Science.gov

Sample records for african science classrooms

  1. Pre-Service Teachers' Reflections of South African Science Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singh, S. K.; Singh, R. J.

    2012-01-01

    The introduction of outcomes-based education in South Africa placed many challenges on the transformation of science classrooms. The 2009 National Education Evaluation and Development Unit (NEEDU) Report concluded that South African rural and township schools are largely dysfunctional. This article examined some of the reasons for the "collapse"…

  2. Pedagogical Translanguaging: Bridging Discourses in South African Science Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Probyn, Margie

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports on the classroom languaging practices of a group of science teachers in rural and township schools in South Africa where the majority of learners learn through the medium of English, despite the fact that it is the home language of only a small minority; and learners' poor English proficiency frequently restricts their…

  3. Rethinking Argumentation-Teaching Strategies and Indigenous Knowledge in South African Science Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Otulaja, Femi S.; Cameron, Ann; Msimanga, Audrey

    2011-01-01

    Our response to Hewson and Ogunniyi's paper focuses, on the one hand, on some of the underlying tensions associated with aligning indigenous knowledge systems with westernized science in South African science classrooms, as suggested by the new, post-apartheid, curriculum. On the other hand, the use of argumentation as a vehicle to accomplish the…

  4. Young African American Children Constructing Identities in an Urban Integrated Science-Literacy Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kane, Justine M.

    2009-01-01

    This is a qualitative study of identities constructed and enacted by four 3rd-grade African American children (two girls and two boys) in an urban classroom that engaged in a year-long, integrated science-literacy project. Juxtaposing narrative and discursive identity lenses, coupled with race and gender perspectives, I examined the ways in which…

  5. Young African American children constructing identities in an urban integrated science-literacy classroom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kane, Justine M.

    This is a qualitative study of identities constructed and enacted by four 3rd-grade African American children (two girls and two boys) in an urban classroom that engaged in a year-long, integrated science-literacy project. Juxtaposing narrative and discursive identity lenses, coupled with race and gender perspectives, I examined the ways in which the four children saw and performed themselves as students and as science students in their classroom. Interview data were used for the narrative analysis and classroom Discourse and artifacts were used for the discursive analysis. A constructivist grounded theory framework was adopted for both analyses. The findings highlight the diversity and richness of perspectives and forms of engagement these young children shared and enacted, and help us see African American children as knowers, doers, and talkers of science individually and collectively. In their stories about themselves, all the children identified themselves as smart but they associated with smartness different characteristics and practices depending on their strengths and preferences. Drawing on the children's social, cultural, and ethnolinguistic resources, the dialogic and multimodal learning spaces facilitated by their teacher allowed the children to explore, negotiate, question, and learn science ideas. The children in this study brought their understandings and ways of being into the "lived-in" spaces co-created with classmates and teacher and influenced how these spaces were created. At the same time, each child's ways of being and understandings were shaped by the words, actions, behaviors, and feelings of peers and teacher. Moreover, as these four children engaged with science-literacy activities, they came to see themselves as competent, creative, active participants in science learning. Although their stories of "studenting" seemed dominated by following rules and being well-behaved, their stories of "sciencing" were filled with exploration, ingenuity

  6. Rethinking argumentation-teaching strategies and indigenous knowledge in South African science classrooms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Òtúlàjà, Fẹ´Mi S.; Cameron, Ann; Msimanga, Audrey

    2011-09-01

    Our response to Hewson and Ogunniyi's paper focuses, on the one hand, on some of the underlying tensions associated with alinging indigenous knowledge systems with westernized science in South African science classrooms, as suggested by the new, post-apartheid, curriculum. On the other hand, the use of argumentation as a vehicle to accomplish the alignment when the jury is still out on the appropriateness of argumentation as a pedagogical and research tool heightens the tension. We argue that the need for education stakeholders from indigenous heritages to value, know and document their own indigenous knowledge becomes paramount. The textualizing of indigenous knowledge, as has been done in western science, will create repositories for teachers to access and may help with the argumentation strategies such as advocated by the authors.

  7. The nature of culturally responsive pedagogy in two urban African American middle school science classrooms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bondima, Michelle Harris

    This ethnographic in nature study explores how two middle school science teachers who have classes populated by urban African Americans teach their students and how their students perceive their teaching. Since urban African American students continue to perform lower than desired on measures of science achievement, there is an urgent need to understand what pedagogical methodologies assist and hinder urban African American students in achieving higher levels of success in science. A pedagogical methodology that theorists posit assists subordinated school populations is culturally responsive pedagogy. Culturally responsive pedagogy is defined as a teaching methodology concerned with preparing students to question inequality, racism, and injustice. Teachers who use culturally responsive pedagogy respect the culture students bring to the class, and require that the teachers willingly do whatever is necessary to educate students (Nieto, 2000). The teacher participants were two female African Americans who were identified by their school supervisors as being highly effective with urban African American students. The researcher presented the teachers in separate case studies conducted over a data collection period of nine months. Data were collected by participant observation, interviews, and artifact collection. Data were analyzed by application of grounded theory techniques. Findings of the teachers' (and the students') beliefs about pedagogy that both assisted and hindered the students' performance in science were reported in a rich and nuanced storytelling manner based on multiple perspectives (teachers', students', and the researcher's). Pedagogical methodologies that the teachers used that assisted their students were the use of cultural metaphors and images in science and applications of motivational techniques that encouraged a nurturing relationship between the teacher and her students. Pedagogical methodologies that hindered students varied by teacher

  8. The Perceived Undergraduate Classroom Experiences of African American Women in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmes, Kimberly Monique

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this dissertation study was to explore African-American women's perceptions of undergraduate STEM classroom experiences, and the ways in which those experiences have supported or hindered their persistence in physics majors. The major research question guiding this study was: How do African-American women perceive the climate and…

  9. Balancing acts: A mixed methods study of the figured world of African American 7th graders in urban science classrooms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cleveland-Solomon, Tanya E.

    What beliefs and cultural models do youth who are underrepresented in science have about the domain of science and about themselves as science learners? What do they imagine is possible for them in relation to science both now and in the future? In other words, what constitutes their figured world of science? This dissertation study, using a mixed methods design, offers new perspectives on the ways that underrepresented youth's unexamined assumptions or cultural models and resources may shape their identities and motivation to learn science. Through analyses of survey and interview data, I found that urban African American youths' social context, gender, racial identity, and perceptions of the science they had in school influenced their motivation to learn science. Analyses of short-term classroom observations and interviews suggested that students had competing cultural models that they used in their constructions of identities as science learners, which they espoused and adopted in relation to how well they leveraged the science-related cultural resources available to them. Results from this study suggested that these 7th graders would benefit from access to more expansive cultural models through access to individuals with scientific capital as a way to allow them to create fruitful identities as science learners. If we want to ensure that students from groups that are underrepresented in science not only have better outcomes, but aspire to and enter the science career pipeline, we must also begin to support them in their negotiations of competing cultural models that limit their ability to adopt science-learner identities in their classrooms. This study endeavored to understand the particular cultural models and motivational beliefs that drive students to act, and what types of individuals they imagine scientists and science workers to be. This study also examined how cultural models and resources influence identity negotiation, specifically the roles youths

  10. What is taking place in science classrooms?: A case study analysis of teaching and learning in seventh-grade science of one Alabama school and its impact on African American student learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norman, Lashaunda Renea

    This qualitative case study investigated the teaching strategies that improve science learning of African American students. This research study further sought the extent the identified teaching strategies that are used to improve African American science learning reflect culturally responsive teaching. Best teaching strategies and culturally responsive teaching have been researched, but there has been minimal research on the impact that both have on science learning, with an emphasis on the African American population. Consequently, the Black-White achievement gap in science persists. The findings revealed the following teaching strategies have a positive impact on African American science learning: (a) lecture-discussion, (b) notetaking, (c) reading strategies, (d) graphic organizers, (e) hands-on activities, (f) laboratory experiences, and (g) cooperative learning. Culturally responsive teaching strategies were evident in the seventh-grade science classrooms observed. Seven themes emerged from this research data: (1) The participating teachers based their research-based teaching strategies used in the classroom on all of the students' learning styles, abilities, attitudes towards science, and motivational levels about learning science, with no emphasis on the African American student population; (2) The participating teachers taught the state content standards simultaneously using the same instructional model daily, incorporating other content areas when possible; (3) The participating African American students believed their seventh-grade science teachers used a variety of teaching strategies to ensure science learning took place, that science learning was fun, and that science learning was engaging; (4) The participating African American students genuinely liked their teacher; (5) The participating African American students revealed high self-efficacy; (6) The African American student participants' parents value education and moved to Success Middle School

  11. Science Careers in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Walter S.

    1983-01-01

    Suggests systematically exposing early adolescents/middle school students to community people who use science in their work to demonstrate the value of science/mathematics study. Discusses activities related to classroom visits of resource personnel, sources of resource people, and Career Oriented Modules to Explore Topics in Science for grades…

  12. The Role of Communal Practices in the Generation of Capital and Emotional Energy among Urban African American Students in Science Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seiler, Gale; Elmesky, Rowhea

    2007-01-01

    One of the intractable aspects of the so-called achievement gap between Black and White students lies in our failure to identify viable ways to increase science achievement and participation among African American students living in our inner cities. However, there has been little research that attempts to understand how the social and cultural…

  13. Religious beliefs in science classrooms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fysh, Robert; Lucas, Keith B.

    1998-12-01

    The question of the relationship between science and religion assumes importance for many secondary school students of science, especially but not exclusively for those in Christian schools. Science as presented in many school classrooms is not as objective and value free as it might seem on first examination, nor does it represent adequately the range of beliefs about science held by students and teachers. This paper reports part of a larger research study into beliefs about science and religion held by students, teachers and clergy in a Lutheran secondary school. Results indicate that participants in the study was the relationship between science and religious belief in ways unforeseen and unappreciated by traditional school science programs. The stories of selected participants are told and they frame a discussion of implications of the study for science teaching.

  14. Group Work in Science Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGregor, Debbie; Tolmie, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    This article considers how students might work together in small groups, from two to eight, in either a primary or secondary science classroom. The nature of group work can vary widely and could include, for example, a pair carrying out an illustrative experiment, a trio or quad debating climate change, or six or seven rehearsing how they will…

  15. Physical Science Connected Classrooms: Case Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Irving, Karen; Sanalan, Vehbi; Shirley, Melissa

    2009-01-01

    Case-study descriptions of secondary and middle school classrooms in diverse contexts provide examples of how teachers implement connected classroom technology to facilitate formative assessment in science instruction. Connected classroom technology refers to a networked system of handheld devices designed for classroom use. Teachers were…

  16. Science in Connecticut Classrooms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bourquin, Eugene

    1985-01-01

    Outlines a science-industrial arts survey course which presents basic concepts of chemistry as applied to practical experiences. Course topics include: paints; solvents; finishes; metallurgy of iron; precious metals; calorimetry; fossil fuels; batteries; adhesives; cement; and others. The short units were designed for students with limited…

  17. Active Classroom Participation in a Group Scribbles Primary Science Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Wenli; Looi, Chee-Kit

    2011-01-01

    A key stimulus of learning efficacy for students in the classroom is active participation and engagement in the learning process. This study examines the nature of teacher-student and student-student discourse when leveraged by an interactive technology--Group Scribbles (GS) in a Primary 5 Science classroom in Singapore which supports rapid…

  18. Everyday Classroom Assessment Practices in Science Classrooms in Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gómez, María del Carmen; Jakobsson, Anders

    2014-01-01

    The focus of this study is to examine to what extent and in what ways science teachers practice assessment during classroom interactions in everyday activities in an upper-secondary school in Sweden. We are science teachers working now with a larger research project on assessment in science education that seeks to examine teachers' assessment…

  19. Everyday Assessment in the Science Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atkin, J. Myron, Ed.; Coffey, Janet E., Ed.

    The assessment that occurs each day in the science classroom is often overlooked amidst calls for accountability in education and renewed debates about external testing. Research points to the positive influence that improved, ongoing classroom assessment can have on learning. Documents that offer visions for science education such as the National…

  20. Perceptions of Classroom Belongingness among African American College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Booker, Keonya C.

    2007-01-01

    Research shows that students of color have college experiences markedly different from their majority peers. The present study examined African American college students' perceptions of their college classrooms as communities. Results of open-ended surveys revealed four predominate themes of instructional style, faculty interpersonal…

  1. Promoting the interest of African American teenage girls in science: What can we learn from an exemplary African American science teacher?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McMath, Cynthia Stewart

    This study focused on science teaching that promoted the interest of African American teenage girls in the science classroom of an exemplary African American science teacher. It focused on, observed and examined the planning, teaching and learning strategies used by the science teacher. It also described what the science teacher experienced during her high school years, during college, during her teaching career. The case study approach/method was used for this research to capture the description and examination of the practices of the science teacher. This research described how an African American female science teacher serves as a role model and influence a number of African Americans students, especially girls, who experience careers in science. During the interviews and observations the researcher used a system of record keeping for the study to include note taking, audio taping and pictures. It is evident in the findings that the teacher in this study had qualities of an exemplary teacher according to the research. It is further evident that the teacher served as a role model for her students. The results indicated that the exemplary African America science teacher was motivated by her former African American science teacher that served as a role model. The results in this study implied that the lack of the presence of more exemplary African American science teachers has an impact on the level of interest that African American students have in science. Further, it is implied that there is a great need for more practical research that may lead to closing the gap of missing African American science teachers.

  2. Young African American Children's Representations of Self, Science, and School: Making Sense of Difference

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Varelas, Maria; Kane, Justine M.; Wylie, Caitlin Donahue

    2011-01-01

    We focused on young, low-income, African American children in first- to third-grade classrooms where they experienced varied forms of interactive, participatory, and dialogic pedagogy in the context of yearlong, integrated science-literacy instruction. Using conversations that started around children's own science journals, which were an important…

  3. Investigating Science Discourse in a High School Science Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swanson, Lauren Honeycutt

    2011-01-01

    Science classrooms in the United States have become more diverse with respect to the variety of languages spoken by students. This qualitative study used ethnographic methods to investigate the discourse and practices of two ninth grade science classrooms. Approximately 44% of students included in the study were designated as English learners. The…

  4. Discovery stories in the science classroom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arya, Diana Jaleh

    School science has been criticized for its lack of emphasis on the tentative, dynamic nature of science as a process of learning more about our world. This criticism is the guiding force for this present body of work, which focuses on the question: what are the educational benefits for middle school students of reading texts that highlight the process of science in the form of a discovery narrative? This dissertation traces my journey through a review of theoretical perspectives of narrative, an analysis of first-hand accounts of scientific discovery, the complex process of developing age-appropriate, cohesive and engaging science texts for middle school students, and a comparison study (N=209) that seeks to determine the unique benefits of the scientific discovery narrative for the interest in and retained understanding of conceptual information presented in middle school science texts. A total of 209 middle school participants in nine different classrooms from two different schools participated in the experimental study. Each subject read two science texts that differed in topic (the qualities of and uses for radioactive elements and the use of telescopic technology to see planets in space) and genre (the discovery narrative and the "conceptually known exposition" comparison text). The differences between the SDN and CKE versions for each topic were equivalent in all possible ways (initial introduction, overall conceptual accuracy, elements of human interest, coherence and readability level), save for the unique components of the discovery narrative (i.e., love for their work, acknowledgement of the known, identification of the unknown and the explorative or experimental process to discovery). Participants generally chose the discovery narrative version as the more interesting of the two texts. Additional findings from the experimental study suggest that science texts in the form of SDNs elicit greater long-term retention of key conceptual information, especially

  5. Safety in the Elementary Science Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Science Teachers Association, Arlington, VA.

    This guide gives elementary school teachers suggestions for providing a safe environment for their students and covers general safety concerns in the science classroom. Information is printed in a flip chart format for easy reference. Safety areas covered include: (1) In Case of Accident; (2) Eye Protection; (3) Plants in the Classroom; (4) First…

  6. How Students Learn: Science in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donovan, M. Suzanne, Ed.; Bransford, John D., Ed.

    2005-01-01

    "How Students Learn: Science in the Classroom" builds on the discoveries detailed in the best-selling "How People Learn." Now these findings are presented in a way that teachers can use immediately, to revitalize their work in the classroom for even greater effectiveness. Organized for utility, the book explores how the principles of learning can…

  7. Global Learning Communities: Science Classrooms without Walls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerlin, Steven C.

    2009-01-01

    The physical walls of a classroom have typically acted as the boundary of school science learning communities. The participants in these learning communities are the students and the teacher in individual classrooms. These participants contribute to scientific discourse about a specific content area under study. Scientific learning communities, on…

  8. Preservice Science Teachers' Orientations to Classroom Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savran, Ayse; Cakiroglu, Jale

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore preservice science teachers' perceptions of their classroom management beliefs. In addition, we were interested in determining differences in preservice teachers' beliefs regarding classroom management by gender and grade level. For this purpose, the adapted form of the Attitudes and Beliefs on Classroom…

  9. Developing a Primary Science Methods Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veal, William R.; Jackson, Zachary

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe how and why a primary science methods classroom was conceived, designed, and developed for preservice and inservice teachers. Just as science educators believe that students learn best by constructing their knowledge of the natural world with the aid of a teacher and colleagues, science educators also…

  10. Self-Concept in the Science Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mixer, Anthony S.; Milson, James L.

    1974-01-01

    Discusses some of the psychological factors involved in the development of children, and examines the role that the science teacher can play in enhancing the self-concept and self-esteem of children in his classroom. (JR)

  11. Teachers' beliefs about culturally relevant teaching in the science classroom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelly-Jackson, Charlease Plushette

    In many of our nations' schools, African American students are experiencing inequitable opportunities to quality science. Since science teachers are one of the most influential factors on science learning and they are charged with instructing African American students, their beliefs and practices are vital to the understanding of this paradox. This mixed method study sought to investigate science teachers' beliefs about the importance of culturally relevant teaching in the classroom and their beliefs about critical issues and practices of culturally relevant teaching. Two research questions guided the conceptualization and implementation of this study: (1) Do science teachers believe culturally relevant teaching is an important part of their instruction; (2) What are science teachers' perceptions about critical issues and practices of culturally relevant teaching? The study was conducted in three phases. Survey data in Phase One revealed that 100% of the respondents believed culturally relevant teaching is important when working with culturally diverse students. Data also showed a significant consensus among the following pluralist statements; 1, 2, 4, 7, 8, 11, 14, 16, and 17. The statement, "culturally relevant practice is essential for creating an inclusive classroom environment" was endorsed (75%) by the respondents while 25% strongly agreed with the statement. Similarly, respondents strongly agreed (75%) with the statement "encouraging respect for cultural diversity is essential for creating an inclusive classroom environment" while 25% agreed. Interview results in Phase Two revealed that teachers had a general idea about culturally relevant pedagogy. Data further showed that three of the four teachers supported culturally relevant teaching in theory, but their support was not reflected in their daily classroom instruction. Misconceptions and/misunderstandings about culturally relevant teaching fell under several common themes: knowledge, teacher beliefs

  12. Science Students' Classroom Discourse: Tasha's Umwelt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnold, Jenny

    2012-04-01

    Over the past twenty-five years researchers have been concerned with understanding the science student. The need for such research is still grounded in contemporary issues including providing opportunities for all students to develop scientific literacy and the failure of school science to connect with student's lives, interests and personal identities. The research reported here is unusual in its use of discourse analysis in social psychology to contribute to an understanding of the way students make meaning in secondary school science. Data constructed for the study was drawn from videotapes of nine consecutive lessons in a year-seven science classroom in Melbourne, post-lesson video-stimulated interviews with students and the teacher, classroom observation and the students' written work. The classroom videotapes were recorded using four cameras and seven audio tracks by the International Centre for Classroom Research at the University of Melbourne. Student talk within and about their science lessons was analysed from a discursive perspective. Classroom episodes in which students expressed their sense of personal identity and agency, knowledge, attitude or emotion in relation to science were identified for detailed analysis of the function of the discourse used by students, and in particular the way students were positioned by others or positioned themselves. This article presents the discursive Umwelt or life-space of one middle years science student, Tasha. Her case is used here to highlight the complex social process of meaning making in science classrooms and the need to attend to local moral orders of rights and duties in research on student language use, identity and learning in science.

