic Republic of Congo, Mali, Burkina Faso, and Kenya is reported. The prevalence of T. gondii antibodies in sera of 50 free-range chickens from Congo was 50% based on the modified agglutination test (MAT); antibody titers were 1:5 in 7, 1:10 in 7, 1:20 in 6, 1:40 in 1, and 1:160 or more in 4 chickens. Hearts, pectoral muscles, and brains of 11 chickens with titers of 1:20 or more were bioassayed individually in mice; T. gondii was isolated from 9, from the hearts of 9, brains of 3, and muscles of 3 chickens. Tissues of each of the 14 chickens with titers of 1:5 or 1:10 were pooled and bioassayed in mice; T. gondii was isolated from 1 chicken with a titer of 1:10. Tissues from the remaining 25 seronegative chickens were pooled and fed to 1 T. gondii-free cat. Feces of the cat were examined for oocysts, but none was seen. The results indicate that T. gondii localizes in the hearts more often than in other tissues of naturally infected chickens. Genotyping of these 10 isolates using the SAG2 locus indicated that 8 were isolates were type III, 1 was type II, and 1 was type I. Two isolates (1 type I and 1 type III) were virulent for mice. Toxoplasma gondii was isolated by mouse bioassay from a pool of brains and hearts of 5 of 48 chickens from Mali and 1 of 40 chickens from Burkina Faso; all 6 isolates were avirulent for mice. Genetically, 4 isolates were type III and 2 were type II. Sera were not available from chickens from Mali and Burkina Faso. Toxoplasma gondii antibodies (MAT 100 or more) were found in 4 of 30 chickens from Kenya, and T. gondii was isolated from the brain of 1 of 4 seropositive chickens; this strain was avirulent for mice and was type II. This is the first report on isolation and genotyping

  18. [First detection of psittacid herpesvirus 2 in Congo African grey parrots (Psittacus erithacus erithacus) associated with pharyngeal papillomas and cloacal inflammation in Germany].

    PubMed

    Legler, Marko; Kothe, Ruth; Wohlsein, Peter; Hewicker-Trautwein, Marion; Kummerfeld, Norbert; Rautenschlein, Silke

    2014-01-01

    Congo African Grey Parrots (GP; Psittacus erithacus erithacus) from four different avicultures, presented in the Clinic for Exotic Pets, Reptiles and Birds, University of Veterinary Medicine Hannover, Foundation, showed choanal papillomas or hyperemia of the cloacal mucosa. Histologically, the mucosal choanal proliferations were diagnosed as exophytic papillomas and a mild hyperplasia of the cloacal mucosa with lympho-histiocytic inflammation with no visible inclusion bodies was found. Herpesvirus genome was detected by nested PCR in pooled choanal and cloacal swabs from clinically diseased parrots and healthy contact animals. Sequencing of parts of the herpesvirus DNA-polymerase gene indicated 98-100% homology of the detected herpesviruses with the Psittacid Herpesvirus 2 (PsHV-2). In one aviculture with cloacal inflammation papillomavirus-DNA was concurrently found to a PsHV-2 infection. In addition to the four avicultures with clinical symptoms 25 more flocks of grey parrots, in total 57 Congo-GP and 13 Timneh-GP, were examined for a herpesvirus infection. A total of six out of 29 studied parrot avicultures were tested positive for PsHV-2. The detection of this virus also in flocks of GP, which were bred in Europe, shows the establishment of this infection in the GP population in captivity. As indicated in the literature as well as in our study PsHV-2 could be only detected in Congo-GP, independently if they were kept either alone or in mixed avicultures with amazon and macaw species. These findings suggest that PsHV-2 is adapted to this Psittacus species.

  19. Molecular characterization of three Zika flaviviruses obtained from sylvatic mosquitoes in the Central African Republic.

    PubMed

    Berthet, Nicolas; Nakouné, Emmanuel; Kamgang, Basile; Selekon, Benjamin; Descorps-Declère, Stéphane; Gessain, Antoine; Manuguerra, Jean-Claude; Kazanji, Mirdad

    2014-12-01

    Zika virus (ZIKV) is an emerging pathogen belonging to the Spondweni serocomplex within the genus Flavivirus. It has been isolated from several mosquito species. Two lineages of ZIKV have been defined by polyprotein homology. Using high-throughput sequencing, we obtained and characterized three complete genomes of ZIKV isolated between 1976 and 1980 in the Central African Republic. The three viruses were isolated from two species of mosquito, Aedes africanus and Ae. opok. Two sequences from Ae. africanus had 99.9% nucleotide sequence identity and 100% amino acid identity, whereas the complete genome obtained from Ae. opok had 98.3% nucleotide identity and 99.4% amino acid identity with the other two genomes. Phylogenetic analysis based on the amino acid sequence of the polyprotein showed that the three ZIKV strains clustered together but diverged from all other ZIKV strains. Our molecular data suggest that a different subtype of West African ZIKV strains circulated in Aedes species in Central Africa.

  20. Petroleum geology of Cretaceous-Tertiary rift basins in Niger, Chad, and Central African Republic

    SciTech Connect

    Genik, G.J. )

    1993-08-01

    This overview of the petroleum geology of rift basins in Niger, Chad, and Central African Republic (CAR) is based on exploration work by Exxon and partners in the years 1969-1991. The work included 50,000 km of modern reflection seismic, 53 exploration wells, 1,000,000 km[sup 2] of aeromagnetic coverage, and about 10,500 km of gravity profiles. The results outline ten Cretaceous and Tertiary rift basins, which constitute a major part of the West and Central African rift system (WCARS). The rift basins derive from a multiphased geologic history dating from the Pan-African (approximately 750-550 Ma) to the Holocene. WCARS in the study area is divided into the West African rift subsystem (WAS) and the Central African rift subsystem (WAS) and the Central African rift subsystem (CAS). WAS basins in Niger and Chad are chiefly extensional, and are filled by up to 13,000 m of Lower Cretaceous to Holocene continental and marine clastics. The basins contain five oil (19-43[degrees]API) and two oil and gas accumulations in Upper Cretaceous and Eocene sandstone reservoirs. The hydrocarbons are sourced and sealed by Upper Cretaceous and Eocene marine and lacustrine shales. The most common structural styles and hydrocarbon traps usually are associated with normal fault blocks. CAS rift basins in Chad and CAR are extensional and transtensional, and are filled by up to 7500 m of chiefly Lower Cretaceous continental clastics. The basins contain eight oil (15-39[degrees]API) and one oil and gas discovery in Lower and Upper Cretaceous sandstone reservoirs. The hydrocarbons are sourced by Lower Cretaceous shales and sealed by interbedded lacustrine and flood-plain shales. Structural styles range from simple fault blocks through complex flower structures. The main hydrocarbon traps are in contractional anticlines. Geological conditions favor the discovery of potentially commercial volumes of oil in WCARS basins, of Niger, Chad and CAR. 108 refs., 24 figs., 4 tabs.

  1. [Stab wounds of the hand and forearm due to Kuluna in Kinshasa (Democratic Republic of Congo): types of injuries and treatment].

    PubMed

    Kibadi, K; Portaels, F; Pichot, Y; Kapinga, M; Moutet, F

    2015-01-01

    Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), a particular form of juvenile delinquency and insecurity intensifies in the city of Kinshasa. This is the phenomenon Kuluna. It is organized gangs equipped with machetes and other weapons. The main objective of this study is to know the phenomenon Kuluna and describe the upper limb injuries caused by machetes, while insisting on the specifics of the management of these lesions in our communities. This retrospective descriptive study examines 14 cases of wounds of the hand and forearm due to stab phenomenon Kuluna, in Kinshasa. It covers the period from 1 November 2010 to 1 November 2013. Among the 14 patients with lesions in the hand and forearm admitted and treated at the Unit of Plastic Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgery, Hand Surgery and Burns, University Clinics of Kinshasa to attacks due to the phenomenon Kuluna. We have 11 men and 3 women. The average age was 33, 5 years (extremes of 21 and 56 years). The right upper limb is reached that the left upper limb, respectively 12 patients and 2 patients. The lesions are localized to the wrist in the majority of cases (10 patients) in the palm of hand and in 3 patients in the fingers in 1 patient. The palmar surface is reached (10 cases) and the dorsal (4 cases). Zone 5 of the International Classification of flexor and Zone 8 topographic classification extensors at hand are the predilection sites of lesions respectively the palmar surface (6 out of 10) and the dorsal (2 case 4). The median nerve at the wrist is cut in half the cases. On bone lesions localized to the forearm, we observed a high incidence of fracture of the ulna (62.5%). The treatment begins with the stabilization of bone pieces, gestures revascularization and nerve sutures and suture tendon and finally skin coverage. Rehabilitation was mandatory, she supervises the actions of repair and it continues until the recovery of function. PMID:26837110

  2. Challenge of managing sickle cell disease in a pediatric population living in kinshasa, democratic republic of congo: a sickle cell center experience.

    PubMed

    Aloni, Michel Ntetani; Nkee, Leonard

    2014-01-01

    In the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), sickle cell disease is not yet really regarded as a health care priority. The patterns of sickle cell disease in patients living in Kinshasa, DRC are discussed and the difficulties encountered in their management are highlighted. The cross-sectional survey is of sickle cell patients and their families attending the Centre de Médecine Mixte et d'Anémie SS de Yolo (CMMASS), Kinshasa, DRC, between January and April 2009. Completed questionnaires were received from 168 respondents (111 girls; 57 boys). Seventy-one percent of the subjects were diagnosed before the age of 2 years but none in the neonatal period. Sickle cell disease was diagnosed in 54.8% of the patients after they had suffered pain crises. Of the 168 subjects, 74.0% had previously received blood transfusions. Seventy-five (45.0%) had more than three severe pain crises per year. A minority of 35.0% reported that they regularly took an antibioprophylaxis. Seventy-five (45.0%) subjects were eligible for hydroxyurea (HU) therapy but in all cases this drug was taken irregularly. Eighty-two percent of drugs were purchased by the parents. One hundred and sixty-three children (97.0%) were vaccinated according to the Expanded Programme on Immunization (EPI), 61.0% against Streptococcus pneumoniae and 16.0% against the Hepatitis B virus (HBV). No case of immunization against Hemophilus influenzae and Salmonella sp was reported. Neonatal screening programs, early educational detection programs for families, use of current method treatments and an implementation of a health insurance system for sickle cell disease will improve detection and management for these and future patients in our population.

  3. Perceptions of health, health care and community-oriented health interventions in poor urban communities of Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo.

    PubMed

    Maketa, Vivi; Vuna, Mimy; Baloji, Sylvain; Lubanza, Symphorien; Hendrickx, David; Inocêncio da Luz, Raquel Andrea; Boelaert, Marleen; Lutumba, Pascal

    2013-01-01

    In Democratic Republic of Congo access to health care is limited because of many geographical and financial barriers, while quality of care is often low. Global health donors assist the country with a number of community-oriented interventions such as free distribution of bednets, antihelminthic drugs, vitamin A supplementation and vaccination campaigns, but uptake of these interventions is not always optimal. The aim of this study was to explore the perceptions of poor urban communities of the capital Kinshasa with regard to health issues in general as well as their experiences and expectations concerning facility-based health services and community-oriented health interventions. Applying an approach rooted in the grounded theory framework, focus group discussions were conducted in eight neighborhoods of poor urban areas in the city of Kinshasa in July 2011. Study participants were easily able to evoke the city's major health problems, with the notable exceptions of malnutrition and HIV/AIDS. They perceive the high out-of-pocket cost of health services as the major obstacle when seeking access to quality care. Knowledge of ongoing community-oriented health interventions seems good. Still, while the study participants agree that those interventions are beneficial; their acceptability seems to be problematic. This is chiefly put down to a lack of information and government communication about the programs and their interventions. Furthermore, the study participants referred to rumors and the deterring effect of stories about alleged harmful consequences of those interventions. Along with improving the provision and quality of general health care, the government and international actors must improve their efforts in informing the communities about disease control programs, their rationale and benefit/risk ratio. Directly engaging community members in a dialogue might be beneficial in terms of improving acceptability and overall access to health services and

  4. Robustness against serum neutralization of a poliovirus type 1 from a lethal epidemic of poliomyelitis in the Republic of Congo in 2010.

    PubMed

    Drexler, Jan Felix; Grard, Gilda; Lukashev, Alexander N; Kozlovskaya, Liubov I; Böttcher, Sindy; Uslu, Gökhan; Reimerink, Johan; Gmyl, Anatoly P; Taty-Taty, Raphaël; Lekana-Douki, Sonia Etenna; Nkoghe, Dieudonné; Eis-Hübinger, Anna M; Diedrich, Sabine; Koopmans, Marion; Leroy, Eric M; Drosten, Christian

    2014-09-01

    In 2010, a large outbreak of poliomyelitis with unusual 47% lethality occurred in Pointe Noire, Republic of Congo. Vaccine-mediated immunity against the outbreak virus was never investigated. A wild poliovirus 1 (WPV1) isolated from a fatal case (termed PV1-RC2010) showed a previously unknown combination of amino acid exchanges in critical antigenic site 2 (AgS2, VP1 capsid protein positions 221SAAL → 221PADL). These exchanges were also detected in an additional 11 WPV1 strains from fatal cases. PV1-RC2010 escaped neutralization by three different mAbs relevant for AgS2. Virus neutralization was tested in sera from fatal cases, who died before supplementary immunization (n = 24), Gabonese recipients of recent oral polio vaccination (n = 12), routinely vaccinated German medical students (n = 34), and German outpatients tested for antipoliovirus immunity (n = 17) on Vero, human rhabdomyosarcoma, and human epidermoid carcinoma 2 cells. Fatal poliomyelitis cases gave laboratory evidence of previous trivalent vaccination. Neutralizing antibody titers against PV1-RC2010 were significantly lower than those against the vaccine strain Sabin-1, two genetically distinct WPV1s isolated in 1965 and 2010 and two genetically distinct vaccine-derived PV strains. Of German vaccinees tested according to World Health Organization protocols, 15-29% were unprotected according to their neutralization titers (<1:8 serum dilution), even though all were protected against Sabin-1. Phylogenetic analysis of the WPV1 outbreak strains suggested a recent introduction of virus progenitors from Asia with formation of separate Angolan and Congolese lineages. Only the latter carried both critical AgS2 mutations. Antigenetically variant PVs may become relevant during the final phase of poliomyelitis eradication in populations with predominantly vaccine-derived immunity. Sustained vaccination coverage and clinical and environmental surveillance will be necessary.

  5. Anemia and Micronutrient Status of Women of Childbearing Age and Children 6-59 Months in the Democratic Republic of the Congo.

    PubMed

    Harvey-Leeson, Sarah; Karakochuk, Crystal D; Hawes, Meaghan; Tugirimana, Pierrot L; Bahizire, Esto; Akilimali, Pierre Z; Michaux, Kristina D; Lynd, Larry D; Whitfield, Kyly C; Moursi, Mourad; Boy, Erick; Foley, Jennifer; McLean, Judy; Houghton, Lisa A; Gibson, Rosalind S; Green, Tim J

    2016-02-01

    Little is known about the micronutrient status of women and children in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, which is critical for the design of effective nutrition interventions. We recruited 744 mother-child pairs from South Kivu (SK) and Kongo Central (KC). We determined hemoglobin (Hb), serum zinc, vitamin B12, folate, ferritin, soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR), retinol binding protein (RBP), C-reactive protein, and α-1 acid glycoprotein concentrations. Anemia prevalence was determined using Hb adjusted for altitude alone and Hb adjusted for both altitude and ethnicity. Anemia prevalence was lower after Hb adjustment for altitude and ethnicity, compared to only altitude, among women (6% vs. 17% in SK; 10% vs. 32% in KC), children 6-23 months (26% vs. 59% in SK; 25% vs. 42% in KC), and children 24-59 months (14% vs. 35% in SK; 23% vs. 44% in KC), respectively. Iron deficiency was seemingly higher with sTfR as compared to inflammation-adjusted ferritin among women (18% vs. 4% in SK; 21% vs. 5% in KC), children 6-23 months (51% vs. 14% in SK; 74% vs. 10% in KC), and children 24-59 months (23% vs. 4% in SK; 58% vs. 1% in KC). Regardless of indicator, iron deficiency anemia (IDA) never exceeded 3% in women. In children, IDA reached almost 20% when sTfR was used but was only 10% with ferritin. Folate, B12, and vitamin A (RBP) deficiencies were all very low (<5%); RBP was 10% in children. The prevalence of anemia was unexpectedly low. Inflammation-adjusted zinc deficiency was high among women (52% in SK; 58% in KC), children 6-23 months (23% in SK; 20% in KC), and children 24-59 months (25% in SK; 27% in KC). The rate of biochemical zinc deficiency among Congolese women and children requires attention.

  6. Resource wars and conflict ivory: the impact of civil conflict on elephants in the Democratic Republic of Congo--the case of the Okapi Reserve.

    PubMed

    Beyers, Rene L; Hart, John A; Sinclair, Anthony R E; Grossmann, Falk; Klinkenberg, Brian; Dino, Simeon

    2011-01-01

    Human conflict generally has substantial negative impacts on wildlife and conservation. The recent civil war (1995-2006) in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) resulted in a significant loss of wildlife, including elephants, due to institutional collapse, lawlessness and unbridled exploitation of natural resources such as minerals, wood, ivory and bushmeat. We used data from distance sampling surveys conducted before and after the war in a protected forest, the Okapi Faunal Reserve, to document changes in elephant abundance and distribution. We employed Generalized Additive Models to relate changes in elephant distribution to human and environmental factors. Populations declined by nearly fifty percent coinciding with a major increase in elephant poaching as indicated by reports of ivory trade during the war. Our results suggest that humans influenced elephant distribution far more than habitat, both before and after the war, but post-war models explained more of the variation. Elephant abundance declined more, closer to the park boundary and to areas of intense human activity. After the war, elephant densities were relatively higher in the centre of the park where they were better protected, suggesting that this area may have acted as a refuge. In other sites in Eastern DRC, where no protection was provided, elephants were even more decimated. Post-war dynamics, such as weakened institutions, human movements and availability of weapons, continue to affect elephants. Survival of remaining populations and recovery will be determined by these persistent factors and by new threats associated with growing human populations and exploitation of natural resources. Prioritizing wildlife protection, curbing illegal trade in ivory and bushmeat, and strengthening national institutions and organizations in charge of conservation will be crucial to counter these threats.

  7. One Size Fits All? Standardised Provision of Care for Survivors of Sexual Violence in Conflict and Post-Conflict Areas in the Democratic Republic of Congo

    PubMed Central

    Au, Sokhieng; De Plecker, Eva; Zachariah, Rony; Manzi, Marcel; Lambert, Vincent; Abi-Aad, Elias; Nanan-N’Zeth, Kassi; Nzuya, Serge; Omba, Brigitte; Shako, Charly; MuishaBaroki, Derick; Basimuoneye, Jean Paul; Moke, Didier Amudiandroy; Lampaert, Emmanuel; Masangu, Lucien; De Weggheleire, Anja

    2014-01-01

    Background Outcomes of sexual violence care programmes may vary according to the profile of survivors, type of violence suffered, and local context. Analysis of existing sexual violence care services could lead to their better adaptation to the local contexts. We therefore set out to compare the Médecins Sans Frontières sexual violence programmes in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) in a zone of conflict (Masisi, North Kivu) and post-conflict (Niangara, Haut-Uélé). Methods A retrospective descriptive cohort study, using routine programmatic data from the MSF sexual violence programmes in Masisi and Niangara, DRC, for 2012. Results In Masisi, 491 survivors of sexual violence presented for care, compared to 180 in Niangara. Niangara saw predominantly sexual violence perpetrated by civilians who were known to the victim (48%) and directed against children and adolescents (median age 15 (IQR 13–17)), while sexual violence in Masisi was more directed towards adults (median age 26 (IQR 20–35)), and was characterised by marked brutality, with higher levels of gang rape, weapon use, and associated violence; perpetrated by the military (51%). Only 60% of the patients in Masisi and 32% of those in Niangara arrived for a consultation within the critical timeframe of 72 hours, when prophylaxis for HIV and sexually transmitted infections is most effective. Survivors were predominantly referred through community programmes. Treatment at first contact was typically efficient, with high (>95%) coverage rates of prophylaxes. However, follow-up was poor, with only 49% of all patients in Masisi and 61% in Niangara returning for follow-up, and consequently low rates of treatment and/or vaccination completion. Conclusion This study has identified a number of weak and strong points in the sexual violence programmes of differing contexts, indicating gaps which need to be addressed, and strengths of both programmes that may contribute to future models of context

  8. Species protection, the changing informal economy, and the politics of access to the bushmeat trade in the Democratic Republic of Congo.

    PubMed

    De Merode, Emmanuel; Cowlishaw, Guy

    2006-08-01

    Our understanding of the linkages between the bushmeat trade and the wider informal economy is limited. This lack of knowledge is particularly problematic for conservation under conditions of political instability, when the informal economy can be highly dynamic and impacts on wildlife populations can be severe. To explore these interlinked processes, we conducted a study of the bushmeat trade in Garamba National Park, Democratic Republic of Congo, through a combination of market surveys, semistructured interviews, and direct observation. We focused on the sale of protected and unprotected species in urban and rural markets, and the bushmeat commodity chains that supplied these markets, under conditions of political stability and armed conflict. During peacetime, protected species from the park (predominantly elephant and buffalo) rarely appeared in the rural markets, but they comprised more than half of all bushmeat sales in the urban markets. This pattern reflected differences in the rural and urban commodity chains. Automatic weapons were urban trade. The use of such weapons was discouraged by the traditional chiefs, who administered the village markets. During wartime, the sales of protected species in the urban markets increased fivefold because the military officers fled, leaving behind an open-access system that led to a massive increase in the exploitation of protected species. In contrast, the rural markets remained relatively stable because of the continued authority of the village chiefs. Our results indicate that sociopolitical factors can be an important determinant of species offtake and, therefore, that knowledge of the bushmeat commodity chain can be vital to controlling theprocesses that drive species extraction. In addition, our findings suggest that traditional authorities can be potentially valuable partners for bushmeat management.

  9. Forest cover dynamics of shifting cultivation in the Democratic Republic of Congo: a remote sensing-based assessment for 2000-2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molinario, G.; Hansen, M. C.; Potapov, P. V.

    2015-09-01

    Shifting cultivation has traditionally been practiced in the Democratic Republic of Congo by carving agricultural fields out of primary and secondary forest, resulting in the rural complex: a characteristic land cover mosaic of roads, villages, active and fallow fields and secondary forest. Forest clearing has varying impacts depending on where it occurs relative to this area: whether inside it, along its primary forest interface, or in more isolated primary forest areas. The spatial contextualization of forest cover loss is therefore necessary to understand its impacts and plan its management. We characterized forest clearing using spatial models in a Geographical Information System, applying morphological image processing to the Forets d’Afrique Central Evaluee par Teledetection product. This process allowed us to create forest fragmentation maps for 2000, 2005 and 2010, classifying previously homogenous primary forest into separate patch, edge, perforated, fragmented and core forest subtypes. Subsequently we used spatial rules to map the established rural complex separately from isolated forest perforations, tracking the growth of these areas in time. Results confirm that the expansion of the rural complex and forest perforations has high variance throughout the country, with consequent differences in local impacts on forest ecology and habitat fragmentation. Between 2000 and 2010 the rural complex grew by 10.2% (46 182 ha), increasing from 11.9% to 13.1% of the total land area (1.2% change) while perforated forest grew by 74.4% (23 856 ha), from 0.8% to 1.5%. Core forest decreased by 3.8% (54 852 ha), from 38% to 36.6% of the 2010 land area. Of particular concern is the nearly doubling of perforated forest, a land dynamic that represents greater spatial intrusion of forest clearing within core forest areas and a move away from the established rural complex.

  10. Preliminary assessment for the use of VORIS as a tool for rapid lava flow simulation at Goma Volcano Observatory, Democratic Republic of the Congo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Syavulisembo, A. M.; Havenith, H.-B.; Smets, B.; d'Oreye, N.; Marti, J.

    2015-10-01

    Assessment and management of volcanic risk are important scientific, economic, and political issues, especially in densely populated areas threatened by volcanoes. The Virunga volcanic province in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, with over 1 million inhabitants, has to cope permanently with the threat posed by the active Nyamulagira and Nyiragongo volcanoes. During the past century, Nyamulagira erupted at intervals of 1-4 years - mostly in the form of lava flows - at least 30 times. Its summit and flank eruptions lasted for periods of a few days up to more than 2 years, and produced lava flows sometimes reaching distances of over 20 km from the volcano. Though most of the lava flows did not reach urban areas, only impacting the forests of the endangered Virunga National Park, some of them related to distal flank eruptions affected villages and roads. In order to identify a useful tool for lava flow hazard assessment at Goma Volcano Observatory (GVO), we tested VORIS 2.0.1 (Felpeto et al., 2007), a freely available software (http://www.gvb-csic.es) based on a probabilistic model that considers topography as the main parameter controlling the lava flow propagation. We tested different parameters and digital elevation models (DEM) - SRTM1, SRTM3, and ASTER GDEM - to evaluate the sensitivity of the models to changes in input parameters of VORIS 2.0.1. Simulations were tested against the known lava flows and topography from the 2010 Nyamulagira eruption. The results obtained show that VORIS 2.0.1 is a quick, easy-to-use tool for simulating lava-flow eruptions and replicates to a high degree of accuracy the eruptions tested when input parameters are appropriately chosen. In practice, these results will be used by GVO to calibrate VORIS for lava flow path forecasting during new eruptions, hence contributing to a better volcanic crisis management.

  11. Anemia and Micronutrient Status of Women of Childbearing Age and Children 6–59 Months in the Democratic Republic of the Congo

    PubMed Central

    Harvey-Leeson, Sarah; Karakochuk, Crystal D.; Hawes, Meaghan; Tugirimana, Pierrot L.; Bahizire, Esto; Akilimali, Pierre Z.; Michaux, Kristina D.; Lynd, Larry D.; Whitfield, Kyly C.; Moursi, Mourad; Boy, Erick; Foley, Jennifer; McLean, Judy; Houghton, Lisa A.; Gibson, Rosalind S.; Green, Tim J.

    2016-01-01

    Little is known about the micronutrient status of women and children in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, which is critical for the design of effective nutrition interventions. We recruited 744 mother-child pairs from South Kivu (SK) and Kongo Central (KC). We determined hemoglobin (Hb), serum zinc, vitamin B12, folate, ferritin, soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR), retinol binding protein (RBP), C-reactive protein, and α-1 acid glycoprotein concentrations. Anemia prevalence was determined using Hb adjusted for altitude alone and Hb adjusted for both altitude and ethnicity. Anemia prevalence was lower after Hb adjustment for altitude and ethnicity, compared to only altitude, among women (6% vs. 17% in SK; 10% vs. 32% in KC), children 6–23 months (26% vs. 59% in SK; 25% vs. 42% in KC), and children 24–59 months (14% vs. 35% in SK; 23% vs. 44% in KC), respectively. Iron deficiency was seemingly higher with sTfR as compared to inflammation-adjusted ferritin among women (18% vs. 4% in SK; 21% vs. 5% in KC), children 6–23 months (51% vs. 14% in SK; 74% vs. 10% in KC), and children 24–59 months (23% vs. 4% in SK; 58% vs. 1% in KC). Regardless of indicator, iron deficiency anemia (IDA) never exceeded 3% in women. In children, IDA reached almost 20% when sTfR was used but was only 10% with ferritin. Folate, B12, and vitamin A (RBP) deficiencies were all very low (<5%); RBP was 10% in children. The prevalence of anemia was unexpectedly low. Inflammation-adjusted zinc deficiency was high among women (52% in SK; 58% in KC), children 6–23 months (23% in SK; 20% in KC), and children 24–59 months (25% in SK; 27% in KC). The rate of biochemical zinc deficiency among Congolese women and children requires attention. PMID:26901219

  12. Geochemical and oxygen isotope signatures of mantle corundum megacrysts from the Mbuji-Mayi kimberlite, Democratic Republic of Congo, and the Changle alkali basalt, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giuliani, Gaston; Pivin, Marjorie; Fallick, Anthony E.; Ohnenstetter, Daniel; Song, Yucai; Demaiffe, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Oxygen isotope signatures of ruby and sapphire megacrysts, combined with trace-element analysis, from the Mbuji-Mayi kimberlite, Democratic Republic of Congo, and the Changle alkali basalt, China, provide clues to specify their origin in the deep Earth. At Mbuji-Mayi, pink sapphires have δ18O values in the range 4.3 to 5.4‰ (N = 10) with a mean of 4.9 ± 0.4‰, and rubies from 5.5 to 5.6‰ (N = 3). The Ga/Mg ratio of pink sapphires is between 1.9 and 3.9, and in rubies, between 0.6 and 2.6. The blue or yellow sapphires from Changle have δ18O values from 4.6 to 5.2 ‰, with a mean of 4.9 ± 0.2‰ (N = 9). The Ga/Mg ratio is between 5.7 and 11.3. The homogenous isotopic composition of ruby suggests a derivation from upper mantle xenoliths (garnet lherzolite, pyroxenite) or metagabbros and/or lower crustal garnet clinopyroxenite eclogite-type xenoliths included in kimberlites. Data from the pink sapphires from Mbuji-Mayi suggest a mantle origin, but different probable protoliths: either subducted oceanic protolith transformed into eclogite with δ18O values buffered to the mantle value, or clinopyroxenite protoliths in peridotite. The Changle sapphires have a mantle O-isotope signature. They probably formed in syenitic magmas produced by low degree partial melting of a spinel lherzolite source. The kimberlite and the alkali basalt acted as gem conveyors from the upper mantle up to the surface.

  13. Resource Wars and Conflict Ivory: The Impact of Civil Conflict on Elephants in the Democratic Republic of Congo - The Case of the Okapi Reserve

    PubMed Central

    Beyers, Rene L.; Hart, John A.; Sinclair, Anthony R. E.; Grossmann, Falk; Klinkenberg, Brian; Dino, Simeon

    2011-01-01

    Human conflict generally has substantial negative impacts on wildlife and conservation. The recent civil war (1995-2006) in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) resulted in a significant loss of wildlife, including elephants, due to institutional collapse, lawlessness and unbridled exploitation of natural resources such as minerals, wood, ivory and bushmeat. We used data from distance sampling surveys conducted before and after the war in a protected forest, the Okapi Faunal Reserve, to document changes in elephant abundance and distribution. We employed Generalized Additive Models to relate changes in elephant distribution to human and environmental factors. Populations declined by nearly fifty percent coinciding with a major increase in elephant poaching as indicated by reports of ivory trade during the war. Our results suggest that humans influenced elephant distribution far more than habitat, both before and after the war, but post-war models explained more of the variation. Elephant abundance declined more, closer to the park boundary and to areas of intense human activity. After the war, elephant densities were relatively higher in the centre of the park where they were better protected, suggesting that this area may have acted as a refuge. In other sites in Eastern DRC, where no protection was provided, elephants were even more decimated. Post-war dynamics, such as weakened institutions, human movements and availability of weapons, continue to affect elephants. Survival of remaining populations and recovery will be determined by these persistent factors and by new threats associated with growing human populations and exploitation of natural resources. Prioritizing wildlife protection, curbing illegal trade in ivory and bushmeat, and strengthening national institutions and organizations in charge of conservation will be crucial to counter these threats. PMID:22096529

  14. An innovative approach to using both cellphones and the radio to identify young people’s sexual concerns in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background As teenagers have easy access to both radio programs and cell phones, the current study used these tools so that young people could anonymously identify questions about sex and other related concerns in the urban environment of the Democratic Republic of Congo. The purpose of this healthcare intervention was to identify and address concerns raised by young people, which are related to sexual health, and which promote youth health. Methods This healthcare intervention was conducted over a six month period and consisted of a survey carried out in Kinshasa. This focused on 14 to 24 old young people using phone calls on a radio program raising concerns related to sexuality. The radio program was jointly run by a journalist and a health professional who were required to reply immediately to questions from young people. All sexual health concerns were recorded and analyzed. Results Forty programs were broadcast in six months and 1,250 messages and calls were recorded: 880 (70%) from girls and 370 (30%) from boys, which represents an average of 32 interventions (of which 10 calls and 22 messages) per broadcast. Most questions came from 15-19- and 20-24-year-old girls and boys. Focus of girls’ questions: menstrual cycle calculation and related concerns accounted for the majority (24%); sexual practices (16%), love relationships (15%) and virginity (14%). Boys’ concerns are masturbation (and its consequences) (22%), sexual practices (19%), love relationships (18%) and worries about penis size (10%). Infections (genital and STI) and topics regarding HIV represent 9% and 4% of the questions asked by girls against 7% and 10% by boys. Concerns were mainly related to knowledge, attitudes and competences to be developed. Conclusions Concerns and sexual practices raised by teens about their sexual and emotional life have inspired the design of a practical guide for youth self-training and have steered the second phase of this interactive program towards supporting

  15. [Stab wounds of the hand and forearm due to Kuluna in Kinshasa (Democratic Republic of Congo): types of injuries and treatment].

    PubMed

    Kibadi, K; Portaels, F; Pichot, Y; Kapinga, M; Moutet, F

    2015-01-01

    Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), a particular form of juvenile delinquency and insecurity intensifies in the city of Kinshasa. This is the phenomenon Kuluna. It is organized gangs equipped with machetes and other weapons. The main objective of this study is to know the phenomenon Kuluna and describe the upper limb injuries caused by machetes, while insisting on the specifics of the management of these lesions in our communities. This retrospective descriptive study examines 14 cases of wounds of the hand and forearm due to stab phenomenon Kuluna, in Kinshasa. It covers the period from 1 November 2010 to 1 November 2013. Among the 14 patients with lesions in the hand and forearm admitted and treated at the Unit of Plastic Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgery, Hand Surgery and Burns, University Clinics of Kinshasa to attacks due to the phenomenon Kuluna. We have 11 men and 3 women. The average age was 33, 5 years (extremes of 21 and 56 years). The right upper limb is reached that the left upper limb, respectively 12 patients and 2 patients. The lesions are localized to the wrist in the majority of cases (10 patients) in the palm of hand and in 3 patients in the fingers in 1 patient. The palmar surface is reached (10 cases) and the dorsal (4 cases). Zone 5 of the International Classification of flexor and Zone 8 topographic classification extensors at hand are the predilection sites of lesions respectively the palmar surface (6 out of 10) and the dorsal (2 case 4). The median nerve at the wrist is cut in half the cases. On bone lesions localized to the forearm, we observed a high incidence of fracture of the ulna (62.5%). The treatment begins with the stabilization of bone pieces, gestures revascularization and nerve sutures and suture tendon and finally skin coverage. Rehabilitation was mandatory, she supervises the actions of repair and it continues until the recovery of function.

  16. Pb isotopic constraints on the formation of the Dikulushi Cu-Pb-Zn-Ag mineralisation, Kundelungu Plateau (Democratic Republic of Congo)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haest, Maarten; Schneider, Jens; Cloquet, Christophe; Latruwe, Kris; Vanhaecke, Frank; Muchez, Philippe

    2010-04-01

    Base metal-Ag mineralisation at Dikulushi and in other deposits on the Kundelungu Plateau (Democratic Republic of Congo) developed during two episodes. Subeconomic Cu-Pb-Zn-Fe polysulphide ores were generated during the Lufilian Orogeny (c. 520 Ma ago) in a set of E-W- and NE-SW-oriented faults. Their lead has a relatively unradiogenic and internally inhomogeneous isotopic composition (206Pb/204Pb = 18.07-18.49), most likely generated by mixing of Pb from isotopically heterogeneous clastic sources. These sulphides were remobilised and enriched after the Lufilian Orogeny, along reactivated and newly formed NE-SW-oriented faults into a chalcocite-dominated Cu-Ag mineralisation of high economic interest. The chalcocite samples contain only trace amounts of lead and show mostly radiogenic Pb isotope signatures that fall along a linear trend in the 207Pb/204Pb vs. 206Pb/204Pb diagram (206Pb/204Pb = 18.66-23.65; 207Pb/204Pb = 15.72-16.02). These anomalous characteristics reflect a two-stage evolution involving admixture of both radiogenic lead and uranium during a young fluid event possibly c. 100 Ma ago. The Pb isotope systematics of local host rocks to mineralisation also indicate some comparable young disturbance of their U-Th-Pb systems, related to the same event. They could have provided Pb with sufficiently radiogenic compositions that was added to less radiogenic Pb remobilised from precursor Cu-Pb-Zn-Fe polysulphides, whereas the U most likely originated from external sources. Local metal sources are also suggested by the 208Pb/204Pb-206Pb/204Pb systematics of combined ore and rock lead, which indicate a pronounced and diversified lithological control of the immediate host rocks on the chalcocite-dominated Cu-Ag ores. The Pb isotope systematics of polysulphide mineralisation on the Kundelungu Plateau clearly record a diachronous evolution.

  17. Resource wars and conflict ivory: the impact of civil conflict on elephants in the Democratic Republic of Congo--the case of the Okapi Reserve.

    PubMed

    Beyers, Rene L; Hart, John A; Sinclair, Anthony R E; Grossmann, Falk; Klinkenberg, Brian; Dino, Simeon

    2011-01-01

    Human conflict generally has substantial negative impacts on wildlife and conservation. The recent civil war (1995-2006) in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) resulted in a significant loss of wildlife, including elephants, due to institutional collapse, lawlessness and unbridled exploitation of natural resources such as minerals, wood, ivory and bushmeat. We used data from distance sampling surveys conducted before and after the war in a protected forest, the Okapi Faunal Reserve, to document changes in elephant abundance and distribution. We employed Generalized Additive Models to relate changes in elephant distribution to human and environmental factors. Populations declined by nearly fifty percent coinciding with a major increase in elephant poaching as indicated by reports of ivory trade during the war. Our results suggest that humans influenced elephant distribution far more than habitat, both before and after the war, but post-war models explained more of the variation. Elephant abundance declined more, closer to the park boundary and to areas of intense human activity. After the war, elephant densities were relatively higher in the centre of the park where they were better protected, suggesting that this area may have acted as a refuge. In other sites in Eastern DRC, where no protection was provided, elephants were even more decimated. Post-war dynamics, such as weakened institutions, human movements and availability of weapons, continue to affect elephants. Survival of remaining populations and recovery will be determined by these persistent factors and by new threats associated with growing human populations and exploitation of natural resources. Prioritizing wildlife protection, curbing illegal trade in ivory and bushmeat, and strengthening national institutions and organizations in charge of conservation will be crucial to counter these threats. PMID:22096529

  18. Effectiveness of Routine BCG Vaccination on Buruli Ulcer Disease: A Case-Control Study in the Democratic Republic of Congo, Ghana and Togo

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, Richard Odame; Phanzu, Delphin Mavinga; Beissner, Marcus; Badziklou, Kossi; Luzolo, Elysée Kalundieko; Sarfo, Fred Stephen; Halatoko, Wemboo Afiwa; Amoako, Yaw; Frimpong, Michael; Kabiru, Abass Mohammed; Piten, Ebekalisai; Maman, Issaka; Bidjada, Bawimodom; Koba, Adjaho; Awoussi, Koffi Somenou; Kobara, Basile; Nitschke, Jörg; Wiedemann, Franz Xaver; Kere, Abiba Banla; Adjei, Ohene; Löscher, Thomas; Fleischer, Bernhard; Bretzel, Gisela; Herbinger, Karl-Heinz

    2015-01-01

    Background The only available vaccine that could be potentially beneficial against mycobacterial diseases contains live attenuated bovine tuberculosis bacillus (Mycobacterium bovis) also called Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG). Even though the BCG vaccine is still widely used, results on its effectiveness in preventing mycobacterial diseases are partially contradictory, especially regarding Buruli Ulcer Disease (BUD). The aim of this case-control study is to evaluate the possible protective effect of BCG vaccination on BUD. Methodology The present study was performed in three different countries and sites where BUD is endemic: in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Ghana, and Togo from 2010 through 2013. The large study population was comprised of 401 cases with laboratory confirmed BUD and 826 controls, mostly family members or neighbors. Principal Findings After stratification by the three countries, two sexes and four age groups, no significant correlation was found between the presence of BCG scar and BUD status of individuals. Multivariate analysis has shown that the independent variables country (p = 0.31), sex (p = 0.24), age (p = 0.96), and presence of a BCG scar (p = 0.07) did not significantly influence the development of BUD category I or category II/III. Furthermore, the status of BCG vaccination was also not significantly related to duration of BUD or time to healing of lesions. Conclusions In our study, we did not observe significant evidence of a protective effect of routine BCG vaccination on the risk of developing either BUD or severe forms of BUD. Since accurate data on BCG strains used in these three countries were not available, no final conclusion can be drawn on the effectiveness of BCG strain in protecting against BUD. As has been suggested for tuberculosis and leprosy, well-designed prospective studies on different existing BCG vaccine strains are needed also for BUD. PMID:25569674

  19. Challenge of managing sickle cell disease in a pediatric population living in kinshasa, democratic republic of congo: a sickle cell center experience.

