Maithufi, I. P.
Education in South Africa underwent major changes with the passage of the South African Schools Act of 1996. The details of this act and some of its consequences are outlined in this report. The paper opens with the particulars of the act and delves into the act's wording, asking "What is basic education?" and "What is meant by 'equal access to…
Duma, M. A. N.
The aim of this article is to investigate the rural educators' understanding of the legislations that impact on school practice. An argument is presented that the understanding of the legal frameworks that govern school practice begins with the educators' understanding of the Bill of Rights and the South African Schools Act. The article reports on…
Cradler, John; Bridgforth, Elizabeth
The Improving America's Schools ACT (IASA) emphasizes coherent systemic education reform, with Goals 2000 setting common standards for IASA and the recently authorized School-to-Work Program. IASA addresses the need to raise academic achievement, increase opportunities to learn, improve professional development, increase community involvement, utilize instructional applications of technology, and improve assessment, and allow more local flexibility in the use of funds.
Mohamed, Roslyn J. F. Billy
With the signing of the No Child Left Behind Act in 2001, much emphasis has been placed on the accountability of schools and school districts to ensure higher academic achievement of all students. The achievement gap remains among African American male students in urban school districts. This purposed quantitative study explored the relationship…
van der Vyver, Cornelius P.; van der Westhuizen, Philip C.; Meyer, L. W.
The research pivoted on the question whether South African school principals fulfilled their caring role towards teachers. The aims of the study were threefold. First, to determine how principals rated their care-giving, secondly to determine whether significant discrepancies existed between principals' rating of their care-giving and…
Johnson, Bernadeia H.
Six African American female superintendents who had served as superintendents in at least 2 school districts were interviewed to understand ways in which they responded to barriers and adversity in their roles, with a particular emphasis on issues related to sexism and racism. Study participants shared that they work to engage the community and…
Pringle, Beverley E.; Lyons, James E.; Booker, Keonya C.
African American high school students are performing behind their White classmates regardless of whether they are in majority or minority populations at school. Teacher expectations, among school-related factors that can impact the academic achievement of African American high school students, are the focus of this study. Interviews were conducted…
Loder, Tondra L.
Emphasizing the salience of social and historical contexts in understanding contemporary urban school leadership, this article presents reflections from a subset of African American women principals who came of age during the Civil Rights era and assumed leadership subsequent to the enactment of the Chicago School Reform Act of 1988. The main…
Holt, Kenneth C.
The traditional U.S. classroom's milieu has distorted and refused to recognize the language and cultural richness of African-American students. Milwaukee's two immersion schools, Victor Berger Elementary School and Parkman Middle School, place the African-American students and their culture at the center of the educational process. Results have…
The long road of slavery from generation to generation has left a legacy in the mind of African American students that has impacted their achievements in schools. In this project, the struggle of African American students in the public school education will be analyzed from the historical standpoint of view and its impact on their achievements.…
Howard, Lionel C.
Drawing on interview and informal observation data collected from eight adolescent African-American boys residing in an urban community and attending an urban charter school, this paper describes and explores their relationships with African-American male school personnel. This paper highlights how adolescent African-American boys' experience and…
Owens, Delila; Simmons, Robert W., III; Bryant, Rhonda M.; Henfield, Malik
Using a qualitative framework, researchers explored urban African American male students' perceptions of their school counselors and the ways to improve school counseling services. While participants reported positive feelings toward their school counselors, they identified specific services school counselors can offer them to optimize academic…
Tyler, Kenneth; Brown-Wright, Lynda; Stevens-Watkins, Danelle; Thomas, Deneia; Stevens, Ruby; Roan-Belle, Clarissa; Gadson, Nadia; Smith, La Toya
The current study examined associations between home-school dissonance and several academic and psychological variables among 239 African American high school students. Regression analyses revealed that home-school dissonance significantly predicted multiple academic and psychological variables, including academic cheating, disruptive classroom…
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This mixed, causal-comparative study was an investigation of culture infusion methods and AYP of two different public schools in Chicago, a school that infuses African culture and a school that does not. The purpose of the study was to identify if there was a significant causative relationship between culture infusion methods and Adequate Yearly…
Foster, Esau, II
The focus of this research investigation was to examine school attitudes and self-esteem among 48 African-American elementary school children. Based on achievement data on standardized testing, administered by a school district located within the Mid-Atlantic region of the United States, African-American children were stratified in order to…
DeCuir-Gunby, Jessica T.; Martin, Pamela P.; Cooper, Shauna M.
Although much research has focused on the public school experiences of African American students, few studies exist that explore their race-related experiences within an independent, private school context. Studies have suggested that, while private, independent schools may elevate the quality of African American students' education, many of these…
Gaigher, Estelle; Lederman, Norman; Lederman, Judith
This paper reports a study on South African learners' knowledge about scientific inquiry using the Views About Scientific Inquiry (VASI) Questionnaire. The sample consisted of 105 grade 11 learners from 7 schools across the socio-economic spectrum in a South African city. A rubric for scoring the VASI Questionnaire was developed and refined…
Hoover, Mary Eleanor Rhodes
Describes the Nairobi Day School in East Palo Alto (California), an independent African-American institution. Its history is traced from its founding in 1966 to its closing in 1984. The Nairobi method and model are proposed as solutions to several contemporary educational problems that African Americans face in public schools. (SLD)
Hoadley, Ursula; Christie, Pam; Ward, Catherine L.
This article reports on an empirical study of the management of curriculum and instruction in South African secondary schools. Drawing on data collected from 200 schools in 2007, a series of regression analyses tested the relationship between various dimensions of leadership and student achievement gains over time. Whilst the research confirms…
For children at Victor Berger Elementary School, in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, African-American culture is the foundation of all instruction. Attempting to bring quality education to a de facto segregated student population, this immersion program features an integrated curriculum, high expectations for staff, school uniforms, and newfound pride among…
Graves, Scott L., Jr.
Albert Sidney Beckham was the first African American to hold the title school psychologist. This article examines the life and professional career of Beckham in the context of his contributions to the field of school psychology. It explores his graduate education, the founding of Howard University's Psychological Laboratory and his research and…
Moletsane, Relebohile; Juan, Andrea; Prinsloo, Cas; Reddy, Vijay
Research increasingly points to the negative impacts of teacher absence from school on access to schooling and success in learning in schools, in particular in schools in areas of multiple-deprivation (including rural schools). South African schools are no exception. In this regard, like any other employer, the South African Department of Basic…
A total of 102 school counselors who worked in predominantly African American urban schools in Michigan were surveyed to ascertain how frequently they engaged in school counseling activities as conceptualized by the American School Counseling Association. Additionally, this exploratory study sought to determine whether there were differences in…
Joyce, Robert P.
Traces the history of the Fair Labor Standards Act's applicability to public employees. Beginning in April 1986, schools must pay covered employees who work more than 40 hours in a workweek time-and-a-half (in money or compensatory time off). Defines terms and lists recordkeeping requirements. (MLF)
Noeth, Richard J.; Wimberly, George L.
This study examined the postsecondary planning of African American and Hispanic high school seniors in five large urban school districts. Just prior to graduation in 2001, students from 23 high schools completed surveys and focus groups about their college planning. Students' educational expectations were high. Nearly all expected to earn at least…
Baskin, Thomas W.; Russell, Jaquaye L.; Sorenson, Carey L.; Ward, Earlise C.
The authors describe how practicing school counselors can appropriately and effectively work with African American youth regarding forgiveness. Further, the authors discuss the challenges that African American youth face. They illuminate how school counselors can help emotionally injured African American youth. As a school counseling intervention…
Whenever gender violence and schooling have been the topic of South African research, the investigations focus on African boys in secondary schools. In contrast, this paper focuses on the ways in which violence is mobilized by African schoolgirls in a working-class primary school context. By drawing on selected elements of an ethnographic study of…
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Royster, Eugene C.; And Others
This paper is a summary report of the "Study of the Emergency School Aid Act Magnet School Program" which was undertaken to determine the effectiveness of magnet school programs as a strategy in school desegregation. The representative sample of eighteen schools used in the study and their community contexts are described, and the relationship of…
Dotterer, Aryn M.; McHale, Susan M.; Crouter, Ann C.
The connection between out-of-school activities and school engagement was examined in 140, 6th through 9th grade African American adolescents. Youth's out-of-school activities were measured with a series of 7 nightly phone calls and focused on time in structured (homework, academically-oriented, extracurricular/sports) and unstructured (watching…
Brown-Wright, Lynda; Tyler, Kenneth Maurice
The current study examined associations between home-school dissonance and several academic and psychological variables among 80 African American male high school students. Regression analyses revealed that home-school dissonance significantly predicted multiple academic and psychological variables, including amotivation, academic cheating,…
Lee, Erika C.
Throughout history, parents have sought to find the ideal school environment for their children in various educational settings, including public school alternatives. African-American parents in particular have been utilizing private school options for more than 150 years, having been denied the right to a free, equal, public education. School…
Pressley, Michael; Raphael, Lisa; Gallagher, J. David; DiBella, Jeanette
A portrait, using grounded theory qualitative methodologies, was constructed of a K-12 school serving urban, African American students, one producing high achievement. The primary data were observations complemented by questionnaire responses and document analyses. Consistent with conclusions in the effective schooling literature, this school has…
Walpole, MaryBeth; McDonough, Patricia M.; Bauer, Constance J.; Gibson, Carolyn; Kanyi, Kamau T.; Toliver, Rita
This qualitative study focused on African American and Latino high school students perceptions of standardized admission tests, including the Scholastic Assessment Tests (I and II) and the ACT Assessment. Students enrolled in college preparatory classes were interviewed about these tests individually and in focus groups in fall 1998 in their…
Makoe, Pinky; McKinney, Carolyn
Existing research on language in South African schooling frequently draws attention to the problematic hegemony of English and the lack of access to quality education in the home language of the majority of learners, often drawing on the metaphor of a gap or a disjuncture between post-apartheid language in education policy (LiEP) and its…
Downer, Jason T.; Mendez, Julia L.
A developmental ecological model was used to identify child attributes, father characteristics, and familial factors associated with multidimensional father involvement with preschool children enrolled in Head Start. The relations between father involvement and children's school readiness were also investigated. Eighty-five African American…
Rust, Jonathan P.; Jackson, Margo A.; Ponterotto, Joseph G.; Blumberg, Fran C.
Biculturalism was examined as a factor that may positively affect the academic achievement of African American high school students, beyond cultural identity and self-esteem. Hierarchical regression analyses determined that cultural identity and academic self-esteem were important factors for academic achievement, but not biculturalism.…
Ethington, Corinna A.; Wilson, Tracey
Designed to examine the effect of various factors on the mathematics achievement of African-American students attending urban schools, this study analyzed the importance of seven constructs that are believed to either directly or indirectly impact student success. Based on factors identified by research as essential to mathematics achievement, all…
Simmons-Reed, Evette A.; Cartledge, Gwendolyn
Exclusionary policies are practiced widely in schools despite being associated with extremely poor outcomes for culturally and linguistically diverse students, particularly African American males with and without disabilities. This article discusses zero tolerance policies, the related research questioning their basic assumptions, and the negative…
Proctor, Sherrie L.; Truscott, Stephen D.
This phenomenological study used a series of three in-depth interviews with seven African American participants, for a total of 21 interviews, to explore their experiences in the specialist and doctoral level school psychology programs they left prior to obtaining a professional entry-level degree. The study's purpose was to investigate what…
The purposes of this two-part study were (1) to investigate urban middle school African American girls' physical activity levels and their relationships to attitudes and, (2) to explore urban middle school African American girls' attitude toward physical education. A total of (N = 649) African American girls from 14 New York City middle…
Estrada-Martinez, Lorena; Colin, Rosa J.; Jones, Brittni D.
Little scholarship explores how adolescents’ beliefs about school and peers influence the academic outcomes of African American boys and girls. The sample included 612 African American boys (N=307, Mage=16.84) and girls (N=305, Mage=16.79). Latent class analysis (LCA) revealed unique patterns for African American boys and girls. Findings indicate that for African American boys, school attachment was protective, despite having peers who endorsed negative achievement values. Furthermore, socio-economic (SES) status was associated with higher grade point averages (GPA) for African American girls. Overall, these findings underscore the unique role of school, peer, and gendered experiences in lives of African American adolescents. PMID:26277404
The South African State is mandated by Sections 28(2) and 29(1) of the South African Constitution to make provision for the education of a South African child in fulfilment of the child's constitutional rights. Teacher Unions (TUs) and provincial Departments of Basic Education (DBEs) have often promised South African high school student body,…
The large number of suspensions of African American high school males is one of the primary concerns facing high school administrators nationwide. At high schools in the southern United States, African American males are suspended at greater rates than their counterparts. Suspensions affect their levels of achievement, attitudes towards school,…
Botha, R. J.
As countries struggle to transform their education systems to equip learners with the knowledge and skills needed to function in rapidly changing societies, the roles and expectations for school leaders have also changed. School reform initiatives that are continually taking place necessitate new ways of thinking with regard to our concept of…
Jackson, Alicia D.
African American women represented a growing proportion within the field of education in attaining leadership roles as school principals. As the numbers continued to rise slowly, African American women principals found themselves leading in diverse or even predominately White school settings. Leading in such settings encouraged African American…
Juergensen, Miyoshi B.
This study explores African American educators' ideas about school completion in the 1920s and 1930s as a way to begin to understand their contributions to the historical discourse on school completion. Using publications from African American professional teaching organizations, the author elevates and examines how African American educators both…
Background Sub-Saharan Africa suffers a disproportionate share of the world's burden of disease while having some of the world's greatest health care workforce shortages. Doctors are an important component of any high functioning health care system. However, efforts to strengthen the doctor workforce in the region have been limited by a small number of medical schools with limited enrolments, international migration of graduates, poor geographic distribution of doctors, and insufficient data on medical schools. The goal of the Sub-Saharan African Medical Schools Study (SAMSS) is to increase the level of understanding and expand the baseline data on medical schools in the region. Methods The SAMSS survey is a descriptive survey study of Sub-Saharan African medical schools. The survey instrument included quantitative and qualitative questions focused on institutional characteristics, student profiles, curricula, post-graduate medical education, teaching staff, resources, barriers to capacity expansion, educational innovations, and external relationships with government and non-governmental organizations. Surveys were sent via e-mail to medical school deans or officials designated by the dean. Analysis is both descriptive and multivariable. Results Surveys were distributed to 146 medical schools in 40 of 48 Sub-Saharan African countries. One hundred and five responses were received (72% response rate). An additional 23 schools were identified after the close of the survey period. Fifty-eight respondents have been founded since 1990, including 22 private schools. Enrolments for medical schools range from 2 to 1800 and graduates range from 4 to 384. Seventy-three percent of respondents (n = 64) increased first year enrolments in the past five years. On average, 26% of respondents' graduates were reported to migrate out of the country within five years of graduation (n = 68). The most significant reported barriers to increasing the number of graduates, and improving
Gaigher, Estelle; Lederman, Norman; Lederman, Judith
This paper reports a study on South African learners' knowledge about scientific inquiry using the Views About Scientific Inquiry (VASI) Questionnaire. The sample consisted of 105 grade 11 learners from 7 schools across the socio-economic spectrum in a South African city. A rubric for scoring the VASI Questionnaire was developed and refined during the process of coding and is presented. Results showed that the learners held more informed views than that reported in previous international studies, except for particularly naive views regarding multiple methods of investigation. The results are discussed in terms of the Revised National Curriculum Statement (RNCS) that was taught from 2003 to 2010 in South African schools. This curriculum was founded on outcomes-based principles, valuing process skills rather than content. The study found that examples provided in the RNCS document correspond closely to the aspects of inquiry as described by the National Research Council. It is argued that the RNCS contributed to the more informed views about inquiry found among South African learners in this study.
Wingate, Crystal Nicole
This dissertation will focus on the lived experiences of African-American school counselors in majority school districts and the lack of retention among this population. The lack of retention and representation of ethnic minorities in the workforce has been the subject of much discussion throughout the United States (Ingersoll, 2004). The…
Rodriguez, Andrea B.
This study compared the number of special education referrals for African American boys before and after the implementation of the training program, "Schools Attuned". The purpose of the research was to ascertain if the number of special education referrals for African American boys generated in schools with teachers trained in "Schools Attuned"…
Newcomb, Whitney Sherman; Niemeyer, Arielle
African American women leaders are often found in urban schools that have been exhausted of resources and lack support. However, due to their disproportionate representation in urban schools, African American women principals have become adept at uniting and engaging stakeholders in marginalized school settings into action. The intent for this…
... Secure Rural Schools and Community Self-Determination Act of 2000 (the Act) (16 U.S.C. 7101 et seq.), as... information may be submitted by hard copy and/or electronically scanned and included as an attachment...
Sawyer, Debra T.
Problems resulting from pollution and the destruction of Earth's natural environments have prompted initiatives to educate individuals on the importance of participating in environmental education related activities. These activities are generally constructed to help individuals become aware of how their activity, or the lack thereof, could affect the state of the natural environment in the near and distant futures. This knowledge and activity are especially critical for the nation's youth - as they are the future caretakers of Earth. Present efforts, however, depict that, even though there are visible efforts that cater to children, there is little presence of African American elementary school students. Some have assumed that the lack of role models was a contributing factor, while others have asserted that African Americans were too consumed with problems of everyday survival and have little time to be concerned with environmental issues. There was little research and evidence, though, to substantiate those suppositions. This study utilized qualitative case study interviews to gather authentic data from parents of African American elementary school-aged children (ages 6-10) regarding their views about the natural environment and participation in environmentally related activities. Results of this study helped to support and alleviate some assumptions and laid a foundation for further studies on the topic.
Walker, Vanessa Siddle
The history of the public schooling of African Americans during legalized segregation has focused almost exclusively on the inferior education that African American students received. In the national memory, African Americans have been victims of Whites who questioned the utility of providing Blacks with anything more than a rudimentary education…
Proctor, Sherrie L.; Truscott, Stephen D.
Since the mid 1960s, there has been a noticeable decrease in the percentage of African American educators. Although a sizeable literature is dedicated to understanding how to recruit African American teachers, fewer studies focus on recruiting and retaining African American school psychologists. Therefore, this exploratory qualitative study…
Nettles, Michael T.; Perna, Laura W.
This executive summary introduces Volume II of the "African American Education Data Book," which brings together information about the educational status of African American preschool, elementary, and secondary school children. Like Volume I, Volume II records the African American educational progress that has previously existed as part of…
Squire, Michelle Suzette
This research study is a case study of the development of an African-centered school over a 20-year period. The study describes how the kindergarten-through-eighth-grade institution was established. Interview questions focused on: 1. Establishment of an African-centered institution 2. Challenges of setting up an African-centered institution 3.…
... applicable visa requirements. See Visa Requirements Under the African Growth and Opportunity Act, 66 FR 7837...) has determined that the Republic of Liberia has adopted an effective visa system and related... countries,'' provided that these countries: (1) Have adopted an effective visa system and related...
Arriola, Kimberly; Robinson, Dana H.; Thompson, Nancy J.; Perryman, Jennie P.
This study sought to evaluate the effectiveness of "Project ACTS: About Choices in Transplantation and Sharing," which was developed to increase readiness for organ and tissue donation among African American adults. Nine churches (N = 425 participants) were randomly assigned to receive donation education materials currently available to consumers…
Thompson, Keisha V.; Lightfoot, Nicole L.; Castillo, Linda G.; Hurst, Morgan L.
This study examined family-oriented stressors on acculturative stress in 83 African American college students attending a predominately White university. Results showed that family pressure for participants not to acculturate, pressure to maintain ethnic group language, perception of Acting White, and acculturation level were related to higher…
Frazier, Nicole Denise
The reading achievement of African American males might be impacted by a host of variables. This study was undertaken to determine if there was a difference in the culturally responsive characteristics present in the learning environment of a middle school and the reading achievement of middle school African American males. The purpose of this…
Employment Standards Administration (DOL), Washington, DC. Wage and Hour Div.
This pamphlet provides general information and guidelines concerning the application of the federal Fair Labor Standards Act to employees of elementary and secondary schools, as of January 1974. Separate short sections of the pamphlet examine various provisions of the act, emphasizing their impact on employer-employee relations in the schools.…
The Association for Career and Technical Education (ACTE) and Career and Technical Student Organizations DECA and FCCLA toured career and technical education (CTE) programs and academies at Falls Church High School in Arlington, Virginia, in February. Each year, to celebrate CTE Month, ACTE visits a local school to gain a better perspective of how…
African American Parent Involvement: An Examination of the Characteristics That Determine the Most Successful School and Parent Relationships between Lower Socioeconomic, African American Parents, and Highly Effective Schools
Williams, Marcheta Ganther
The literature contains extensive research that focuses on parent involvement and parent involvement programs. The past decade and a half has warranted some parent involvement programs that focused on the student populations of African American students and lower socioeconomic status students. In schools in which the African American student…
Tucker, Catherine; Dixon, Andrea; Griddine, Ke'Shana
Mattering to others has been shown to be a key construct of mental health and wellness. Emerging research links interpersonal mattering and school climate. In this study, the authors use transcendental phenomenology to explore how interpersonal mattering impacts the academic achievement of urban African American males who are academically…
Gunasekera, Sashya; Houghton, Stephen; Glasgow, Kenneth; Boyle, Christopher
Setting clear achievable goals that enhance reputational status has been shown to direct the energies of adolescents into socially conforming or non-conforming activities. It appears to be the case that following transition from Intensive English Centres (IECs) into mainstream schooling, students from African refugee backgrounds experience…
Duren Green, Tonika; McIntosh, Angela Stephens; Cook-Morales, Valerie J; Robinson-Zaartu, Carol
Despite the promise of "Brown v. Board of Education," segregation is alive and well in today's schools. African American students are overrepresented in special education, have higher dropout rates, are suspended and expelled at higher rates, and are subject to persistent educational inequity. The role of psychoeducational assessment at the…
Sanchez, Melaney M.
This study sought to learn about African American community members' perceptions regarding their satisfaction with local elementary schools in predominantly white, rural school districts in Maryland. The research was conducted in rural counties because much of the attention about the achievement gap has focused on urban areas, where necessary…
Walsh, Margaret A.
The purpose of this phenomenological study was to explore the experiences and perceptions of principals whose schools were granted innovation status in accordance with the "Colorado Innovation Schools Act of 2008" (CISA). The CISA created a statewide system that allowed individual schools and entire districts to increase autonomy and…
Vega, Desireé; Moore, James L., III; Miranda, Antoinette H.
Drawing on a larger study, this qualitative investigation explored the factors that African American and Latino high school students perceived as barriers to positive educational opportunities. Eighteen African American and Latino urban high school students comprised the sample. The findings indicated that perceived barriers to positive…
Harris, LeCharle Webb
There are numerous strongly held views and myths about African American students in general and middle school students in particular. This study investigated widely held views about African American middle school students' attitudes toward reading and about how positive attitudes toward reading affect reading performances. In this study, four…
Allen, Tyrone J.
Low performance of African American male students in high school math is an ongoing concern of Maryland's public schools. Because disproportionately large numbers of African American male students enroll in Algebra 2 in Grade 11, the use of early academic counseling to promote enrollment in Algebra 2 in Grade 9 and to increase self-regulation may…
Rury, John L.; Hill, Shirley A.
This is the first comprehensive account of African American secondary education in the postwar era. Drawing on quantitative datasets, as well as oral history, this compelling narrative examines how African Americans narrowed the racial gap in high school completion. The authors explore regional variations in high school attendance across the…
Somers, Cheryl L.; Owens, Delila; Piliawsky, Monte
The purpose of this study was to examine factors related to the academic success of urban, African American youth. Participants were 118 African American male and female ninth graders from a large urban high school in the Midwest. A majority of students at the school receive free or reduced lunch. Factors studied were social support from five…
Gregory, A.; Weinstein, R. S.
African Americans are over-represented in school suspensions, yet little is known about the underlying contributing dynamics. Study 1 reviewed a high school's annual discipline data and 442 students referred for defiance. African Americans were over-represented in referrals for defiance and most students received referrals from one or several…
Stephens, Lowndes F.; And Others
To identify factors motivating African Americans to attend graduate or professional schools, questionnaires were mailed to nearly 1,600 African American journalism or mass communication students at historically Black colleges and universities (HBCUs). A second objective was to determine locations and schools from which the University of South…
Braddock, Jomills Henry, II; Hua, Lv
A study prolongs research on college choice by analyzing what African American students state about the importance of the college's athletic reputation when choosing which school to attend. Descriptive results indicate that roughly one out of every three African American respondents believe that a school's athletic reputation is at least a…
Although there is a growing body of literature on students' transition from middle school to high school, much of the literature fails to take into consideration the distinctive racial and environmental circumstances of African American students. This article reviews literature related to the transitioning of African American students and…
Hewitt, Kevin; Nfonoyim, Emmanuel; Hamilton-Hinch, Barb; Hampden, Margo; Hamilton, Wayn
Imhotep's Legacy After-School Project (ILASP) is a provincial science and engineering after-school enrichment program established in 2003. It aims to redress the under-representation of African Canadians in postsecondary science studies. ILASP offers African Nova Scotian participants in Grade 7, 8 & 9 important academic and social opportunities at no out-of-pocket cost. It is guided by the fact that young learners will be motivated to regularly attend a program that features high-quality, interactive and fun learning activities that are distinct from but connected to their school curricula. The program is structured to sustain contact with the learners over three years (grade 7, 8, 9) during a crucial phase in their academic careers. University science and engineering students, acting as mentors, foster positive social interactions with young learners and deliver science enrichment activities in a participatory and casual atmosphere. Reasons for the high retention rate among participants will be discussed. Visit our website at http://imhotep.dal.ca/.