  13. Flipped Classrooms for Advanced Science Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomory, Annette; Watson, Sunnie Lee

    2015-01-01

    This article explains how issues regarding dual credit and Advanced Placement high school science courses could be mitigated via a flipped classroom instructional model. The need for advanced high school courses will be examined initially, followed by an analysis of advanced science courses and the reform they are experiencing. Finally, it will…

  14. Science Specialists or Classroom Teachers: Who Should Teach Elementary Science?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levy, Abigail Jurist; Jia, Yueming; Marco-Bujosa, Lisa; Gess-Newsome, Julie; Pasquale, Marian

    2016-01-01

    This study examined science programs, instruction, and student outcomes at 30 elementary schools in a large, urban district in the northeast United States in an effort to understand whether there were meaningful differences in the quality, quantity and cost of science education when provided by a science specialist or a classroom teacher. Student…

  15. Science News and the Science Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCullough, Laura

    2006-01-01

    Using "Science News" as a teaching tool promotes writing about science, talking about science, and broadening students' views about what science is. This article describes an ongoing assignment in which students choose one article from "Science News" each week and write a brief summary and explanation of why they picked that article. (Contains 1…

  16. Cogenerating fluency in urban science classrooms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lavan, Sarah-Kate

    This critical ethnographic study employed the use of cogenerative dialogue (Roth & Tobin, 2002) as a means to allow participants of a science classroom to reflect on and transform classroom structures while at the same time create opportunities for all stakeholders to develop collective responsibility for teaching and learning. The research was situated in a science classroom in an inner city charter high school that was both a challenging place for the teacher (Jen Beers) and an oppressive place for the students as all struggled to reconcile issues related to power hierarchies and significant differences in social and cultural histories. As a result, cultural misinterpretations and the undervaluing of students' cultural capital served as a foundation for learning. This study examined the various fields and forms of practice that created opportunities for refining teaching practices and at the same time afforded the development of collective responsibility by addressing the roles, identities and agency of all classroom participants. Specifically, I asked the following questions: (1) How can co-generative dialogue can be used to involve all classroom participants in creating a learning community? (2) How does this shape the identities and roles of the participants who were involved? and (3) How do the changed roles and practices lead toward science fluency? The framework of cultural sociology, specifically the dialectical relationship of structure and agency, interaction ritual theory (Collins, 2003) and research on dispositions (Boykin, 1986), provided analytic tools to investigate the practices of the various stakeholders and the classroom structures as well as the historical and cultural contexts surrounding them. Multiple data resources such as field notes, videotape, interviews and artifacts were drawn on from two fields (the science classroom and cogenerative dialogues) to elicit and support findings at micro, meso and macroscopic levels. The major findings of

  17. Management and organization in science classrooms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanford, Julie P.

    Twenty-six junior high and middle school science classes taught by 13 teachers were observed frequently during the first 2 months of school and during 2 months in the middle of the year to identify classroom management and instructional organization variables related to high levels of student task engagement and low levels of off task and disruptive behavior. Sub-samples of more and less effective managers were identified, and narrative data from their classes were analyzed to describe and illustrate effective strategies for managing science classroom activities.

  18. Classroom Dialogue and Science Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarke, John A.

    This study reports the application to classroom dialogue of the Thematic and Structural Analysis (TSA) Technique which has been used previously in the analysis of text materials. The TSA Technique identifies themes (word clusters) and their structural relationship throughout sequentially organized material. Dialogues from four Year 8 science…

  19. Teachers' Characteristics and Science Teachers' Classroom Behaviour: Evidence from Science Classroom Surveys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ajaja, Patrick O.; Eravwoke, Urhievwejire Ochuko

    2013-01-01

    The major purpose of this study was to find out if there is any influence of teachers' characteristics on science teacher's classroom behaviours and determine the kind of relationship between teachers' characteristics and classroom behaviours. To guide this study, five research questions and hypotheses were raised, stated, answered, and tested at…

  20. Ecojustice in science education: leaving the classroom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mueller, Michael P.

    2011-06-01

    Eduardo Dopico and Eva Garcia-Vázquez's article enriched the ecojustice literature with an interesting metaphor of leaving the classroom, which I argue for here. Glasson and Boggs help to highlight the challenges and fortitude of working ecojustice perspectives in science education and the ways that a dialogical conversation addresses the world at large rather than focusing narrowly and exclusively on science education. Considering the metaphor of `leaving the classroom' I want to explore the tensions that can be experienced by science educators who do research focused on ecosocial justice. While it is not a new idea to suggest that there are gatekeepers in science education who try to maintain what counts in terms of impact in the classroom and what counts or not for the purposes of doing good work in science education, I anticipate highlighting the tensions that ecojustice educators may experience and why they can and should persevere with the incisive work that they are doing to conserve the prospects of future generations. Ecojustice no longer belongs constrained under the confines of environmental sciences or environmental education in science education. It is a separate and distinct field of study that should be generally accepted for the ways it brings clarity and conversation to ideas, curriculum studies, and thick descriptions of how people engage in eco-justice and ethics.

  1. Religious Beliefs in Science Classrooms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fysh, Robert; Lucas, Keith B.

    1998-01-01

    Beliefs about science and religion held by students (n=44), teachers (n=10), and clergy (n=4) in a Lutheran secondary school in Australia were assessed via survey and interview. Participants' views of the relationship between science and religious beliefs were complex. Concludes that traditional science programs do not adequately address the range…

  2. Science Fiction in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brake, Mark; Thornton, Rosi

    2003-01-01

    Considers science fiction as an imaginative forum to focus on the relationships between science, culture, and society. Outlines some of the ways in which using the genre can help achieve a dynamic and pluralistic understanding of the nature and evolution of science. (Author/KHR)

  3. Earth Science in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitburn, Niki

    2007-01-01

    An area that teachers often find difficult to make interesting is the earth science component of the science curriculum. This may be for a variety of reasons, such as lack of knowledge, lack of ideas or lack of resources. This article outlines ideas and activities that have been developed by the Earth Science Teachers' Association (ESTA) primary…

  4. Ocean Science in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lambert, Julie; Sundburg, Suzanne Smith

    2006-01-01

    In one form or another, ocean or marine science courses have existed for decades. Although these courses can effectively integrate the sciences in ways that stimulate student curiosity and interest, they have not yet received formal recognition for the role they could play in improving science education for secondary students. In this article, the…

  5. Talking about Science in Interactive Whiteboard Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murcia, Karen; Sheffield, Rachel

    2010-01-01

    Teachers using interactive whiteboards (IWB) effectively can engage and motivate students with a range of digital resources to explore science's role in making sense of our world and to construct knowledge of key scientific concepts. The case study research described in this paper illustrates how interactive pedagogies in the IWB classroom were…

  6. Using Infographics in the Science Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidson, Rosemary

    2014-01-01

    As a chemistry teacher, Rosemary Davidson has found "infographics" (information graphics) successfully engage her students in science--not only in carrying out the research for classroom projects but also in presenting the results of their research to their peers. This article will help teachers integrate student-created infographics…

  7. Hearing Female Voices in Life Science Classrooms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunlap, Julie

    1990-01-01

    The author makes a case for keeping sensitivity and intuitive approaches in the science classroom. The importance of emotional connections with other organisms, considered a critical part of enriched, effective scientific thinking, is emphasized. Female and male learning styles are described. (KR)

  8. In Defence of the Classroom Science Demonstration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCrory, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Science demonstrations are often criticised for their passive nature, their gratuitous exploitation and their limited ability to develop scientific knowledge and understanding. This article is intended to present a robust defence of the use of demonstrations in the classroom by identifying some of their unique and powerful benefits--practical,…

  9. Casting Shadows in the Science Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nolan, Kathleen

    2003-01-01

    Uses the metaphor of shadows in a critical exploration of what it means to know and how the cultures of classrooms have shaped these images of knowing. Directs attention to objects that cast shadows on the learning and knowing of mathematics and science through the voices of preservice teachers. Discusses shadow casting toward textbooks, teachers,…

  10. Pedagogical Relationship in Secondary Social Science Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Girard, Brian James

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates two high school social science classrooms in order to better understand the pedagogical relationships among teachers, students, and disciplinary content, and how teachers can influence students' opportunities to learn disciplinary literacy. Drawing on conceptual resources from sociocultural theories of learning and…

  11. Ecojustice in Science Education: Leaving the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mueller, Michael P.

    2011-01-01

    Eduardo Dopico and Eva Garcia-Vazquez's article enriched the ecojustice literature with an interesting metaphor of leaving the classroom, which I argue for here. Glasson and Boggs help to highlight the challenges and fortitude of working ecojustice perspectives in science education and the ways that a dialogical conversation addresses the world at…

  12. Using Web Logs in the Science Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duplichan, Staycle C.

    2009-01-01

    As educators we must ask ourselves if we are meeting the needs of today's students. The science world is adapting to our ever-changing society; are the methodology and philosophy of our educational system keeping up? In this article, you'll learn why web logs (also called blogs) are an important Web 2.0 tool in your science classroom and how they…

  13. Safety in the Science Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Online Submission, 2006

    2006-01-01

    The goal of this K-12 science safety resource is to bring together information needed by administrators, planners, teachers and support staff to help them make sound decisions regarding science safety. The document identifies areas for decision making and action at a variety of levels. It supports planning and action by providing information on…

  14. Avatar in the Science Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siegel, Deborah

    2011-01-01

    Students love pop culture, which is often full of science and scientific concepts that may or may not be correctly presented. When teachers tie a science project to a movie, TV series, or song, they help guide students toward correct interpretations. And, more important, teachers stimulate their creativity by tapping into their culture. This…

  15. Science Learning outside the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robelen, Erik W.; Sparks, Sarah D.; Cavanagh, Sean; Ash, Katie; Deily, Mary-Ellen Phelps; Adams, Caralee

    2011-01-01

    As concern mounts that U.S. students lack sufficient understanding of science and related fields, it has become increasingly clear that schools can't tackle the challenge alone. This special report explores the field often called "informal science education," which is gaining broader recognition for its role in helping young people acquire…

  16. Science Teaching beyond the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McComas, William F., Ed.

    2006-01-01

    Informal learning refers to "science learning that occurs outside the traditional, formal schooling realm." Sites such as museums, zoos, aquariums, parks, science centers, planetariums, the school yard, and others all have the potential to shape young people's minds. Parents might see a day at the beach as a recreational opportunity while biology…

  17. Science in the Bilingual Classroom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gutierrez, Patricia A.

    1996-07-01

    One in seven children in the United States speaks a language other than English at home. Their difficulties with English may seem like a barrier to science education. But science education can be the impetus they need to overcome their difficulties with English. With sidebars by Isabel Hawkins and George Musser.

  18. Interdisciplinary Science in the Classroom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    French, L. M.; Lopresti, V. C.; Papali, P.

    1993-05-01

    The practice of science is by its very nature interdisciplinary. Most school curricula, however, present science as a "layer cake" with one year each of biology, chemistry, earth science, and physics. Students are too often left with a fragmented, disjointed view of the sciences as separate and distinct bodies of information. The continuity of scientific thought and the importance of major ideas such as energy, rates of change, and the nature of matter are not seen. We describe two efforts to integrate the sciences in a middle school curriculum and in an introductory science course for prospective elementary teachers. Introductory physical science for eighth graders at the Park School has three major units: "Observing the Sky", "The Nature of Matter", and "The Nature of Light". The course moves from simple naked-eye observations of the Sun and Moon to an understanding of the apparent motions of the Sun and of the Earth's seasons. In "The Nature of Matter", students construct operational definitions of characteristic properties of matter such as density, boiling point, solubility, and flame color. They design and perform many experiments and conclude by separating a mixture of liquids and solids by techniques such as distillation and fractional crystallization. In studying flame tests, students learn that different materials have different color "signatures" and that the differences can be quantified with a spectroscope. They then observe solar absorption lines with their spectroscopes and discover which elements are present in the Sun. Teachers of young children are potentially some of the most powerful allies in increasing our country's scientific literacy, yet most remain at best uneasy about science. At Wheelock College we are designing a course to be called "Introduction to Natural Science" for elementary education majors. We will address special needs of many in this population, including science anxiety and poor preparation in mathematics. A broad conceptual

  19. Everyday classroom assessment practices in science classrooms in Sweden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gómez, María del Carmen; Jakobsson, Anders

    2014-12-01

    The focus of this study is to examine to what extent and in what ways science teachers practice assessment during classroom interactions in everyday activities in an upper-secondary school in Sweden. We are science teachers working now with a larger research project on assessment in science education that seeks to examine teachers' assessment practices in the upper-secondary school. Framing questions include: are teachers performing an integrated assessment of students' skills as the national curriculum mandates? If so, what do the instructional discourses look like in those situations and what are students' experiences regarding their agency on learning and assessment? We emphasize the social, cultural and historic character of assessment and sustain a situated character of learning instead of the notion that learning is "stored inside the head". Teacher led lessons in three science classrooms were video-recorded and analyzed by combining ethnographic and discourse methods of analysis. Both methods are appropriate to the theoretical foundation of our approach on learning and can give some answers to questions about how individuals interact socially, how their experience is passed on to next generations through language and how language use may reveal cultural changes in the studied context. Making the study of action in a classroom the focal point of sociocultural analysis supports the examination of assessment processes and identification of the social roles in which teachers and students are immersed. Such an approach requires observations of how teachers act in authentic teaching situations when they interact with their students in classroom making possible to observe negotiation processes, agencies when both teachers and students are involved in every-day activities. Our study showed that teachers mostly ignored students' questions and that students solved their own problems by helping each other. Teachers did not provide opportunities for students to discuss

  20. The Black Cultural Ethos and science teachers' practices: A case study exploring how four high school science teachers meet their African American students' needs in science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strachan, Samantha L.

    The underachievement of African American students in science has been a persistent problem in science education. The achievement patterns of African American students indicate that researchers must take a closer look at the types of practices that are being used to meet these students' needs in science classrooms. Determining why science teachers decide to employ certain practices in their classrooms begins with a careful examination of teachers' beliefs as well as their instructional approaches. The purpose of this study was to explore four urban high school science teachers' beliefs about their African American students' learning needs and to investigate how these teachers go about addressing students' needs in science classrooms. This research study also explored the extent to which teachers' practices aligned with the nine dimensions of an established cultural instructional theory, namely the Black Cultural Ethos. Qualitative research methods were employed to gather data from the four teachers. Artifact data were collected from the teachers and they were interviewed and observed. Believing that their students had academic-related needs as well as needs tied to their learning preferences, the four science teachers employed a variety of instructional strategies to meet their students where they were in learning. Overall, the instructional strategies that the teachers employed to meet their students' needs aligned with five of the nine tenets of the Black Cultural Ethos theory.

  1. Global learning communities: Science classrooms without walls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerlin, Steven C.

    The physical walls of a classroom have typically acted as the boundary of school science learning communities. The participants in these learning communities are the students and the teacher in individual classrooms. These participants contribute to scientific discourse about a specific content area under study. Scientific learning communities, on the other hand, long ago moved beyond the confines of a laboratory, meeting room or any one physical location. Scientists engage in ongoing discourse with many members of the scientific community in different locations all over the world. These same technological advances can now be used by science teachers and students to venture out of their classroom and become involved in a global learning community (GLC). The context of this study, From Local to Extreme Environments (FLEXE), is a science curriculum that attempts to expand the boundaries of the science classroom and involve students in a GLC. FLEXE participants are not limited to conversations with students and a teacher in one classroom. Students and teachers in many classrooms in multiple countries, deep-sea scientists, and university education researchers are involved in the FLEXE community. This study was framed by theories of sociocultural learning, discourse and learning communities. These theoretical research perspectives acted as lenses for the examination of communication of student participants in a GLC. Student views of their collaboration and their scientific writing were studied within a principle contrast of U.S. students in domestic or international class partnerships. A mixed methods approach was used to study the GLC established in the FLEXE program. Statistical analyses were used with "quick questions" (QQs) that follow each online session, in order to characterize students' views of the online global learning environment. Argumentation analysis was used to examine and compare how students supported their scientific claims with a number of different

  2. Roles of Teachers in Orchestrating Learning in Elementary Science Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhai, Junqing; Tan, Aik-Ling

    2015-01-01

    This study delves into the different roles that elementary science teachers play in the classroom to orchestrate science learning opportunities for students. Examining the classroom practices of three elementary science teachers in Singapore, we found that teachers shuttle between four key roles in enabling student learning in science. Teachers…

  3. Pedagogy for the Connected Science Classroom: Computer Supported Collaborative Science and the Next Generation Science Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foley, Brian J.; Reveles, John M.

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of computers in the classroom is compelling teachers to develop new instructional skills. This paper provides a theoretical perspective on an innovative pedagogical approach to science teaching that takes advantage of technology to create a connected classroom. In the connected classroom, students collaborate and share ideas in…

  4. Science Denial and the Science Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Dennis W. C.

    2012-01-01

    Biology teachers are accustomed to engaging individuals who do not accept biological evolution. Denial of evolution ranges from ignorance of the evidence to outright denial or distortion of data. The list of science denial topics has grown alarmingly over the years to include: HIV as the cause of AIDS, exaggeration of the health and environmental…

  5. Science education beyond the classroom

    SciTech Connect

    Harle, E.J.; Van Natta, D.; Powell, M.L.

    1993-12-31

    The Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (YMP) sponsors a variety of classroom-oriented projects and activities for teachers who request them. Also available, though, are extra-curricular programs. One notably successful program is a workshop designed to award girl and boy scouts with geology and atomic energy merit badges. There was a tremendous response to this workshop--it attracted 450 requests within the first week of its announcement. Since October 1991, the YMP has sponsored five such girl scout workshops and four boy scout workshops, attended by a total of 400 scouts. These workshops demonstrate that highly technical subjects can be taught simply through hands-on activities. The idea behind them is not to teach scouts what to think but, rather, how to think. For adults meanwhile, the YMP offers a monthly lecture series, with each lecture averaging 45 minutes in length with 35 people in attendance. These lectures center on such subjects as volcanoes, earthquakes and hydrology. They are usually delivered by YMP technical staff members, who have learned that complex technical issues are best addressed in a small-group format.

  6. Ecofeminism and the Science Classroom: A Practical Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zell, Stacy K.

    1998-01-01

    Examines a practical application of ecofeminism for classroom educators. Provides a basic understanding of ecofeminist theory as it applies to science education and examples from classroom practice. Contains 33 references. (DDR)

  7. Investigating Science Discourse in a High School Science Classroom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swanson, Lauren Honeycutt

    Science classrooms in the United States have become more diverse with respect to the variety of languages spoken by students. This qualitative study used ethnographic methods to investigate the discourse and practices of two ninth grade science classrooms. Approximately 44% of students included in the study were designated as English learners. The present work focused on addressing the following questions: 1) In what ways is science discourse taken up and used by students and their teacher? 2) Are there differences in how science discourse is used by students depending on their English language proficiency? Data collection consisted of interviewing the science teacher and the students, filming whole class and small group discussions during two lesson sequences, and collecting lesson plans, curricular materials, and student work. These data were analyzed qualitatively. Findings indicated that the teacher characterized science discourse along three dimensions: 1) the use of evidence-based explanations; 2) the practice of sharing one's science understandings publically; and 3) the importance of using precise language, including both specialized (i.e., science specific) and non-specialized academic words. Analysis of student participation during in-class activities highlighted how students progressed in each of these science discourse skills. However, this analysis also revealed that English learners were less likely to participate in whole class discussions: Though these students participated in small group discussions, they rarely volunteered to share individual or collective ideas with the class. Overall, students were more adept at utilizing science discourse during class discussions than in written assignments. Analysis of students' written work highlighted difficulties that were not visible during classroom interactions. One potential explanation is the increased amount of scaffolding the teacher provided during class discussions as compared to written

  8. Biological design in science classrooms.

    PubMed

    Scott, Eugenie C; Matzke, Nicholas J

    2007-05-15

    Although evolutionary biology is replete with explanations for complex biological structures, scientists concerned about evolution education have been forced to confront "intelligent design" (ID), which rejects a natural origin for biological complexity. The content of ID is a subset of the claims made by the older "creation science" movement. Both creationist views contend that highly complex biological adaptations and even organisms categorically cannot result from natural causes but require a supernatural creative agent. Historically, ID arose from efforts to produce a form of creationism that would be less vulnerable to legal challenges and that would not overtly rely upon biblical literalism. Scientists do not use ID to explain nature, but because it has support from outside the scientific community, ID is nonetheless contributing substantially to a long-standing assault on the integrity of science education. PMID:17494747

  9. Flipped Classrooms for Advanced Science Courses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomory, Annette; Watson, Sunnie Lee

    2015-12-01

    This article explains how issues regarding dual credit and Advanced Placement high school science courses could be mitigated via a flipped classroom instructional model. The need for advanced high school courses will be examined initially, followed by an analysis of advanced science courses and the reform they are experiencing. Finally, it will conclude with an explanation of flipped classes as well as how they may be a solution to the reform challenges teachers are experiencing as they seek to incorporate more inquiry-based activities.