    PubMed

    Aloni, Michel Ntetani; Nkee, Leonard

    2014-01-01

    In the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), sickle cell disease is not yet really regarded as a health care priority. The patterns of sickle cell disease in patients living in Kinshasa, DRC are discussed and the difficulties encountered in their management are highlighted. The cross-sectional survey is of sickle cell patients and their families attending the Centre de Médecine Mixte et d'Anémie SS de Yolo (CMMASS), Kinshasa, DRC, between January and April 2009. Completed questionnaires were received from 168 respondents (111 girls; 57 boys). Seventy-one percent of the subjects were diagnosed before the age of 2 years but none in the neonatal period. Sickle cell disease was diagnosed in 54.8% of the patients after they had suffered pain crises. Of the 168 subjects, 74.0% had previously received blood transfusions. Seventy-five (45.0%) had more than three severe pain crises per year. A minority of 35.0% reported that they regularly took an antibioprophylaxis. Seventy-five (45.0%) subjects were eligible for hydroxyurea (HU) therapy but in all cases this drug was taken irregularly. Eighty-two percent of drugs were purchased by the parents. One hundred and sixty-three children (97.0%) were vaccinated according to the Expanded Programme on Immunization (EPI), 61.0% against Streptococcus pneumoniae and 16.0% against the Hepatitis B virus (HBV). No case of immunization against Hemophilus influenzae and Salmonella sp was reported. Neonatal screening programs, early educational detection programs for families, use of current method treatments and an implementation of a health insurance system for sickle cell disease will improve detection and management for these and future patients in our population. PMID:24669956

  20. Simple markers for the detection of severe immunosuppression in children with HIV infection in highly resource-scarce settings: experience from the Democratic Republic of Congo

    PubMed Central

    Tshibassu, Pierre M.; Kayembe, Patrick K.; Kitetele, Faustin; Edidi, Samuel; Ekila, Mathilde B.; Wumba, Roger; Lepira, François B.; N. Aloni, Michel

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The decision to initiate the antiretroviral therapy in HIV-infected children living in poor countries is compromised by lack of resources. The objective of this study is to identify simple clinical and biological markers other than CD4+ count and viral load measurement that could help the decision to introduce antiretroviral treatment and to monitor patients. Methods A cross sectional study was conducted between January and March 2005 in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo. Results Eighty-four children infected with HIV were recruited. In this cohort, the lymphocytes (P = 0.001) and CD4 (P = 0.0001) were significantly lower in children with immunological stage 3 and viral load (P = 0.027) was significantly higher in children at the same immunological stage. Reticulocytes (r = +0.440), white blood cells count (r = +0.560), total lymphocytes (r = +0.675) and albumin (r = +0.381) showed positive significant correlations with CD4. Haemoglobin (r = − 0.372), Haematocrit (r = − 0.248), red blood cells (r = − 0.278) and CD4 (r = − 0.285) showed negative significant correlations with viral load. Neutropaenia (P = 0.02), enlarged nodes (P = 0.005) and oral candidiasis (P = 0.04) were associated with viral load >10 000 copies/ml. Oral candidiasis (P = 0.02) was associated with CD4 level < 15%. Conclusion Oral candidiasis, enlarged nodes, total lymphocytes count, neutropaenia and albumin predict severe immunodepression. These clinical and biological markers may guide the clinician in making the decision to initiate antiretroviral therapy in highly resource-scarce settings. PMID:26182826

  1. Perceptions of Health, Health Care and Community-Oriented Health Interventions in Poor Urban Communities of Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo

    PubMed Central

    Maketa, Vivi; Vuna, Mimy; Baloji, Sylvain; Lubanza, Symphorien; Hendrickx, David; Inocêncio da Luz, Raquel Andrea; Boelaert, Marleen; Lutumba, Pascal

    2013-01-01

    In Democratic Republic of Congo access to health care is limited because of many geographical and financial barriers, while quality of care is often low. Global health donors assist the country with a number of community-oriented interventions such as free distribution of bednets, antihelminthic drugs, vitamin A supplementation and vaccination campaigns, but uptake of these interventions is not always optimal. The aim of this study was to explore the perceptions of poor urban communities of the capital Kinshasa with regard to health issues in general as well as their experiences and expectations concerning facility-based health services and community-oriented health interventions. Applying an approach rooted in the grounded theory framework, focus group discussions were conducted in eight neighborhoods of poor urban areas in the city of Kinshasa in July 2011. Study participants were easily able to evoke the city’s major health problems, with the notable exceptions of malnutrition and HIV/AIDS. They perceive the high out-of-pocket cost of health services as the major obstacle when seeking access to quality care. Knowledge of ongoing community-oriented health interventions seems good. Still, while the study participants agree that those interventions are beneficial; their acceptability seems to be problematic. This is chiefly put down to a lack of information and government communication about the programs and their interventions. Furthermore, the study participants referred to rumors and the deterring effect of stories about alleged harmful consequences of those interventions. Along with improving the provision and quality of general health care, the government and international actors must improve their efforts in informing the communities about disease control programs, their rationale and benefit/risk ratio. Directly engaging community members in a dialogue might be beneficial in terms of improving acceptability and overall access to health services and

  2. Randomized comparison of the efficacies and tolerabilities of three artemisinin-based combination treatments for children with acute Plasmodium falciparum malaria in the Democratic Republic of the Congo.

    PubMed

    Onyamboko, M A; Fanello, C I; Wongsaen, K; Tarning, J; Cheah, P Y; Tshefu, K A; Dondorp, A M; Nosten, F; White, N J; Day, N P J

    2014-09-01

    An open-label, randomized controlled trial was carried out in 2011-2012 in the Democratic Republic of the Congo to test the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of the artemisinin-based combination treatments dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine, amodiaquine-artesunate, and artemether-lumefantrine. Six hundred eighty-four children aged 3 to 59 months with uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria were randomly allocated to each study arm. Children were hospitalized for 3 days, given supervised treatment, and followed up weekly for 42 days. All regimens were well tolerated and rapidly effective. The median parasitemia clearance half-life was 2.2 h, and half-lives were similar between arms (P=0.19). The PCR-uncorrected cure rates by day 42 were 73.0% for amodiaquine-artesunate, 70.2% for artemether-lumefantrine, and 86.3% for dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine (P=0.001). Early treatment failure occurred in three patients (0.5%), one in each arm. The PCR-corrected cure rates were 93.4% for amodiaquine-artesunate, 92.7% for artemether-lumefantrine, and 94.3% for dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine (P=0.78). The last provided a longer posttreatment prophylactic effect than did the other two treatments. The day 7 plasma concentration of piperaquine was below 30 ng/ml in 47% of the children treated with dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine, and the day 7 lumefantrine concentration was below 280 ng/ml in 37.0% of children who received artemether-lumefantrine. Thus, although cure rates were all satisfactory, they could be improved by increasing the dose. (This study has been registered with the International Standard Randomized Controlled Trial Number Register [www.isrctn.org] under registration no. ISRCTN20984426.).

  3. Vertical Distribution of Ammonia-Oxidizing Crenarchaeota and Methanogens in the Epipelagic Waters of Lake Kivu (Rwanda-Democratic Republic of the Congo)▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Llirós, Marc; Gich, Frederic; Plasencia, Anna; Auguet, Jean-Christophe; Darchambeau, François; Casamayor, Emilio O.; Descy, Jean-Pierre; Borrego, Carles

    2010-01-01

    Four stratified basins in Lake Kivu (Rwanda-Democratic Republic of the Congo) were sampled in March 2007 to investigate the abundance, distribution, and potential biogeochemical role of planktonic archaea. We used fluorescence in situ hybridization with catalyzed-reported deposition microscopic counts (CARD-FISH), denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) fingerprinting, and quantitative PCR (qPCR) of signature genes for ammonia-oxidizing archaea (16S rRNA for marine Crenarchaeota group 1.1a [MCG1] and ammonia monooxygenase subunit A [amoA]). Abundance of archaea ranged from 1 to 4.5% of total DAPI (4′,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole) counts with maximal concentrations at the oxic-anoxic transition zone (∼50-m depth). Phylogenetic analysis of the archaeal planktonic community revealed a higher level of richness of crenarchaeal 16S rRNA gene sequences (21 of the 28 operational taxonomic units [OTUs] identified [75%]) over euryarchaeotal ones (7 OTUs). Sequences affiliated with the kingdom Euryarchaeota were mainly recovered from the anoxic water compartment and mostly grouped into methanogenic lineages (Methanosarcinales and Methanocellales). In turn, crenarchaeal phylotypes were recovered throughout the sampled epipelagic waters (0- to 100-m depth), with clear phylogenetic segregation along the transition from oxic to anoxic water masses. Thus, whereas in the anoxic hypolimnion crenarchaeotal OTUs were mainly assigned to the miscellaneous crenarchaeotic group, the OTUs from the oxic-anoxic transition and above belonged to Crenarchaeota groups 1.1a and 1.1b, two lineages containing most of the ammonia-oxidizing representatives known so far. The concomitant vertical distribution of both nitrite and nitrate maxima and the copy numbers of both MCG1 16S rRNA and amoA genes suggest the potential implication of Crenarchaeota in nitrification processes occurring in the epilimnetic waters of the lake. PMID:20802065

  4. Alteration and ore distribution in the Proterozoic Mines Series, Tenke-Fungurume Cu-Co district, Democratic Republic of Congo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fay, I.; Barton, M. D.

    2012-06-01

    Two sediment-hosted stratiform Cu-Co deposits in the Tenke-Fungurume district of the Central African Copperbelt were examined to evaluate the alteration history of the ore-hosting Mines Series and its implications for ore distribution and processing. Core logging and petrography, focused on lithology and timing relationships, outlined a complex alteration sequence whose earliest features include formation of anhydrite nodules and laths, followed by precipitation of dolomite. Later alteration episodes include at least two silica introductions, accompanied by or alternating with two dolomite introductions into the existing gangue assemblages. One introduction of Cu-Co sulfides accompanied the last episode of dolomite alteration, overprinting an earlier generation of ore whose gangue association was unidentifiable. Sulfides and some carbonates were subsequently modified by supergene oxidation, transport, and reprecipitation to 100-200 m depth. Present-day ore distribution resulted from these successive processes. Ore is concentrated in two shale-dominated units on either side of a cavernous silicified dolomite, which is interpreted as the main conduit for the mineralizing fluids. Sulfide ores precipitated at the redox or sulfidation contacts between this dolomite and the shales. Later, supergene fluids dissolved and moved some of the metals, redepositing them as oxides and carbonates. Solubility differences between Cu and Co in supergene conditions caused them to precipitate separately. Thus, modern ore distribution at Tenke-Fungurume results both from original hypogene lithology- and contact-related precipitation and from supergene oxidation, transport, and Cu-Co decoupling. The supergene fluid flow also redistributed gangue minerals such as dolomite, which has an economically important influence on the processing costs of supergene ores.

  5. Geological setting and timing of the cassiterite vein type mineralization of the Kalima area (Maniema, Democratic Republic of Congo)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dewaele, S.; Muchez, Ph; Burgess, R.; Boyce, A.

    2015-12-01

    The Central African Mesoproterozoic Karagwe-Ankole belt in the Great Lakes area (DRCongo, Rwanda, Burundi, Uganda and Tanzania) forms a metallogenic province that hosts a variety of granite-related mineralization, which contains cassiterite, columbite-tantalite, wolframite/ferberite, spodumene and beryl. The Kalima area in the Maniema province of the DRCongo forms one of the most important areas for cassiterite mineralization in the eastern part of the DRCongo, even after many decades of exploitation. The mineralization dominantly consists of quartz veins that are hosted in Mesoproterozoic metasediments at the contact with granitic rocks of the Kalima granite (Avuanga and Yubuli) or directly crosscutting these granitic rocks (Atondo). Only limited - and mainly unmineralized pegmatites - have been described in the Lutshurukuru area. Mineralized quartz veins - and some granite bodies - intruded following the regional tectonic foliation or existing fracture zones, confirming the late-to post-tectonic origin of the fertile granite system. The emplacement of the quartz veins resulted in an alteration of the metasedimentary and granitic host-rocks, mainly resulting in muscovitization, tourmalinization and silicification. Cassiterite itself formed relatively late during vein formation and is associated with muscovite in fractures in or along the margins of the quartz veins. 40Ar-39Ar age dating of muscovite of an unmineralized pegmatite from the Lutshurukuru area gave an excellent plateau age of 1024 ± 5.5 Ma, while the muscovite associated with mineralization gave plateau ages of 986 ± 5.3 Ma for the Atondo deposit and 992.4 ± 5.4 Ma for the Yubuli deposit. The rather large spread in ages between the supposed parental granite/pegmatite and quartz veins is interpreted to reflect different magmatic events in the evolution of a composite granite system, starting at ∼1020 Ma and ending with mineralized quartz vein formation at ∼990 Ma. The latter age corresponds with

  6. Climate Controls on Last Glacial Maximum to Early Holocene Glacier Extents in the Rwenzori Mountains, Uganda-Democratic Republic of Congo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, M. S.; Kelly, M. A.; Russell, J. M.; Baber, M.; Loomis, S. E.

    2014-12-01

    The climate controls on past and present tropical glacier fluctuations are unclear. Here we present a chronology of past glacial extents in the Rwenzori Mountains (~1ºN, 30ºE), on the border of Uganda and the Democratic Republic of Congo, and compare this with local and regional paleoclimate records to infer the climate controls on glaciation. The Rwenzori Mountains host the most extensive glacial system in Africa and are composed of quartz-rich bedrock lithologies, enabling 10Be dating. Our dataset includes thirty 10Be ages of boulders on moraines estimated to have been deposited between the end of the last glacial period and early Holocene time. In the Mubuku Valley, eight 10Be ages of large (~50-150 m relief) lateral moraines that extend down to ~2000 m asl indicate that deposition occurred at ~23.4 ka (n=4) and ~20.1 ka (n=4), contemporaneously with the global Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). Local and regional paleoclimate records document dry, cool conditions in East Africa during this time. Therefore, we suggest that cooler temperatures were a primary influence on the LGM glacial extents. Upvalley from these samples, six 10Be ages of boulders on moraines (between 3450 and 3720 m asl) document stillstands or readvances of glacier ice at ~14.3 ka (n=2), ~13.2 ka (n=2), and ~11.1 ka (n=2). In the nearby Nyagumasani Valley sixteen 10Be ages of boulders on moraines at similar elevations (3870-4020 m asl) indicate stillstands or readvances at ~11.5 ka (n=4), ~10.6 ka (n=4), and ~10.5 ka (n=4). Local and regional paleoclimate records indicate dry conditions during Younger Dryas time, wet conditions during early Holocene time, and no significant late-glacial temperature reversal. Thus, the relationship between glacier advance and climate conditions during late-glacial time remains enigmatic. We continue to develop the moraine chronology in order to improve our interpretations of climate controls on glacier fluctuations during late-glacial to early Holocene time.

  7. Melarsoprol Sensitivity Profile of Trypanosoma brucei gambiense Isolates from Cured and Relapsed Sleeping Sickness Patients from the Democratic Republic of the Congo

    PubMed Central

    Pyana Pati, Patient; Van Reet, Nick; Mumba Ngoyi, Dieudonné; Ngay Lukusa, Ipos; Karhemere Bin Shamamba, Stomy; Büscher, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    Background Sleeping sickness caused by Trypanosoma brucei (T.b.) gambiense constitutes a serious health problem in sub-Sahara Africa. In some foci, alarmingly high relapse rates were observed in patients treated with melarsoprol, which used to be the first line treatment for patients in the neurological disease stage. Particularly problematic was the situation in Mbuji-Mayi, East Kasai Province in the Democratic Republic of the Congo with a 57% relapse rate compared to a 5% relapse rate in Masi-Manimba, Bandundu Province. The present study aimed at investigating the mechanisms underlying the high relapse rate in Mbuji-Mayi using an extended collection of recently isolated T.b. gambiense strains from Mbuji-Mayi and from Masi-Manimba. Methodology/Principal Findings Forty five T.b. gambiense strains were used. Forty one were isolated from patients that were cured or relapsed after melarsoprol treatment in Mbuji-Mayi. In vivo drug sensitivity tests provide evidence of reduced melarsoprol sensitivity in these strains. This reduced melarsoprol sensitivity was not attributable to mutations in TbAT1. However, in all these strains, irrespective of the patient treatment outcome, the two aquaglyceroporin (AQP) 2 and 3 genes are replaced by chimeric AQP2/3 genes that may be associated with resistance to pentamidine and melarsoprol. The 4 T.b. gambiense strains isolated in Masi-Manimba contain both wild-type AQP2 and a different chimeric AQP2/3. These findings suggest that the reduced in vivo melarsoprol sensitivity of the Mbuji-Mayi strains and the high relapse rates in that sleeping sickness focus are caused by mutations in the AQP2/AQP3 locus and not by mutations in TbAT1. Conclusions/Significance We conclude that mutations in the TbAQP2/3 locus of the local T.b. gambiense strains may explain the high melarsoprol relapse rates in the Mbuji-Mayi focus but other factors must also be involved in the treatment outcome of individual patients. PMID:25275572

  8. Field Assessment of a Novel Household-Based Water Filtration Device: A Randomised, Placebo-Controlled Trial in the Democratic Republic of Congo

    PubMed Central

    Boisson, Sophie; Kiyombo, Mbela; Sthreshley, Larry; Tumba, Saturnin; Makambo, Jacques; Clasen, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Background Household water treatment can improve the microbiological quality of drinking water and may prevent diarrheal diseases. However, current methods of treating water at home have certain shortcomings, and there is evidence of bias in the reported health impact of the intervention in open trial designs. Methods and Findings We undertook a randomised, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial among 240 households (1,144 persons) in rural Democratic Republic of Congo to assess the field performance, use and effectiveness of a novel filtration device in preventing diarrhea. Households were followed up monthly for 12 months. Filters and placebos were monitored for longevity and for microbiological performance by comparing thermotolerant coliform (TTC) levels in influent and effluent water samples. Mean longitudinal prevalence of diarrhea was estimated among participants of all ages. Compliance was assessed through self-reported use and presence of water in the top vessel of the device at the time of visit. Over the 12-month follow-up period, data were collected for 11,236 person-weeks of observation (81.8% total possible). After adjusting for clustering within the household, the longitudinal prevalence ratio of diarrhoea was 0.85 (95% confidence interval: 0.61–1.20). The filters achieved a 2.98 log reduction in TTC levels while, for reasons that are unclear, the placebos achieved a 1.05 log reduction (p<0.0001). After 8 months, 68% of intervention households met the study's definition of current users, though most (73% of adults and 95% of children) also reported drinking untreated water the previous day. The filter maintained a constant flow rate over time, though 12.4% of filters were damaged during the course of the study. Conclusions While the filter was effective in improving water quality, our results provide little evidence that it was protective against diarrhea. The moderate reduction observed nevertheless supports the need for larger studies that

  9. Child mortality in the Democratic Republic of Congo: cross-sectional evidence of the effect of geographic location and prolonged conflict from a national household survey

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The child mortality rate is a good indicator of development. High levels of infectious diseases and high child mortality make the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) one of the most challenging environments for health development in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). Recent conflicts in the eastern part of the country and bad governance have compounded the problem. This study aimed to examine province-level geographic variation in under-five mortality (U5M), accounting for individual- and household-level risk factors including environmental factors such as conflict. Methods Our analysis used the nationally representative cross-sectional household sample of 8,992 children under five in the 2007 DRC Demographic and Health Survey. In the survey year, 1,005 deaths among this group were observed. Information on U5M was aggregated to the 11 provinces, and a Bayesian geo-additive discrete-time survival mixed model was used to map the geographic distribution of under-five mortality rates (U5MRs) at the province level, accounting for observable and unobservable risk factors. Results The overall U5MR was 159 per 1,000 live births. Significant associations with risk of U5M were found for < 24 month birth interval [posterior odds ratio and 95% credible region: 1.14 (1.04, 1.26)], home birth [1.13 (1.01, 1.27)] and living with a single mother [1.16 (1.03, 1.33)]. Striking variation was also noted in the risk of U5M by province of residence, with the highest risk in Kasaï-Oriental, a non-conflict area of the DRC, and the lowest in the conflict area of North Kivu. Conclusion This study reveals clear geographic patterns in rates of U5M in the DRC and shows the potential role of individual child, household and environmental factors, which are unexplained by the ongoing conflict. The displacement of mothers to safer areas may explain the lower U5MR observed at the epicentre of the conflict in North Kivu, compared with rates in conflict-free areas. Overall, the U5M maps point

  10. Malaria, Schistosomiasis and Soil Transmitted Helminth Burden and Their Correlation with Anemia in Children Attending Primary Schools in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo

    PubMed Central

    Matangila, Junior R.; Doua, Joachim Yorokpa; Linsuke, Sylvie; Madinga, Joule; Inocêncio da Luz, Raquel; Van Geertruyden, Jean-Pierre; Lutumba, Pascal

    2014-01-01

    Background Anaemia reduces cognitive potential in school children, retards their growth and predisposes them to other diseases. As there is a paucity of data on the current burden of P. falciparum, S. mansoni and soil transmitted helminths (STH) infections and their correlation with schoolchildren’s anemia in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), we collect these data. Methods This study reports baseline data collected from a randomized controlled trial investigating the impact of IPT with SP and SP-PQ on anemia and malaria morbidity in Congolese schoolchildren (Trial registration: NCT01722539; PACTR201211000449323). S. mansoni and STH infections were assessed using kato-katz technique. Malaria infection and hemoglobin concentration were assessed using Blood smear and Hemocontrol device, respectively. Results A total of 616 primary schoolchildren from 4 to 13 years old were enrolled in the study. The prevalence of Plasmodium spp. infection was 18.5% (95%CI:15.6–21.9). Amongst those infected, 24 (21%), 40 (35.1%), 40 (35.1%), 10 (8.8%), had light, moderate, heavy, very high malaria parasite density, respectively. Above 9 years of age (p = 0.02), male and history of fever (p = 0.04) were both associated with malaria infection. The overall prevalence of S. mansoni infection was 6.4% (95%CI:4.4–9.1). Girls were associated with S. mansoni infection (p = 0.04). T. trichiura was the most prevalent STH infection (26.3%), followed by A. lumbricoides (20.1%). Co-infection with malaria-S. mansoni and malaria-STH was, respectively, 1.5% (CI95%:0.7–3.3) and 6.4% (CI95% 4.4–9.1). The prevalence of anemia was found to be 41.6% (95%CI:37.7–45.6) and anemia was strongly related with Plasmodium ssp infection (aOR:4.1; CI95%:2.6–6.5;p<0.001) and S. mansoni infection (aOR:3.3;CI95%:1.4–7.8;p<0.01). Conclusion Malaria and S. mansoni infection were strongly associated with high prevalence of anemia in schoolchildren. Therefore, specific school

  11. Elevated blood lead levels and sources of exposure in the population of Kinshasa, the capital of the Democratic Republic of Congo.

    PubMed

    Tuakuila, Joel; Lison, Dominique; Mbuyi, Francois; Haufroid, Vincent; Hoet, Perrine

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine blood lead levels (BLLs) and the possible sources of exposure in the population of Kinshasa, the capital of the Democratic Republic of Congo. A cross-sectional survey was carried out from January to May 2008 in a representative sample of the Kinshasan population. BLL was measured in 275 individuals (53.4% women) aged 1-70 years in the urban area of Kinshasa and from 60 additional subjects in the rural area. Pb was also determined in environmental specimens (air and soil, indoor and outdoor). BLL in the study population ranged from 2.9 to 49.3 μg/dl (median, 9.9 μg/dl). The median BLL among children aged <6 years was 11.5 μg/dl (range: 3.0-37.8 μg/dl). Of these children, 71% had elevated BLL (≥10 μg/dl) and 22% had BLL ≥20 μg/dl. The proportion of elevated BLL (≥10 μg/dl) was higher for children aged <3 years than for children aged 3 to 5 years (97% vs 56%). A higher prevalence of elevated BLL was observed in urban compared with rural children (71% vs 20%). Significantly higher BLLs were also found in children whose mother consumed fired clay during pregnancy. Residential informal activities in the recycling of car batteries also contributed to elevated BLL in children. The elevated background of Pb exposure in the Kinshasan population indicates a public health issue that requires corrective actions. Pb-contaminated dust and air in children's home is an issue of public health concern. The use of leaded gasoline and the activities of car battery recycling in certain residences appear to constitute the main sources of exposure in the city of Kinshasa. The traditional use of fired clay for the treatment of gastritis by pregnant women is another significant contributor for elevated BLL in children. PMID:22617721

  12. Uncomplicated Clinical Malaria Features, the Efficacy of Artesunate-Amodiaquine and Their Relation with Multiplicity of Infection in the Democratic Republic of Congo

    PubMed Central

    Muhindo Mavoko, Hypolite; Kalabuanga, Marion; Delgado-Ratto, Christopher; Maketa, Vivi; Mukele, Rodin; Fungula, Blaise; Inocêncio da Luz, Raquel; Rosanas-Urgell, Anna; Lutumba, Pascal; Van geertruyden, Jean-Pierre

    2016-01-01

    Background In the Democratic Republic of Congo, artesunate-amodiaquine (ASAQ) is the first-line medication recommended for uncomplicated malaria treatment. We conducted a study in Kinshasa to describe the clinical features of the disease and assess the efficacy of ASAQ and its impact on the multiplicity of infection in children with uncomplicated malaria. Methods Children aged 12 to 59 months with uncomplicated P. falciparum malaria were treated with ASAQ and followed up passively for 42 days. To distinguish new infections from recrudescent parasites, samples were genotyped using a stepwise strategy with three molecular markers (GLURP, MSP2 and MSP1). We then assessed PCR-corrected and -uncorrected day-42 cure rates and multiplicity of infection (MOI). Results In total, 2,796 patients were screened and 865 enrolled in the study. Clinical features were characterized by history of fever (100%), coryza (59.9%) and weakness (59.4%). The crude and PCR-corrected efficacies of ASAQ were 55.3% (95%CI: 51.8–58.8) and 92.8% (95%CI: 91.0–94.6) respectively, as 83.6% (95%CI: 79.1–87.2) of the recurrences were new infections. Compared to monoclonal infections, polyclonal infections were more frequent at enrollment (88.1%) and in recurrences (80.1%; p = 0.005; OR: 1.8, 95%CI: 1.20–2.8). The median MOI at enrollment (MOI = 3.7; IQR: 0.7–6.7) decreased to 3 (IQR: 1–5) in the recurrent samples (p<0.001). Patients infected with a single haplotype on day 0 had no recrudescence; the risk of recrudescence increased by 28% with each additional haplotype (HR: 1.3, 95%CI: 1.24–1.44). Conclusion The PCR-corrected efficacy of ASAQ at day 42 was 92.8%, but crude efficacy was relatively poor due to high reinfection rates. Treatment outcomes were positively correlated with MOI. Continued monitoring of the efficacy of ACTs—ASAQ, in this case—is paramount. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01374581 PMID:27280792

  13. Parasitic, bacterial, and viral enteric pathogens associated with diarrhea in the Central African Republic.

    PubMed Central

    Georges, M C; Wachsmuth, I K; Meunier, D M; Nebout, N; Didier, F; Siopathis, M R; Georges, A J

    1984-01-01

    A total of 1,197 diarrheic children less than 15 years old were investigated for parasitic, bacterial, and viral enteropathogens from March 1981 through February 1982 in the Central African Republic. One or more pathogens were identified from 49.4% of the patients. Rotavirus was the most frequently identified pathogen among children less than 18 months old. Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli was the second most frequently isolated pathogen (12.1%) in children less than 2 years of age. Campylobacter jejuni was also isolated frequently from diarrheic children less than 5 years of age (10.9%). Entamoeba histolytica was identified in very young children and was found to be the most frequent enteropathogen associated with diarrhea in children over the age of 2 years. Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli was rarely isolated (ca. 2%). There was a peak in the incidence of rotavirus during the dry season and in the incidence of Campylobacter jejuni during the rainy season. PMID:6330161

  14. Man-fly contact in the Gambian trypanosomiasis focus of Nola-Bilolo (Central African Republic).

    PubMed

    Gouteux, J P; Kounda Gboumbi, J C; Noutoua, L; D'Amico, F; Bailly, C; Roungou, J B

    1993-09-01

    A study using bipyramid tetse fly traps in the Nola-Bilolo sleeping sickness focus (Central African Republic) reveals ecological and behavioural differences between two vectors, Glossina palpalis palpalis and G. fuscipes fuscipes. The latter species inhabits mainly open water sites and surrounding forest, whereas G. p. palpalis occurs mainly in coffe plantations near villages. Consequently, the man-fly contact differs considerably according to the species. The intensity of trypanosomiasis transmission, estimated by the probable distribution of cases, showed significant positive correlation with the density of the flies. Analysis of the fly blood meals in two villages show that, unlike G. g. palpalis, G. f. fuscipes feeds on men more than on pigs. Trypanosoma vivax infection was observed only in G. fuscipes fuscipes. The differences in occupation of the environment between the two vectors must be taken in account in trapping programmes which may modify this distribution. PMID:8256100

  15. Subgroups, serotypes, and electrophoretypes of rotavirus isolated from children in Bangui, Central African Republic.

    PubMed

    Georges-Courbot, M C; Beraud, A M; Beards, G M; Campbell, A D; Gonzalez, J P; Georges, A J; Flewett, T H

    1988-04-01

    The subgroups and serotypes of 178 strains of rotavirus isolated from diarrheic and healthy children in Bangui, Central African Republic, during a 27-month period were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The subgroup was determined for 152 of the viral strains, 18.4% being subgroup I and 81.6% being subgroup II. Of the 143 strains which could be serotyped, 71.3% were serotype 1, 15.4% were serotype 2, and 13.3% were serotype 3. Serotypes 1 and 3 were detected throughout the study, while serotype 2 was detected only during 8 months. No serotype exhibited any special epidemiological properties. The serotypes were found to consist of three different electrophoretypes, two long ones (A and B) and a short one (C). All subgroup I, serotype 2 strains presented short electrophoretypes. Strains with identical long electrophoretypes A were either serotype 1 or serotype 3.

  16. Food Security Monitoring via Mobile Data Collection and Remote Sensing: Results from the Central African Republic.

    PubMed

    Enenkel, Markus; See, Linda; Karner, Mathias; Álvarez, Mònica; Rogenhofer, Edith; Baraldès-Vallverdú, Carme; Lanusse, Candela; Salse, Núria

    2015-01-01

    The Central African Republic is one of the world's most vulnerable countries, suffering from chronic poverty, violent conflicts and weak disaster resilience. In collaboration with Doctors without Borders/Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF), this study presents a novel approach to collect information about socio-economic vulnerabilities related to malnutrition, access to resources and coping capacities. The first technical test was carried out in the North of the country (sub-prefecture Kabo) in May 2015. All activities were aimed at the investigation of technical feasibility, not at operational data collection, which requires a random sampling strategy. At the core of the study is an open-source Android application named SATIDA COLLECT that facilitates rapid and simple data collection. All assessments were carried out by local MSF staff after they had been trained for one day. Once a mobile network is available, all assessments can easily be uploaded to a database for further processing and trend analysis via MSF in-house software. On one hand, regularly updated food security assessments can complement traditional large-scale surveys, whose completion can take up to eight months. Ideally, this leads to a gain in time for disaster logistics. On the other hand, recording the location of every assessment via the smart phones' GPS receiver helps to analyze and display the coupling between drought risk and impacts over many years. Although the current situation in the Central African Republic is mostly related to violent conflict it is necessary to consider information about drought risk, because climatic shocks can further disrupt the already vulnerable system. SATIDA COLLECT can easily be adapted to local conditions or other applications, such as the evaluation of vaccination campaigns. Most importantly, it facilitates the standardized collection of information without pen and paper, as well as straightforward sharing of collected data with the MSF headquarters or other

  17. Entomological profile of yellow fever epidemics in the Central African Republic, 2006–2010

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The causative agent of yellow fever is an arbovirus of the Flaviviridae family transmitted by infected Aedes mosquitoes, particularly in Africa. In the Central African Republic since 2006, cases have been notified in the provinces of Ombella-Mpoko, Ouham-Pende, Basse-Kotto, Haute-Kotto and in Bangui the capital. As the presence of a vector of yellow fever virus (YFV) represents a risk for spread of the disease, we undertook entomological investigations at these sites to identify potential vectors of YFV and their abundance. Findings Between 2006 and 2010, 5066 mosquitoes belonging to six genera and 43 species were identified. The 20 species of the Aedes genus identified included Ae. aegypti, the main vector of YFV in urban settings, and species found in tropical forests, such as Ae. africanus, Ae. simpsoni, Ae. luteocephalus, Ae. vittatus and Ae. opok. These species were not distributed uniformly in the various sites studied. Thus, the predominant Aedes species was Ae. aegypti in Bangui (90.7 %) and Basse-Kotto (42.2 %), Ae. africanus in Ombella-Mpoko (67.4 %) and Haute-Kotto (77.8 %) and Ae. vittatus in Ouham-Pende (62.2 %). Ae. albopictus was also found in Bangui. The distribution of these dominant species differed significantly according to study site (P < 0.0001). None of the pooled homogenates of Aedes mosquitoes analysed by polymerase chain reaction contained the YFV genome. Conclusion The results indicate a wide diversity of vector species for YFV in the Central African Republic. The establishment of surveillance and vector control programs should take into account the ecological specificity of each species. PMID:22897918

  18. Food Security Monitoring via Mobile Data Collection and Remote Sensing: Results from the Central African Republic

    PubMed Central

    Enenkel, Markus; See, Linda; Karner, Mathias; Álvarez, Mònica; Rogenhofer, Edith; Baraldès-Vallverdú, Carme; Lanusse, Candela; Salse, Núria

    2015-01-01

    The Central African Republic is one of the world’s most vulnerable countries, suffering from chronic poverty, violent conflicts and weak disaster resilience. In collaboration with Doctors without Borders/Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF), this study presents a novel approach to collect information about socio-economic vulnerabilities related to malnutrition, access to resources and coping capacities. The first technical test was carried out in the North of the country (sub-prefecture Kabo) in May 2015. All activities were aimed at the investigation of technical feasibility, not at operational data collection, which requires a random sampling strategy. At the core of the study is an open-source Android application named SATIDA COLLECT that facilitates rapid and simple data collection. All assessments were carried out by local MSF staff after they had been trained for one day. Once a mobile network is available, all assessments can easily be uploaded to a database for further processing and trend analysis via MSF in-house software. On one hand, regularly updated food security assessments can complement traditional large-scale surveys, whose completion can take up to eight months. Ideally, this leads to a gain in time for disaster logistics. On the other hand, recording the location of every assessment via the smart phones’ GPS receiver helps to analyze and display the coupling between drought risk and impacts over many years. Although the current situation in the Central African Republic is mostly related to violent conflict it is necessary to consider information about drought risk, because climatic shocks can further disrupt the already vulnerable system. SATIDA COLLECT can easily be adapted to local conditions or other applications, such as the evaluation of vaccination campaigns. Most importantly, it facilitates the standardized collection of information without pen and paper, as well as straightforward sharing of collected data with the MSF headquarters or

  19. Rift Valley Fever Virus Circulating among Ruminants, Mosquitoes and Humans in the Central African Republic

    PubMed Central

    Nakouné, Emmanuel; Kamgang, Basile; Berthet, Nicolas; Manirakiza, Alexandre; Kazanji, Mirdad

    2016-01-01

    Background Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) causes a viral zoonosis, with discontinuous epizootics and sporadic epidemics, essentially in East Africa. Infection with this virus causes severe illness and abortion in sheep, goats, and cattle as well as other domestic animals. Humans can also be exposed through close contact with infectious tissues or by bites from infected mosquitoes, primarily of the Aedes and Culex genuses. Although the cycle of RVFV infection in savannah regions is well documented, its distribution in forest areas in central Africa has been poorly investigated. Methodology/Principal Findings To evaluate current circulation of RVFV among livestock and humans living in the Central African Republic (CAR), blood samples were collected from sheep, cattle, and goats and from people at risk, such as stock breeders and workers in slaughterhouses and livestock markets. The samples were tested for anti-RVFV immunoglobulin M (IgM) and immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies. We also sequenced the complete genomes of two local strains, one isolated in 1969 from mosquitoes and one isolated in 1985 from humans living in forested areas. The 1271 animals sampled comprised 727 cattle, 325 sheep, and 219 goats at three sites. The overall seroprevalence of anti-RVFV IgM antibodies was 1.9% and that of IgG antibodies was 8.6%. IgM antibodies were found only during the rainy season, but the frequency of IgG antibodies did not differ significantly by season. No evidence of recent RVFV infection was found in 335 people considered at risk; however, 16.7% had evidence of past infection. Comparison of the nucleotide sequences of the strains isolated in the CAR with those isolated in other African countries showed that they belonged to the East/Central African cluster. Conclusion and significance This study confirms current circulation of RVFV in CAR. Further studies are needed to determine the potential vectors involved and the virus reservoirs. PMID:27760144

  20. Petroleum geology of rift basins in Niger, Chad, and the Central African Republic

    SciTech Connect

    Genik, G.J. )

    1991-03-01

    Ten Cretaceous-Tertiary rift basins in Niger, Chad, and the Central African Republic (C.A.R.) are defined and the petroleum geology is overviewed. This paper is based on proprietary exploration results derived from more than 1 million km{sup 2} of aeromagnetics, 10,520 line km of gravity profiles, 49,721 km of reflection seismic, and 50 exploration wells. The data were acquired by Exxon with partners Shell, Chevron, Elf, Conoco, Texaco, and Amax Oil Gas, Inc., during the years 1969-1989. In Niger and Chad, the West African rift subsystem includes the extensional basins of Termit, Tefidet, Tenere, Grein/Kafra, N'Djel Edji, and Bongor. These rift basins contain up to 15,000 m of Cretaceous to Cenozoic continental and marine clastics. Key exploration elements are Tertiary and Cretaceous fluvial to tidal sandstone reservoirs, Tertiary and Cretaceous marine to lacustrine shale source rocks, and seals, with traps in normal fault blocks and anticlinal closures. There are six oil discoveries in the Termit basin. In Chad and the C.A.R., the Central African rift subsystem incorporates the extensional Doba and transtensional Doseo and Salamat basins flanking the Borogop dextral wrench fault. These basins contain up to 7,500 m of chiefly Cretaceous continental clastics. Key exploration elements are Lower and Upper Cretaceous fluvial to lacustrine sandstone reservoirs, Lower Cretaceous lacustrine shale source rocks, lacustrine to flood plain shale and mudstone seals, with traps in mainly faulted anticlinal closures. There are six oil discoveries in the Doba basin and three in the Doseo basin. The studied petroleum geology in the rifts of Niger, Chad, and the C.A.R. indicates that potentially commercial volumes of oil remain to be discovered.

  1. Petroleum geology of rift basins in Niger, Chad, and Central African Republic

    SciTech Connect

    Genik, G.J. )

    1991-08-01

    Ten Cretaceous-Tertiary rift basins in Niger, Chad and the Central African Republic (C.A.R.) are defined and the petroleum geology is overviewed based on proprietary exploration results derived from more than one million km{sup 2} of aeromagnetics, 10,520 line-km of gravity profiles, 49,721 km of reflection seismic, and 50 exploration wells. The data were acquired by Exxon with partners Shell, Chevron, Elf, Conoco, Texaco, and Amax Oil Gas During 1969-1989. In Niger and Chad, the West African rift subsystem includes the extensional basins of Termit, Tefidet, Tenere, Grein/Kafra, N'Djel Edji, and Bongor. These rift basins contain up to 15,000 m of Cretaceous to Cenozoic continental and marine clastics. Key exploration elements are Tertiary and Cretaceous fluvial to tidal sandstone reservoirs, Tertiary and Cretaceous marine to lacustrine shale source rocks and seals, with traps in normal fault blocks and anticlinal closures. There have been six oil discoveries in the Termit basin. In C.A.R., the Central African rift subsystem incorporates the extensional Doba and transtensional Doseo and Salamat basins flanking the Borogop dextral wrench fault. These basins contain up to 7,500 m of chiefly Cretaceous continental clastics. key exploration elements are Lower and Upper Cretaceous fluvial to lacustrine sandstone reservoirs, Lower Cretaceous lacustrine shale source rocks, lacustrine to flood-plain shale and mudstone seals, with traps in mainly faulted anticlinal closures. There have been six oil discoveries in the Doba basin and three in the Doseo basin. The studied petroleum geology in the rifts of Niger, Chad, and C.A.R. indicates that potentially commercial volumes of oil remain to be discovered.