Strubbe, Linda; Okere, Bonaventure I.; Chibueze, James; Lepo, Kelly; White, Heidi; Zhang, Jielai; Izuikedinachi Okoh, Daniel; Reid, Michael; Hunter, Lisa; EKEOMA Opara, Fidelis
In October 2013 over 75 undergraduate science students and teachers from Nigeria and Ghana attended the week-long West African International Summer School for Young Astronomers. We expect an even broader audience for the second offering of the school (to be held July 2015), supported by a grant from the OAD (TF1). These schools are organized by a collaboration of astronomers from the University of Toronto, the University of Nigeria, and the Nigerian National Space Research and Development Agency. We design and lead activities that teach astronomy content, promote students' self-identity as scientists, and encourage students to think critically and figure out solutions themselves. Equally important, we design intertwined evaluation strategies to assess the effectiveness of our programs. We will describe the broader context for developing astronomy in West Africa, the inquiry-based and active learning techniques used in the schools, and results from the qualitative and quantitative evaluations of student performance. We will also describe longer-term plans for future schools, supporting our alumni, and building a sustainable partnership between North American and Nigerian universities.
Barbarin, Oscar A; Chinn, Lisa; Wright, Yamanda F
African American (AA) boys face serious barriers to academic success, many of which are uncommon--or absent--in the lives of AA girls, other children of color, and European American children. In this chapter, we identify nine critical challenges to the successful education of AA boys and review possible solutions. In addition, we evaluate one particular reform, public single-sex schooling, as a possible solution to the challenges facing AA boys. Considering the evidence, we argue that recent efforts to expand the existence of public single-sex schools are rarely grounded in empirical findings. Given the lack of compelling evidence and the high stakes for AA boys, we call for more rigorous evaluations of the outcomes of sex-segregated programs that specifically target AA boys. PMID:25345001
Thomas, Kevin J A
This study examines whether previous findings of an immigrant schooling advantage among Blacks in the United States reflect a declining significance of race in the enrollment patterns of immigrants’ children. Using data from the 2000 US census, the study finds that, despite their advantage within the Black population, the children of Black Africans are collectively disadvantaged relative to the children of White Africans. Disparate enrollment trajectories are found among children in Black and White African families. Specifically, between the first and second generations, enrollment outcomes improved among the children of White Africans but declined among Black Africans’ children. The results also suggest that among immigrants from African multi-racial societies, pre-migration racial schooling disparities do not necessarily disappear after immigration to the United States. Additionally, the children of Black Africans from these contexts have worse outcomes than the children of other Black African immigrants and their relative disadvantage persists even after other factors are controlled.
Butler-Barnes, Sheretta T; Estrada-Martinez, Lorena; Colin, Rosa J; Jones, Brittni D
Little scholarship explores how adolescents' beliefs about school and peers influence the academic outcomes of African American boys and girls. The sample included 612 African American boys (N = 307, Mage = 16.84) and girls (N = 305, Mage = 16.79). Latent class analysis (LCA) revealed unique patterns for African American boys and girls. Findings indicate that for African American boys, school attachment was protective, despite having peers who endorsed negative achievement values. Furthermore, socio-economic (SES) status was associated with higher grade point averages (GPA) for African American girls. Overall, these findings underscore the unique role of school, peer, and gendered experiences in lives of African American adolescents.
Robinson, Theresa Y.; Jeremiah, Maxine
As part of the Small Schools movement in Chicago Public Schools, a high school dedicated to African-centered education was chartered. The virtues of Ma'at and the Nguzo Saba, otherwise known as the seven principles of Kwanza, were the foundational principles of the school and were to be integrated into all of the practices and policies of the…
Dishman, Mike L.; Murphy, Daniel Robert
With the possible exception of No Child Left Behind, no federal law has posed a greater compliance challenge to public school districts in the past ten years than the Fair Labor Standards Act. Unfamiliarity with the Act and its application in the school environment has resulted in millions of dollars in payment of settlements to school district…
Sifuna, Daniel N.
The paper discusses some African experiences in the diversification of secondary education, which is taken to mean curriculum change in a practical or vocational direction. This approach is intended to provide a wider set of future career options than is offered in the more uniform academic curriculum. The diversification policy has generally been seen as a solution to a number of economic and social problems facing the independent African countries, notably the increasing youth unemployment and the escalating costs of formal education. Studies which have so far been carried out have, however, revealed that diversification programmes have not met the intended objectives, although there is sustained interest in vocationalising formal education. Problems which commonly face these programmes include high unit costs, an absence of clarity in aims and objectives, a shortage of qualified teachers and the low status of vocational subjects as viewed by the students and the community. For future development, it is suggested that diversification programmes be reorganised to relate to more realistic goals through wider community participation and through the work-orientation of post-school training programmes.
Walker, A R; Walker, B F
In 1984-1985, prevalences of appendectomy in inter-ethnic series of South African school pupils of 16-18 yr were: rural blacks, 0.5%; urban blacks, 1.0%; Indians, 2.6%; coloreds (Eur-African-Malay), 2.2%; Afrikaans whites, 13.4%; and English whites, 9.9%. Corresponding respective annual incidences per 1000 pupils of 10-19 yr were: 0.3, 0.6, 1.9, 1.7, 9.8, and 7.8. Thus, appendectomy is rare or infrequent in all except the white populations. Peak occurrence was postpubertal. There was no consistent sex bias. Dietarily, mean daily fiber intake was relatively low in all groups, 17.9-26.1 g. While the percentage of energy from fat intake was low in blacks, 16.3-22.3%, it was much higher in the other populations, 32.7-39.5%. Clearly, factors other than diet are involved in regulating frequency of appendectomy. While mortality is negligible and morbidity slight, elucidation of causation and prevention of the disease is desirable since subsequently appendectomy patients are at greater than average risk to certain cancers. PMID:3030094
Lynn, Marvin; Bacon, Jennifer Nicole; Totten, Tommy L.; Bridges, Thurman L., III; Jennings, Michael E.
Background/Context: The study examines teachers' and administrators' perspectives on the persistent academic failure of African American male high school students. The study took place between 2003 and 2005 in a low-performing high school in Summerfield County, a Black suburban county in the Mid-Atlantic region of the United States with a poverty…
Currie, Delvon Denise
The purpose of this study was to investigate African American parents' perception of school leaders as it relates to parent engagement and the African American male student. Specifically, this study addressed African American parents' perceptions of the quality of their child's education and the quality of communication they received from their…
Sabens, Franciene S.; Zyromski, Brett
The No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act contains numerous implications for school counselors, but the affects of NCLB on school counselors' roles and identities has not been thoroughly explored. Further, ways comprehensive school counseling programs and school counselors can thrive while striving to meet the goals of NCLB have been ignored in previous…
The use of CCTV in schools is now commonplace in the UK. It is estimated that 85% of all UK secondary schools currently have CCTV systems in operation. The introduction of the Data Protection Act 1998 (DPA) (enacted in March 2000) meant that for the first time CCTV had direct legislation governing its use in the UK. This paper attempts to apply…
Hess, G. Alfred, Jr.
As a result of state legislators' conviction that Chapter 1 fund mismanagement by the Chicago Public Schools had led to yearly increases in administration size to the detriment of students' real needs, the Chicago School Reform Act of 1988 placed a cap on noninstructional expenses and a progressive cessation on state aid to the poverty impaction…
Kwarteng, E. Fredua
This paper discusses the implementation of Nunavut compulsory school attendance policy as part of the Nunavut Education Act (2002). Using a bottom-up approach to policy implementation in the literature and the author's six years teaching experience in Nunavut, the paper argues that the compulsory school attendance policy may not achieve its…
Shefer, Tamara; Bhana, Deevia; Morrell, Robert
South African national education policy is committed to promoting gender equality at school and to facilitating the successful completion of all young people's schooling, including those who may become pregnant and parent while at school. However, the experience of being pregnant and parenting while being a learner is shaped by broader social and…
Rutledge, Anthony B.
This study examined the relationship of the achievement of African American male students enrolled in an early college high school to those enrolled in a performing arts high school. The Georgia High School Graduation Test (GHSGT) scores of the 11th-grade African American male students from an early college high school were compared to the GHSGT…
Moore, James L., III, Ed.; Lewis, Chance W., Ed.
"African American Students in Urban Schools" offers readers a critical yet comprehensive examination of the issues affecting African American students' outcomes in urban school systems and beyond. Across disciplines including teacher education, school counseling, school psychology, gifted education, career and technical education, higher…
Adler, Jill; Setati, Mamokgethi
In his article, A class act -- Mathematics as filter of equity in South African schools, Michael Kahn analyses South African data from matriculation examinations and draws on and re-examines previous analyses he himself has done. This document highlights the important insights into participation and performance in mathematics in South Africa that…
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine how the parental involvement perceptions, practices, and influences of low-income African Americans in an intermediate school setting are affected by low-incomes. Although involving African American parents in the educational process is a difficult task for educators (Alldred & Edwards, 2000;…
This study sought to improve our understanding of factors that influence the career paths of African American female school principals in North Carolina. Three pertinent research questions were addressed in this study: (1) What formative experiences influence the career path decisions of African American females who want to become school…
Githembe, Purity Kanini
The purpose of this study was to examine involvement of African refugee parents in the education of their elementary school children. The setting of the study was Northern and Southern Texas. African refugee parents and their children's teachers completed written surveys and also participated in interviews. In the study's mixed-method design,…
Uys, Daniël Wilhelm; Alant, Edward John Thomas
A new procedure for estimating promotion, repetition and dropout rates for learners in South African schools is proposed. The procedure uses three different data sources: data from the South African General Household survey, data from the Education Management Information Systems, and data from yearly reports published by the Department of Basic…
Royle, Jonathan; Brown, Casey Graham
This study included an analysis of principal perceptions of the achievement gap between African American and White students. School administrators from campuses with a substantial number of African American students within the subgroup were interviewed to explore their perceptions of the achievement gap. The study revealed factors within the…
Mayes, Renae D.; Hines, Erik M.
Current literature on college and career readiness highlights the role of educators in promoting the success of all students. However, few studies have focused on the specific needs of gifted African American girls. This article discusses the school experiences and career development of gifted African American girls and it provides a culturally…
Scheuerell, Scott; Jaeger, Matt
The authors discuss how high school students participated in a unit in which they learned about African American history in a 1:1 computer classroom--in particular, how they were able to use digital history to learn about a variety of African American leaders who are not frequently covered in the traditional American History textbook. In addition,…
Lloyd, Stacey W.; Ferguson, Yvonne Owens; Corbie-Smith, Giselle; Ellison, Arlinda; Blumenthal, Connie; Council, Barbara J.; Youmans, Selena; Muhammad, Melvin R.; Wynn, Mysha; Adimora, Adaora; Akers, Aletha
Though African-American youth in the South are at high risk for HIV infection, abstinence until marriage education continues to be the only option in some public schools. Using community-based participatory research methods, we conducted 11 focus groups with African-American adults and youth in a rural community in North Carolina with high rates…
Colbert, Daveda Jean
There is a leadership crisis that exists in our schools creating an urgent need for effective leadership. Even though African American women have made slight gains, throughout the country people of color and women are dramatically underrepresented in the superintendency. Therefore, the primary purpose of this study is to provide African American…
Archer-Banks, Diane A. M.; Behar-Horenstein, Linda S.
How African American girls cope and excel amidst the discriminations and inequities they experience within U.S. educational systems has not been widely discussed in the body of research about African Americans' schooling experiences. In this study, the researchers examined the applicability of Ogbu's cultural-ecological theory to the…
Duncan, Susan C.; Strycker, Lisa A.; Chaumeton, Nigel R.
Background: The purpose of this research was to examine the impact of school-related variables on the physical activity (PA) levels of early adolescent African American, Latino, and White girls. Methods: Data were collected from 353 African American (N?=?123), Latino (N?=?118), and White (N?=?112) girls. Physical activity levels included a PA…
Marashe, Joel; Ndamba, Gamuchirai Tsitsiozashe; Chireshe, Excellent
Zimbabwe's Education Ministry recommended the teaching of African Traditional Religion in recognition of its multi-religious society. This study sought to establish the extent to which African Traditional Religion is taught in primary schools, the challenges faced by teachers, and opportunities for promoting its teaching. A descriptive survey…
Patton, Desmond Upton; Hong, Jun Sung; Williams, Abigail B.; Allen-Meares, Paula
School bullying and peer victimization are social problems that affect African American youth across various environmental contexts. Regrettably, many of the empirical research on bullying and peer victimization among African American youth has examined individual and direct level influences in silos rather than a constellation of factors…
Wasserberg, Martin J.
This study investigated whether a diagnostic testing condition leads to stereotype threat effects for African American children (n = 198) at an urban elementary school. Results indicated that presenting a reading test as diagnostic of abilities hindered the performance of African American children aware of racial stereotypes but not of those…
Purpose: This study explored the type and adequacy of cohesive devices that are produced by school-age children who use African American English (AAE). Method: The language samples of 33 African American children, ages 7, 9, and 11 years, were transcribed, analyzed, and coded for AAE use and cohesive adequacy (e.g., personal reference,…
Racially diverse schools are often presented as places where students can learn to challenge racist discourse and practice. Yet there are a variety of processes through which such schools reproduce the very hierarchies they are meant to dismantle. Drawing on 18 months of fieldwork in two racially diverse South African high schools, I add to the…
Schwartz, Wendy, Ed.
Many schools employ varied strategies to ensure equitable treatment of African American students and fair and educative disciplinary procedures. This digest reviews successful disciplinary practices. Cross-cultural competence has a role in student-school relationships. Many negative perceptions of difference exist in today's society. Schools can…
Hungi, Njora; Thuku, Florence W.
In this study the authors employed a multilevel analysis procedure in order to examine the pupil and school levels factors that contributed to variation in reading achievement among Grade 6 primary school pupils in 14 southern African school systems (Botswana, Kenya, Lesotho, Malawi, Mauritius, Mozambique, Namibia, Seychelles, South Africa,…
Land, A'Lesia; Mixon, Jason R.; Butcher, Jennifer; Harris, Sandra
This qualitative, narrative study explored experiences of six successful African American male high school students. Findings suggested that barriers prior to high school were negative elements in the home and community. To be successful in high school, they overcame barriers of absent fathers, disruptive homes, negative community, and peers, and…
Three generations of children have passed through the Baton Rouge (Louisiana) school system since the "Brown" decision (1954) and one generation since the federal court's 1981 desegregation order. The impact of school desegregation on African American children was studied in the East Baton Rouge School District. For the student body as a whole,…
Bhana, Deevia; Pillay, Nalini
In the context of the calamitous effects of gender violence on the experience of schooling for South African girls, single-sex schools have been advanced as a strategy to protect girls from violence. In this paper, the experiences of a selected group of girls in a single-sex school in Durban, South Africa are illustrated to provide a counter…
This study examined the schooling experiences and perceptions of resettled sub-Saharan African middle school refugee students in a metropolitan area of the United States Southwest. The research questions underpinning this study included: What are the schooling experiences and perceptions of resettled sub-Saharan African middle school refugee…
Ko, Wen-Ya; Rajan, Prianka; Gomez, Felicia; Scheinfeldt, Laura; An, Ping; Winkler, Cheryl A.; Froment, Alain; Nyambo, Thomas B.; Omar, Sabah A.; Wambebe, Charles; Ranciaro, Alessia; Hirbo, Jibril B.; Tishkoff, Sarah A.
Disease susceptibility can arise as a consequence of adaptation to infectious disease. Recent findings have suggested that higher rates of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in individuals with recent African ancestry might be attributed to two risk alleles (G1 and G2) at the serum-resistance-associated (SRA)-interacting-domain-encoding region of APOL1. These two alleles appear to have arisen adaptively, possibly as a result of their protective effects against human African trypanosomiasis (HAT), or African sleeping sickness. In order to explore the distribution of potential functional variation at APOL1, we studied nucleotide variation in 187 individuals across ten geographically and genetically diverse African ethnic groups with exposure to two Trypanosoma brucei subspecies that cause HAT. We observed unusually high levels of nonsynonymous polymorphism in the regions encoding the functional domains that are required for lysing parasites. Whereas allele frequencies of G2 were similar across all populations (3%–8%), the G1 allele was only common in the Yoruba (39%). Additionally, we identified a haplotype (termed G3) that contains a nonsynonymous change at the membrane-addressing-domain-encoding region of APOL1 and is present in all populations except for the Yoruba. Analyses of long-range patterns of linkage disequilibrium indicate evidence of recent selection acting on the G3 haplotype in Fulani from Cameroon. Our results indicate that the G1 and G2 variants in APOL1 are geographically restricted and that there might be other functional variants that could play a role in HAT resistance and CKD risk in African populations. PMID:23768513
van Niekerk, Dewald
The promulgation of the South African Disaster Management Act No. 57 of 2002 and the National Disaster Management Policy Framework of 2005 placed South Africa at the international forefront by integrating disaster risk reduction into all spheres of government through a decentralised approach. Yet, good policy and legislation do not necessarily translate into good practice. This paper provides a critical analysis of the Act and Policy Framework. Using qualitative research methods, it analyses the attitudes and perceptions of senior public officials on all levels of government, the private sector and academia. The study finds that one of the weakest aspects of the Act and Framework is the absence of clear guidance to local municipalities. The placement of the disaster risk management function on all tiers of government remains problematic, funding is inadequate and overall knowledge and capacities for disaster risk reduction are insufficient.
Fashola, Olatokunbo S.
This article presents the results of the 2nd-year evaluation of an after-school program designed for an extended school day program serving African American middle school students in the city of Baltimore, Maryland (ACCESS-West). This study describes the effects of schoolwide reform especially as it relates to single-gender schools, educating…
Marishane, Ramodikoe Nylon
This study examines the management of school infrastructure in the context of the "no-fee schools" policy introduced in the South African education delivery system. Focusing on four rural schools, the study applied a qualitative method, which involved observation of infrastructure conditions prevailing at four selected schools and…
Bachman, Ronet; Randolph, Antonia; Brown, Bethany L.
This article uses the School Crime Supplement of the National Crime Victimization Survey to investigate the factors related to White and African American students' perceived levels of fear of harm, while at school and while commuting to and from school. Of particular interest were the effects of school security measures, including metal detectors,…
Smith, Eva C.
African American educational leadership has long been part of American education and African American activism to resist oppression. However, the field of educational leadership has rarely included the contributions of African American leaders, particularly women leaders, into mainstream leadership theory and practices. This omission is difficult…
Lomotey, Kofi, Ed.
This volume presents the views of a range of African-American educators on questions related to African-American academic achievement. The concern in this volume is with the persistent, pervasive, and disproportionate underachievement of African-American students. The book is divided into four parts. Part 1, "Problem Identification," comprises the…
Post-Traumatic Stress Syndrome (PTSD) is found more frequently in inner-city African American and Latino youth than in European American youth. Previous research on PTSD and its relationship with inner-city violence, minority youth, school violence and institutionalized oppression is examined. School counselor's roles and possible interventions…
Mestry, Raj; Naidoo, Gans
This article investigates budget monitoring and control in township schools in South Africa. The enactment of the Schools Act 1996 revolutionized school financial management in South Africa, making it part of the drive for democratic school governance. School governing bodies had to be established, whose responsibility it became to manage finances…
US Department of Education, 2010
To achieve President Obama's stated goal of making increased expectations for students and schools a national priority, the administration has designed a blueprint for a reenvisioned federal role in education through the reauthorization of the "Elementary and Secondary Education Act" ("ESEA"). The new "ESEA" will support effective public school…
Gardiner, Mary E.; Canfield-Davis, Kathy; Anderson, Keith LeMar
This exploratory study investigated how six practicing school principals responded to the requirements of the No Child Left Behind law (United States Congress Public Law 107-110, 2002, January, No Child Left Behind Act, http://www.ed.gov/policy/elsec/leg/esea02/107-110.pdf ) in light of the multicultural leadership demands presented by an urban…
Landeau, Reginald H., Jr.
The study evaluates the relationship between middle school principals' leadership characteristics and academic achievement of African American male students in grades 6, 7, and 8 in a large urban school district. Academic achievement is typically defined as the cognitive knowledge, skills, and abilities that are measured by achievement tests. The…
Shujaa, Mwalimu J., Ed.
School desegregation strategies are examined in political contexts to focus on the politics of quality schooling for African Americans. Through this approach, racialized uses of power in white self-interest are shown to influence policy making and policy implementation related to education. Essays include: (1) "Reclaiming Historical Visions of…
This article examines the representation of female education in Qur'anic schools in a selection of West African francophone novels. I argue that in being the earliest form of education for most Muslim women and also a neglected topic of scholarly interest, the Qur'anic school shapes their feminisms in more significant ways than has been…
In 2007 the Department of Education introduced the standards-based Advanced Certificate in Education: School Management and Leadership. The standardisation of leadership and management development in South African schools has been uncritically accepted by most academics and professionals. The purpose of this article is to problematise the…
Jonson-Reid, Melissa; Davis, Larry; Saunders, Jeanne; Williams, Trina; Williams, James Herbert
School performance among African American youths continues to be a major concern. The promotion of self-esteem remains a major focus of school-based intervention programs designed to improve children's academic performance and behavior. Empirical data suggest that academic self-efficacy rather than self-esteem is the critical factor for school…
Moore-Thomas, Cheryl; Day-Vines, Norma L.
Emerging literature on school-family-community partnerships suggests positive educational and social outcomes for students (Koonce & Harper, 2005; Mitchell & Bryan, 2007). This article discusses the historical and contemporary factors and barriers that affect African American students and their families as they partner with schools and…
Mayes, Renae D.; Hines, Erik M.; Harris, Paul C.
This qualitative study examined the perceptions, attitudes, and experiences of eight twice-exceptional African American gifted students who attended the same K-12 urban school district in the Midwest. Four major themes emerged--academic supports, personal and social challenges, career worries, and experience with school counselors. Findings…
Corby, Richard A.
Sierra Leone's Bo School was established in 1906 by British colonial officials to educate chiefs' sons for subordinate positions. Nevertheless, the school contributed to creation of the postindependence ruling class. Enrollment, curriculum, student life, responsibilities of British and African teachers, and alumni networks are examined. Contains…
Rowley, Stephanie J.; Helaire, Lumas J.; Banerjee, Meeta
The relationships among maternal perceptions of racial discrimination, mother-teacher relationship quality, and school involvement were examined in this sample of 73 African American mothers of kindergarteners and first graders. Mothers reported time spent in school-related activities at home, their attitudes about the importance of school…
This article talks about the future of family involvement in schools in African-American communities. The future of family involvement in the schools rests with today's teachers and parents who will take what they learned from the past, establish the philosophical foundations to guide their interactions, incorporate child and family theory and…
Taole, Matshidiso Joyce
Different sectors of society register complaints about schooling in South Africa. Given that curriculum reform has such a poor record of implementation in the country, there is clearly a need for research that identifies factors that hinder or facilitate curriculum implementation in South African schools and identifies strategies to address the…
Means, Darris R.; Clayton, Ashley B.; Conzelmann, Johnathan G.; Baynes, Patti; Umbach, Paul D.
This qualitative case study explores the career and educational aspirations, college choice process, and college barriers and opportunities of 26 rural, African American high school students. Data included interviews with 26 students and 11 school staff members. Findings suggest that the students' rural context shapes aspirations. In addition,…
Howard, Tyrone C.; Reynolds, Rema
In this study, the authors examined the school experiences of middle-class African American parents and students, because they are largely overlooked in the professional literature when it comes to underachievement and parent involvement. Although No Child Left Behind (NCLB) highlights parent involvement and school accountability through the use…
McGee, Ebony O.
This study investigated the risk and protective factors of 11 high-achieving African American males attending 4 urban charter high schools in a Midwestern city to determine what factors account for their resilience and success in mathematics courses, and in high school more generally. This research was guided by a Phenomenological Variant of…
Jones, Linda D.
Research indicates there are significant differences in the academic performance of minorities and whites, particularly at the high school level. On average, Latino and African American high school students read and perform math on the same level as 13-year-old white students and trail their white peers by an average of 20 test points on math and…
Sailors, Misty; Hoffman, James V.; Matthee, Bertus
This interpretive study explored the qualities of six high-performing schools that served low-income South African students. The theoretical framework and methodology derived from research on effective schools conducted, for the most part, in the United States. Data consisted of interviews and classroom observations over the course of two…
Sailors, Misty; Hoffman, James V.; Pearson, P. David; Beretvas, S. Natasha; Matthee, Bertus
In this article, we report on the results of a project devoted to improving literacy in South Africa's rural schools; specifically we report the results of an intervention study that centered on improving mother-tongue literacy instruction offered to learners in Grades 1 and 2 in South African schools. Our findings demonstrate that there are…
Hamm, Jill V.; Coleman, Hardin L. K.