  10. Teaching Planetary Sciences in Bilingual Classrooms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lebofsky, L. A.; Lebofsky, N. R.

    1993-05-01

    Planetary sciences can be used to introduce students to the natural world which is a part of their lives. Even children in an urban environment are aware of such phenomena as day and night, shadows, and the seasons. It is a science that transcends cultures, has been prominent in the news in recent years, and can generate excitement in young minds as no other science can. It also provides a useful tool for understanding other sciences and mathematics, and for developing problem solving skills which are important in our technological world. However, only 15 percent of elementary school teachers feel very well qualified to teach earth/space science, while better than 80% feel well qualified to teach reading; many teachers avoid teaching science; very little time is actually spent teaching science in the elementary school: 19 minutes per day in K--3 and 38 minutes per day in 4--6. While very little science is taught in elementary and middle school, earth/space science is taught at the elementary level in less than half of the states. Therefore in order to teach earth/space science to our youth, we must empower our teachers, making them familiar and comfortable with existing materials. Tucson has another, but not unique, problem. The largest public school district, the Tucson Unified School District (TUSD), provides a neighborhood school system enhanced with magnet, bilingual and special needs schools for a school population of 57,000 students that is 4.1% Native American, 6.0% Black, and 36.0% Hispanic (1991). This makes TUSD and the other school districts in and around Tucson ideal for a program that reaches students of diverse ethnic backgrounds. However, few space sciences materials exist in Spanish; most materials could not be used effectively in the classroom. To address this issue, we have translated NASA materials into Spanish and are conducting a series of workshops for bilingual classroom teachers. We will discuss in detail our bilingual classroom workshops

  11. Biological design in science classrooms

    PubMed Central

    Scott, Eugenie C.; Matzke, Nicholas J.

    2007-01-01

    Although evolutionary biology is replete with explanations for complex biological structures, scientists concerned about evolution education have been forced to confront “intelligent design” (ID), which rejects a natural origin for biological complexity. The content of ID is a subset of the claims made by the older “creation science” movement. Both creationist views contend that highly complex biological adaptations and even organisms categorically cannot result from natural causes but require a supernatural creative agent. Historically, ID arose from efforts to produce a form of creationism that would be less vulnerable to legal challenges and that would not overtly rely upon biblical literalism. Scientists do not use ID to explain nature, but because it has support from outside the scientific community, ID is nonetheless contributing substantially to a long-standing assault on the integrity of science education. PMID:17494747

  12. College science teachers' views of classroom inquiry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Patrick L.; Abell, Sandra K.; Demir, Abdulkadir; Schmidt, Francis J.

    2006-09-01

    The purposes of this study were to (a) gain an understanding of the views of inquiry held by faculty members involved in undergraduate science teaching and (b) describe the challenges, constraints, and opportunities that they perceived in designing and teaching inquiry-based laboratories. Participants included 19 college professors, representing both life and physical science disciplines, from (a) 2-year community college, (b) small, private nonprofit liberal arts college, (c) public master's granting university, and (d) public doctoral/research extensive university. We collected data through semistructured interviews and applied an iterative data analysis process. College science faculty members held a full and open inquiry view, seeing classroom inquiry as time consuming, unstructured, and student directed. They believed that inquiry was more appropriate for upper level science majors than for introductory or nonscience majors. Although faculty members valued inquiry, they perceived limitations of time, class size, student motivation, and student ability. These limitations, coupled with their view of inquiry, constrained them from implementing inquiry-based laboratories. Our proposed inquiry continuum represents a broader view of inquiry that recognizes the interaction between two dimensions of inquiry: (a) the degree of inquiry and (b) the level of student directedness, and provides for a range of inquiry-based classroom activities.

  13. Preservice Science Teachers' Perceptions of Their Practicum Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fazio, Xavier; Volante, Louis

    2011-01-01

    Practicum experiences in schools are highly valued in science teacher education programs. Yet, there are few studies examining secondary preservice science teachers' practicum classrooms. This mixed-methods study explored secondary preservice science teachers' perceptions of their practicum classroom learning environments, interpreted from an…

  14. Measuring Language Learning Environments in Secondary Science Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webster, Beverley J.; Hazari, Anjali

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore a new learning environment instrument which could be used by teaching practitioners and other educators to measure the language learning environment in the secondary science classroom. The science teacher is central in creating science classrooms conductive to the language needs of students and should be…

  15. Collaborative Science Work in the Elementary Classroom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kersey, Denise A.

    Not all students with disabilities receive special education accommodations in science class. Without special education support, students with disabilities are unable to comprehend and apply science concepts. Implementing a co-teaching model could be a remedy for this lack of supports. Framed by constructivist theory, this study sought to determine if there was a difference in science assessment scores between students in a co-taught science class and those in a regular education science class. Following a pretest-posttest control group design, this study examined the relation between two teaching models and achievement in science. Using a convenience sample of 84 students drawn from a population of 144 fourth grade special education students in a public school district located in the Southeastern United States, analysis of variance was used to compare the mean growth of the two groups. The data revealed no statistically significant difference in mean gain scores between the two groups. Additional studies using a larger sample and longer trial are needed. Implications for social change include understanding instructional strategies that allow educators to differentiate for diverse learners in mainstreamed classrooms as well as removing barriers for underrepresented groups, thereby allowing equal access to science related professions.

  16. Culture Clash: Interactions between Afrocultural and Mainstream Cultural Styles in Classrooms Serving African American Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rouland, Karmen; Matthews, Jamaal S.; Byrd, Christy M.; Meyer, Rika M. L.; Rowley, Stephanie J.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the relation between classroom cultural and achievement-related characteristics and their influence on social outcomes in a sample of 74 fifth grade African American youth (41 girls; 33 boys) ages 10-13 years. Trained observers rated classrooms according to Boykin's (Boykin, Tyler, & Miller, 2005) definition of mainstream…

  17. Development of Classroom Management Scale for Science Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Temli-Durmus, Yeliz

    2016-01-01

    Students cannot learn in chaotic, badly managed classrooms. In the first years of teaching experiences, teachers revealed that novice teachers came to recognize the importance of discipline skills and classroom management for effective instruction. The purpose of the study was (i) to develop Science teachers' views towards classroom management…

  18. Language, Access, and Power in the Elementary Science Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoerning, Emily; Hand, Brian; Shelley, Mack; Therrien, William

    2015-01-01

    The Next Generation Science Standards call for the adoption of many aspects of scientific inquiry in the classroom. The ways in which classroom talk and classroom environment change as students and teachers learn to utilize inquiry approaches are underexplored. This study examines the frequency with which linguistic markers related to access and…

  19. Debating science policy in the physics classroom.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayer, Shannon

    2010-03-01

    It is critically important that national and international science policy be scientifically grounded. To this end, the next generation of scientists and engineers will need to be technically competent, effective communicators of science, and engaged advisors in the debate and formulation of science policy. We describe three science policy debates developed for the physics classroom aimed at encouraging students to draw connections between their developing technical expertise and important science policy issues. The first debate considers the proposal for a 450-megawatt wind farm on public lands in Nantucket Sound and fits naturally into the curriculum related to alternative forms of energy production. The second debate considers national fuel-economy standards for sport-utility vehicles and can be incorporated into the curriculum related to heat engines. The third debate, suitable for the curriculum in optics, considers solid state lighting and implications of recent United States legislation that places stringent new energy-efficiency and reliability requirements on conventional lighting. The technical foundation for each of these debates fits naturally into the undergraduate physics curriculum and the material is suitable for a wide range of physics courses, including general science courses for non-majors.

  20. Beginning Science Curriculum for English Speaking Tropical Africa (African Primary Science Program). Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education Development Center, Inc., Newton, MA.

    The African Primary Science Program, which was established in 1960 as part of the African Education Program, has operated widely in English-speaking African countries. Science centers have been established with program assistance in seven of these: Ghana, Kenya, Malawi, Nigeria, Sierra Leone, Tanzania, and Uganda. Its goals have been centered on…

  1. The flipped classroom: practices and opportunities for health sciences librarians.

    PubMed

    Youngkin, C Andrew

    2014-01-01

    The "flipped classroom" instructional model is being introduced into medical and health sciences curricula to provide greater efficiency in curriculum delivery and produce greater opportunity for in-depth class discussion and problem solving among participants. As educators employ the flipped classroom to invert curriculum delivery and enhance learning, health sciences librarians are also starting to explore the flipped classroom model for library instruction. This article discusses how academic and health sciences librarians are using the flipped classroom and suggests opportunities for this model to be further explored for library services. PMID:25316072

  2. The flipped classroom: practices and opportunities for health sciences librarians.

    PubMed

    Youngkin, C Andrew

    2014-01-01

    The "flipped classroom" instructional model is being introduced into medical and health sciences curricula to provide greater efficiency in curriculum delivery and produce greater opportunity for in-depth class discussion and problem solving among participants. As educators employ the flipped classroom to invert curriculum delivery and enhance learning, health sciences librarians are also starting to explore the flipped classroom model for library instruction. This article discusses how academic and health sciences librarians are using the flipped classroom and suggests opportunities for this model to be further explored for library services.

  3. A MOSAIC for the Science Classroom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fish, Vincent L.; Needles, M. M.; Rogers, A. E. E.; Costa, D.; Cadigan, J.; Clements, C.; May, S. K.

    2011-01-01

    MOSAIC (Mesospheric Ozone System for Atmospheric Investigations in the Classroom) is a project to engage secondary and undergraduate students in authentic inquiry-based science learning using a network of inexpensive spectrometers monitoring the mesospheric ozone concentration. The MOSAIC system observes the 11 GHz emission line of ozone using electronics built around satellite television equipment. The possibilities for student investigation are broad and scientifically significant. MOSAIC observations have confirmed diurnal variations in mesospheric ozone concentration and detected semiannual variations that may be due to inter-hemispheric meridional circulation of water vapor. Possible future projects include monitoring the temperature of the mesosphere and correlations with the solar cycle. Students are also encouraged to design their own investigations with MOSAIC data. Early results have been reported in a major scientific journal, and further scientific progress is likely as future MOSAIC systems are deployed -- increasing the sensitivity and geographic coverage of the network. Complete teaching units, including slides, laboratory activities, background information, student worksheets, and conformance with national and Massachusetts educational standards, have been developed to integrate MOSAIC into a classroom environment. One unit introduces the layers of the atmosphere, Earth's energy balance, the greenhouse effect, processes of ozone creation and destruction, noctilucent clouds, heat transfer, the laws of thermodynamics, radio waves (including radio astronomy), and fluid behavior. A second unit, currently being tested in classrooms, uses the MOSAIC system to motivate and deepen understanding of a large portion of electromagnetism in a conceptual physics class. MOSAIC has also been used in a local high school chemistry class. MOSAIC is still in development and is funded by the National Science Foundation.

  4. The Discourse of Design-Based Science Classroom Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Azevedo, Flávio S.; Martalock, Peggy L.; Keser, Tugba

    2015-01-01

    This paper is an initial contribution to a general theory in which science classroom "activity types" and epistemological "discourse practices" are systematically linked. The idea is that activities and discourse are reflexively related, so that different types of science classroom activities (e.g., scientific argumentation,…

  5. Streaming Seismograms into Earth-Science Classrooms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ammon, C. J.

    2011-12-01

    Seismograms are the fundamental observations upon which seismology is based; they are central to any course in seismology and important for any discussion of earthquake-related phenomena based on seismic observations. Advances in the collection and distribution of seismic data have made the use of research-quality seismograms in any network capable classroom feasible. The development of large, deep seismogram archives place an unprecedented quantity of high-quality data within reach of the modern classroom environment. I describe and discuss several computer tools and classroom activities that I use in introductory (general education) and advanced undergraduate courses that present near real-time research-quality seismic observations in the classroom. The Earth Motion Monitor Application (EMMA), is a MacOS application that presents a visually clear seismogram display that can be projected in classrooms with internet access. Seismic signals from thousands of station are available from the IRIS data center and the bandwidth can be tailored to the particular type of signal of interest (large event, low frequencies; small event, high frequencies). In introductory classes for non-science students, the near realtime display routinely shows magnitude 4.0-5.0 earthquake-generated signals, demonstrating to students the frequency of earthquake occurrence. Over the next few minutes as the waves travel through and across the planet, their arrival on the seismogram display provides some basic data for a qualitative estimate of the event's general location. When a major or great earthquake occurs, a broad-band display of signals from nearby stations can dramatically and dynamically illuminate the frequent activity associated with the aftershock sequence. Routine use of the display (while continuing the traditional classroom activities) provides students with a significant dose of seismogram study. Students generally find all the signals, including variations in seismic

  6. African Science Leaders Focus on Key Challenges and Opportunities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2014-08-01

    While dozens of African presidents were in Washington, D. C., in early August to meet with U.S. president Barack Obama during the first U.S.-Africa Leaders Summit, African science ministers and science academy officials held their own gathering at the U.S. National Academy of Sciences (NAS) to focus on challenges and opportunities related to environmental protection, climate change, development, health, poverty, technology, and other issues.

  7. Analysis of South African graduate degrees in science education: 1930-2000

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laugksch, Rüdiger C.

    2005-05-01

    This analysis of research conducted by graduate students at South African universities over the last 70 years is an attempt to identify the foci of South African science education research. Appropriate graduate degrees were systematically identified by interrogating electronic databases and verifying details. Title and abstract were then used to assign keywords. Overall 23% and 77% of the 469 graduate degrees identified are doctoral and master's degrees, respectively. The activity of graduate work suggests that science education as a discipline was comparatively well established in South Africa by the 1980s, although 59% of all degrees were conferred between 1991 and 2000. Following the methodology of White [2001, in V. Richardson (Ed.), Handbook of research on teaching (4th ed., pp. 457-471)]. Washington, DC: American Educational Research Association), trends in the relative frequency of keywords indicate that South African science education is broadly in line with worldwide trends in the discipline but that some differences exist. However, South African science education research appears to focus relatively more on attitudes, classrooms, curriculum issues, STS-related issues, and laboratories, and relatively less on assessment, reflection, teachers' or students' conceptions, and informal learning. Research on identified national priorities is being conducted, albeit with variable prevalence. Future opportunities in science education research lie in following a research agenda more closely matched to local contexts, and in the diversification of research focused largely on the secondary-tertiary interface.

  8. Perceptions of teaching African American students who succeed during science testing: A hermeneutic phenomenological study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, Tevis Tramaine

    The purpose of this hermeneutic phenomenological research was to explore the perceptions of teachers as they instruct African American students who are successful on the North Carolina End-of-Grade Science test. The study identified thoughts, feelings, emotions, and challenges that teachers faced when instructing successful African American students from Title I schools in rural community classrooms. The research study analysis utilized NVivo10RTM software and identified common themes in the data. Five themes emerged from interviews with five fifth- and eighth-grade science teachers. Based on the teachers' perceptions, the findings revealed: (a) teachers experience an emotional journey in high poverty schools; (b) investments encompass sacrificing whatever is needed to help students become successful; (c) relationships should be developed between the teacher and student; (d) intentionality is a part of teachers' daily interaction with students; and (e) teachers encounter a challenging opportunity instructing African American students in science. This study provides valuable data in understanding the experiences of teachers as they instruct successful African American students and the challenges, obstacles, and triumphs teachers face when working with this population of students. The implications of the study suggest that educational leaders provide emotional support to help teachers manage the plethora of emotions experienced on a daily basis. Future study of successful teachers of African American students may further inform the dearth of literature surrounding the experience of successful teachers of minority students.

  9. Multicultural science education in Lesotho high school biology classrooms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nthathakane, Malefu Christina

    2001-12-01

    This study investigated how Basotho high school biology students responded to a multicultural science education (MCSE) approach. Students' home language---Sesotho---and cultural experiences were integrated into the teaching of a unit on alcohol, tobacco and other drugs (ATOD) abuse. The focus was on students whose cultural background is African and who are English second language users. The study was conducted in three high school biology classrooms in Lesotho where the ATOD unit was taught using MCSE. A fourth biology classroom was observed for comparison purposes. In this classroom the regular biology teacher taught ATOD using typical instructional strategies. The study was framed by the general question: How does a multicultural science education approach affect Basotho high school biology students? More specifically: How does the use of Sesotho (or code-switching between Sesotho and English) and integration of Basotho students' cultural knowledge and experiences with respect to ATOD affect students' learning? In particular how does the approach affect students' participation and academic performance? A qualitative research method was used in this study. Data were drawn from a number of different sources and analyzed inductively. The data sources included field-notes, transcripts of ATOD lessons, research assistant lesson observation notes and interviews, regular biology teachers' interviews and notes from observing a few of their lessons, students' interviews and pre and posttest scripts, and other school documents that recorded students' performance throughout the year. Using the students' home language---Sesotho---was beneficial in that it enabled them to share ideas, communicate better and understand each other, the teacher and the material that was taught. Integrating students' cultural and everyday experiences was beneficial because it enabled students to anchor the new ATOD ideas in what was familiar and helped them find the relevance of the unit by

  10. Examining science achievement of African American females in suburban middle schools: A mixed methods study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Topping, Kecia C.

    , exposure to science, parent influence, peer influence, teacher expectations, strategies for academic success in science, and perception of self in a predominantly Caucasian population. This information should be used to create interactive suburban middle school science classrooms that encourage the participation of African American females. These females should experience increased involvement with activities that expose them to science that is relevant to their lives. As a result, these females will be inspired to excel in science and one day enter into science careers.