  2. Will Passive Protection Save Congo Forests?

    PubMed

    Galford, Gillian L; Soares-Filho, Britaldo S; Sonter, Laura J; Laporte, Nadine

    2015-01-01

    Central Africa's tropical forests are among the world's largest carbon reserves. Historically, they have experienced low rates of deforestation. Pressures to clear land are increasing due to development of infrastructure and livelihoods, foreign investment in agriculture, and shifting land use management, particularly in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). The DRC contains the greatest area of intact African forests. These store approximately 22 billion tons of carbon in aboveground live biomass, yet only 10% are protected. Can the status quo of passive protection - forest management that is low or nonexistent - ensure the preservation of this forest and its carbon? We have developed the SimCongo model to simulate changes in land cover and land use based on theorized policy scenarios from 2010 to 2050. Three scenarios were examined: the first (Historical Trends) assumes passive forest protection; the next (Conservation) posits active protection of forests and activation of the national REDD+ action plan, and the last (Agricultural Development) assumes increased agricultural activities in forested land with concomitant increased deforestation. SimCongo is a cellular automata model based on Bayesian statistical methods tailored for the DRC, built with the Dinamica-EGO platform. The model is parameterized and validated with deforestation observations from the past and runs the scenarios from 2010 through 2050 with a yearly time step. We estimate the Historical Trends trajectory will result in average emissions of 139 million t CO2 year-1 by the 2040s, a 15% increase over current emissions. The Conservation scenario would result in 58% less clearing than Historical Trends and would conserve carbon-dense forest and woodland savanna areas. The Agricultural Development scenario leads to emissions of 212 million t CO2 year-1 by the 2040s. These scenarios are heuristic examples of policy's influence on forest conservation and carbon storage. Our results suggest that 1

  3. Will Passive Protection Save Congo Forests?

    PubMed

    Galford, Gillian L; Soares-Filho, Britaldo S; Sonter, Laura J; Laporte, Nadine

    2015-01-01

    Central Africa's tropical forests are among the world's largest carbon reserves. Historically, they have experienced low rates of deforestation. Pressures to clear land are increasing due to development of infrastructure and livelihoods, foreign investment in agriculture, and shifting land use management, particularly in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). The DRC contains the greatest area of intact African forests. These store approximately 22 billion tons of carbon in aboveground live biomass, yet only 10% are protected. Can the status quo of passive protection - forest management that is low or nonexistent - ensure the preservation of this forest and its carbon? We have developed the SimCongo model to simulate changes in land cover and land use based on theorized policy scenarios from 2010 to 2050. Three scenarios were examined: the first (Historical Trends) assumes passive forest protection; the next (Conservation) posits active protection of forests and activation of the national REDD+ action plan, and the last (Agricultural Development) assumes increased agricultural activities in forested land with concomitant increased deforestation. SimCongo is a cellular automata model based on Bayesian statistical methods tailored for the DRC, built with the Dinamica-EGO platform. The model is parameterized and validated with deforestation observations from the past and runs the scenarios from 2010 through 2050 with a yearly time step. We estimate the Historical Trends trajectory will result in average emissions of 139 million t CO2 year-1 by the 2040s, a 15% increase over current emissions. The Conservation scenario would result in 58% less clearing than Historical Trends and would conserve carbon-dense forest and woodland savanna areas. The Agricultural Development scenario leads to emissions of 212 million t CO2 year-1 by the 2040s. These scenarios are heuristic examples of policy's influence on forest conservation and carbon storage. Our results suggest that 1

  4. Will Passive Protection Save Congo Forests?

    PubMed Central

    Galford, Gillian L.; Soares-Filho, Britaldo S.; Sonter, Laura J.; Laporte, Nadine

    2015-01-01

    Central Africa’s tropical forests are among the world’s largest carbon reserves. Historically, they have experienced low rates of deforestation. Pressures to clear land are increasing due to development of infrastructure and livelihoods, foreign investment in agriculture, and shifting land use management, particularly in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). The DRC contains the greatest area of intact African forests. These store approximately 22 billion tons of carbon in aboveground live biomass, yet only 10% are protected. Can the status quo of passive protection — forest management that is low or nonexistent — ensure the preservation of this forest and its carbon? We have developed the SimCongo model to simulate changes in land cover and land use based on theorized policy scenarios from 2010 to 2050. Three scenarios were examined: the first (Historical Trends) assumes passive forest protection; the next (Conservation) posits active protection of forests and activation of the national REDD+ action plan, and the last (Agricultural Development) assumes increased agricultural activities in forested land with concomitant increased deforestation. SimCongo is a cellular automata model based on Bayesian statistical methods tailored for the DRC, built with the Dinamica-EGO platform. The model is parameterized and validated with deforestation observations from the past and runs the scenarios from 2010 through 2050 with a yearly time step. We estimate the Historical Trends trajectory will result in average emissions of 139 million t CO2 year-1 by the 2040s, a 15% increase over current emissions. The Conservation scenario would result in 58% less clearing than Historical Trends and would conserve carbon-dense forest and woodland savanna areas. The Agricultural Development scenario leads to emissions of 212 million t CO2 year-1 by the 2040s. These scenarios are heuristic examples of policy’s influence on forest conservation and carbon storage. Our results

  5. Determinants of maternal health services utilization in urban settings of the Democratic Republic of Congo – A Case study of Lubumbashi City

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The use of maternal health services, known as an indirect indicator of perinatal death, is still unknown in Lubumbashi. The present study was therefore undertaken in order to determine the factors that influence the use of mother and child healthcare services in Lubumbashi, Democratic Republic of the Congo. Methods This was transversal study of women residing in Lubumbashi who had delivered between January and December 2009. In total, 1762 women were sampled from households using indicator cluster surveys in all health zones. Antenatal consultations (ANC), delivery assisted by qualified healthcare personnel (and delivery in a healthcare facility) as well as postnatal consultations (PNC) were dependent variables of study. The factors determining non-use of maternal healthcare services were researched via logistic regression with a 5% materiality threshold. Results The use of maternal healthcare services was variable; 92.6% of women had attended ANC at least once, 93.8% of women had delivered at a healthcare facility, 97.2% had delivered in the presence of qualified healthcare personnel, while the rate of caesarean section was 4.5%. Only 34.6% postnatal women had attended PNC by 42 days after delivery. During these ANC visits, only 60.6% received at least one dose of vaccine, while 38.1% received Mebendazole, 35.6% iron, 32.7% at least one dose of SulfadoxinePyrimethamine, 29.2% folic acid, 15.5% screening for HIV and 12.8% an insecticide treated net. In comparison to women that had had two or three deliveries before, primiparous and grand multiparous women were twice as likely not to use ANC during their pregnancy. Women who had unplanned pregnancies were also more likely not to use ANC or PNC than those who had planned pregnancies alone or with their partner. The women who had not used ANC were also more likely not to use PNC. The women who had had a trouble-free delivery were more likely not to use PNC than those who had complications when delivering

  6. Respondent-driven sampling to assess mental health outcomes, stigma and acceptance among women raising children born from sexual violence-related pregnancies in eastern Democratic Republic of Congo

    PubMed Central

    Scott, Jennifer; Rouhani, Shada; Greiner, Ashley; Albutt, Katherine; Kuwert, Philipp; Hacker, Michele R; VanRooyen, Michael; Bartels, Susan

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Assess mental health outcomes among women raising children from sexual violence-related pregnancies (SVRPs) in eastern Democratic Republic of Congo and stigma toward and acceptance of women and their children. Design Participants were recruited using respondent-driven sampling. Setting Bukavu, Democratic Republic of Congo in 2012. Participants 757 adult women raising children from SVRPs were interviewed. A woman aged 18 and older was eligible for the study if she self-identified as a sexual violence survivor since the start of the conflict (∼1996), conceived an SVRP, delivered a liveborn child and was currently raising the child. A woman was ineligible for the study if the SVRP ended with a spontaneous abortion or fetal demise or the child was not currently living or in the care of the biological mother. Intervention Trained female Congolese interviewers verbally administered a quantitative survey after obtaining verbal informed consent. Outcome measures Symptom criteria for major depressive disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder, anxiety and suicidality were assessed, as well as stigma toward the woman and her child. Acceptance of the woman and child from the spouse, family and community were analysed. Results 48.6% met symptom criteria for major depressive disorder, 57.9% for post-traumatic stress disorder, 43.3% for anxiety and 34.2% reported suicidality. Women who reported stigma from the community (38.4%) or who reported stigma toward the child from the spouse (42.9%), family (31.8%) or community (38.1%) were significantly more likely to meet symptom criteria for most mental health disorders. Although not statistically significant, participants who reported acceptance and acceptance of their children from the spouse, family and community were less likely to meet symptom criteria. Conclusions Women raising children from SVRPs experience symptoms of mental health disorders. Programming addressing stigma and acceptance following sexual violence may

  7. Humans and Great Apes Cohabiting the Forest Ecosystem in Central African Republic Harbour the Same Hookworms

    PubMed Central

    Hasegawa, Hideo; Modrý, David; Kitagawa, Masahiro; Shutt, Kathryn A.; Todd, Angelique; Kalousová, Barbora; Profousová, Ilona; Petrželková, Klára J.

    2014-01-01

    Background Hookworms are important pathogens of humans. To date, Necator americanus is the sole, known species of the genus Necator infecting humans. In contrast, several Necator species have been described in African great apes and other primates. It has not yet been determined whether primate-originating Necator species are also parasitic in humans. Methodology/Principal Findings The infective larvae of Necator spp. were developed using modified Harada-Mori filter-paper cultures from faeces of humans and great apes inhabiting Dzanga-Sangha Protected Areas, Central African Republic. The first and second internal transcribed spacers (ITS-1 and ITS-2) of nuclear ribosomal DNA and partial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) gene of mtDNA obtained from the hookworm larvae were sequenced and compared. Three sequence types (I–III) were recognized in the ITS region, and 34 cox1 haplotypes represented three phylogenetic groups (A–C). The combinations determined were I-A, II-B, II-C, III-B and III-C. Combination I-A, corresponding to N. americanus, was demonstrated in humans and western lowland gorillas; II-B and II-C were observed in humans, western lowland gorillas and chimpanzees; III-B and III-C were found only in humans. Pairwise nucleotide difference in the cox1 haplotypes between the groups was more than 8%, while the difference within each group was less than 2.1%. Conclusions/Significance The distinctness of ITS sequence variants and high number of pairwise nucleotide differences among cox1 variants indicate the possible presence of several species of Necator in both humans and great apes. We conclude that Necator hookworms are shared by humans and great apes co-habiting the same tropical forest ecosystems. PMID:24651493

  8. Strengthening patient education for ORT services in the Central African Republic.

    PubMed

    Naimoli, J F; Endsley, S; Roungou, J B; Parker, K; Bryce, J; Doutizonga, R; Gbadjamo, M

    1996-03-01

    This paper describes the design and implementation of a health worker training program in diarrhea case management and its effect on patient education in health facilities in the Central African Republic (C.A.R.). In 1989, a facility-based assessment of health worker practices in managing diarrheal disease in children under 5 years of age documented serious deficiencies in patient education as performed by health workers. Based on these results, the Ministry of Health (MOH) designed an inservice training program that promoted education as an integral component of curative care. The training program was implemented in all five health regions of the country. An evaluation of the training's impact on the delivery of patient education indicated dramatic increases in the number of messages health workers communicated to mothers. This experience demonstrated that the patient education practices of health workers can be improved through inservice training that integrates the teaching of clinical and communication skills. Additional study in C.A.R. is needed to (1) further improve the quality of patient education for diarrhea and other childhood communicable diseases, (2) determine the impact of patient education on the care provided by mothers in the home following a clinic visit, and (3) assess how operational research can be conducted within the limitations of inservice training programs and routine clinical operations. PMID:8788345

  9. Konzo outbreak among refugees from Central African Republic in Eastern region, Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Ciglenečki, I; Eyema, R; Kabanda, C; Taafo, F; Mekaoui, H; Urbaniak, V

    2011-03-01

    Konzo is a spastic paraparesis of sudden onset, linked to the exclusive consumption of insufficiently processed bitter cassava as staple food combined with low protein intake. Around 60,000 refugees from the Central African Republic sought refuge in villages in eastern Cameroon between 2005 and 2007. Médecins Sans Frontières was providing nutritional and medical assistance in the villages affected by displacement. We describe cases of konzo seen at the mobile clinics organized in these villages. Basic information including demographic data, history and clinical presentation was recorded for each konzo patient. All patients were given nutritional supplements, and selected cases were referred for physiotherapy to a rehabilitation center. A total of 469 patients were diagnosed with konzo. The majority (80%) were refugees. Children and women of reproductive age predominated. Most of the patients developed symptoms after 2007 in a seasonal pattern with most of the cases occurring during the dry winter season. Most of the patients complained about walking difficulties and weight loss and had exaggerated lower limb reflexes and muscle wasting on observation. Eastern Cameroon is an area with konzo. More effort needs to be put into preventive and educational measures. In addition, timely balanced food rations have to be provided to refugees.

  10. Socioeconomic Differences in Dietary Patterns in an East African Country: Evidence from the Republic of Seychelles

    PubMed Central

    Mayén, Ana-Lucia; Bovet, Pascal; Marti-Soler, Helena; Viswanathan, Bharathi; Gedeon, Jude; Paccaud, Fred; Marques-Vidal, Pedro; Stringhini, Silvia

    2016-01-01

    Background In high income countries, low socioeconomic status (SES) is related to unhealthier dietary patterns, while evidence on the social patterning of diet in low and middle income countries is scarce. Objective In this study, we assess dietary patterns in the general population of a middle income country in the African region, the Republic of Seychelles, and examine their distribution according to educational level and income. Methods Data was drawn from two independent national surveys conducted in the Seychelles among adults aged 25–64 years in 2004 (n = 1236) and 2013 (n = 1240). Dietary patterns were assessed by principal component analysis (PCA). Educational level and income were used as SES indicators. Data from both surveys were combined as no interaction was found between SES and year. Results Three dietary patterns were identified: “snacks and drinks”, “fruit and vegetables” and “fish and rice”. No significant associations were found between SES and the “snacks and drinks” pattern. Low vs. high SES individuals had lower adherence to the “fruit and vegetables” pattern [prevalence ratio (95% CI) 0.71 (0.60–0.83)] but a higher adherence to the traditional “fish and rice” pattern [1.58 (1.32–1.88)]. Income modified the association between education and the “fish and rice” pattern (p = 0.02), whereby low income individuals had a higher adherence to this pattern in both educational groups. Conclusion Low SES individuals have a lower consumption of fruit and vegetables, but a higher consumption of traditional foods like fish and rice. The Seychelles may be at a degenerative diseases stage of the nutrition transition. PMID:27214139

  11. Surveillance of Canine Rabies in the Central African Republic: Impact on Human Health and Molecular Epidemiology

    PubMed Central

    Tricou, Vianney; Bouscaillou, Julie; Kamba Mebourou, Emmanuel; Koyanongo, Fidèle Dieudonné; Nakouné, Emmanuel; Kazanji, Mirdad

    2016-01-01

    Background Although rabies represents an important public health threat, it is still a neglected disease in Asia and Africa where it causes tens of thousands of deaths annually despite available human and animal vaccines. In the Central African Republic (CAR), an endemic country for rabies, this disease remains poorly investigated. Methods To evaluate the extent of the threat that rabies poses in the CAR, we analyzed data for 2012 from the National Reference Laboratory for Rabies, where laboratory confirmation was performed by immunofluorescence and PCR for both animal and human suspected cases, and data from the only anti-rabies dispensary of the country and only place where post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) is available. Both are located in Bangui, the capital of the CAR. For positive samples, a portion of the N gene was amplified and sequenced to determine the molecular epidemiology of circulating strains. Results In 2012, 966 exposed persons visited the anti-rabies dispensary and 632 received a post-exposure rabies vaccination. More than 90% of the exposed persons were from Bangui and its suburbs and almost 60% of them were under 15-years of age. No rabies-related human death was confirmed. Of the 82 samples from suspected rabid dogs tested, 69 were confirmed positive. Most of the rabid dogs were owned although unvaccinated. There was a strong spatiotemporal correlation within Bangui and within the country between reported human exposures and detection of rabid dogs (P<0.001). Phylogenetic analysis indicated that three variants belonging to Africa I and II lineages actively circulated in 2012. Conclusions These data indicate that canine rabies was endemic in the CAR in 2012 and had a detrimental impact on human health as shown by the hundreds of exposed persons who received PEP. Implementation of effective public health interventions including mass dog vaccination and improvement of the surveillance and the access to PEP are urgently needed in this country. PMID

  12. [Elimination or control of the onchocerciasis in Africa? Case of Gami village in Central African Republic].

    PubMed

    Yaya, G; Kobangué, L; Kémata, B; Gallé, D; Grésenguet, G

    2014-08-01

    The authors return the results of a transverse prospective survey whose goal was to value the impact of struggle against the onchocerciasis after 20 years of distribution of ivermectin in a village of the Central African Republic. A transverse prospective survey with a descriptive and analytic aim of a sample of 393 topics aged of more than 5 years residing in Gami Village since more of 2 years and having benefitted the ivermectine in the last distribution that took place 10 months before. The epidemiological, clinical and parasitologic data introverted have been compared to the results of the previous investigations in the village. The parameters improved distinctly during the 20 years (1990-2010) notably the microfilarian indication (88% in 1990 against 19% in 2010), the middle microfilarian density (54 against 0,7), the CMFL Indication (39 against 0,67), the Knuttgen indication moved of the trance of age of 5-9 years to the one of more than 45 years since 1998), the cystic indication (36% against 8%), the ocular lesions (31% against 4%) of which onchocercian (28% against 2%), serious ocular lesions (16% against 1,3%), rate of blindness (9% against 0,8%), rate of meadow-blindness (9% against 0,8), important loss of vision (3% against 0,0%), ocular lesions in children of 6-10 years old (6% against 0,3%). These data permit to speak of control but not of elimination of the onchocerciasis in the grouping villager of Gami because of the persistence of the microfilarian indications susceptible to maintain the transmission of where necessity to pursue the struggle. PMID:24816795

  13. [Complementary nutrition for the young child following the devaluation of the CFA franc (African Financial Community): 2 case studies in the Congo and Senegal urban environment].

    PubMed

    Delpeuch, F; Martin-Prével, Y; Fouéré, T; Traissac, P; Mbemba, F; Ly, C; Sy, A; Trèche, S; Maire, B

    1996-01-01

    Developing countries frequently see their currency depreciated to varying degrees. The consequences of such monetary disturbances on the nutrition of young children are not well known, though children are the most vulnerable in nutritional terms. One year after the 50% devaluation of the CFA Franc (communauté financière africaine, "African Financial Community"), which took place on 12 January 1994 simultaneously in fourteen countries, nine of which are on the UNDP list of least developed countries, we wanted to find out the long-term effects of the devaluation, and the strategies that families had adopted to cope with it. In Brazzaville, Congo, in December 1994, an epidemiological survey was conducted on a representative sample of 893 children between the ages of 4 and 12 months in two districts, and indicators of child nutrition were established. A comparable survey had been conducted in December 1993, before the devaluation. In Senegal, in the absence of a previous survey which could be used in comparison, a qualitative survey using RAP methodology, was conducted in January 1995 in two towns near the capital. In three districts in each of these towns, a cluster of ten plots was chosen at random and surveyed, with a combination of semi-structured individual interviews with mothers (n = 60) and group interviews with all the women together (n = 6). The information was put together with interviews of 25 local traders selling food. In the Congo, comparison of the two surveys shows that the practice of breast-feeding had hardly changed, nor had the age at which baby food was introduced (90% of children of 4-5 months take semi-solid and solid foods); on the other hand, more children are being given the ordinary family meal earlier, at 6-9 months. The proportion of baby foods based on commercially imported flour has fallen (from 32% in 1993 to 18% in 1994), and has been replaced with local products based on maize; this change is more marked among poorer families. The

  14. Group size of a permanent large group of agile mangabeys (Cercocebus agilis) at Bai Hokou, Central African Republic.

    PubMed

    Devreese, Lieven; Huynen, Marie-Claude; Stevens, Jeroen M G; Todd, Angelique

    2013-01-01

    White-eyelid mangabeys (genus Cercocebus) live in groups of highly variable size. Because of their semi-terrestrial behaviour and preference for dense forest habitats, re-liable data on group size are scarce. During a 5-month study, we collected 17 group counts on a habituated group of agile mangabeys (C. agilis) at Bai Hokou in the Central African Republic. We found a stable group size of approximately 135 individuals. This permanent large grouping pattern is known to occur among several populations of white-eyelid mangabeys and is congruent with extreme group sizes reported in mandrills at Lopé in Gabon.

  15. The Perceived Benefits of International Partnerships in Africa: A Case Study of Two Public Universities in Tanzania and the Democratic Republic of Congo

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kot, Felly Chiteng

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, international partnerships have been viewed increasingly as having the potential to help African academic institutions develop the human capacity needed to contribute to African development. Although the rationales for establishing partnerships are often clear, a question that has been largely unaddressed in empirical research is:…

  16. [Comparison of the effectiveness of artemether and quinine for treatment of severe malaria in children, Bangui, Central African Republic].

    PubMed

    Bobossi-Serengbe, G; Gody, J-C; Fioboy, R; Elowa, J-B; Manirakiza, A

    2015-03-01

    The management of severe malaria is a major challenge in the health care services in sub-Saharan Africa. This study aimed to assess the efficacy and safety of artemether and quinine in severe malaria at Complexe pédiatrique of Bangui, Central African Republic. A total of 212 children among 1125 hospital admissions (18.8%), and aged 6 to 59 months were randomly treated with artemether and quinine. Anemia (58.5%) and seizures (33.5%) were the major syndromes observed. On the third day of follow up, a regression of clinical signs and parasite clearance were observed in 98.1% of children treated with artemether and 97.1% of children treated with quinine. The death rate was 2.3% due to anemic and neurological forms. These findings show that the artemether and quinine have similar efficacy. Hence, associated with adequate intensive health care, the use of these antimalarial drugs can significantly reduce mortality from severe malaria in the Central African Republic.

  17. A Longitudinal Study on Feeding Behaviour and Activity Patterns of Released Chimpanzees in Conkouati-Douli National Park, Republic of Congo

    PubMed Central

    Renaud, Amandine; Jamart, Aliette; Goossens, Benoit; Ross, Caroline

    2013-01-01

    Simple Summary Wild chimpanzee populations are dramatically declining due to anthropogenic pressure. One way of increasing wild population numbers and/or repopulating areas where local extinction has occurred is to release captive animals. HELP Congo was the first project to successfully release wild-born orphan chimpanzees in their natural environment. We studied the behaviour of eight released chimpanzees over eight years. Over time, they modified their behaviour, suggesting long-term behavioural and ecological adaptations. This suggests that successful release programmes may reinforce existing populations of endangered species. Abstract Wild chimpanzee populations are still declining due to logging, disease transmission and hunting. The bushmeat trade frequently leads to an increase in the number of orphaned primates. HELP Congo was the first project to successfully release wild-born orphan chimpanzees into an existing chimpanzee habitat. A collection of post monitoring data over 16 years now offers the unique opportunity to investigate possible behavioural adaptations in these chimpanzees. We investigated the feeding and activity patterns in eight individuals via focal observation techniques from 1997–1999 and 2001–2005. Our results revealed a decline in the number of fruit and insect species in the diet of released chimpanzees over the years, whereas within the same period of time, the number of consumed seed species increased. Furthermore, we found a decline in time spent travelling, but an increase in time spent on social activities, such as grooming, as individuals matured. In conclusion, the observed changes in feeding and activity patterns seem to reflect important long-term behavioural and ecological adaptations in wild-born orphan released chimpanzees, demonstrating that the release of chimpanzees can be successful, even if it takes time for full adaptation. PMID:26487416

  18. Prevalence of HIV-1 Subtypes and Drug Resistance-Associated Mutations in HIV-1-Positive Treatment-Naive Pregnant Women in Pointe Noire, Republic of the Congo (Kento-Mwana Project).

    PubMed

    Bruzzone, Bianca; Saladini, Francesco; Sticchi, Laura; Mayinda Mboungou, Franc A; Barresi, Renata; Caligiuri, Patrizia; Calzi, Anna; Zazzi, Maurizio; Icardi, Giancarlo; Viscoli, Claudio; Bisio, Francesca

    2015-08-01

    The Kento-Mwana project was carried out in Pointe Noire, Republic of the Congo, to prevent mother-to-child HIV-1 transmission. To determine the prevalence of different subtypes and transmitted drug resistance-associated mutations, 95 plasma samples were collected at baseline from HIV-1-positive naive pregnant women enrolled in the project during the years 2005-2008. Full protease and partial reverse transcriptase sequencing was performed and 68/95 (71.6%) samples were successfully sequenced. Major mutations to nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors, nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors, and protease inhibitors were detected in 4/68 (5.9%), 3/68 (4.4%), and 2/68 (2.9%) samples, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis of HIV-1 isolates showed a high prevalence of unique recombinant forms (24/68, 35%), followed by CRF45_cpx (7/68, 10.3%) and subsubtype A3 and subtype G (6/68 each, 8.8%). Although the prevalence of transmitted drug resistance mutations appears to be currently limited, baseline HIV-1 genotyping is highly advisable in conjunction with antiretroviral therapy scale-up in resource-limited settings to optimize treatment and prevent perinatal transmission. PMID:25970260

  19. Impact of WHO 2010 Guidelines on Antiretroviral Therapy Initiation among Patients with HIV-Associated Tuberculosis in Clinics with and without Onsite HIV Services in the Democratic Republic of Congo.

    PubMed

    Yotebieng, Marcel; Tabala, Martine; Batumbula, Marie Louise; Wenzi, Landry; Basaki, Emmanuel; Mungoyo, Eugenie; Mangala, Richard; Behets, Frieda

    2016-01-01

    Background. We assessed the impact of WHO's 2010 guidelines that removed the requirement of CD4 count before ART, on timely initiation of ART among HIV/TB patients in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). Methods. Data collected to monitor implementation of provider initiated HIV testing and counseling (PITC) and linkage to HIV care from 65 and 13 TB clinics in Kinshasa and Kisangani, respectively, between November 2010 and June 2013. Results. Prior to the WHO's 2010 guidelines, in Kinshasa, 79.1% (401/507) of HIV/TB patients referred for HIV services were initiated on ART in clinics with onsite ART services compared to 50.0% (63/123) in clinics without. Following the implementation of the new guidelines, 89.8% (714/795) and 93.0% (345/371) of HIV/TB patients referred for HIV services were initiated on ART, respectively, in clinics with onsite and without onsite ART services. Similarly, in Kisangani, 69.7% (53/120) and 36.4% (16/44) in clinics with and without onsite ART service, respectively, were initiated on ART prior to the 2010 guidelines and 88.8% (135/152) and 72.6% (106/146), respectively, after the new guidelines. Conclusion. Though implementation of the 2010 guidelines increased the proportion of HIV/TB patients initiated on ART substantially, it remained below the 100% target, particularly in clinics without onsite ART services. PMID:27595020

  20. Impact of WHO 2010 Guidelines on Antiretroviral Therapy Initiation among Patients with HIV-Associated Tuberculosis in Clinics with and without Onsite HIV Services in the Democratic Republic of Congo

    PubMed Central

    Tabala, Martine; Batumbula, Marie Louise; Wenzi, Landry; Basaki, Emmanuel; Mungoyo, Eugenie; Mangala, Richard; Behets, Frieda

    2016-01-01

    Background. We assessed the impact of WHO's 2010 guidelines that removed the requirement of CD4 count before ART, on timely initiation of ART among HIV/TB patients in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). Methods. Data collected to monitor implementation of provider initiated HIV testing and counseling (PITC) and linkage to HIV care from 65 and 13 TB clinics in Kinshasa and Kisangani, respectively, between November 2010 and June 2013. Results. Prior to the WHO's 2010 guidelines, in Kinshasa, 79.1% (401/507) of HIV/TB patients referred for HIV services were initiated on ART in clinics with onsite ART services compared to 50.0% (63/123) in clinics without. Following the implementation of the new guidelines, 89.8% (714/795) and 93.0% (345/371) of HIV/TB patients referred for HIV services were initiated on ART, respectively, in clinics with onsite and without onsite ART services. Similarly, in Kisangani, 69.7% (53/120) and 36.4% (16/44) in clinics with and without onsite ART service, respectively, were initiated on ART prior to the 2010 guidelines and 88.8% (135/152) and 72.6% (106/146), respectively, after the new guidelines. Conclusion. Though implementation of the 2010 guidelines increased the proportion of HIV/TB patients initiated on ART substantially, it remained below the 100% target, particularly in clinics without onsite ART services. PMID:27595020

  1. Technical Education and Vocational Training in Central Africa. Feasibility Survey of the Regional Development of Rapid Vocational Training: Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, and Gabon.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Organization for Rehabilitation through Training, Geneva (Switzerland).

    This final report is the result of a survey requested by the United States Agency for International Development (USAID) and undertaken by the Organization for Rehabilitation through Training (ORT) of four countries (Cameroon, Chad, Central African Republic, and Gabon) and a conference on vocational training sponsored by the Economic and Customs…

  2. Healing Africa? Reflections on the peace-building role of a health-based non governmental organization operating in eastern Democratic Republic of Congo.

    PubMed

    D'Errico, Nicole C; Wake, Christopher M; Wake, Rachel M

    2010-01-01

    Whilst there are convincing theoretical arguments about the peace-building potential of the health sector, case studies documenting its interventions remain limited. This article contributes to the existing 'Peace through Health' literature by considering the model of HEAL Africa, a health-based non-governmental organization operating in Eastern Congo. Several of HEAL Africa's projects seek to prevent and reduce key risk factors; for conflict, and to contribute to longer term rehabilitation. Many of these interventions are born out of HEAL's emphasis on providing emergency health care--and the neutrality, legitimacy, access and longevity which this generates. However, this focus also tends to act as a limiting factor on the application and resourcing of its conflict prevention and reconstruction efforts. Whilst this case study warns against overstating the potential role of the health sector in promoting peace, HEAL's activities provide evidence of the types of positive contributions that can be made in practice. The role of the health sector, equipped as it is with useful tools for conflict transformation, should therefore be considered more proactively by the peace-building community. PMID:20718286

  3. Tropical Forest Remote Sensing Services for the Democratic Republic of Congo inside the EU FP7 ReCover Project (Final Results 2000-2012)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haarpaintner, J.; de la Fuente Blanco, D.; Enssle, F.; Datta, P.; Mazinga, A.; Singa, C.; Mane, L.

    2015-04-01

    'ReCover' was a 3-year EU-FP7 project (Nov. 2010 - Dec. 2013), aiming to develop and improve science based remote sensing services to support tropical forest management and activities to reduce emission from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD) in the tropical region (Hame et al., 2012). This is an overview of the final ReCover service delivery of 2000-2012 single-year optical (Landsat, ALOS AVNIR-2, RapidEye) and C-and L-band SAR (Envisat ASAR and ALOS Palsar, respectively) image mosaics, their derived forest/non-forest maps, a multi-sensor forest change map (2000-2010) and a biomass map (based on 2003-2009 ICESat GLAS) o he user of he De ocr ic Repub ic of Congo DRC), he Observatoir Satellitale des Fore s d'Afrique Cen r e OSFAC). The results are an improvement from a first iteration service delivery in 2012 after a critical review and validation process by both, the user and service providers, further method development and research, like a prior statistical data analysis considering temporal/seasonal variability, improved data pre-processing, and through the use of ground reference data collected in March 2013 for classification training. Validation with Kompsat-2 VHR data for the 2010 forest/non-forest maps revealed accuracies of 87% and 88% for optical and radar sensors, respectively.

  4. Healing Africa? Reflections on the peace-building role of a health-based non governmental organization operating in eastern Democratic Republic of Congo.

    PubMed

    D'Errico, Nicole C; Wake, Christopher M; Wake, Rachel M

    2010-01-01

    Whilst there are convincing theoretical arguments about the peace-building potential of the health sector, case studies documenting its interventions remain limited. This article contributes to the existing 'Peace through Health' literature by considering the model of HEAL Africa, a health-based non-governmental organization operating in Eastern Congo. Several of HEAL Africa's projects seek to prevent and reduce key risk factors; for conflict, and to contribute to longer term rehabilitation. Many of these interventions are born out of HEAL's emphasis on providing emergency health care--and the neutrality, legitimacy, access and longevity which this generates. However, this focus also tends to act as a limiting factor on the application and resourcing of its conflict prevention and reconstruction efforts. Whilst this case study warns against overstating the potential role of the health sector in promoting peace, HEAL's activities provide evidence of the types of positive contributions that can be made in practice. The role of the health sector, equipped as it is with useful tools for conflict transformation, should therefore be considered more proactively by the peace-building community.

  5. [Epidemiological study of arboviruses in the Central African Republic: demonstration of Chikungunya virus during 1978 and 1979].

    PubMed

    Saluzzo, J F; Gonzalez, J P; Hervé, J P; Georges, A J

    1980-01-01

    From January 1978 to May 1979, the Chikungunya virus came out in several places in south of Central African Republic. We isolated one strain of virus from a human serum and 33 from pools of Aedes africanus group collected in two forest galleries situated near the village of Bozo, in the semi-humid savanna. Several serological conversions were observed in patients with fever joint pain and sometimes macular eruption. The intensive activity of Chikungunya virus was confirmed by serological survey in south-east of the country, i. e.: 17% sera were positive by IHA test with high level (greater than or equal to 1 280) according to recent infection. Mosquitoes strains isolated in 1978 seem to proceed from epizootic manifestation, as we observed in 1975 in the same area. Epidemiologic findings of periodic recurrence is discussed. PMID:7460128

  6. A sub-national scale geospatial analysis of diamond deposit lootability: the case of the Central African Republic

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Malpeli, Katherine C.; Chirico, Peter G.

    2014-01-01

    The Central African Republic (CAR), a country with rich diamond deposits and a tumultuous political history, experienced a government takeover by the Seleka rebel coalition in 2013. It is within this context that we developed and implemented a geospatial approach for assessing the lootability of high value-to-weight resource deposits, using the case of diamonds in CAR as an example. According to current definitions of lootability, or the vulnerability of deposits to exploitation, CAR's two major diamond deposits are similarly lootable. However, using this geospatial approach, we demonstrate that the deposits experience differing political geographic, spatial location, and cultural geographic contexts, rendering the eastern deposits more lootable than the western deposits. The patterns identified through this detailed analysis highlight the geographic complexities surrounding the issue of conflict resources and lootability, and speak to the importance of examining these topics at the sub-national scale, rather than relying on national-scale statistics.

  7. Density variations and their influence on carbon stocks: case-study on two Biosphere Reserves in the Democratic Republic of Congo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Ridder, Maaike; De Haulleville, Thalès; Kearsley, Elizabeth; Van den Bulcke, Jan; Van Acker, Joris; Beeckman, Hans

    2014-05-01

    It is commonly acknowledged that allometric equations for aboveground biomass and carbon stock estimates are improved significantly if density is included as a variable. However, not much attention is given to this variable in terms of exact, measured values and density profiles from pith to bark. Most published case-studies obtain density values from literature sources or databases, this way using large ranges of density values and possible causing significant errors in carbon stock estimates. The use of one single fixed value for density is also not recommended if carbon stock increments are estimated. Therefore, our objective is to measure and analyze a large number of tree species occurring in two Biosphere Reserves (Luki and Yangambi). Nevertheless, the diversity of tree species in these tropical forests is too high to perform this kind of detailed analysis on all tree species (> 200/ha). Therefore, we focus on the most frequently encountered tree species with high abundance (trees/ha) and dominance (basal area/ha) for this study. Increment cores were scanned with a helical X-ray protocol to obtain density profiles from pith to bark. This way, we aim at dividing the tree species with a distinct type of density profile into separate groups. If, e.g., slopes in density values from pith to bark remain stable over larger samples of one tree species, this slope could also be used to correct for errors in carbon (increment) estimates, caused by density values from simplified density measurements or density values from literature. In summary, this is most likely the first study in the Congo Basin that focuses on density patterns in order to check their influence on carbon stocks and differences in carbon stocking based on species composition (density profiles ~ temperament of tree species).

  8. Multiphase origin of the Cu Co ore deposits in the western part of the Lufilian fold-and-thrust belt, Katanga (Democratic Republic of Congo)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dewaele, S.; Muchez, Ph.; Vets, J.; Fernandez-Alonzo, M.; Tack, L.

    2006-12-01

    A multiphase origin of the Cu-Co ores in the western part of the Lufilian fold-and-thrust belt in Central Africa is proposed based on literature, satellite image interpretations and petrographic and fluid inclusion analyses on samples from the stratiform mineralization of Kamoto and Musonoi (DR Congo). The various mineral occurrences in the Katanga Copperbelt can be classified in distinct categories: stratiform, supergene enrichment and vein-type. The stratiform mineralization form the largest group and can be found mainly in Lower Roan (R-2) rocks, which can be identified as ridges on satellite imagery. Ore deposits outside the R-2 occur along lineaments and result often from supergene enrichment. The main phase of the stratiform mineralization in the Katanga Copperbelt occurred during diagenesis preceding the Lufilian orogeny. Petrographic observation identified various mineralizing phases, which played a role in the formation of these stratiform mineralization. Mineralization started during early diagenesis, but mainly occurred during further burial. After the formation of early diagenetic pyrite, the circulation of diagenetic Cu-Co-rich fluids resulted in the formation of the main mineralization. Preliminary microthermometric investigation of primary inclusions in authigenic quartz, associated with the main stage of stratiform mineralization, indicates that an H 2O-NaCl fluid with a minimum temperature between 80 and 195 °C and a salinity between 8.4 and 18.4 eq. wt% NaCl circulated during the main phase of mineralization. Numerous faults and fractures formed during the Lufilian orogeny cut the stratiform mineralization. They are, however, at Kamoto and Musonoi only associated with minor sulphides. Supergene alteration along faults and fractures resulted in an enrichment of the mineralization, with the formation of secondary Cu-oxides, -carbonates and -silicates. The importance of the interaction of various processes for the formation of economic Cu-Co ore

  9. Complete Genome Characterization of the Arumowot Virus (Unclassified Phlebovirus) Isolated from Turdus libonyanus Birds in the Central African Republic.