Examined 3 strategies used by 77 African American and 138 White high school students to manage cultural diversity: multicultural, separation, and assimilation strategies. Discusses results in relation to forces supporting adolescents' strategy development and the implications of strategy use for adjustment in predominantly white schools. (SLD)
Smith-McKeever, Chedgzsey; Gao, Weihua
School social workers are often responsible for developing and implementing programs to prevent school suspension, particularly for African American students, who are overrepresented among all students suspended. This article uses data from the National Longitudinal Survey to examine the relative roles of maternal substance and alcohol abuse,…
Abdul-Adil, Jaleel K.; Farmer, Alvin David, Jr.
Parental involvement in schools is a national priority for both educators and researchers to promote the successful schooling of contemporary youth. Contemporary parental involvement research has produced some promising findings, but parental involvement efforts with inner-city African Americans are currently limited by problems of research…
Develops a taxonomy of four kinds of situations in which race and other grounds for discrimination become the focus of school-level controversy surrounding equality and equity. Examines the kinds of responses and discourses South African schools use to engage with the policy discourse of desegregation and human rights and establishes an agenda for…
Thompson, Gail L.; Warren, Susan R.; Foy, Tami; Dickerson, Carol
This study contrasted the perspectives of 101 K-12 public school teachers and 271 African American high school seniors regarding the characteristics of outstanding teachers. Data from surveys were analyzed using univariate and bivariate statistics. The results revealed six qualities that both teachers and students agree are characteristics of…
Biputh, Barath; McKenna, Sioux
This paper tracks the development of the Integrated Quality Management System in South African schools after the dismantling of apartheid in 1994. We argue that the quality processes that are now in place emerged in response to the autocratic school inspection systems that preceded them but did not sufficiently address the impact of educators'…
Robinson, Armentress D.
The purpose of this phenomenological study was to explore and gain an in-depth understanding of the personal, professional, and sociocultural experiences of ten African American female school leaders serving as assistant principals, principals, and central office administrators in four suburban school districts in the southeast region of the…
West-Olatunji, Cirecie; Shure, Lauren; Pringle, Rose; Adams, Thomasenia; Lewis, Dadria; Cholewa, Blaire
The underrepresentation of low-income African American girls in science-related careers is of concern. Applying the concept of positionality, the authors explored how three school counselors at low-resourced schools view this population of learners to either support or discourage mathematics and science careers. The results of this study suggest…
Pitchford-Nicholas, Gloria Jean
The preparedness of students to enter college is an ongoing issue of national concern. The purpose of the study was to conduct a mixed method descriptive case study to answer the question: "How African-American and Hispanic High School Students in an Urban Charter High School may benefit from the Early College High School Model of receiving…
Day-Vines, Norma L.; Barto, Heather H.; Booker, Beverly L.; Smith, Kim V.; Barna, Jennifer; Maiden, Brian S.; Zegley, Linda; Felder, Monique T.
African American English (AAE) refers to the systematic, rule-governed linguistic patterns of found among African Americans. This article provides an overview of AAE. More specifically, the article enumerates the historical underpinnings associated with AAE, identifies a representative set of AAE characteristics, reviews relevant research, and…
Edwards, Anntwanique DeVonne
African-American males are overwhelmingly represented in the nation's dropout rates. Dropping out of school has serious social and economic consequences for our society. The dropout rate is overwhelmingly represented by African-American male students, but limited attention is given to student voice. This study examines African-American male…
Grimes, Lee Edmondson; Haizlip, Breyan; Rogers, Tiffany; Brown, Kimberly D.
Adolescent African American females face multiple obstacles that hinder their educational success. High school completion and college attendance rates remain lower for African American females than those for other racial and gender groups, while pregnancy rates for African American teens are higher. Group work holds promise for meeting the…
Bruton, Chantrell Anita
African American boys are the lowest achieving academic group in public schools. Current research has delved into why this occurs and into implications for African American boys and communities. However, current research has focused on this in urban populations and has not looked at length at the status of African American boys in rural…
Nicks, Myrick Lamon
African American students make up 17% of the public school population nationwide. Ironically, 41% percent of students in special education are African American (Kunjufu, 2005). The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of teacher demographics on the overrepresentation of African American males in special education in a coastal school…
Lease, Suzanne H.
This study assesses factors predictive of the range of possible occupations considered by 166 African American high school students. There are no differences in the number of African American representative occupations (those in which 13.5% or more employees were African American) considered compared to nonrepresentative occupations (those with…
Best, Bonnie M.
Research into African American female underrepresentation in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields has become an area of interest due to the fact that a majority of African American middle school females do not possess the high levels of mathematics and science knowledge because of social and cultural barriers both inside and outside school that challenge their academic success. The purpose of this qualitative interpretative phenomenological study was to explore teachers' shared, lived experiences of teaching mathematics and science to African American middle school girls. Delgado and Stefancic's critical race theory, Pratt-Clarke's critical race feminism, and Baker-Miller's relational-cultural theory were used to guide this study. Research questions focused on the perceptions and experiences of teachers' lived experiences teaching mathematics and science to African American middle school females. Criterion, purposive, and maximum variation sampling techniques were used to recruit 10 teachers who have 3 or more years' experience teaching African American middle school girls. Semistructured face-to-face interviews were the primary data collection source. First cycle and second cycle coding methods were used to support the analysis of this study. Findings suggest that there is a connection between a positive student-teacher relationship and academic success. The results of this study contribute to positive social change by providing empirical evidence policymakers and teachers can use to improve the mathematics and science instruction and practices that are needed to meet the needs of African American middle school females and reduce the underrepresentation and underachievement of African American females in mathematics and science.
Gregory, Anne; Weinstein, Rhona S
African Americans are over-represented in school suspensions, yet little is known about the underlying contributing dynamics. Study 1 reviewed a high school's annual discipline data and 442 students referred for defiance. African Americans were over-represented in referrals for defiance and most students received referrals from one or several teachers. This suggests that defiance referrals are specific to the classroom situation. Examining the situational specificity of referrals, Study 2 used repeated measures and multilevel modeling with a sub-sample of 30 African American students. Attendance, grades, and teacher reports showed that students behaved more defiantly and less cooperatively with teachers perceived as having untrustworthy authority. Predictors of African American student trust in teacher authority included teacher caring and high expectations, offering implications for lowering the discipline gap.
Strycker, Lisa A.; Chaumeton, Nigel R.
BACKGROUND The purpose of this research was to examine the impact of school-related variables on the physical activity (PA) levels of early adolescent African-American, Latino, and white girls. METHODS Data were from 353 African-American (N = 123), Latino (N = 118), and white (N = 112) girls. PA levels included a PA latent factor and minutes per day of moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA). School variables included hours of physical education (PE), PE enjoyment, school physical environment, recess activity, and active transport to/from school. Multiple-group structural equation modeling examined relations between school variables and PA across ethnic groups. RESULTS Hours of PE were positively related to higher PA factor scores. Active transport was related to higher PA factor scores for white girls only, and to greater MVPA for African-American girls only. Hours of PE were related to PE enjoyment and the school physical environment for some ethnic groups. PE enjoyment was related to more recess activity among African-American and Latino girls, and PE enjoyment was associated with more active transport to school for all girls. CONCLUSIONS PE participation and active transport significantly contribute to girls’ levels of PA, with differences across ethnic groups. PMID:25440452
Wellisch, Jean B.; And Others
The 1974-75 in-depth study was designed and conducted as an exploratory investigation of program and contextual factors related to achievement. The study was conducted in conjunction with the National Evaluation of the Emergency School Aid Act (ESAA). The analysis of school success was guided by a conceptual model that identified four key…
Williams, Wanda M; Berry, Diane C
African-American adolescent girls are less physically active than any other U.S. racial/ethnic group. The school environment may contribute to physical inactivity in this group. The purpose of this study was to explore African-American girls' perceptions offactors that contribute to girls being less physically active in high school. Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis (IPA) was used to identify individual perceptions of girls regarding physical activity. This resulted in four themes: personal appearances, scheduling/timing of classes, environmental/facilities issues, and lack of variety of activities in PE classes. Thefindings from this study indicated that African-American adolescent girls did not feel the physical or social school environment encouraged or supported them to be physically active. PMID:27045158
du Plessis, Andre; Webb, Paul
This case study, involving 30 participating teachers from six previously disadvantaged South African schools, provides data on teacher perceptions of the challenges related to implementing Information and Communication Technology (ICT). The schools had minimal resources as a residual result of the South African apartheid policy prior to 1994 and…
Nasir, Na'ilah Suad; McLaughlin, Milbrey W.; Jones, Amina
In this article, the authors explore variation in the meanings of racial identity for African American students in a predominantly African American urban high school. They view racial identity as both related to membership in a racial group and as fluid and reconstructed in the local school setting. They draw on both survey data and observational…
Welch, Amy L.
The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of poverty on the achievement of African American male high school students attending the same large Midwest urban school district. Cumulative grade point average (GPA) at the tenth grade level were compared to the level of poverty provided through census data of African American male tenth…
Morris, Jerome E.
The scholarly community has been neglectful in its study of those urban and predominantly African American schools that manifest agency in spite of persistent racial inequalities and poverty. Consequently, we are left to wonder whether anything good can come from urban African American schools, or from the communities where they are located. This…
Nesmith, Leo, Jr.
The purpose of this study was to examine and describe the relationship between a school's percentage of African American students enrolled and the placement of an African American principal for all of Florida's K-12 traditional public schools during the academic year 2010-2011. This study also sought to determine if this relationship was moderated…
Thomas, Tonya Chavis
The purpose of this study was to examine the different perceptions that shape African American male high school students' understanding of their academic experiences that lead to their success or lack of success in school. In addition, the study identified factors that explain the underachievement of African American male students who are…
Reed, Latish; Johnson, Les T.
This qualitative case study probes one African American school leader with a conservative religious upbringing as she works in a high school with a self-identified population of African American lesbian, guy, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) students. The findings demonstrate that the participant's leadership practices were guided by her spiritual…
Bethea, Sharon L.
The present investigation considers the program outcomes of one community youth project, Leadership Excellence Inc., Oakland Freedom Schools. Oakland Freedom Schools are culturally relevant 6-week summer Language Arts enrichment programs for primarily inner-city African American youth aged 5 to 14 years. In this study, 79 African American youth…
Lloyd, Stacey W; Ferguson, Yvonne Owens; Corbie-Smith, Giselle; Ellison, Arlinda; Blumenthal, Connie; Council, Barbara J; Youmans, Selena; Muhammad, Melvin R; Wynn, Mysha; Adimora, Adaora; Akers, Aletha
Though African-American youth in the South are at high risk for HIV infection, abstinence until marriage education continues to be the only option in some public schools. Using community-based participatory research methods, we conducted 11 focus groups with African-American adults and youth in a rural community in North Carolina with high rates of HIV infection with marked racial disparities. Focus group discussions explored participant views on contributors to the elevated rates of HIV and resources available to reduce transmission. Participants consistently identified the public schools' sex education policies and practices as major barriers toward preventing HIV infection among youth in their community. Ideas for decreasing youth's risk of HIV included public schools providing access to health services and sex education. Policymakers, school administrators, and other stakeholders should consider the public school setting as a place to provide HIV prevention education for youth in rural areas.
Gibson, Priscilla A; Haight, Wendy
In this qualitative study, the authors examined the culturally nuanced meanings of out-of-school suspensions for 30 lower income caregivers of African American children suspended from school. Caregivers were invited to describe their experiences of their children's suspensions during in-depth, individual, audiotaped interviews. Caregivers generally valued their children's school success, recognized when their children had misbehaved, and supported educators' imposition of appropriate consequences. Out-of-school suspensions, however, were rarely viewed as appropriate consequences. On the contrary, caregivers produced emotionally laden moral narratives that generally characterized their children's suspensions as unjust; harmful to children; negligent in helping children with underlying problems such as bullying; undermining parents' racial socialization; and, in general, racially problematic. Suspensions also contributed to some families' withdrawal from participation in their schools. Understanding how caregivers experience children's out-of-school suspensions provides important clues to how families and schools can work together to effectively reduce racial disparities in out-of-school suspensions.
Magojo, Thandekile S; Collings, Steven J
Objective - The prevalence, and attitudinal predictors, of sexual aggression were examined in a non-forensic sample of South African high school males. Method - Survey questionnaires were administered to 446 males (aged 16 to 25 years) attending schools in the greater Durban area, South Africa. Results - A history of sexually aggressive behaviour was reported by 66.8% of respondents, with 17.5% reporting an act of sexual aggression that met the legal definition of rape or attempted rape. A multivariate analysis of variance indicated a significant relationship between sexually abusive behaviour and attitudes supportive of both sexual and physical aggression. Additionally, a tendency to attribute blame to the victim of sexual aggression and attitudes reflecting an internalised culture of violence significantly discriminated between respondents who committed rape/attempted rape, indecent assault, and crimen injuria. Conclusions - These findings indicate relatively high rates of sexual offending among South African high school males and suggest that primary prevention programmes are likely to be most effective if they target attitudes supportive of both sexual and physical violence.
DeJarnette, Glenda; Rivers, Kenyatta O.; Hyter, Yvette D.
To develop a framework for further study of pragmatic behavior in young children from African American English (AAE) speaking backgrounds, one aspect of pragmatic behavior is explored in this article, specifically, speech acts. The aims of this article are to (1) examine examples of how external taxonomies (i.e., an "etic" or…
Ijames, Erika Denise
Research indicates that internal and external factors such as role models, stereotypes, and pressures placed on African American males by their family and friends influence their perceptions of science careers (Assibey-Mensah, 1997; Hess & Leal, 1997; Jacobowitz, 1983; Maple & Stage, 1991; Thomas, 1989; Ware & Lee, 1988). The purpose of this research was to investigate the perceptions of African American high school males about selected science careers based on apparent internal and external factors. Two questions guided this research: (1) What are high school African American males' perceptions of science careers? (2) What influences high school African American males' perceptions of science careers? This research was based on a pilot study in which African American college males perceived a selection of science careers along racial and gender lines. The follow-up investigation was conducted at Rockriver High School in Acorn County, and the participants were three college-bound African American males. The decision to choose males was based on the concept of occupational niching along gender lines. In biology, niching is defined as the role of a particular species regarding space and reproduction, and its interactions with other factors. During the seven-week period of the students' senior year, they met with the researcher to discuss their perceptions of science careers. An ethnographic approach was used to allow a richer and thicker narrative to occur. Critical theory was used to describe and interpret the voices of the participants from a social perspective. The data collected were analyzed using a constant comparative analysis technique. The participants revealed role models, negative stereotypes, peer pressure, social pressures, and misconceptions as some of the factors that influenced their perceptions of science careers. Results of this research suggest that by dispelling the misconceptions, educators can positively influence the attitudes and perceptions of
An increasing trend of noncommunicable diseases is a worldwide phenomenon, also including the developing countries. Few studies focus on adolescents' substance use in relation to mental distress and protective factors in African countries. The purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence and correlates (mental distress and protective factors) of substance use among school-going adolescents in six African countries. The sample included 20,765 students aged from 13 to 15 years from six African countries (Kenya, Namibia, Swaziland, Uganda, Zambia, Zimbabwe), chosen by a two-stage cluster sample design to represent all students in grades 6, 7, 8, 9, and 10 in each country. The measure used was part of the Global School-Based Health Survey (GSHS) questionnaire, including various domains of health behaviour. Results indicate a prevalence of 12.6% tobacco use (past month), 6.6% risky alcohol use (two or more per day for at least 20 days or more in the past month), and 10.5% of illicit drug use (three or more times ever) in school-going adolescents in six African countries. School truancy, loneliness, sleeping problems, sadness, suicidal ideation, suicide plans, and poverty were associated with substance use (tobacco, alcohol, illicit drugs), while school attendance and parental supervision and connectedness were protective factors for substance use, and peer support protective for tobacco use. It is concluded that tobacco use, risky drinking and illicit drug use were common, clustered together and were associated with school truancy, mental distress, and lack of parental and peer support among adolescent African school children. These findings stress the need for early and integrated prevention programmes. PMID:22029616
Barr-Anderson, D J; Singleton, C; Cotwright, C J; Floyd, M F; Affuso, O
Outside-of-school time (OST; i.e. before/after-school hours, summer time), theory-based interventions are potential strategies for addressing increased obesity among African American youth. This review assessed interventions across multiple settings that took place during OST among African American youth aged 5-18 years old. Seven databases were searched for studies published prior to October 2013; 28 prevention and treatment interventions that assessed weight or related behaviours as a primary or secondary outcome were identified. Overall, these studies reported heterogeneous intervention length, theoretical frameworks, methodological quality, outcomes, cultural adaption and community engagement; the latter two attributes have been identified as potentially important intervention strategies when working with African Americans. Although not always significant, generally, outcomes were in the desired direction. When examining programmes by time of intervention (i.e. after-school, summer time, time not specified or multiple time periods), much of the variability remained, but some similarities emerged. After-school studies generally had a positive impact on physical activity, fruit/vegetable consumption and caloric intake, or body composition. The single summer time intervention showed a trend towards reduced body mass index. Overall findings suggest that after-school and summer programmes, alone or perhaps in combination, offer potential benefits for African American youth and could favourably influence diet and physical activity behaviour. PMID:25196405
Barr-Anderson, D J; Singleton, C; Cotwright, C J; Floyd, M F; Affuso, O
Outside-of-school time (OST; i.e. before/after-school hours, summer time), theory-based interventions are potential strategies for addressing increased obesity among African American youth. This review assessed interventions across multiple settings that took place during OST among African American youth aged 5-18 years old. Seven databases were searched for studies published prior to October 2013; 28 prevention and treatment interventions that assessed weight or related behaviours as a primary or secondary outcome were identified. Overall, these studies reported heterogeneous intervention length, theoretical frameworks, methodological quality, outcomes, cultural adaption and community engagement; the latter two attributes have been identified as potentially important intervention strategies when working with African Americans. Although not always significant, generally, outcomes were in the desired direction. When examining programmes by time of intervention (i.e. after-school, summer time, time not specified or multiple time periods), much of the variability remained, but some similarities emerged. After-school studies generally had a positive impact on physical activity, fruit/vegetable consumption and caloric intake, or body composition. The single summer time intervention showed a trend towards reduced body mass index. Overall findings suggest that after-school and summer programmes, alone or perhaps in combination, offer potential benefits for African American youth and could favourably influence diet and physical activity behaviour.
Botha, R. J.
Studies on school restructuring and the leadership role of the principal in this process suggest that what has been the traditional leadership approach of the principal appears to be changing in relation to the substantial changes and school-wide reforms that are continually taking place in schools today. These school reform initiatives…
Williams, Joesph M.; Greenleaf, Arie T.; Albert, Tracey; Barnes, Erin F.
While the educational difficulties of African American students from low-income households are well documented and widely discussed in the literature, far less attention has been paid to students who succeed in school despite significant challenges such as poverty, housing instability, and food insecurity. A review of the literature identifies the…
Simmons, Robert W., III
In a "Multicultural Teaching and Learning" course, racial equity is one of the many issues explored. When discussing racial equity in our schools, teacher education students in the course focus their attention on such issues as the achievement gap, referrals to special education of African American and Latino males, the racism of low expectations.…
Barrett, Christopher A.
The qualitative phenomenological study explored the perceptions of educators and parents of African-American (K-12) school-age children on how the children were using technology. The study was conducted in the Memphis City Public School System (MCS) and was limited to three schools in a school district. Common themes emerged from the analysis of…
Alliance for Excellent Education, 2016
The Every Student Succeeds Act (ESSA) of 2015 includes several provisions that support state and district efforts to prevent students from dropping out of high school and reengage out-of-school youth. Under ESSA, state plans must describe how the state will work with school districts to transition students from middle school to high school and…
The focus of this basic qualitative study was to explore the lived experiences of Floridian African American women in secondary educational leadership positions. Using critical race theory and Black feminist standpoint theory as a theoretical framework, this narrative analysis serves to increase the understanding of leadership styles among a…
Sailors, Misty; Makalela, Leketi; Hoffman, James V.
Our lead article explores the impact the authors witnessed when they helped South African teachers create culturally relevant books written in their students' languages. Through participation in the Ithuba Writing Project, these teachers were able to relate transformative stories about their lives through books that they subsequently shared in the…
According to the Third National Survey of South African women who attend prenatal clinics, 120,000 more persons are estimated to have become infected with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) since 1991. This paper compares the teacher-student relationship with that of the confidential doctor-patient relationship, and asks whether a teacher should…
This article analyses the Integrated Quality Management System (IQMS), an agreement reached in 2003 between the South African Education Department and the major teacher organisations in the country by using discourse analysis. The IQMS was scheduled to be implemented in public schools in 2004. Three discursive tensions are identified and…
In many western countries, corporal punishment has been abolished as a form of punishment in criminal trials and in schools. Under South African common law, persons entitled to enforce discipline may inflict corporal punishment within certain guidelines established by the Supreme Court. For the first time in the Republic of South Africa (RSA), the…
Grant, Dale F.; And Others
This report examines motivational variables and support structures that influenced the success of African American females who graduated with honors from a rural Georgia high school. Case studies focus on the nature of the honor graduates' friendships and the role that friendship may have played in motivating these students to become honor…
Stinson, David W.
This article shows how equity research in mathematics education can be decentered by reporting the "voices" of mathematically successful African American male students as they recount their experiences with school mathematics, illustrating, in essence, how they negotiated the White male math myth. Using post-structural theory, the…
Johnson-Whitt, Eugenia Stacell
In order to inquire into the persistent underrepresentation of urban minority students in the sciences, this study explored three urban African American students' conceptualizations of school science and media science, with emphases on the representation of science in "Crime Scene Investigation" ("CSI"). Based on the data…
Bloom, Collette M.; Erlandson, David A.
Using a naturalistic inquiry approach, analysis of indepth interviews reveals portraits of three African American women administrators emerging from their visible absences, illusionary opportunities, and imaginary schools with stories of strength, identity formation, and a collective consciousness in working for and with the black community in…
Bennett-Smith, Keisha K.
There is a need for research in the area of career choice of minority students in the United States. This descriptive study examined the factors that may influence Native American and African American high school students' career choices. These factors include such variables as parental educational level, family composition, and potential grade…
Baker, Timberly L.
This study addresses the use of suspension and expulsion for defiant behavior. It examines the contributions of student and/or school characteristics and their relationship to suspension and expulsion for defiance, specifically focusing on African Americans. The purpose of this study is to examine factors that lead to students being suspended or…
Steward, Robbie J.; Steward, Astin Devine; Blair, Jonathan; Jo, Hanik; Hill, Martin F.
Urban African American first-year high school students' absenteeism was found to be negatively related to grade point average (GPA) and avoidance as a means of coping (use of substances as a way to escape--food, alcohol, smoking, caffeine, etc.) and positively related to use of social support as a means of coping (efforts to stay emotionally…
Dean, Elizabeth; And Others
Designed to examine the way that different ethnic groups are presented in South African secondary school history textbooks, this study gives special attention to the extent and nature of ethnic stereotyping in texts and the endorsement of particular social and political attitudes relevant to contemporary South Africa. By using a sociological…
Johnston, Ingrid; Mangat, Jyoti
A study explored whether high school readers respond significantly differently to African novels in which unfamiliar cultural elements are presented "aggressively" than to those with an "assimilative" presentation of unfamiliar cultural elements. The three novels are set in Africa: Nancy Farmer's "A Girl Named Disaster," Buchi Emecheta's "The…
Alliance for Excellent Education, 2008
This fact sheet highlights the statistics of the status of the African American students living in the continental United States in terms of: population; graduation, dropouts, and preparedness; schools, segregation, and teacher quality; and special, gifted, and college preparatory education. According to the National Center for Education…
Billingsley, Andrew; Caldwell, Cleopatra Howard
Examines the interaction of church, school, and family in the African-American community. Using a holistic perspective and data from an ongoing, nationwide, multiyear study of church-sponsored family-oriented community outreach programs, the results indicate that the church is a powerful ally for the Black family. (JB)
Bhana, Deevia; Nzimakwe, Thokozani; Nzimakwe, Phumzile
Understanding the ways in which young boys and girls give meaning to gender and sexuality is vital, and is especially significant in the light of South Africa's commitment to gender equality. Yet the, gendered cultures of young children in the early years of South African primary schools remains a, marginal concern in debate, research and…
Ndimande, Bekisizwe S.
The dismantling of apartheid in 1994 brought an array of democratic changes in South Africa, including changes in curriculum and educational policies. One of the most momentous changes was the desegregation of public schools. While this was significant in South African education politics, it presented some educational challenges, especially to…
Bains, Ranbir Mangat; Franzen, Carolyn W.; White-Frese', Jesse
African American and Latino males are less likely to seek mental health services and obtain adequate care than their White counterparts. They are more likely to receive mental health services in school-based health centers (SBHCs) than in other community-based setting. The purpose of this article was to understand the issues and reasons these…
Moss, Hilary J.