  11. "I am Not a Statistic": Identities of African American Males in Advanced Science Courses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Diane Wynn

    The United States Bureau of Labor Statistics (2010) expects new industries to generate approximately 2.7 million jobs in science and technology by the year 2018, and there is concern as to whether there will be enough trained individuals to fill these positions. A tremendous resource remains untapped, African American students, especially African American males (National Science Foundation, 2009). Historically, African American males have been omitted from the so called science pipeline. Fewer African American males pursue a science discipline due, in part; to limiting factors they experience in school and at home (Ogbu, 2004). This is a case study of African American males who are enrolled in advanced science courses at a predominantly African American (84%) urban high school. Guided by expectancy-value theory (EVT) of achievement related results (Eccles, 2009; Eccles et al., 1983), twelve African American male students in two advanced science courses were observed in their science classrooms weekly, participated in an in-depth interview, developed a presentation to share with students enrolled in a tenth grade science course, responded to an open-ended identity questionnaire, and were surveyed about their perceptions of school. Additionally, the students' teachers were interviewed, and seven of the students' parents. The interview data analyses highlighted the important role of supportive parents (key socializers) who had high expectations for their sons and who pushed them academically. The students clearly attributed their enrollment in advanced science courses to their high regard for their science teachers, which included positive relationships, hands-on learning in class, and an inviting and encouraging learning environment. Additionally, other family members and coaches played important roles in these young men's lives. Students' PowerPoint(c) presentations to younger high school students on why they should take advanced science courses highlighted these

  12. Turkish Preservice Science Teachers' Efficacy Beliefs Regarding Science Teaching and Their Beliefs about Classroom Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gencer, Ayse Savran; Cakiroglu, Jale

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore Turkish preservice science teachers' science teaching efficacy and classroom management beliefs. Data in this study were collected from a total number of 584 preservice science teachers utilizing the Science Teaching Efficacy Belief Instrument and the attitudes and beliefs on classroom control (ABCC)…

  13. The Earth Science for Tomorrows Classroom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shanskiy, Merrit

    2015-04-01

    The Earth sciences comprises many fascinating topics that is teached to different age level pupils/students in order to bring hard core science closer to their daily life. With developing possibilities in IT, multimedia overall electronic sector the teachers/lecturers have continuous possibilities to accomplish novel approaches and utilize new ideas to make science more interesting for students in all ages. Emerging, from personal experiences, the teaching of our surrounding Environment can be very enjoyable. In our everyday life the SOIL remains invisible. The soil is covered by plant cover which makes the topic somewhat in distant that is not "visible" to an eye and its importance is underestimated. In other hand, the SOIL is valuable primary resource for food production and basis of life for healthy environment. From several studies have found that because its complications, SOIL related topics are not very often chosen topic for course or diploma works by students. The lower-school students are very open to environmental topics accordingly to the grades. Here, the good results can be obtained through complimentary materials creation, like story telling and drawing books and puzzles. The middle/ and upper/school students will experience "real science" being able to learn what the science is about which often can play a important role on making choices for future curriculum completion at university level. Current presentation shares the ideas of selected methods that had showed successful results on different Earth Science topics teaching (biodiversity, growing substrates, green house gas emissions). For some ideas the presentation introduces also the further developmental possibilities to be used in teaching at Tomorrows Classroom.

  14. Ecofeminism and the Science Classroom: A Practical Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zell, Stacy K.

    This paper examines a practical application of ecofeminism for classroom educators, particularly, science educators. Ecofeminism is often, but not exclusively, linked to projects aimed at assisting men, women and children in developing areas to organize and define development projects for their community. Mainstream applications of ecofeminism for science educators are frequently omitted from science education literature. This article gives the reader a basic understanding of ecofeminist theory as it applies to science education. Direct examples from classroom practices suggest five key points in the application of ecofeminism for classroom use.

  15. A critical hermeneutic study: Third grade elementary African American students' views of the nature of science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walls, Leon

    Nature of Science is one of the most fundamental aspects of understanding science. How different cultures, races and ethnicities see and interpret science differently is critical. However, the NOS views specific to African American teachers and learners have gone largely unresearched. The views of a purposeful sample of African American third grade children reported in this study contribute to efforts to make science equitable for all students. Conducted in two Midwest urban settings, within the students' regular classrooms, three instruments were employed: Views of Nature of Science Elementary (an interview protocol), Elementary Draw a Scientist Test (a drawing activity supplemented by an explicating narrative), and Identify a Scientist (a simple select-a-photo technique supported by Likert-measured sureness). The responses provided by twenty-three students were coded using qualitative content analysis. The findings are represented in three main categories: Science - is governed by experimentation, invention and discovery teach us about the natural world, school is not the only setting for learning science; Scientists - intelligent, happy, studious men and women playing multiple roles, with distinct physical traits working in laboratories; Students - capable users and producers of science and who view science as fun. This study advocates for: use of such instruments for constant monitoring of student views, using the knowledge of these views to construct inquiry based science lessons, and increased research about students of color.

  16. Roles of Teachers in Orchestrating Learning in Elementary Science Classrooms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhai, Junqing; Tan, Aik-Ling

    2015-12-01

    This study delves into the different roles that elementary science teachers play in the classroom to orchestrate science learning opportunities for students. Examining the classroom practices of three elementary science teachers in Singapore, we found that teachers shuttle between four key roles in enabling student learning in science. Teachers can play the role of (1) dispenser of knowledge (giver), (2) mentor of learning (advisor), (3) monitor of students' activities (police), and (4) partner in inquiry (colearner). These roles are dynamic, and while teachers show a preference for one of the four roles, factors such as the nature of the task, the types of students, as well as the availability of time and resources affect the role that teachers adopt. The roles that teachers play in the classroom have implications for the practice of science as inquiry in the classroom as well as the identities that teachers and students form in the science learning process.

  17. Elementary Teachers' Perception of Language Issues in Science Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seah, Lay Hoon

    2016-01-01

    Although the importance of language in science learning has been widely recognized by researchers, there is limited research on how science teachers perceive the roles that language plays in science classrooms. As part of an intervention design project that aimed to enhance teachers' capacity to address the language demands of science, interview…

  18. Spontaneous Play and Imagination in Everyday Science Classroom Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrée, Maria; Lager-Nyqvist, Lotta

    2013-01-01

    In science education, students sometimes create and engage in spontaneous science-oriented play where ideas about science and scientists are put to use. However, in previous research, little attention has been given to the role of informal spontaneous play in school science classrooms. We argue that, in order to enhance our understanding of…

  19. Science Laboratory Classroom Environments in Korean High Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fraser, Barry J.; Lee, Sunny S. U.

    2009-01-01

    In order to investigate the learning environment of senior high school science laboratory classrooms in Korea, the Science Laboratory Environment Inventory (SLEI) was translated into Korean and administered to 439 students (99 science-independent stream students, 195 science-oriented stream students and 145 humanities stream students). Data…

  20. The perspectives of Caribbean high school students' experiences in American science classrooms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferguson, Renae Luenell

    The purpose of this study was to describe the perspectives of Caribbean high school students' experiences in American science classrooms. Research suggests that psychological, cultural, and socioeconomic perspectives influence the science experiences of African Americans or Blacks; the result of which is under-representation (Lewis et al., 2000). Nonetheless, what is uncertain is if these and other perspectives are similar to the science experiences of Caribbeans who also are majority black by race and rank as the 3 rd largest immigrant population in America's schools (Suarez-Orozco, 2000). Questions guiding this study were: (1) What are the perspectives of Caribbean high school students' experiences in American science classrooms? (2) What can we learn from the perspectives of Caribbean high school students' science experiences that may address issues of participation and interest; consequently, influencing the overall performance of ethnic minorities in school science? Sociocultural theory provides the framework for the analysis of the study. Four Caribbean born students in an American high school participated in this naturalistic qualitative research. A constant comparative method was used to categorize and analyze the data and uncover meaningful patterns that emerged from the four interviews and written documents. Although there were similarities between African Americans' science experiences as documented in the literature and that of Caribbeans in this study, the Caribbean participants relied on prior native experiences to dictate their perspectives of their science experiences in America. According to Caribbean students, American science high schools classrooms utilize an objective style of assessments; are characterized by a lack of teacher support; allow behavioral problems in the classroom; and function through different communication styles than the native Caribbean science classroom environment. This study implies science educators should be sensitive

  1. Young African American Boys Narrating Identities in Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kane, Justine M.

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this study is to bring the voices of African American boys front and center in science education research in an effort to strengthen our understandings of their experiences of school and science. Using an interpretivist perspective within a narrative inquiry approach, I focus on the student and science-student identities two African…

  2. Biology, literacy, and the African American voice: A case study of meaningful learning in the biology classroom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reese, Keturah

    Under the direction of Sharon Murphy Augustine, Ph.D./Ph.D Curriculum and Instruction There was a substantial performance gap among African Americans and other ethnic groups. Additionally, African American students in a Title I school were at a significantly high risk of not meeting or exceeding on performance tests in science. Past reports have shown average gains in some subject areas, and declines in others (NCES, 2011; GADOE, 2012). Current instructional strategies and the lack of literacy within the biology classroom created a problem for African American high school students on national and state assessments. The purpose of this study was to examine the perceptions of African American students and teachers in the context of literacy and biology through the incorporation of an interactive notebook and other literacy strategies. The data was collected three ways: field notes for a two week observation period within the biology classroom, student and teacher interviews, and student work samples. During the observations, student work collection, and interviews, I looked for the following codes: active learning, constructive learning, collaborative learning, authentic learning, and intentional learning. In the process of coding for the pre-determined codes, three more codes emerged. The three codes that emerged were organization, studying/student ownership, and student teacher relationships. Students and teachers both solidified the notion that literacy and biology worked well together. The implemented literacy strategies were something that both teachers and students appreciated in their learning of biology. Overall students and teachers perceived that the interactive notebook along Cornell notes, Thinking maps, close reads, writing, lab experiments, and group work created meaningful learning experiences within the biology classroom.

  3. Using the Environment in Mathematics and Science Teaching: An African and Aboriginal Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ezeife, Anthony N.

    2003-07-01

    A strong case is made in this paper for the effective utilisation of the learner's environment for science and mathematics teaching in African, rural, and Aboriginal societies. Dwelling on the rich cultural heritage of indigenous, traditional, and rural settings, the paper attempts to explain why, and show how this heritage can be advantageously tapped and transferred to modern day mathematics and science classrooms and laboratories. The need for the integration of school science and mathematics with the lived experiences of learners in indigenous cultures where factors such as folklore, myths, legends, and taboos play powerful roles is also discussed. Integrating the environment into school teaching/learning, the paper argues, would contribute to an effective mathematics-science-environment-society interaction. Additionally, the approach could boost enrolment and performance in mathematics and science for students from indigenous cultural backgrounds, many of who shy away from these areas of study in present-day schools.

  4. School Science Constrained: Print Experiences in Two Elementary Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowell, Patricia M.; Ebbers, Margaretha

    2004-01-01

    Little is known about the ways in which teachers in elementary classrooms scaffold opportunities for students to engage with print resources during science inquiry lessons. Case studies have been conducted in two Grade 6 classrooms in a school jurisdiction which does not mandate use of a textbook. Inquiry-oriented instructional materials for…

  5. Disciplinary Literacy in the Science Classroom: Using Adaptive Primary Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koomen, Michele Hollingsworth; Weaver, Sarah; Blair, Robert B.; Oberhauser, Karen S.

    2016-01-01

    This study reports on an innovative version of adaptive primary literature (APL) that we call Science Behind the Scenes used during a summer professional development (PD) program. Classroom teachers read and discussed papers from the primary literature, and created translations of these papers relevant to their own classroom needs. We randomly…

  6. Flipping the Science Classroom: Exploring Merits, Issues and Pedagogy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ng, Wan

    2014-01-01

    Educators are continually being challenged to think about how best to integrate digital technologies meaningfully and effectively in their classrooms. A current trend in educational technology which has the potential to enable this in a pragmatic manner is the flipped classroom concept. This paper aims to explore the idea in Science teaching and…

  7. Mathematics and Science Learning Opportunities in Preschool Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piasta, Shayne B.; Pelatti, Christina Yeager; Miller, Heather Lynnine

    2014-01-01

    Research Findings: The present study observed and coded instruction in 65 preschool classrooms to examine (a) overall amounts and (b) types of mathematics and science learning opportunities experienced by preschool children as well as (c) the extent to which these opportunities were associated with classroom and program characteristics. Results…

  8. Achieving equity through critical science agency: An ethnographic study of African American students in a health science career academy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haun-Frank, Julie

    The purpose of this study was to examine the potential of a High School Health Science Career Academy to support African American students' science career trajectories. I used three key theoretical tools---critical science agency (Basu, 2007; Calabrese Barton & Tan, 2008), power (Nespor, 1994), and cultural production (Carlone, 2004; Eisenhart & Finkel, 1998) to highlight the intersections between the career trajectory implied by the Academy (its curriculum, classroom activities, and clinical experiences) and the students' pursued career trajectories. Data was collected over five months and included individual student interviews, group interviews, parent and administrator interviews, field notes from a culminating medical course and clinical internship, and Academy recruitment documents. The results of this study suggest that participants pursued a health science career for altruistic purposes and the Academy was a resource they drew upon to do so. However, the meanings of science and science person implied by the Academy hindered the possibility for many participants' to advance their science career trajectories. While the Academy promised to expose students to a variety of high-status health care roles, they were funneled into feminine, entry-level positions. This study adds to previous underrepresentation literature by contextualizing how identity-related factors influence African American students' career attainment.

  9. Metacognitive Strategies on Classroom Participation and Student Achievement in Senior Secondary School Science Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ibe, Helen Ngozi

    2009-01-01

    Teachers constantly face the challenges of the most effective methods of instruction that could enhance academic achievement and match the diversity among students. This study therefore aimed at examining the effects of metacognitive strategies on classroom participation and student achievement in Senior Secondary School Science classrooms. One…

  10. Making Science Trade Book Choices for Elementary Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atkinson, Terry S.; Matusevich, Melissa N.; Huber, Lisa

    2009-01-01

    Teachers often use science trade books in the classroom for a number of reasons: to enhance science instruction, to augment an adopted science textbook, or to integrate literacy with subject-area content. Using Patricia Hunsader's mathematics trade book evaluation rubric published in the April 2004 issue of "Reading Teacher" as a model, the…

  11. Technology Integration in Science Classrooms: Framework, Principles, and Examples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Minchi C.; Freemyer, Sarah

    2011-01-01

    A great number of technologies and tools have been developed to support science learning and teaching. However, science teachers and researchers point out numerous challenges to implementing such tools in science classrooms. For instance, guidelines, lesson plans, Web links, and tools teachers can easily find through Web-based search engines often…

  12. Science fiction comes into the classroom: Maelstrom II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin-Diaz, M. J.; Pizarro, A.; Bacas, P.; Garcia, J. P.; Perera, F.

    1992-01-01

    Science fiction can be used in the classroom as a helpful motivating strategy for teaching physics and chemistry. This article provides one example: Maelstrom II, written by Arthur C Clarke, is analysed from the viewpoint of mechanics

  13. The Classroom and the Community: African American Youth Speak Out.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clardy, Pauline; Cole-Robinson, Cynthia; Jones, Terrence O'C.; Michie, Gregory

    In studying urban schools, researchers have identified several critical curriculum issues related to the miseducation and alienation of African American students. This paper looks at three such issues: the disconnection between the school curriculum and African American students' cultural backgrounds and environments (e.g., black dialect versus…

  14. Autobiographical Narrative in a Language Classroom: A Case Study in a South African School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Msila, Vuyisile

    2012-01-01

    There are still many South African teachers who are challenged by the implementation of the relatively new system of education. They have to explore a variety of strategies as they try to transform their pedagogy to enhance learning in their classrooms. This post-apartheid system also challenges educators to be transformative individuals who…

  15. Engineers in the Classroom: Their Influence on African-American Students' Perceptions of Engineering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Stephen; Lyons, Jed

    2008-01-01

    A Draw an Engineer Test was used to capture the perceptions of engineering held by two similar groups of 6th grade African-American students. Forty-four students who had graduate level engineers in their classrooms during a prior school year as part of a GK-12 project were matched to 44 students who had not. Matching criteria included race,…

  16. African Americans Who Made a Difference. 15 Plays for the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1996

    These easy-to-read classroom plays are about 15 African American men and women in a variety of vocations. The plays are designed to enhance the curriculum and to make social studies come alive for the student as they bolster language-arts teaching. Each play includes a Teacher's Guide that contains some quotes from the featured person and a brief…

  17. Describing students of the African Diaspora: Understanding micro and meso level science learning as gateways to standards based discourse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehner, Ed

    2007-04-01

    In much of the educational literature, researchers make little distinction between African-American students and students of the African Diaspora who immigrated to the United States. Failing to describe these salient student differences serves to perpetuate an inaccurate view of African-American school life. In today's large cities, students of the African Diaspora are frequently learning science in settings that are devoid of the resources and tools to fully support their success. While much of the scholarship unites these disparate groups, this article details the distinctive learning culture created when students from several groups of the African Diaspora learn biology together in a Brooklyn Suspension Center. Specifically this work explains how one student, Gabriel, functions in a biology class. A self-described black-Panamanian, Gabriel had tacitly resigned to not learning science, which then, in effect, precluded him from any further associated courses of study in science, and may have excluded him from the possibility of a science related career. This ethnography follows Gabriel's science learning as he engaged in cogenerative dialogue with teachers to create aligned learning and teaching practices. During the 5 months of this research, Gabriel drew upon his unique lifeworld and the depth of his hybridized cultural identity to produce limited, but nonetheless important demonstrations of science. Coexistent with his involvement in cogenerative dialogue, Gabriel helped to construct many classroom practices that supported a dynamic learning environment which produced small yet concrete examples of standards based biology. This study supports further investigation by the science education community to consider ways that students' lifeworld experiences can serve to structure and transform the urban science classroom.

  18. Socioscience and ethics in science classrooms: Teacher perspectives and strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadler, Troy D.; Amirshokoohi, Aidin; Kazempour, Mahsa; Allspaw, Kathleen M.

    2006-04-01

    This study explored teacher perspectives on the use of socioscientific issues (SSI) and on dealing with ethics in the context of science instruction. Twenty-two middle and high school science teachers from three US states participated in semi-structured interviews, and researchers employed inductive analyses to explore emergent patterns relative to the following two questions. (1) How do science teachers conceptualize the place of ethics in science and science education? (2) How do science teachers handle topics with ethical implications and expression of their own values in their classrooms? Profiles were developed to capture the views and reported practices, relative to the place of ethics in science and science classrooms, of participants. Profile A comprising teachers who embraced the notion of infusing science curricula with SSI and cited examples of using controversial topics in their classes. Profile B participants supported SSI curricula in theory but reported significant constraints which prohibited them from actualizing these goals. Profile C described teachers who were non-committal with respect to focusing instruction on SSI and ethics. Profile D was based on the position that science and science education should be value-free. Profile E transcended the question of ethics in science education; these teachers felt very strongly that all education should contribute to their students' ethical development. Participants also expressed a wide range of perspectives regarding the expression of their own values in the classroom. Implications of this research for science education are discussed.

  19. Mathematics and Science Learning Opportunities in Preschool Classrooms

    PubMed Central

    Piasta, Shayne B.; Pelatti, Christina Yeager; Miller, Heather Lynnine

    2014-01-01

    Research findings The present study observed and coded instruction in 65 preschool classrooms to examine (a) overall amounts and (b) types of mathematics and science learning opportunities experienced by preschool children as well as (c) the extent to which these opportunities were associated with classroom and program characteristics. Results indicated that children were afforded an average of 24 and 26 minutes of mathematics and science learning opportunities, respectively, corresponding to spending approximately 25% of total instructional time in each domain. Considerable variability existed, however, in the amounts and types of mathematics and science opportunities provided to children in their classrooms; to some extent, this variability was associated with teachers’ years of experience, teachers’ levels of education, and the socioeconomic status of children served in the program. Practice/policy Although results suggest greater integration of mathematics and science in preschool classrooms than previously established, there was considerable diversity in the amounts and types of learning opportunities provided in preschool classrooms. Affording mathematics and science experiences to all preschool children, as outlined in professional and state standards, may require additional professional development aimed at increasing preschool teachers’ understanding and implementation of learning opportunities in these two domains in their classrooms. PMID:25489205

  20. Narrowing the Gulf between the Practices of Science and the Elementary School Science Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Metz, Kathleen E.

    2008-01-01

    The American Association for the Advancement of Science and the National Academy of Science have emphasized the need to design curriculum such that students do not simply learn about science, but also do science. Although obviously the knowledge-building practices among scientists and children in elementary school science classrooms will always be…

  1. The Underrepresentation of African American Female Students in STEM Fields: Implications for Classroom Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farinde, Abiola A.; Lewis, Chance W.

    2012-01-01

    African American women are underrepresented in STEM (science, technology, engineering and math) fields (Catsambis, 1994). The socialization and "under-education" of African American female students engenders ideas of inferiority, while the presence of an inferior race, sex and class, in one body, may produce an ideology of mediocrity. Data…

  2. Spontaneous Play and Imagination in Everyday Science Classroom Practice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrée, Maria; Lager-Nyqvist, Lotta

    2012-11-01

    In science education, students sometimes create and engage in spontaneous science-oriented play where ideas about science and scientists are put to use. However, in previous research, little attention has been given to the role of informal spontaneous play in school science classrooms. We argue that, in order to enhance our understanding of learning processes in school science practices, research that investigates play as an aspect of everyday culture is needed. The aim of this paper is to explore students' informal play as part of activity in lower secondary school science. The empirical study was conducted in two Swedish compulsory schools in grade 6. Data were collected throughout a teaching unit called `The Chemistry of Food' during a 10-week period using video and audiotape recordings of classroom work. Our analyses show that the play students engage in involves the transformations of given tasks. We find that students' spontaneous collective play offers opportunities for them to explore the epistemic values and norms of science and different ways of positioning in relation to science. Our findings contribute to the understanding of how learning in the school science classroom is socially and culturally-historically embedded and how individual students' engagement through play may transform and transcend existing classroom practices.