    PubMed

    Berthet, Nicolas; Nakouné, Emmanuel; Gessain, Antoine; Manuguerra, Jean-Claude; Kazanji, Mirdad

    2016-02-01

    The Bunyaviridae family is currently composed of five genera, including Phlebovirus, in which several phleboviruses are associated with human diseases. Using high-throughput sequencing, we obtained and characterized one complete genome of the Arumowot virus (AMTV) isolated in 1978 from Turdus libonyanus, the Kurrichane Thrush, in the Central African Republic (CAR). The genomic segment of the new strain of AMTV isolated in the CAR had 75.4-83.5% sequence similarity and 82-98.4% amino acid similarity to the prototype sequence of AMTV. The different conserved proteins of the small (S) and large (L) segments (Nc, NSP, and RNA polymerase) showed close similarity at the amino acid level, whereas the polyprotein of the medium (M) segment was highly divergent, with 18% and 37.7%, respectively, for the prototype sequence of AMTV and the Odrenisrou virus (ODRV) isolated from Culex (Cx.) albiventris mosquitoes in the Tai forest, Ivory Coast. Phylogenetic analysis confirmed the sequence homology analysis and indicated that AMTV-CAR clustered into the Salehabad virus antigenic complex. The two closest viruses were the prototype sequences of AMTV originally isolated from Cx. antennatus mosquitoes and ODRV. These molecular data suggest the need for a deep genetic characterization of the diversity of this viral species to enhance its detection in the Central African region and to understand better its behavior and life cycle so that its potential spread to the human population can be prevented. PMID:26807610

  10. Implementation and Operational Research: Programmatic Feasibility of Dried Blood Spots for the Virological Follow-up of Patients on Antiretroviral Treatment in Nord Kivu, Democratic Republic of the Congo

    PubMed Central

    Serrano, Laetitia; Muwonga, Jeremie; Kabuayi, Jean Pierre; Kambale, Alain; Mutaka, Fidèle; Fujiwara, Paula I.; Decosas, Josef; Peeters, Martine; Delaporte, Eric

    2016-01-01

    Background: As part of its policy to shift monitoring of antiretroviral therapy (ART) to primary health care (PHC) workers, the Ministry of Health of the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) tested the feasibility of using dried blood spots (DBS) for viral load (VL) quantification and genotypic drug resistance testing in off-site high-throughput laboratories. Methods: DBS samples from adults on ART were collected in 13 decentralized PHC facilities in the Nord-Kivu province and shipped during program quarterly supervision to a reference laboratory 2000 km away, where VL was quantified with a commercial assay (m2000rt, Abbott). A second DBS was sent to a World Health Organization (WHO)-accredited laboratory for repeat VL quantification on a subset of samples with a generic assay (Biocentric) and genotypic drug resistance testing when VL >1000 copies per milliliter. Findings: Constraints arose because of an interruption in national laboratory funding rather than to technical or logistic problems. All samples were assessed by both VL assays to allow ART adjustment. Median DBS turnaround time was 37 days (interquartile range: 9–59). Assays performed unequally with DBS, impacting clinical decisions, quality assurance, and overall cost-effectiveness. Based on m2000rt or generic assay, 31.3% of patients were on virological failure (VF) and 14.8% presented resistance mutations versus 50.3% and 15.4%, respectively. Conclusion: This study confirms that current technologies involving DBS make virological monitoring of ART possible at PHC level, including in challenging environments, provided organizational issues are addressed. Adequate core funding of HIV laboratories and adapted choice of VL assays require urgent attention to control resistance to ART as coverage expands. PMID:26413848

  11. SD Bioline malaria antigen Pf (HRP-2/pLHD) for assessing efficacy of artemisinin combination therapy against Plasmodium falciparum in pediatric patients in the Democratic Republic of the Congo

    PubMed Central

    Kilauzi, Albert Lukuka; Mulumba, Jose Gaby Tshikuka; Magafu, Mgaywa Gilbert Mjungu Damas; Matchaba-Hove, Reginald; Tapera, Roy; Magafu, Naoko Shimizu; Tamfum, Jean Jacques Muyembe

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The emergence of Plasmodium falciparum resistance to artemisinin combination therapy (ACT) is a worrying development. It calls for close surveillance to monitor the efficacy of the drugs. The objectives of this study were to determine the performance of SD Bioline malaria AgPf(HRP-2/pLDH) 3 band Rapid Diagnostic Test (RDT) against Giemsa-stained blood smear and evaluate the suitability of this test in assessing the therapeutic efficacy of ACT in pediatric malaria patients in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC). Methods Five hundred and one patients with malaria symptoms were screened for P. falciparum in Kinshasa, DRC. Of the 166 patients who tested positive for P. falciparum at recruitment (day 0), 103 consented to participate in this study and were followed up and retested for P. falciparum on day 3, day 7, day 14, day 21 and day 28. Results Sensitivity and specificity of the test were significantly high on day 0 and so were their positive and negative predictive values. Higher proportions of false positive cases were observed on the HRP-2 band irrespective of patient parasite densities during the follow up but these were barely seen on the pLDH band. Some patients turned positive during follow up but pLDH readings remained consistent with blood smear readings. Conclusion SD Bioline malaria AgPf(HRP-2/pLDH) RDT demonstrated high performance in DRC. Thus, the test can be employed to assess the efficacy of ACT in pediatric malaria patients and prioritize areas that require the deployment of advanced testing like polymerase chain reaction (PCR). PMID:26966500

  12. Factors associated with HIV voluntary disclosure of people living with HIV to their steady sexual partner in the Democratic Republic of the Congo: results from a community-based participatory research

    PubMed Central

    Zola, Eddy Kieto; Gifudu, Gaspard Matamba; Henry, Emilie; Bernier, Adeline; Masangu, Henri Mukumbi; Abadie, Alise; Fugon, Lionel; Otis, Joanne; Préau, Marie

    2014-01-01

    Introduction HIV disclosure to a steady sexual partner (SSP) is important both in preventing HIV transmission and improving the quality of life of people living with HIV (PLHIV). Its determinants have been poorly investigated in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. The study objective was to determine factors independently associated with voluntary disclosure to one's SSP in PLHIV receiving services from a Congolese community-based organization (CBO). Methods A community-based participatory research was performed and 300 PLHIV were interviewed by members of the CBO, using a standardized questionnaire. A multivariate logistic regression was used to determine the variables independently associated with disclosure. Results In this sample, 79 of the 127 participants (62%) included in the analysis declared having voluntarily disclosed their serostatus to their SSP. Declaring to be in a relationship (Odds Ratio (95% Confidence Interval): 4.2 (1.4-12.6)), having tested for HIV because of symptoms (2.5 (1.0-6.4)), having taken the test on one's own initiative (3.2 (1.3-8.0)), having felt sympathy and indifference from people when disclosing (6.0 (1.4-26.9) and 5.0 (1.1-22.8), respectively) as well as having a higher score of the “regular discussion about daily life with HIV” index (1.7 (1.1-2.5)) were significantly associated with disclosure to one's SSP. Conclusion Several individual and contextual factors were associated with voluntary disclosure to SSP in this study, highlighting the complex nature of the disclosure process. Interventions encouraging disclosure should be designed so as to adapt to one's personal life with HIV as well as psychosocial environment. PMID:25870731

  13. Isotopic and geochemical characterization of groundwater of the Carnot-Berbérati sandstone formation (Western Central African Republic)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Djebebe-Ndjiguim, Chantal; Foto, Eric; Backo, Salé; Zoudamba, Narcisse; Basse-Keke, Eric; Nguerekossi, Bruno; Alladin, Oscar; Huneau, Frederic; Garel, Emilie; Celle-Jeanton, Helene; Mabingui, Joseph

    2016-04-01

    The hydrogeology of the Cretaceous sandstone formations of Carnot-Berbérati (covering an area of 46.000 km2) in the western part of the central African Republic is poorly known. In order to improve the access of local populations to a clean and safe drinking water resource, new investigations have been carried out in order to characterize groundwater in terms of quality, origin, residence time and sustainability. Two sampling campaigns were organized in August 2014 (rainy period) and April 2015 (dry period) on respectively 31 and 43 points including boreholes, wells and river waters. Conventional hydrogeochemical tools in conjunction with isotope hydrology tools were used to evaluate the water types and the anthropogenic fingerprint on groundwater, their recharge processes and the flow organization scheme. Investigations have shown the existence of interesting amounts of groundwater within what seems a single, well hydraulically connected unconfined aquifer of max. 400m thick. Groundwaters are characterized by two main water types: CaMg-HCO3 (for deep boreholes and river waters) and CaMg-ClNO3 (shallow wells). The latter clearly showing the very strong influence of anthropogenic activities (washing, dumps, latrines) in the near vicinity of wells and boreholes used for the drinking water supply. This is also highlighting the total lack of protection zone around the wells and boreholes. Stable isotopes of the water molecule (18O and 2H) are in agreement with a local recharge of groundwater and show a relatively homogeneous composition within the whole aquifer system. Tritium data indicate a modern recharge with a high renewability potential for shallow groundwater but very low tritium levels are observed in the deepest boreholes indicating the probable occurrence of complex flow conditions within the system in some sectors. From these results and because of its extension and storage potential, the Carnot-Berbérati sandstone aquifer appears as a groundwater resource

  14. Lysinibacillus louembei sp. nov., a spore-forming bacterium isolated from Ntoba Mbodi, alkaline fermented leaves of cassava from the Republic of the Congo.

    PubMed

    Ouoba, Labia Irène I; Vouidibio Mbozo, Alain B; Thorsen, Line; Anyogu, Amarachukwu; Nielsen, Dennis S; Kobawila, Simon C; Sutherland, Jane P

    2015-11-01

    Investigation of the microbial diversity of Ntoba Mbodi, an African food made from the alkaline fermentation of cassava leaves, revealed the presence of a Gram-positive, catalase-positive, aerobic, motile and rod-shaped endospore-forming bacterium (NM73) with unusual phenotypic and genotypic characteristics. The analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequence revealed that the isolate was most closely related to Lysinibacillus meyeri WS 4626T (98.93%), Lysinibacillus xylanilyticus XDB9T (96.95%) and Lysinibacillus odysseyi 34hs-1T (96.94%). The DNA-DNA relatedness of the isolate with L. meyeri LMG 26643T, L. xylanilyticus DSM 23493T and L. odysseyi DSM 18869T was 41%, 16% and 15%, respectively. The internal transcribed spacer-PCR profile of the isolate was different from those of closely related bacteria. The cell-wall peptidoglycan type was A4α, L-Lys-D-Asp and the major fatty acids were iso-C15:0, anteiso-C15:0, anteiso-C17:0 and iso-C17:0 and iso-C17:1ω10c. The polar lipids included phosphatidylethanolamine, diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphoaminolipid, aminolipid, two phospholipids and two unknown lipids. The predominant menaquinones were MK-7 and MK-6. Ribose was the only whole-cell sugar detected. The DNA G+C content was 38 mol%. Based on the results of the phenotypic and genotypic characterization, it was concluded that the isolate represents a novel species of the genus Lysinibacillus, for which the name of Lysinibacillus louembei sp. nov. is proposed. NM73T ( = DSM 25583T = LMG 26837T) represents the type strain.

  15. Rapid Contraceptive Uptake and Changing Method Mix With High Use of Long-Acting Reversible Contraceptives in Crisis-Affected Populations in Chad and the Democratic Republic of the Congo.

    PubMed

    Rattan, Jesse; Noznesky, Elizabeth; Curry, Dora Ward; Galavotti, Christine; Hwang, Shuyuan; Rodriguez, Mariela

    2016-08-11

    The global health community has recognized that expanding the contraceptive method mix is a programmatic imperative since (1) one-third of unintended pregnancies are due to method failure or discontinuation, and (2) the addition of a new method to the existing mix tends to increase total contraceptive use. Since July 2011, CARE has been implementing the Supporting Access to Family Planning and Post-Abortion Care (SAFPAC) initiative to increase the availability, quality, and use of contraception, with a particular focus on highly effective and long-acting reversible methods-intrauterine devices (IUDs) and implants-in crisis-affected settings in Chad and the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC). This initiative supports government health systems at primary and referral levels to provide a wide range of contraceptive services to people affected by conflict and/or displacement. Before the initiative, long-acting reversible methods were either unknown or unavailable in the intervention areas. However, as soon as trained providers were in place, we noted a dramatic and sustained increase in new users of all contraceptive methods, especially implants, with total new clients reaching 82,855, or 32% of the estimated number of women of reproductive age in the respective catchment areas in both countries, at the end of the fourth year. Demand for implants was very strong in the first 6 months after provider training. During this time, implants consistently accounted for more than 50% of the method mix, reaching as high as 89% in Chad and 74% in DRC. To ensure that all clients were getting the contraceptive method of their choice, we conducted a series of discussions and sought feedback from different stakeholders in order to modify program strategies. Key program modifications included more focused communication in mass media, community, and interpersonal channels about the benefits of IUDs while reinforcing the wide range of methods available and refresher training for

  16. Rapid Contraceptive Uptake and Changing Method Mix With High Use of Long-Acting Reversible Contraceptives in Crisis-Affected Populations in Chad and the Democratic Republic of the Congo.

    PubMed

    Rattan, Jesse; Noznesky, Elizabeth; Curry, Dora Ward; Galavotti, Christine; Hwang, Shuyuan; Rodriguez, Mariela

    2016-08-11

    The global health community has recognized that expanding the contraceptive method mix is a programmatic imperative since (1) one-third of unintended pregnancies are due to method failure or discontinuation, and (2) the addition of a new method to the existing mix tends to increase total contraceptive use. Since July 2011, CARE has been implementing the Supporting Access to Family Planning and Post-Abortion Care (SAFPAC) initiative to increase the availability, quality, and use of contraception, with a particular focus on highly effective and long-acting reversible methods-intrauterine devices (IUDs) and implants-in crisis-affected settings in Chad and the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC). This initiative supports government health systems at primary and referral levels to provide a wide range of contraceptive services to people affected by conflict and/or displacement. Before the initiative, long-acting reversible methods were either unknown or unavailable in the intervention areas. However, as soon as trained providers were in place, we noted a dramatic and sustained increase in new users of all contraceptive methods, especially implants, with total new clients reaching 82,855, or 32% of the estimated number of women of reproductive age in the respective catchment areas in both countries, at the end of the fourth year. Demand for implants was very strong in the first 6 months after provider training. During this time, implants consistently accounted for more than 50% of the method mix, reaching as high as 89% in Chad and 74% in DRC. To ensure that all clients were getting the contraceptive method of their choice, we conducted a series of discussions and sought feedback from different stakeholders in order to modify program strategies. Key program modifications included more focused communication in mass media, community, and interpersonal channels about the benefits of IUDs while reinforcing the wide range of methods available and refresher training for

  17. Rapid Contraceptive Uptake and Changing Method Mix With High Use of Long-Acting Reversible Contraceptives in Crisis-Affected Populations in Chad and the Democratic Republic of the Congo

    PubMed Central

    Rattan, Jesse; Noznesky, Elizabeth; Curry, Dora Ward; Galavotti, Christine; Hwang, Shuyuan; Rodriguez, Mariela

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The global health community has recognized that expanding the contraceptive method mix is a programmatic imperative since (1) one-third of unintended pregnancies are due to method failure or discontinuation, and (2) the addition of a new method to the existing mix tends to increase total contraceptive use. Since July 2011, CARE has been implementing the Supporting Access to Family Planning and Post-Abortion Care (SAFPAC) initiative to increase the availability, quality, and use of contraception, with a particular focus on highly effective and long-acting reversible methods—intrauterine devices (IUDs) and implants—in crisis-affected settings in Chad and the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC). This initiative supports government health systems at primary and referral levels to provide a wide range of contraceptive services to people affected by conflict and/or displacement. Before the initiative, long-acting reversible methods were either unknown or unavailable in the intervention areas. However, as soon as trained providers were in place, we noted a dramatic and sustained increase in new users of all contraceptive methods, especially implants, with total new clients reaching 82,855, or 32% of the estimated number of women of reproductive age in the respective catchment areas in both countries, at the end of the fourth year. Demand for implants was very strong in the first 6 months after provider training. During this time, implants consistently accounted for more than 50% of the method mix, reaching as high as 89% in Chad and 74% in DRC. To ensure that all clients were getting the contraceptive method of their choice, we conducted a series of discussions and sought feedback from different stakeholders in order to modify program strategies. Key program modifications included more focused communication in mass media, community, and interpersonal channels about the benefits of IUDs while reinforcing the wide range of methods available and refresher

  18. Mental health services for children exposed to armed conflict: Médecins Sans Frontières’ experience in the Democratic Republic of Congo, Iraq and the occupied Palestinian territory

    PubMed Central

    Lokuge, K; Shah, T; Pintaldi, G; Thurber, K; Martínez-Viciana, C; Cristobal, M; Palacios, L; Dear, K; Banks, E

    2013-01-01

    Background: Armed conflict has broad-ranging impacts on the mental health and wellbeing of children and adolescents. Mental health needs greatly exceed service provision in conflict settings, particularly for these age groups. The provision and targeting of appropriate services requires better understanding of the characteristics and requirements of children and adolescents exposed to armed conflict. Methods: Routine patient and programme monitoring data were analysed for patients <20 years of age attending mental health services provided by Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) in three countries affected by armed conflict: the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), Iraq and the occupied Palestinian territory (oPt). The demographic characteristics, presenting mental health complaint, attributed precipitating event, services provided and short-term outcomes for mental health services users in each country are described. Results: Between 2009 and 2012, 3025 individuals <20 years of age presented for care in DRC and Iraq, and in 2012 in oPt, constituting 14%, 17·5% and 51%, respectively, of all presentations to MSF mental health services in those three countries. The most common precipitating event was sexual violence in DRC (36·5%), domestic violence in Iraq (17·8%) and incarceration or detention in oPt (33%). Armed conflict-related precipitants were reported by 25·9%, 55·0% and 76·4% of youths in DRC, Iraq and oPt, respectively. The most common presenting complaints in children and adolescents were anxiety-related, followed by mood-related, behaviour-related and somatisation problems; these varied according to country and precipitating event. Although a high proportion (45·7%) left programmes early, 97% of those who completed care self-reported improvement in their presenting complaint. Conclusions: Brief trauma-focused therapy, the current MSF mental health therapeutic intervention, appears to be effective in reducing symptoms arising from the experience of trauma

  19. Rotavirus surveillance in Kisangani, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, reveals a high number of unusual genotypes and gene segments of animal origin in non-vaccinated symptomatic children.

    PubMed

    Heylen, Elisabeth; Batoko Likele, Bibi; Zeller, Mark; Stevens, Stijn; De Coster, Sarah; Conceição-Neto, Nádia; Van Geet, Christel; Jacobs, Jan; Ngbonda, Dauly; Van Ranst, Marc; Matthijnssens, Jelle

    2014-01-01

    Group A rotavirus (RVA) infections form a major public health problem, especially in low-income countries like the Democratic Republic of the Congo (COD). However, limited data on RVA diversity is available from sub-Saharan Africa in general and the COD in particular. Therefore, the first aim of this study was to determine the genetic diversity of 99 RVAs detected during 2007-2010 in Kisangani, COD. The predominant G-type was G1 (39%) and the most predominant P-type was P[6] (53%). A total of eight different G/P-combinations were found: G1P[8] (28%), G8P[6] (26%), G2P[4] (14%), G12P[6] (13%), G1P[6] (11%), G9P[8] (4%), G4P[6] (2%) and G8P[4] (1%). The second aim of this study was to gain insight into the diversity of P[6] RVA strains in the COD. Therefore, we selected five P[6] RVA strains in combination with the G1, G4, G8 (2x) or G12 genotype for complete genome analysis. Complete genome analysis showed that the genetic background of the G1P[6] and G12P[6] strains was entirely composed of genotype 1 (Wa-like), while the segments of the two G8P[6] strains were identified as genotype 2 (DS-1-like). Interestingly, all four strains possessed a NSP4 gene of animal origin. The analyzed G4P[6] RVA strain was found to possess the unusual G4-P[6]-I1-R1-C1-M1-A1-N1-T7-E1-H1 constellation. Although the majority of its genes (if not all), were presumably of porcine origin, this strain was able to cause gastro-enteritis in humans. The high prevalence of unusual RVA strains in the COD highlights the need for continued surveillance of RVA diversity in the COD. These results also underline the importance of complete genetic characterization of RVA strains and indicate that reassortments and interspecies transmission among human and animal RVAs strains occur regularly. Based on these data, RVA vaccines will be challenged with a wide variety of different RVA strain types in the COD. PMID:24968018

  20. Emergency time: caring in Congo.

    PubMed

    Reading, Claire

    2016-01-01

    Midwifery practice in rural central Africa is full of joys (an abundance of twins, births by candlelight and resilience and stoicism that would leave even the very experienced birth practitioner speechless), but also a lot of challenges (every obstetric emergency in your wildest nightmares and worse) that are compounded by a lack of access to a skilled birth attendant. Women here have a strong culture of traditional practices and remedies, and hospital is often not the first port of call. Caring for women who cannot, themselves, consent to emergency life-saving caesarean sections, is a cultural aspect that we accept and respect as medical professionals working in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). In a busy maternity ward in a low-resource setting, in a hospital supported by emergency humanitarian medical organisation Médecins sans Frontières (MSF), just how are obstetric emergencies managed--and are the outcomes what you would expect? PMID:26975127

  1. Predominance of hepatitis C virus genotype 4 infection and rapid transmission between 1935 and 1965 in the Central African Republic.

    PubMed

    Njouom, Richard; Frost, Eric; Deslandes, Sylvie; Mamadou-Yaya, Fleurie; Labbé, Annie-Claude; Pouillot, Régis; Mbélesso, Pascal; Mbadingai, Sylvestre; Rousset, Dominique; Pépin, Jacques

    2009-10-01

    The molecular epidemiology of hepatitis C virus (HCV) in the Central African Republic (CAR) is poorly documented. Thus, we conducted phylogenetic analyses of NS5B gene sequences from 58 HCV-infected inhabitants of a remote area of south-west CAR, which indicated that 48 (82.8%) were infected with genotype 4 (HCV-4), five (8.6%) with genotype 2 and five (8.6%) with genotype 1. HCV-4 strains were highly heterogeneous, containing previously described subtypes 4k (48%), 4c (27%), 4r (4%), 4f (4%) and unclassified subtypes (17%). To estimate the epidemic history of these HCV-4 strains, an evolutionary analysis using the coalescent approach was used. The estimated date of the most recent common ancestor of the CAR HCV-4 strains was 1539 (95% confidence intervals, 1317-1697). They exhibited a rapid, exponential spread from 1935 to 1965, simultaneously with what was recently reported in neighbouring Cameroon and Gabon. The hypothesis of a massive iatrogenic transmission during interventions for the control of endemic tropical diseases is discussed.

  2. Congo: Elections and the Battle for Mineral Resources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Social Education, 2007

    2007-01-01

    Twenty million voters cast ballots July 30, 2006, in the Democratic Republic of the Congo's first free election since 1960. A runoff election three months later, between transitional president Joseph Kabila and transitional vice president Jean-Pierre Bemba, gave Kabila a mandate to lead the war-torn nation for five more years. The elections, in…

  3. Molecular analysis and associated pathology of beak and feather disease virus isolated in Italy from young Congo African grey parrots (Psittacus erithacus) with an "atypical peracute form" of the disease.

    PubMed

    Robino, Patrizia; Grego, Elena; Rossi, Giacomo; Bert, Elena; Tramuta, Clara; Stella, Maria Cristina; Bertoni, Pierfrancesco; Nebbia, Patrizia

    2014-01-01

    This study is the first report on the genetic and pathogenic characterization of beak and feather disease virus (BFDV) occurring in Italy. Twenty BFDV strains isolated in Italy from juvenile Congo African grey parrots (Psittacus erithacus) were investigated. Seventeen strains showed an "atypical peracute form" (aPF) of the disease, and three a chronic form (CF). The birds with aPF had been weaned, were independent as far as food and protection were concerned and apparently were without lesions. The gene coding for the putative coat protein was amplified in all isolates while the BFDV genome was sequenced completely in 10 samples, eight of them belonging to aPF affected birds and two from CF of the disease. All full genomes clustered into the J strain of BFDV, where two new subtypes were identified. Recombination analyses showed evidence of genetic exchanges in two BFDV genomes. In addition, a correlation between viral isolate and origin of the breeding material was shown, while an association between the genetic features of the virus and the clinical form was not observed. Histologically, apoptosis was detected frequently in aPF samples and sporadically in CF samples. Interestingly, BFDV antigens were detected in the nuclei and cytoplasm of such apoptotic cells. The data presented here support the hypothesis that, in the absence of a defined BFDV genetic variant accountable for a specific clinical form of psittacine beak and feather disease, differences in the apoptotic rate between aPF and CF are strictly host related.

  4. Conventional tree height-diameter relationships significantly overestimate aboveground carbon stocks in the Central Congo Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kearsley, Elizabeth; Hufkens, Koen; Steppe, Kathy; Beeckman, Hans; Boeckx, Pascal; Verbeeck, Hans

    2014-05-01

    Accurate estimates of the amount of carbon stored in tropical forests represent crucial baseline data for recent climate change mitigation policies. Such data are needed to quantify possible emissions due to deforestation and forest degradation, and to evaluate the potential of these forests to act as carbon sinks. Currently, only rough estimates of the carbon stocks for Central African tropical forests are available due to a lack of field data, and little is known about the response of these stocks to climate change. We present the first field-based carbon stock data for the Central Congo Basin in Yangambi, Democratic Republic of Congo. We found an average aboveground carbon stock of 162 ± 20 Mg C ha-1 for intact old-growth forest, which is significantly lower than stocks recorded in the outer regions of the Congo Basin. The best available tree height-diameter relationships derived for Central Africa do not render accurate canopy height estimates for our study area. Aboveground carbon stocks would be overestimated by 24% if these inaccurate relationships were used. The studied forests have a lower stature compared with forests in the outer regions of the basin, which confirms remotely sensed patterns. We identified a significant difference in height-diameter relations across the Congo Basin as a driver for spatial differences in carbon stocks. The study of a more detailed interaction of the environment and the available tree species pool as drivers for differences in carbon storage could have large implications. The effect of the species pool on carbon storage can be large since species differ in their ability to sequester carbon, and the collective functional characteristics of plant communities could be a major driver of carbon accumulation. Numerous species-specific tree height-diameter relations are established for two sites around Kisangani, central Congo Basin, with differing stand height-diameter relationships. The species-specific relations for the two

  5. Measuring human rights violations in a conflict-affected country: results from a nationwide cluster survey in Central African Republic

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Measuring human rights violations is particularly challenging during or after armed conflict. A recent nationwide survey in the Central African Republic produced estimates of rates of grave violations against children and adults affected by armed conflict, using an approach known as the "Neighborhood Method". Methods In June and July, 2009, a random household survey was conducted based on population estimates from the 2003 national census. Clusters were assigned systematically proportional to population size. Respondents in randomly selected households were interviewed regarding incidents of killing, intentional injury, recruitment into armed groups, abduction, sexual abuse and rape between January 1, 2008 and the date of interview, occurring in their homes' and those of their three closest neighbors. Results Sixty of the selected 69 clusters were surveyed. In total, 599 women were interviewed about events in 2,370 households representing 13,669 persons. Estimates of annual rates of each violation occurring per 1000 people in each of two strata are provided for children between the ages of five and 17, adults 18 years of age and older and the entire population five years and older, along with a combined and weighted national rate. The national rates for children age five to 17 were estimated to be 0.98/1000/year (95% CI: 0.18 - 1.78) for recruitment, 2.56/1000/year (95% CI: 1.50 - 3.62) for abduction, 1.13/1000/year (95% CI: 0.33 - 1.93) for intentional injury, 10.72/1000 girls/year (95% CI: 7.40 - 14.04) for rape, and 4.80/1000 girls/year (95% CI: 2.61 - 6.00) for sexual abuse. No reports of any violation against a person under the age of five were recorded and there were no reports of rape or sexual abuse of males. No children were reported to have been killed during the recall period. Rape and abduction were the most frequently reported events. Conclusions The population-based figures greatly augment existing information on human rights violations in

  6. Congo Forest Cover

    NASA Video Gallery

    A new analysis of NASA satellite data shows that Africa's Congo rainforest, the second-largest tropical rainforest in the world, has undergone a large-scale decline in greenness over the past decad...

  7. Prevalence of antibodies to alphaviruses and flaviviruses in free-ranging game animals and nonhuman primates in the greater Congo basin.

    PubMed

    Kading, Rebekah C; Borland, Erin M; Cranfield, Mike; Powers, Ann M

    2013-07-01

    Vector-borne and zoonotic pathogens have comprised a significant proportion of the emerging infectious diseases in humans in recent decades. The role of many wildlife species as reservoirs for arthropod-borne viral pathogens is poorly understood. We investigated the exposure history of various African wildlife species from the Congo basin to mosquito-borne flaviviruses and alphaviruses by testing archived serum samples. Sera from 24 African forest buffalo (Syncerus caffer nanus), 34 African elephants (Loxodonta africana), 40 duikers (Cephalophus and Philantomba spp.), 25 mandrills (Mandrillus sphinx), 32 mountain gorillas (Gorilla beringei beringei), five Grauer's gorillas (Gorilla beringei graueri), two L'Hoest's monkeys (Cercopithecus lhoesti), two golden monkeys (Cercopithecus kandti), and three chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) sampled between 1991 and 2009 were tested for antibodies against chikungunya virus (CHIKV), o'nyong-nyong virus (ONNV), West Nile virus (WNV), dengue 2 virus (DENV-2), and yellow fever virus (YFV) by plaque reduction neutralization test. Specific neutralizing antibodies against ONNV were found in African forest buffalo in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) and Gabon, duikers in the DRC, and mandrills in Gabon, providing novel evidence of enzootic circulation of ONNV in these countries. African forest buffalo in the DRC and Gabon also demonstrated evidence of exposure to CHIKV, WNV, and DENV-2, while mandrills in Gabon were antibody positive for CHIKV, DENV-2, WNV, and YFV. All of the elephants tested had a strong neutralizing antibody response to WNV. We also document results from a survey of gorillas for arboviruses, of which 4/32 (13%) had antibody to an alphavirus or flavivirus. Overall, our results demonstrate a high prevalence of neutralizing antibodies against multiple arboviruses in wildlife in equatorial Africa. PMID:23778608

  8. Prevalence of antibodies to alphaviruses and flaviviruses in free-ranging game animals and nonhuman primates in the greater Congo basin.

    PubMed

    Kading, Rebekah C; Borland, Erin M; Cranfield, Mike; Powers, Ann M

    2013-07-01

    Vector-borne and zoonotic pathogens have comprised a significant proportion of the emerging infectious diseases in humans in recent decades. The role of many wildlife species as reservoirs for arthropod-borne viral pathogens is poorly understood. We investigated the exposure history of various African wildlife species from the Congo basin to mosquito-borne flaviviruses and alphaviruses by testing archived serum samples. Sera from 24 African forest buffalo (Syncerus caffer nanus), 34 African elephants (Loxodonta africana), 40 duikers (Cephalophus and Philantomba spp.), 25 mandrills (Mandrillus sphinx), 32 mountain gorillas (Gorilla beringei beringei), five Grauer's gorillas (Gorilla beringei graueri), two L'Hoest's monkeys (Cercopithecus lhoesti), two golden monkeys (Cercopithecus kandti), and three chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) sampled between 1991 and 2009 were tested for antibodies against chikungunya virus (CHIKV), o'nyong-nyong virus (ONNV), West Nile virus (WNV), dengue 2 virus (DENV-2), and yellow fever virus (YFV) by plaque reduction neutralization test. Specific neutralizing antibodies against ONNV were found in African forest buffalo in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) and Gabon, duikers in the DRC, and mandrills in Gabon, providing novel evidence of enzootic circulation of ONNV in these countries. African forest buffalo in the DRC and Gabon also demonstrated evidence of exposure to CHIKV, WNV, and DENV-2, while mandrills in Gabon were antibody positive for CHIKV, DENV-2, WNV, and YFV. All of the elephants tested had a strong neutralizing antibody response to WNV. We also document results from a survey of gorillas for arboviruses, of which 4/32 (13%) had antibody to an alphavirus or flavivirus. Overall, our results demonstrate a high prevalence of neutralizing antibodies against multiple arboviruses in wildlife in equatorial Africa.

  9. Population genetics of Glossina palpalis palpalis from central African sleeping sickness foci

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Glossina palpalis palpalis (Diptera: Glossinidae) is widespread in west Africa, and is the main vector of sleeping sickness in Cameroon as well as in the Bas Congo Province of the Democratic Republic of Congo. However, little is known on the structure of its populations. We investigated G. p. palpalis population genetic structure in five sleeping sickness foci (four in Cameroon, one in Democratic Republic of Congo) using eight microsatellite DNA markers. Results A strong isolation by distance explains most of the population structure observed in our sampling sites of Cameroon and DRC. The populations here are composed of panmictic subpopulations occupying fairly wide zones with a very strong isolation by distance. Effective population sizes are probably between 20 and 300 individuals and if we assume densities between 120 and 2000 individuals per km2, dispersal distance between reproducing adults and their parents extends between 60 and 300 meters. Conclusions This first investigation of population genetic structure of G. p. palpalis in Central Africa has evidenced random mating subpopulations over fairly large areas and is thus at variance with that found in West African populations of G. p. palpalis. This study brings new information on the isolation by distance at a macrogeographic scale which in turn brings useful information on how to organise regional tsetse control. Future investigations should be directed at temporal sampling to have more accurate measures of demographic parameters in order to help vector control decision. PMID:21767402

  10. How to improve fertility of African soils? Leguminous fallows (Cameroon), addition of farmyard manure and mineral fertilizer (Kenya), organic residues management and introduction of N2 fixing species in forest plantations (Congo).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koutika, Lydie-Stella; Mareschal, Louis; Mouanda, Cadeau; Epron, Daniel

    2014-05-01

    Most of African soils are inherently infertile and poor in nutrients mainly nitrogen and phosphorus. Several practices are used to improve soil fertility, increase productivity and ensure their sustainability. Soil fertility in the leguminous fallows was evaluated through particulate organic matter (POM), the more active part of soil organic matter (SOM) in Cameroon. The combination of mineral and organic (manure) fertilizers increased microbial P biomass allowing the release of P along the plant growing period in the Kenyan soils. Organic residues management and introduction of nitrogen fixing species (Acacia) were used to improve soil fertility and sustain forest productivity on the coastal plains of Congo. SOM fractionation was made under Pueraria, Mucuna fallows and natural regrowth mainly Chromolaena and under 3 forest plantation treatments installed in previous savanna: 1) no input, 2) normal input, and 3) double input of organic residues. Microbial P biomass and sequential P fractionation were evaluated in high and low P fixing soils. N, C, available P and pH were determined on soil sampled in acacia (100A), eucalypt (100E) and mixed-species (50A:50E) stands. N and P were determined in aboveground litters and in leaves, bark and wood of trees. The two leguminous fallows increased N content in POM fractions i.e., N >1% for Pueraria and Mucuna against N<1% for natural regrowth in the 0-0.10m depth, probably through N input from N2 fixation from the atmosphere (Cameroon).The addition of mineral fertilizers and farmyard manure increases P biomass (4.8 after 2 weeks to 15.2 after 16 weeks), and then decreased to 9.7 mg P g-1 soil (week 32). It also changes the P Hedley fractions partition in the high P fixing Kenyan soil (0-0.10m). After two rotations (14 years), SOM mineralization was the highest in the double input of organic residues treatment (low coarse POM 5.6 g kg-1 of soil and high organo-mineral fraction (OMF) 115 g kg-1 of soil). The introduction of A

  11. The Potential Financial Costs of Climate Change on Health of Urban and Rural Citizens: A Case Study of Vibrio cholerae Infections at Bukavu Town, South Kivu Province, Eastern of Democratic Republic of Congo

    PubMed Central

    MUNYULI, MB Théodore; KAVUVU, J-M Mbaka; MULINGANYA, Guy; BWINJA, G Mulinganya

    2013-01-01

    Background: Cholera epidemics have a recorded history in eastern Congo dating to 1971. A study was conducted to find out the linkage between climate variability/change and cholera outbreak and to assess the related economic cost in the management of cholera in Congo. Methods: This study integrates historical data (20 years) on temperature and rainfall with the burden of disease from cholera in South-Kivu province, eastern Congo. Results: Analyses of precipitation and temperatures characteristics in South-Kivu provinces showed that cholera epidemics are closely associated with climatic factors variability. Peaks in Cholera new cases were in synchrony with peaks in rainfalls. Cholera infection cases declined significantly (P<0.05) with the rise in the average temperature. The monthly number of new Cholera cases oscillated between 5 and 450. For every rise of the average temperature by 0.35 °C to 0.75 °C degree Celsius, and for every change in the rainfall variability by 10–19%, it is likely cholera infection risks will increase by 17 to 25%. The medical cost of treatment of Cholera case infection was found to be of US$50 to 250 per capita. The total costs of Cholera attributable to climate change were found to fall in the range of 4 to 8% of the per capita in annual income in Bukavu town. Conclusion: It is likely that high rainfall favor multiplication of the bacteria and contamination of water sources by the bacteria (Vibrio cholerae). The consumption of polluted water, promiscuity, population density and lack of hygiene are determinants favoring spread and infection of the bacteria among human beings living in over-crowded environments. PMID:24427750

  12. A Survey of chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes troglodytes) and gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) in the selectively logged Ngotto Forest, Central African Republic.

    PubMed

    Hicks, Thurston C; Fouts, Roger S; Fouts, Deborah H

    2009-01-01

    Currently, the timber company Industrie Forestiere du Batalimo is selectively logging the Ngotto Forest in the Central African Republic. The forest is home to a population of chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes troglodytes) and gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) and provides the Bofi-speaking people of Grima with food, medicine, housing material, and other commodities. Over a 7-month period, the research team conducted a line-transect survey of the great ape population in the forests to the south of Grima to document their distribution. For comparison purposes, the team also surveyed a section of adjacent forest that had already been logged. Ape nests were significantly rarer in the logged forest than in the unlogged forest, and ape nests were most common in the more pristine forests to the south. This report further discusses the effects of logging and other human activities.

  13. Strongyloides infections of humans and great apes in Dzanga-Sangha Protected Areas, Central African Republic and in degraded forest fragments in Bulindi, Uganda.

    PubMed

    Hasegawa, Hideo; Kalousova, Barbora; McLennan, Matthew R; Modry, David; Profousova-Psenkova, Ilona; Shutt-Phillips, Kathryn A; Todd, Angelique; Huffman, Michael A; Petrzelkova, Klara J

    2016-10-01

    DNA sequence analysis was carried out on Strongyloides spp. larvae obtained from fecal samples of local humans, a wild western lowland gorilla (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) and a central chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes troglodytes) inhabiting Dzanga-Sangha Protected Areas (DSPA), Central African Republic, and eastern chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii) living in degraded forest fragments on farmland in Bulindi, Uganda. From humans, both Strongyloides fuelleborni and Strongyloides stercoralis were recorded, though the former was predominant. Only S. fuelleborni was present in the great apes in both areas. Phylogenetic analysis of partial mtDNA cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene (Cox1) and comparison of 18S rDNA hyper variable region IV (HVR-IV) sequences implied that in DSPA S. fuelleborni populations in humans differ from those in the nonhuman great apes. PMID:27180094

  14. [Sexual violence in Congo-Kinshasa: necessity of decriminalizing abortion].

    PubMed

    Kalonda, J C Omba

    2012-01-01

    The sexual violence's committed in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) are from their scales and consequences on women, real public health, politico-legal, and socio-economical challenges. More than a million of women have been victims of sexual violence on a period of less than fifteen years. Systematic rapes of women were used as war weapon by different groups involved in the Congolese war. Sexual violence against women has impacted public health by spreading sexually transmissible diseases including HIV/AIDS, causing unwanted pregnancies, leading to the gynaecological complications of rape-related injuries, and inflicting psychological trauma on the victims. Despite high level of unwanted pregnancies observed, the Congolese law is very restrictive and interdict induced abortion. This paper presents three arguments which plead in favour of legalizing abortion in DRC: 1) a restrictive law on abortion forces women to use unsafe abortion and increase incidence of injuries and maternal mortality ; 2) DRC has ratified the universal Declaration of human rights, the African union charter, and has than to promote equality between sexes, in this is included women reproductive rights; 3) an unwanted birth is an additional financial charge for a woman, a factor increasing poverty and psychologically unacceptable in case of rape. From the politico-legal point of view, ending rape impunity and decriminalizing abortion are recommended. Decriminalizing abortion give women choice and save victims and pregnant women from risks related to the pregnancy, a childbirth, or an eventual unsafe abortion. These risks increase the maternal mortality already high in DRC (between 950 and 3000 for 100000 live births).

  15. Cooperation on Congo Volcanic and Environmental Risks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tedesco, D.; Badiali, L.; Boschi, E.; Papale, P.; Tassi, F.; Vaselli, O.; Kasereka, C.; Durieux, J.; DeNatale, G.; Amato, A.; Cattaneo, M.; Ciraba, H.; Chirico, G. D.; Delladio, A.; Demartin, M.; Favalli, G.; Franceschi, D.; Lauciani, V.; Mavonga, G.; Monachesi, G.; Pagliuca, N. M.; Sorrentino, D.; Yalire, M.

    2007-04-01

    On 17 January 2002, the Nyiragongo volcano (1.52°S, 29.25°E, 3469 meters above sea level), located about 18 kilometers north of Lake Kivu in the Democratic Republic of Congo, erupted, releasing a volume of 14-34 million cubic meters of lava. Lava flows originated from north-south oriented fractures that rapidly developed along the southern flank of the volcano. Two lava flows divided the nearby city of Goma (~500,000 people) into two parts, forcing a rapid exodus of the population into Rwanda. One of these lava flows ran into Lake Kivu, encroaching 60 meters below lake level with a submerged lava volume of 1 million cubic meters. About 15% of the town was directly affected, leaving approximately 120,000 people homeless. At least 170 people died as a direct consequence of the eruption.

  16. Discharge and other hydraulic measurements for characterizing the hydraulics of Lower Congo River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Oberg, Kevin; Shelton, John M.; Gardiner, Ned; Jackson, P. Ryan

    2009-01-01

    The first direct measurements of discharge of the Lower Congo River below Malebo Pool and upstream from Kinganga, Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) were made in July 2008 using acoustic Doppler current profilers, differential GPS, and echo sounders. These measurements were made in support of research that is attempting to understand the distribution of fish species in the Lower Congo River and reasons for separation of species within this large river. Analyses of these measurements show that the maximum depth in the Lower Congo River was in excess of 200 m and maximum water velocities were greater than 4 m/s. The discharge measured near Luozi, DRC was 35,800 m3/s, and decreased slightly beginning midway through the study. Local bedrock controls seem to have a large effect on the flow in the river, even in reaches without waterfalls and rapids. Dramatic changes in bed topography are evident in transects across the river.

  17. "Was it a mistake to tell others that you are infected with HIV?": factors associated with regret following HIV disclosure among people living with HIV in five countries (Mali, Morocco, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Ecuador and Romania). Results from a community-based research.

    PubMed

    Henry, Emilie; Bernier, Adeline; Lazar, Florin; Matamba, Gaspard; Loukid, Mohamed; Bonifaz, Cesar; Diop, Samba; Otis, Joanne; Préau, Marie

    2015-02-01

    This study examined regret following HIV serostatus disclosure and associated factors in under-investigated contexts (Mali, Morocco, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Ecuador and Romania). A community-based cross-sectional study was implemented by a mixed consortium [researchers/community-based organizations (CBO)]. Trained CBO members interviewed 1,500 PLHIV in contact with CBOs using a 125-item questionnaire. A weighted multivariate logistic regression was performed. Among the 1,212 participants included in the analysis, 290 (23.9 %) declared that disclosure was a mistake. Female gender, percentage of PLHIV's network knowing about one's seropositivity from a third party, having suffered rejection after disclosure, having suffered HIV-based discrimination at work, perceived seriousness of infection score, daily loneliness, property index and self-esteem score were independently associated with regret. Discrimination, as well as individual characteristics and skills may affect the disclosure experience. Interventions aiming at improving PLHIV skills and reducing their social isolation may facilitate the disclosure process and avoid negative consequences. PMID:25533922

  18. "Was it a mistake to tell others that you are infected with HIV?": factors associated with regret following HIV disclosure among people living with HIV in five countries (Mali, Morocco, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Ecuador and Romania). Results from a community-based research.

    PubMed

    Henry, Emilie; Bernier, Adeline; Lazar, Florin; Matamba, Gaspard; Loukid, Mohamed; Bonifaz, Cesar; Diop, Samba; Otis, Joanne; Préau, Marie

    2015-02-01

    This study examined regret following HIV serostatus disclosure and associated factors in under-investigated contexts (Mali, Morocco, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Ecuador and Romania). A community-based cross-sectional study was implemented by a mixed consortium [researchers/community-based organizations (CBO)]. Trained CBO members interviewed 1,500 PLHIV in contact with CBOs using a 125-item questionnaire. A weighted multivariate logistic regression was performed. Among the 1,212 participants included in the analysis, 290 (23.9 %) declared that disclosure was a mistake. Female gender, percentage of PLHIV's network knowing about one's seropositivity from a third party, having suffered rejection after disclosure, having suffered HIV-based discrimination at work, perceived seriousness of infection score, daily loneliness, property index and self-esteem score were independently associated with regret. Discrimination, as well as individual characteristics and skills may affect the disclosure experience. Interventions aiming at improving PLHIV skills and reducing their social isolation may facilitate the disclosure process and avoid negative consequences.