While white residents of antebellum Boston and New Haven forcefully opposed the education of black residents, their counterparts in slaveholding Baltimore did little to resist the establishment of African American schools. Such discrepancies, Hilary Moss argues, suggest that white opposition to black education was not a foregone conclusion.…
Examined classroom discourse at a southern cosmetology school, noting African American students' language socialization. Highlighted freshmen's and seniors' engagement with formal/textbook scripts about proper communication, analyzing how teachers and students made sense of official metacommunicative scripts about proper salon communication.…
McDuffie, Thomas E.; George, Richard J.
School administrators and food providers need to better understand what factors drive young consumers' food choices in order to keep them as customers and avoid a potential backlash from parents, the community, and public policymakers. This article reports the findings of a study on African American adolescents and food, specifically, their…
Investigates career maturity differences among 133 African American male high school student-athletes. Findings revealed no significant differences between student-athletes and their nonathlete peers on the career maturity attitude and competence variables. Findings further indicated that 94% of student-athletes as compared to 72% of nonathletes…
Lim, Jae Hoon
This article is a cross-case study exploring two young African-American adolescent girls' experiences with school mathematics and the impact of the socio-cultural context upon their motivation and mathematical identity. Based on repeated in-depth interviews and ethnographic observation of their mathematics classroom, the researcher portrays…
Evans, Dwayne E.
This study explored the significance of African American students' trust of teachers and its impact on student engagement in school. It also focused on the potential impact of teachers' race on student-teacher trust relationships. Research for this study used a cross-sectional approach. Interviews were conducted with 22 students of…
Farrell, Albert D.; Erwin, Elizabeth H.; Allison, Kevin W.; Meyer, Aleta; Sullivan, Terri; Camou, Suzanne; Kliewer, Wendy; Esposito, Layla
Qualitative methods were used to identify problem situations encountered by adolescents in urban middle schools serving a predominantly African American student population. Interviews focusing on identifying problem situations and the context in which they occur were conducted with 60 adolescents including students and peer mediators at middle…
Two African American teachers teach English in the same inner-city high school. One teacher is successful--her students read, interact, and strive for success. The other teacher's students are frequently disruptive or are asleep. This book probes deep into the causes of classroom success and failure, as well as other issues that affect American…
McKechnie, Jessica Diaz
This study examined the relationship between college-going self-efficacy and high school students' perceived levels of achievement goal orientations (mastery-approach, performance-approach, performance-avoidance), vocational identity, need for occupational information, and barriers to occupational goals for a sample of African American urban…
House, Laura E.; Fowler, Dawnovise N.; Thornton, Pamela L.; Francis, E. Aracelis
Using survey methods, this study examines demographic and professional characteristics and experiences of participating African American deans and directors of schools of social work in the United States. An examination of deans and directors has implications for the future of social work education in terms of understanding their critical role as…
Ramnarain, Umesh Dewnarain
The apartheid policies in South Africa had a marked influence on the accessibility and quality of school science experienced by the different race groups. African learners in particular were seriously disadvantaged in this regard. The issues of equity and redress were foremost in transformation of the education system, and the accompanying…
Koonce, Nicole M.
The reading underachievement of African American (AA) school-age children has received considerable attention in educational circles. Unfortunately, there are relatively few studies designed to uncover the source or sources of these reading achievement differences, especially in children beyond early elementary grades. Some studies suggest that…
School governance reform in post-apartheid South Africa aimed to democratize schooling while accommodating diverse school histories of underdevelopment or self-management. Analysis of relevant legislation shows the reform was structured to allow representative democracy and partnerships. But two recent studies suggest that governance reforms have…
Perine, Donald Ray
African Americans, Hispanics, Native Americans and women are underrepresented among the population of scientists and science teachers in the United States. Specifically, the shortage of African Americans teaching math and science at all levels of the educational process and going into the many science-related fields is manifested throughout the entire educational and career structure of our society. This shortage exists when compared to the total population of African Americans in this country, the population of African American students, and to society's demand for more math and science teachers and professionals of all races. One suggestion to address this problem is to update curricular and instructional programs to accommodate the learning styles of African Americans from elementary to graduate school. There is little in the published literature to help us understand the learning styles of African American middle school students and how they compare to African American adults who pursue science careers. There is also little published data to help inform us about the relationship between learning styles of African American middle school students and their attitudes toward science. The author used a learning styles inventory instrument to identify the learning style preferences of the African American students and adults. The preferences identified describe how African American students and African American adult science professionals prefer to function, learn, concentrate, and perform in their educational and work activities in the areas of: (a) immediate environment, (b) emotionality, (c) sociological needs, and (d) physical needs. The learning style preferences for the students and adults were not significantly different in key areas of preference. A Test of Science-Related Attitudes (TOSRA) was used to measure seven distinct science-related attitudes of the middle school students. A comparison of the profile of the mean scores for the students in this study
Cleveland-Solomon, Tanya E.
What beliefs and cultural models do youth who are underrepresented in science have about the domain of science and about themselves as science learners? What do they imagine is possible for them in relation to science both now and in the future? In other words, what constitutes their figured world of science? This dissertation study, using a mixed methods design, offers new perspectives on the ways that underrepresented youth's unexamined assumptions or cultural models and resources may shape their identities and motivation to learn science. Through analyses of survey and interview data, I found that urban African American youths' social context, gender, racial identity, and perceptions of the science they had in school influenced their motivation to learn science. Analyses of short-term classroom observations and interviews suggested that students had competing cultural models that they used in their constructions of identities as science learners, which they espoused and adopted in relation to how well they leveraged the science-related cultural resources available to them. Results from this study suggested that these 7th graders would benefit from access to more expansive cultural models through access to individuals with scientific capital as a way to allow them to create fruitful identities as science learners. If we want to ensure that students from groups that are underrepresented in science not only have better outcomes, but aspire to and enter the science career pipeline, we must also begin to support them in their negotiations of competing cultural models that limit their ability to adopt science-learner identities in their classrooms. This study endeavored to understand the particular cultural models and motivational beliefs that drive students to act, and what types of individuals they imagine scientists and science workers to be. This study also examined how cultural models and resources influence identity negotiation, specifically the roles youths
Sanderson, Geoffrey T.
The Montgomery County Public Schools (MCPS) Class of 2013 consistently outperformed graduates across Maryland and the nation on all sections of the ACT, according to the ACT, Inc. annual report released Wednesday, August 21, 2013. In 2013, 29 percent of MCPS graduates took the ACT exam. According to the ACT, Inc. report, ACT participation among…
Lee, Moosung; Madyun, Na'im; Lam, Beatrice Oi-yeung; Jumale, Mustafa
We examine whether the "acting white" labeling practice and subsequent peer isolation exist (or do not exist) within Somali immigrant adolescents, one of the most underresearched black immigrant student groups, and what school contexts are associated with their presence (or absence). Using a case study, we found that high-achieving…
Greeff, P.; Grobler, A. A.
Bullying in the intermediate school phase was studied, using the Revised Olweus Bully/Victim Questionnaire (R-OBVQ). The total sample comprised 360 grade 4 to 6 pupils from English-medium, single-sex schools in Bloemfontein, South Africa. To ensure a more homogeneous sample, the grade (grades 4 to 6) and race (black and white) of the participants…
Woodruff, Elizabeth A.; Curtner-Smith, Matthew D.
Transferring from elementary to secondary school can be difficult for many children, and students making this transition often suffer from anxiety and stress. One source of stress can be found in the scary stories transitioning pupils hear about their new schools, particularly those about physical education and sport. The purpose of this study was…
Anderson, Kenneth A.; Howard, Keith E.; Graham, Anthony
Associations between reading achievement and behavior, albeit problematic, are empirically supported in the literature. Although well documented, many of the studies were conducted outside of the school context using reading measures not typically aligned with school curricula. Furthermore, previous studies primarily document the existence of…
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to provide a review of an Australian health promoting schools (HPS) project to identify key features of the concept of resilience and how it can be used in a school setting to develop and strengthen protective factors in young people, as a mechanism for improving social functioning and reducing involvement in…
Perry, Kristen H.
This research review examines trends in recent scholarship concerning primary school literacy instruction in Southern Africa. Past scholarship, particularly that which originated from western researchers, focused on technical or structural issues facing literacy instruction in the region, such as language of instruction, school conditions,…
Gordon, Beverly M.
Background/Context: Today, in the era of the first African American president, approximately one third of all African Americans live in suburban communities, and their children are attending suburban schools. Although most research on the education of African American students, particularly males, focuses on their plight in urban schooling, what…
This study investigated the relationship between an after-school tutorial program for African American high school students at a Title I school and scores on the science portion of the High School Graduation Examination (HSGE). Passing the examination was required for graduation. The target high school is 99% African American and the passing rate of the target high school was 42%---lower than the state average of 76%. The purpose of the study was to identify (a) the relationship between a science tutorial program and scores on the science portion of the HSGE, (b) the predictors of tutoring need by analyzing the relationship between biology grades and scores on the science portion of the HSGE, and (c) the findings between biology grades and scores on the science portion of the HSGE by analyzing the relationship between tutorial attendance and HSGE scores. The study was based on Piaget's cognitive constructivism, which implied the potential benefits of tutorials on high-stakes testing. This study used a 1-group pretest-posttest, quantitative methodology. Results showed a significant relationship between tutoring and scores on the biology portion of the HSGE. Results found no significant relationship between the tutorial attendance and the scores on the biology portion of the HSGE or between the biology grades and scores on the biology portion of the HSGE before tutoring. It has implications for positive social change by providing educational stakeholders with empirically-based guidance in determining the potential benefit of tutorial intervention strategies on high school graduation examination scores.
This progress report investigated two key questions regarding the Healthy Schools Act and pesticide use in California's schools. First, has the act reduced overall pesticide use in California's largest school districts? Second, having had a year to come into compliance, are surveyed districts meeting their responsibilities? Based on a survey of…
Alarming statistics reveal that African American male students are encountering long-standing challenges in K-12 mathematics. However, few studies have explored the phenomena associated with African American males and K-12 mathematics education, particularly at the middle school level in the context of an Algebra 1 course of study. The purpose of…
Johnson, Kimberly C.
A major concern in the public schools is the low academic achievement of African American males. This mixed methods study examined the classroom experiences of African American male students in an alternative program. The dual purpose was to investigate the teachers' perceptions and their ability to provide best learning environments for…
This paper reports on an initiative to introduce, not the Philosophy for Children (P4C) programme itself, but its principles and some of its practices, into South African schools. The paper points out the conceptual links between P4C and the understanding of human development that underpins the new South African curriculum, and provides a brief…
A study determined the effects of a pedagogical approach using rap music on the learning of musical forms among urban African American youth and whether there were differential effects among students of different levels of self-esteem. Urban African American youth (n=66) from the St. Louis County Public Schools who were enrolled in general music…
Randle, James P.
A recent study by the Council of the Great City Schools reports that "the nation's young African-American males are in a state of crisis" and describes the situation as "a national catastrophe" (Lewis, Simon, Uzzell, Horwitz, & Casserly, 2010; Herbert, 2010). The report indicates that African-American males still lag…
Thompson, LaTasha; Davis, Julius
Many researchers, educators, administrators, policymakers and members of the general public doubt the prevalence of high-achieving African-American males in urban high schools capable of excelling in mathematics. As part of a larger study, the current study explored the educational experiences of four high-achieving African-American males…
Koonce, Nicole M.
This research investigated the expository language of school-age speakers of African American English. Specifically, the study describes the language productivity, syntax, and pragmatic features present in expository language samples produced by African American children and compares their performance with White children in the extant literature.…
Chambers, Rebecca Anne; Zyromski, Brett; Asner-Self, Kimberly K.; Kimemia, Muthoni
Analyses of 103 St. Louis metro area school counselors' using the National School Violence Survey (Astor et al., 1997; Astor et al., 2000; Furlong et al., 1996) suggests school counselors' perceptions of school violence and their preparedness to respond to said violence vary by both community setting and years of experience. Discussion frames the…
Dillard, Rhonda Cherie Crutchfield
This qualitative case study examined the self-efficacy beliefs of three high school principals in economically disadvantaged high schools with consistently high graduation rates for African American males. With the demand on school systems to perform in a politically driven, assessment-based paradigm, there is a need to describe and analyze the…
This study sought to document the schooling experiences and perceptions of African American students who attended segregated schools in Edgecombe County, North Carolina. Through counter-narratives the participants provided insight into education in Edgecombe County during the 1960s. Findings suggested that schools were social and academic…
Wong, Carol A; Eccles, Jacquelynne S; Sameroff, Arnold
Do experiences with racial discrimination at school predict changes in African American adolescents' academic and psychological functioning? Does African American ethnic identity buffer these relations? This paper addresses these two questions using two waves of data from a longitudinal study of an economically diverse sample of African American adolescents living in and near a major East Coast metropolis. The data were collected at the beginning of the 7th grade and after the completion of the 8th grade. As expected, experiences of racial discrimination at school from one's teachers and peers predicts declines in grades, academic ability self-concepts, academic task values, mental health (increases in depression and anger, decreases in self-esteem and psychological resiliency), and increases in the proportion of one's friends who are not interested in school and who have problem behaviors. A strong, positive connection to one's ethnic group (our measure of ethnic identity) reduced the magnitude of the association of racial discrimination experiences with declines in academic self-concepts, school achievement, and perception of friends' positive characteristics, as well as the association of the racial discrimination experiences with increases in problem behaviors. PMID:14633063
Wong, Carol A; Eccles, Jacquelynne S; Sameroff, Arnold
Do experiences with racial discrimination at school predict changes in African American adolescents' academic and psychological functioning? Does African American ethnic identity buffer these relations? This paper addresses these two questions using two waves of data from a longitudinal study of an economically diverse sample of African American adolescents living in and near a major East Coast metropolis. The data were collected at the beginning of the 7th grade and after the completion of the 8th grade. As expected, experiences of racial discrimination at school from one's teachers and peers predicts declines in grades, academic ability self-concepts, academic task values, mental health (increases in depression and anger, decreases in self-esteem and psychological resiliency), and increases in the proportion of one's friends who are not interested in school and who have problem behaviors. A strong, positive connection to one's ethnic group (our measure of ethnic identity) reduced the magnitude of the association of racial discrimination experiences with declines in academic self-concepts, school achievement, and perception of friends' positive characteristics, as well as the association of the racial discrimination experiences with increases in problem behaviors.
Reboussin, Beth A; Green, Kerry M; Milam, Adam J; Furr-Holden, C Debra M; Ialongo, Nicholas S
African American male high school students have the highest rates of marijuana use among all racial, ethnic, and gender groups, yet there is limited research examining contextual factors salient to the African American community. The purpose of this study was to examine how neighborhood environment measured in 8th grade is related to longitudinal transitions in marijuana use during high school (9th to 12th grades) in a sample of urban African Americans. Four hundred and fifty-two African American children were interviewed annually beginning in 1st grade as part of a longitudinal field study in Baltimore city. Latent transition analysis indicated early in high school posed the greatest risk for initiation and progression of marijuana use. Community violence exposure was associated with an increased likelihood of transitioning from no marijuana use to infrequent use (adjusted odds ratios (AOR) = 2.40, p < 0.001). Higher perceived neighborhood disorder (AOR = 3.20, p = 0.004), drug activity and sales in the neighborhood (AOR = 2.28, p = 0.028), and community violence exposure (AOR = 4.54, p < 0.001) were associated with an increased risk of transitioning from no use to frequent/problematic marijuana use. There was evidence for partial mediation of these associations by perceptions of harm and depressed mood. Drug activity and sales was associated with progression from infrequent to frequent and problematic use (AOR = 2.87, p = 0.029). African American youth living in urban environments with exposure to drug activity, violence, and neighborhood disorder are at increased risk for both initiation and progression to more frequent and problematic marijuana use during high school. These findings highlight the need to develop interventions for African American youth that are mindful of the impact of the additional stressors of living in a high-risk urban environment during a critical developmental transition period. Reducing exposure
Robinson, L E; Webster, E K; Whitt-Glover, M C; Ceaser, T G; Alhassan, S
This review assessed the effectiveness of pre-school- and school-based obesity prevention and/or treatment interventions targeting healthy eating, physical activity or obesity in African American children and adolescents. Systematic searches were conducted for English-printed research articles published between January 1980 and March 2013. Retained articles included experimental studies conducted in the United States that targeted ≥ 80% African American/black children and adolescents and/or studies whose results were stratified by race/ethnicity, and that were conducted in pre-schools/head start or schools (excluding after-school programmes). Of the 12,270 articles identified, 17 met the inclusion criteria (pre-school, n=2; elementary school, n=7; middle and secondary schools, n=8). Thirteen studies found significant improvements in nutrition (pre-school, n=1; elementary, n=7; secondary, n=5) and three found significant improvements in physical activity (pre-school, n=1; elementary, n=2) variables of interest. Two studies (pre-school, n=1; secondary, n=1) reported significant reductions in obesity in African American children. The evidence available suggests school-based interventions are effective in promoting healthy nutrition behaviours in African American children. Conclusions overall and, particularly, about effects on physical activity and obesity are limited due to the small number of studies, differences in assessment approaches and a lack of follow-up assessments.
Edwards, Anthony L.
The history of education contains many references to the inequities African American children suffered before the era of school integration, but few studies have described the positive interactions that took place in segregated schools. To remember segregated schools only for their poor resources presents an incomplete picture. Booker T.…
Spilt, Jantine; Hughes, Jan N.
Previous studies found different trajectories of conflicted relationships with teachers predictive of academic underachievement. However, little is known about what places children at risk for atypical conflict trajectories. This follow-up study examines whether African American ethnicity, IQ, and SES are unique predictors of teacher-student conflict trajectories taking into account sociobehavioral predictors, including aggression and prosocial behavior. The study included the same ethnically diverse sample of 657 academically at-risk children in which previously four latent growth classes of conflict trajectories (grades 1-5) predictive of underachievement were identified. In this follow-up study, 6 predictors were examined: African American ethnicity, SES, IQ (independent assessment), Inhibitory control (performance measure), and Aggression and Prosocial behavior (peer assessment). The results demonstrated that African American ethnicity, but not IQ and SES, uniquely predicted atypical conflict trajectories, while controlling for sociobehavioral predictors. African American children were at risk of increasingly conflicted relationships with elementary school teachers, which has been found to increase the risk of academic underachievement in middle school. PMID:26819492
Dewnarain Ramnarain, Umesh
The apartheid policies in South Africa had a marked influence on the accessibility and quality of school science experienced by the different race groups. African learners in particular were seriously disadvantaged in this regard. The issues of equity and redress were foremost in transformation of the education system, and the accompanying curriculum reform. This paper reports on equity in terms of equality of outputs and equality of inputs in South African school science, with a particular focus on the implementation of practical science investigations. This was a qualitative case study of two teachers on their implementation of science investigations at two schools, one a township school, previously designated for black children, and the other a former Model C school, previously reserved for white children. My study was guided by the curriculum implementation framework by Rogan and Grayson in trying to understand the practice of these teachers at schools located in contextually diverse communities. The framework helped profile the implementation of science investigations and also enabled me to explore the factors which are able to support or hinder this implementation.
This digest consists of two brief articles. The lead article, "The School-to-Work Opportunities Act: An Opportunity To Serve All Students" (Mary Wiberg) tells how the STW Act differs from vocational education by expanding the traditional programs and reflecting the constructivist model of education reform and how STW meets the needs of all…
The use of zero tolerance discipline in schools in the Mississippi Delta created considerable obstacles for African American students to excel, achieve, and graduate. This study used a qualitative phenomenological method to examine and assess how the application of the 1994 zero-tolerance disciplinary policies in Mississippi Delta public schools…
Seaton, Eleanor K; Douglass, Sara
The study presented here examined school context as a moderator in the relation between daily perceptions of racial discrimination and depressive symptoms. The sample included 75 Black adolescents who completed daily surveys for 14 days. The results indicated that approximately 97% of adolescents reported experiencing at least one discriminatory experience over the 2-week period. During the daily diary period, the 2-week average was 26 discriminatory experiences with a daily average of 2.5 discriminatory events. The results indicated perceptions of racial discrimination were linked to increased depressive symptoms on the following day. This relation was apparent for Black youth attending predominantly Black and White high schools, but not for Black youth attending schools with no clear racial majority.
Sanderson, Geoffrey T.
The Montgomery County (Maryland) Public Schools (MCPS) Class of 2014 consistently outperformed graduates across Maryland and the nation on all sections of the ACT, according to the ACT, Inc. annual report that was released Wednesday, August 20, 2014. Thirty percent of the graduates in the MCPS Class of 2014 took the ACT exam. According to the ACT,…
Winters, Wendy Glasgow
This book explores parental participation in the public schools as an opportunity for personal growth and empowerment and as a source of support for educational goals and needed resources. The first chapter explores developmental, psychological, and sociological theories that deal with human potential and how this is related to participation,…
de Wet, Corene
Since the 1990s there has been increased public interest, debate and research on workplace bullying. Little research has, however, been done on the abuse of educators or on the bullies per se. The aim of this paper is to expand the body of knowledge on workplace bullying by shedding light on the character of a bullying school principal. In 2008 I…
Williams, Brenda Toler
This article examines the role of leadership in establishing a school climate where ethical deliberation undergirds educational decision-making. A major focus is on educational leaders who can facilitate planning for more inclusive educational settings for minority group students, however, shared leadership and empowerment of teachers and…
This article argues that the work of school principals in South Africa is shaped by two major sets of constructs or "landscapes": the literature on leadership and management which provides particular constructions of the field and its changes; and the terrain of new policy frameworks adopted after apartheid to transform the education system. In…
In 2003, York University awarded an honorary doctorate to Phoebe Asiyo, a former Kenyan member of Parliament, in recognition of her impressive human rights work. The author learned at the time that Ms. Asiyo's family provided major support to Wikondiek School (located near their home in western Kenya), many of whose students were AIDS orphans.…
Bush, Tony; Joubert, Rika; Kiggundu, Edith; van Rooyen, Jean
This paper examines the significance of leadership and management in enhancing classroom practice and improving learner outcomes in two provinces of South Africa. It is increasingly recognised, internationally and in South Africa, that managing teaching and learning is one of the most important activities for principals and other school leaders.…
McKay, Mary McKernan; Atkins, Marc S; Hawkins, Tracie; Brown, Catherine; Lynn, Cynthia J
Parents (n = 161) and teachers (n = 18) from an urban elementary school serving primarily African American children completed questionnaires regarding racial socialization, social support, and involvement in activities that support youth educational achievement at home and school. Parental reports of racism awareness, and contact with school staff were significantly correlated with parent reports of at-home involvement and at-school involvement. Parent reports of social support from the parent community were significantly related to at-home involvement only. Relative to teacher reports, parents reported more formal contacts with school staff, and higher levels of racism awareness, religiosity, and African American cultural pride. Teachers and parents agreed on school climate and parental levels of at-home and at-school involvement. The results suggest that racial socialization processes are related to parent involvement in children's schooling and that increased efforts are needed to bridge a cultural gap between parents and teachers in inner-city communities.
Allen, Tim; Parker, Melissa
Recent debates about deworming school-aged children in East Africa have been described as the 'Worm Wars'. The stakes are high. Deworming has become one of the top priorities in the fight against infectious diseases. Staff at the World Health Organization, the Gates Foundation and the World Bank (among other institutions) have endorsed the approach, and school-based treatments are a key component of large-scale mass drug administration programmes. Drawing on field research in Uganda and Tanzania, and engaging with both biological and social evidence, this article shows that assertions about the effects of school-based deworming are over-optimistic. The results of a much-cited study on deworming Kenyan school children, which has been used to promote the intervention, are flawed, and a systematic review of randomized controlled trials demonstrates that deworming is unlikely to improve overall public health. Also, confusions arise by applying the term deworming to a variety of very different helminth infections and to different treatment regimes, while local-level research in schools reveals that drug coverage usually falls below target levels. In most places where data exist, infection levels remain disappointingly high. Without indefinite free deworming, any declines in endemicity are likely to be reversed. Moreover, there are social problems arising from mass drug administration that have generally been ignored. Notably, there are serious ethical and practical issues arising from the widespread practice of giving tablets to children without actively consulting parents. There is no doubt that curative therapy for children infected with debilitating parasitic infections is appropriate, but overly positive evaluations of indiscriminate deworming are counter-productive. PMID:27428063
Haugen, Caitlin S.; Klees, Steven J.; Stromquist, Nelly P.; Lin, Jing; Choti, Truphena; Corneilse, Carol
Girls' education has been a high development priority for decades. While some progress has been made, girls are often still at a great disadvantage, especially in developing countries, and most especially in African countries. In sub-Saharan Africa, less than half of primary school teachers and only a quarter of secondary school teachers are women, and enrolment figures for girls are low. One common policy prescription is to increase the number of women teachers, especially in the many countries where teaching remains a predominantly male profession. This policy prescription needs to be backed by more evidence in order to significantly increase and improve its effective implementation. The available research seems to suggest that girls are more likely to enrol in schools where there are female teachers. Moreover, increasing the number of trained teachers in sub-Saharan Africa depends on more girls completing their school education. To date, however, there has been no comprehensive literature review analysing the effects of being taught by women teachers on girls' educational experience. This paper aims to make a start on filling this gap by examining the evidence on the effects in primary schools, especially in African countries. It also identifies and examines the barriers women face in becoming and staying teachers, and considers policies to remedy their situation.