  3. Pre-Service Science Teachers' Understandings of Classroom Research and the Problems in Conducting Classroom Research Projects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jantarakantee, Ekgapoom; Roadrangka, Vantipa; Clarke, Anthony

    2012-01-01

    This research paper explores pre-service science teachers' understandings of classroom research, problems in conducting classroom research and the supports that pre-service science teachers need from their cooperating teachers to help them conduct a classroom research project during the internship period. The participants in this study are 19…

  4. Socio-Scientific Decision Making in the Science Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siribunnam, Siripun; Nuangchalerm, Prasart; Jansawang, Natchanok

    2014-01-01

    The learning ability of students in science is improved by socio-scientific decision-making, an important activity that improves a student's scientific literacy, conceptual understanding, scientific inquiry, attitudes, and social values. The socio-scientific issues must be discussed during science classroom activities in the current state of 21st…

  5. Science Objectives and their Implications Concerning Classroom Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dixon, Terry

    Many attempts have been made to define the objectives of science. Now, in the latter part of this decade, many questions still remain unanswered. The goal of this paper is to collect information on the objectives of science education and to relate this information to the role of the classroom teacher. Educators and researchers suggest that science…

  6. Science Trades in the Classroom: Good Tools for Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Janke, Delmar; Norton, Donna

    1983-01-01

    Suggesting that reading can be taught during science, this second of two parts (Part 1 in January 1983 issue) offers guidelines for selecting nonfiction books on scientific subjects. Eighteen activities based on "The Amazing Dandelion" are outlined to illustrate how science trade books can be incorporated into classroom study. (JN)

  7. Students' Regulation of Their Emotions in a Science Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomas, Louisa; Rigano, Donna; Ritchie, Stephen M.

    2016-01-01

    Research aimed at understanding the role of the affective domain in student learning in classrooms has undergone a recent resurgence due to the need to understand students' affective response to science instruction. In a case study of a year 8 science class in North Queensland, students worked in small groups to write, film, edit, and produce…

  8. Creating a Science Area in a Preschool Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rivera, Martha

    Preschool children need direct involvement with science content hands-on experiences that involve them in gathering, organizing, analyzing, and evaluating. This paper describes how to create a science area in a preschool classroom. The paper delineates the equipment needed to maintain a mentally stimulating environment for young children. It also…

  9. Networking Antarctic Research Discoveries to a Science Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Podoll, Andrew; Olson, Barry; Montplaisir, Lisa; Schwert, Donald; McVicar, Kim; Comez, Dogan; Martin, William

    2008-01-01

    In 2006, a unique scenario transported eighth-grade Earth science students from the classroom into the cold, dry, pristine surroundings of Antarctica. The mission was to expose the students to hands-on science using satellite telephones, Contact 3.0 software, and some very creative improvisation. In addition, a detailed, well-illustrated blog…

  10. Industry in the Science Classroom: A Utility Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canipe, Stephen L.

    The problem of energy supply is a multifaceted problem. If a solution is to be found, there will probably be a multifaceted answer. The science classroom perhaps provides the best forum for the open exchange of ideas among potential solvers of the problem. The solution cannot be attacked from solely a technological or science base; the social and…

  11. Enquiry-Based Science in the Infant Classroom: "Letting Go"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrne, Jenny; Rietdijk, Willeke; Cheek, Sue

    2016-01-01

    Enquiry-based science in primary classrooms is key to encouraging children's interest and curiosity about the world around them and as a result helps to stimulate their understanding and enjoyment of science. Yet many primary teachers lack the confidence to implement enquiry-based approaches effectively. The reasons are myriad and often result in…

  12. Metacognitive Strategies in the Introduction to Political Science Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lusk, Adam

    2016-01-01

    This article examines metacognitive-based teaching strategies and provides preliminary evidence about their effectiveness in the political science classroom. In a 2013 Fall semester Introduction to Political Science course, three metacognitive-based teaching strategies were designed and implemented for improving student learning through greater…

  13. Implementing Concepts of Pharmaceutical Engineering into High School Science Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kimmel, Howard; Hirsch, Linda S.; Simon, Laurent; Burr-Alexander, Levelle; Dave, Rajesh

    2009-01-01

    The Research Experience for Teachers was designed to help high school science teachers develop skills and knowledge in research, science and engineering with a focus on the area of pharmaceutical particulate and composite systems. The experience included time for the development of instructional modules for classroom teaching. Results of the…

  14. The Reality of the Earth Science Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yates, Billy Charles; And Others

    A 1991 survey of Kansas earth science teachers provides findings concerning earth science students, earth science teachers, and some current practices in earth science instruction. Generally students take earth science in seventh, eighth, or ninth grade. About two-thirds of the students taking earth science do so at the ninth grade level. The…

  15. The discipline gap and African Americans: defiance or cooperation in the high school classroom.

    PubMed

    Gregory, Anne; Weinstein, Rhona S

    2008-08-01

    African Americans are over-represented in school suspensions, yet little is known about the underlying contributing dynamics. Study 1 reviewed a high school's annual discipline data and 442 students referred for defiance. African Americans were over-represented in referrals for defiance and most students received referrals from one or several teachers. This suggests that defiance referrals are specific to the classroom situation. Examining the situational specificity of referrals, Study 2 used repeated measures and multilevel modeling with a sub-sample of 30 African American students. Attendance, grades, and teacher reports showed that students behaved more defiantly and less cooperatively with teachers perceived as having untrustworthy authority. Predictors of African American student trust in teacher authority included teacher caring and high expectations, offering implications for lowering the discipline gap.

  16. Classrooms Matter: The Design of Virtual Classrooms Influences Gender Disparities in Computer Science Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheryan, Sapna; Meltzoff, Andrew N.; Kim, Saenam

    2011-01-01

    Three experiments examined whether the design of virtual learning environments influences undergraduates' enrollment intentions and anticipated success in introductory computer science courses. Changing the design of a virtual classroom--from one that conveys current computer science stereotypes to one that does not--significantly increased…

  17. African American perspectives: A qualitative study of an informal science enrichment program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simpson, Jamila Rashida

    The purposes of this study were to determine what program characteristics African American parents consider when they enroll their children into an informal science education enrichment program, the parents' evaluation of a program called Jordan Academy in which they enrolled their children, and the alignment of the parents' perspectives with Black Cultural Ethos (BCE). BCE refers to nine dimensions posited by Wade Boykin, a psychologist, as comprising African American culture. Participants were parents of students that attended Jordan Academy, an informal science enrichment program designed for third through sixth grade students from underserved populations. Qualitative methodologies were utilized to perform a thorough assessment of parents' perspectives. Data sources included classroom observations, student surveys, academy curriculum, photos and video-taped class sessions. Data included teachers and parents' responses to semi-structured, audio recorded interviews and students' written responses to open-ended items on the program's evaluation instrument. The data were analyzed for themes and the findings compared to Black Cultural Ethos. Findings revealed that the participants believed that informal science education offered their children opportunities not realized in the formal school setting - a means of impacting their children holistically. The parents expressed the academic, cultural, and personal development of their children in their characterizations of the ideal informal science education experience and in their evaluations of Jordan Academy. Overall, the parents' views emphasized the BCE values of harmony, affect, verve, movement, orality and communalism. The study has important implications for practices within and research on informal science education.

  18. Incorporating History into the Science Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rudge, David W.; Howe, Eric M.

    2004-01-01

    Many science teachers recognize that teaching aspects of the history of science helps students learn science content and the nature of science (NOS). The use of history can potentially humanize science, help students refine their critical thinking skills, promote a deeper understanding of scientific concepts, and address common student…

  19. Developing Language Skills in Science Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jimenez-Silva, Margarita; Gomez, Conrado Laborin

    2011-01-01

    Science teachers need specific strategies to develop writing skills along with science content. Fortunately, research has demonstrated that science-teaching methodology can accomplish both the teaching of science content and various language skills, including writing. A technique suitable for and utilized by science teachers is the "mode…

  20. Teaching and Learning in Two Languages in African Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clegg, John; Afitska, Oksana

    2011-01-01

    In sub-Saharan Africa, education conducted through a European language is associated with low school achievement. Both teachers and learners may often not be fluent enough to use the language as a medium of instruction. In these circumstances, both also make use of a common African language. They switch between two languages in the plenary…

  1. Mapping Science in Discourse-based Inquiry Classrooms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeneayhu, Demeke Gesesse

    Abstract The purpose of this study was to investigate how discourse-based inquiry science lessons provided opportunities for students to develop a network of semantic relations among core ideas and concepts in science. It was a naturalistic inquiry classroom lessons observation study on three science teachers--- a middle school science teacher and two high school physics teachers in an urban school district located in the Western New York region. Discourse and thematic analysis drawn from the theory of Systemic Functional Linguistics were utilized as guiding framework and analysis tools. Analysis of the pre-observation and post-observation interviews of the participant teachers revealed that all of the three teachers participated in at least one inquiry-based science teaching teacher professional development program and they all thought their classroom teaching practice was inquiry-based. Analysis of their classroom lesson videos that each participant teacher taught on a specific science topic revealed that the middle school teacher was found to be a traditional teacher-dominated classroom whereas the two high school physics teachers' classroom teaching approach was found to be discourse-based inquiry. One of the physics teachers who taught on a topic of Magnetic Interaction used relatively structured and guided-inquiry classroom investigations. The other physics teacher who taught on a topic of Color Mixing utilized open-ended classroom investigations where the students planned and executed the series of classroom science investigations with minimal guidance from the teacher. The traditional teacher-based classroom communicative pattern was found to be dominated by Triadic Dialogue and most of the science thematics were jointly developed by the teacher and the students, but the students' role was limited to providing responses to the teacher's series questions. In the guided-inquiry classroom, the common communicative pattern was found to be True Dialogue and most

  2. Explanation, argumentation and dialogic interactions in science classrooms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aguiar, Orlando G.

    2016-04-01

    As a responsive article to Miranda Rocksén's paper "The many roles of `explanation' in science education: a case study", this paper aims to emphasize the importance of the two central themes of her paper: dialogic approaches in science education and the role of explanations in science classrooms. I start discussing the concepts of dialogue and dialogism in science classrooms contexts. Dialogism is discussed as the basic tenet from which Rocksén developed her research design and methods. In turn, dialogues in science classrooms may be considered as a particular type of discourse that allows the students' culture, mostly based on everyday knowledge, and the science school culture, related to scientific knowledge and language to be interwoven. I argue that in school, science teachers are always committed to the resolution of differences according to a scientific position for the knowledge to be constructed. Thus, the institution of schooling constrains the ways in which dialogue can be conducted in the classrooms, as the scientific perspective will be always, beforehand, the reference for the conclusions to be reached. The second theme developed here, in dialogue with Rocksén, is about explanations in science classrooms. Based on Jean Paul Bronckart (Atividade de linguagem, textos e discursos: por um interacionismo sócio-discursivo, Educ, São Paulo, 1999), the differences and relationship between explanation and argumentation as communicative acts are re-discussed as well its practical consequences to science teaching. Finally, some epistemological questions are raised about the status of scientific explanations in relation to non-scientific ones.

  3. African American eighth-grade female students' perceptions and experiences as learners of science literacy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crim, Sharan R.

    The National Assessment of Educational Progress (2000) reports an achievement gap between male and female students and majority and minority students in science literacy. Rutherford and Algren (2000) describe a scientifically literate person as one who is aware that science, mathematics, and technology are interdependent human enterprises with strengths and limitations; understands key concepts and principles of science; is familiar with the natural world and recognizes both its diversity and unity; and uses scientific knowledge and scientific ways of thinking for individual and social purposes. The purpose of this qualitative case study research was to investigate African American eighth grade female students' perceptions and experiences as learners of science literacy. A social learning theory (Bandura, 1986) and constructivist theory (Vygotsky, 1977) served as a guide for the researcher. Two questions were explored: (1) What are African American eighth grade female students' perceptions and experiences as learners of science literacy? (2) In what ways do the perceptions and experiences of African American eighth grade female students influence their learning of science literacy? Purposeful sampling (Merriam, 1998) was used with four African American eighth grade female students selected as participants for the study. Data collection and analysis occurred between February and August in a single year. Data sources included an open-ended questionnaire, two in-depth interviews with each participant (Seidman, 1991); classroom observations, participant reflective journals, student artifacts, and a researcher's log. Data were analyzed through the constant comparative method (Glaser & Strauss, 1967), and richly descriptive participant portraits and qualitative case studies (Merriam, 1998) were used to report the findings. Three themes emerged from the study that positively affected the perceptions and experiences of African American eighth grade female students as

  4. African Americans Majoring in Science at Predominantly White Universities (A Review of the Literature)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Andre; Glasson, George

    2009-01-01

    One of the most significant problems facing science education is the under-representation of African Americans in science related fields (Young, 2005). African American constitute a little more than 12% of the United States population. However, as recently as 1999 African Americans only comprised only 3.4% of persons working in science and…

  5. Exploring the contexts of urban science classrooms. Part 1: Investigating corporate and communal practices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emdin, Christopher

    2007-04-01

    In this paper, I discuss the existence of varying ideologies and perspectives within urban science classrooms and uncover the importance of focusing on student and teacher practices as a means to bridge these disconnections. Specifically, I describe the existence of corporate and communal ideologies and the dynamics that create the misalignment between groups that hold allegiances to these varying belief systems. Utilizing three allied theoretical frames, this paper provides a multi layered and timely analysis of the teaching of science in an urban high school in New York City. I conjoin Bourdieu's sociocultural theory, an analysis of social life through the use of the structure|agency dialectic, and a theorizing of corporate and communal practice to embark on a journey into how African American and Latino/a students' ways of knowing and being can be utilized to meet the goal of improving their success in science.

  6. Elementary Science Students' Motivation and Learning Strategy Use: Constructivist Classroom Contextual Factors in a Life Science Laboratory and a Traditional Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milner, Andrea R.; Templin, Mark A.; Czerniak, Charlene M.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the influence of constructivist classroom contextual factors in a life science laboratory and a traditional science classroom on elementary students' motivation and learning strategy use. The Constructivist Teaching Inventory was used to examine classroom contextual factors. The Motivated Strategies for…

  7. Making Science Homework Work: The Perspectives of Exemplary African American Science Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xu, Jianzhong; Coats, Linda T.; Davidson, Mary L.

    2012-01-01

    Background/Context: Despite the best intentions to close the achievement gap, the underachievement of African American students in science is a persistent problem. It is surprising to note, however, that research on science education has often failed to consider students' cultural diversity as it relates to science education. On the few occasions…

  8. South African Human Sciences Research Networking Directory. First Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Berg, Henda, Ed.; Maree-Snijders, Asa, Ed.; Prinsloo, Roelf, Ed.

    This networking directory is a comprehensive reference source of names, locations, and fields of interest of South African human sciences researchers. The guide is intended to promote research cooperation, facilitate networking, and organize conferences. The directory is intended for use at both the international level and the local level. The…

  9. Do science coaches promote inquiry-based instruction in the elementary science classroom?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wicker, Rosemary Knight

    The South Carolina Mathematics and Science Coaching Initiative established a school-based science coaching model that was effective in improving instruction by increasing the level of inquiry-based instruction in elementary science classrooms. Classroom learning environment data from both teacher groups indicated considerable differences in the quality of inquiry instruction for those classrooms of teachers supported by a science coach. All essential features of inquiry were demonstrated more frequently and at a higher level of open-ended inquiry in classrooms with the support of a science coach than were demonstrated in classrooms without a science coach. However, from teacher observations and interviews, it was determined that elementary schoolteacher practice of having students evaluate conclusions and connect them to current scientific knowledge was often neglected. Teachers with support of a science coach reported changes in inquiry-based instruction that were statistically significant. This mixed ethnographic study also suggested that the Mathematics and Science Coaching Initiative Theory of Action for Instructional Improvement was an effective model when examining the work of science coaches. All components of effective school infrastructure were positively impacted by a variety of science coaching strategies intended to promote inquiry. Professional development for competent teachers, implementation of researched-based curriculum, and instructional materials support were areas highly impacted by the work of science coaches.

  10. Teacher and Parent Perceptions of Classroom Experiences of African American Male Students in a High School Alternative Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Kimberly C.

    2013-01-01

    A major concern in the public schools is the low academic achievement of African American males. This mixed methods study examined the classroom experiences of African American male students in an alternative program. The dual purpose was to investigate the teachers' perceptions and their ability to provide best learning environments for…

  11. A Case Study of the Academic Achievement of African American Males in Single-Sex Classrooms in Rural South Carolina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pannell, Lynette Martin

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the differences of Measures of Academic Progress (MAP) scores between fourth-grade African American male students who were enrolled in single-sex classrooms and their counterparts who were enrolled in coeducational classrooms. The research provided descriptive data concerning one Title I school in rural…

  12. Successful African American women in science: A narrative inquiry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petty, Cailisha L.

    This study used narrative inquiry as a methodology to explore the lived experiences of five African American women in science across the academic spectrum, from doctoral candidate to full professor. The research questions guiding the inquiry included one overarching question and three sub-questions: What are the lifestories of successful African American women in science?; a) How do successful African American women in science define themselves?; b) What have been the facilitators and barriers encountered by successful African American women in science?; and c) What have been the systems of support for African American women in science? The study was theoretically positioned within the frameworks of Critical Race Theory and Black Feminist Thought. The two theories were used to guide all aspects of the study including methodology, data collection, and analysis. Data included eleven 40-60 minute semi-structured interview transcripts as well as the participants' Curriculum Vitae. The study design and data analysis were built upon Clandinin and Connelly's (2000) and Clandinin's (2006) model of narrative inquiry which explores narratives as a means to understand experience. Analysis and interpretation created three dominant narratives: Scientific Beginnings, An Unexpected Journey, and Lift as You Climb. Each narrative set explores multiple stories that describe storylines which aligned with the participants' goals of who they were and who they were becoming as scientists; and, storylines of tension which ran counter to the women's goals and aspirations. Barriers and support systems are revealed, as well as the meanings the participants made of their experiences and how it affected their lives.

  13. Urban African-American middle school science students: Does standards-based teaching make a difference?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butler Kahle, Jane; Meece, Judith; Scantlebury, Kathryn

    2000-11-01

    The current reform movement in science education promotes standards-based teaching, including the use of inquiry, problem solving, and open-ended questioning, to improve student achievement. This study examines the influence of standards-based teaching practices on the achievement of urban, African-American, middle school science students. Science classes of teachers who had participated in the professional development (n = 8) of Ohio's statewide systemic initiative (SSI) were matched with classes of teachers (n = 10) who had not participated. Data were gathered using group-administered questionnaires and achievement tests that were specifically designed for Ohio's SSI. Analyses indicate that teachers who frequently used standards-based teaching practices positively influenced urban, African-American students' science achievement and attitudes, especially for boys. Additionally, teachers' involvement in the SSI's professional development was positively related to the reported use of standards-based teaching practices in the classroom. The findings support the efficacy of high-quality professional development to change teaching practices and to enhance student learning.