  19. Staphylococcus aureus complex from animals and humans in three remote African regions.

    PubMed

    Schaumburg, Frieder; Pauly, Maude; Anoh, Etile; Mossoun, Arsene; Wiersma, Lidewij; Schubert, Grit; Flammen, Arnaud; Alabi, Abraham S; Muyembe-Tamfum, Jean-Jacques; Grobusch, Martin P; Karhemere, Stomy; Akoua-Koffi, Chantal; Couacy-Hymann, Emmanuel; Kremsner, Peter G; Mellmann, Alexander; Becker, Karsten; Leendertz, Fabian H; Peters, Georg

    2015-04-01

    Staphylococcus schweitzeri has been recently considered to be a highly divergent Staphylococcus aureus clade and usually colonises nonhuman primates and bats in sub-Saharan Africa. Its transmissibility to humans remains unclear. We therefore investigated the transmission of S. aureus and S. schweitzeri among humans, domestic animals, and wildlife in three remote African regions. A cross-sectional study on nasal and pharyngeal colonisation in humans (n = 1288) and animals (n = 698) was performed in Côte d'Ivoire, Gabon, and Democratic Republic of Congo (DR Congo). Isolates were subjected to spa typing and multilocus sequence typing. Antimicrobial susceptibility and selected virulence factors were tested. S. schweitzeri was found in monkeys from all study sites but no transmission to humans was evident, despite frequent contact of humans with wildlife. In contrast, human-associated S. aureus sequence types (ST1, ST6, ST15) were detected in domestic animals and nonhuman primates, pointing toward a human-to-monkey transmission in the wild. The proportion of methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) among all S. aureus was 0% (Gabon), 1.7% (DR Congo), and 5.3% (Côte d'Ivoire). The majority of MRSA isolates belonged to the African clone ST88. In conclusion, we did not find any evidence for a transmission of S. schweitzeri from animals to humans. However, such a transmission might remain possible due to the close phylogenetic relation of humans and nonhuman primates. The ST88-MRSA clone was widespread in Côte d'Ivoire but not in Gabon and DR Congo.

  20. A model to predict when a cholera outbreak might hit the Congo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schultz, Colin

    2014-09-01

    In 2011, as many as 600,000 people in 58 countries contracted cholera, with thousands succumbing to the disease. In most countries, cholera is rare. In others, like the Democratic Republic of the Congo, cholera is an endemic threat, always lurking in the background waiting for the right set of conditions to spark an outbreak.

  1. The Congo basin zonal overturning circulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neupane, Naresh

    2016-06-01

    The Gulf of Guinea in the equatorial Atlantic is characterized by the presence of strong subsidence at certain times of the year. This subsidence appears in June and becomes well established from July to September. Since much of theWest African monsoon flow originates over the Gulf, Guinean subsidence is important for determining moisture sources for the monsoon. Using reanalysis products, I contribute to a physical understanding of what causes this seasonal subsidence, and how it relates to precipitation distributions across West Africa. There is a seasonal zonal overturning circulation above the Congo basin and the Gulf of Guinea in the ERA-Interim, ERA-40, NCEP2, and MERRA reanalyses. The up-branch is located in the Congo basin around 20°E. Mid-tropospheric easterly flows constitute the returning-branch and sinking over the Gulf of Guinea forms the down-branch, which diverges at 2°W near the surface, with winds to the east flowing eastward to complete the circulation. This circulation is driven by surface temperature differences between the eastern Gulf and Congo basin. Land temperatures remain almost uniform, around 298 K, throughout a year, but the Guinean temperatures cool rapidly from 294 K in May to about 290 K in August. These temperature changes increase the ocean/land temperature contrast, up to 8 K, and drive the circulation. I hypothesize that when the overturning circulation is anomalously strong, the northward moisture transport and Sahelian precipitation are also strong. This hypothesis is supported by ERA-Interim and PERSIANN-CDR (Precipitation Estimation from Remotely Sensed Information using Artificial Neural Networks-Climate Data Record) data.

  2. "Reading" Central African Skies - A Case Study from Southeastern DRC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, Allen F.

    Little is known of the local astronomies of central Africa, and because of decades of horrific civil strife, this is particularly true of the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC). The present case study combines archival consideration of unpublished letters by earliest European visitors with ethnographic research in the mid-1970s among Tabwa and related peoples living along the western shores of and inland from Lake Tanganyika. Early data are very sparse, and in more recent days local astronomy is little-developed; but hypotheses are nonetheless possible about how people understood the regularities of the heavens as well as astonishing events like the apparition of Sungrazer Comets of the 1880s. A mnemonic logic shared by Tabwa, Luba, and other regional groups that was sometimes given material form or realized through performance arts may have informed how central African skies were "read" in earlier times.

  3. Forest elephant crisis in the Congo Basin.

    PubMed

    Blake, Stephen; Strindberg, Samantha; Boudjan, Patrick; Makombo, Calixte; Bila-Isia, Inogwabini; Ilambu, Omari; Grossmann, Falk; Bene-Bene, Lambert; de Semboli, Bruno; Mbenzo, Valentin; S'hwa, Dino; Bayogo, Rosine; Williamson, Liz; Fay, Mike; Hart, John; Maisels, Fiona

    2007-04-01

    Debate over repealing the ivory trade ban dominates conferences of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES). Resolving this controversy requires accurate estimates of elephant population trends and rates of illegal killing. Most African savannah elephant populations are well known; however, the status of forest elephants, perhaps a distinct species, in the vast Congo Basin is unclear. We assessed population status and incidence of poaching from line-transect and reconnaissance surveys conducted on foot in sites throughout the Congo Basin. Results indicate that the abundance and range of forest elephants are threatened from poaching that is most intense close to roads. The probability of elephant presence increased with distance to roads, whereas that of human signs declined. At all distances from roads, the probability of elephant occurrence was always higher inside, compared to outside, protected areas, whereas that of humans was always lower. Inside protected areas, forest elephant density was correlated with the size of remote forest core, but not with size of protected area. Forest elephants must be prioritised in elephant management planning at the continental scale.

  4. Forest elephant crisis in the Congo Basin.

    PubMed

    Blake, Stephen; Strindberg, Samantha; Boudjan, Patrick; Makombo, Calixte; Bila-Isia, Inogwabini; Ilambu, Omari; Grossmann, Falk; Bene-Bene, Lambert; de Semboli, Bruno; Mbenzo, Valentin; S'hwa, Dino; Bayogo, Rosine; Williamson, Liz; Fay, Mike; Hart, John; Maisels, Fiona

    2007-04-01

    Debate over repealing the ivory trade ban dominates conferences of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES). Resolving this controversy requires accurate estimates of elephant population trends and rates of illegal killing. Most African savannah elephant populations are well known; however, the status of forest elephants, perhaps a distinct species, in the vast Congo Basin is unclear. We assessed population status and incidence of poaching from line-transect and reconnaissance surveys conducted on foot in sites throughout the Congo Basin. Results indicate that the abundance and range of forest elephants are threatened from poaching that is most intense close to roads. The probability of elephant presence increased with distance to roads, whereas that of human signs declined. At all distances from roads, the probability of elephant occurrence was always higher inside, compared to outside, protected areas, whereas that of humans was always lower. Inside protected areas, forest elephant density was correlated with the size of remote forest core, but not with size of protected area. Forest elephants must be prioritised in elephant management planning at the continental scale. PMID:17407383

  5. Forest Elephant Crisis in the Congo Basin

    PubMed Central

    Blake, Stephen; Strindberg, Samantha; Boudjan, Patrick; Makombo, Calixte; Bila-Isia, Inogwabini; Ilambu, Omari; Grossmann, Falk; Bene-Bene, Lambert; de Semboli, Bruno; Mbenzo, Valentin; S'hwa, Dino; Bayogo, Rosine; Williamson, Liz; Fay, Mike; Hart, John; Maisels, Fiona

    2007-01-01

    Debate over repealing the ivory trade ban dominates conferences of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES). Resolving this controversy requires accurate estimates of elephant population trends and rates of illegal killing. Most African savannah elephant populations are well known; however, the status of forest elephants, perhaps a distinct species, in the vast Congo Basin is unclear. We assessed population status and incidence of poaching from line-transect and reconnaissance surveys conducted on foot in sites throughout the Congo Basin. Results indicate that the abundance and range of forest elephants are threatened from poaching that is most intense close to roads. The probability of elephant presence increased with distance to roads, whereas that of human signs declined. At all distances from roads, the probability of elephant occurrence was always higher inside, compared to outside, protected areas, whereas that of humans was always lower. Inside protected areas, forest elephant density was correlated with the size of remote forest core, but not with size of protected area. Forest elephants must be prioritised in elephant management planning at the continental scale. PMID:17407383

  6. Time and Origin of Cichlid Colonization of the Lower Congo Rapids

    PubMed Central

    Schwarzer, Julia; Misof, Bernhard; Ifuta, Seraphin N.; Schliewen, Ulrich K.

    2011-01-01

    Most freshwater diversity is arguably located in networks of rivers and streams, but, in contrast to lacustrine systems riverine radiations, are largely understudied. The extensive rapids of the lower Congo River is one of the few river stretches inhabited by a locally endemic cichlid species flock as well as several species pairs, for which we provide evidence that they have radiated in situ. We use more that 2,000 AFLP markers as well as multilocus sequence datasets to reconstruct their origin, phylogenetic history, as well as the timing of colonization and speciation of two Lower Congo cichlid genera, Steatocranus and Nanochromis. Based on a representative taxon sampling and well resolved phylogenetic hypotheses we demonstrate that a high level of riverine diversity originated in the lower Congo within about 5 mya, which is concordant with age estimates for the hydrological origin of the modern lower Congo River. A spatial genetic structure is present in all widely distributed lineages corresponding to a trisection of the lower Congo River into major biogeographic areas, each with locally endemic species assemblages. With the present study, we provide a phylogenetic framework for a complex system that may serve as a link between African riverine cichlid diversity and the megadiverse cichlid radiations of the East African lakes. Beyond this we give for the first time a biologically estimated age for the origin of the lower Congo River rapids, one of the most extreme freshwater habitats on earth. PMID:21799840

  7. Identification of Ebola virus sequences present as RNA or DNA in organs of terrestrial small mammals of the Central African Republic.

    PubMed

    Morvan, J M; Deubel, V; Gounon, P; Nakouné, E; Barrière, P; Murri, S; Perpète, O; Selekon, B; Coudrier, D; Gautier-Hion, A; Colyn, M; Volehkov, V

    1999-12-01

    The life cycle of the Ebola (EBO) virus remains enigmatic. We tested for EBO virus in the organs of 242 small mammals captured during ecological studies in the Central African Republic. EBO virus glycoprotein or polymerase gene sequences were detected by reverse transcription PCR in RNA extracts of the organs of seven animals and by PCR in DNA extract of one animal. Neither live virus nor virus antigen was detected in any organ sample. Direct sequencing of amplicons identified the virus as being of the Zaire/Gabon subtype. Virus-like nucleocapsids were observed by electron microscopy in the cytoplasm of the spleen cells of one animal. The animals belonged to two genera of rodents (Muridae; Mus setulosus, Praomys sp1 and P. sp2) and one species of shrew (Soricidae; Sylvisorex ollula). These preliminary results provide evidence that common terrestrial small mammals living in peripheral forest areas have been in contact with the EBO virus and demonstrate the persistence of EBO virus RNA and DNA in the organs of the animals. Our findings should lead to better targeting of research into the life cycle of the EBO virus. PMID:10580275

  8. Rational case management of malaria with a rapid diagnostic test, Paracheck Pf®, in antenatal health care in Bangui, Central African Republic

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Both treatment and prevention strategies are recommended by the World Health Organization for the control of malaria during pregnancy in tropical areas. The aim of this study was to assess use of a rapid diagnostic test for prompt management of malaria in pregnancy in Bangui, Central African Republic. Methods A cohort of 76 pregnant women was screened systematically for malaria with ParacheckPf® at each antenatal visit. The usefulness of the method was analysed by comparing the number of malaria episodes requiring treatment in the cohort with the number of prescriptions received by another group of pregnant women followed-up in routine antenatal care. Results In the cohort group, the proportion of positive ParacheckPf® episodes during antenatal clinics visits was 13.8%, while episodes of antimalarial prescriptions in the group which was followed-up routinely by antenatal personnel was estimated at 26.3%. Hence, the relative risk of the cohort for being prescribed an antimalarial drug was 0.53. Therefore, the attributable fraction of presumptive treatment avoided by systematic screening with ParacheckPf® was 47%. Conclusions Use of a rapid diagnostic test is useful, affordable and easy for adequate treatment of malaria in pregnant women. More powerful studies of the usefulness of introducing the test into antenatal care are needed in all heath centres in the country and in other tropical areas. PMID:22734602

  9. Initial deployment of the 14th Parachutist Forward Surgical Team at the beginning of the operation Sangaris in Central African Republic.

    PubMed

    Malgras, Brice; Barbier, Olivier; Pasquier, Pierre; Petit, Ludovic; Polycarpe, Aristide; Rigal, Sylvain; Pons, Francois

    2015-05-01

    As part of the operation Sangaris begun in December 2013 in the Central African Republic, the 14th Parachutist Forward Surgical Team (FST) was deployed to support French troops. The FST (role 2 in the NATO classification) is a mobile surgical-medical treatment facility. The main goal of the FST is to assure the initial damage control surgery and resuscitation for combat casualties, allowing for the early evacuation to combat support hospitals (roles 3 or 4), where further treatments are completed. During the first trimester of the operation Sangaris, 42 patients were treated at FST, of whom 29 underwent surgery. Almost 50% of patients operated on were French servicemen. All admissions were emergency admissions. Orthopedic surgery represented two-thirds of surgical interventions executed as a result of the high proportion of limb injuries. Fifty percent of injuries were specifically linked to combat. Surgery in an FST is primarily dedicated to the treatment of combat casualties with hemorrhagic injuries, but additionally plays a part in supporting general medical care of French troops. Medical aid to the general civilian population is justifiable because of the presence of medical treatment facilities, even in the initial implementation of a military operation. PMID:25939107

  10. [Contents of macromineral and trace elements in spirulina (Arthrospira platensis) from France, Chad, Togo, Niger, Mali, Burkina-Faso and Central African Republic].

    PubMed

    Vicat, Jean-Paul; Doumnang Mbaigane, Jean-Claude; Bellion, Yves

    2014-01-01

    Data on mineral elements in spirulinas being limited, we analyzed macrominerals and trace elements of samples from France and Africa. Spirulinas cultivated in France have a composition in macromineral elements similar to those of the literature. The entire contents of trace elements are low. Unlike marine cyanobacteria, they do not concentrate rare-earth elements. Spirulina harvested in Chad has high levels in macrominerals and trace elements, due to traditional drying and harvesting methods. Rare-earth element levels are attributed to this pollution and not to their concentration in spirulinas, because rare-earth element normalized profiles of spirulina are strictly parallel to those of ouadis mud and very different from those of ouadis water. Despite the sometimes high content of total As, normal water consumption in Chad presents no health problems. Spirulinas grown in Togo, Niger, Mali, Burkina-Faso and Central African Republic have chemical compositions similar to those of Chad spirulinas, but with a lower content of macromineral and trace elements, reflecting a lower mineral pollution. Rare-earth element normalized patterns dismiss an aeolian pollution and the pollution is rather of pedological origin. They show no toxicity problem except spirulinas from Burkina-Faso, whose Pb content is too high. The variability of composition of spirulinas can be largely attributed to the mineral pollution of the samples. Significant levels of rare-earth elements sometimes found in the literature reflect this pollution.

  11. Temporal Patterns of Abundance of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) and Mitochondrial DNA Analysis of Ae. albopictus in the Central African Republic

    PubMed Central

    Kamgang, Basile; Ngoagouni, Carine; Manirakiza, Alexandre; Nakouné, Emmanuel; Paupy, Christophe; Kazanji, Mirdad

    2013-01-01

    The invasive Asian tiger mosquito Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) was first reported in central Africa in 2000, in Cameroon, with the indigenous mosquito species Ae. aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae). Today, this invasive species is present in almost all countries of the region, including the Central African Republic (CAR), where it was first recorded in 2009. As invasive species of mosquitoes can affect the distribution of native species, resulting in new patterns of vectors and concomitant risk for disease, we undertook a comparative study early and late in the wet season in the capital and the main cities of CAR to document infestation and the ecological preferences of the two species. In addition, we determined the probable geographical origin of invasive populations of Ae. albopictus with two mitochondrial DNA genes, COI and ND5. Analysis revealed that Ae. aegypti was more abundant earlier in the wet season and Ae. albopictus in the late wet season. Used tyres were the most heavily colonized productive larval habitats for both species in both seasons. The invasive species Ae. albopictus predominated over the resident species at all sites in which the two species were sympatric. Mitochondrial DNA analysis revealed broad low genetic diversity, confirming recent introduction of Ae. albopictus in CAR. Phylogeographical analysis based on COI polymorphism indicated that the Ae. albopictus haplotype in the CAR population segregated into two lineages, suggesting multiple sources of Ae. albopictus. These data may have important implications for vector control strategies in central Africa. PMID:24349596

  12. [Complications observed in the treatment of trypanosomiasis in the Congo].

    PubMed

    Ginoux, P Y; Bissadidi, N; Frezil, J L

    1984-01-01

    The authors present the results obtained in the treatment of 453 sleeping sickness (T. gambiense) patients in the People's Republic of the Congo. They give the following conclusions: The mortality rate reaches 2,75% in the group of patients treated by melarsoprol and is nil in the group treated with pentamidin. The encephalitis rate is 2,1 per 100 series of melarsoprol. The treatment of encephalopathies with adrenaline according to the protocol of SINA gives very good results and should be generalized.

  13. Seroepidemiology of HIV, syphilis and hepatitis B and C viruses among blood donors in Bangui, Central African Republic.

    PubMed

    Nambei, W S; Rawago-Mandjiza, D; Gbangbangai, E

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the seroprevalence of HIV, the hepatitis B and C viruses, and syphilis as well the risk factors for these diseases among blood donors in Bangui, Central Africa Republic. This cross-sectional study examined samples from donors giving blood in August and September, 2013. HIV1/2 antibodies was screened with the Determine and Unigold HIV tests. Hepatitis B surface antigens were detected by sandwich immunochromatographic methods (DIAspot HBsAg test), and antibodies to HCV by the DIAspot test strip. Syphilis was diagnosed with the VDRL and TPHA methods (Omega Diagnostic, UK). The Chi(2) test was used for statistical analysis. The study included samples from 551 individuals, 350 (63.52%) of whom were frequent volunteer donors. In all, 132 (23.95%) were infected with at least one pathogen. The overall seroprevalence rate was 8.89% for HBV, 4.72% for HCV, 4.36% for syphilis, and 5.98% for HIV. Eight patients had two concomitant infections, with HIV-HBV the most common combination. Compared to long-term volunteers, first-time donors were more often infected by at least one of the pathogens we screened for, most especially HVB (OR = 5.06; 95% CI = 4.22-7.11) and syphilis (OR = 2.05; 95% CI = 2.02-7.44). Our findings indicate the high seroprevalence of transfusion-transmitted infections in blood donated in Bangui. The most common combined infections were HIV-HBV. The most common risk factor was a family history of HBV infection, and especially, mother-child transmission. PMID:27412978

  14. Nyiragongo Volcano Erupts in the Congo

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Mount Nyiragongo, located in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, erupted today (January 17, 2002), ejecting a large cloud of smoke and ash high into the sky and spewing lava down three sides of the volcano. Mount Nyiragongo is located roughly 10 km (6 miles) north of the town of Goma, near the Congo's border with Rwanda. According to news reports, one river of lava is headed straight toward Goma, where international aid teams are evacuating residents. Already, the lava flows have burned through large swaths of the surrounding jungle and have destroyed dozens of homes. This false-color image was acquired today (January 17) by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) roughly 5 hours after the eruption began. Notice Mount Nyiragongo's large plume (bright white) can be seen streaming westward in this scene. The plume appears to be higher than the immediately adjacent clouds and so it is colder in temperature, making it easy for MODIS to distinguish the volcanic plume from the clouds by using image bands sensitive to thermal radiation. Images of the eruption using other band combinations are located on the MODIS Rapid Response System. Nyiragongo eruptions are extremely hazardous because the lava tends to be very fluid and travels down the slopes of the volcano quickly. Eruptions can be large and spectacular, and flows can reach up to 10s of kilometers from the volcano very quickly. Also, biomass burned from Nyriagongo, and nearby Mount Nyamuragira, eruptions tends to create clouds of smoke that adversely affect the Mountain Gorillas living in the adjacent mountain chain. Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC

  15. [Human African trypanosomiasis in an urban area: an emerging problem?].

    PubMed

    Louis, F J; Bilenge, C M; Simarro, P P; Meso, V Kande; Lucas, P; Jannin, J

    2003-08-01

    The human African trypanosomiasis is essentially a rural disease. The notification of cases in urban area has always been incidental; either a diagnosis made in town revealed a disease contracted in rural environment or it meant the preservation of a complete epidemiological cycle in a remaining urban micro-focus. In Kinshasa, in Democratic Republic of Congo, about forty cases have been notified each year. All of them came from the nearby foci of Bandundu, Lower Congo and Kasaï. In 1996 the number of cases reached suddenly 254 and today the average annual number comes up to 500 in spite of all the efforts undertaken to fight the disease. A study of cases in 1998 and 1999 shows that patients are essentially distributed in suburbs and that the most affected by the disease are the 15-49 year old ones whose job is related with agricultural or fishing activities. Two phenomena seem to explain this sudden increase: the massive inflow of refugees in outskirts of town coming from provinces where trypanosomiasis is endemic and a major economic crisis throwing out urban population in suburbs living on a subsistence micro-agriculture. These concomitant factors have contributed to the setting up of a trypanosomiasis belt around the capital. Today a strategy has to be reconsidered in order to fight against the disease in the capital itself and to make the medical staff aware of the diagnosis of a disease still unknown in their sanitary district.

  16. Behavioral responses of one western lowland gorilla (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) group at Bai Hokou, Central African Republic, to tourists, researchers and trackers.

    PubMed

    Klailova, Michelle; Hodgkinson, Chloe; Lee, Phyllis C

    2010-09-01

    Gorilla tourism, widely perceived as a lucrative industry, is propelled by strong market demand with programs in five countries and for three of four gorilla subspecies. Human presence may negatively affect wild gorillas, potentially lowering immunity and increasing the likelihood of acquiring human-borne disease. Yet, behavioral impacts of humans on wild gorilla behavior remain largely unexplored, particularly for western lowland gorillas. We evaluate the impact of tourist presence, human observer numbers (tourists, trackers, and researchers), and human observer distance on the behavior of one habituated gorilla group at Bai Hokou, Central African Republic. Behavioral data were collected for more than 12 months from January 2007. Of silverback aggressive events, 39% (N=229) were human directed, but 65% were low-level soft barks. Adult females, and one in particular, were responsible for the highest number of aggressive events toward humans. Humans maintained closer proximity to the silverback when tourists were present, although tourist numbers had no significant impact on overall group activity budgets or rates of human-directed aggression. However, as research team size increased, group feeding rates decreased. Close observer-silverback distance correlated with a decrease in his feeding rates and an increase in human monitoring. He directed less aggression toward observers at distances >10 m, although observers spent 48.5% of time between 6 and 10 m of the silverback. We discuss gorilla personality as a factor in human-directed aggression. We explore whether the current 7 m distance limit governing gorilla tourism, based on disease transmission risks, is sufficient considering the potential behavioral stressor of close human presence. We recommend increasing minimum observation distance to >10 m where possible, decreasing observer group sizes, particularly after a visit consisting of maximum numbers and restricting tourist access to 1 visit/day. PMID:20806337

  17. Behavioral responses of one western lowland gorilla (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) group at Bai Hokou, Central African Republic, to tourists, researchers and trackers.

    PubMed

    Klailova, Michelle; Hodgkinson, Chloe; Lee, Phyllis C

    2010-09-01

    Gorilla tourism, widely perceived as a lucrative industry, is propelled by strong market demand with programs in five countries and for three of four gorilla subspecies. Human presence may negatively affect wild gorillas, potentially lowering immunity and increasing the likelihood of acquiring human-borne disease. Yet, behavioral impacts of humans on wild gorilla behavior remain largely unexplored, particularly for western lowland gorillas. We evaluate the impact of tourist presence, human observer numbers (tourists, trackers, and researchers), and human observer distance on the behavior of one habituated gorilla group at Bai Hokou, Central African Republic. Behavioral data were collected for more than 12 months from January 2007. Of silverback aggressive events, 39% (N=229) were human directed, but 65% were low-level soft barks. Adult females, and one in particular, were responsible for the highest number of aggressive events toward humans. Humans maintained closer proximity to the silverback when tourists were present, although tourist numbers had no significant impact on overall group activity budgets or rates of human-directed aggression. However, as research team size increased, group feeding rates decreased. Close observer-silverback distance correlated with a decrease in his feeding rates and an increase in human monitoring. He directed less aggression toward observers at distances >10 m, although observers spent 48.5% of time between 6 and 10 m of the silverback. We discuss gorilla personality as a factor in human-directed aggression. We explore whether the current 7 m distance limit governing gorilla tourism, based on disease transmission risks, is sufficient considering the potential behavioral stressor of close human presence. We recommend increasing minimum observation distance to >10 m where possible, decreasing observer group sizes, particularly after a visit consisting of maximum numbers and restricting tourist access to 1 visit/day.

  18. Molecular characterization of human enteroviruses in the Central African Republic: uncovering wide diversity and identification of a new human enterovirus A71 genogroup.

    PubMed

    Bessaud, Maël; Pillet, Sylvie; Ibrahim, Wafa; Joffret, Marie-Line; Pozzetto, Bruno; Delpeyroux, Francis; Gouandjika-Vasilache, Ionela

    2012-05-01

    Human enteroviruses (HEV) are among the most common viruses infecting humans. Their circulation has been widely studied in most parts of the world but not in sub-Saharan Africa, where poliomyelitis remains prevalent. We report here the molecular characterization of 98 nonpoliovirus (non-PV) HEV strains isolated from 93 randomly selected cell culture-positive supernatants from stool samples collected from 1997 through 2006 from children with acute flaccid paralysis living in the Central African Republic (CAR). The isolates were typed by sequencing the VP1 coding region and sequenced further in the VP2 coding region, and phylogenetic studies were carried out. Among the 98 VP1 sequences, 3, 74, 18, and 3 were found to belong to the HEV-A, -B, -C, and -D species, respectively. Overall, 42 types were detected. In most cases, the VP2 type was correlated with that of the VP1 region. Some of the isolates belonged to lineages that also contain viruses isolated in distant countries, while others belonged to lineages containing viruses isolated only in Africa. In particular, one isolate (type EV-A71) did not fall into any of the genogroups already described, indicating the existence of a previously unknown genogroup for this type. These results illustrate the considerable diversity of HEV isolates from the stools of paralyzed children in the CAR. The presence of diverse HEV-C types makes recombination between poliovirus and other HEV-C species possible and could promote the emergence of recombinant vaccine-derived polioviruses similar to those that have been implicated in repeated poliomyelitis outbreaks in several developing countries.

  19. Description of Kibdelosporangium banguiense sp. nov., a novel actinomycete isolated from soil of the forest of Pama, on the plateau of Bangui, Central African Republic.

    PubMed

    Pascual, Javier; González, Ignacio; Estévez, Mar; Benito, Patricia; Trujillo, Martha E; Genilloud, Olga

    2016-05-01

    A novel actinomycete strain F-240,109(T) from the MEDINA collection was isolated from a soil sample collected in the forest of Pama, on the plateau of Bangui, Central African Republic. The strain was identified according to its 16S rRNA gene sequence as a new member of the genus Kibdelosporangium, being closely related to Kibdelosporangium aridum subsp. aridum (98.6 % sequence similarity), Kibledosporangium phytohabitans (98.3 %), Kibdelosporangium aridum subsp. largum (97.7 %), Kibdelosporangium philippinense (97.6 %) and Kibledosporangium lantanae (96.9 %). In order to resolve its precise taxonomic status, the strain was characterised through a polyphasic approach. The strain is a Gram-stain positive, aerobic, non-motile and catalase-positive actinomycete characterised by formation of extensively branched substrate mycelia and sparse brownish grey aerial mycelia with sporangium-like globular structures. The chemotaxonomic characterisation of strain F-240,109(T) corroborated its affiliation into the genus Kibdelosporangium. The peptidoglycan contains meso-diaminopimelic acid; the major menaquinone is MK-9(H4); the phospholipid profile contains high amounts of phosphatidylethanolamine, hydroxyphosphatidylethanolamine, diphosphatidylglycerol and an unidentified phospholipid; and the predominant cellular fatty acid methyl esters are iso-C16:0, iso-C14:0, iso-C15:0 and 2OH iso-C16:0. However, some key phenotypic differences regarding to its close relatives and DNA-DNA hybridization values indicate that strain F-240,109(T) represents a novel Kibdelosporangium species, for which the name Kibdelosporangium banguiense sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is strain F-240,109(T) (=DSM 46670(T), =LMG 28181(T)). PMID:26936255

  20. The Finnish forward surgical team: lessons from the European Union Forces Operation République Démocratique du Congo.

    PubMed

    Lauri, Handolin; Olli, Kiviluoto

    2008-05-01

    The European Union Forces Operation République Démocratique du Congo in the Democratic Republic of the Congo in 2006 was the first operation planned and conducted solely by the European Union Forces. The Finnish forward surgical team (FST) was deployed for 4 months in Kinshasa, the capital of the Democratic Republic of the Congo. Because of the peacekeeping nature of the operation, the surgical workload was light and the total number of patients treated by the FST was 12. However, there is an obvious need to establish similar surgical assets in future operations. The lessons and experiences regarding the variables in the composition of the FST (mobility, surgical ability, staffing, patient care, physical stability, environmental adaptation, and independence) are discussed in the present article. The major future challenges are to resource the FST units optimally to remain light and easily deployable and to maintain the effectiveness of the unit during nonclinical periods.

  1. The Finnish forward surgical team: lessons from the European Union Forces Operation République Démocratique du Congo.

    PubMed

    Lauri, Handolin; Olli, Kiviluoto

    2008-05-01

    The European Union Forces Operation République Démocratique du Congo in the Democratic Republic of the Congo in 2006 was the first operation planned and conducted solely by the European Union Forces. The Finnish forward surgical team (FST) was deployed for 4 months in Kinshasa, the capital of the Democratic Republic of the Congo. Because of the peacekeeping nature of the operation, the surgical workload was light and the total number of patients treated by the FST was 12. However, there is an obvious need to establish similar surgical assets in future operations. The lessons and experiences regarding the variables in the composition of the FST (mobility, surgical ability, staffing, patient care, physical stability, environmental adaptation, and independence) are discussed in the present article. The major future challenges are to resource the FST units optimally to remain light and easily deployable and to maintain the effectiveness of the unit during nonclinical periods. PMID:18543567

  2. Mesozoic Cenozoic history of the Congo Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giresse, Pierre

    2005-10-01

    Geophysical surveys and drilling of deep wells have recently led to the recognition of underlying Precambrian basement, and to an interpretation of the structural evolution of the Congo Basin. Deformation estimated as Late Cambrian to Early Ordovician corresponds to the late Pan-African event more accurately dated as end-early Cambrian in West Africa. Subsequently, Paleozoic deformation led to widespread erosion and the development of a marked regional unconformity. The 1000-m-thick mostly continental deposition during the Cretaceous and Tertiary did not involve a noticeable subsidence process. There was no volcanism during this deposition, except at the Early Cretaceous, with the advent of kimberlites that are distributed over the border of the Cuvette. As a consequence most of the diamonds were transported northward or southward from upstream sources. The Mesozoic sediments of the Congo Basin were formed in lacustrine or lagoonal basins close to the sea level as demonstrated by some intercalations with marine fossils. In the eastern part of the basin, a limited marine connection during the Kimmeridgian was only possible with a gulf belonging to the young Indian Ocean. In southern Kasai, the same Kimmeridgian transgression is observed. In the northern part of the basin, a probable Cenomanian marine connection was suggested between the Tethys and the South Atlantic, and the marine deposition at Kipala suggests a connection with the Trans-Saharan corridor during the Late Cretaceous. The geometry of the continental Mesozoic and Cenozoic deposits begins with beds overlying a widespread planation level unconformity and/or the presence of gravel or conglomerate in the lower portion. The Sables Ocres Series and the Grès Polymorphes Series rest on the planation levels of Late Cretaceous and mid-Tertiary ages respectively. Mechanical composition and morphoscopic characters argue for a dominant eolian transport for the Grès Polymorphes and for a fluvial deposition for the

  3. [Prescribing and dispensing generic drugs in the Mambéré-Kadéï health district of the Central African Republic].

    PubMed

    Mouala, C; Abeye, J; Somse, P; Maritoux, J; Goumba, A

    2008-04-01

    Good drug prescription and distribution practices are pre-requisites for rational use of essential generic medications. However few studies have been conducted on this topic in sub-Saharan Africa especially in rural areas. The purpose of this study in the Mambéré-Kadei health district of the Central African Republic was to evaluate drug use patterns with special attention to prescribing and dispensing, as a basis for assisting policy makers in planning and identifying intervention strategies. The transverse descriptive survey was undertaken in 14 public health facilities in the Mambéré-Kadéï health district. Data were collected by interviewing care providers and patients immediately after consultation and at the exit of the dispensary. The indicators recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO) for investigating drug use patterns in Communities were used for data collection. A total of 512 prescriptions were analysed. The average number of drugs prescribed per consultation was 3.5. Most drugs (68.6%) were prescribed by generic name. Antibiotic use (31.4% of consultations) was frequent and 29% of patients received injections. 82.1% of the drugs were compliant with the national essential drug list. The distribution survey showed that 79.46% of prescriptions were completely filled. No serious distribution errors occurred but 21.5% of the dispensed drugs were inadequately labelled. Patients understood the modalities of use for 69.6% of prescribed drugs. The average consultation and distribution times were 8.3 and 5 minutes respectively. Excessive use of antibiotics and injections and blunderbuss therapy is still observed in Mambéré-Kadei. Many drugs not included on the essential drug list and non-generics are prescribed. Other prescription and distribution problems identified in this survey include poor information on drug use, inadequate labelling of dispensed drugs, and lack of access to standard drug use tools such as a locally adapted essential drug

  4. Etiology and Epidemiology of Diarrhea in Hospitalized Children from Low Income Country: A Matched Case-Control Study in Central African Republic

    PubMed Central

    Breurec, Sébastien; Vanel, Noémie; Bata, Petulla; Chartier, Loïc; Farra, Alain; Favennec, Loïc; Franck, Thierry; Giles-Vernick, Tamara; Gody, Jean-Chrysostome; Luong Nguyen, Liem Binh; Onambélé, Manuella; Rafaï, Clotaire; Razakandrainibe, Romy; Tondeur, Laura; Tricou, Vianney; Sansonetti, Philippe; Vray, Muriel

    2016-01-01

    Background In Sub-Saharan Africa, infectious diarrhea is a major cause of morbidity and mortality. A case-control study was conducted to identify the etiology of diarrhea and to describe its main epidemiologic risk factors among hospitalized children under five years old in Bangui, Central African Republic. Methods All consecutive children under five years old hospitalized for diarrhea in the Pediatric Complex of Bangui for whom a parent’s written consent was provided were included. Controls matched by age, sex and neighborhood of residence of each case were included. For both cases and controls, demographic, socio-economic and anthropometric data were recorded. Stool samples were collected to identify enteropathogens at enrollment. Clinical examination data and blood samples were collected only for cases. Results A total of 333 cases and 333 controls was recruited between December 2011 and November 2013. The mean age of cases was 12.9 months, and 56% were male. The mean delay between the onset of first symptoms and hospital admission was 3.7 days. Blood was detected in 5% of stool samples from cases. Cases were significantly more severely or moderately malnourished than controls. One of the sought-for pathogens was identified in 78% and 40% of cases and controls, respectively. Most attributable cases of hospitalized diarrhea were due to rotavirus, with an attributable fraction of 39%. Four other pathogens were associated with hospitalized diarrhea: Shigella/EIEC, Cryptosporidium parvum/hominis, astrovirus and norovirus with attributable fraction of 9%, 10%, 7% and 7% respectively. Giardia intestinalis was found in more controls than cases, with a protective fraction of 6%. Conclusions Rotavirus, norovirus, astrovirus, Shigella/EIEC, Cryptosporidium parvum/hominis were found to be positively associated with severe diarrhea: while Giardia intestinalis was found negatively associated. Most attributable episodes of severe diarrhea were associated with rotavirus

  5. Cultural variation in the use of overimitation by the Aka and Ngandu of the Congo Basin.

    PubMed

    Berl, Richard E W; Hewlett, Barry S

    2015-01-01

    Studies in Western cultures have observed that both children and adults tend to overimitate, copying causally irrelevant actions in the presence of clear causal information. Investigation of this feature in non-Western groups has found little difference cross-culturally in the frequency or manner with which individuals overimitate. However, each of the non-Western populations studied thus far has a history of close interaction with Western cultures, such that they are now far removed from life in a hunter-gatherer or other small-scale culture. To investigate overimitation in a context of limited Western cultural influences, we conducted a study with the Aka hunter-gatherers and neighboring Ngandu horticulturalists of the Congo Basin rainforest in the southern Central African Republic. Aka children, Ngandu children, and Aka adults were presented with a reward retrieval task similar to those performed in previous studies, involving a demonstrated sequence of causally relevant and irrelevant actions. Aka children were found not to overimitate as expected, instead displaying one of the lowest rates of overimitation seen under similar conditions. Aka children copied fewer irrelevant actions than Aka adults, used a lower proportion of irrelevant actions than Ngandu children and Aka adults, and had less copying fidelity than Aka adults. Measures from Ngandu children were intermediate between the two Aka groups. Of the participants that succeeded in retrieving the reward, 60% of Aka children used emulation rather than imitation, compared to 15% of Ngandu children, 11% of Aka adults, and 0% of Western children of similar age. From these results, we conclude that cross-cultural variation exists in the use of overimitation during childhood. Further study is needed under a more diverse representation of cultural and socioeconomic groups in order to investigate the cognitive underpinnings of overimitation and its possible influences on social learning and the biological and

  6. Cultural Variation in the Use of Overimitation by the Aka and Ngandu of the Congo Basin

    PubMed Central

    Berl, Richard E. W.; Hewlett, Barry S.

    2015-01-01

    Studies in Western cultures have observed that both children and adults tend to overimitate, copying causally irrelevant actions in the presence of clear causal information. Investigation of this feature in non-Western groups has found little difference cross-culturally in the frequency or manner with which individuals overimitate. However, each of the non-Western populations studied thus far has a history of close interaction with Western cultures, such that they are now far removed from life in a hunter-gatherer or other small-scale culture. To investigate overimitation in a context of limited Western cultural influences, we conducted a study with the Aka hunter-gatherers and neighboring Ngandu horticulturalists of the Congo Basin rainforest in the southern Central African Republic. Aka children, Ngandu children, and Aka adults were presented with a reward retrieval task similar to those performed in previous studies, involving a demonstrated sequence of causally relevant and irrelevant actions. Aka children were found not to overimitate as expected, instead displaying one of the lowest rates of overimitation seen under similar conditions. Aka children copied fewer irrelevant actions than Aka adults, used a lower proportion of irrelevant actions than Ngandu children and Aka adults, and had less copying fidelity than Aka adults. Measures from Ngandu children were intermediate between the two Aka groups. Of the participants that succeeded in retrieving the reward, 60% of Aka children used emulation rather than imitation, compared to 15% of Ngandu children, 11% of Aka adults, and 0% of Western children of similar age. From these results, we conclude that cross-cultural variation exists in the use of overimitation during childhood. Further study is needed under a more diverse representation of cultural and socioeconomic groups in order to investigate the cognitive underpinnings of overimitation and its possible influences on social learning and the biological and

  7. Lightning climatology in the Congo Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soula, S.; Kasereka, J. Kigotsi; Georgis, J. F.; Barthe, C.