Fowler, Crystal Nicole
This qualitative descriptive case study explored the perceptions of parents and teachers of the academic achievement gap in mathematics between African-American middle school males and their White counterparts. Ten parents, both African-American and White, with students attending middle school in the Cherokee County School District and 5 teachers…
Lewis, Kelly M.; Andrews, Emily; Gaska, Karie; Sullivan, Cris; Bybee, Deborah; Ellick, Kecia L.
Ethnic identity, the extent to which one defines one's self as a member of a particular ethnic group, has been found to be an important predictor of African American adolescents' psychological and behavioral well-being. This study experimentally examined the effects of a school-based emancipatory intervention on the ethnic identity of African…
Shaw-Perry, Mary; Horner, Charlotte; Treviño, Roberto P.; Sosa, Erica T.; Hernandez, Irene; Bhardwaj, Abhishek
OBJECTIVE: To conduct formative assessment and preliminary biological impact of a school-based diabetes risk prevention program for African-American children during a 14-week study. METHODS: NEEMA is a school-based diabetes prevention program tailored for African-American children. The NEEMA is implemented via four social networks-classroom (Health and Physical Education Class), after school (Health Club), home (Family Fun Fair) and school cafeteria (Food Service Program). Formative assessment data were collected through semistructured interviews with physical education (PE) teachers and a pre-to-post design was used to measure biological impact. Fasting capillary glucose, height, weight, body mass index, percent body fat and fitness data were collected from a sample of 58 fourth-grade students. The six elementary schools had > 40% African-American enrollment and were located in low-income neighborhoods. RESULTS: Face-to-face interview data revealed diabetes, obesity and food insufficiency as major health concerns among PE teachers. Teachers also cited large classes and short PE periods as major challenges for implementing the program. From baseline to follow-up, fitness laps increased from 16.40 (SD = 9.98) to 23.72 (SD = 14.79) (p < 0.000), fasting capillary glucose decreased from 89.17 mg/dl (SD = 10.05) to 83.50 mg/dl (SD = 11.26) (p < 0.000), and percent body fat decreased from 27.26 (SD=12.89) to 26.68 (SD = 11.67) (p < 0.537). CONCLUSION: The NEEMA pilot study provided teacher feedback useful for revising the NEEMA health curricula and positive preliminary impact of the NEEMA PE class on children's fitness and blood glucose levels. PMID:17444425
Hungi, Njora; Thuku, Florence W.
In this study the authors employed a multilevel analysis procedure in order to examine the pupil and school levels factors that contributed to variation in reading achievement among Grade 6 primary school pupils in 14 southern African school systems (Botswana, Kenya, Lesotho, Malawi, Mauritius, Mozambique, Namibia, Seychelles, South Africa, Swaziland, Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia, and Zanzibar). The data for this study were collected in 2002 as part of a major project known as the Southern and Eastern Africa Consortium for Monitoring Educational Quality (SACMEQ) that sought to examine the quality of education offered in primary schools in these countries. The most important factors affecting variation in pupil achievement across most of these school systems were grade repetition, pupil socioeconomic background, speaking the language of instruction at home, and Pupil age. South Africa, Uganda and Namibia were among the school systems with the largest between-school variation while Seychelles and Mauritius had the largest within-school variation. Low social equity in reading achievement was evident in Mauritius, Seychelles and Tanzania. Policy implications of the findings are discussed.
Gray, K. L.
The purpose of this article is to illustrate how minority gamers, particularly African-American males, are subject to the label of deviant within the virtual gaming community of Xbox Live. They are labeled deviant based on the stigma of their physical identity - blackness, through a process of linguistic profiling. By employing virtual ethnography, the author identifies a process that leads to racism based on how the black gamer sounds within the space. The act of racism emerges through a process involving questioning, provoking, instigating, and ultimately racism. Many black gamers have normalized these racist experiences and have accepted the label of deviant placed upon their bodies.
McMillian-Robinson, M. Monique; Frierson, Henry T.; Campbell, Frances A.
The disidentification hypothesis predicts that African-American boys achieve less in school than African-American girls do because boys have less personal investment in doing well academically (i.e., they are disidentified). When do such gender differences emerge? Using self-perception and achievement data from longitudinal studies of children (N = 113) at high-risk for academic problems because they come from low-income families, the authors examined whether elementary school-aged and early adolescent African-American boys are more prone to low achievement and disidentification than African-American girls. Multiple regression analyses indicated no gender differences in reading or mathematics achievement between boys and girls at age 8 or at age 12. At 12, African-American boys’ self-esteem was predicted by academic performance in ways similar to that of African-American girls. Thus, no gender differences emerged in elementary school achievement and no gender-specific disengagement patterns were confirmed among at-risk African-American students. PMID:24790256
Allensworth, Elaine; Correa, Macarena; Ponisciak, Steve
The majority of Chicago Public Schools (CPS) students are not attaining the ACT scores they are aiming for, which they need to qualify for scholarships and college acceptance. This report looks at the reasons behind students' low performance and what matters for doing well on this test. CPS students are highly motivated to do well on the ACT, and…
Choudhry, Shahid; McClinton-Powell, Lori; Solomon, Marla; Davis, Dawnavan; Lipton, Rebecca; Darukhanavala, Amy; Steenes, Althera; Selvaraj, Kavitha; Gielissen, Katherine; Love, Lorne; Salahuddin, Renee; Embil, Frank K.; Huo, Dezheng; Chin, Marshall H.; Quinn, Michael T.; Burnet, Deborah L.
Background Schools represent a key potential venue for addressing childhood obesity. Objective To assess the feasibility of Power-Up, an after-school program to decrease obesity risk among African American children, using community-based participatory research (CBPR) principles. Methods Teachers led 14 weekly nutrition and physical activity sessions during after-school care at the Woodlawn Community School on Chicago’s South Side. Forty African American children ages 5 to 12 participated; their 28 parents discussed similar topics weekly at pickup time, and families practiced relevant skills at home. Pre- and post-intervention anthropometrics, blood pressure, dietary measures, and health knowledge and beliefs for children and parents were compared in univariate analysis. Results At baseline, 26% of children were overweight; 28% were obese. Post-intervention, mean body mass index (BMI) z scores decreased from 1.05 to 0.81 (p < .0001). Changes were more pronounced for overweight (−0.206 z-score units) than for obese children (−0.062 z-score units; p = .01). Girls decreased their combined prevalence of overweight/obesity from 52% to 46%; prevalence across these categories did not change for boys. The prevalence of healthful attitudes rose, including plans to “eat more foods that are good for you” (77% to 90%; p = .027) and “planning to try some new sports” (80% to 88%; p = .007). Conclusion Children in the Power-Up program reduced mean BMI z scores significantly. The after-school venue proved feasible. The use of CBPR principles helped to integrate Power-Up into school activities and contributed to likelihood of sustainability. Engaging parents effectively in the after-school time frame proved challenging; additional strate gies to engage parents are under development. Plans are underway to evaluate this intervention through a randomized study. PMID:22616204
This paper explores how performance culture could affect students' learning about, and disposition towards, acting as organisational change agents in schools. This is based on findings from an initiative aimed to enable students to experience acting as change agents on an aspect of the school's culture that concerned them. The initiative…
The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) creates a unique opportunity for states, districts, and high schools to work in concert on behalf of high school students. Generally, American Recovery and Reinvestment Act funds are not intended to create new programs; rather, the majority of the funds are intended to fill gaps in existing…
Primont, Diane F.; Domazlicky, Bruce
The 2001 No Child Left Behind Act requires that schools make ''annual yearly progress'' in raising student achievement, or face possible sanctions. The No Child Left Behind Act places added emphasis on test scores, such as scores from the Missouri Assessment Program (MAP), to evaluate the performance of schools. In this paper, we investigate…
Hayes, Latisha L.; Robnolt, Valerie J.
The purpose of this article is to describe the professional development plan for an elementary school receiving federal funding through the Reading Excellence Act (REA). The Reading Excellence Act provided the school with a two-year plan for literacy improvement. During the first year of the grant, assessment-driven instruction and flexible…
Bayat, Mahomed; Pillay, Basil J.; Cassimjee, Mohammed H.
Objective: The aim of the study was to assess the knowledge, attitude and practice of cigarette smoking behavior (CSB) in a sample of Indian matriculation students. Methodology: All (N=325) Indian matriculation students, at high schools, in Northern Kwa-Zulu Natal, South Africa, were included in the study. A questionnaire was administered to assess knowledge, attitudes and practice of CSB. Results and conclusion: The study showed a prevalence of 16.9%. Most smokers (98.2%) had commenced the practice after the age of 10 years. The most common reason given for CSB was experimentation (83.6%). Main influence was family members followed by teachers and advertisements. The association between smoking and lung cancer was well-known by smokers (90.7%). There was very little awareness of anti-smoking programmes or organizations. Alarmingly, there was little formal health education on the dangers of smoking in schools. The implications of these results are discussed and recommendations on decreasing CSB are made. PMID:23008583
Roberts, Laura A.; Bouknight, Tamisha M.
This case illustrates an example of how one school relied solely on aggregate data and failed to address the college readiness needs of African American students with disabilities. However, the way in which the school counselor identified this opportunity gap may not have been the most ethical approach, and now she is faced with a dilemma. This…
Rury, John L.; Hill, Shirley
This paper considers African-American student protests in secondary schools during the 1960s and early 1970s. Taking a national perspective, it charts a growing sense of independence and militancy among black students as they made the schools a focal point of activism. Activist students challenged established civil rights organisations on a…
Fenzel, L. Mickey; O'Brennan, Lindsey M.
The present study examines the mediating effects of student intrinsic motivation and teacher ratings of student academic engagement on the relation between school climate perceptions and student academic performance among 282 urban African American middle school students. Results provided support for the hypothesized model and suggest the…
Botha, E. M.
Poor learner performance in South African schools raises concerns related to lack of commitment and accountability from school leaders and teachers with no common vision to promote a culture of high learner performance. This paper provides a literature overview of research available on the impact of professional learning communities (PLC) on…
Steyn, G. M.
This study investigates a South African principal's view of implementing invitational education (IE) as an example of a professional development programme (PD) within a particular school setting. Two types of literature inform this study: leadership supportive of school development and the invitational education approach to teaching and learning.…
McEwen, Melanie; Johnson, Pauline; Neatherlin, Jacque; Millard, Mark W.; Lawrence, Gretchen
Examined the efficacy of a school-based asthma management program to prevent exacerbation of symptoms in inner-city, African-American students. Students visited the school clinic twice daily for treatment with inhaled anti-inflammatory medication and measurement of respiratory peak flow rates. Regular use of inhaled anti-inflammatory medication…
Archer, Elizabeth; Scherman, Vanessa; Coe, Robert; Howie, Sarah J.
Reform and improvement are imperative in the current South African education system. Monitoring of school and learner achievement is an essential for establishing praxis for school improvement. Diversity of culture and South Africa's 11 official languages make it difficult to develop valid monitoring systems. Limited resources, time constraints…
Waters, Eric L.
Asynchronous online credit recovery programs have been implemented in public schools across the United States for a variety of reasons. In this case, African American female students who are deficient in course credits towards high school graduation have taken advantage of this relatively new e-programming mechanism as a means to capture course…
Coulter, Donna M.
To examine disparities in education, the researcher utilized a naturalistic approach to uncover how youth think, talk, and feel about their response to schooling. Findings are based on in-depth conversations with 12 inner city African-American kids enrolled in Urban, USA middle and high schools, rarely heard from in the scholarly literature.…
Ogba, Ernest Ituma; Ndem, Joseph Uka
The purpose of the study is to identify the skills required by secondary school Graduates for breeding and rearing Giant African Land Snail (GALS) in Ebonyi State. Three research questions guided the study. The design was descriptive survey. The total population was 254 agricultural science Teachers in junior and senior secondary schools in Ebonyi…
Bondima, Michelle Harris
This ethnographic in nature study explores how two middle school science teachers who have classes populated by urban African Americans teach their students and how their students perceive their teaching. Since urban African American students continue to perform lower than desired on measures of science achievement, there is an urgent need to understand what pedagogical methodologies assist and hinder urban African American students in achieving higher levels of success in science. A pedagogical methodology that theorists posit assists subordinated school populations is culturally responsive pedagogy. Culturally responsive pedagogy is defined as a teaching methodology concerned with preparing students to question inequality, racism, and injustice. Teachers who use culturally responsive pedagogy respect the culture students bring to the class, and require that the teachers willingly do whatever is necessary to educate students (Nieto, 2000). The teacher participants were two female African Americans who were identified by their school supervisors as being highly effective with urban African American students. The researcher presented the teachers in separate case studies conducted over a data collection period of nine months. Data were collected by participant observation, interviews, and artifact collection. Data were analyzed by application of grounded theory techniques. Findings of the teachers' (and the students') beliefs about pedagogy that both assisted and hindered the students' performance in science were reported in a rich and nuanced storytelling manner based on multiple perspectives (teachers', students', and the researcher's). Pedagogical methodologies that the teachers used that assisted their students were the use of cultural metaphors and images in science and applications of motivational techniques that encouraged a nurturing relationship between the teacher and her students. Pedagogical methodologies that hindered students varied by teacher
A survey instrument was developed to identify the impact the World Trade Center and the Pentagon bombings of September 11, 2001, had on African American college students attending an Historically Black College-University (HBCU) in the South. The survey was administered to 136 students 8 days after the bombings in an effort to gain insight into…
This paper presents an early phase of a research on the history of Alabama State College Laboratory School, 1920 to 1969. The research contributes new, critical history to the current story of segregated schooling and offers a more complete picture as to the richness that the African American culture, community, and dedication to educational…
Elliott, Gary L.; Murray, Wayne R.
This report presents the results of the evaluation of a bilingual education component implemented through the Emergency School Aid Act (ESAA) in the Dallas (Texas) Independent School District. Under the program, multicultural bilingual instruction was provided in 13 schools. Twenty-two percent, as opposed to a projected 60 percent, of the students…
Bassiri, Dina; Schulz, E. Matthew
This study examined the usefulness of applying the Rasch rating scale model (D. Andrich, 1978) to high school grade data. ACT assessment test scores (English, Mathematics, Reading, and Science) were used as "common items" to adjust for different grading standards in individual high school courses both within and across schools. This scaling…
Combe, Laurie G.; Sharpe, Susan; Feeser, Cynthia Jo; Ondeck, Lynnette; Fekaris, Nina
It is the position of the National Association of School Nurses (NASN) that the registered professional school nurse (hereinafter referred to as school nurse) serves a vital role in the delivery of health care to our nation's students within the healthcare system reshaped by the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010, commonly known as…
Bergman, Ethan A.; Englund, Tim; Taylor, Katie Weigt; Watkins, Tracee; Schepman, Stephen; Rushing, Keith
Purpose/Objectives: This study compares the mean nutrients selected and consumed in National School Lunch Program (NSLP) meals before and after implementation of the new nutrition standards mandated by the Healthy Hunger-Free Kids Act of 2010 (HHFKA) in July 2012. Four elementary schools achieving Healthier US Schools Challenge awards serving…
Topping, Kecia C.
This dissertation examined factors that affected the science achievement of African American females in suburban middle schools. The research literature informed that African American females are facing the barriers of race, gender, socioeconomic status, and cultural learning style preferences. Nationally used measurements of science achievement such as the Standardized Achievement Test, Tenth edition (SAT-10), National Assessment for Educational Progress, and National Center for Educational Statistics showed that African American females are continuing to falter in the areas of science when compared to other ethnic groups. This study used a transformative sequential explanatory mixed methods design. In the first, quantitative, phase, the relationships among the dependent variables, science subscale SAT-10 NCE scores, yearly averages, and the independent variables, attitude toward science scores obtained from the Modified Fennema-Sherman Attitudes toward Science Scale, socioeconomics, and caregiver status were tested. The participants were 150 African American females in grades 6 through 8 in four suburban middle schools located in the Southeastern United States. The results showed a positive, significant linear relationship between the females' attitude and their science subscale SAT-10 NCE scores and a positive, significant linear relationship between the females' attitudes and their yearly averages in science. The results also confirmed that attitude was a significant predictor of science subscale SAT-10 NCE scores for these females and that attitude and socioeconomics were significant predictors of the females' yearly averages in science. In the second, qualitative, phase, nine females purposefully selected from those who had high and low attitude towards science scores on the scale in the quantitative phase were interviewed. The themes that emerged revealed seven additional factors that impacted the females' science achievement. They were usefulness of science
Owens, Carol L.
In 1999, the United States Department of Education began its Small Learning Community Program in an effort to support the breakup of large schools into smaller learning communities. In an effort to improve the academic success rate of students, President George W. Bush signed into law the "No Child Left Behind Act of 2001" (NCLB). NCLB had as its…
Ghuman, S; Hoque, M E
Substance use is a common problem among South African youth. We conducted this study to determine whether religious beliefs influenced substance use among South African youth. We conducted a cross sectional study of 704 students from five high schools in South Africa. We used a questionnaire to assess self reported substance use and religious beliefs among the study subjects. We used binary logistic regression analysis to evaluate the relationship between the subjects' religious beliefs and substance use. Thirty-six point six percent of students reported being very religious. More female students reported being very religious than male students (p = 0.039). Fifty-four percent of students had ever consumed alcohol. Comparing alcohol and drug use between religious and non-religious students, it was found that alcohol and drug use were more common among non-religious students (28.3%, 30.4%) than very religious students (8.4%, 11.5%) (p < 0.05). Those who considered themselves religious had lower odds of substance use. Religious beliefs had an influence on substance use among South African youth in our study.
Ghuman, S; Hoque, M E
Substance use is a common problem among South African youth. We conducted this study to determine whether religious beliefs influenced substance use among South African youth. We conducted a cross sectional study of 704 students from five high schools in South Africa. We used a questionnaire to assess self reported substance use and religious beliefs among the study subjects. We used binary logistic regression analysis to evaluate the relationship between the subjects' religious beliefs and substance use. Thirty-six point six percent of students reported being very religious. More female students reported being very religious than male students (p = 0.039). Fifty-four percent of students had ever consumed alcohol. Comparing alcohol and drug use between religious and non-religious students, it was found that alcohol and drug use were more common among non-religious students (28.3%, 30.4%) than very religious students (8.4%, 11.5%) (p < 0.05). Those who considered themselves religious had lower odds of substance use. Religious beliefs had an influence on substance use among South African youth in our study. PMID:26513938
Purpose This study investigated classroom differences in the narrative performance of school-age African American English (AAE)-speaking children in gifted and general education classrooms. Method Forty-three children, Grades 2–5, each generated fictional narratives in response to the book Frog, Where Are You? (Mayer, 1969). Differences in performance on traditional narrative measures (total number of communication units [C-units], number of different words, and mean length of utterance in words) and on AAE production (dialect density measure) between children in gifted and general education classrooms were examined. Results There were no classroom-based differences in total number of C-units, number of different words, and mean length of utterance in words. Children in gifted education classrooms produced narratives with lower dialect density than did children in general educated classrooms. Direct logistic regression assessed whether narrative dialect density measure scores offered additional information about giftedness beyond scores on the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test–Fourth Edition (Dunn & Dunn, 2007), a standard measure of language ability. Results indicated that a model with only Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test–Fourth Edition scores best discriminated children in the 2 classrooms. Conclusion African American children across gifted and general education classrooms produce fictional narratives of similar length, lexical diversity, and syntax complexity. However, African American children in gifted education classrooms may produce lower rates of AAE and perform better on standard measures of vocabulary than those in general education classrooms. PMID:25409770
Simmons, Robert W., III
African American males from urban communities have been attending Jesuit high schools in urban spaces for many years, yet little to no literature exists that explores their experiences while attending these elite private schools. This qualitative study of 10 African American males from an urban community attending a similarly positioned Jesuit…
Staples, Jeanine M.
In this article, and from the standpoint of an African American woman teacher/researcher, the author explores what happened when one African American adolescent boy known inside of school as a "severely disengaged" student cultivated literacy practices and events of his own volition in an after-school program. The author asks, how does race and…
Brophy, Alicia Amanda
Disproportionality and the poor post-school outcomes for African American youth with disabilities have been ongoing issues in special education. Limited opportunities to engage in social interactions may exacerbate these poor post-school outcomes for African American students with mild intellectual disabilities and challenging behaviors. African…
Voisin, Dexter R.; Neilands, Torsten B.; Hunnicutt, Shannon
This study examines whether the relationship between violence exposure and school engagement is mediated by psychological problem behaviors and whether such relationships are gendered. Five hundred and sixty-three high school African American adolescents (ages 13 to 19 years) completed questionnaires which assessed two types of violence exposure (community violence and marital conflict), psychological problem behaviors (e.g., PTSD symptoms, anxiety, withdrawal, and aggressive behaviors), and school engagement (i.e., student-teacher connectedness and grade point average [GPA] obtained from school records). For male adolescents, psychological problem behaviors collectively mediated the relationship between community violence exposure and student-teacher connectedness. For female adolescents, both community violence and marital conflict exposure were negatively related to both GPA and student-teacher connectedness via aggressive behavior. Findings suggest that the differential impact of type of violence exposure and its sequela based on gender should be considered when addressing low school engagement among African American youth. PMID:21219276
Alawiye, O; Alawiye, C Z; Thomas, J I
This study examined the self-concepts of elementary school children in Grades 2, 4, 6, and 8, from two West African nations, Ghana and Gambia. Measures of self-concept in the areas of physical maturity, peer relations, academic success, and school adaptiveness were obtained from 195 Ghanaian and 156 Gambian students. The mean scores of the students were subjected to a series of three-way analyses of variance (ANOVAs). The independent variables were sex, grade level, and nationality. The overall analyses revealed grade level as the most potent variable in the self-concept development of both groups, whereas the sex variable indicated interaction with grade level only in Gambian children. The self-esteem of the children in both nations in the areas of physical maturity, peer relations, and academic success was relatively high and stable. Self-concept developmental patterns showed differences across grade levels in the four self-concept areas being tested.
Caughy, Margaret O'Brien; Owen, Margaret Tresch
Cultural socialization practices are common among ethnic minority parents and important for ethnic minority child development. However, little research has examined these practices among parents of very young children. In this study, we report on cultural socialization practices among a sample of parents of low income, African American (n = 179) and Latino (n = 220) preschool-age children in relation to children's school readiness. Cultural socialization was assessed when children were 2.5 years old, and child outcomes assessed 1 year later included pre-academic skills, receptive language, and child behavior. Children who experienced more frequent cultural socialization displayed greater pre-academic skills, better receptive language, and fewer behavior problems. This association did not differ by child gender or ethnicity. The implications of these findings for the development of parent interventions to support school readiness are discussed.
Several papers have documented the disproportionate representation of African Americans in school discipline and incarceration settings as a result of zero tolerance policies. In 2009, a federal study of the Chicago Public School system found African American boys represented 23 percent of the school age population, 44 percent of students who were suspended, and 61 percent of students who were expelled within the 2007 school year. Twenty years after the implementation of the Anti-Drug Abuse Acts of 1986 and 1988, studies show African Americans comprised a startling 74 percent of those incarcerated for drug offenses despite being only 15 percent of America’s drug users. Despite overwhelming evidence that suggests African Americans are adversely affected by zero tolerance policies, African American perceptions of zero tolerance policies remain relatively hidden in the literature. The current review seeks to explore a seemingly bidirectional process that involves how zero tolerance impacts African Americans and how African Americans perceive zero tolerance policies. PMID:25893006
Educational change is a fact of life for teachers across the world, as schools are subjected to constant and ubiquitous pressures to innovate. And, yet, many school practices remain remarkably persistent in the face of such innovation. This paradox of innovation without change is perplexing for policymakers and practitioners alike. This paper…
Sallack, David J.
Although state laws governing school district investing are quite conservative, there have been some notable investment failures leading to the loss of public funds. School districts must beware three kinds of investment risks involving credit, market, and interest rates and consider safety, legality, liquidity, and cash-flow requirements. (MLH)
Discusses the 1993 Family and Medical Leave Act as it affects public school teachers. Discusses basic provisions, covered employers and eligible employees, employee rights under the law, employee responsibilities, and the potential effect on the teaching workforce. (SR)
Mathis, William J.
A unanimous 1997 state Supreme Court decision declaring Vermont's educational funding system unconstitutional prompted the legislature to pass Act 60 establishing state block grants and a guaranteed tax-yield system. Act 60 is working to provide equity in tax burdens and in tax rates. A variety of transitional features have helped to buffer…
Governing bodies in South Africa are expected to have an important role in ensuring high quality education in schools as well as in the democratization of the post-apartheid South Africa. However, current legislation precludes governing bodies from involvement in the professional management of schools. Governing bodies are democratically elected…
Gomez, F. G.