  14. Professional development and poststructural analysis: Stories of African-American science teachers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, Felicia Michelle

    2003-10-01

    This interpretivist study focused on the professional development of three African American science teachers from a small rural school district, Carver School District (pseudonym), in the southeastern United States. Stories teachers shared of their experiences in teaching and learning science and in their professional development were analyzed using a feminist poststructural analysis of power, knowledge/meaning, language, and difference. For science teaching, power was viewed as a form of ownership or possession and also as effect and processes that impact teaching, learning, and professional development. Teachers through instructional practices exerted a certain amount of power in their classrooms. Teaching practices heavily influenced student learning in science classrooms. For teacher professional development, power was viewed as effecting relationships between administration, peers, and students as a shifting force within different social contexts. Science teachers were perceived as objects of the system and as active social agents who in particular relations of power acted in their best interests as they developed as science teachers. Teachers negotiated for themselves certain power relations to do as they wished for teaching science and for participating in teacher professional development activities. Power was an inherent and critically important aspect in understanding what science teachers do in their classrooms, in teaching and learning science, and in developing as science teachers. Knowledge was closely tied to relations of power in that teachers acquired knowledge about themselves, their teaching of science, and their students from their past experiences and professional development activities. Through language, interactions between teachers and students enabled or disabled access to the culture of power via instructional practices. Language was implicated in teacher professional development as a powerful force for advancing or hindering teachers

  15. Thermal Imaging in the Science Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Short, Daniel B.

    2012-01-01

    Thermal cameras are useful tools for use in scientific investigation and for teaching scientific concepts to students in the classroom. Demonstrations of scientific phenomena can be greatly enhanced visually by the use of this cutting-edge technology. (Contains 7 figures.)

  16. Commercial Video Games in the Science Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Angelone, Lauren

    2010-01-01

    There's no denying that middle school students are interested in video games. With such motivation present, we as teachers should harness this media in a productive way in our classrooms. Students today are much more technologically advanced than ever before, and using video games is one more way to use something from their world as a teaching…

  17. Examining classroom interactions related to difference in students' science achievement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zady, Madelon F.; Portes, Pedro R.; Ochs, V. Dan

    2003-01-01

    The current study examines the cognitive supports that underlie achievement in science by using a cultural historical framework (L. S. Vygotsky (1934/1986), Thought and Language, MIT Press, Cambridge, MA.) and the activity setting (AS) construct (R. G. Tharp & R. Gallimore (1988), Rousing minds to life: Teaching, learning and schooling in social context, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, MA.) with its five features: personnel, motivations, scripts, task demands, and beliefs. Observations were made of the classrooms of seventh-grade science students, 32 of whom had participated in a prior achievement-related parent-child interaction or home study (P. R. Portes, M. F. Zady, & R. M. Dunham (1998), Journal of Genetic Psychology, 159, 163-178). The results of a quantitative analysis of classroom interaction showed two features of the AS: personnel and scripts. The qualitative field analysis generated four emergent phenomena related to the features of the AS that appeared to influence student opportunity for conceptual development. The emergent phenomenon were science activities, the building of learning, meaning in lessons, and the conflict over control. Lastly, the results of the two-part classroom study were compared to those of the home science AS of high and low achievers. Mismatches in the AS features in the science classroom may constrain the opportunity to learn. Educational implications are discussed.

  18. Using Computers in the Marine Science Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walton, Susan; McLamb, L. W.

    1985-01-01

    Discusses various ways in which computers can be used in marine science studies. Includes representative software which illustrate marine science concepts and goals of the Computerized Marine Education Network. (JN)

  19. Interactions between Classroom Discourse, Teacher Questioning, and Student Cognitive Engagement in Middle School Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smart, Julie B.; Marshall, Jeff C.

    2013-01-01

    Classroom discourse can affect various aspects of student learning in science. The present study examines interactions between classroom discourse, specifically teacher questioning, and related student cognitive engagement in middle school science. Observations were conducted throughout the school year in 10 middle school science classrooms using…

  20. Hal in the Classroom: Science Fiction Films.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amelio, Ralph J.

    The articles in this book provide political, social, sociological, psychological, sexual, mythical, literary, and filmic approaches to the study of science fiction film. "Journey into Science Fiction" by W. Johnson and "The Imagination of Disaster" by S. Sontag treat broadly the essentials of science fiction films. "For the Future: The Science…

  1. Turkish Preservice Science Teachers' Socioscientific Issues-Based Teaching Practices in Middle School Science Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Genel, Abdulkadir; Topçu, Mustafa Sami

    2016-01-01

    Background: Despite a growing body of research and curriculum reforms including socioscientific issues (SSI) across the world, how preservice science teachers (PST) or in-service science teachers can teach SSI in science classrooms needs further inquiry. Purpose: The purpose of this study is to describe the abilities of PSTs to teach SSI in middle…

  2. Your Science Classroom: Becoming an Elementary/Middle School Science Teacher

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldston, M. Jenice; Downey, Laura

    2012-01-01

    Designed around a practical "practice-what-you-teach" approach to methods instruction, "Your Science Classroom: Becoming an Elementary/Middle School Science Teacher" is based on current constructivist philosophy, organized around 5E inquiry, and guided by the National Science Education Teaching Standards. Written in a reader-friendly style, the…

  3. Socializing Respect and Knowledge in a Racially Integrated Science Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solis, Jorge; Kattan, Shlomy; Baquedano-Lopez, Patricia

    2009-01-01

    In this article we examine the socialization of respect in a racially integrated science classroom in Northern California that employed a character education program called Tribes. We focus on the ways scripts derived from this program are enacted during Community Circle activities and how breaches to these scripts and the norms of respectful…

  4. Literacy and the Science Classroom. Technical Report No. 51.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bank Street Coll. of Education, New York, NY. Center for Children and Technology.

    This document consists of three papers which explore aspects of language use in science classrooms descriptively and prescriptively, based on naturalistic and experimental observations. The discovery of the importance of the verbal mode of communication through involvement in creating computer-based activities is discussed. Papers include: (1)…

  5. Intelligent Design in the Public School Science Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hickey, Wesley D.

    2013-01-01

    The ongoing battle to insert intelligent causes into the science classrooms has been met with political approval and scientific rejection. Administrators in the United States need to be aware of the law related to creationism and intelligent design in order to lead in local curricular battles. Although unlikely to appease the ID proponents, there…

  6. Cheche Konnen: Science and Literacy in Language Minority Classrooms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warren, Beth; And Others

    A study examined the relationship between science learning and literacy development in two language minority classrooms: a self-contained, combined grade 7-8 class of Haitian students and a multilingual basic skills class within a large high school bilingual education program. In particular, the investigation analyzed the ways in which a model of…

  7. Power Dynamics and Questioning in Elementary Science Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reinsvold, Lori A.; Cochran, Kathryn F.

    2012-01-01

    We describe the dynamic discourse interactions between a teacher and her students in a third-grade science classroom. We focused on how the teacher and students initiate, prompt, respond, and provide feedback; use questioning and power strategies; and how questions are associated with power dynamics. We relate the consequences of teacher use of…

  8. Backyard Botany: Using GPS Technology in the Science Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    March, Kathryn A.

    2012-01-01

    Global Positioning System (GPS) technology can be used to connect students to the natural world and improve their skills in observation, identification, and classification. Using GPS devices in the classroom increases student interest in science, encourages team-building skills, and improves biology content knowledge. Additionally, it helps…

  9. Instantiation of Multimodal Semiotic Systems in Science Classroom Discourse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tang, Kok-Sing

    2013-01-01

    Science classroom discourse is inherently multimodal in that scientific meanings are made through an integration of multiple semiotic systems (e.g., language, diagrams, equations). Although some studies have described this multimodal nature, few have examined and explained the relationship between the integration of multiple semiotic systems and…

  10. Student Perception of Writing in the Science Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deakin, Kathleen J.

    2010-01-01

    This study examines factors that shape four student's perceptions of writing tasks in their science classroom. This qualitative retrospective interview study focuses on four students concurrently enrolled in honors English and honors biology. This research employs a phenomenological perspective on writing, examining whether the writing strategies…

  11. Integrating Science and Language Arts in Your Classroom. Reproducibles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pottle, Jean; Rutley, Mary

    This book contains information on a wide range of books for interdisciplinary teaching and makes connections with science, math, language, social studies, music, and art. The items referenced contain book summaries, lists of objectives, ideas for connecting the subjects taught in elementary and middle school, field and classroom activities,…

  12. The discourse of design-based science classroom activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azevedo, Flávio S.; Martalock, Peggy L.; Keser, Tugba

    2015-06-01

    This paper is an initial contribution to a general theory in which science classroom activity types and epistemological discourse practices are systematically linked. The idea is that activities and discourse are reflexively related, so that different types of science classroom activities (e.g., scientific argumentation, modeling, and design) recruit characteristically distinct forms of participants' (students and teacher) discourse. Such a general theory would eventually map out the full spectrum of discourse practices (and their patterns of manifestation) across various kinds of science classroom activities, and reveal new relationships between forms of both discourse and activities. Because this defines a complex and long-term project, here our aim is simply to delineate this larger theoretical program and to illustrate it with a detailed case study—namely, that of mapping out and characterizing the discourse practices of design- based science classroom activities. To do so, we draw on data from an activity that is prototypically design-based—i.e., one in which students iteratively design and refine an artifact (in this case, pictorial representations of moving objects)—and examine the structure and dynamics of the whole-class discourse practices that emerge around these representational forms. We then compare and contrast these discourse practices to those of an activity that is prototypical of scientific argumentation (taken from the literature)—i.e., one in which students argue between competing theories and explanations of a phenomenon—and begin to illustrate the kinds of insights our theoretical program might afford.

  13. Teachers' Use of Textbooks: Practice in Namibian Science Classrooms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lubben, Fred; Campbell, Bob; Kasanda, Choshi; Kapenda, Hileni; Gaoseb, Noah; Kandjeo-Marenga, Utji

    2003-01-01

    Presents the results of a study that focused on incidences of prescribed textbook usage in Namibian science classrooms. Indicates teacher dominated textbook use and restricted range of textbook references per lesson. States that the teachers used textbooks for diagrams and data and to verify factual information. (CMK)

  14. The Scilink Project: Linking Science Classrooms for Cooperative Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morford, Gary

    1990-01-01

    Described is a pilot program designed to develop communication links between local science classrooms. The effects of the use of Sci-Link will be investigated. The proposed Sci-Link projects are described including stream acidity, raindrop size, rocket payloads, gypsy moth populations, and home energy use. (KR)

  15. Classroom Activities and Demonstrations for Use in Behavioral Science Courses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cology, Lorry J.

    This compilation provides descriptions of and resource materials for 25 classroom activities or demonstrations for behavioral science courses. For each activity, the following information is provided: subject area, source, time required and materials needed. In addition, discussion questions and comments on the value and use of the activities are…

  16. Silent Students' Participation in a Large Active Learning Science Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Obenland, Carrie A.; Munson, Ashlyn H.; Hutchinson, John S.

    2012-01-01

    Active learning in large science classrooms furthers opportunities for students to engage in the content and in meaningful learning, yet students can still remain anonymously silent. This study aims to understand the impact of active learning on these silent students in a large General Chemistry course taught via Socratic questioning and…

  17. The Effect of Using Clickers in Higher Education Science Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Sheila

    2012-01-01

    Clickers have been used in schools for nearly a decade. However, there is limited research examining clicker influence on student achievement. Using the Mollborn and Hoekstra (2010) Clicker Model as its theoretical framework, this study investigated the influence of clicker use on higher education science classrooms. The research was conducted in…

  18. Blogging to Improve Instruction in Differentiated Science Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colombo, Michaela W.; Colombo, Paul D.

    2007-01-01

    The need for highly qualified science teachers who can differentiate instruction for diverse learners is acute. The authors show how the wise use of classroom blogs, coupled with podcasts and vodcasts, can help teachers extend and differentiate their instruction. (Contains 4 endnotes.)

  19. Promoting Inclusive Practices in Inquiry-Based Science Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watt, Sarah J.; Therrien, William J.; Kaldenberg, Erica; Taylor, Jonte

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide an overview of inquiry-based instruction and to outline components of inquiry-based instruction key to ensuring that students with disabilities in inclusive science classrooms acquire core concepts. The use of collaboration, big ideas, knowledge and retention strategies, and formative assessments are…

  20. "I am Not a Statistic": Identities of African American Males in Advanced Science Courses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Diane Wynn

    The United States Bureau of Labor Statistics (2010) expects new industries to generate approximately 2.7 million jobs in science and technology by the year 2018, and there is concern as to whether there will be enough trained individuals to fill these positions. A tremendous resource remains untapped, African American students, especially African American males (National Science Foundation, 2009). Historically, African American males have been omitted from the so called science pipeline. Fewer African American males pursue a science discipline due, in part; to limiting factors they experience in school and at home (Ogbu, 2004). This is a case study of African American males who are enrolled in advanced science courses at a predominantly African American (84%) urban high school. Guided by expectancy-value theory (EVT) of achievement related results (Eccles, 2009; Eccles et al., 1983), twelve African American male students in two advanced science courses were observed in their science classrooms weekly, participated in an in-depth interview, developed a presentation to share with students enrolled in a tenth grade science course, responded to an open-ended identity questionnaire, and were surveyed about their perceptions of school. Additionally, the students' teachers were interviewed, and seven of the students' parents. The interview data analyses highlighted the important role of supportive parents (key socializers) who had high expectations for their sons and who pushed them academically. The students clearly attributed their enrollment in advanced science courses to their high regard for their science teachers, which included positive relationships, hands-on learning in class, and an inviting and encouraging learning environment. Additionally, other family members and coaches played important roles in these young men's lives. Students' PowerPoint(c) presentations to younger high school students on why they should take advanced science courses highlighted these

  1. Supported inquiry science: teaching for conceptual change in urban and suburban science classrooms.

    PubMed

    Dalton, B; Morocco, C C; Tivnan, T; Mead, P L

    1997-01-01

    Science education professionals generally agree that hands-on, inquiry-based science potentially benefits all students, yet there are few specific guidelines for helping students with learning disabilities (LD) achieve success in general education science classrooms. This study compared the effects of two approaches to hands-on science--supported inquiry science (SIS) and activity-based science--in six urban and two suburban fourth-grade general education classrooms. Participants included 172 students, 33 of whom had learning disabilities. The study found that students with and without LD demonstrated greater concept learning in the SIS classrooms, which focused on eliciting and reworking students' misconceptions and co-constructing knowledge under the guidance of a teacher-coach.

  2. Equity and what secondary science teachers bring to the classroom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Austin, Barbara Anne

    The demographics of people working in science-based careers do not match the demographics of the larger society. In particular, people who self-identify as Hispanic are underrepresented among working scientists. One reason may be the influence of formal schooling and more specifically, the behaviors of teachers in secondary science classrooms. This study looks at the practices of eight secondary science teachers at two schools at which 62% of the enrolled students declare their ethnicity as Hispanic. All of the teachers have at least three years of experience. Through interviews with the teachers, classroom observation, and interviews with other faculty, this research elucidates typical behaviors and attitudes surrounding teaching science in these settings. In spite of having a deficit view of their students, they all express interest in and concern about the students they teach. Their characterizations of teaching practices and classroom behaviors do not incorporate strategies designed to promote content learning through culturally relevant curriculum. Instead, they use mainstream-situated approaches that develop science content knowledge, vocabulary, procedures, and skills targeted toward high achievement on state and district standardized tests leading toward graduation or success in college. These approaches are consistent with a view of equity that increases the participation of underrepresented groups in science based careers in that it gives students the skills and knowledge they will need in order to successfully pursue these careers. Additionally, they behave in ways that are consistent with equitable strategies such as using inquiry based teaching, serving as role models, and providing a structured learning environment. This research informs the literature base for instructional systems designers by identifying what that teachers situated in culturally diverse classrooms bring to professional development programs targeted toward making secondary science

  3. Science Students' Classroom Discourse: Tasha's Umwelt

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnold, Jenny

    2012-01-01

    Over the past twenty-five years researchers have been concerned with understanding the science student. The need for such research is still grounded in contemporary issues including providing opportunities for all students to develop scientific literacy and the failure of school science to connect with student's lives, interests and personal…

  4. Discovery Stories in the Science Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arya, Diana Jaleh

    2010-01-01

    School science has been criticized for its lack of emphasis on the tentative, dynamic nature of science as a process of learning more about our world. This criticism is the guiding force for this present body of work, which focuses on the question: what are the educational benefits for middle school students of reading texts that highlight the…

  5. Physical Science in Constructivist Early Childhood Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kato, Tsuguhiko; Van Meeteren, Beth Dykstra

    2008-01-01

    Teachers at the Freeburg Early Childhood Program know that experimentation with physical science is of great interest to young children, and can begin as early as the age of 3. The constructivist teachers at this experimental school at the University of Northern Iowa worked for six years to develop a center-based approach to physical science with…

  6. Using Science Fiction in the Classroom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lebofsky, L. A.; Lebofsky, N. R.

    2002-05-01

    At the University of Arizona, all non-science majors are required to take two Tier 1 and one Tier 2 General Education science classes. These are the only science classes that most of these students will take at the University. This groups includes all future K-8 certified teachers. Improving reading comprehension in science and improving writing skills are two of the main requirements of the General Education classes. For my 150 -- 300 students (1 -- 2 classes per semester) I have chosen to use science fiction stories to meet part of these requirements. This assignment provides for assessment of students' writing in several ways: As an alternative assessment: connecting the course material to what they have read. As an alternative assessment: student knowledge of science and technology in general. This assignment also provides for assessment of their comprehension of the authors' application of science fact as follows: Making students aware of how our science knowledge and technology have changed in the years since these books were written (30 -- 140 years ago). Students are required to turn in a short draft version of the assignment about halfway through the semester. They receive feedback on their format (i.e., following directions), appropriateness of chosen topics, spelling, grammar, etc. Books are chosen at a variety of reading levels to accommodate a range of reading levels including students with limited proficiency in English and those with learning disabilities. The books that we are presently using and examples of student writing will be displayed.

  7. Exploring how teachers talk in elementary science classrooms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mattison, Sandra Harbol

    The purpose of this study was to gain a greater understanding of how teachers talk in elementary science classrooms and how that talk assists students in making meaning of science. A premise of this study was the recognition of the importance of the goal of scientific literacy for students. Individuals who are scientifically literate have more opportunities for employment and the potential for an improved quality of life. The process of educating students in scientific literacy begins in elementary school, thus underscoring the importance of quality elementary science education. Using socio-cultural theory and the role of social languages in classrooms as a lens, this study explored the role of teacher talk in the development of student understanding in science. The literature review identified three areas of instruction that were relevant to the teaching of science. The three areas were patterns of teacher talk (IRE/IRF), the authoritative/dialogic continuum and the development of everyday/academic language. The research questions aligned with these three areas focusing on control of talk in classrooms as evidenced through patterns of talk and the development of the academic language of science. Two fourth grade teachers were observed during science instruction and the transcripts of their talk was used for data analysis. Data analysis generated quantitative and qualitative data sets. The results showed that language played two different roles in assisting students construct an understanding of science. The primary use of language by one teacher was the transmission of science content and checking student understanding. The other teacher viewed language as important for both teacher and students; using language as an instructional device to further student understanding.

  8. Using Science Fiction in the Classroom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lebofsky, L. A.; Lebofsky, N. R.

    2002-09-01

    At the University of Arizona, all non-science majors are required to take two Tier 1 and one Tier 2 General Education science classes. These are the only science classes that most of these students will take at the University. This includes all future K-8 certified teachers --- our future teachers of science. Improving reading comprehension in science and improving writing skills are two of the main requirements of the General Education classes. For my 150 -- 300 students (1 -- 2 classes per semester) I have chosen to use science fiction stories to meet part of these requirements. This assignment provides for assessment of students' writing in several ways: As an alternative assessment: connecting the course material to what they have read. As an alternative assessment: student knowledge of science and technology in general. This assignment also provides for assessment of their comprehension of the authors' application of science fact: Making students aware of how our science knowledge and technology have changed in the years since these books were written (30 -- 140 years ago). Students are required to turn in a short draft version of the assignment about halfway through the semester. They receive feedback on their format (i.e., following directions), appropriateness of chosen topics, spelling, grammar, etc. Books are chosen at a variety of reading levels to accommodate a range of proficiencies, including choices appropriate for students with limited proficiency in English and those with learning disabilities. The books that we are presently using and examples of student writing will be displayed. This work was supported in part with a grant from the Department of Education (AzTEC).