    2016-09-01

    The lightning climatology of the Congo Basin including several countries of Central Africa is analysed in detail for the first time. It is based on data from the World Wide Lightning Location Network (WWLLN), for the period from 2005 to 2013. A comparison of these data with Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS) data for the same period shows the relative detection efficiency of the WWLLN (DE) in the 2500 km × 2500 km region increases from about 1.70% in the beginning of the period to 5.90% in 2013, and it is in agreement with previous results for other regions of the world. However, the increase of DE is not uniform over the whole region. The average monthly flash rate describes an annual cycle with a strong activity from October to March and a low one from June to August, associated with the ITCZ migration but not exactly symmetrical on both sides of the equator. The zonal distribution of the lightning flashes exhibits a maximum between 1°S and 2°S and about 56% of the flashes are located south of the equator in the 10°S-10°N interval. The diurnal evolution of the flash rate has a maximum between 1400 and 1700 UTC, according to the reference year. The annual flash density and number of stormy days show a sharp maximum localized in the eastern part of Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) regardless of the reference year and the period of the year. These maxima reach 12.86 fl km- 2 and 189 days, respectively, in 2013, and correspond to a very active region located at the rear of the Virunga mountain range at altitudes that exceed 3000 m. The presence of these mountains plays a role in the thunderstorm development along the year. The estimation of this local maximum of the lightning density by taking into account the DE, leads to a value consistent with that of the global climatology by Christian et al. (2003).

  8. Revisiting sub-Saharan African countries' drug problems: health, social, economic costs, and drug control policy.

    PubMed

    Affinnih, Yahya H

    2002-02-01

    This article takes an international perspective on the drug problem in sub-Saharan Africa. This analysis borrows ideas from physical and economic geography as a heuristic device to conceptualize the global narcoscapes in which drug trafficking occurs. Both the legitimate and the illegal drug trade operate within the same global capitalist system and draw on the same technological innovations and business processes. Central to the paper's argument is evidence that sub-Saharan African countries are now integrated into the political economy of drug consumption due to the spill-over effect. These countries are now minor markets for "hard drugs" as the result of the activities of organizations and individual traffickers that use Africa as a staging point in their trade with Europe and the United States. As a result, sub-Saharan African countries have drug consumption problems that were essentially absent prior to 1980, along with associated health, social, and economic costs. The emerging drug problem has forced African countries to develop their own drug control policy. The sub-Saharan African countries mentioned below vary to some extent in the level of drug use and misuse problems: Burundi, Comoros, Djibouti, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Kenya, Madagascar, Malawi, Mauritius, Mozambique, Reunion, Rwanda, Seychelles, Somalia, Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia, Angola, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Congo, Congo (Zaire), Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, Sao Tome and Principe, Botswana, Lesotho, Namibia, South Africa, Swaziland, Benin, Burkina Faso, Cape Verde, Cote d'Ivoire, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea Bissau, Liberia, Mali, Mauritania, Niger, Nigeria, Senegal, Sierra Leone, and Togo. As part of this effort, African countries are assessing the health, social, and economic costs of drug-use-related problems to pinpoint methods which are both effective and inexpensive, since their budgets for social programs are severely constrained. Many have progressed to the point of adopting anti

  9. Revisiting sub-Saharan African countries' drug problems: health, social, economic costs, and drug control policy.

    PubMed

    Affinnih, Yahya H

    2002-02-01

    This article takes an international perspective on the drug problem in sub-Saharan Africa. This analysis borrows ideas from physical and economic geography as a heuristic device to conceptualize the global narcoscapes in which drug trafficking occurs. Both the legitimate and the illegal drug trade operate within the same global capitalist system and draw on the same technological innovations and business processes. Central to the paper's argument is evidence that sub-Saharan African countries are now integrated into the political economy of drug consumption due to the spill-over effect. These countries are now minor markets for "hard drugs" as the result of the activities of organizations and individual traffickers that use Africa as a staging point in their trade with Europe and the United States. As a result, sub-Saharan African countries have drug consumption problems that were essentially absent prior to 1980, along with associated health, social, and economic costs. The emerging drug problem has forced African countries to develop their own drug control policy. The sub-Saharan African countries mentioned below vary to some extent in the level of drug use and misuse problems: Burundi, Comoros, Djibouti, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Kenya, Madagascar, Malawi, Mauritius, Mozambique, Reunion, Rwanda, Seychelles, Somalia, Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia, Angola, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Congo, Congo (Zaire), Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, Sao Tome and Principe, Botswana, Lesotho, Namibia, South Africa, Swaziland, Benin, Burkina Faso, Cape Verde, Cote d'Ivoire, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea Bissau, Liberia, Mali, Mauritania, Niger, Nigeria, Senegal, Sierra Leone, and Togo. As part of this effort, African countries are assessing the health, social, and economic costs of drug-use-related problems to pinpoint methods which are both effective and inexpensive, since their budgets for social programs are severely constrained. Many have progressed to the point of adopting anti

  10. Militarized sexual violence in South Kivu, Democratic Republic of Congo.

    PubMed

    Bartels, Susan; Kelly, Jocelyn; Scott, Jennifer; Leaning, Jennifer; Mukwege, Denis; Joyce, Nina; VanRooyen, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Eastern DRC has been the site of a protracted conflict in which sexual violence has been a defining feature. The method used was a retrospective registry-based study of sexual violence survivors presenting to Panzi Hospital between 2004 and 2008. This analysis aimed to describe the patterns of sexual violence described by survivors and to analyze perpetrator profiles. As regards results, a total of 4,311 records were analyzed. Perpetrators in this data set were identified as follows: (a) 6% were civilians; (b) 52% were armed combatants; and (c) 42% were simply identified as "assailant(s)" with no further identifying information. Those identified simply as "assailants" perpetrated patterns of sexual violence that were similar to those of armed combatants, suggesting that this group included a large number of armed combatants. Civilian assailants perpetrated a pattern of sexual violence that was distinct from armed combatants. Conclusions are as follows: These data suggest that a high proportion of sexual assaults in South Kivu are perpetrated by armed combatants. Protection of women in South Kivu will require new strategies that take into account the unique nature of sexual violence in DRC. Engaging with local communities, the UN and other aid organizations is necessary to create new context-appropriate protection programs.

  11. Lightning climatology in the Congo Basin: methodology and first results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kigotsi, Jean; Soula, Serge; Georgis, Jean-François; Barthe, Christelle

    2016-04-01

    The global climatology of lightning issued from space observations (OTD and LIS) clearly showed the maximum of the thunderstorm activity is located in a large area of the Congo Basin, especially in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). The first goal of the present study is to compare observations from the World Wide Lightning Location Network (WWLLN) from the Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS) over a 9-year period (2005-2013) in this 2750 km × 2750 km area. The second goal is to analyse the lightning activity in terms of time and space variability. The detection efficiency (DE) of the WWLLN relative to LIS has increased between 2005 and 2013, typically from about 1.70 % to 5.90 %, in agreement with previous results for other regions of the world. The mean monthly flash rate describes an annual cycle with a maximum between November and March and a minimum between June and August, associated with the ICTZ migration but not exactly symmetrical on both sides of the equator. The diurnal evolution of the flash rate has a maximum between 1400 and 1700 UTC, depending on the reference year, in agreement with previous works in other regions of the world. The annual flash density shows a sharp maximum localized in eastern DRC regardless of the reference year and the period of the year. This annual maximum systematically located west of Kivu Lake corresponds to that previously identified by many authors as the worldwide maximum which Christian et al. (2013) falsely attributed to Rwanda. Another more extended region within the Congo Basin exhibits moderately large values, especially during the beginning of the period analyzed. A comparison of both patterns of lightning density from the WWLLN and from LIS allows to validate the representativeness of this world network and to restitute the total lightning activity in terms of lightning density and rate.

  12. On Intensive Late Holocene Iron Mining and Production in the Northern Congo Basin and the Environmental Consequences Associated with Metallurgy in Central Africa

    PubMed Central

    Lupo, Karen D.; Schmitt, Dave N.; Kiahtipes, Christopher A.; Ndanga, Jean-Paul; Young, D. Craig; Simiti, Bernard

    2015-01-01

    An ongoing question in paleoenvironmental reconstructions of the central African rainforest concerns the role that prehistoric metallurgy played in shaping forest vegetation. Here we report evidence of intensive iron-ore mining and smelting in forested regions of the northern Congo Basin dating to the late Holocene. Volumetric estimates on extracted iron-ore and associated slag mounds from prehistoric sites in the southern Central African Republic suggest large-scale iron production on par with other archaeological and historically-known iron fabrication areas. These data document the first evidence of intensive iron mining and production spanning approximately 90 years prior to colonial occupation (circa AD 1889) and during an interval of time that is poorly represented in the archaeological record. Additional site areas pre-dating these remains by 3-4 centuries reflect an earlier period of iron production on a smaller scale. Microbotanical evidence from a sediment core collected from an adjacent riparian trap shows a reduction in shade-demanding trees in concert with an increase in light-demanding species spanning the time interval associated with iron intensification. This shift occurs during the same time interval when many portions of the Central African witnessed forest transgressions associated with a return to moister and more humid conditions beginning 500-100 years ago. Although data presented here do not demonstrate that iron smelting activities caused widespread vegetation change in Central Africa, we argue that intense mining and smelting can have localized and potentially regional impacts on vegetation communities. These data further demonstrate the high value of pairing archeological and paleoenvironmental analyses to reconstruct regional-scale forest histories. PMID:26161540

  13. On Intensive Late Holocene Iron Mining and Production in the Northern Congo Basin and the Environmental Consequences Associated with Metallurgy in Central Africa.

    PubMed

    Lupo, Karen D; Schmitt, Dave N; Kiahtipes, Christopher A; Ndanga, Jean-Paul; Young, D Craig; Simiti, Bernard

    2015-01-01

    An ongoing question in paleoenvironmental reconstructions of the central African rainforest concerns the role that prehistoric metallurgy played in shaping forest vegetation. Here we report evidence of intensive iron-ore mining and smelting in forested regions of the northern Congo Basin dating to the late Holocene. Volumetric estimates on extracted iron-ore and associated slag mounds from prehistoric sites in the southern Central African Republic suggest large-scale iron production on par with other archaeological and historically-known iron fabrication areas. These data document the first evidence of intensive iron mining and production spanning approximately 90 years prior to colonial occupation (circa AD 1889) and during an interval of time that is poorly represented in the archaeological record. Additional site areas pre-dating these remains by 3-4 centuries reflect an earlier period of iron production on a smaller scale. Microbotanical evidence from a sediment core collected from an adjacent riparian trap shows a reduction in shade-demanding trees in concert with an increase in light-demanding species spanning the time interval associated with iron intensification. This shift occurs during the same time interval when many portions of the Central African witnessed forest transgressions associated with a return to moister and more humid conditions beginning 500-100 years ago. Although data presented here do not demonstrate that iron smelting activities caused widespread vegetation change in Central Africa, we argue that intense mining and smelting can have localized and potentially regional impacts on vegetation communities. These data further demonstrate the high value of pairing archeological and paleoenvironmental analyses to reconstruct regional-scale forest histories.

  14. On Intensive Late Holocene Iron Mining and Production in the Northern Congo Basin and the Environmental Consequences Associated with Metallurgy in Central Africa.

    PubMed

    Lupo, Karen D; Schmitt, Dave N; Kiahtipes, Christopher A; Ndanga, Jean-Paul; Young, D Craig; Simiti, Bernard

    2015-01-01

    An ongoing question in paleoenvironmental reconstructions of the central African rainforest concerns the role that prehistoric metallurgy played in shaping forest vegetation. Here we report evidence of intensive iron-ore mining and smelting in forested regions of the northern Congo Basin dating to the late Holocene. Volumetric estimates on extracted iron-ore and associated slag mounds from prehistoric sites in the southern Central African Republic suggest large-scale iron production on par with other archaeological and historically-known iron fabrication areas. These data document the first evidence of intensive iron mining and production spanning approximately 90 years prior to colonial occupation (circa AD 1889) and during an interval of time that is poorly represented in the archaeological record. Additional site areas pre-dating these remains by 3-4 centuries reflect an earlier period of iron production on a smaller scale. Microbotanical evidence from a sediment core collected from an adjacent riparian trap shows a reduction in shade-demanding trees in concert with an increase in light-demanding species spanning the time interval associated with iron intensification. This shift occurs during the same time interval when many portions of the Central African witnessed forest transgressions associated with a return to moister and more humid conditions beginning 500-100 years ago. Although data presented here do not demonstrate that iron smelting activities caused widespread vegetation change in Central Africa, we argue that intense mining and smelting can have localized and potentially regional impacts on vegetation communities. These data further demonstrate the high value of pairing archeological and paleoenvironmental analyses to reconstruct regional-scale forest histories. PMID:26161540

  15. Polymorphisms of Estrogen Metabolism-Related Genes and Prostate Cancer Risk in Two Populations of African Ancestry

    PubMed Central

    Emeville, Elise; Ferdinand, Séverine; Punga, Augustin; Lufuma, Simon; Blanchet, Pascal; Romana, Marc; Multigner, Luc

    2016-01-01

    Background Estrogens are thought to play a critical role in prostate carcinogenesis. It has been suggested that polymorphisms of genes encoding enzymes involved in estrogen metabolism are risk factors for prostate cancer. However, few studies have been performed on populations of African ancestry, which are known to have a high risk of prostate cancer. Objective We investigated whether functional polymorphisms of CYP17, CYP19, CYP1B1, COMT and UGT1A1 affected the risk of prostate cancer in two different populations of African ancestry. Methods In Guadeloupe (French West Indies), we compared 498 prostate cancer patients and 565 control subjects. In Kinshasa (Democratic Republic of Congo), 162 prostate cancer patients were compared with 144 controls. Gene polymorphisms were determined by the SNaPshot technique or short tandem repeat PCR analysis. Logistic regression was used to estimate adjusted odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Results The AA genotype and the A allele of rs4680 (COMT) appeared to be inversely associated with the risk of prostate cancer in adjusted models for both Afro-Caribbean and native African men. For the A allele, a significant inverse association was observed among cases with low-grade Gleason scores and localized clinical stage, in both populations. Conclusions These preliminary results support the hypothesis that polymorphisms of genes encoding enzymes involved in estrogen metabolism may modulate the risk of prostate cancer in populations of African ancestry. PMID:27074016

  16. Distinguishing forest and savanna African elephants using short nuclear DNA sequences.

    PubMed

    Ishida, Yasuko; Demeke, Yirmed; van Coeverden de Groot, Peter J; Georgiadis, Nicholas J; Leggett, Keith E A; Fox, Virginia E; Roca, Alfred L

    2011-01-01

    A more complete description of African elephant phylogeography would require a method that distinguishes forest and savanna elephants using DNA from low-quality samples. Although mitochondrial DNA is often the marker of choice for species identification, the unusual cytonuclear patterns in African elephants make nuclear markers more reliable. We therefore designed and utilized genetic markers for short nuclear DNA regions that contain fixed nucleotide differences between forest and savanna elephants. We used M13 forward and reverse sequences to increase the total length of PCR amplicons and to improve the quality of sequences for the target DNA. We successfully sequenced fragments of nuclear genes from dung samples of known savanna and forest elephants in the Democratic Republic of Congo, Ethiopia, and Namibia. Elephants at previously unexamined locations were found to have nucleotide character states consistent with their status as savanna or forest elephants. Using these and results from previous studies, we estimated that the short-amplicon nuclear markers could distinguish forest from savanna African elephants with more than 99% accuracy. Nuclear genotyping of museum, dung, or ivory samples will provide better-informed conservation management of Africa's elephants.

  17. An ICT-Based Diabetes Management System Tested for Health Care Delivery in the African Context

    PubMed Central

    Takenga, Claude; Berndt, Rolf-Dietrich; Musongya, Olivier; Kitero, Joël; Katoke, Remi; Molo, Kakule; Kazingufu, Basile; Meni, Malikwisha; Vikandy, Mambo; Takenga, Henri

    2014-01-01

    The demand for new healthcare services is growing rapidly. Improving accessibility of the African population to diabetes care seems to be a big challenge in most countries where the number of care centers and medical staff is reduced. Information and communication technologies (ICT) have great potential to address some of these challenges faced by several countries in providing accessible, cost-effective, and high-quality health care services. This paper presents the Mobil Diab system which is a telemedical approach proposed for the management of long-term diseases. The system applies modern mobile and web technologies which overcome geographical barriers, and increase access to health care services. The idea of the system is to involve patients in the therapy process and motivate them for an active participation. For validation of the system in African context, a trial was conducted in the Democratic Republic of Congo. 40 Subjects with diabetes divided randomly into control and intervention groups were included in the test. Results show that Mobil Diab is suitable for African countries and presents a number of benefits for the population and public health care system. It improves clinical management and delivery of diabetes care services by enhancing access, quality, motivation, reassurance, efficiency, and cost-effectiveness. PMID:25136358

  18. Group Trauma-Focused Cognitive-Behavioural Therapy with Former Child Soldiers and Other War-Affected Boys in the DR Congo: A Randomised Controlled Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMullen, John; O'Callaghan, Paul; Shannon, Ciaran; Black, Alastair; Eakin, John

    2013-01-01

    Background: The Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) has been home to the world's deadliest conflict since World War II and is reported to have the largest number of child soldiers in the world. Despite evidence of the debilitating impact of war, no group-based mental health or psychosocial intervention has been evaluated in a randomised…

  19. Evolution of the Congo Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glasmacher, U. A.; Bauer, F. U.; Kollenz, S.; Delvaux, D.

    2012-04-01

    The Congo Basin is one of the largest basins in the World with very little knowledge on the geological evolution as well as the oil and gas potential. In the past, oil seeps are recorded in the central part of the basin. Four sides in the Congo basin have been drilled so far. The cores of the two drill sides Dekese and Samba are located at the Musée royal de l'Afrique Centrale, Belgium. In a reconnaissance survey, we sampled both drill cores in a nearly even spacing of ~ 150 m covering the whole stratigraphy from Albian to Proterozoic. The red and green to grey sandstone samples were prepared by usual heavy minerals separation technique. Most of the samples revealed enough apatite and zircon grains for the two thermochronometric techniques fission track and (U-Th-Sm)/He. The time-temperature (t-T) evolution for the two drill locations were modelled by using the determined thermochronological data within the software code HeFTy. We tested various geological evolutionary constrains. Both techniques provide us information on the thermal and exhumation of the possible source area and on the drill location by themselves.

  20. Hydrological trends in Congo basin (Central Africa)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laraque, A.

    2015-12-01

    The last studies concerning some main Congo basin rivers allowed to subdivide their multi-annual flows into several homogeneous phases. As in West Africa, 1970 was the year of the major hydroclimatic event announcing a weaker flowing period. In the absence of long, reliable and available flow series in the whole Congo basin of 3,8 106km2 area, the present study concerns only the Congo River at Brazzaville/Kinshasa and two of the main tributaries of its right bank, Ubangui at Bangui and Sangha at Ouesso, with hydrologic data available from the first half of the 20th century. For Congo River, in comparison with its secular average, after an excess flow noted during the sixties, a significant drop of 10% occurs in the eighties. However, a return to normal conditions is recorded from 1995. For Ubangui and Sangha, the flows remain weaker since 1970. Within the bi-modal hydrological regimes of Sangha and Congo river, because they are equatorial, we also observe since many years a small decline of the secondary flood of april-june. This phenomenon was emphasized especially these last years and is founded in others rivers of Central Africa, where it reflects the variations of de rainfall patterns and the surfaces features. For the Congo basin, the situation is worrying because that affects the inland waterway transport. Moreover that wakes also the project of junction by a canal of the Congo and Chari basins for fighting against the hydrological decline of Lake Chad.

  1. A resolution commending the African Union for committing to a coordinated military response, comprised of 5,000 troops from Uganda, the Central African Republic, the Democratic Republic of Congo, and South Sudan, in order to fortify ongoing efforts to arrest Joseph Kony and senior commanders of the Lord's Resistance Army and to stop the crimes against humanity and mass atrocities committed by them.

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Sen. Landrieu, Mary L. [D-LA

    2012-03-29

    03/29/2012 Referred to the Committee on Foreign Relations. (text of measure as introduced: CR S2257-2258) (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  2. Grain yields and disease resistance as selection criteria for introduction of new varieties of small grain cereal in Lubumbashi, D.R. Congo.

    PubMed

    Mukobo, M R P; Ngongo, L M; Haesaert, G

    2014-01-01

    Wheat production in African countries is a major challenge for their development, considering their increasing consumption of wheat flour products. In the Democratic Republic of Congo, wheat and wheat-based products are the important imported food products although there is a potential for the cultivation of small grain cereals such as durum wheat, wheat and triticale. Trials done in Lubumbashi in the Katanga Province have shown that Septoria Leaf Blotch, Septoria Glume Blotch and Fusarium head blight are the main constraints to the efficient development of these cultures. Some varieties of Elite Spring Wheat, High Rainfall Wheat, Triticale and Durum Wheat from CIMMYT were followed during 4 growing seasons and agronomic characteristics and their levels of disease resistance were recorded. Correlations of agronomic characteristics with yields showed that in most cases, thousand kernel weight is the parameter that has the most influence on the yield level (p < 0.0001). The analysis of variance for all diseases showed that there were significant effects related to the year, the species and the interaction years x species. Triticale varieties seem to have a better resistance against the two forms of Septoria compared to wheat varieties but, they seem to be more sensitive to Fusarium Head Blight than wheat varieties. However, the Fusarium Head Blight has a rather low incidence in Lubumbashi.

  3. Global Health Security: The Lessons from the West African Ebola Virus Disease Epidemic and MERS Outbreak in the Republic of Korea.

    PubMed

    Ghsa Preparation Task Force Team

    2015-12-01

    The Ebola virus disease outbreak in West Africa and the Middle East Respiratory Syndrome outbreak in the Republic of Korea have given huge impacts in different aspects. Health security is no more a new coinage. Global health security became more realistic in its practical application. In the perspective of global health, it will be helpful to peruse lessons learned from the Ebola outbreak in West Africa and MERS outbreak in Korea. PMID:27429901

  4. High prevalence of syphilis among demobilized child soldiers in Eastern Congo: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Syphilis, a known major public health issue for soldiers during periods of conflict, is exacerbated in the Democratic Republic of Congo due to widespread sexual violence. However, there has been no previous study to determine the extent of this problem. Therefore, we determined the prevalence of syphilis among young demobilized soldiers. Methods Screening of syphilis using the rapid plasma reagin test and the Treponema pallidum hemagglutination assay was conducted in three transit sites of soldier reintegration in 2005. The Fisher Exact probability test was used to compare results. Results The prevalence of syphilis was found to be 3.4%, with almost equal distribution in respect to sex, location. Conclusion Syphilis continues to be highly prevalent in demobilized child soldiers in Eastern Congo. Syphilis screening tests are recommended. PMID:21896173

  5. Transnational childrearing and the preservation of transnational identity in Brazzaville, Congo

    PubMed Central

    Whitehouse, Bruce

    2013-01-01

    Drawing on ethnographic research conducted at two ends of an intra- Africa migration flow (Mali and the Republic of Congo), in this article I examine the role of childrearing practices in the maintenance of transnationalism. I consider different approaches to transnational childrearing by migrant parents and their reasons for adopting them, and delineate three common modes. The most widespread and socially validated approach is to send children home from Congo to their parents’ places of origin, where child fostering is widespread, to be raised by relatives for long periods; this approach increases the durability of transnational ties. I use childrearing approaches as an analytical lens to demonstrate the complementarity of multiple forms of domestic organization, mobility and settlement in the intergenerational production and transmission of durable transnational identities. By arguing for greater focus on phenomena such as transnational childrearing, I seek to promote a broader conceptualization of transnationalism. PMID:23935404

  6. How did bonobos come to range south of the congo river? Reconsideration of the divergence of Pan paniscus from other Pan populations.

    PubMed

    Takemoto, Hiroyuki; Kawamoto, Yoshi; Furuichi, Takeshi

    2015-01-01

    While investigating the genetic structure in wild bonobos,(1) we realized that the widely accepted scenario positing that the Pleistocene appearance of the Congo River separated the common ancestor of chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) and bonobos (P. paniscus) into two species is not supported by recent geographical knowledge about the formation of the Congo River. We explored the origin of bonobos using a broader biogeographical perspective by examining local faunas in the central African region. The submarine Congo River sediments and paleotopography of central Africa show that the Congo River has functioned as a geographical barrier for the last 34 million years. This evidence allows us to hypothesize that when the river was first formed, the ancestor of bonobos did not inhabit the current range of the species on the left bank of the Congo River but that, during rare times when the Congo River discharge decreased during the Pleistocene, one or more founder populations of ancestral Pan paniscus crossed the river to its left bank. The proposed scenario for formation of the Congo River and the corridor hypothesis for an ancestral bonobo population is key to understanding the distribution of great apes and their evolution.

  7. How did bonobos come to range south of the congo river? Reconsideration of the divergence of Pan paniscus from other Pan populations.

    PubMed

    Takemoto, Hiroyuki; Kawamoto, Yoshi; Furuichi, Takeshi

    2015-01-01

    While investigating the genetic structure in wild bonobos,(1) we realized that the widely accepted scenario positing that the Pleistocene appearance of the Congo River separated the common ancestor of chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) and bonobos (P. paniscus) into two species is not supported by recent geographical knowledge about the formation of the Congo River. We explored the origin of bonobos using a broader biogeographical perspective by examining local faunas in the central African region. The submarine Congo River sediments and paleotopography of central Africa show that the Congo River has functioned as a geographical barrier for the last 34 million years. This evidence allows us to hypothesize that when the river was first formed, the ancestor of bonobos did not inhabit the current range of the species on the left bank of the Congo River but that, during rare times when the Congo River discharge decreased during the Pleistocene, one or more founder populations of ancestral Pan paniscus crossed the river to its left bank. The proposed scenario for formation of the Congo River and the corridor hypothesis for an ancestral bonobo population is key to understanding the distribution of great apes and their evolution. PMID:26478139

  8. Geological Substrates Shape Tree Species and Trait Distributions in African Moist Forests

    PubMed Central

    Fayolle, Adeline; Engelbrecht, Bettina; Freycon, Vincent; Mortier, Frédéric; Swaine, Michael; Réjou-Méchain, Maxime; Doucet, Jean-Louis; Fauvet, Nicolas; Cornu, Guillaume; Gourlet-Fleury, Sylvie

    2012-01-01

    Background Understanding the factors that shape the distribution of tropical tree species at large scales is a central issue in ecology, conservation and forest management. The aims of this study were to (i) assess the importance of environmental factors relative to historical factors for tree species distributions in the semi-evergreen forests of the northern Congo basin; and to (ii) identify potential mechanisms explaining distribution patterns through a trait-based approach. Methodology/Principal Findings We analyzed the distribution patterns of 31 common tree species in an area of more than 700,000 km2 spanning the borders of Cameroon, the Central African Republic, and the Republic of Congo using forest inventory data from 56,445 0.5-ha plots. Spatial variation of environmental (climate, topography and geology) and historical factors (human disturbance) were quantified from maps and satellite records. Four key functional traits (leaf phenology, shade tolerance, wood density, and maximum growth rate) were extracted from the literature. The geological substrate was of major importance for the distribution of the focal species, while climate and past human disturbances had a significant but lesser impact. Species distribution patterns were significantly related to functional traits. Species associated with sandy soils typical of sandstone and alluvium were characterized by slow growth rates, shade tolerance, evergreen leaves, and high wood density, traits allowing persistence on resource-poor soils. In contrast, fast-growing pioneer species rarely occurred on sandy soils, except for Lophira alata. Conclusions/Significance The results indicate strong environmental filtering due to differential soil resource availability across geological substrates. Additionally, long-term human disturbances in resource-rich areas may have accentuated the observed patterns of species and trait distributions. Trait differences across geological substrates imply pronounced

  9. Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever (CCHF)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Congo Hemorrhagic Fever (CCHF) [PDF - 2 pages] Virus Ecology Viral Hemorrhagic Fever (VHF) Information for Specific Groups ... Diagnosis Treatment Prevention Outbreak Distribution Map Resources Virus Ecology File Formats Help: How do I view different ...

  10. Insecticidal activities of bark, leaf and seed extracts of Zanthoxylum heitzii against the African malaria vector Anopheles gambiae.

    PubMed

    Overgaard, Hans J; Sirisopa, Patcharawan; Mikolo, Bertin; Malterud, Karl E; Wangensteen, Helle; Zou, Yuan-Feng; Paulsen, Berit S; Massamba, Daniel; Duchon, Stephane; Corbel, Vincent; Chandre, Fabrice

    2014-01-01

    The olon tree, Zanthoxylum heitzii (syn. Fagara heitzii) is commonly found in the central-west African forests. In the Republic of Congo (Congo-Brazzaville) its bark is anecdotally reported to provide human protection against fleas. Here we assess the insecticidal activities of Z. heitzii stem bark, seed and leaf extracts against Anopheles gambiae s.s, the main malaria vector in Africa. Extracts were obtained by Accelerated Solvent Extraction (ASE) using solvents of different polarity and by classical Soxhlet extraction using hexane as solvent. The insecticidal effects of the crude extracts were evaluated using topical applications of insecticides on mosquitoes of a susceptible reference strain (Kisumu [Kis]), a strain homozygous for the L1014F kdr mutation (kdrKis), and a strain homozygous for the G119S Ace1R allele (AcerKis). The insecticidal activities were measured using LD50 and LD95 and active extracts were characterized by NMR spectroscopy and HPLC chromatography. Results show that the ASE hexane stem bark extract was the most effective compound against An. gambiae (LD50 = 102 ng/mg female), but was not as effective as common synthetic insecticides. Overall, there was no significant difference between the responses of the three mosquito strains to Z. heitzii extracts, indicating no cross resistance with conventional pesticides. PMID:25525826

  11. Regional framework, structural and petroleum aspects of rift basins in Niger, Chad and the Central African Republic (C.A.R.)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Genik, G. J.

    1992-10-01

    This paper overviews the regional framework, tectonic, structural and petroleum aspects of rifts in Niger, Chad and the C.A.R. The data base is from mainly proprietary exploration work consisting of some 50,000 kilometres of seismic profiles, 50 exploration wells, one million square kilometres of aeromagnetics coverage and extensive gravity surveys. There have been 13 oil and two oil and gas discoveries. A five phased tectonic history dating from the Pan African orogeny (750-550 MY B.P.) to the present suggests that the Western Central African Rift System (WCAS) with its component West African Rift Subsystem (WAS) and Central African Subsystem (CAS) formed mainly by the mechanical separation of African crustal blocks during the Early Cretaceous. Among the resulting rift basins in Niger, Chad and the C.A.R., seven are in the WAS—Grein, Kafra, Tenere. Tefidet, Termit, Bongor, and N'Dgel Edgi and three, Doba, Doseo, and Salamat are in the CAS. The WAS basins in Niger and Chad are all extensional and contain more than 14,000 m of continental to marine Early Cretaceous to Recent clastic sediments and minor amounts of volcanics. Medium to light oil (20° API-46° API) and gas have been discovered in the Termit basin in reservoir, source and seal beds of Late Cretaceous and Palaeogene age. The most common structural styles are extensional normal fault blocks and transtensional synthetic and antithetic normal fault blocks. The CAS Doba, Doseo and Salamat are extensional to transtensional rift basins containing up to 7500 m of terrestrial mainly Early Cretaceous clastics. Heavy to light oil (15°-39° API) and gas have been discovered in Doba and Doseo basins. Source rocks are Early Cretaceous lacustrine shales, whereas reservoirs and seals are both Early and Late Cretaceous. Dominant structural styles are extensional and transtensional fault blocks, transpressional anticlines and flower structures. The existence of a total rift basin sediment volume of more than one

  12. Medical anthropology and Ebola in Congo: cultural models and humanistic care.

    PubMed

    Hewlett, B S; Epelboin, A; Hewlett, B L; Formenty, P

    2005-09-01

    Seldom have medical anthropologists been involved in efforts to control high mortality diseases such as Ebola hemorrhagic fever (EHF) This paper describes the results of two distinct but complementary interventions during the first phases of an outbreak in the Republic of Congo in 2003. The first approach emphasized understanding local peoples cultural models and political-economic explanations for the disease while the second approach focused on providing more humanitarian care of patients by identifying and incorporating local beliefs and practices into patient care and response efforts.

  13. Proceedings of the African Field Epidemiology Network (AFENET) Scientific Conference 17-22 November 2013 Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: plenaries and oral presentations

    PubMed Central

    Gitta, Sheba Nakacubo; Mwesiga, Allan; Kamadjeu, Raoul

    2015-01-01

    Biennially, trainees and graduates of Field Epidemiology and Laboratory Training Programs (FELTPs) are presented with a platform to share investigations and projects undertaken during their two-year training in Applied Epidemiology. The African Field Epidemiology Network (AFENET) Scientific Conference, is a perfect opportunity for public health professionals from various sectors and organizations to come together to discuss issues that impact on public health in Africa. This year's conference was organized by the Ethiopian Health and Nutrition Research Institute in collaboration with the Ethiopia Ministry of Health, Ethiopian Public Health Association (EPHA), Ethiopia Field Epidemiology Training Program (EFETP), Addis Ababa University (AAU), Training Programs in Epidemiology and Public Health Interventions Network (TEPHINET) and AFENET. Participants at this year's conference numbered 400 from over 20 countries including; Angola, Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Ethiopia, Ghana, Indonesia, Kenya, Mozambique, Namibia, Nigeria, Rwanda, South Africa, Sudan, Tanzania, Uganda, Yemen and Zimbabwe. The topics covered in the 144 oral presentations included: global health security, emergency response, public health informatics, vaccine preventable diseases, immunization, outbreak investigation, Millennium Development Goals, Non-Communicable Diseases, and public health surveillance. The theme for the 5th AFENET Scientific Conference was; “Addressing Public Health Priorities in Africa through FELTPs.” Previous AFENET Scientific conferences have been held in: Accra, Ghana (2005), Kampala, Uganda (2007), Mombasa, Kenya (2009) and Dar es Salaam, Tanzania (2011). PMID:26491534

  14. African Programme for Onchocerciasis Control (APOC): sociological study in three foci of central Africa before the implementation of treatments with ivermectin (Mectizan).

    PubMed

    Dimomfu, Bruno Lapika; Lubeji, David Kayembe; Noma, Mounkaïla; Sékétéli, Azodoga; Boussinesq, Michel

    2007-07-01

    The African Programme for Onchocerciasis Control (APOC) has put in place a study to assess the long-term impact of the community-directed treatments with ivermectin on various clinical and entomological indicators of onchocerciasis. As the results obtained would depend on community participation in the treatments, surveys were also conducted at the study sites to assess the people's knowledge, attitudes and practices regarding onchocerciasis and its treatment. This article presents the anthropological observations made before the implementation of the treatments in three sites: one in the Central African Republic, and two in the Democratic Republic of Congo. The information collected shows that the populations have a relatively poor knowledge of the manifestations and mode of transmission of onchocerciasis. The communities' attitudes towards those individuals afflicted with the disease vary from one site to another. Regarding treatment, the populations use both traditional and 'modern' treatments, but the beneficial effects of ivermectin are not well known. The differences recorded between the sites surveyed demonstrate that the messages to be delivered to the populations before the distributions should take into account the local epidemiological and socio-anthropological context.

  15. Past Hydrological Variability in the Congo Basin inferred from Neodymium Isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bayon, G.

    2015-12-01

    Major events of vegetation changes and soil erosion occurred in Central Africa during the last few millennia, at a time when the first farmers settled in the rainforest. The palaeoclimatic context in which these environmental changes took place still remains poorly constrained. Improving our knowledge on the drivers of past hydrological variability in Central Africa is important to further evaluate the relative role of climate versus humans in shaping late Holocene African landscapes. In this study, we have used neodymium (Nd) isotopes in a marine sediment core to reconstruct the composition of the sediment load exported from the Congo Basin during the Holocene. Core KZR23 was recovered at 2200 m water depth from within the Congo submarine canyon and is characterized by high sedimentation rates (about 2m/kyr), thereby allowing reconstruction of past river sediment discharge at an unprecedented high temporal resolution. A suite of river particulate samples collected from the main tributaries within the Congo watershed was analyzed in order to tag each major sub-basin with the characteristic geochemical and Nd isotopic signatures of its source region. In parallel, an annual series of suspended particles sampled on a monthly basis at the Congo River ORE-HYBAM station (Brazzaville) was also analyzed to characterize the seasonality of sediment provenance in relation with present hydrological cycle. Using Nd isotopes as tracers for sediment provenance together and other proxy data for past erosion, vegetation and rainfall patterns (i.e. bulk sediment radiocarbon data, pollens, biomarkers, compound-specific isotope analyses), we will provide a more comprehensive picture of past hydrological variability in the Congo Basin for the Holocene period.

  16. Lightning climatology in the Congo Basin: detailed analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soula, Serge; Kigotsi, Jean; Georgis, Jean-François; Barthe, Christelle

    2016-04-01

    The lightning climatology of the Congo Basin including several countries of Central Africa is analyzed in detail for the first time. It is based on World Wide Lightning Location Network (WWLLN) data for the period from 2005 to 2013. A comparison of these data with the Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS) data for the same period shows the WWLLN detection efficiency (DE) in the region increases from about 1.70 % in the beginning of the period to 5.90 % in 2013, relative to LIS data, but not uniformly over the whole 2750 km × 2750 km area. Both the annual flash density and the number of stormy days show sharp maximum values localized in eastern of Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) and west of Kivu Lake, regardless of the reference year and the period of the year. These maxima reach 12.86 fl km-2 and 189 days, respectively, in 2013, and correspond with a very active region located at the rear of the Virunga mountain range characterised with summits that can reach 3000 m. The presence of this range plays a role in the thunderstorm development along the year. The estimation of this local maximum of the lightning density by taking into account the DE, leads to a value consistent with that of the global climatology by Christian et al. (2003) and other authors. Thus, a mean maximum value of about 157 fl km-2 y-1 is found for the annual lightning density. The zonal distribution of the lightning flashes exhibits a maximum between 1°S and 2°S and about 56 % of the flashes located below the equator in the 10°S - 10°N interval. The diurnal evolution of the flash rate has a maximum between 1400 and 1700 UTC, according to the reference year, in agreement with previous works in other regions of the world.

  17. Plume composition changes during the birth of a new lava lake - Nyamulagira volcano, DR Congo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bobrowski, Nicole; Giuffrida, Giovanni Bruno; Calabrese, Sergio; Scaglione, Sarah; Yalire, Mathieu; Liotta, Marcello; Brusca, Lorenzo; Arellano, Santiago; Rüdiger, Julian; Galle, Bo; Castro, Jonathan; Tedesco, Dario

    2016-04-01

    Nyamulagira, in the Virunga Volcanic Province (VVP), Democratic Republic of Congo, is one of the most active volcanoes in Africa. The volcano is located about 25 km north-northwest of Lake Kivu in the Western Branch of the East African Rift System (EARS) with a distance of only 15 km to Nyiragongo, which is well known for its decades-old active lava lake. Nyamulagira is a shield volcano with a 3058 m high and ~2000 m wide summit caldera. The volcano is characterized by frequent eruptions, which occur both from the summit crater and from the flanks (31 flank eruptions over the last 110 years). Due to the low viscosity lava, although significantly higher than the one of Nyiragongo, wide lava fields cover over 1100 km2 and lava flows often reach > 20 km length. More than 100 flank cones can be counted around the summit crater. A part from its frequent eruptions Nyamulagira had a long period of lava lake activity in the past, at least from 1912 to 1938. During the past decades, gas emissions from Nyamulagira have been only reported during eruptions. This changed in 2012, however, when Nyamulagira began emitting a persistent gas plume above its crater. By the end of 2014, and beginning in 2015, a lava lake was born, a feature that - as of the time of this writing - is still growing. To date, very little is known about gas emissions of Nyamulagira volcano with the only exception for SO2. Very few studies have been conducted regarding the volatile chemistry of Nyamulagira. We try to fill this gap by reporting gas composition measurements of Nyamulagira's volcanic plume during the birth of the lava lake, and in the first year of the lake's activity. Two field surveys have been carried out, the first one on November 1st, 2014 and the second one October 13th - 15th, 2015. Applying the broad toolbox of volcanic gas composition measurement techniques offered us the opportunity to characterize Nyamulagira's plume in excruciating detail. Nyamulagira is known to be a significant

  18. Conventional tree height-diameter relationships significantly overestimate aboveground carbon stocks in the Central Congo Basin.

    PubMed

    Kearsley, Elizabeth; de Haulleville, Thales; Hufkens, Koen; Kidimbu, Alidé; Toirambe, Benjamin; Baert, Geert; Huygens, Dries; Kebede, Yodit; Defourny, Pierre; Bogaert, Jan; Beeckman, Hans; Steppe, Kathy; Boeckx, Pascal; Verbeeck, Hans

    2013-01-01

    Policies to reduce emissions from deforestation and forest degradation largely depend on accurate estimates of tropical forest carbon stocks. Here we present the first field-based carbon stock data for the Central Congo Basin in Yangambi, Democratic Republic of Congo. We find an average aboveground carbon stock of 162 ± 20  Mg  C  ha(-1) for intact old-growth forest, which is significantly lower than stocks recorded in the outer regions of the Congo Basin. The best available tree height-diameter relationships derived for Central Africa do not render accurate canopy height estimates for our study area. Aboveground carbon stocks would be overestimated by 24% if these inaccurate relationships were used. The studied forests have a lower stature compared with forests in the outer regions of the basin, which confirms remotely sensed patterns. Additionally, we find an average soil carbon stock of 111 ± 24  Mg  C  ha(-1), slightly influenced by the current land-use change.