The exclusion of poor scholars from the grammar schools of South-West Lancashire resulted from the economic and social conditions of mid-nineteenth century England rather than to the passage of the Endowed Schools Act in 1869. (Author/WM)
National Council on Disability, 2005
The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act does not specify whether parents or school districts have the burden of proof in special education litigation. It is the position of the National Council on Disability that school districts, not parents, should have the burden of proof in issues about Individualized Education Plans (IEP's),…
Kutsuki, Aya; Tanaka, Yumi
This study explored the relationship between perceptions of culturally deviant acts and multicultural experiences of elementary-school children attending an international school in Japan. Findings indicated that children judged a Japanese harsher than a foreigner, irrespective of the children's age. It was also found that younger children were…
Smith, Robert B.
The Manitoba School Act of 1890 was an insult to the French Canadian culture and religion. New settlers in Manitoba brought with them the model of the Ontario school system, and as the new majority of Manitoba, they, through the Manitoba government, abolished French as an official language. At the same time, single, tax supported public schools…
McMurrer, Jennifer; Dietz, Shelby; Rentner, Diane Stark
Over the next three years, states will dedicate an unprecedented amount of federal funding to school improvement efforts at approximately 5,000 of the nation's lowest achieving schools. The $100 billion for education appropriated by the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (ARRA), also known as the stimulus package, included an…
The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) creates a unique opportunity for states, districts, and high schools to work in concert on behalf of high school students. The table presented in this document provides information on best practices and resources related to the primary funding streams under the 2009 American Recovery and…
Smith, Katherine; Bergman, Ethan A.; Englund, Tim; Ogan, Dana; Barbee, Mary
Purpose/Objectives: This study investigates the effect of meal component changes by the Healthy, Hunger-Free Kids Act of 2010 (HHFKA) on school lunch quality and consumption in elementary school students, grade 2-5 before and after the HHFKA guidelines were implemented in July 2012 using the Healthy Eating Index. Methods: In Spring 2012, before…
Bosland, Carl C.
This book is a comprehensive, yet practical, reference for information and guidance to comply with the requirements of the Family and Medical Leave Act of 1993. It provides school administrators with the latest information to ensure that school policies and practices are up-to-date and it helps to manage leave and avoid costly legal violations.…
Liaison Bulletin, 1992
This bulletin addresses challenges facing school administrators and local and state officials in implementing the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA). The purpose of the ADA is stated, and dates that various provisions become effective are noted. The relationship of the ADA to Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 and to the Individuals…
O'Connor, Carol Alf; McAnulty, Brenda Hart
Investigated whether the emphasis on ACT scores for admission to engineering school is justified. Using stepwise regression procedures, multiple regression equations were derived using data from 328 students. Results indicated that ACT scores plus college transfer credits and advanced placement credits do aid in predicting academic performance.…
Kilinc, Ahmet; Boyes, Edward; Stanisstreet, Martin
One aim of environmental education is to persuade people to act in more pro-environmental ways. However, there is not a linear relationship between environmental knowledge "in general" and a willingness to act pro-environmentally. This research explores, using a specially-devised questionnaire, Turkish school students' beliefs about the benefits…
Xu, Bo; Liu, Dongfang
Due to increased college admission requirements and a 20-year flat-lined trend in ACT scores, it is imperative for education leaders across the nation to implement effective strategies to increase ACT composite scores. High school principals, as instructional leaders and decision makers, are the major stakeholders who are vested in the outcomes of…
ACT, Inc., 2012
ACT created the "Enrollment Management Trends Report" to provide enrollment managers and other college administrators with information about students' patterns during the college choice process of the 2011 high school graduates who took the ACT[R] test. More than 1.6 million students--roughly half of the graduating class of 2011--took the ACT…
Meltzer, Brian A
Some people are doctors. Some people play them on TV. Brian Meltzer could probably do both. A physician executive at Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, Meltzer relies on skills he learned in acting school to help manage business decisions. In the first of several essays for The Physician Executive, Meltzer explains how acting can help you become a better leader.
Discusses the history, legal standards, and enforcement procedures of Title IV and Title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and the role those statutes have played in the federal enforcement of the equal protection clause. (82 references) (MLF)
Data from 446 African-American eleventh and twelfth graders (two-thirds in vocational schools) showed (1) most wanted marriage and 2 children, had specific career dreams, and were optimistic about success; (2) intramural athletes and some nonathletes aspired to professional sports careers; and (3) dream occupation clarity was greater for…
Kellow, J. Thomas; Jones, Brett D.
This study investigated whether African American high school freshman students experience stereotype threat when taking a test that is seen as a predictor of their success on a high-stakes test. The authors conceptually replicated a previous study by Kellow and Jones (2005) using a true experimental design, as opposed to a quasi-experimental…
Braddock, Jomills Henry, II; Lv, Hua; Dawkins, Marvin P.
This study extends research on college choice, with recent national survey data, by examining what African American students say about the importance of college athletic reputation in choosing which school to attend. We use the Educational Longitudinal Survey to examine the overall distribution of self-reported factors that shape college choices…
McKillip, Mary E. M.; Mackey, Philip E.
This report shows college enrollment and graduation trends among African American SAT® takers who finished high school in 2004 and 2010 by various student characteristics, including aspirations, self-perceived ability, and academic achievements. In every case, students in the top categories were the most likely to enroll in four-year colleges…
Gadsden, Vivian L., Ed.; Trent, William, Ed.
These papers, presented at a symposium on African American fathers, examine issues related to the seven "Core Learnings" of the National Center on Fathers and Families, particularly those related to fathers' caring, joblessness, and role transitions. The papers connect issues across school, work, and personal development that contribute to African…
Murphy, Patricia Marie
The purpose of this qualitative study was to determine Texas Public School counselors' perceptions of family strengths in Hurricane Katrina African American evacuee children and adolescents and in their families. An additional purpose of this study was to determine how these counselors may have called upon these perceived strengths to intervene in…
This article is a conceptual consideration of what could be regarded as pedagogical justice for disadvantaged students in South African schools. Combining Bourdieu's social reproduction account of education with elements of Bernstein's consideration of the internal dynamics that constitute the pedagogic relay, the article considers the pedagogical…
Merrill, Carolyn Ann
The purpose of this quantitative, causal-comparative study was to determine the impact of the year-round education school calendar on the standardized test performance of fifth grade African American students, as measured by the Illinois Standards Achievement Test (ISAT) in reading. The ISAT reading scores from two year-round education (YRE)…
Austin, Chandra Yvette
This study examined the relationship between specific factors believed to influence career decision self-efficacy and math/science related goal intentions (proxy for engineering related goal intentions) among African American high school students. Minority students generally tend to be underrepresented in such careers, as indicated by the National…
This research study was conducted as an autoethnographic study of me and supplemented with three African-American female administrators' perspectives and experiences as school administrators. The narrative process was used to tell all of our stories. The narrative process enabled me to tell my story and how my story relates to the stories of…
Higgins, Karen M.; Moule, Jean
Using methods of naturalistic inquiry, this study examines preservice teachers' conflict with classroom management strategies used in a predominantly African-American urban elementary school. It highlights the theory/practice dilemma, focusing on the tensions between the democratic strategies taught in university classes and the more authoritarian…
Fleshman, Paula Jenniver
As mathematics identity affects students' learning and doing of mathematics, it is critical to understand the mathematics identities of African American and Hispanic students as the mathematical performance and pursuits of far too many continue to lag behind. Further, as community schools have been shown to positively impact students in urban…
The purpose of this study was to determine if a relationship existed between mathematics self-efficacy and mathematics identity to mathematics achievement among African American males from High School Longitudinal Study of 2009 (HSLS:09). Subsequently, the extent to which mathematics self-efficacy and mathematics identity accounted for low and…
Gallard Martinez, Alejandro J.
This forum considers argumentation as a means of science teaching in South African schools, through the integration of indigenous knowledge (IK). It addresses issues raised in Mariana G. Hewson and Meshach B. Ogunniyi's paper entitled: Argumentation-teaching as a method to introduce indigenous knowledge into science classrooms: opportunities and…
Thornhill, Theodore E.
African American history is often taught poorly in high school U.S. history courses. However, we know little about how Black students perceive and experience this situation. I use a refined racial socialization framework and interview data with 32 Black college students in the Northeast to investigate how familial racial socialization shapes their…
In this article, Paris explores the deep linguistic and cultural ways in which youth in a multiethnic urban high school employ linguistic features of African American Language (AAL) across ethnic lines. The author also discusses how knowledge about the use of AAL in multiethnic contexts might be applied to language and literacy education and how…
Tamura, Eileen H.
Compares controversies surrounding actions by school boards in Hawaii and Oakland, California, to promote student fluency in standard English. Public reactions to these actions demonstrated general lack of understanding about languages and nonstandard dialects. Myths and characterizations about Hawaiian Creole English and African American…
Allen, Ayana; Scott, Lakia M.; Lewis, Chance W.
This conceptual paper explores racial microaggressions and their effects on African American and Hispanic students in urban schools. Microaggressions are pervasive in our society (Sue et al., 2007), and although often manifested in subtle ways, can be detrimental for their long-term effects on students' psychological, socialemotional, and…
This study examines whether participating in competitive policy debate influences high school completion, academic achievement, and college readiness for African American male students. The analysis examines data from the Chicago Debate League from 1997 to 2006. Debate participants were 70% more likely to graduate and three times less likely to…
Ohio Historical Society, Columbus.
This elementary and middle school curriculum guide contains three sections of instructional materials about three areas of African American life. The section "Community Life" includes detailed lessons on family, the church, education, business, and organizations. The section "Public Life" provides in-depth lessons on media, science and medicine,…
Wood, Lesley; Rolleri, Lori A.
Sexuality education forms part of the national school curricula of most sub-Saharan African countries, yet risk-related sexual behaviour among young people continues to fuel the HIV pandemic in this part of the world. One of the arguments put forward to explain why sexuality education seems to have had little impact on sexual risk-taking is that…
Mills, Monique T.; Watkins, Ruth V.; Washington, Julie A.
Purpose: To report preliminary comparisons of developing structural and dialectal characteristics associated with fictional and personal narratives in school-age African American children. Method: Forty-three children, Grades 2-5, generated a fictional narrative and a personal narrative in response to a wordless-book elicitation task and a…
Yip, Tiffany; Seaton, Eleanor K.; Sellers, Robert M.
Among 224 African American adolescents (mean age = 14), the associations between interracial and intraracial contact and school-level diversity on changes in racial identity over a 3-year period were examined. Youths were determined to be diffused, foreclosed, moratorium, or achieved, and change or stability in identity status was examined.…
Xie, Hongling; Farmer, Thomas W.; Cairns, Beverley D.
Using narrative reports of peer conflicts among a sample of African-American children and adolescents from inner-city schools, investigates the development and social functions of four types of aggressive behaviors. Results showed that low levels of social aggression and high levels of physical aggression were reported in peer conflicts. Distinct…
Ford, Donna Y.; Moore, James L., III
This article focuses on the achievement gap, with attention devoted to underachievement and low achievement among African American males in urban school contexts. More specifically, the article explains problems and issues facing or confronting these Black male students in urban education settings. A central part of this discussion is grounded in…
Grier, Leslie K.
The purpose of this research was to investigate how domain-specific importance ratings affect relations between perceived competence and self-worth among African American school-age children. Importance ratings have been found to affect the strength of the relationship between perceived competence and self-worth and have implications for…
Davis, Larry E.; Ajzen, Icek; Saunders, Jeanne; Williams, Trina
Study explores high school completion among African Americans. Students completed a theory of planned behavior questionnaire early in their 2nd year. Intentions to complete the year were accurately predicted from attitudes, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control. Intentions and, to a lesser extent, perceived behavioral control,…
Warner, Cheryl B.
This study's purpose was to pair motivational orientation and ethnicity in a sample of urban African American middle school students (n = 213). Through multivariate analyses, the results revealed differences in motivational orientation between eighth graders when compared to their younger peers. The study supports the hypotheses of: a) the…
Usman, Lantana M.
In Canadian public primary schools, newcomer West African refugees like other ethnic immigrant students are a visible minority group, often referred as Linguistic and Culturally Different (LCD) students. In the province of British Columbia, newcomer immigrant students are subjected to a battery of tests, as soon as they enroll in the primary…
Mills, Monique T.
Purpose: This study investigated the fictional narrative performance of school-age African American children across 3 elicitation contexts that differed in the type of visual stimulus presented. Method: A total of 54 children in Grades 2 through 5 produced narratives across 3 different visual conditions: no visual, picture sequence, and single…
Bennett, M. Daniel, Jr.
Racial socialization and ethnic identity are emerging, albeit atheoretical, constructs that have been argued to promote prosocial outcomes among ethnic minority youths. Using structural equation modeling, the author explored the influence of racial socialization and ethnic identity on school engagement in a sample of 131 African American youths.…
Dotterer, Aryn M.; McHale, Susan M.; Crouter, Ann C.
This study investigated the links between racial discrimination and school engagement and the roles of racial socialization and ethnic identity as protective factors in those linkages in a sample of 148, sixth through twelfth grade African American adolescents from working and middle-class two-parent families. In home interviews, youth described…
McVeigh, Joanne; Meiring, Rebecca
Few studies have examined physical activity and inactivity levels in an urban South African setting across 12 years of formal schooling. This information is important for implementing strategies to curb increasing trends of physical inactivity and related negative consequences, especially in low to middle income countries facing multiple challenges on overburdened health care systems. We examined levels of physical activity and sedentary behaviour cross-sectionally over 12 school years from childhood to adolescence in Black, White and Indian boys and girls. The aim of our study was to describe gender and race related patterns of physical and sedentary activity levels in a sample of South African children and to determine whether there were associations between these variables and body mass status. Physical activity questionnaires, previously validated in a South African setting, were used to gather information about activity and sedentary behaviours among 767 Black, White and Indian children (5-18 years of age) across the 12 grades of formal schooling. Body mass and height were also measured. Time spent in moderate-vigorous physical activity declined over the school years for all race groups and was consistently lower for girls than boys (p = 0.03), while time spent in sedentary activity increased with increasing grade (p < 0.001) for boys and girls and across all race groups. Associations between physical activity and body mass were observed for White children (r = -0.22, p < 0.001), but not for Black and Indian children (p > 0.05) whereas time spent in sedentary activities was significantly and positively correlated with body mass across all race groups: Indian (r = 0.25, p < 0.001), White (r = 0.22, p < 0.001) and Black (r = 0.37, p = 0.001). The strength of the associations was similar for boys and girls. Black and Indian children were less physically active than their white peers (p < 0.05), and Black children also spent more time in sedentary activity (p < 0
Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Agriculture, Nutrition, and Forestry.
This publication reports the considerations and actions of a subcommittee, to which was referred H.R. 4222 to amend the National School Lunch Act and the Child Nutrition Act of 1966 in order to extend and revise the special food service program for children and the school breakfast program, and for other purposes related to strengthening the…
McMillian, M. Monique
To improve achievement among African American students, education professionals must pay special attention to African American male achievement and reframe the academic achievement gap as a treatment gap. Engagement studies suggest that African American students, and African American boys in particular, are susceptible to academic disengagement.…
Butler Kahle, Jane; Meece, Judith; Scantlebury, Kathryn
The current reform movement in science education promotes standards-based teaching, including the use of inquiry, problem solving, and open-ended questioning, to improve student achievement. This study examines the influence of standards-based teaching practices on the achievement of urban, African-American, middle school science students. Science classes of teachers who had participated in the professional development (n = 8) of Ohio's statewide systemic initiative (SSI) were matched with classes of teachers (n = 10) who had not participated. Data were gathered using group-administered questionnaires and achievement tests that were specifically designed for Ohio's SSI. Analyses indicate that teachers who frequently used standards-based teaching practices positively influenced urban, African-American students' science achievement and attitudes, especially for boys. Additionally, teachers' involvement in the SSI's professional development was positively related to the reported use of standards-based teaching practices in the classroom. The findings support the efficacy of high-quality professional development to change teaching practices and to enhance student learning.
Whitney, Frances M.
The purpose of this paper is to give a voice to a dedicated group of professionals who unselfishly labored twenty-five plus years educating the children of America's poorest taxpaying citizens. These retired African American female urban middle school science teachers (RAAFUMSST) explain the experiences that gave them the fortitude to stay in the urban school system until their retirement. The goal is to give you a glimpse into the distractions, challenges, and victories the teachers encountered as they strove to teach science in an overcrowded, underserviced, and depressed urban school district of a major city. Most times sacrificing self for service, the participants of this study held fast to their beliefs that all of America's children, regardless of their parents' socioeconomic status, deserve a quality education. It is through individual interviews that the five retired science teachers of this project share their reflections on the events and circumstances that altered their labor of love. Critical Race Theory (CRT) serves as the theoretical frame for this study.
Bains, Ranbir Mangat; Franzen, Carolyn W; White-Frese', Jesse
African American and Latino males are less likely to seek mental health services and obtain adequate care than their White counterparts. They are more likely to receive mental health services in school-based health centers (SBHCs) than in other community-based setting. The purpose of this article was to understand the issues and reasons these adolescents sought mental health services at SBHCs and what their perceptions of the services were. A content analysis of 22 individual interviews was conducted using Krippendorff's method. Five themes emerged from the analysis of the data: the burdens and hurdles of my life, the door is always open, sanctuary within chaos, they get to us, and achieve my best potential. Each of the themes was explored in detail with rich quotations from the adolescents. The findings illuminated the daily struggles these adolescents faced and the impact mental health services in SBHCs had on their daily lives.
It is the position of the National Association of School Nurses that the registered professional school nurse (hereinafter referred to as the school nurse) serves a vital role in the delivery of health care to our nation’s students within the health care system reshaped by the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010, commonly known as the Affordable Care Act (ACA). This law presents an opportunity to transform the health care system through three primary goals: expanding access, improving quality, and reducing cost (U.S. Government Printing Office, 2010). School nurses stand at the forefront of this system change and continue to provide evidence-based, quality interventions and preventive care that, according to recent studies, actually save health care dollars (Wang et al., 2014). NASN supports the concept that school nursing services receive the same financial parity as other health care providers to improve overall health outcomes, including insurance reimbursement for services provided to students. PMID:25926418
Gray-Adams, Karen; Sinclair, Beth
The Gun-Free Schools Act (GFSA) requires that each state or outlying area receiving federal funds under the Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA) have a law that requires all local educational agencies (LEAs) in the state or outlying area to expel from school for at least one year any student found bringing a firearm to school. Their…
Gray, Karen; Sinclair, Beth
The Gun-Free Schools Act (GFSA) requires that each state or territory receiving federal funds under the Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA) have a state law that requires all local educational agencies (LEAs) in the state or territory to expel from school for at least one year any student found bringing a firearm to school. (See Appendix…
This book documents school-based sexual violence in South Africa and the discriminatory impact on girls' education when the government fails to respond effectively. Eleven chapters include: (1) "Preface"; (2) "Summary" (e.g., the effects of sexual violence on education and South Africa's legal obligations); (3) "Recommendations" (to the government…
Under the Equality Act (2010), all schools and service providers have a legal obligation to make provision for disabled pupils, staff and school users. If you're feeling confused and concerned about the content and implications of the Disability Duty Act (1995) and the more recently released Equality Act (2010), and how it affects your setting,…
From 2009 to 2010, the Community Food Security Coalition advocated for more federal support and funding for farm-to-school programs as Congress considered reauthorizing the Child Nutrition Act. Farm-to-school initiatives aim to improve the quality and healthfulness of student meals through the inclusion of more fresh fruits and vegetables provided…
Wium, A M; Louw, B
The role of speech-language therapists (SLTs) in schools in South Africa needs to be revisited based on the changing educational needs in the country. This article builds on a paper by Kathard et al. (2011), which discussed the changing needs of the country with regard to the role of SLTs working in schools. South African policy changes indicated a shift from supporting the child to supporting the teacher, but also place more emphasis on the support of all learners in literacy in an effort to address past inequities. This paper addresses several of the questions that emerged from Kathard et al. and explores the collaborative roles played by SLTs on four levels in the education context. Collaboration at the learner level (level 1) focuses on prevention and support, whereas collaboration at the teacher level (level 2) is described in terms of training, mentoring, monitoring and consultation. Collaboration can also occur at the district level (level 3), where the focus is mainly on the development and implementation of support programmes for teachers in areas of literacy and numeracy. Collaboration at the level of national and provincial education (level 4) is key to all other roles, as it impacts on policy. This last level is the platform to advocate for the employment of SLTs in schools. Such new roles and responsibilities have important implications for the preparation of future SLTs. Suggestions for curricular review and professional development are discussed. It is proposed that SASLHA responds to the changes by developing a position statement on the roles and responsibilities of SLTs in schools. PMID:25158371
Finance Project, Washington, DC.
The Workforce Investment Act (WIA) of 1998 redesigned federal job-training programs to create a more comprehensive and accessible public workforce program. This strategy brief explains the Workforce Investment Act (WIA), outlines strategies for leveraging WIA funds, and provides examples of out-of-school time (OST) programs benefiting from WIA…
Grobler, B. R.; Moloi, K. C.; Loock, C. F.; Bisschoff, T. C.; Mestry, R. J.
This article examines the factors which impact upon the creation of a school environment for the effective management of cultural diversity as legislated for in the directive principles of the South African Schools Act of 1996 and the Schools Education Act of 1995. The two Acts determine that every person shall have the right to basic education…
Hanson, John W.
Primary schooling in Africa is not the enemy of farming it has been thought to be, according to an analysis of relevant field research. Primary school leavers are pragmatic about farming. They frequently delay their farming efforts until their prospects look good. Many rural school leavers migrate to urban centers because of simple economics…
Horton-Ikard, RaMonda; Miller, Jon F.
This study examined the production of African-American English (AAE) forms produced by 69 school-aged African-American children from middle socio-economic status (SES) communities to determine if age would influence: (a) the number of different types of AAE tokens and (b) the rate of dialect. Descriptive data revealed that there were more than 20…
Bailey, Fatima H.
Traditional and current parental involvement programs can be challenging, debilitating and disenfranchising for African American and Latino school-parents. This qualitative study explores the issue of parental involvement, engagement and empowerment for African American and Latino parents. It provides an overview of hegemonic underpinnings,…
McCoy, Shuntay Z.
Within the United States, African American students experience school socialization that exposes them to racial segregation, economic stratification, and route learning masked as education. Consequently African American families are compelled to engage in socialization practices that buffer against the adverse influences of racism, oppression, and…
Benson, Shanelle R.
Purpose. The purpose of this study was to determine, to what degree, African American teachers in five selected, urban charter schools in New York performed the historical roles of counselor, advocate, disciplinarian, surrogate parent, and role model in, to determine how African American Teachers perceived the importance of performing the…
Nellums, Michael W.
The purpose of this study was to determine if Parental Involvement influenced academic performance at single gender and co-educational schools. This study also compared African American male academic achievement with all students enrolled in two single gender, and one coeducational, middle school programs. Although all three schools reflected a…
Kauh, Tina J.
With funding from the Collaborative for Building After-School Systems (CBASS)--through support from The Atlantic Philanthropies--Public/Private Ventures (P/PV) conducted a small study to begin identifying promising strategies currently used by after-school programs to recruit and retain middle- and high-school-aged African American and Hispanic…
Sánchez, Francisco J; Liu, William Ming; Leathers, Leslie; Goins, Joyce; Vilain, Eric
We used Consensual Qualitative Research Methodology to analyze responses from 14 African American men (Mdn(Age) = 25 years-old) in graduate school at a predominantly-White university in the Midwestern region of the United Sates regarding how they acquired awareness of their social-class status; how social class was related to their sense of masculinity; how social class was related to race and skin tone; and the role that education and a romantic partner could play in upward mobility. School peers were the main source for their early awareness of social class. Many believed that discrimination maintains social class stratification that disadvantages racial minorities and that one's race will always trump any personal characteristics-including having light-complected skin and an advanced degree. Finally many overcame several obstacles during their educational career, and most believed that a romantic relationship with a woman from a privileged background could facilitate upward mobility. Psychological scientists and practitioners are encouraged to consider the role that social class plays when examining men's well-being.