  9. Talking Science: Language and Learning in Science Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roth, Wolff-Michael

    2005-01-01

    This book is about the fundamental nature of talk in school science. Language as a formal system provides resources for conducting everyday affairs, including the doing of science. While writing science is one aspect, talking science may in fact constitute a much more important means by which people navigate and know the world--the very medium…

  10. Silencing of voices in a Swedish science classroom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramos de Robles, S. Lizette

    2016-09-01

    From a sociocultural perspective, I discuss data from a Swedish science classroom presented in María Gómez's article "Student Explanations of their Science Teachers' Assessments, Grading Practices, and How they learn Science". In this discussion, I focus on the need to change existing conceptions of assessment in the teaching and learning of science. Next, I talk about the importance of taking into consideration the dialectic between agency and passivity as filters in order to understand what student silence may signify in science classes as well as in relation to their perceptions of assessment. I conclude with the importance of the teacher's role in developing formative assessment, along with the challenges in developing assessments which transform science education into a relevant field of knowledge for both students and society at large.

  11. Career Education in the Science Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finn, Peter; Bockler, Donald

    1977-01-01

    Several career education activities for science students are listed. Included are questions for interviews and projects in the following areas: plumbing and electricity, environmental control, medicine, wood and wood products, and audiovisual production. (CS)

  12. Classroom Demonstrations in Materials Science/Engineering.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hirschhorn, J. S.; And Others

    Examples are given of demonstrations used at the University of Wisconsin in a materials science course for nontechnical students. Topics include crystal models, thermal properties, light, and corrosion. (MLH)

  13. Girls Doing Science: A Case Study of Science Literacy in All-Female Middle Grade Classrooms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faller, Susan Elisabeth

    In the face of low adolescent literacy rates (NCES, 2012), concerns about the nation's prospects of remaining competitive in science and technology (Hill, Corbett, & St. Rose, 2010), a persistent gender gap in science (NCES, 2012; Reilly, 2012), and the continued rollout of college- and career-ready standards, there is a need to focus on adolescent girls' science literacy. Such science literacy involves not only general knowledge about science, but also the ability to engage in the advanced reading and writing practices fundamental to doing science (Norris & Phillips, 2003). In this thesis, I present three articles with findings that respond to this need. They are the results of a multiple-case embedded (Yin, 2009) study that I conducted over the course of 7 months in four science classrooms (grades 5 through 8; 50 students) taught by a single teacher in a small all-female middle school. I collected in-depth data focused on science literacy from multiple sources, including (a) fieldnotes (Emerson, Fretz & Shaw, 2011), (b) videorecorded classroom observations (102 classes, 113 hours, recorded on 29 days), (c) a survey of all students, (d) semi-structured interviews with the subsample of 12 focal students (ranging from 18 to 37 minutes) and (e) photographs of classroom artifacts and student work. In the first article, I provide a window into standard literacy practices in science classrooms by examining the reading and writing genres to which students are exposed. In the second article, I examine how a teacher's language and instructional practices within her classrooms, and popular images of science from the world beyond their classrooms might shape adolescent girls' science identities. Finally, in the third article, I explore different aspects of science identity using the words of three case study students. Taken together, these studies fill gaps in the literature by investigating science literacy in an understudied context, all-female classrooms. In addition

  14. Power Dynamics and Questioning in Elementary Science Classrooms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reinsvold, Lori A.; Cochran, Kathryn F.

    2012-11-01

    We describe the dynamic discourse interactions between a teacher and her students in a third-grade science classroom. We focused on how the teacher and students initiate, prompt, respond, and provide feedback; use questioning and power strategies; and how questions are associated with power dynamics. We relate the consequences of teacher use of power to the engagement of student with subject matter. Two classroom sessions were observed and teacher-student interactions audio recorded. Data were transcribed and a method was developed for analyzing teacher-student interactions, power dynamics, and types of questions asked. Results revealed that teacher talk was twice as frequent as students' talk; questions were primarily closed-ended and task-oriented; and students asked few questions. The teacher exercised power by keeping activities organized and conventional, and utilizing subject matter. The developed methods showed us the complexity of question and power dynamics in classroom discourse and have implications for professional development and research.

  15. Changes in science classrooms resulting from collaborative action research initiatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, Phil Seok

    Collaborative action research was undertaken over two years between a Korean science teacher and science education researchers at the University of Iowa. For the purpose of realizing science learning as envisioned by constructivist principles, Group-Investigations were implemented three or five times per project year. In addition, the second year project enacted Peer Assessments among students. Student perceptions of their science classrooms, as measured by the Constructivist Learning Environment Survey (CLES), provided evidence that the collaborative action research was successful in creating constructivist learning environments. Student attitudes toward science lessons, as examined by the Enjoyment of Science Lessons Scale (ESLS), indicated that the action research also contributed to developing more positive attitudes of students about science learning. Discourse analysis was conducted on video-recordings of in-class presentations and discussions. The results indicated that students in science classrooms which were moving toward constructivist learning environments engaged in such discursive practices as: (1) Communicating their inquiries to others, (2) Seeking and providing information through dialogues, and (3) Negotiating conflicts in their knowledge and beliefs. Based on these practices, science learning was viewed as the process of constructing knowledge and understanding of science as well as the process of engaging in scientific inquiry and discourse. The teacher's discursive practices included: (1) Wrapping up student presentations, (2) Addressing misconceptions, (3) Answering student queries, (4) Coaching, (5) Assessing and advising, (6) Guiding students discursively into new knowledge, and (7) Scaffolding. Science teaching was defined as situated acts of the teacher to facilitate the learning process. In particular, when the classrooms became more constructivist, the teacher intervened more frequently and carefully in student activities to fulfill a

  16. Differences in sociocultural environment perceptions associated with gender in science classrooms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jegede, Olugbemiro J.; Akinsola Okebukola, Peter

    An amount-of-learning outcome variable has been attributed to the environment in which teaching and learning are conducted. Studies carried out so far have, however, not focused on the sociocultural aspect of the classroom environment, which has been theorized to have potential influence on students' learning. The intent of this study was to examine the influence of five aspects of the sociocultural environment in science classes with particular reference to how these are perceived by boys and girls. The 30-item Socio-Cultural Environment Scale (SCES) developed by Jegede and Okebukola (1988) was used to collect data from 707 Nigerian secondary school students in Classes Four and Five (Grades 10 and 11, respectively). Authoritarianism, goal structure, African worldview, societal expectation, and sacredness of science were the five subscales studied. Sex differences were recorded in the societal expectation subscale. Most of the female subjects are of the opinion that society has a negative or low regard for their ability to do science and this has an effect on their motivation to undertake science-based careers. The reverse is true for boys. This perception is in agreement with the literature on sex differences in science education and highlights the social pressure that brings about subject preferences. The implications of these findings for science teaching and further research are highlighted.

  17. African Indigenous science in higher education in Uganda

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akena Adyanga, Francis

    This study examines African Indigenous Science (AIS) in higher education in Uganda. To achieve this, I use anticolonial theory and Indigenous knowledge discursive frameworks to situate the subjugation of Indigenous science from the education system within a colonial historical context. These theories allow for a critical examination of the intersection of power relations rooted in the politics of knowledge production, validation, and dissemination, and how this process has become a systemic and complex method of subjugating one knowledge system over the other. I also employ qualitative and autoethnographic research methodologies. Using a qualitative research method, I interviewed 10 students and 10 professors from two universities in Uganda. My research was guided by the following key questions: What is African Indigenous Science? What methodology would help us to indigenize science education in Uganda? How can we work with Indigenous knowledge and anticolonial theoretical discursive frameworks to understand and challenge the dominance of Eurocentric knowledge in mainstream education? My research findings revealed that AIS can be defined in multiple ways, in other words, there is no universal definition of AIS. However, there were some common elements that my participants talked about such as: (a) knowledge by Indigenous communities developed over a long period of time through a trial and error approach to respond to the social, economic and political challenges of their society. The science practices are generational and synergistic with other disciplines such as history, spirituality, sociology, anthropology, geography, and trade among others, (b) a cumulative practice of the use, interactions with and of biotic and abiotic organism in everyday life for the continued existence of a community in its' totality. The research findings also indicate that Indigenous science is largely lacking from Uganda's education curriculum because of the influence of colonial and

  18. Comparing Classroom Interactive Behaviors of Science and Non-Science Pre-Service Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergman, Daniel; Morphew, Jason

    2014-01-01

    This study compared classroom interactive behaviors of science pre-service teachers and pre-service teachers of other subjects. Participants included pre-service teachers enrolled in a general methods course for secondary educators and its school-based fieldwork counterpart. Statistical tests found that science pre-service teachers had fewer…

  19. Preservice Secondary Science Teachers' Experiences and Ideas about Bullying in Science Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raven, Sara; Jurkiewicz, Melissa A.

    2014-01-01

    Given the prevalence of bullying in schools, it is imperative that preservice secondary science teachers (PSSTs) know how to deal with this issue in the classroom. This is especially important in science, as the content covered in classes can sometimes lead to discussions of race, religion, and sexual orientation, which can be sensitive topics. In…

  20. Examination of factors which may contribute to the underrepresentation of African American teachers certified in science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, Rita C. F.

    Throughout this country the student population is becoming increasingly diverse, yet the teacher population does not reflect this diversity. This lack of diversity in the teacher population deprives students of color from having role models of the same race/ethnicity who look like them and who might have experiences which are similar to theirs (Epstein, 2005; Nettles & Perna, 1997). Having role models from their own race in the classroom could have a positive impact on students' attitudes about science (Perine, 2003), and facilitate their learning of the subject matter, and give students an incentive to do well in school (Vegas, Murnane, & Willett, 2001). In 2000, a national survey study of math and science teachers was conducted (Horizon Research, 2001). The majority of biology (90%), chemistry (93%), and physics (94%) teachers who participated in the study were White. Findings of the study revealed that only 55% to 60% of these teachers considered themselves well prepared to effectively teach a culturally diverse student population (Banilower, 2002; Smith, 2002; Wood, 2002). The majority of the teacher pool, which is White, prefer not to teach in urban communities as they have a preference for teaching jobs in the nonurban communities that are similar to those in which they were raised (Boyd, Lankford, Loeb, & Wyckoff, 2005; Epstein, 2005). The purpose of this quantitative study was to examine factors that may contribute to the underrepresentation of African American teachers certified in science. More specifically, it was decided to examine the high school experiences of in-service teachers. Study participants were teachers and other certificated faculty in two school districts located in the southern portion of the United States. Findings of the study revealed a statistically significant relationship between a teacher's decision to become certified in science and the following high school experiences: teachers and guidance counselors encouraging students to

  1. Engaging Nature of Science to Preservice Teachers through Inquiry-Based Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nuangchalerm, Prasart

    2013-01-01

    Inquiry-based classroom is widely distributed in the school science based on its useful and effective instruction. Science teachers are key elements allowing students to have scientific inquiry. If teachers understand and imply inquiry-based learning into science classroom, students will learn science as scientific inquiry and understand nature of…

  2. Embracing Diversity in the Science Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deaton, Cynthia C. Minchew; Deaton, Benjamin E.

    2013-01-01

    As each school year starts, teachers are faced with teaching and building relationships with students from diverse backgrounds. To effectively teach students, science teachers (and teachers in general) must develop an understanding of students' culture, background, and language. Knowing these factors, as well as students' learning needs,…

  3. College Science Teachers' Views of Classroom Inquiry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Patrick L.; Abell, Sandra K.; Demir, Abdulkadir; Schmidt, Francis J.

    2006-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to (a) gain an understanding of the views of inquiry held by faculty members involved in undergraduate science teaching and (b) describe the challenges, constraints, and opportunities that they perceived in designing and teaching inquiry-based laboratories. Participants included 19 college professors, representing…

  4. Tackling Climate Change in the Science Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Roberta

    2013-01-01

    Despite the pressures on education and educators today -- seemingly from all sides -- science teachers provide critically important opportunities for students to develop the scientific knowledge and skills they will need as adults. This preparation empowers them to make well-informed decisions as citizens, as well as to use this knowledge as a…

  5. Health Hazards in the Science Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trenk, Barbara Scherr

    Designed for high school science teachers, the document warns of potential health threats of performing certain experiments and using certain chemicals or chemical combinations in their courses. Following a rationale for more carefully considering health dangers, the document gives suggestions on what can be done by teachers. Reports such as a…

  6. Social Science Concepts and the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fancett, Verna S.; And Others

    Intended to introduce teachers to the concept approach in teaching social studies materials, the five chapters of this publication discuss (1) a definition of "concept" and the term's relationship to facts and generalizations, (2) the function of concepts in the social sciences, (3) how concepts develop, (4) how concepts are related to inquiry and…

  7. Blogging in the Political Science Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawrence, Christopher N.; Dion, Michelle L.

    2010-01-01

    Weblogs (or blogs), as a form of communication on the Internet, have recently risen in prominence but may be poorly understood by both faculty and students. This article explains how blogs differ from other online communication tools and how political science faculty can make use of blogs in their classes. The focus is on using blogs as part of…

  8. Science Interactive Notebooks in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Jocelyn

    2003-01-01

    Describes the use of science interactive notebooks for recording information, figures, and data that promote student learning. Uses the right spiral page to record information provided by the teacher and the left spiral page to demonstrate the processing of that information. (YDS)

  9. Informal Science Learning in the Formal Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, Lori; Straits, William

    2014-01-01

    In this article the authors share advice from the viewpoints of both a formal and informal educator that will help teachers identify the right Informal Science Institutions (ISIs)--institutions that specialize in learning that occurs outside of the school setting--to maximize their students' learning and use informal education to their…

  10. "What's the science behind it?" Models and modeling in a design for science classroom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leonard, Mary J.

    "Design for Science" curricula have sprung up in middle- and high-school science classrooms in recent years, attracted by the promise of increased student motivation and improved learning outcomes to be gained from providing real-world, engineering problem-solving contexts for science concepts. But while engineering and science are deeply interrelated domains of practice, they have epistemological differences that may create difficulties for students (and teachers) engaged in such activities. This study investigated how an enacted "design for science" activity afforded and constrained development of science conceptual knowledge. The study focused on approximately two weeks of video from a middle-school science classroom in which students were challenged to design and build a balloon-powered model car for the purpose of learning about forces. The study was grounded in socio-cultural theory, employing activity theory and discourse analysis in an ethnographically-grounded approach. The study revealed that although it was not specifically addressed in the curriculum, the enacted activity requires students and teachers to engage in developing and communicating models of balloon car motion, and furthermore, that models and modeling have the potential for bridging designs and science concepts. The study contributes an epistemological framework for investigating such "design for science" activities, furthers our understanding of what happens in such classrooms, and offers a models and modeling construct as a promising way to create more effective engineering design contexts for science learning.

  11. Development and Application of the Elementary School Science Classroom Environment Scale (ESSCES): Measuring Student Perceptions of Constructivism within the Science Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peoples, Shelagh M.; O'Dwyer, Laura M.; Wang, Yang; Brown, Jessica J.; Rosca, Camelia V.

    2014-01-01

    This article describes the development, validation and application of a Rasch-based instrument, the Elementary School Science Classroom Environment Scale (ESSCES), for measuring students' perceptions of constructivist practices within the elementary science classroom. The instrument, designed to complement the Reformed Teaching Observation…

  12. A Critical Hermeneutic Study: Third Grade Elementary African American Students' Views of the Nature of Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walls, Leon

    2009-01-01

    Nature of Science is one of the most fundamental aspects of understanding science. How different cultures, races and ethnicities see and interpret science differently is critical. However, the NOS views specific to African American teachers and learners have gone largely unresearched. The views of a purposeful sample of African American third…

  13. Narratives of Identity in Everyday Spaces: An Examination of African American Students' Science Career Trajectories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haun-Frank, Julie

    2011-01-01

    For over two decades the under-representation of African Americans in school science and the workplace has been a central concern for educators, policy makers, and researchers. Existing literature provides many accounts of the barriers to science career attainment. This study examined the science career trajectories of fourteen African American…

  14. Identity and science learning in African American students in informal science education contexts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    James, Sylvia M.

    2007-12-01

    Science education researchers are recognizing the need to consider identity and other sociocultural factors when examining causes of the science achievement gap for African American students. Non-school settings may hold greater promise than formal schooling to promote identities that are conductive to science learning in African Americans. This mixed-methods study explored the relationship between participation in out-of-school-time (OST) science enrichment programs and African American middle and high school students' racial and ethnic identity (RED, social identity as science learners, and achievement. Pre-post questionnaires used a previously validated model of REI combined with an original subscale that was developed to measure social identity as science learners. Case studies of two programs allowed for an analysis of the informal learning setting. The treatment group (N = 36) consisted of African American middle and high school students in five OST science programs, while the control group (N = 54) students were enrolled in science classes in public schools in the mid-Atlantic region. Results of a t-test of independent means indicated that there was no significant difference between the treatment and control group on measures of REI or science identity. However, the treatment group earned significantly higher science grades compared to the control group, and an ANOVA revealed a significant relationship between science identity and the intention to pursue post-secondary science studies. Although not significant, MANOVA results indicated that students who participated in OST programs exhibited gradual increases in RD and science identity over time according to grade level and gender. Follow-up analysis revealed significant relationships between awareness of racism, gender, and length of time in OST programs. The case studies illustrated that a unique community of practice exists within the OST programs. Access to authentic science learning experiences, youth

  15. Science Communication versus Science Education: The Graduate Student Scientist as a K-12 Classroom Resource

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strauss, Jeff; Shope, Richard E., III; Terebey, Susan

    2005-01-01

    Science literacy is a major goal of science educational reform (NRC, 1996; AAAS, 1998; NCLB Act, 2001). Some believe that teaching science only requires pedagogical content knowledge (PCK). Others believe doing science requires knowledge of the methodologies of scientific inquiry (NRC, 1996). With these two mindsets, the challenge for science educators is to create models that bring the two together. The common ground between those who teach science and those who do science is science communication, an interactive process that galvanizes dialogue among scientists, teachers, and learners in a rich ambience of mutual respect and a common, inclusive language of discourse . The dialogue between science and non-science is reflected in the polarization that separates those who do science and those who teach science, especially as it plays out everyday in the science classroom. You may be thinking, why is this important? It is vital because, although not all science learners become scientists, all K-12 students are expected to acquire science literacy, especially with the implementation of the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 (NCLB). Students are expected to acquire the ability to follow the discourse of science as well as connect the world of science to the context of their everyday life if they plan on moving to the next grade level, and in some states, to graduate from high school. This paper posits that science communication is highly effective in providing the missing link for K-12 students cognition in science and their attainment of science literacy. This paper will focus on the "Science For Our Schools" (SFOS) model implemented at California State Univetsity, Los Angeles (CSULA) as a project of the National Science Foundation s GK-12 program, (NSF 2001) which has been a huge success in bridging the gap between those who "know" science and those who "teach" science. The SFOS model makes clear the distinctions that identify science, science communication, science

  16. Interactions Between Classroom Discourse, Teacher Questioning, and Student Cognitive Engagement in Middle School Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smart, Julie B.; Marshall, Jeff C.

    2013-03-01

    Classroom discourse can affect various aspects of student learning in science. The present study examines interactions between classroom discourse, specifically teacher questioning, and related student cognitive engagement in middle school science. Observations were conducted throughout the school year in 10 middle school science classrooms using the Electronic Quality of Inquiry Protocol, which is designed, among other things, to measure observable aspects of student cognitive engagement and discourse factors during science instruction. Results from these observations indicate positive correlations between students' cognitive engagement and the following aspects of classroom discourse: questioning level, complexity of questions, questioning ecology, communication patterns, and classroom interactions. A sequential explanatory mixed-methods design provides a detailed look at each aspect of classroom discourse which showed a positive effect on student cognitive level during science instruction. Implications for classroom practice, teacher education, and professional development are discussed.

  17. An Evaluation of Research Ethics in Undergraduate Health Science Research Methodology Programs at a South African University.

    PubMed

    Coetzee, Tanya; Hoffmann, Willem A; de Roubaix, Malcolm

    2015-10-01

    The amended research ethics policy at a South African University required the ethics review of undergraduate research projects, prompting the need to explore the content and teaching approach of research ethics education in health science undergraduate programs. Two qualitative data collection strategies were used: document analysis (syllabi and study guides) and semi-structured interviews with research methodology coordinators. Five main themes emerged: (a) timing of research ethics courses, (b) research ethics course content, (c) sub-optimal use of creative classroom activities to facilitate research ethics lectures, (d) understanding the need for undergraduate project research ethics review, and (e) research ethics capacity training for research methodology lecturers and undergraduate project supervisors.