  19. Relationship between Distinct African Cholera Epidemics Revealed via MLVA Haplotyping of 337 Vibrio cholerae Isolates

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Sandra; Miwanda, Berthe; Sadji, Adodo Yao; Thefenne, Hélène; Jeddi, Fakhri; Rebaudet, Stanislas; de Boeck, Hilde; Bidjada, Bawimodom; Depina, Jean-Jacques; Bompangue, Didier; Abedi, Aaron Aruna; Koivogui, Lamine; Keita, Sakoba; Garnotel, Eric; Plisnier, Pierre-Denis; Ruimy, Raymond; Thomson, Nicholas; Muyembe, Jean-Jacques; Piarroux, Renaud

    2015-01-01

    Background Since cholera appeared in Africa during the 1970s, cases have been reported on the continent every year. In Sub-Saharan Africa, cholera outbreaks primarily cluster at certain hotspots including the African Great Lakes Region and West Africa. Methodology/Principal Findings In this study, we applied MLVA (Multi-Locus Variable Number Tandem Repeat Analysis) typing of 337 Vibrio cholerae isolates from recent cholera epidemics in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), Zambia, Guinea and Togo. We aimed to assess the relationship between outbreaks. Applying this method, we identified 89 unique MLVA haplotypes across our isolate collection. MLVA typing revealed the short-term divergence and microevolution of these Vibrio cholerae populations to provide insight into the dynamics of cholera outbreaks in each country. Our analyses also revealed strong geographical clustering. Isolates from the African Great Lakes Region (DRC and Zambia) formed a closely related group, while West African isolates (Togo and Guinea) constituted a separate cluster. At a country-level scale our analyses revealed several distinct MLVA groups, most notably DRC 2011/2012, DRC 2009, Zambia 2012 and Guinea 2012. We also found that certain MLVA types collected in the DRC persisted in the country for several years, occasionally giving rise to expansive epidemics. Finally, we found that the six environmental isolates in our panel were unrelated to the epidemic isolates. Conclusions/Significance To effectively combat the disease, it is critical to understand the mechanisms of cholera emergence and diffusion in a region-specific manner. Overall, these findings demonstrate the relationship between distinct epidemics in West Africa and the African Great Lakes Region. This study also highlights the importance of monitoring and analyzing Vibrio cholerae isolates. PMID:26110870

  20. A hospital survey of the clinical features of diabetes in Congo.

    PubMed

    Mottini, G; D'Avola, D; Dimbelolo, J C; Lumu, R; Gallizioli, E; Nisita, J; Manfrini, S; De Clerck, M; Pozzilli, P

    2003-08-01

    The occurrence of diabetes mellitus is increasing throughout the world, both in industrialised nations and in developing countries. While this disease is not a leading cause of death in developing country populations, it must nevertheless be considered for its social and economic impact. This study examines the clinical and epidemiological situation of diabetes mellitus in the city of Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo, as based on data from two city hospitals: Saint Joseph's Hospital (SJH) and the Centre Hospitalier Monkole (CHM), two urban health facilities typical of those developing countries. The results show that diabetes is a real public health problem in Congo. Average blood glucose levels were above 300 mg/dl in 44.4% of patients at SJH and 41.5% at CHM, and hypertension (> or = 140/90 mmHg) was reported in 35.8% of patients at SJH and 20% at CHM. The management of diabetes and, in particular, its complications is suffering because of some cultural influences but mainly economic ones. In fact, incidence of disease complications is closely linked to the financial status of patients and facilities. SJH, which serves mainly the low-income community, has a greater incidence of severe diabetes-associated complications than CHM, which treats patients with a higher mean income level. SJH hospitalised patients had a 24.7% incidence of diabetic foot with 3 amputations as compared to only a 10% incidence and no amputations for CHM hospitalised patients. At SJH, 17.3% of patients died during the study, while at CHM none died. Overall, differences in the prevalence of complications between SJH and CHM patients were found not to be significant. For the large majority of Congo population, education on diabetes is not available, and due to the failure of the national health system, access to treatment is impossible. Furthermore, because most diabetic people in Congo go untreated, the mortality rate for the disease is high. Congo would greatly benefit from a national

  1. A hospital survey of the clinical features of diabetes in Congo.

    PubMed

    Mottini, G; D'Avola, D; Dimbelolo, J C; Lumu, R; Gallizioli, E; Nisita, J; Manfrini, S; De Clerck, M; Pozzilli, P

    2003-08-01

    The occurrence of diabetes mellitus is increasing throughout the world, both in industrialised nations and in developing countries. While this disease is not a leading cause of death in developing country populations, it must nevertheless be considered for its social and economic impact. This study examines the clinical and epidemiological situation of diabetes mellitus in the city of Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo, as based on data from two city hospitals: Saint Joseph's Hospital (SJH) and the Centre Hospitalier Monkole (CHM), two urban health facilities typical of those developing countries. The results show that diabetes is a real public health problem in Congo. Average blood glucose levels were above 300 mg/dl in 44.4% of patients at SJH and 41.5% at CHM, and hypertension (> or = 140/90 mmHg) was reported in 35.8% of patients at SJH and 20% at CHM. The management of diabetes and, in particular, its complications is suffering because of some cultural influences but mainly economic ones. In fact, incidence of disease complications is closely linked to the financial status of patients and facilities. SJH, which serves mainly the low-income community, has a greater incidence of severe diabetes-associated complications than CHM, which treats patients with a higher mean income level. SJH hospitalised patients had a 24.7% incidence of diabetic foot with 3 amputations as compared to only a 10% incidence and no amputations for CHM hospitalised patients. At SJH, 17.3% of patients died during the study, while at CHM none died. Overall, differences in the prevalence of complications between SJH and CHM patients were found not to be significant. For the large majority of Congo population, education on diabetes is not available, and due to the failure of the national health system, access to treatment is impossible. Furthermore, because most diabetic people in Congo go untreated, the mortality rate for the disease is high. Congo would greatly benefit from a national

  2. Mapping Land Cover and Land Use Changes in the Congo Basin Forests with Optical Satellite Remote Sensing: a Pilot Project Exploring Methodologies that Improve Spatial Resolution and Map Accuracy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molinario, G.; Baraldi, A.; Altstatt, A. L.; Nackoney, J.

    2011-12-01

    The University of Maryland has been a USAID Central Africa Rregional Program for the Environment (CARPE) cross-cutting partner for many years, providing remote sensing derived information on forest cover and forest cover changes in support of CARPE's objectives of diminishing forest degradation, loss and biodiversity loss as a result of poor or inexistent land use planning strategies. Together with South Dakota State University, Congo Basin-wide maps have been provided that map forest cover loss at a maximum of 60m resolution, using Landsat imagery and higher resolution imagery for algorithm training and validation. However, to better meet the needs within the CARPE Landscapes, which call for higher resolution, more accurate land cover change maps, UMD has been exploring the use of the SIAM automatic spectral -rule classifier together with pan-sharpened Landsat data (15m resolution) and Very High Resolution imagery from various sources. The pilot project is being developed in collaboration with the African Wildlife Foundation in the Maringa Lopori Wamba CARPE Landscape. If successful in the future this methodology will make the creation of high resolution change maps faster and easier, making it accessible to other entities in the Congo Basin that need accurate land cover and land use change maps in order, for example, to create sustainable land use plans, conserve biodiversity and resources and prepare Reducing Emissions from forest Degradation and Deforestation (REDD) Measurement, Reporting and Verification (MRV) projects. The paper describes the need for higher resolution land cover change maps that focus on forest change dynamics such as the cycling between primary forests, secondary forest, agriculture and other expanding and intensifying land uses in the Maringa Lopori Wamba CARPE Landscape in the Equateur Province of the Democratic Republic of Congo. The Methodology uses the SIAM remote sensing imagery automatic spectral rule classifier, together with pan

  3. Epidemiology of human African trypanosomiasis

    PubMed Central

    Franco, Jose R; Simarro, Pere P; Diarra, Abdoulaye; Jannin, Jean G

    2014-01-01

    Human African trypanosomiasis (HAT), or sleeping sickness, is caused by Trypanosoma brucei gambiense, which is a chronic form of the disease present in western and central Africa, and by Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense, which is an acute disease located in eastern and southern Africa. The rhodesiense form is a zoonosis, with the occasional infection of humans, but in the gambiense form, the human being is regarded as the main reservoir that plays a key role in the transmission cycle of the disease. The gambiense form currently assumes that 98% of the cases are declared; the Democratic Republic of the Congo is the most affected country, with more than 75% of the gambiense cases declared. The epidemiology of the disease is mediated by the interaction of the parasite (trypanosome) with the vectors (tsetse flies), as well as with the human and animal hosts within a particular environment. Related to these interactions, the disease is confined in spatially limited areas called “foci”, which are located in Sub-Saharan Africa, mainly in remote rural areas. The risk of contracting HAT is, therefore, determined by the possibility of contact of a human being with an infected tsetse fly. Epidemics of HAT were described at the beginning of the 20th century; intensive activities have been set up to confront the disease, and it was under control in the 1960s, with fewer than 5,000 cases reported in the whole continent. The disease resurged at the end of the 1990s, but renewed efforts from endemic countries, cooperation agencies, and nongovernmental organizations led by the World Health Organization succeeded to raise awareness and resources, while reinforcing national programs, reversing the trend of the cases reported, and bringing the disease under control again. In this context, sustainable elimination of the gambiense HAT, defined as the interruption of the transmission of the disease, was considered as a feasible target for 2030. Since rhodesiense HAT is a zoonosis

  4. Sulfur Dioxide Emissions from Congo Volcanoes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The Earth Probe Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) detected a sulfur dioxide cloud associated with the January 2002 eruption of Nyiragongo as it flew over the region at around 11 a.m. local time (0900 UTC) on January 17. The sensor detected no significant amounts of ash in the eruption cloud. At the time of the TOMS overpass the cloud extended up to roughly 200 km (124 miles) northwest of Nyiragongo and was still attached to the volcano. This observation is consistent with nearly coincident MODIS imagery which shows an opaque cloud of gas and steam in the same location. The TOMS measurements show that the amount of sulfur dioxide in the Nyiragongo's plume range from about 10 to 30 kilotons. Please note that TOMS mass retrievals are dependent on the altitude of the cloud and may be adjusted as more information becomes available. Since the cloud may still have been developing at the time of the TOMS overpass, the final sulfur dioxide burden may have been greater. Wind trajectory data (courtesy of Leslie Lait, SSAI) suggest that part of the cloud may have reached at least mid- to upper-tropospheric altitudes of up to 12 km (7 miles), but scientists suspect no significant stratospheric injection of sulfur dioxide as a result of this eruption since the gas was not visible over the Democratic Republic of the Congo region in subsequent TOMS data acquired on January 18. Production of sulfur dioxide without a significant ash cloud is commonly observed during effusive eruptions such as the Nyiragongo event. Although dense low-level ash may be produced during such eruptions, these particulates usually fall out fairly quickly and elude detection by satellite. The size of the January 17 Nyiragongo cloud and the estimated sulfur dioxide tonnage are fairly modest, and at least an order of magnitude smaller than values typically measured by TOMS during eruptions of nearby Nyamuragira during its frequent outbursts (e.g., on February 6, 2001). Sulfur dioxide column amounts

  5. A proposed drainage evolution model for Central Africa—Did the Congo flow east?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stankiewicz, Jacek; de Wit, Maarten J.

    2006-01-01

    Understanding the origin of Sub-Saharan biodiversity requires knowing the history of the region's paleo-ecosystems. As water is essential for sustaining of life, the evolving geometry of river basins often have influence on local speciation. With this in mind, we analyse drainage patterns in Central and East Africa. Evidence from marine fossils suggests the Congo Basin was submerged for much of the Cretaceous, and after being uplifted drained eastwards through a paleo-Congo river towards the Indian Ocean. Two remnant peneplains in the Congo Basin are interpreted as evidence that this basin was tectonically stable on at least two occasions in the past. The lower peneplain is interpreted as the base level of the drainage pattern that had its outlet in Tanzania, at the present Rufiji Delta that was once over 500 km wide. The Luangwa, today a tributary of the Zambezi river, was a part of this drainage network. This pattern was subsequently disrupted by uplift associated with the East African Rifting in the Oligocene-Eocene (30-40 Ma). The resulting landlocked system was captured in the Miocene (5-15 Ma) by short rivers draining into the Atlantic Ocean, producing the drainage pattern of Central Africa seen today.

  6. Congo River signature and deep circulation in the eastern Guinea Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braga, E. S.; Andrié, C.; Bourlès, B.; Vangriesheim, A.; Baurand, F.; Chuchla, R.

    2004-08-01

    Cruises since 1976, have allowed identification of oxygen and silicate anomalies within the Guinea Basin at around 4000 m depth, particularly above the Congo River fan. The EQUALANT cruise in 2000 was an opportunity to revisit this area and to study such anomalies through hydrological and chemical analyses as well as current and turbidity measurements. The main goal was to determine the possible origins, the distribution and the fate of these signals and their spreading along the African continent. The shape of the oxygen, nutrient and turbidity profiles was the first evidence of this phenomenon and an observation of a silicate-oxygen anti-correlation indicates regeneration processes associated with recently deposited particulate material, carried to depth along the Congo channel. This is a special aspect of the morphology of this river. Turbidity events are observed to be dispersed offshore within the ocean and along the slope at around 4000 m depth. While previous studies have shown southward propagation of the Congo signature, this study shows it to occur as far as 7°W-5°N, off Ivory Coast, near the 4000 m isobath, therefore demonstrating a northward propagation in this depth range.

  7. Major and trace elements of river-borne material: The Congo Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Dupre, B.; Rousseau, D.

    1996-04-01

    The Congo river Basin is the second largest drainage basin in the world, after the Amazon. The materials carried by its main rivers provide the opportunity to study the products of denudation of a large fraction of the upper continental crust of the African continent. This paper presents the chemical composition of the different phases carried in the Congo rivers and is followed by a companion paper, devoted to the modelling of major and trace elements. The Congo river between Bangui and Brazzaville as well as its main tributaries, including a few organic-rich rivers, also called Black Rivers, were sampled during the 1989 high water stage. The three main phases (suspended load, dissolved load, and bedload) were analysed for twenty-five major and trace elements. Concentrations normalized to the upper continental crust show that in each river, suspended sediments and dissolved load are chemical complements for the most soluble elements (Ca, Na, Sr, K, Ba, Rb, and U). While these elements are enriched in the dissolved loads, they are considerably depleted in the corresponding suspended sediments. This is consistent with their high mobility during weathering. Another type of complementarity is observed for Zr and Hf between suspended sediments and bedload, related to the differential velocity of suspended sediments and zircons which are concentrated in bedloads. Compared to other rivers, absolute dissolved concentrations of Ca, Na, Sr, K, Ba, Rb, and U are remarkably low. Surprisingly, high dissolved concentrations are found in the Congo waters for other trace elements (e.g., REEs), especially in the Black rivers. On a world scale, these concentrations are among the highest measured in rivers and are shown to be pH dependent for a number of dissolved trace elements. The dissolved loads are systematically normalized to the suspended loads for each river, in order to remove the variations of the element abundances owing to source rock variations.

  8. Nyiragongo volcano, Congo, Anaglyph, SRTM / Landsat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The Nyiragongo volcano in the Congo erupted on January 17, 2002, and subsequently sent streams of lava into the city of Goma on the north shore of Lake Kivu. More than 100 people were killed, more than 12,000 homes were destroyed, and hundreds of thousands were forced to flee the broader community of nearly half a million people. This stereoscopic (anaglyph) visualization combines a Landsat satellite image and an elevation model from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) to provide a view of the volcano, the city of Goma, and surrounding terrain.

    Nyiragongo is the steep volcano to the lower right of center, Lake Kivu is at the bottom, and the city of Goma is located along the northeast shore (bottom center). Nyiragongo peaks at about 3,470 meters (11,380 feet) elevation and reaches almost exactly 2,000 meters (6,560 feet) above Lake Kivu. The shorter but broader Nyamuragira volcano appears to the upper left of Nyiragongo.

    Goma, Lake Kivu, Nyiragongo, Nyamuragira and other nearby volcanoes sit within the East African Rift Valley, a zone where tectonic processes are cracking, stretching, and lowering the Earth's crust. The cliff at the top center of the image is the western edge of the rift. Volcanic activity is common in the rift, and older but geologically recent lava flows (dark in this depiction) are particularly apparent on the flanks of the Nyamuragira volcano.

    This anaglyph was produced by first shading an elevation model from data acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission and blending it with a single band of a Landsat scene. The stereoscopic effect was then created by generating two differing perspectives, one for each eye. When viewed through special glasses, the result is a vertically exaggerated view of the Earth's surface in its full three dimensions. Anaglyph glasses cover the left eye with a red filter and the right eye with a blue filter.

    The Landsat image used here was acquired on December 11, 2001, about a month before

  9. Towards the Atlas of human African trypanosomiasis

    PubMed Central

    Cecchi, Giuliano; Paone, Massimo; Franco, José R; Fèvre, Eric M; Diarra, Abdoulaye; Ruiz, José A; Mattioli, Raffaele C; Simarro, Pere P

    2009-01-01

    Background Updated, accurate and comprehensive information on the distribution of human African trypanosomiasis (HAT), also known as sleeping sickness, is critically important to plan and monitor control activities. We describe input data, methodology, preliminary results and future prospects of the HAT Atlas initiative, which will allow major improvements in the understanding of the spatial distribution of the disease. Methods Up-to-date as well as historical data collected by national sleeping sickness control programmes, non-governmental organizations and research institutes have been collated over many years by the HAT Control and Surveillance Programme of the World Health Organization. This body of information, unpublished for the most part, is now being screened, harmonized, and analysed by means of database management systems and geographical information systems (GIS). The number of new HAT cases and the number of people screened within a defined geographical entity were chosen as the key variables to map disease distribution in sub-Saharan Africa. Results At the time of writing, over 600 epidemiological reports and files from seventeen countries were collated and included in the data repository. The reports contain information on approximately 20,000 HAT cases, associated to over 7,000 different geographical entities. The oldest epidemiological records considered so far date back to 1985, the most recent having been gathered in 2008. Data from Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Congo, Equatorial Guinea and Gabon from the year 2000 onwards were fully processed and the preliminary regional map of HAT distribution is presented. Conclusion The use of GIS tools and geo-referenced, village-level epidemiological data allow the production of maps that substantially improve on the spatial quality of previous cartographic products of similar scope. The significant differences between our preliminary outputs and earlier maps of HAT transmission areas

  10. The nitrogen budget for different forest types in the central Congo Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauters, Marijn; Verbeeck, Hans; Cizungu, Landry; Boeckx, Pascal

    2016-04-01

    Characterization of fundamental processes in different forest types is vital to understand the interaction of forests with their changing environment. Recent data analyses, as well as modeling activities have shown that the CO2 uptake by terrestrial ecosystems strongly depends on site fertility, i.e. nutrient availability. Accurate projections of future net forest growth and terrestrial CO2 uptake thus necessitate an improved understanding on nutrient cycles and how these are coupled to the carbon (C) cycle in forests. This holds especially for tropical forests, since they represent about 40-50% of the total carbon that is stored in terrestrial vegetation, with the Amazon basin and the Congo basin being the largest two contiguous blocks. However, due to political instability and reduced accessibility in the central Africa region, there is a strong bias in scientific research towards the Amazon basin. Consequently, central African forests are poorly characterized and their role in global change interactions shows distinct knowledge gaps, which is important bottleneck for all efforts to further optimize Earth system models explicitly including this region. Research in the Congo Basin region should combine assessments of both carbon stocks and the underlying nutrient cycles which directly impact the forest productivity. We set up a monitoring network for carbon stocks and nitrogen fluxes in four different forest types in the Congo Basin, which is now operative. With the preliminary data, we can get a glimpse of the differences in nitrogen budget and biogeochemistry of African mixed lowland rainforest, monodominant lowland forest, mixed montane forest and eucalypt plantations.

  11. A Novel Strategy to Increase Identification of African-Born People With Chronic Hepatitis B Virus Infection in the Chicago Metropolitan Area, 2012–2014

    PubMed Central

    Song, Sharon; Johnson, Matthew; Harris, Aaron M.; Kaufman, Gary I.; Freedman, David; Quinn, Michael T.; Kim, Karen E.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Most research on hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection in the United States is limited to Asian populations, despite an equally high prevalence among African immigrants. The purpose of this study was to determine testing and detection rates of HBV infection among African-born people residing in the Chicago metropolitan area. Methods A hepatitis education and prevention program was developed in collaboration with academic, clinical, and community partners for immigrant and refugee populations at risk for HBV infection. Community health workers implemented chain referral sampling, a novel strategy for recruiting hard-to-reach participants, targeting African-born participants. Participants were tested in both clinical and nonclinical settings. To assess infection status, blood samples were obtained for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), core antibody, and surface antibody testing. Demographic information was collected on age, sex, health insurance status, country of origin, and years residing in the United States. Participants were notified of testing results, and HBsAg-positive participants were referred for follow-up medical care. Results Of 1,000 African-born people who received education, 445 (45%) agreed to participate in HBV screening. There were 386 (87%) participants tested in clinical and 59 (13%) tested in nonclinical sites. Compared with participants who were tested in clinical settings, participants tested in nonclinical settings were older, were less likely to have health insurance, and had lived in the United States longer (P < .005 for each). Of these, most were from the Democratic Republic of the Congo (14%), Nigeria (13%), Ghana (11%), Somalia (11%), or Ethiopia (10%). There were 35 (8%) HBsAg-positive people, 37% had evidence of past infection, and 29% were immune. Conclusions Chain referral sampling identified many at-risk African-born people with chronic HBV infection. The large proportion of HBsAg-positive people in this sample

  12. [Approach to sexuality in an AIDS context in Congo].

    PubMed

    Courtois, R; Mullet, E; Malvy, D

    2001-01-01

    The pandemic due to the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is extensive in Sub-Saharan Africa and especially in Congo. Congo is a small country on the Atlantic coast and characterized by plentiful equatorial forests and low population density (essentially urban). In Congo, there is a high prevalence of HIV. The social and economic consequences of AIDS add to those of a recent civil war in 1997. There were fratricidal confrontations before and after this period. These confrontations have led to a massive exodus of the inhabitants of the capital, Brazzaville, to the forests and neighbouring cities, essentially towards Pointe-Noire. Pointe-Noire, chief place of the region of Kouilou, in the South of the country, is the second city of Congo and the economic Capital. It is undoubtedly for this reason that it has been globally saved. In this context, a sanitary policy of prevention of sexual risky behavior can appear as a challenge. While it supposes a better knowledge of the sexual activity of the young people, it cannot be dissociated from the analysis of the other factors. These factors can be of socio-economic political or cultural order. Thus the influence of cultural variables in the field of sexuality is certainly preponderant in African countries, where sexuality is taboo. Sexuality is a private matter (personal intimacy and the couple), but concerns also the family (in the sense of membership in an extended domestic group or in a system of relationship) in its aspects related to procreation and to the social field (power, alliances). Such individual behaviour can be lived as a questioning of the social order. In this article, the authors question the place of sexuality in Congo, particularly based on the work of anthropologists [2, 6, 7, 9]. Research in the field of sexuality at adolescence is rather recent in France and investigations that have been done in Congo these last ten years do not exist. Meetings and exchanges in 1998 with high-school pupils and

  13. [Approach to sexuality in an AIDS context in Congo].

    PubMed

    Courtois, R; Mullet, E; Malvy, D

    2001-01-01

    The pandemic due to the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is extensive in Sub-Saharan Africa and especially in Congo. Congo is a small country on the Atlantic coast and characterized by plentiful equatorial forests and low population density (essentially urban). In Congo, there is a high prevalence of HIV. The social and economic consequences of AIDS add to those of a recent civil war in 1997. There were fratricidal confrontations before and after this period. These confrontations have led to a massive exodus of the inhabitants of the capital, Brazzaville, to the forests and neighbouring cities, essentially towards Pointe-Noire. Pointe-Noire, chief place of the region of Kouilou, in the South of the country, is the second city of Congo and the economic Capital. It is undoubtedly for this reason that it has been globally saved. In this context, a sanitary policy of prevention of sexual risky behavior can appear as a challenge. While it supposes a better knowledge of the sexual activity of the young people, it cannot be dissociated from the analysis of the other factors. These factors can be of socio-economic political or cultural order. Thus the influence of cultural variables in the field of sexuality is certainly preponderant in African countries, where sexuality is taboo. Sexuality is a private matter (personal intimacy and the couple), but concerns also the family (in the sense of membership in an extended domestic group or in a system of relationship) in its aspects related to procreation and to the social field (power, alliances). Such individual behaviour can be lived as a questioning of the social order. In this article, the authors question the place of sexuality in Congo, particularly based on the work of anthropologists [2, 6, 7, 9]. Research in the field of sexuality at adolescence is rather recent in France and investigations that have been done in Congo these last ten years do not exist. Meetings and exchanges in 1998 with high-school pupils and

  14. Long-Term Monitoring of Microsporidia, Cryptosporidium and Giardia Infections in Western Lowland Gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) at Different Stages of Habituation in Dzanga Sangha Protected Areas, Central African Republic

    PubMed Central

    Kvetonova, Dana; Mynarova, Anna; Shutt, Kathryn A.; Pomajbikova, Katerina; Kalousova, Barbora; Modry, David; Benavides, Julio; Todd, Angelique; Kvac, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Background Infectious diseases pose one of the greatest threats to endangered species, and a risk of gastrointestinal parasite transmission from humans to wildlife has always been considered as a major concern of tourism. Increased anthropogenic impact on primate populations may result in general changes in communities of their parasites, and also in a direct exchange of parasites between humans and primates. Aims To evaluate the impact of close contact with humans on the occurrence of potentially zoonotic protists in great apes, we conducted a long-term monitoring of microsporidia, Cryptosporidium and Giardia infections in western lowland gorillas at different stages of the habituation process, humans, and other wildlife in Dzanga-Sangha Protected Areas in the Central African Republic. Results We detected Encephalitozoon cuniculi genotypes I and II (7.5%), Enterocytozoon bieneusi genotype D and three novel genotypes (gorilla 1–3) (4.0%), Giardia intestinalis subgroup A II (2.0%) and Cryptosporidium bovis (0.5%) in gorillas, whereas in humans we found only G. intestinalis subgroup A II (2.1%). In other wild and domestic animals we recorded E. cuniculi genotypes I and II (2.1%), G. intestinalis assemblage E (0.5%) and C. muris TS03 (0.5%). Conclusion Due to the non-specificity of E. cuniculi genotypes we conclude that detection of the exact source of E. cuniculi infection is problematic. As Giardia intestinalis was recorded primarily in gorilla groups with closer human contact, we suggest that human-gorilla transmission has occurred. We call attention to a potentially negative impact of habituation on selected pathogens which might occur as a result of the more frequent presence of humans in the vicinity of both gorillas under habituation and habituated gorillas, rather than as a consequence of the close contact with humans, which might be a more traditional assumption. We encourage to observe the sections concerning hygiene from the IUCN best practice guidelines

  15. Linking carbon storage with functional diversity in tropical rainforest in the central Congo Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verbeeck, Hans; Kearsley, Elizabeth; Bauters, Marijn; Beeckman, Hans; Huygens, Dries; Steppe, Kathy; Boeckx, Pascal

    2015-04-01

    This presentation will show an overview of results of the COBIMFO project (Congo basin integrated monitoring for forest carbon mitigation and biodiversity). In the framework of this project we have established 21 permanent 1 ha sampling plots in different forest types in the Yangambi reserve. This UNESCO Man and Biosphere reserve has an area of more than 6000 km² and is located in the heart of the Congo Basin near the Yangambi research station (DR Congo). Analysis of the inventory data of these plots revealed that carbon stocks in mature forests in this area of the Congo Basin are significantly lower (24%) than stocks recorded in the outer regions of the basin. These lower stocks are attributed to a lower maximal tree height (Kearsley et al. 2013). In addition to the carbon inventories we collected leaf and wood samples on all species within 95% basal area of each of the Yangambi plots. A total of 995 individuals were sampled, covering 123 tree species. On the samples we measured 15 traits related to leaf and wood morphology and functioning. In the presented study, relationships between the observed functional diversity and biomass are analysed. One of the remarkable results of our analysis is that species with a high functional distinctiveness have a low contribution to the basal area and the carbon stocks. In contrast, species with a high contribution to the carbon stock have a low contribution to the functional diversity. Similar patterns have been observed elsewhere (e.g. Amazon basin), but are now for the first time confirmed for central African rainforest. Finally, we also present the first results of an analysis of carbons stocks and functional diversity in tropical plantations from a unique 70-years old tree diversity experiment that was established during the colonial period at the Yangambi research station. Kearsley, E., de Haulleville, T., Hufkens, K., Kidimbu, A., Toirambe, B., Baert, G., Huygens, D., Kebede, Y., Defourny, P., Bogaert, J., Beeckman, H

  16. Breastfeeding beliefs and practices of African women living in Brisbane and Perth, Australia.

    PubMed

    Gallegos, Danielle; Vicca, Natalie; Streiner, Samantha

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the experience of breastfeeding among refugee women from Liberia, Sierra Leone, Burundi and the Democratic Republic of Congo living in two major capital cities in Australia. Participants were recruited from their relevant community associations and via a snowballing technique. Thirty-one women took part in either individual interviews or facilitated group discussions to explore their experiences of breastfeeding in their home country and in Australia. Thematic analysis revealed four main themes: cultural breastfeeding beliefs and practices; stigma and shame around breastfeeding in public; ambivalence towards breastfeeding and breastfeeding support. Women who originated from these four African countries highlighted a significant desire for breastfeeding and an understanding that it was the best method for feeding their infants. Their breastfeeding practices in Australia were a combination of practices maintained from their countries of origin and those adopted according to Australian cultural norms. They exemplified the complexity of breastfeeding behaviour and the relationship between infant feeding with economic status and the perceived social norms of the host country. The results illustrate the need for policy makers and health professionals to take into consideration the environmental, social and cultural contexts of the women who are purportedly targeted for the promotion of breastfeeding.

  17. Polio eradication in the World Health Organization African Region, 2008-2012.

    PubMed

    Kretsinger, Katrina; Gasasira, Alex; Poy, Alain; Porter, Kimberly A; Everts, Johannes; Salla, Mbaye; Brown, Kristin H; Wassilak, Steven G F; Nshimirimana, Deogratias

    2014-11-01

    A renewed commitment at the regional and the global levels led to substantial progress in the fight for polio eradication in the African Region (AFR) of the World Health Organization (WHO) during 2008-2012. In 2008, there were 912 reported cases of wild poliovirus (WPV) infection in 12 countries in the region. This number had been reduced to 128 cases in 3 countries in 2012, of which 122 were in Nigeria, the only remaining country with endemic circulation of WPV in AFR. During 2008-2012, circulation apparently ceased in the 3 AFR countries with reestablished WPV transmission-Angola, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, and Chad. Outbreaks in West Africa continued to occur in 2008-2010 but were more rapidly contained, with fewer cases than during earlier years. This progress has been attributed to better implementation of core strategies, increased accountability, and implementation of innovative approaches. During this period, routine coverage with 3 doses of oral polio vaccine in AFR, as measured by WHO-United Nations Children's Fund estimates, increased slightly, from 72% to 74%. Despite this progress, challenges persist in AFR, and 2013 was marked by new setbacks and importations. High population immunity and strong surveillance are essential to sustain progress and assure that AFR reaches its goal of eradicating WPV.

  18. Plasmodium falciparum sulfadoxine resistance is geographically and genetically clustered within the DR Congo

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Steve M.; Antonia, Alejandro L.; Parobek, Christian M.; Juliano, Jonathan J.; Janko, Mark; Emch, Michael; Alam, Md Tauqeer; Udhayakumar, Venkatachalam; Tshefu, Antoinette K.; Meshnick, Steven R.

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the spatial clustering of Plasmodium falciparum populations can assist efforts to contain drug-resistant parasites and maintain the efficacy of future drugs. We sequenced single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the dihydropteroate synthase gene (dhps) associated with sulfadoxine resistance and 5 microsatellite loci flanking dhps in order to investigate the genetic backgrounds, genetic relatedness, and geographic clustering of falciparum parasites in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC). Resistant haplotypes were clustered into subpopulations: one in the northeast DRC, and the other in the balance of the DRC. Network and clonal lineage analyses of the flanking microsatellites indicate that geographically-distinct mutant dhps haplotypes derive from separate lineages. The DRC is therefore a watershed for haplotypes associated with sulfadoxine resistance. Given the importance of central Africa as a corridor for the spread of antimalarial resistance, the identification of the mechanisms of this transit can inform future policies to contain drug-resistant parasite strains. PMID:23372922

  19. Organic matter sources, fluxes and greenhouse gas exchange in the Oubangui River (Congo River basin)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouillon, S.; Yambélé, A.; Spencer, R. G. M.; Gillikin, D. P.; Hernes, P. J.; Six, J.; Merckx, R.; Borges, A. V.

    2012-06-01

    The Oubangui is a major tributary of the Congo River, draining an area of ~500 000 km2 mainly consisting of wooded savannahs. Here, we report results of a one year long, 2-weekly sampling campaign in Bangui (Central African Republic) since March 2010 for a suite of physico-chemical and biogeochemical characteristics, including total suspended matter (TSM), bulk concentration and stable isotope composition of particulate organic carbon (POC and δ13CPOC), particulate nitrogen (PN and δ15NPN), dissolved organic carbon (DOC and δ13CDOC), dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC and δ13CDIC), dissolved greenhouse gases (CO2, CH4 and N2O), and dissolved lignin composition. δ13C signatures of both POC and DOC showed strong seasonal variations (-30.6 to -25.8‰, and -31.8 to -27.1‰, respectively), but their different timing indicates that the origins of POC and DOC may vary strongly over the hydrograph and are largely uncoupled, differing up to 6‰ in δ13C signatures. Dissolved lignin characteristics (carbon-normalised yields, cinnamyl:vanillyl phenol ratios, and vanillic acid to vanillin ratios) showed marked differences between high and low discharge conditions, consistent with major seasonal variations in the sources of dissolved organic matter. We observed a strong seasonality in pCO2, ranging between 470 ± 203 ppm for Q < 1000 m3 s-1 (n=10) to a maximum of 3750 ppm during the first stage of the rising discharge. The low POC/PN ratios, high %POC and low and variable δ13CPOC signatures during low flow conditions suggest that the majority of the POC pool during this period consists of in situ produced phytoplankton, consistent with concurrent pCO2 (partial pressure of CO2) values only slightly above and, occasionally, below atmospheric equilibrium. Water-atmosphere CO2 fluxes estimated using two independent approaches averaged 105 and 204 g C m-2 yr-1, i.e. more than an order of magnitude lower than current estimates for large tropical rivers globally. Although

  20. Organic matter sources, fluxes and greenhouse gas exchange in the Oubangui River (Congo River basin)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouillon, S.; Yambélé, A.; Spencer, R. G. M.; Gillikin, D. P.; Hernes, P. J.; Six, J.; Merckx, R.; Borges, A. V.

    2012-01-01

    The Oubangui is a major tributary of the Congo River, draining an area of ~ 500 000 km2 mainly consisting of wooded savannahs. Here, we report results of a one year long 2-weekly sampling campaign in Bangui (Central African Republic) since March 2010 for a suite of physico-chemical and biogeochemical characteristics, including total suspended matter (TSM), bulk concentration and stable isotope composition of particulate organic carbon (POC and δ13CPOC), particulate nitrogen (PN and δ15NPN), dissolved organic carbon (DOC and δ13CDOC), dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC and δ13CDIC), dissolved greenhouse gases (CO2, CH4 and N2O), and dissolved lignin composition. We estimated the total annual flux of TSM, POC, PN, DOC and DIC to be 2.33 Tg yr-1, 0.14 Tg C yr-1, 0.014 Tg N yr-1, 0.70 Tg C yr-1, and 0.49 Tg C yr-1, respectively. Most elements showed clear hysteresis over the hydrograph. δ13C signatures of both POC and DOC showed strong seasonal variations (-30.6 to -25.8 ‰, and -31.8 to -27.1 ‰, respectively) but with contrasting patterns. Our data indicate that the origins of POC and DOC may vary strongly over the hydrograph and are largely uncoupled, differing up to 6 ‰ in δ13C signatures. The low POC/PN ratios, high % POC and low and variable δ13CPOC signatures during low flow conditions suggest that during this period, the majority of the POC pool consists of in situ produced phytoplankton, consistent with concurrent pCO2 (partial pressure of CO2) values only slightly above and occasionally, below, atmospheric equilibrium. Dissolved lignin characteristics (carbon-normalised yields, cinnamyl:vanillyl phenol ratios, and vanillic acid to vanillin ratios) showed marked differences between high and low discharge conditions. We observed a~strong seasonality in pCO2, ranging between 470 ± 203 ppm for Q<1000 m3 s-1 (n=10) to a maximum of 3750 ppm during the first stage of the rising discharge. Water-atmosphere CO2 fluxes were estimated to average ~ 105 g C m-2

  1. A phylogeographic investigation of African monkeypox.

    PubMed

    Nakazawa, Yoshinori; Mauldin, Matthew R; Emerson, Ginny L; Reynolds, Mary G; Lash, R Ryan; Gao, Jinxin; Zhao, Hui; Li, Yu; Muyembe, Jean-Jacques; Kingebeni, Placide Mbala; Wemakoy, Okito; Malekani, Jean; Karem, Kevin L; Damon, Inger K; Carroll, Darin S

    2015-04-22

    Monkeypox is a zoonotic disease caused by a virus member of the genus Orthopoxvirus and is endemic to Central and Western African countries. Previous work has identified two geographically disjuct clades of monkeypox virus based on the analysis of a few genomes coupled with epidemiological and clinical analyses; however, environmental and geographic causes of this differentiation have not been explored. Here, we expand previous phylogenetic studies by analyzing a larger set of monkeypox virus genomes originating throughout Sub-Saharan Africa to identify possible biogeographic barriers associated with genetic differentiation; and projected ecological niche models onto environmental conditions at three periods in the past to explore the potential role of climate oscillations in the evolution of the two primary clades. Analyses supported the separation of the Congo Basin and West Africa clades; the Congo Basin clade shows much shorter branches, which likely indicate a more recent diversification of isolates within this clade. The area between the Sanaga and Cross Rivers divides the two clades and the Dahomey Gap seems to have also served as a barrier within the West African clade. Contraction of areas with suitable environments for monkeypox virus during the Last Glacial Maximum, suggests that the Congo Basin clade of monkeypox virus experienced a severe bottleneck and has since expanded its geographic range.

  2. A Phylogeographic Investigation of African Monkeypox

    PubMed Central

    Nakazawa, Yoshinori; Mauldin, Matthew R.; Emerson, Ginny L.; Reynolds, Mary G.; Lash, R. Ryan; Gao, Jinxin; Zhao, Hui; Li, Yu; Muyembe, Jean-Jacques; Mbala Kingebeni, Placide; Wemakoy, Okito; Malekani, Jean; Karem, Kevin L.; Damon, Inger K.; Carroll, Darin S.

    2015-01-01

    Monkeypox is a zoonotic disease caused by a virus member of the genus Orthopoxvirus and is endemic to Central and Western African countries. Previous work has identified two geographically disjuct clades of monkeypox virus based on the analysis of a few genomes coupled with epidemiological and clinical analyses; however, environmental and geographic causes of this differentiation have not been explored. Here, we expand previous phylogenetic studies by analyzing a larger set of monkeypox virus genomes originating throughout Sub-Saharan Africa to identify possible biogeographic barriers associated with genetic differentiation; and projected ecological niche models onto environmental conditions at three periods in the past to explore the potential role of climate oscillations in the evolution of the two primary clades. Analyses supported the separation of the Congo Basin and West Africa clades; the Congo Basin clade shows much shorter branches, which likely indicate a more recent diversification of isolates within this clade. The area between the Sanaga and Cross Rivers divides the two clades and the Dahomey Gap seems to have also served as a barrier within the West African clade. Contraction of areas with suitable environments for monkeypox virus during the Last Glacial Maximum, suggests that the Congo Basin clade of monkeypox virus experienced a severe bottleneck and has since expanded its geographic range. PMID:25912718

  3. Simulation results of aboveground woody biomass and leaf litterfall for African tropical forest with a global terrestrial model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Weirdt, Marjolein; Maignan, Fabienne; Peylin, Philippe; Poulter, Benjamin; Moreau, Inès; Ciais, Philippe; Defourny, Pierre; Steppe, Kathy; Verbeeck, Hans

    2014-05-01

    The response of tropical forest vegetation to global climate change could be central to predictions of future levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide. Tropical forests are believed to annually process approximately six times as much carbon via photosynthesis and respiration as humans emit from fossil fuel use. Of all tropical forests worldwide, the role of African tropical forest is not very well known and both the quantity as well as the dynamics of tropical forest carbon stocks and fluxes are very poorly quantified components of the global carbon cycle. Furthermore, African tropical forest spatial carbon stocks patterns as measured in the field are not as well represented by the global biogeochemical models as they are for temperate forests. In this study, a first simulation for the African tropical forest with the process based global terrestrial ecosystem model ORCHIDEE was done. In this work, ORCHIDEE included deep soils, seasonal leaf litterfall and phosphorus availability mechanisms for tropical evergreen forests included. The ORCHIDEE model run outputs are evaluated against reported field inventories, investigating seasonal variations in leaf litterfall and spatial variation in aboveground woody biomass. A comparison between modeled and measured leaf litterfall was made at a semi-deciduous Equatorial rainforest site in the Republic of Congo at the Biosphere reserve Dimonika south of Gabon. Also, simulated woody aboveground biomass was compared against site-level field inventories and satellite-based estimates based on a combination of MODIS imagery with field inventory data from Uganda, DRC and Cameroon. First comparison results seem promising and show that the radiation driven leaf litterfall model results correspond well with the field inventories and that the mean of the modelled aboveground woody biomass matches the available field inventory observations but there is still a need for more ground data to evaluate the model outcome over a large region like

  4. Find an ENT

    MedlinePlus

    ... Verde Cayman Islands Central African Republic Chad Chile China Christmas Island Cocos (Keeling) Islands Colombia Comoros Congo ... Mayen Swaziland Sweden Switzerland Syria Taiwan(Republic of China) Tajikistan Tanzania Thailand Timor-Leste Togo Tokelau Tonga ...