Sánchez, Francisco J.; Liu, William Ming; Leathers, Leslie; Goins, Joyce; Vilain, Eric
We used Consensual Qualitative Research Methodology to analyze responses from 14 African American men (MdnAge = 25 years-old) in graduate school at a predominantly-White university in the Midwestern region of the United Sates regarding how they acquired awareness of their social-class status; how social class was related to their sense of masculinity; how social class was related to race and skin tone; and the role that education and a romantic partner could play in upward mobility. School peers were the main source for their early awareness of social class. Many believed that discrimination maintains social class stratification that disadvantages racial minorities and that one's race will always trump any personal characteristics—including having light-complected skin and an advanced degree. Finally many overcame several obstacles during their educational career, and most believed that a romantic relationship with a woman from a privileged background could facilitate upward mobility. Psychological scientists and practitioners are encouraged to consider the role that social class plays when examining men's well-being. PMID:22058659
New educational programs are attempting to meet the needs of male African American students. The new programs vary widely in approach, scope, content, and targeted age group. However, they all focus on helping African American male youth develop productive behaviors and values by bringing them into contact with African American male adults. The…
Walker, Brenda L. Townsend
The "Brown v. Board of Education" (1954) Supreme Court decision ruled that segregated schools were unequal and unconstitutional. Since Brown's ruling, scholars have questioned whether African American children have benefitted from school desegregation and subsequent school reform initiatives. In spite of several post-Brown school reform…
Phillips, Martha M; Raczynski, James M; West, Delia S; Pulley, LeaVonne; Bursac, Zoran; Gauss, C Heath; Walker, Jada F
Changes in school nutrition and physical activity policies and environments are important to combat childhood obesity. Arkansas Act 1220 of 2003 was among the first and most comprehensive statewide legislative initiatives to combat childhood obesity through school-based change. Annual surveys of principals and superintendents have been analyzed to document substantial and important changes in school environments, policies, and practices. For example, results indicate that schools are more likely to require that healthy options be provided for student parties (4.5% in 2004, 36.9% in 2008; P
New Leaders, 2015
This brief outlines a series of proposals for using federal policy to bolster school leadership. The Elementary & Secondary Education Act (ESEA) should highlight the unique role that principals play by targeting funding within the law to build principals' capacity as instructional leaders, culture builders and talent managers. ESEA should also…
Lubker Cornish, Disa; Askelson, Natoshia M.; Golembiewski, Elizabeth H.
Purpose/Objectives: This study was designed to explore the professional networks of rural school food service directors (FSD), the resources they use for implementing the Healthy, Hunger-free Kids Act of 2010 (HHFKA), and their needs for information and support to continue to implement successfully. Methods: Rural FSD participated in an in-depth…
This document is intended to help existing school-to-work (STW) partnerships and the new local work force investment boards understand the opportunities for achieving common ground to better serve youth during implementation of the Workforce Investment Act (WIA) and formation of the new youth councils. The following are among the topics discussed:…
Ogbu's theory of "burden of acting white" has been one of the most frequently cited studies to explain black and white achievement gap. However, emerging studies have argued that Ogbu's theory may be limited when examining variability of school achievement among black and white students. Research shows that in addition to culture, other social…
Edmonds, Vincent H.
Educational institutions are required either by law or by necessity to maintain records on students. Prior to the passage of the "Buckley Amendment," more commonly known as the Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act (FERPA), K-12 and postsecondary school officials maintained, used, and shared records according to their own discretion. Although…
Executive Office of the President, 2011
On September 8, 2011, the President proposed the American Jobs Act to Congress, including investments of $25 billion to renovate and modernize at least 35,000 of America's public schools; $5 billion to upgrade infrastructure at America's community colleges; and $30 billion to keep hundreds of thousands of educators in the classroom. This report…
Miles, Albert S.; And Others
The Family and Medical Leave Act (FMLA) applies new federally mandated employee leave provisions to institutions. Schools must formulate leave policies, communicate them to all staff, and document all FMLA-related actions. Offers a guide to planning and implementing FMLA leave. (MLF)
Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House.
This report by the Committee on Education and Labor of the House of Representatives endorses H.R. 3282, the Asbestos School Hazard Detection and Control Act of 1979, and also presents minority views of ten members of the committee. The purpose of this legislation is to authorize a systematic federal program for identifying and controlling…
Yip, Tiffany; Seaton, Eleanor K; Sellers, Robert M
Among 224 African American adolescents (mean age=14), the associations between interracial and intraracial contact and school-level diversity on changes in racial identity over a 3-year period were examined. Youths were determined to be diffused, foreclosed, moratorium, or achieved, and change or stability in identity status was examined. Contact with Black students, Black friends, and White friends predicted change in identity status. Furthermore, in racially diverse schools, having more Black friends was associated with identity stability. Students reporting low contact with Black students in racially diverse schools were more likely to report identity change if they had few Black friends. In students reporting high contact with Blacks in predominantly White schools, their identity was less likely to change for students with fewer White friends.
Waters, Sharon Campbell
A variety of previous studies have suggested that inaccurate, stereotypical or missing media depictions of science, engineering, and technology (SET) workers and fields have contributed to a growing shortage of youth interested in pursuing careers within the scientific endeavor. However, studies on the perceptions of African American youth have not usually been the focus of such research. In this exploratory study, in-depth interviews were conducted with 34 fifth grade African American students to determine the relative influence television and film portrayals of SET workers had on these children's perceptions of roles in SET fields and careers and school coursework related to them. Framed within the theoretical perspectives of cultivation analysis and the construction of social reality, results indicated the majority of participants perceived scientists as ambiguous, possessing either mythic characteristics of the fantastic persona or they saw them as altruistically inclined figures that saved the world from disease, destruction, and decay. Television and film portrayals of SET workers were found in varying degrees and ways to shape these African American children's perceptions toward SET careers. While children exhibited self-concepts about SET workers that were sometimes idealistic, distorted, or unrealistic, most had favorable perceptions toward math and science courses in school. However, it was the absence of television and film portrayals of African Americans in SET roles that was problematic for the majority of students. Recommendations for media producers, educators, scientific research foundations, and parents were suggested to dispel some of these commonly found media stereotypes of SET workers and African Americans in these roles and their effects.
Reboussin, Beth A.; Ialongo, Nicholas S.; Green, Kerry M.
Background: The aim of this study was to examine how patterns of academic and behavior problems in first grade relate to longitudinal transitions in marijuana use from middle school through entry into high school among African Americans. Methods: Latent class and latent transition analyses were conducted on a community sample of 458 low-income, urban-dwelling African-Americans. Results: Two behavior problem classes emerged at school entry; externalizing and attention/concentration. Academic problems co-occurred with both problem behavior classes although more strongly with attention/concentration. Youth in the attention/ concentration problem class were more likely to transition from no marijuana involvement to use and problems beginning in 7th grade and to use and problems given the opportunity to use marijuana early in high school compared to youth with no problems. Youth in the externalizing behavior problem class were significantly more likely to transition from no involvement to having a marijuana opportunity during the transition to high school compared to youth in the attention/concentration problems class. Conclusions: These findings highlight the importance of developing prevention programs and providing school services that address the co-occurrence of academic and behavior problems, as well as their subtype specific risks for marijuana involvement, particularly for low-income minority youth who may be entering school less ready than their non-minority peers. These findings also provide evidence for a need to continue to deliver interventions in middle and high school focused on factors that may protect youth during these critical transition periods when they may be especially vulnerable to opportunities to use marijuana based on their academic and behavioral risk profile. PMID:25305658
Vermont Department of Education, 2008
This is the seventh annual report required by Act 150. It provides information on how schools have implemented the law and the extent to which students have participated, focusing chiefly on the current school year. In January 2005, the department provided qualitative findings from a study done by UVM researchers and offered additional findings…
Radunzel, Justine; Noble, Julie
This study examined the relationships between multiple measures of college readiness and success in college. Outcomes included enrollment in college immediately after high school, retention in college, and degree completion. College readiness indicators at time of high school graduation included ACT[R] scores and Benchmark attainment, high school…
Cote, Craig Gerald
The Ralph M. Brown Act's enforcement language implies striking a proper balance between school public officials and the public at large. This study of The Brown Act's enforcement provisions is presented in the context of school districts. The investigation focused on the following overarching question: Does a policy analysis support a finding that…
Bowe, Marilyn Louise Simmons
The literature includes few studies of the interrelations of achievement goals and achievement emotions with respect to minority students and science achievement. The objective of this study was to test the control-value theory (CVT) of achievement emotions to determine if the eight discrete achievement emotions would be predictive of test scores on the High School Graduation Test (GHSGT)-Science for African-American compared to European-American science students. Convenience cluster sampling was employed to select 160 students who were all juniors in the same public high school at the time that they took the GHSGT-Science. The central research question for this study aimed to uncover whether any of the eight achievement emotions identified in CVT would contribute significantly to the predictability of science achievement as measured by GHSGT-Science scores. Data were collected using a nonexperimental, cross sectional design survey. Data were analyzed using a hierarchal, forced entry, multiple regression analysis. Key results indicated that the eight achievement emotions were predictive of GHSGT-Science score outcomes. Positive social change at the individual level could reflect a boost in confidence for African American science students and help decrease the achievement gap in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) endeavors between European Americans and African-American students. Educators may consider the importance of achievement emotions in science outcomes by including social emotional learning (SEL) as a part of the regular science curriculum. Future researchers should repeat the study in a school district where the population is available to support the desired cluster sample of equal parts European Americans to African Americans and male to female students.
Terry, Troy M.
Recent news in the national media about two students' deaths as a result of harassment in school has highlighted a renewed desire for educators to address the culture of bullying and harassment in public schools, especially when the victims are targeted for their real or perceived differences. South Carolina's legislature responded to this need in…
Gebert, Krista M.; Calkin, David E.; Schuster, Ervin G.
State budget crises, along with voter-passed initiatives limiting property tax levies, have severely reduced school financing in many states in recent years. Rural schools may be particularly vulnerable in that they are typically less able to generate revenue because funding often is tied to enrollment, rural districts tend to have lower property…
This article explores governors' perceptions of the role played by school principals in the democratic governance of secondary schools in South Africa. The South African Schools Act No. 84 of 1996 has mandated that all public schools in South Africa must have democratically elected school governing bodies, comprised of the principal (in his or her…
Cameron, Mark; Taggar, Carolyn E.
This qualitative study examined perceptions of the causes and nature of conflicts and violence among African-American girls in an urban high school. In-depth, iterative interviewing was used to explore the perceptions of these girls, male students, teachers, and other school personnel. Ethnographic observation was also used. Conflicts and violence…
Davis, Pamela; Davis, Michael P.; Mobley, Jerry A.
This study describes the collaboration among a school counselor, a school counselor intern, an Advanced Placement Psychology teacher, and a counselor educator to improve African-American access to Advanced Placement (AP) coursework and increase success on the AP Psychology national examination. The team initiated a process that recruited African…
Irvin, Matthew J.; Byun, Soo-yong; Meece, Judith L.; Reed, Karla S.; Farmer, Thomas W.
The primary purpose of this study was to examine differences in the school characteristics and experiences of African American, Hispanic/Latino, and Native American youth in rural high schools as well as their relation to educational aspirations. We also investigated the characteristics and experiences of students and their families given that…
Goodwin, Rosalyn Harper
This study investigated the perspectives of four students and 6 parent participants of the Voluntary Student Transfer program, an inter-district desegregation program that involves transporting African American students from urban area schools to surrounding county schools. Due to limited and dated research related to the Voluntary Student…
Referring students for mental health care is a core job function for school counselors, and one that is often stressful for all parties involved. In this phenomenological study, six low-income African-American caregivers were interviewed about their experiences of having a son or grandson referred for mental health care by the school counselor.…
The preponderance of the research on African American students has generally focused on issues of school failure and underperformance. While the literature on high achieving Black students is sparse, very little is known about these students' school experiences and the meanings that they assign to achievement. Using student-based inquiry…
Herring, Melvin H.
This study explores the relationship between negative school climate factors (i.e., teacher neglect, peer rejection, discrimination) and academic outcomes amongst a sample of adolescent African American males. Specifically, this study directly examines a) the influence of negative school climate perceptions on the students' academic…
Siegel, Galia D.
A case study of the practices of a white teacher working in an urban elementary school with a large majority of African American students shows the problems caused by detached and unreflective teaching practice. The study emerges from a joint ethnographic research and classroom-based educational project at the school. The teacher worked with…
Ginsburg, Carren; Richter, Linda M.; Fleisch, Brahm; Norris, Shane A.
Using data from Birth to Twenty, a cohort of South African urban children, the current paper investigates the relationships between residential and school mobility and a set of educational outcomes. The findings provide some evidence of a positive association between changes in residence and numeracy and literacy scores, and school mobility was…
James, Carmela N.
The purpose of this study was to examine the attrition rate of the African American high school student enrolled in advanced academics by looking at the effects of specific quantifiable variables on state-trait anxiety scores. More specifically, this study was concerned with the influence of demographic and school related factors on the…
Jackson, Darrell D.
Despite the vast research on African Americans and affirmative action, little qualitative analysis has been done to investigate how race exists and functions in American law schools. This dissertation researches the ways in which race is constructed, deconstructed, and reconstructed within two American law schools. Three primary lenses guide this…
Maryland State Department of Education, 2008
The Safe Schools Reporting Act of 2005 requires that county boards of education and the Baltimore City Board of School Commissioners report incidents of harassment or intimidation against students in public schools under the county board's and commission's jurisdiction. The reporting period for the third report encompasses the 2006-2007 school…
Ingle, W. Kyle; Bowers, Alex J.; Davis, Thomas E.
The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (ARRA) allocated $11 billion per year for 2009 and 2010 for qualified school construction bonds (QSCBs) for America's schools. From a historical perspective, this program is a broad transformation of the federal role in school facility funding. This study examined factors associated with federal…
Prokop, Jessica L.; Galon, Patricia
Implementation of the Healthy Hunger-Free Kids Act of 2010 will provide an opportunity for school nurses to intervene in the serious childhood obesity problem in the United States. Major changes in the management of the National School Lunch Program (NSLP) will likely challenge schools yet may provide the impetus for a collaborative effort by the…
Rhodes, Randall G.
Because of a perceived increase in school related violence, a political reaction occurred in Missouri that led in 1997 to the Missouri Safe Schools Act. This new law significantly changed school disciplinary policy and allowed administrators to move large groups of students to alternative education programs, or expel them to the streets. The…
Shannon, Thomas A.
The part of the Civil Rights Act of primary concern to public school administrators is Section 1983, which permits litigation against school personnel as representatives of public school districts, which are local governmental units according to the law. A review of court cases allows generalizations including the following. Section 1983 is a…
Gray-Adams, Karen; Sinclair, Beth
The "Gun-Free Schools Act of 1994" ("GFSA") was reauthorized by Section 4141 of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965 (ESEA) as amended by the "No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act of 2001" (Public Law 107-110). "GFSA" requires that each state or outlying area receiving federal funds under the ESEA have a law that requires all local…
Background The association between childhood school desegregation and later life sense of control and physical performance among African Americans is not clear. We hypothesized that childhood school desegregation adversely affected the sense of control of in later life, and that this reduced sense of control accounts in part for reduced physical performance. Methods In-home follow-up assessments were completed in 2010 with 582 of the 58–74 year old men and women participating in the on-going African American Health cohort. We used these data to examine the relationship between (a) retrospective self-reports of attending segregated schools during one’s 1st-to-12th grade education and one’s current sense of control, as well as (b) the association between current sense of control and physical performance. Multiple linear regression analysis with propensity score re-weighting was used. Results Attending segregated schools for at least half of one’s 1st-to-12th grade education was significantly associated with higher scores on the sense of control. Adjusting for all covariates and potential confounders, those receiving half or more of their 1st-to-12th grade education in segregated schools had sense of control scores that were .886 points higher (p ≤ .01; standardized effect size = .22). Sense of control scores were independently (all p < .01) associated with better systolic blood pressure, grip strength, peak expiratory flow, chair stands, balance tests, and the Short Portable Physical Battery even after adjusting for all covariates and potential confounders. Moreover, sense of control scores either partially or fully mediated the statistically significant beneficial associations between childhood school segregation and physical performance. Conclusions Childhood school desegregation was adversely associated with the sense of control of African Americans in later life, and this reduced sense of control appears, in part, to account for their
Lumadi, Mutendwahothe Walter
African teachers in general and South Africans in particular face tremendous challenges, several of which are curriculum related. These challenges manifest themselves at various levels and in various areas, that is, from national level to within the classroom. There are various role players who may make a contribution towards overcoming these…
Polite, Vernon C., Ed.; Davis, James Earl, Ed.
This collection provides many insights into the condition of African American males, emphasizing educational attainment and achievement, and offers methodologies for documenting how the social and educational worlds of African American males intersect. The essays are: (1) "Teaching Black Males: Lessons from the Experts" (Michele Foster and…
Smothers, Aneil Chrisfor
The focus of this research is in the area of African American male superintendents and their leadership in diverse settings. The research approach adopted in this dissertation used semi-structured interviews with five African American male superintendents that consisted of three main issues: (1) personal; (2) leadership quality/effectiveness and…
Spencer, Natalie F.; Dowden, Angel Riddick
Gifted African American students are underrepresented and underserved in gifted education. The current article provides an overview of proper identification, racial identity development implications, psycho-social concerns and the importance of family involvement in the development of gifted African American students. A case study is presented to…
Sudduth, Charletta D.
Parent involvement may have implications for student achievement (Epstein, 1986; Hoover-Dempsey, Bassler, & Brisse, 1987; Lopez, Scribner, & Mahitivanichcha, 2001). Today African-American parents are frequently criticized for not being involved enough in their students' education (Dearing, Kreider, Simpkins, & Weiss, 2006). African-American parent…
Morgan, Adrienne L.
The history of African Americans seeking medical education in the United States is rooted in a legacy of racial segregation, cultural constructs, and legal doctrine that differs from other ethnic and racial groups. The disturbing results of this legacy are that while African Americans account for 12.9% of the U.S. population, they only account for…
Smith, Charisse F.
Statistically, African-Americans, women, and the disabled are underrepresented in the fields of Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math (STEM). Historically, these underrepresented students, are described as being unrecognized and underdeveloped in the American STEM circuit. Many experience deficient and inadequate educational resources, are not encouraged to pursue STEM education and careers, and are confronted with copious obstructions. In this quantitative study, the researcher collected pretest and posttest survey data from a group of 4th, 5th, and 6th-grade African-American students in Title I funded schools. The reseacher used quantitative analysis to determine any significant differences in the science related attitudes between and within groups who participated in Out of School-Time Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics programs and those who did not. Results revealed no significant differences in the science related attitudes between the groups of the students who participated in the Out of School Time-Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics programs and those who did not. Results also revealed no significant differences in the science related attitudes within the groups of students who participated in the Out of School Time-Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics programs and those who did not.
Hamlet, Conrad E.
There has been no shortage of calls to improve teaching. Even the federal law, the No Child Left Behind Act, has mandated high quality teaching in the nation's public schools. But the question still remains "What makes an effective teacher, particularly of African-American males in an urban environment?" African-American males in…
This final rule requires all local educational agencies that participate in the National School Lunch and School Breakfast Programs to meet expanded local school wellness policy requirements consistent with the requirements set forth in section 204 of the Healthy, Hunger-Free Kids Act of 2010. The final rule requires each local educational agency to establish minimum content requirements for the local school wellness policies, ensure stakeholder participation in the development and updates of such policies, and periodically assess and disclose to the public schools' compliance with the local school wellness policies. These regulations are expected to result in local school wellness policies that strengthen the ability of a local educational agency to create a school nutrition environment that promotes students' health, well-being, and ability to learn. In addition, these regulations will increase transparency for the public with regard to school wellness policies and contribute to integrity in the school nutrition program.
This final rule requires all local educational agencies that participate in the National School Lunch and School Breakfast Programs to meet expanded local school wellness policy requirements consistent with the requirements set forth in section 204 of the Healthy, Hunger-Free Kids Act of 2010. The final rule requires each local educational agency to establish minimum content requirements for the local school wellness policies, ensure stakeholder participation in the development and updates of such policies, and periodically assess and disclose to the public schools' compliance with the local school wellness policies. These regulations are expected to result in local school wellness policies that strengthen the ability of a local educational agency to create a school nutrition environment that promotes students' health, well-being, and ability to learn. In addition, these regulations will increase transparency for the public with regard to school wellness policies and contribute to integrity in the school nutrition program. PMID:27476196
... October 31, 2003, the USTR designated the DRC as a beneficiary sub-Saharan African country (68 FR 62158... the two hundred and thirty-fifth. (Presidential Sig.) Billing code 3195-W1-P ] TD27DE10.002 [FR Doc... rate reduction of any duty set forth in Schedule XX-United States of America, annexed to the...
African American Girls' Perceptions of Their Adjustment from Coeducational Elementary Schools to a Single-Gender Middle School, and How They Believe Educators Can Best Support This Transition: A Case Study
Presley, Christal L.
his qualitative and quantitative study investigated student perceptions of seventh-grade African American females who transitioned from a coeducational elementary school to a single-gender middle school. This study was conducted by surveying students, having them answer writing prompts, and interviewing them. Data furnished by the respondents was…
Bell, Edward Earl
The purpose of this study was to assess the socialization skills, self-esteem, and academic readiness of African American males in a school environment. Discussions with students and the School Perceptions Questionnaire provided data for this investigation. The intended targets for this investigation were African American students; however, there…
Objective. Cross-sectional associations between childhood school segregation and adult sense of control and physical performance have been established in the African American Health (AAH) cohort. Here we extend that work by estimating the association between childhood school segregation and 2-year changes in adult sense of control. Method. Complete data on 541 older AAH men and women were used to estimate the association between childhood school segregation and changes in the sense of control. Exposure to segregation was self-reported in 2004, and the sense of control was measured in 2008 and 2010 using Blom rank transformations of Mirowsky and Ross’ 8-item scale. Declining subjective income and experiencing major life stressors between 2008 and 2010, as well as traditional covariates (demographic factors, socioeconomic status, self-rated health, racial attitudes and beliefs, and religiosity) were included for statistical adjustment. Multiple linear regression analysis with propensity score reweighting was used. Results. Receiving the majority of one’s primary and secondary education in segregated schools had a significant net positive association (d = 0.179; p = .029) with 2-year changes in adult sense of control. Conclusion. AAH participants receiving the majority of their primary and secondary educations in segregated schools appeared to have been protected, in part, from age-related declines in the sense of control. PMID:24056692
Chavous, Tabbye M; Rivas-Drake, Deborah; Smalls, Ciara; Griffin, Tiffany; Cogburn, Courtney
The authors examined relationships among racial identity, school-based racial discrimination experiences, and academic engagement outcomes for adolescent boys and girls in Grades 8 and 11 (n = 204 boys and n = 206 girls). The authors found gender differences in peer and classroom discrimination and in the impact of earlier and later discrimination experiences on academic outcomes. Racial centrality related positively to school performance and school importance attitudes for boys. Also, centrality moderated the relationship between discrimination and academic outcomes in ways that differed across gender. For boys, higher racial centrality related to diminished risk for lower school importance attitudes and grades from experiencing classroom discrimination relative to boys lower in centrality, and girls with higher centrality were protected against the negative impact of peer discrimination on school importance and academic self-concept. However, among lower race-central girls, peer discrimination related positively to academic self-concept. Finally, socioeconomic background moderated the relationship of discrimination with academic outcomes differently for girls and boys. The authors discuss the need to consider interactions of individual- and contextual-level factors in better understanding African American youths' academic and social development.
Edwards, Leslie D.
How do teenage girls develop an interest in science? What kinds of opportunities can science teachers present to female students that support their engagement with learning science? I studied one aspect of this issue by focusing on ways students could use science to enhance or gain identities that they (probably) already valued. To do that I created technology-rich activities and experiences for an after school class in science and technology for middle school girls who lived in a low socio-economic urban neighborhood. These activities and experiences were designed to create a virtual community of practice whose members used science in diverse ways. Student interest was made evident in their responses to the activities. Four conclusions emerged. (1) Opportunities to learn about the lives and work of admired African American business women interested students in learning by linking it to their middle-class aspirations and their interest in things that money and status can buy. (2) Opportunities to learn about the lives and work of African American women experts in science in a classroom context where students then practiced similar kinds of actual scientific tasks engaged students in relations of legitimate peripheral participation in a virtual and diverse community of practice focused on science which was created in the after-school classes. (3) Opportunities where students used science to show off for family, friends, and supporters of the after-school program, identities they valued, interested them enough that they engaged in long-term science and technology projects that required lots of revisions. (4) In response to the opportunities presented, new and enhanced identities developed around becoming a better student or becoming some kind of scientist.
Ownby, Dennis R.; Tingen, Martha S.; Havstad, Suzanne; Waller, Jennifer L.; Johnson, Christine C.; Joseph, Christine C. L. M.
Background The high prevalence of asthma among urban African American (AA) populations has attracted research attention while the prevalence among rural AA populations is poorly documented. Objective To compare the prevalence of asthma among AA youth in rural Georgia and urban Detroit, Michigan. Methods The prevalence of asthma was compared in population-based samples of 7297 youth attending Detroit public high schools and in 2523 youth attending public high schools in rural Georgia. Current asthma was defined as a physician diagnosis and symptoms in the previous 12 months. Undiagnosed asthma was defined as multiple respiratory symptoms in the previous 12 months without a physician diagnosis. Results In Detroit, 6994 (95.8%) youth were AA compared to 1514 (60.0%) in GA. Average population density in high school ZIP codes was 5628 people/mi2 in Detroit and 45.1 people/mi2 in GA. The percent of poverty and of students qualifying for free or reduced lunches were similar in both areas. The prevalence of current diagnosed asthma among AA youth in Detroit and GA were similar: 15.0% (95% CI 14.1–15.8), and 13.7% (CI 12.0–17.1) (p=.22), respectively. Undiagnosed asthma prevalence in AA youth was 8.0% in Detroit and 7.5% in GA (p=.56). Asthma symptoms were reported more frequently among those with diagnosed asthma in Detroit while those with undiagnosed asthma in Georgia reported more symptoms. Conclusions Among AA youth living in similar socioeconomic circumstances, asthma prevalence is as high in rural Georgia as it is in urban Detroit suggesting that urban residence is not an asthma risk factor. Clinical Implications Asthma prevalence was as common among African American high school students in rural Georgia as among students in urban Detroit, Michigan. Asthma is more likely related to poverty than urban residence. PMID:25825215
Mills, Monique T.; Watkins, Ruth V.; Washington, Julie A.
Purpose To report preliminary comparisons of developing structural characteristics associated with fictional and personal narratives in school-age African American children. Method Forty-three children, grades two through five, generated a fictional and a personal narrative in response to a wordless-book elicitation task and a story-prompt task, respectively. Narratives produced in these two contexts were characterized for macrostructure, microstructure, and dialect density. Differences across narrative type and grade level were examined. Results Statistically significant differences between the two types of narratives were found for both macrostructure and microstructure but not for dialect density. There were no grade-related differences in macrostructure, microstructure, or dialect density. Conclusion The results demonstrate the complementary role of fictional and personal narratives for describing young children's narrative skills. Use of both types of narrative tasks and descriptions of both macrostructure and macrostructure may be particularly useful for characterizing the narrative abilities of young school-age African American children, for whom culture-fair methods are scarce. Further study of additional dialect groups is warranted. PMID:23633645
Walensky, Rochelle P.; Jacobsen, Margo M.; Bekker, Linda-Gail; Parker, Robert A.; Wood, Robin; Resch, Stephen C.; Horstman, N. Kaye; Freedberg, Kenneth A.; Paltiel, A. David
Background. For young South African women at risk for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is one of the few effective prevention options available. Long-acting injectable PrEP, which is in development, may be associated with greater adherence, compared with that for existing standard oral PrEP formulations, but its likely clinical benefits and additional costs are unknown. Methods. Using a computer simulation, we compared the following 3 PrEP strategies: no PrEP, standard PrEP (effectiveness, 62%; cost per patient, $150/year), and long-acting PrEP (effectiveness, 75%; cost per patient, $220/year) in South African women at high risk for HIV infection (incidence of HIV infection, 5%/year). We examined the sensitivity of the strategies to changes in key input parameters among several outcome measures, including deaths averted and program cost over a 5-year period; lifetime HIV infection risk, survival rate, and program cost and cost-effectiveness; and budget impact. Results. Compared with no PrEP, standard PrEP and long-acting PrEP cost $580 and $870 more per woman, respectively, and averted 15 and 16 deaths per 1000 women at high risk for infection, respectively, over 5 years. Measured on a lifetime basis, both standard PrEP and long-acting PrEP were cost saving, compared with no PrEP. Compared with standard PrEP, long-acting PrEP was very cost-effective ($150/life-year saved) except under the most pessimistic assumptions. Over 5 years, long-acting PrEP cost $1.6 billion when provided to 50% of eligible women. Conclusions. Currently available standard PrEP is a cost-saving intervention whose delivery should be expanded and optimized. Long-acting PrEP will likely be a very cost-effective improvement over standard PrEP but may require novel financing mechanisms that bring short-term fiscal planning efforts into closer alignment with longer-term societal objectives. PMID:26681778
Journal of Blacks in Higher Education, 2002
Surveyed the 25 highest-ranked U.S. business schools regarding the status of black students and faculty. Results found that blacks continued to show very slow progress in business school enrollments and in securing faculty positions at these schools. Some schools had no black faculty members, and 14 of the 25 had no tenured black faculty members.…
Office of Education (DHEW), Washington, DC.
FOLLOWING THE FORMAT OF TITLE VI OF THE CIVIL RIGHTS ACT OF 1964, THIS STATEMENT OUTLINES POLICIES FOR SCHOOL DESEGREGATION FOR THE 1967-68 SCHOOL YEAR. THE POLICIES ARE PRESENTED UNDER THE RUBRICS OF (1) APPLICABILITY, (2) BASIC REQUIREMENTS FOR ALL VOLUNTARY DESEGREGATION PLANS, (3) REQUIREMENTS FOR PLANS BASED ON GEOGRAPHIC ATTENDANCE ZONES,…
Buffington, Anne; McKee, Colleen; Ragsdale, Kathleen; Blanchard, Troy C.; Baggett, Dorris; Southward, Linda H.
Background: Annual evaluations of the Mississippi Healthy Students Act of 2007 (MHSA) were conducted during 2009-2011 (years 1-3) among 4 stakeholder groups: (1) parents of public school students, (2) adolescents, (3) state-level policymakers (ie, legislators and other state officials), and (4) public school officials (ie, superintendents and…
Barrett, Ben F.
This paper summarizes the main provisions of Kansas' School District Finance and Quality Performance Act (SDFQP). The paper discusses state financial aid and how this is affected by decreasing enrollment, program weight, low-enrollment weight, correlation weight, transportation weight, at-risk pupil weight, school-facilities weight, and ancillary…
Education officials and journalists frequently track changes over time in the average ACT® College Readiness Assessment Composite scores and ACT College Readiness Benchmark attainment rates of individual high schools. Using standard statistical methods, I examined how often changes in these statistics are unambiguously positive or negative, rather…
McMurrer, Jennifer; McIntosh, Shelby
The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (ARRA), also known as the stimulus package, appropriated $100 billion for education and included $3 billion for school improvement grants (SIGs) to help reform low-performing schools. This amount was in addition to the $546 million provided by the regular fiscal year 2009 appropriations bill for…
The New Jersey legislature passed the Public School Education Act of 1975 in response to a 1973 state supreme court decision that New Jersey's school finance system was unconstitutional. That decision was based on the court's conclusion that the New Jersey Constitution commands the state to provide an equal educational opportunity to all children…
Rossow, Lawrence F.
Conflicting opinions between two circuit court decisions set the stage for another consideration of school officials' discretion in deciding whether the Equal Access Act would apply to their schools based on the presence or absence of a limited open forum. (MLF)
Rossow, Lawrence F.; Rice, Mark G.
In "Mergens," the Supreme Court ruled that the Equal Access Act (EAA) was constitutional and that students at a high school with a "limited open forum" could participate in a prayer club. Traces the history of the case, arguments by the justices, and practical implications of the case for school districts. (66 references) (MLF)
Lacefield, Kevin Lee
This dissertation analyzed public court decisions in cases against Oklahoma school districts and their employees involving sovereign immunity claims filed under Oklahoma's Governmental Tort Claims Act. The questions addressed were: (1) How have the Oklahoma courts interpreted the Governmental Tort Claims Act, (Okla. Stat. tit. 51 Section 151 et…
Woolman, S.; Fleisch, B.
Critics of school governing bodies (SGBs)--both on the left and on the right--tend to rely upon arguments that ignore significant portions of the act that created SGBs--the South African Schools Act (SASA)--the exact nature of the changes to SGBs wrought by amendments to the act and the manner in which the courts, in interpreting the act, have…
Nilsson, Stefan; Johnson, Ensa; Adolfsson, Margareta
Pain is common in children with cerebral palsy (CP) and may have negative consequences for children's success in their studies. Research has shown that pain in childhood negatively influences individuals' participation and quality of life in later years. This study investigated how professionals in South African school settings respond to children's need for pain management in an attempt to enable the children to be active participants in school activities, despite their pain. The study was descriptive and followed a qualitative design (i.e., focus group interviews with semistructured questions and a conventional content analysis). Five government schools for children with special education needs in South Africa's Gauteng province participated. Participants/Subjects: Thirty-eight professionals who represented eight professions. Professional statements on the topic were collected from five focus group sessions conducted during one week. Qualitative content analysis of the data was performed. Similar statements were combined, coded, and sorted into main categories and subcategories. The analysis identified three main categories for pain management: environmental, treatment, and support strategies. In addition, four groups of statements emerged on how contextual factors might affect pain in children with CP and their participation in school settings. It is important to train professionals in pain management and to implement structured models for pain prevention and management to ensure that best practices are adhered to for children with CP who suffer from acute or chronic pain. PMID:27349380
Gordon Pershey, Monica
This study measured self-perceptions of school competence among 263 4th- and 6th-grade African American students who attended an academically challenged school district. Self-perceptions of school competence are defined as self-perceptions of ability, confidence, and school satisfaction. Results indicated that 4th-grade students had lesser…
South Africa's Unintended Experiment in School Choice: How the National Education Policy Act, the South Africa Schools Act and the Employment of Educators Act Create the Enabling Conditions for Quasi-Markets in Schools
Woolman, Stuart; Fleisch, Brahm
School choice is often identified with right-leaning, voucher-happy, market-oriented public school systems like those found in the United States. Thus, the proposition that a social democratic state such as South Africa will offer many primary and secondary school learners far greater choice strikes many as counter-intuitive and implausible. The…
McKennie, Sharrell M.
African American children continue to lag behind their European American counterparts academically. There is little research on the perspective of teachers in nontraditional classroom settings and their experiences with students and reading literacy. In order to secure support for literacy programs or strengthen existing programs, there is a need…
The Wellesley Centers for Women recently began a collaboration with one of the major stakeholders in that needs assessment, the Women for Women Coalition, to develop and pilot an ongoing family intervention in New Hampshire. The resulting collaborative project, Africans United for Stronger Families, includes a support group for parents and an…
Murphy, Jean C.
This is an interpretive study of the influence of Black Hegemony on the academic success of three successful African Americans: Clifton L. Taulbert, Henry Louis Gates, Jr., and Margaret Morgan Lawrence. All three spent their youth in southern communities strongly influenced by Jim Crow laws and customs, and their academic accomplishments were…
There are still many South African teachers who are challenged by the implementation of the relatively new system of education. They have to explore a variety of strategies as they try to transform their pedagogy to enhance learning in their classrooms. This post-apartheid system also challenges educators to be transformative individuals who…
Humphries, Marisha L.; Strickland, Jennifer; Keenan, Kate
Children learn social and emotional competence through socialization. Research has focused on the role of parents, however teachers also play an important part. This study examined the social and emotional competence of preschool African American children and the role teachers and mothers played in supporting these competencies. Teachers who…
Negga, Feven; Applewhite, Sheldon; Livingston, Ivor
College students are a very vulnerable group to experience stress, the latter of which is related to a variety of outcomes, such as health and academic performance. However, there is a dearth of research examining African American college students and stress. Further, fewer studies have compared stress for students attending predominately white…
Bostic, Shenice S.
Parents have been identified as being the most influential factor upon their children career development. There are various factors that influence the career development of individuals from different ethnic backgrounds. The purpose of the study was to identify parental factors that influence the career development of college-bound African American…
Curry, Jennifer R.
The historical tendency for educational institutions to symptomize behavior of African American children as dysfunctional or representative of mental disorder is well documented. However, recent scholarship illuminates the connection between oppression social injustice, racial trauma, and racial microaggressions as the core of stress, depression,…
Hambacher, Elyse; Acosta, Melanie M.; Bondy, Elizabeth; Ross, Dorene D.
The literature related to warm demanding describes teachers who balance care and authority to create a learning environment that supports a culture of achievement for African American students. Embedded in this stance is sociopolitical consciousness that explicitly links teachers' care and authority with a larger social justice agenda. Drawing on…
Givens, Jarvis Ray
Education has been a technology used to sustain black abjection across the African Diaspora. Employing Mills' Racial Contract and Althusser's theory of the Ideological State Apparatuses (ISA) through a racial lens, this article will discuss how white supremacist education has been used to promote the misrecognition of black subjects as sub-human.…
Milhausen, Robin R.; Crosby, Richard; Yarber, William L.; DiClemente, Ralph J.; Wingood, Gina M.; Ding, Kele
Objective: To determine differences between African American adolescents on STD/HIV sexual-risk behaviors and precursors to these risk behaviors. Methods: Six hundred sixty-three rural and 3313 nonrural adolescents who completed the 1999 YRBS Survey were selected. Results: Rural females and males were more likely to report ever having coitus and…
Clayton, Otis, Jr.
This causal-comparative research explored how African American students' perceptions of their math teachers affected their academic performance on the Math Tennessee Comprehensive Assessment Program (TCAP) Test during 2009-2010 academic year. When considering possible measures of teacher effectiveness in K-12 education, it can be argued that…
Bauermeister, Jose A.; Zimmerman, Marc A.; Barnett, Tracey E.; Caldwell, Cleopatra Howard
Researchers have found mixed support for documenting whether work is protective or harmful during adolescence. This study examined the association between work and problem behaviors among African American youth (N = 592; 53% female; M = 14.8 years, SD = 0.60) followed from mid-adolescence to young adulthood over eight Waves (90% response rate over…
In the last few years, there has been a growing problem with the prevalence of being overweight. This is becoming an accepted lifestyle in the African American community, and has begun to impact not just adults, but also adolescents and young children. There are problems associated with being overweight or obese that could have lifetime…
Motala, Rashid; Govender, Sumeshni; Nzima, Dumisani
Since the inception of inclusive education (IE) much energy has focused on educators and learners. This study addresses a gap in literature by analysing an important component of the transformation process in the South African educational landscape--Department of Education (DoE) district-based officials. This descriptive research project conducted…
Murphy examines the influence of four African American families' beliefs, values, and interactions on their children's academic achievement. Parents' high expectations and focus on educational attainment, religious and spiritual values, and kinship bonds, as well as active oversight of homework and encouragement of critical thinking, establish the…
Varelas, Maria; Kane, Justine M.; Wylie, Caitlin Donahue
We focused on young, low-income, African American children in first- to third-grade classrooms where they experienced varied forms of interactive, participatory, and dialogic pedagogy in the context of yearlong, integrated science-literacy instruction. Using conversations that started around children's own science journals, which were an important…
Hedden, Sarra L.; Whitaker, Damiya E.; von Thomsen, Sarah; Severtson, S. Geoffrey; Latimer, William W.
Students who engage in high-risk behaviors, including early initiation of sexual intercourse, alcohol use, marijuana use, tobacco use, and externalizing behavior are vulnerable to a broad range of adverse outcomes as adults. Latent class analysis was used to determine whether varying patterns of risk behavior existed for 212 urban African-American…
Holloway, Yolanda Boyd
Racial integration and its outcomes have been critiqued for nearly 60 years. While the impact on teachers was vast, data on the impact on teachers outside of the American South is limited. The purpose of this study was to explore the perspectives of 6 African American teachers who described experiences of racial integration and its progress in a…
Seaton, Angela T.
This study assessed the effects of a modified version of Check & Connect, a comprehensive student engagement intervention, on the attendance, behavior, and academic performance of secondary African American females with violent and aggressive behavior problems. In addition, the Student Engagement Instrument (SEI) was used to assess cognitive…
Obeng, Cecilia S.
Purpose: The paper examines African immigrant parents' views on dental decay and whether such views affect their decision to obtain dental insurance for their children. The paper also examines the cultural underpinnings of the immigrants' oral health care practices. Design/methodology/approach: The data for the study were collected in the states…
Hudson, Wayne V.
The purpose of this theoretical study was to explore, examine, and analyze the United States (US) Zero Tolerance (ZT) educational policies and practices of the school-to-prison pipeline phenomenon. This study specifically explored the influence of the ZT policy on African American males becoming part of that system. The study was guided by three…
Schroeter, Sara; James, Carl E.
This article discusses the educational experiences of a group of French-speaking Black African-born students who entered Canada as refugees. They were attending a French school and were placed in a separate programme that was designed to meet their particular needs given their limited language skills and level of education. Drawing on critical…
Lemberger, Matthew E.; Clemens, Elysia V.
The authors evaluated a small-group counseling intervention, Student Success Skills, provided to 53 inner-city, 4th- and 5th-grade African American students. Compared with the control group, students who received the treatment reported significant changes in metacognitive skill and feelings of connectedness to school. Furthermore, treatment-group…
McCarthy, Patricia Bowens; Morote, Elsa-Sofia
This article reports the investigation of the extent to which US preschool federal funding (Head Start) and the preschool enrollment of African American males (aged three to five) affected the high school graduation rates of this population (aged 14 to 19). The authors found that a link exists between preschool enrollment and the high school…
Morris, Jerome E.
Examines how the unfolding events in one classroom lesson brought to the fore the extent to which schools and educators explicitly draw connections between the social and historical relationship of African Americans and foreign-born blacks. A personal accounting of journeys to Africa captures how the author arrived at using a sociopolitical lens…
This paper explores the salience of sport in the lives of eight-year-old and nine-year-old South African primary school boys. Drawing on ethnographic and interview data, I argue that young boys' developing relationship with sport is inscribed within particular gendered, raced and classed discourses in South Africa. Throughout the paper I show…
Carter, Norvella P.; Hawkins, Torrance N.; Natesan, Prathiba
Since its inception, the United States has struggled with its responsibility for educating African American students. Its history of denial and discrimination in the education of Black children has created a national crisis in which academic difficulty and school failure is disproportionately high. In an effort to improve the education of African…
Hamm, Jill V.; Bradford Brown, B.; Heck, Daniel J.
Based on the revised social contact theory, correlates of cross-ethnic friend nomination among 580 African American, 948 Asian-descent, 860 Latino, and 3986 White adolescents were examined. Socioeconomic and academic disparities between ethnic groups differentiated cross-ethnic friend nomination between schools for all groups but African…
Thomas, Oseela; Davidson, William; McAdoo, Harriette
The present study examines the effects of a culturally relevant school-based intervention in promoting cultural assets (i.e., ethnic identity, collectivist orientation, racism awareness, and liberatory youth activism) among a group of African American adolescent girls. The overall goal of the intervention was to promote cultural factors that can…
This paper draws on fieldwork done in Greystone School in South Africa, a single sex girls' school. I explore how the legacy of coloniser and colonised is reconfigured through the history of the school and the particular racialised politics of South Africa, where race and class have always been imbricated in differently nuanced ways before,…
The Morehouse School of Medicine in Atlanta, Georgia, is one of only four predominantly Black medical schools in the United States. Among its illustrious alumni are surgeons general of the United States, medical school presidents, and numerous other highly regarded medical professionals. This book tells the engrossing history of this venerable…
Carter, Prudence L.
What are the features of the school environment that make students' of color incorporation greater at some schools than at others? Prudence L. Carter seeks to answer this basic but bedeviling question through a rich comparative analysis of the organizational and group dynamics in eight schools located within four cities in the United States and…
Dean, Mark D.
An era of high stakes accountability has expanded the necessity for school districts to secure principals with leadership behaviors that encourage successful academic performance. School leaders are sought to deliver practices that guide and empower entire school communities through unprecedented times of educational change. Research studies…
Steyn, G. M.
The focus on schools as communities of learning for teachers has prompted professionals to investigate the role of professional learning within a school context. This is an attempt to investigate the voice of the principal regarding the implementation of teacher collaboration in his or her school, and to determine how teacher collaboration is…
Dingus, Jeannine E.
National narratives on the movement to desegregate Southern schools, as construed by dominant cultural forces, focus on school desegregation from the vantage point of dominant culture; portraying school desegregation as a singular and inevitable event emanating from jurisprudence and principles of democracy, with little attention to the…
Hall, Diane M.; Stevenson, Howard C.
The experience and responsibility of addressing diversity issues in independent schools is the focus of this article. Open-ended interviews were conducted with diversity coordinators in independent schools in a large urban area in the Northeast. Coordinators were asked about their roles within the schools and about their participation in a study…
Thompson, Gail L.
In this book, Gail Thompson asked the students in a low performing school to be candid about their high school experiences. Using this information and relying on data from questionnaires and focus groups, Thompson discovered a huge gap in perception between how teachers and students view their experience of school. The book explores this…
Whittington, David H.
This study included a literature review of juried research studies of student achievement factors that affect African American achievements tracked in the No Child Left Behind Legislative Act. Statistical correlation analyses were performed to determine if the absence or presence of one or two-parents in the household affected student achievement…
Gallard Martínez, Alejandro J.
This forum considers argumentation as a means of science teaching in South African schools, through the integration of indigenous knowledge (IK). It addresses issues raised in Mariana G. Hewson and Meshach B. Ogunniyi's paper entitled: Argumentation-teaching as a method to introduce indigenous knowledge into science classrooms: opportunities and challenges. As well as Peter Easton's: Hawks and baby chickens: cultivating the sources of indigenous science education; and, Femi S. Otulaja, Ann Cameron and Audrey Msimanga's: Rethinking argumentation-teaching strategies and indigenous knowledge in South African science classrooms. The first topic addressed is that implementation of argumentation in the science classroom becomes a complex endeavor when the tensions between students' IK, the educational infrastructure (allowance for teacher professional development, etc.) and local belief systems are made explicit. Secondly, western styles of debate become mitigating factors because they do not always adequately translate to South African culture. For example, in many instances it is more culturally acceptable in South Africa to build consensus than to be confrontational. Thirdly, the tension between what is "authentic science" and what is not becomes an influencing factor when a tension is created between IK and western science. Finally, I argue that the thrust of argumentation is to set students up as "scientist-students" who will be considered through a deficit model by judging their habitus and cultural capital. Explicitly, a "scientist-student" is a student who has "learned," modeled and thoroughly assimilated the habits of western scientists, evidently—and who will be judged by and held accountable for their demonstration of explicit related behaviors in the science classroom. I propose that science teaching, to include argumentation, should consist of "listening carefully" (radical listening) to students and valuing their language, culture, and learning as a model
The purpose of this study was to examine the relation between profiles of adolescents' reports of their mothers' racial socialization (e.g., racial pride and racial barrier messages) and feelings toward their mothers' parenting (e.g., providing a warm, positive climate; using child-centered strategies) and youth engagement. This research addresses the paucity of literature that examines the impact of mothers' parenting as a buffer to declines in school engagement for African American youth. Given that parenting is embedded in a specific cultural niche, this study examines the synergy between racial socialization and mother-child relationship quality. Engagement outcomes consisted of a participant's ability to persist on task in the face of obstacles (task persistence) and their interest and active participation in class (academic engagement). Latent profile analysis on the sample of 94 self-identified African American youth (ages 11-14) revealed three profiles of racial socialization and affective relationship quality. The profiles and their associations with adolescent engagement are discussed. The findings support the importance of examining racial messages in tandem with broad parenting.
Srivastava, Prachi; Noronha, Claire
We examine relative household costs and experiences of accessing private and government schooling under India's "Right of Children to Free and Compulsory Education Act, 2009" in the early implementation phase. The Act deems that no child should incur any fee, charges, or expenses in accessing schooling. Private schools are mandated to…
MURRAY, KANTAHYANEE W.; HAYNIE, DENISE L.; HOWARD, DONNA E.; CHENG, TINA L.; SIMONS-MORTON, BRUCE
This research examined the relation between early adolescent aggression and parenting practices in an urban, predominately African American sample. Sixth graders (N = 209) completed questionnaires about their overt and relational aggressive behaviors and perceptions of caregivers’ parenting practices. Findings indicated that moderate levels of parental expectations for peaceful solutions at Time 1 were associated with a lower likelihood of overt aggression at Time 2. Furthermore, findings suggest that when caregivers’ support and knowledge of adolescents’ whereabouts were relatively low or when caregivers’ exerted high psychological control, moderate levels of parental expectations for peaceful solutions protected early adolescents against engagement in both overt and relational aggression. The implications of the findings for schools and other youth violence prevention settings are discussed. PMID:26855618
Walubo, Andrew; Burch, Vanessa; Parmar, Paresh; Raidoo, Deshandra; Cassimjee, Mariam; Onia, Rudy; Ofei, Francis
Introduction of more effective and standardized assessment methods for testing students' performance in Africa's medical institutions has been hampered by severe financial and personnel shortages. Nevertheless, some African institutions have recognized the problem and are now revising their medical curricula, and, therefore, their assessment methods. These institutions, and those yet to come, need guidance on selecting assessment methods so as to adopt models that can be sustained locally. The authors provide a model for selecting assessment methods for testing medical students' performance in African medical institutions. The model systematically evaluates factors that influence implementation of an assessment method. Six commonly used methods (the essay examinations, short-answer questions, multiple-choice questions, patient-based clinical examination, problem-based oral examination [POE], and objective structured clinical examination) are evaluated by scoring and weighting against performance, cost, suitability, and safety factors. In the model, the highest score identifies the most appropriate method. Selection of an assessment method is illustrated using two institutional models, one depicting an ideal situation in which the objective structured clinical examination was preferred, and a second depicting the typical African scenario in which the essay and short-answer-question examinations were best. The POE method received the highest score and could be recommended as the most appropriate for Africa's medical institutions, but POE assessments require changing the medical curricula to a problem-based learning approach. The authors' model is easy to understand and promotes change in the medical curriculum and method of student assessment.
Carignan, Nicole; Pourdavood, Roland; King, Lonnie; Feza, Nosisi
The story of School X started in South Africa in 1875. At that time, the school was built for white children only. More than hundred years later, the 1994 elections demarcated the end of the apartheid era and the school enrolled black Xhosa-speaking children for the first time. As a result, in 2004, 90% of the students were black Xhosa-speaking.…