  5. Roadless wilderness area determines forest elephant movements in the Congo Basin.

    PubMed

    Blake, Stephen; Deem, Sharon L; Strindberg, Samantha; Maisels, Fiona; Momont, Ludovic; Isia, Inogwabini-Bila; Douglas-Hamilton, Iain; Karesh, William B; Kock, Michael D

    2008-01-01

    A dramatic expansion of road building is underway in the Congo Basin fuelled by private enterprise, international aid, and government aspirations. Among the great wilderness areas on earth, the Congo Basin is outstanding for its high biodiversity, particularly mobile megafauna including forest elephants (Loxodonta africana cyclotis). The abundance of many mammal species in the Basin increases with distance from roads due to hunting pressure, but the impacts of road proliferation on the movements of individuals are unknown. We investigated the ranging behaviour of forest elephants in relation to roads and roadless wilderness by fitting GPS telemetry collars onto a sample of 28 forest elephants living in six priority conservation areas. We show that the size of roadless wilderness is a strong determinant of home range size in this species. Though our study sites included the largest wilderness areas in central African forests, none of 4 home range metrics we calculated, including core area, tended toward an asymptote with increasing wilderness size, suggesting that uninhibited ranging in forest elephants no longer exists. Furthermore we show that roads outside protected areas which are not protected from hunting are a formidable barrier to movement while roads inside protected areas are not. Only 1 elephant from our sample crossed an unprotected road. During crossings her mean speed increased 14-fold compared to normal movements. Forest elephants are increasingly confined and constrained by roads across the Congo Basin which is reducing effective habitat availability and isolating populations, significantly threatening long term conservation efforts. If the current road development trajectory continues, forest wildernesses and the forest elephants they contain will collapse. PMID:18958284

  6. Widespread decline of Congo rainforest greenness in the past decade.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Liming; Tian, Yuhong; Myneni, Ranga B; Ciais, Philippe; Saatchi, Sassan; Liu, Yi Y; Piao, Shilong; Chen, Haishan; Vermote, Eric F; Song, Conghe; Hwang, Taehee

    2014-05-01

    Tropical forests are global epicentres of biodiversity and important modulators of climate change, and are mainly constrained by rainfall patterns. The severe short-term droughts that occurred recently in Amazonia have drawn attention to the vulnerability of tropical forests to climatic disturbances. The central African rainforests, the second-largest on Earth, have experienced a long-term drying trend whose impacts on vegetation dynamics remain mostly unknown because in situ observations are very limited. The Congolese forest, with its drier conditions and higher percentage of semi-evergreen trees, may be more tolerant to short-term rainfall reduction than are wetter tropical forests, but for a long-term drought there may be critical thresholds of water availability below which higher-biomass, closed-canopy forests transition to more open, lower-biomass forests. Here we present observational evidence for a widespread decline in forest greenness over the past decade based on analyses of satellite data (optical, thermal, microwave and gravity) from several independent sensors over the Congo basin. This decline in vegetation greenness, particularly in the northern Congolese forest, is generally consistent with decreases in rainfall, terrestrial water storage, water content in aboveground woody and leaf biomass, and the canopy backscatter anomaly caused by changes in structure and moisture in upper forest layers. It is also consistent with increases in photosynthetically active radiation and land surface temperature. These multiple lines of evidence indicate that this large-scale vegetation browning, or loss of photosynthetic capacity, may be partially attributable to the long-term drying trend. Our results suggest that a continued gradual decline of photosynthetic capacity and moisture content driven by the persistent drying trend could alter the composition and structure of the Congolese forest to favour the spread of drought-tolerant species. PMID:24759324

  7. Widespread decline of Congo rainforest greenness in the past decade.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Liming; Tian, Yuhong; Myneni, Ranga B; Ciais, Philippe; Saatchi, Sassan; Liu, Yi Y; Piao, Shilong; Chen, Haishan; Vermote, Eric F; Song, Conghe; Hwang, Taehee

    2014-05-01

    Tropical forests are global epicentres of biodiversity and important modulators of climate change, and are mainly constrained by rainfall patterns. The severe short-term droughts that occurred recently in Amazonia have drawn attention to the vulnerability of tropical forests to climatic disturbances. The central African rainforests, the second-largest on Earth, have experienced a long-term drying trend whose impacts on vegetation dynamics remain mostly unknown because in situ observations are very limited. The Congolese forest, with its drier conditions and higher percentage of semi-evergreen trees, may be more tolerant to short-term rainfall reduction than are wetter tropical forests, but for a long-term drought there may be critical thresholds of water availability below which higher-biomass, closed-canopy forests transition to more open, lower-biomass forests. Here we present observational evidence for a widespread decline in forest greenness over the past decade based on analyses of satellite data (optical, thermal, microwave and gravity) from several independent sensors over the Congo basin. This decline in vegetation greenness, particularly in the northern Congolese forest, is generally consistent with decreases in rainfall, terrestrial water storage, water content in aboveground woody and leaf biomass, and the canopy backscatter anomaly caused by changes in structure and moisture in upper forest layers. It is also consistent with increases in photosynthetically active radiation and land surface temperature. These multiple lines of evidence indicate that this large-scale vegetation browning, or loss of photosynthetic capacity, may be partially attributable to the long-term drying trend. Our results suggest that a continued gradual decline of photosynthetic capacity and moisture content driven by the persistent drying trend could alter the composition and structure of the Congolese forest to favour the spread of drought-tolerant species.

  8. Comparative soil metal analyses in Sudbury (Ontario, Canada) and Lubumbashi (Katanga, DR-Congo).

    PubMed

    Narendrula, R; Nkongolo, K K; Beckett, P

    2012-02-01

    DR-Congo is a main world producer of copper (Cu) and cobalt (Co). Several hydrometallurgical plants and smelters also produced zinc, arsenic, and cadmium as by-products. In Sudbury (Canada), the production of nickel, copper and other metals has been maintained at high levels while industrial SO(2) emissions have been reduced by approximately 90% through combination of industrial technological developments and legislated controls. Metal analysis in the present study revealed that the levels of copper and cobalt in soils from mining sites in the Lubumbashi (DR-Congo) were up to 200 fold higher compared to contaminated Sudbury sites and tailings. Zinc content in soil samples from some mining areas in Lubumbashi was at least 70 times higher compared to samples from the Sudbury area. Nickel content in soil samples from Lubumbashi were much lower compared to the Sudbury Region samples. Overall, this study confirms that the African Copper belt region is among the ten most polluted areas in the world. PMID:22139330

  9. Impact of climate change on forests, forest products and the carbon cycle in the Congo Basin.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kruijt, Bart; Jans, Wilma; Franssen, Wietse; Ludwig, Fulco

    2014-05-01

    Africa is widely seen as the continent most vulnerable to climate change. Current climate variability already has a large impact on the economies of developing countries. Large parts of African economies are highly climate sensitive, in particular agriculture, infrastructure and water sector. In this study we performed an analysis of climate change impacts in the Congo Basin on Forest ecosystem functioning and carbon storage. We emphasise the methodologies and validation involved in modelling the basin-wide carbon budgets. We also studied the potential shifts in broad classes of vegetation types, resulting from climate change. Finally, we compared annual productivity of the Congo forests with statistics of wood fuel and charcoal use for each of the countries in the region. The model simulations suggest that the region's forests will see increasing productivity under future climate, however, the effect of rising CO2 concentrations, stimulating growth, is highly uncertain. From these findings it follows that the potential in the region to implement UNFCCC-REDD+ projects is still very uncertain, but probably sustainable and feasible. The analysis shows that, averaged over 10 years, wood fuel and charcoal use amount to 50% and in some countries up to 100% or even more of the yearly vegetation carbon increase. These percentages generally increases with population density.

  10. Cholera Incidence and Mortality in Sub-Saharan African Sites during Multi-country Surveillance

    PubMed Central

    Sauvageot, Delphine; Njanpop-Lafourcade, Berthe-Marie; Akilimali, Laurent; Anne, Jean-Claude; Bidjada, Pawou; Bompangue, Didier; Bwire, Godfrey; Coulibaly, Daouda; Dengo-Baloi, Liliana; Dosso, Mireille; Orach, Christopher Garimoi; Inguane, Dorteia; Kagirita, Atek; Kacou-N’Douba, Adele; Keita, Sakoba; Kere Banla, Abiba; Kouame, Yao Jean-Pierre; Landoh, Dadja Essoya; Langa, Jose Paulo; Makumbi, Issa; Miwanda, Berthe; Malimbo, Muggaga; Mutombo, Guy; Mutombo, Annie; NGuetta, Emilienne Niamke; Saliou, Mamadou; Sarr, Veronique; Senga, Raphael Kakongo; Sory, Fode; Sema, Cynthia; Tante, Ouyi Valentin; Gessner, Bradford D.; Mengel, Martin A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Cholera burden in Africa remains unknown, often because of weak national surveillance systems. We analyzed data from the African Cholera Surveillance Network (www.africhol.org). Methods/ Principal findings During June 2011–December 2013, we conducted enhanced surveillance in seven zones and four outbreak sites in Togo, the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), Guinea, Uganda, Mozambique and Cote d’Ivoire. All health facilities treating cholera cases were included. Cholera incidences were calculated using culture-confirmed cholera cases and culture-confirmed cholera cases corrected for lack of culture testing usually due to overwhelmed health systems and imperfect test sensitivity. Of 13,377 reported suspected cases, 34% occurred in Conakry, Guinea, 47% in Goma, DRC, and 19% in the remaining sites. From 0–40% of suspected cases were aged under five years and from 0.3–86% had rice water stools. Within surveillance zones, 0–37% of suspected cases had confirmed cholera compared to 27–38% during outbreaks. Annual confirmed incidence per 10,000 population was <0.5 in surveillance zones, except Goma where it was 4.6. Goma and Conakry had corrected incidences of 20.2 and 5.8 respectively, while the other zones a median of 0.3. During outbreaks, corrected incidence varied from 2.6 to 13.0. Case fatality ratios ranged from 0–10% (median, 1%) by country. Conclusions/Significance Across different African epidemiological contexts, substantial variation occurred in cholera incidence, age distribution, clinical presentation, culture confirmation, and testing frequency. These results can help guide preventive activities, including vaccine use. PMID:27186885

  11. Chilocoris capensis n. sp., the first species of the genus Chilocoris Mayr, 1865 (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Cydnidae) recorded in the Republic of South Africa with an annotated checklist of South African burrower bugs.

    PubMed

    Lis, Jerzy A; Lis, Barbara; Compton, Stephen G

    2016-01-01

    Chilocoris capensis n. sp. collected from fallen ripe figs of broom cluster fig Ficus sur Forsskål, 1775, the first burrower bug species of the genus Chilocoris Mayr, 1865 recorded in the Republic of South Africa, is described and compared with Chilocoris laevicollis Horváth, 1919, the morphologically most closely allied Afrotropical species. Additionally, an annotated checklist of burrower bug species recorded in the Republic of South Africa is provided. The known biology of Afrotropical Chilocoris species is briefly summarized. PMID:27515635

  12. Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever, Mauritania

    PubMed Central

    Nabeth, Pierre; Cheikh, Dah Ould; Lo, Baidy; Faye, Ousmane; Vall, Idoumou Ould Mohamed; Niang, Mbayame; Wague, Bocar; Diop, Djibril; Diallo, Mawlouth; Diallo, Boubacar; Diop, Ousmane Madiagne; Simon, François

    2004-01-01

    From February to August 2003, 38 persons were infected with Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) virus in Mauritania; 35 of these persons were residents of Nouakchott. The first patient was a young woman who became ill shortly after butchering a goat. She transmitted the infection to 15 persons in the hospital where she was admitted and four members of her family. In Nouakchott, two disease clusters and 11 isolated cases were identified. The case-fatality ratio was 28.6%. Of the patients not infected by the first case-patient, almost half were butchers, which suggests that the primary mode of animal-to-human transmission was direct contact with blood of infected animals. The hospital outbreak alerted health authorities to sporadic cases that occurred in the following weeks, which would have probably gone otherwise unnoticed. Studies must be conducted to determine the potential risk for continued sporadic outbreaks of CCHF in humans and to propose prevention measures. PMID:15663851

  13. Evolutionary history of the river frog genus Amietia (Anura: Pyxicephalidae) reveals extensive diversification in Central African highlands.

    PubMed

    Larson, Thornton R; Castro, Delilah; Behangana, Mathias; Greenbaum, Eli

    2016-06-01

    The African river frog genus Amietia is found near rivers and other lentic water sources throughout central, eastern, and southern Africa. Because the genus includes multiple morphologically conservative species, taxonomic studies of river frogs have been relatively limited. We sampled 79 individuals of Amietia from multiple localities in and near the Albertine Rift (AR) of Burundi, Democratic Republic of the Congo, and Uganda. We utilized single-gene (16S) and concatenated (12S, 16S, cyt b and RAG1) gene-tree analyses and coalescent species-tree analyses to construct phylogenetic trees. Two divergence dating approaches were used in BEAST, including secondary calibration points with 12S, 16S, cyt b and RAG1, and a molecular clock with the 12S, 16S, and cyt b genes. All analyses recovered Amietia as monophyletic with strong support, and revealed several well-supported cryptic lineages, which is consistent with other recent phylogeography studies of AR amphibians. Dating estimates were similar, and Amietia diversification is coincident with global cooling and aridification events in the Miocene and Pliocene, respectively. Our results suggest additional taxonomic work is needed to describe multiple new species of AR Amietia, some of which have limited geographic distributions that are likely to be of conservation concern. PMID:27026115

  14. Crustal structure of Precambrian terranes in the southern African subcontinent with implications for secular variation in crustal genesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kachingwe, Marsella; Nyblade, Andrew; Julià, Jordi

    2015-07-01

    New estimates of crustal thickness, Poisson's ratio and crustal shear wave velocity have been obtained for 39 stations in Angola, Botswana, the Democratic Republic of Congo, Malawi, Mozambique, Namibia, Rwanda, Tanzania and Zambia by modelling P-wave receiver functions using the H-κ stacking method and jointly inverting the receiver functions with Rayleigh-wave phase and group velocities. These estimates, combined with similar results from previous studies, have been examined for secular trends in Precambrian crustal structure within the southern African subcontinent. In both Archean and Proterozoic terranes we find similar Moho depths [38-39 ± 3 km SD (standard deviation)], crustal Poisson's ratio (0.26 ± 0.01 SD), mean crustal shear wave velocity (3.7 ± 0.1 km s-1 SD), and amounts of heterogeneity in the thickness of the mafic lower crust, as defined by shear wave velocities ≥4.0 km s-1. In addition, the amount of variability in these crustal parameters is similar within each individual age grouping as between age groupings. Thus, the results provide little evidence for secular variation in Precambrian crustal structure, including between Meso- and Neoarchean crust. This finding suggests that (1) continental crustal has been generated by similar processes since the Mesoarchean or (2) plate tectonic processes have reworked and modified the crust through time, erasing variations in structure resulting from crustal genesis.

  15. Evolutionary history of the river frog genus Amietia (Anura: Pyxicephalidae) reveals extensive diversification in Central African highlands.

    PubMed

    Larson, Thornton R; Castro, Delilah; Behangana, Mathias; Greenbaum, Eli

    2016-06-01

    The African river frog genus Amietia is found near rivers and other lentic water sources throughout central, eastern, and southern Africa. Because the genus includes multiple morphologically conservative species, taxonomic studies of river frogs have been relatively limited. We sampled 79 individuals of Amietia from multiple localities in and near the Albertine Rift (AR) of Burundi, Democratic Republic of the Congo, and Uganda. We utilized single-gene (16S) and concatenated (12S, 16S, cyt b and RAG1) gene-tree analyses and coalescent species-tree analyses to construct phylogenetic trees. Two divergence dating approaches were used in BEAST, including secondary calibration points with 12S, 16S, cyt b and RAG1, and a molecular clock with the 12S, 16S, and cyt b genes. All analyses recovered Amietia as monophyletic with strong support, and revealed several well-supported cryptic lineages, which is consistent with other recent phylogeography studies of AR amphibians. Dating estimates were similar, and Amietia diversification is coincident with global cooling and aridification events in the Miocene and Pliocene, respectively. Our results suggest additional taxonomic work is needed to describe multiple new species of AR Amietia, some of which have limited geographic distributions that are likely to be of conservation concern.

  16. Physiological and biochemical responses of Chlorella vulgaris to Congo red.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Zamora, Miriam; Perales-Vela, Hugo Virgilio; Flores-Ortíz, César Mateo; Cañizares-Villanueva, Rosa Olivia

    2014-10-01

    Extensive use of synthetic dyes in many industrial applications releases large volumes of wastewater. Wastewaters from dying industries are considered hazardous and require careful treatment prior to discharge into receiving water bodies. Dyes can affect photosynthetic activities of aquatic flora and decrease dissolved oxygen in water. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of Congo red on growth and metabolic activity of Chlorella vulgaris after 96h exposure. Exposure of the microalga to Congo red reduced growth rate, photosynthesis and respiration. Analysis of chlorophyll a fluorescence emission showed that the donor side of photosystem II was affected at high concentrations of Congo red. The quantum yield for electron transport (φEo), the electron transport rate (ETR) and the performance index (PI) also decreased. The reduction in the ability to absorb and use the quantum energy increased non-photochemical (NPQ) mechanisms for thermal dissipation. Overall, Congo red affects growth and metabolic activity in photosynthetic organisms in aquatic environments.

  17. Selected French Speaking Sub-Saharan African Countries: Burundi, Cameroon (Eastern), Chad, Congo (Brazzaville), Dahomey, Gabon, Ivory Coast, Mali, Mauritania, Niger, Rwanda, Senegal, Togo, Upper Volta, Zaire. A Guide to the Academic Placement of Students from These Countries in Academic Institutions of the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trudeau, Edouard J. C.

    The educational systems of 15 Sub-Saharan African countries are described, and guidelines concerning the academic placement of students who wish to study in U.S. institutions are provided. Tables indicate the grades covered by primary education and secondary education (academic and technical). Burundi, Rwanda, and Zaire have followed the Belgian…

  18. Mycoremediation of congo red dye by filamentous fungi

    PubMed Central

    Bhattacharya, Sourav; Das, Arijit; G, Mangai.; K, Vignesh.; J, Sangeetha.

    2011-01-01

    Azo, anthroquinone and triphenylmethane dyes are the major classes of synthetic colourants, which are difficult to degrade and have received considerable attention. Congo red, a diazo dye, is considered as a xenobiotic compound, and is recalcitrant to biodegradative processes. Nevertheless, during the last few years it has been demonstrated that several fungi, under certain environmental conditions, are able to transfer azo dyes to non toxic products using laccases. The aim of this work was to study the factors influencing mycoremediation of Congo red. Several basidiomycetes and deuteromycetes species were tested for the decolourisation of Congo red (0.05 g/l) in a semi synthetic broth at static and shaking conditions. Poor decolourisation was observed when the dye acted as the sole source of nitrogen, whereas semi synthetic broth supplemented with fertilizer resulted in better decolourisation. Decolourisation of Congo red was checked in the presence of salts of heavy metals such as mercuric chloride, lead acetate and zinc sulphate. Decolourisation parameters such as temperature, pH, and rpm were optimized and the decolourisation obtained at optimized conditions varied between 29.25- 97.28% at static condition and 82.1- 100% at shaking condition. Sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoretic analysis revealed bands with molecular weights ranging between 66.5 to 71 kDa, a characteristic of the fungal laccases. High efficiency decolourisation of Congo red makes these fungal forms a promising choice in biological treatment of waste water containing Congo red. PMID:24031787

  19. The Organic Matter Biogeochemistry of the Congo River

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spencer, R. G.; Hernes, P.; Wabakanghanzi, J.; Bienvenu, D. J.; Six, J.

    2015-12-01

    Organic matter (OM) represents a fundamental link between terrestrial and aquatic carbon cycles and plays an essential role in aquatic ecosystem biogeochemistry. The Congo River, which drains pristine tropical forest and savannah is the second largest exporter of terrestrial carbon to the ocean, and represents a historically understudied basin. Our ongoing projects in the Congo Basin aim to provide pertinent information on transport and emissions of carbon by rivers that need to be incorporated into carbon budgets of terrestrial ecosystems. To date the Congo Basin has seen only limited perturbation but the carbon locked away in the Congo, as in other tropical rainforests is increasingly vulnerable to release into the aquatic system and the atmosphere. However, riverine carbon transport (both of OM to the oceans and release of CO2 to the atmosphere) as a driver of global carbon cycling is still largely overlooked. Here we present data from a multi-season field campaign to quantify the transport fluxes, mineralization fluxes, and chemical character of Congo River OM, and to elucidate how these properties relate to each other and vary seasonally driven by hydrology within the Congo Basin. Existing data demonstrates that although tropical rivers do not experience the seasonal climatic extremes of temperate or northern high-latitude rivers, they all demonstrate similar effects due to changing hydrologic inputs with respect to OM dynamics. Specifically flushing periods appear to warrant further study as maximal export of reactive freshly leached plant material occurs during this time period.

  20. Diet and kwashiorkor: a prospective study from rural DR Congo.

    PubMed

    Kismul, Hallgeir; Van den Broeck, Jan; Lunde, Torleif Markussen

    2014-01-01

    The etiology of kwashiorkor remains enigmatic and longitudinal studies examining potential causes of kwashiorkor are scarce. Using historical, longitudinal study data from the rural area of Bwamanda, Democratic Republic of Congo, we investigated the potential causal association between diet and the development of kwashiorkor in 5 657 preschool children followed 3-monthly during 15 months. We compared dietary risk factors for kwashiorkor with those of marasmus. Kwashiorkor was diagnosed as pitting oedema of the ankles; marasmus as abnormal visibility of skeletal structures and palpable wasting of the gluteus muscle. A 24-h recall was administered 3-monthly to record the consumption of the 41 locally most frequent food items. We specified Hanley-Miettinen smooth-in-time risk models containing potential causal factors, including food items, special meals prepared for the child, breastfeeding, disease status, nutritional status, birth rank, age, season and number of meals. Bayesian Information Criteria identified the most plausible causal model of why some children developed kwashiorkor. In a descriptive analysis of the diet at the last dietary assessment prior to development of kwashiorkor, the diet of children who developed kwashiorkor was characterized by low consumption of sweet potatoes, papaya and "other vegetables" [0.0% , 2.3% (95% CI [0.4, 12.1]) and 2.3% (95% CI [0.4, 12.1])] in comparison with children who did not develop kwashiorkor [6.8% (95% CI [6.4, 7.2]), 15.5% (95% CI [15, 16.1]) and 15.1% (95% CI [14.6, 15.7])] or children who developed marasmus [4.5% (95% CI [2.6, 7.5]) 11.8% (95% CI [8.5, 16.0]) and 17.6% (95% CI [13.7, 22.5])]. Sweet potatoes and papayas have high β-carotene content and so may some of "the other vegetables". We found that a risk model containing an age function, length/height-for age Z-score, consumption of sweet potatoes, papaya or other vegetables, duration of this consumption and its interaction term, was the most plausible

  1. Diet and kwashiorkor: a prospective study from rural DR Congo.

    PubMed

    Kismul, Hallgeir; Van den Broeck, Jan; Lunde, Torleif Markussen

    2014-01-01

    The etiology of kwashiorkor remains enigmatic and longitudinal studies examining potential causes of kwashiorkor are scarce. Using historical, longitudinal study data from the rural area of Bwamanda, Democratic Republic of Congo, we investigated the potential causal association between diet and the development of kwashiorkor in 5 657 preschool children followed 3-monthly during 15 months. We compared dietary risk factors for kwashiorkor with those of marasmus. Kwashiorkor was diagnosed as pitting oedema of the ankles; marasmus as abnormal visibility of skeletal structures and palpable wasting of the gluteus muscle. A 24-h recall was administered 3-monthly to record the consumption of the 41 locally most frequent food items. We specified Hanley-Miettinen smooth-in-time risk models containing potential causal factors, including food items, special meals prepared for the child, breastfeeding, disease status, nutritional status, birth rank, age, season and number of meals. Bayesian Information Criteria identified the most plausible causal model of why some children developed kwashiorkor. In a descriptive analysis of the diet at the last dietary assessment prior to development of kwashiorkor, the diet of children who developed kwashiorkor was characterized by low consumption of sweet potatoes, papaya and "other vegetables" [0.0% , 2.3% (95% CI [0.4, 12.1]) and 2.3% (95% CI [0.4, 12.1])] in comparison with children who did not develop kwashiorkor [6.8% (95% CI [6.4, 7.2]), 15.5% (95% CI [15, 16.1]) and 15.1% (95% CI [14.6, 15.7])] or children who developed marasmus [4.5% (95% CI [2.6, 7.5]) 11.8% (95% CI [8.5, 16.0]) and 17.6% (95% CI [13.7, 22.5])]. Sweet potatoes and papayas have high β-carotene content and so may some of "the other vegetables". We found that a risk model containing an age function, length/height-for age Z-score, consumption of sweet potatoes, papaya or other vegetables, duration of this consumption and its interaction term, was the most plausible

  2. African leaders’ views on critical human resource issues for the implementation of family medicine in Africa

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The World Health Organisation has advocated for comprehensive primary care teams, which include family physicians. However, despite (or because of) severe doctor shortages in Africa, there is insufficient clarity on the role of the family physician in the primary health care team. Instead there is a trend towards task shifting without thought for teamwork, which runs the risk of dangerous oversimplification. It is not clear how African leaders understand the challenges of implementing family medicine, especially in human resource terms. This study, therefore, sought to explore the views of academic and government leaders on critical human resource issues for implementation of family medicine in Africa. Method In this qualitative study, key academic and government leaders were purposively selected from sixteen African countries. In-depth interviews were conducted using an interview guide. All interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed and thematically analysed. Results There were 27 interviews conducted with 16 government and 11 academic leaders in nine Sub-Saharan African countries: Botswana, Democratic Republic of Congo, Ghana, Kenya, Malawi, Nigeria, Rwanda, South Africa and Uganda. Respondents spoke about: educating doctors in family medicine suited to Africa, including procedural skills and holistic care, to address the difficulty of recruiting and retaining doctors in rural and underserved areas; planning for primary health care teams, including family physicians; new supervisory models in primary health care; and general human resource management issues. Conclusions Important milestones in African health care fail to specifically address the human resource issues of integrated primary health care teamwork that includes family physicians. Leaders interviewed in this study, however, proposed organising the district health system with a strong embrace of family medicine in Africa, especially with regard to providing clinical leadership in team

  3. Accurate assessment of Congo basin forest carbon stocks requires forest type specific assessments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moonen, Pieter C. J.; Van Ballaert, Siege; Verbist, Bruno; Boyemba, Faustin; Muys, Bart

    2014-05-01

    Due to a limited number of field-based studies estimations of carbon stocks in the Central Congo Basin remain highly uncertain. In particular, more information is needed about the variation in stocks between forest types and on the factors explaining these differences. This study presents results from biomass and soil carbon inventories in 46 0.25ha old-growth forest plots located in three study sites in Tshopo District, Democratic Republic of Congo. Four forest community types were identified using cluster and indicator species analysis based on the plots' large tree (>30cm DBH) species composition. Carbon stocks were calculated using newly established forest type specific tree height-diameter relationships to prevent errors related to the use of inappropriate regional relationships from literature. Using the Akaike criterion it became clear that for one site and a few forest types separate tree height-diameter relationships gave a robust and significant better fit, showing that there was a clear and significant interaction effect between sites and forest type. Mean above-ground carbon stocks were estimated at 165 ±44 Mg ha-1. Significant differences were found between forest types, but not between sites for a given forest type. Largest stocks were found in monodominant Gilbertiodendron dewevrei forests (187 ± 37 Mg C ha-1), which occurred in all sites. Smallest stocks (91 ± 14 Mg C ha-1) were found in the Margaritaria discoidea mixed forest type, which occurred only in one site, while two other mixed forest types showed intermediate stocks (148 ± 28 Mg C ha-1 and 160 ± 36 Mg C ha-1 respectively). The observed differences in aboveground stocks between forest types could be explained by forest structure related variables including number of large trees (DBH>70cm), average wood density and dominant height. When comparing the G. dewevrei monodominant type with mixed forest types within each study site, the former showed equal basal area and sometimes higher

  4. Fistula and traumatic genital injury from sexual violence in a conflict setting in Eastern Congo: case studies.

    PubMed

    Longombe, Ahuka Ona; Claude, Kasereka Masumbuko; Ruminjo, Joseph

    2008-05-01

    The Eastern region of the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) is currently undergoing a brutal war. Armed groups from the DRC and neighbouring countries are committing atrocities and systematically using sexual violence as a weapon of war to humiliate, intimidate and dominate women, girls, their men and communities. Armed combatants take advantage with impunity, knowing they will not be held to account or pursued by police or judicial authorities. A particularly inhumane public health problem has emerged: traumatic gynaecological fistula and genital injury from brutal sexual violence and gang-rape, along with enormous psychosocial and emotional burdens. Many of the women who survive find themselves pregnant or infected with STIs/HIV with no access to treatment. This report was compiled at the Doctors on Call for Service/Heal Africa Hospital in Goma, Eastern Congo, from the cases of 4,715 women and girls who suffered sexual violence between April 2003 and June 2006, of whom 702 had genital fistula. It presents the personal experiences of seven survivors whose injuries were severe and long-term, with life-changing effects. The paper recommends a coordinated effort amongst key stakeholders to secure peace and stability, an increase in humanitarian assistance and the rebuilding of the infrastructure, human and physical resources, and medical, educational and judicial systems. PMID:18513615

  5. Culture or climate? The relative influences of past processes on the composition of the lowland Congo rainforest.

    PubMed

    Brncic, Terry M; Willis, Katherine J; Harris, David J; Washington, Richard

    2007-02-28

    This paper presents the results from a palaeoecological study to establish the impact of prehistoric human activity and climate change on the vegetation and soils of the Goualougo area of the Nouabalé-Ndoki National Park, in the Republic of Congo (Congo-Brazzaville). This is a region that is known from previous work (through evidence of pottery, furnaces and charcoal layers beneath the present day rainforest vegetation) to have had prehistoric settlement dating back to at least 2000 calibrated years before present. In addition, there is climatic evidence to suggest that significant variations in precipitation have occurred in central Africa over the last few millennia. Presently, the region is covered in uninhabited moist semi-evergreen rainforest. Key research questions addressed in this paper include the extent to which the present-day composition of rainforest in this region is as a result of processes of the past (climate change and/or human activity), and the resilience of the rainforest to these perturbations. Statistical analyses of pollen, microscopic charcoal and geochemical data are used to determine the relationship over time between vegetation dynamics and climate change, anthropogenic burning and metal smelting. Significant changes in forest composition are linked to burning and climate change but not metallurgy. The strongest influence on the present day composition appears to be related to the increased anthropogenic burning that started approximately 1000 years ago. Results from this study are discussed in terms of their implications for the present and future management of this globally important forested region.

  6. The Congo Basin Walker circulation: dynamics and connections to precipitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, Kerry H.; Vizy, Edward K.

    2016-08-01

    The existence, seasonality, and variability of a Congo Basin Walker circulation are investigated in reanalyses, and connections with rainfall are explored. A zonal overturning circulation along the equator connects rising motion in the Congo Basin and sinking in the eastern Atlantic during June through October. This timing is out of phase with precipitation over equatorial Africa, which greatest during spring and fall, and does not correlate with the seasonality of land temperatures. Rather, the zonally-overturning circulation only occurs when the Atlantic cold tongue has formed. Although the cold tongue formation is essential for setting up the Congo Basin Walker circulation, variations in equatorial eastern Atlantic sea surface temperatures are not associated with interannual variability in the strength of the circulation. When cold tongue SSTs are anomalously cool (warm), evaporation from the ocean surface is reduced (enhanced) and the westerly flow advects less (more) moisture into the base of the Congo Basin Walker circulation. This reduces (increases) the release of latent heat in the upbranch and weakens (strengthens) the Walker circulation. This process dominates the pure dry dynamical response to enhanced land/sea temperature differences, which has an opposite sign. A positive correlation connects low-level vertical velocity in the Congo basin with low-level vertical velocity and precipitation over West Africa. A wave response to anomalous vertical velocity in the Congo Basin in several reanalyses suggests a teleconnection into West Africa such that an anomalously strong (weak) upbranch is associated with anomalously strong (weak) rainfall over the Guinean coast and southern Sahel.

  7. Thermal maturation of carbonaceous material from Mbuji-Mayi Supergroup (Kasai, Democratic Republic of Congo).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baludikay, Blaise K.; Storme, Jean-Yves; Baudet, Daniel; François, Camille; Javaux, Emmanuelle

    2016-04-01

    The Mbuji-Mayi Supergroup is a sedimentary sequence in DRC unaffected by regional metamorphism. It consists of two distinct successions: a lower, ~500 m thick siliciclastic sequence of the BI Group and an upper, ~1000 m thick carbonate sequence with stromatolitic build-ups and black shales of the BII Group directly overlain by basaltic lavas [1]. Radiometric data suggest a Latest Meso- to Early Neoproterozoic age [2, 3, 4, and 5]. A well preserved and diversified microfossil assemblage is reported including 54 taxa belonging to 32 genera. The potential Late Mesoproterozoic-Tonian index fossil Trachyhystrichosphaera aimika, is reported for the first time in central Africa, and co-occurs with other eukaryotes and prokaryotes [6]. Thermal maturation calculated on macerate residues, using geothermometer for low-grade metamorphism [7] reveals thermal palaeoenvironments of organic matter, ranging from 180 to 279° C (average = 249 ± 37 °C). The range of thermal maturity is similar, in both microfossils and amorphous organic matter. Raman reflectance (RmcRo %), which is also an index indicative of maturity [8], ranges from 1.05 to 2.55 % (average = 2.01 ± 0.42 %). So, organic matter from Mbuji-Mayi is likely into a maturation stage corresponding to oil window. References: [1] Raucq (1957) Ann. MRAC, série 8, Sc. géol. 18, 427. [2] Cahen & Snelling (1966) Publ. C., Amsterdam. [3] Cahen et al. (1984) Clarendon Press, Oxford. [4] Delpomdor et al. (2013) Pal.3 389, 4-34. [5] François et al. (in preparation). [6] Baludikay et al. (in review) Prec. Res. [7] Kouketsu et al. (2014) Island Arc 23, 33-50. [8] Liu et al. (2013) Geochemistry, Chi. Sc. Bul. 58 (11), 1285-1298.

  8. Konzo and dietary pattern in cassava-consuming populations of Popokabaka, Democratic Republic of Congo.

    PubMed

    Diasolua Ngudi, D; Banea-Mayambu, J-P; Lambein, F; Kolsteren, P

    2011-03-01

    Food frequencies and 24h diet recall were registered from 487 randomly selected heads of household in Popokabaka (Bandundu Province, DRC) where the first cases of konzo were reported more than seventy years ago. Konzo is still occurring in this area with a prevalence of 1.4%. High prevalence of konzo was found to be associated with female gender (P = 0.0024), unmarried status (P = 0.030), illiteracy (P = 0.021), farmer as main occupation (P < 0.05) and with consumption of cassava from own farm land (P = 0.045). The diet was largely dominated by cassava. Luku, cassava flour stiff porridge, was consumed at least once during the day in 99.2% of households. A median of 304 g (max. 592 g; min. 120 g) of cassava flour providing 1070 kcal (max. 2085 kcal; min. 422 kcal)/day/person was used to prepare luku. Saka-saka (pounded cassava leaves) (40%), cowpeas (30%), sesame (23.2%), mbondi (Salacia pynaertii) (18.1%), mushrooms (17.7%) and mfumbwa (Gnetum africanum) (11.3%) were consumed as side-dishes with luku. These results showed that major foods consumed are of poor quality in protein, especially in sulphur containing amino acids.

  9. Cumulative Risk and Teacher Well-Being in the Democratic Republic of the Congo

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolf, Sharon; Torrente, Catalina; McCoy, Marissa; Rasheed, Damira; Aber, J. Lawrence

    2015-01-01

    Remarkably little systematic research has examined the living and working conditions for teachers in sub-Saharan Africa and how such conditions predict teacher well-being. This study assesses how various risks across several domains of teachers' lives--measured as a "cumulative risk index"--predict motivation, burnout, and job…

  10. A human infection caused by monkeypox virus in Basankusu Territory, Democratic Republic of the Congo.

    PubMed

    Ladnyj, I D; Ziegler, P; Kima, E

    1972-01-01

    This paper presents clinical and epidemiological information on a patient with smallpox-like disease, from whom a monkeypox-like virus was isolated. The patient was the first recognized human monkeypox case in medical history.

  11. Living with epilepsy in Lubumbashi (Democratic Republic of Congo): epidemiology, risk factors and treatment gap

    PubMed Central

    Bora, Béatrice Koba; Lez, Didier Malamba; Luwa, Daniel Okitundu; Baguma, Marcellin Bugeme; Katumbay, Désiré Tshala; Kalula, Tharcisse Kayembe; Mesu'a Kabwa, Pierre Luabeya

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Epilepsy is the most common of serious neurological disorders, yet despite considerable efforts, good access to medication, appropriate social and societal acceptance and acceptable quality of life (QoL) are difficult to achieve especially in developing countries. It is estimated that over 500,000 people suffer from epilepsy in the DRC. There is no report, in our knowledge on the epilepsy in Lubumbashi. Methods A descriptive study was undertaken in individuals with a clinical diagnosis of epilepsy who presented at the CNPJG outpatient clinic in Lubumbashi over a 12 months period. A 64-item questionnaire was used to collect information from the patients. Case records were reviewed and relevant demographic, social, professional, medical history, medical condition data were extracted. Results Among 3,540 patients who presented to a neuropsychiatric clinic run by the Fracarita charity over a 1-year period, 423 (11.9%) were identified as having epilepsy, and 179 were subsequently included in the survey after they (or their parent/guardian) provided informed consent and completed an EEG investigation. Data were collected using a standardized, 64-item questionnaire. Epilepsy had negative impact on the lives of individuals with the condition; 40.8% had either no education or had completed primary education only, 38.0% were unemployed and the majority (64.6%; n = 113) were unmarried or divorced. Family history of epilepsy (first or second degree) was present in 23.5% of cases. Other reported factors that could potentially precipitate epilepsy included obstetric and perinatal factors (15.1%) and central nervous system infections during infancy (8.4%). Consumption of alcohol or recreational drugs accounted for 10.6%. The treatment gap was above 67% and the delay between first seizure and first consultation was 15 months. When asked to describe their condition, or its cause, 55.3% of participants (or their families) considered epilepsy to be of spiritual/ religious origin, while 25.1% had almost no insight and could not provide any description. Conclusion This first epidemiological study shows a high prevalence of epilepsy among patients presenting to the clinic in Lubumbashi, DRC, and reveals a significant treatment gap. PMID:26587151

  12. January 2002 volcano-tectonic eruption of Nyiragongo volcano, Democratic Republic of Congo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tedesco, D.; Vaselli, O.; Papale, P.; Carn, S. A.; Voltaggio, M.; Sawyer, G. M.; Durieux, J.; Kasereka, M.; Tassi, F.

    2007-09-01

    In January 2002, Nyiragongo volcano erupted 14-34 × 106 m3 of lava from fractures on its southern flanks. The nearby city of Goma was inundated by two lava flows, which caused substantial socioeconomic disruption and forced the mass exodus of the population, leaving nearly 120,000 people homeless. Field observations showed marked differences between the lava erupted from the northern portion of the fracture system and that later erupted from the southern part. These observations are confirmed by new 238U and 232Th series radioactive disequilibria data, which show the presence of three different phases during the eruption. The lavas first erupted (T1) were probably supplied by a residual magma batch from the lava lake activity during 1994-1995. These lavas were followed by a fresh batch erupted from fissure vents as well as later (May-June 2002) from the central crater (T2). Both lava batches reached the surface via the volcano's central plumbing system, even though a separate flank reservoir may also have been involved in addition to the main reservoir. The final phase (T3) is related to an independent magmatic reservoir located much closer (or even beneath) the city of Goma. Data from the January 2002 eruption, and for similar activity in January 1977, suggest that the eruptive style of the volcano is likely to change in the future, trending toward more common occurrence of flank eruptions. If so, this would pose a significant escalation of volcanic hazards facing Goma and environs, thus requiring the implementation of different volcano-monitoring strategies to better anticipate where and when future eruptions might take