  18. Current Approaches in Implementing Citizen Science in the Classroom.

    PubMed

    Shah, Harsh R; Martinez, Luis R

    2016-03-01

    Citizen science involves a partnership between inexperienced volunteers and trained scientists engaging in research. In addition to its obvious benefit of accelerating data collection, citizen science has an unexplored role in the classroom, from K-12 schools to higher education. With recent studies showing a weakening in scientific competency of American students, incorporating citizen science initiatives in the curriculum provides a means to address deficiencies in a fragmented educational system. The integration of traditional and innovative pedagogical methods to reform our educational system is therefore imperative in order to provide practical experiences in scientific inquiry, critical thinking, and problem solving for school-age individuals. Citizen science can be used to emphasize the recognition and use of systematic approaches to solve problems affecting the community.

  19. Current Approaches in Implementing Citizen Science in the Classroom

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Harsh R.; Martinez, Luis R.

    2016-01-01

    Citizen science involves a partnership between inexperienced volunteers and trained scientists engaging in research. In addition to its obvious benefit of accelerating data collection, citizen science has an unexplored role in the classroom, from K–12 schools to higher education. With recent studies showing a weakening in scientific competency of American students, incorporating citizen science initiatives in the curriculum provides a means to address deficiencies in a fragmented educational system. The integration of traditional and innovative pedagogical methods to reform our educational system is therefore imperative in order to provide practical experiences in scientific inquiry, critical thinking, and problem solving for school-age individuals. Citizen science can be used to emphasize the recognition and use of systematic approaches to solve problems affecting the community. PMID:27047583

  20. Current Approaches in Implementing Citizen Science in the Classroom.

    PubMed

    Shah, Harsh R; Martinez, Luis R

    2016-03-01

    Citizen science involves a partnership between inexperienced volunteers and trained scientists engaging in research. In addition to its obvious benefit of accelerating data collection, citizen science has an unexplored role in the classroom, from K-12 schools to higher education. With recent studies showing a weakening in scientific competency of American students, incorporating citizen science initiatives in the curriculum provides a means to address deficiencies in a fragmented educational system. The integration of traditional and innovative pedagogical methods to reform our educational system is therefore imperative in order to provide practical experiences in scientific inquiry, critical thinking, and problem solving for school-age individuals. Citizen science can be used to emphasize the recognition and use of systematic approaches to solve problems affecting the community. PMID:27047583

  1. Teaching controversial issues in the secondary school science classroom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Rooy, Wilhelmina

    1993-12-01

    A sample of fourteen secondary school biology teachers chosen from twelve schools were interviewed. The purpose was to determine their views on how controversial issues in science might be handled in the secondary school science classroom and whether the issues of surrogacy and human embryo experimentation were suitable controversial issues for discussion in schools. In general, teachers indicated that controversial issues deserve a more prominent place in the science curriculum because they have the potential to foster thinking, learning, and interest in science. The issues of surrogacy and human embryo experimentation were seen as appropriate contexts for learning, provided that teachers were well informed and sensitive to both the students and to the school environment.

  2. The Pedagogical Orientations of South African Physical Sciences Teachers Towards Inquiry or Direct Instructional Approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramnarain, Umesh; Schuster, David

    2014-08-01

    In recent years, inquiry-based science instruction has become widely advocated in science education standards in many countries and, hence, in teacher preparation programmes. Nevertheless, in practice, one finds a wide variety of science instructional approaches. In South Africa, as in many countries, there is also a great disparity in school demographic situations, which can also affect teaching practices. This study investigated the pedagogical orientations of in-service physical sciences teachers at a diversity of schools in South Africa. Assessment items in a Pedagogy of Science Teaching Test (POSTT) were used to identify teachers' science teaching orientations, and reasons for pedagogical choices were probed in interviews. The findings reveal remarkable differences between the orientations of teachers at disadvantaged township schools and teachers at more privileged suburban schools. We found that teachers at township schools have a strong `active direct' teaching orientation overall, involving direct exposition of the science followed by confirmatory practical work, while teachers at suburban schools exhibit a guided inquiry orientation, with concepts being developed via a guided exploration phase. The study identified contextual factors such as class size, availability of resources, teacher competence and confidence, time constraints, student ability, school culture and parents' expectations as influencing the methods adopted by teachers. In view of the recent imperative for inquiry-based learning in the new South African curriculum, this study affirms the context specificity of curriculum implementation (Bybee 1993) and suggests situational factors beyond the curriculum mandate that need to be addressed to achieve successful inquiry-based classroom instruction in science.

  3. In Order to Teach Me, You Have to Know Me: A Mixed-Methods Study of African-American Male Classroom Engagement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, Jack L.

    2013-01-01

    Nationally, 30% of high school students do not graduate. Among this percentage, 50% are African-American. This study focused on at-promise African-American male classroom engagement where the researcher employed a mixed-methods methodology. Findings reveal that in order to engage and keep at-promise African-American males in high school, educators…

  4. Positionality of African Americans and a Theoretical Accommodation of It: Rethinking Science Education Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parsons, Eileen R. Carlton

    2008-01-01

    This essay addresses a call for research involving African Americans to interpret data from the historical, contemporary, and cultural experiences of African Americans. The essay argues for a science education research approach that explicitly considers the positionality of African Americans in the United States. This positionality involves the…

  5. Integrating Ubunifu, informal science, and community innovations in science classrooms in East Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semali, Ladislaus M.; Hristova, Adelina; Owiny, Sylvia A.

    2015-12-01

    This study examines the relationship between informal science and indigenous innovations in local communities in which students matured. The discussion considers methods for bridging the gap that exists between parents' understanding of informal science ( Ubunifu) and what students learn in secondary schools in Kenya, Tanzania, and Uganda. In an effort to reconcile the difference between students' lived experiences and Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) taught in classrooms, this study presents an experiential iSPACES instructional model as an example of curriculum integration in science classrooms. The culmination is presentation of lessons learned from history, including Africa's unique contributions to science, theory, and indigenous innovations, in the hope that these lessons can spur the development of new instructional practices, standards, curriculum materials, professional and community development, and dialogue among nations.

  6. Technology Integration in a Science Classroom: Preservice Teachers' Perceptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rehmat, Abeera P.; Bailey, Janelle M.

    2014-12-01

    The challenge of preparing students for the information age has prompted administrators to increase technology in the public schools. Yet despite the increased availability of technology in schools, few teachers are integrating technology for instructional purposes. Preservice teachers must be equipped with adequate content knowledge of technology to create an advantageous learning experience in science classrooms. To understand preservice teachers' conceptions of technology integration, this research study explored 15 elementary science methods students' definitions of technology and their attitudes toward incorporating technology into their teaching. The phenomenological study took place in a science methods course that was based on a constructivist approach to teaching and learning science through science activities and class discussions, with an emphasis on a teacher beliefs framework. Data were collected throughout the semester, including an open-ended pre/post-technology integration survey, lesson plans, and reflections on activities conducted throughout the course. Through a qualitative analysis, we identified improvements in students' technology definitions, increased technology incorporation into science lesson plans, and favorable attitudes toward technology integration in science teaching after instruction. This research project demonstrates that positive changes in beliefs and behaviors relating to technology integration in science instruction among preservice teachers are possible through explicit instruction.

  7. Primary Science Curriculum Development in Africa--Strategies, Problems and Prospects with Particular Reference to the African Primary Science Programme.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bajah, Sam Tunde

    1981-01-01

    The African Primary Science Programme (APSP) was one of the three major projects in Africa sponsored by Educational Services Incorporated (ESI), later the Educational Development Center (EDC), Newton, Massachusetts. The problems of introducing this programme in the anglophone African States and its implications for science education are discussed.…

  8. Middle and High School Science Teachers' Attitudes toward Nanotechnology and Intention to Implement it in Science Classrooms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghattas, Nadira I.

    This study was designed to determine the relationship between attitudes toward nanotechnology and the intention of implementing it in science classrooms; to detect the relationship between attitudes and other influential factors (knowledge and self-confidence, professional development, professional context, personal research experience, and personal practice of bringing nanotechnology in science classrooms); to highlight the salient attitudes of science teachers toward nanotechnology and implementing its related content, materials, and activities in science classrooms; and to identify the salient factors that would facilitate the process of integrating nanotechnology in science classrooms. Science Teachers' Attitudes toward Nanotechnology (STAT-N) survey and semi-structured interview were both used to collect data. Correlation was conducted to explore the relationship between attitudes and intention, and between attitudes and the above mentioned factors. The grounded theory approach was applied to identify science teachers' salient attitudes toward nanotechnology and implementing it in science classrooms, and to determine the facilitators that would help with the process of implementing nanotechnology in science classrooms. Regression analysis was also used to identify the facilitators that would help science teachers with integrating nanotechnology in science classrooms. Statistical analyses revealed a statistically significant relationship between attitudes and intention, p < .05; statistically significant relationships between attitudes and the other influential factors (knowledge and self-confidence, professional development, professional context, personal research experience, and personal practice of bringing nanotechnology in science classrooms), p < .05; and that all of these factors but attitudes and research were statistically significant factors in predicting and teachers' intention of implementing nanotechnology in science classrooms. Professional

  9. Learning science through talking science in elementary classroom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tank, Kristina Maruyama; Coffino, Kara

    2014-03-01

    Elementary students in grade two make sense of science ideas and knowledge through their contextual experiences. Mattis Lundin and Britt Jakobson find in their research that early grade students have sophisticated understandings of human anatomy and physiology. In order to understand what students' know about human body and various systems, both drawings and spoken responses provide rich evidence of their understanding of the connections between science drawings and verbal explanations. In this forum contribution, we present several theoretical connections between everyday language and science communication and argue that building communication skills in science are essential. We also discuss how young participants should be valued and supported in research. Finally we discuss the need for multimodal research methods when the research participants are young.

  10. Implementing Digital Interactive Textbooks in the Science Classroom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, Gary R.

    Digital interactive textbooks represent a major step forward in the quest to integrate technology into instructional methodology. Because this technology is new, virtually no research has been done as to the response of teachers to this innovation. The purpose of this study was to understand the process of change in relation to implementing these digital interactive textbooks in science classrooms at the high school level. The conceptual framework was based on Senge's theory of organizational change, Rogers' theory of the diffusion of innovations, and Davis' research regarding factors involved in technology acceptance. Participants included 7 science teachers and 2 administrators who were members of a professional learning community at a Title I high school in the southeastern region of the United States. A case study design was used to collect data from teacher and administrator interviews and observations of instructional activities in the classroom and professional learning community meetings. Data were coded, categorized, and analyzed for common themes. Results indicated that the digital interactive textbook was met with teacher apprehension and anxiety regarding the transition from teacher-led to student-led instruction, and this apprehension manifested in resistance. During the course of the study, educators found that the digital interactive textbook engaged students and was demonstrated to be a successful tool of instruction. The study is important because educators will develop a better understanding of how to implement technology innovations in the classroom that minimize teacher resistance to instructional change.

  11. Science Classroom Inquiry (SCI) Simulations: A Novel Method to Scaffold Science Learning

    PubMed Central

    Peffer, Melanie E.; Beckler, Matthew L.; Schunn, Christian; Renken, Maggie; Revak, Amanda

    2015-01-01

    Science education is progressively more focused on employing inquiry-based learning methods in the classroom and increasing scientific literacy among students. However, due to time and resource constraints, many classroom science activities and laboratory experiments focus on simple inquiry, with a step-by-step approach to reach predetermined outcomes. The science classroom inquiry (SCI) simulations were designed to give students real life, authentic science experiences within the confines of a typical classroom. The SCI simulations allow students to engage with a science problem in a meaningful, inquiry-based manner. Three discrete SCI simulations were created as website applications for use with middle school and high school students. For each simulation, students were tasked with solving a scientific problem through investigation and hypothesis testing. After completion of the simulation, 67% of students reported a change in how they perceived authentic science practices, specifically related to the complex and dynamic nature of scientific research and how scientists approach problems. Moreover, 80% of the students who did not report a change in how they viewed the practice of science indicated that the simulation confirmed or strengthened their prior understanding. Additionally, we found a statistically significant positive correlation between students’ self-reported changes in understanding of authentic science practices and the degree to which each simulation benefitted learning. Since SCI simulations were effective in promoting both student learning and student understanding of authentic science practices with both middle and high school students, we propose that SCI simulations are a valuable and versatile technology that can be used to educate and inspire a wide range of science students on the real-world complexities inherent in scientific study. PMID:25786245

  12. Science classroom inquiry (SCI) simulations: a novel method to scaffold science learning.

    PubMed

    Peffer, Melanie E; Beckler, Matthew L; Schunn, Christian; Renken, Maggie; Revak, Amanda

    2015-01-01

    Science education is progressively more focused on employing inquiry-based learning methods in the classroom and increasing scientific literacy among students. However, due to time and resource constraints, many classroom science activities and laboratory experiments focus on simple inquiry, with a step-by-step approach to reach predetermined outcomes. The science classroom inquiry (SCI) simulations were designed to give students real life, authentic science experiences within the confines of a typical classroom. The SCI simulations allow students to engage with a science problem in a meaningful, inquiry-based manner. Three discrete SCI simulations were created as website applications for use with middle school and high school students. For each simulation, students were tasked with solving a scientific problem through investigation and hypothesis testing. After completion of the simulation, 67% of students reported a change in how they perceived authentic science practices, specifically related to the complex and dynamic nature of scientific research and how scientists approach problems. Moreover, 80% of the students who did not report a change in how they viewed the practice of science indicated that the simulation confirmed or strengthened their prior understanding. Additionally, we found a statistically significant positive correlation between students' self-reported changes in understanding of authentic science practices and the degree to which each simulation benefitted learning. Since SCI simulations were effective in promoting both student learning and student understanding of authentic science practices with both middle and high school students, we propose that SCI simulations are a valuable and versatile technology that can be used to educate and inspire a wide range of science students on the real-world complexities inherent in scientific study.

  13. Single-sex middle school science classrooms: Separate and equal?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glasser, Howard M.

    The U.S. Department of Education's amended regulations to Title IX have attempted to expand the circumstances in which single-sex classes are permissible in public schools. This ethnographic study uses grounded theory to investigate aspects of one single-sex offering at a public, coeducational middle school. Applying elements of postmodern, queer, and sociocultural lenses, it examines the perspectives for this offering, shedding insight into the cultures of two single-sex classrooms and what it meant to be a boy or girl in this setting. Additionally, it focuses attention on the all-boy and all-girl science classes that were taught by the same teacher and examines what it meant to learn science as boys and girls in this program. Although participants supplied financial, socio-emotional, and academic reasons for these classes, the initial motivation for these classes stemmed from the teachers' desire to curb the amount of sex talk and related behaviors that were exhibited in their classrooms. Through these conversations and classroom events, the girls were constructed as idealized students, academically and behaviorally, who needed to be protected from boys' behaviors---both boys' dominating classroom behaviors and aggressive (hetero)sexual behaviors. Conversely, boys were constructed as needing help both academically and behaviorally, but in the specific discipline of science boys were identified as the sex that was more interested in the content and gained greater exposure to skills that could assist them in future science courses and careers. Overall, boys and girls, and the culture of their two classrooms, were regularly defined relative to each other and efforts were made to maintain these constructed differences. As a result, the classes and students were hierarchically ranked in ways that often pitted one sex of students, or the entire class, as better or worse than the other. The theory emerging from this study is that single-sex policies arise and survive

  14. Characterizing the learning styles and testing the science-related attitudes of African American middle school students: Implications for the underrepresentation of African Americans in the sciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perine, Donald Ray

    African Americans, Hispanics, Native Americans and women are underrepresented among the population of scientists and science teachers in the United States. Specifically, the shortage of African Americans teaching math and science at all levels of the educational process and going into the many science-related fields is manifested throughout the entire educational and career structure of our society. This shortage exists when compared to the total population of African Americans in this country, the population of African American students, and to society's demand for more math and science teachers and professionals of all races. One suggestion to address this problem is to update curricular and instructional programs to accommodate the learning styles of African Americans from elementary to graduate school. There is little in the published literature to help us understand the learning styles of African American middle school students and how they compare to African American adults who pursue science careers. There is also little published data to help inform us about the relationship between learning styles of African American middle school students and their attitudes toward science. The author used a learning styles inventory instrument to identify the learning style preferences of the African American students and adults. The preferences identified describe how African American students and African American adult science professionals prefer to function, learn, concentrate, and perform in their educational and work activities in the areas of: (a) immediate environment, (b) emotionality, (c) sociological needs, and (d) physical needs. The learning style preferences for the students and adults were not significantly different in key areas of preference. A Test of Science-Related Attitudes (TOSRA) was used to measure seven distinct science-related attitudes of the middle school students. A comparison of the profile of the mean scores for the students in this study

  15. Opportunities for Inquiry Science in Montessori Classrooms: Learning from a Culture of Interest, Communication, and Explanation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rinke, Carol R.; Gimbel, Steven J.; Haskell, Sophie

    2013-08-01

    Although classroom inquiry is the primary pedagogy of science education, it has often been difficult to implement within conventional classroom cultures. This study turned to the alternatively structured Montessori learning environment to better understand the ways in which it fosters the essential elements of classroom inquiry, as defined by prominent policy documents. Specifically, we examined the opportunities present in Montessori classrooms for students to develop an interest in the natural world, generate explanations in science, and communicate about science. Using ethnographic research methods in four Montessori classrooms at the primary and elementary levels, this research captured a range of scientific learning opportunities. The study found that the Montessori learning environment provided opportunities for students to develop enduring interests in scientific topics and communicate about science in various ways. The data also indicated that explanation was largely teacher-driven in the Montessori classroom culture. This study offers lessons for both conventional and Montessori classrooms and suggests further research that bridges educational contexts.

  16. Introducing Future Teachers to Science Beyond the Classroom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kisiel, James

    2013-02-01

    Informal science education institutions (ISEIs), such as museums, aquariums, and nature centers, offer more to teachers than just field trip destinations—they have the potential to provide ideas for pedagogy, as well as support deeper development of teachers' science knowledge. Although there is extensive literature related to teacher/museum interactions within the context of the school field trip, there is limited research that examines other ways that such institutions might support classroom teachers. A growing number of studies, however, examine how incorporating such ideas of connections of ISEIs to pre-service teacher education might improve teacher perceptions and awareness. Pre-service elementary teachers enrolled in a science methods class participated in a semester-long assignment which required participation in their choice of activities and events (workshops, field trips, family day activities) conducted at local ISEIs. Students generally saw this embedded assignment as beneficial, despite the additional out-of-class time required for completion. Comparison of pre-/post-class responses suggested that teachers shifted their perceptions of ISEIs as first and foremost as places for field trips or hands-on experiences, to institutions that can help teachers with classroom science instruction. Although basic awareness of the existence of such opportunities was frequently cited, teachers also recognized these sites as places that could enhance their teaching, either by providing materials/resources for the classroom or by helping them learn (content and pedagogy) as teachers. Implications for practice, including the role of ISEIs in teacher preparation and indication, are also discussed.

  17. A study of mathematics and science achievement scores among African American students and the impact of teacher-oriented variables on them through the Educational Longitudinal Study, 2002 (ELS: 2002) data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, Valentine

    The purpose of this dissertation was to utilize the ELS: 2002 longitudinal data to highlight the achievement of African American students relative to other racial sub-groups in mathematics and science and to highlight teacher oriented variables that might influence their achievement. Various statistical tools, including descriptive statistics, ANOVA, Multiple Regression were used to analyze data that was derived from the students', teachers' and administrations' questionnaires compiled in the base year of the study (2002) as well as the first follow-up transcript study (2006). The major findings are as follows: African American students performed lower than all other major racial subgroups in mathematics and science; Parental variables including SES and parental education were strong correlates of achievement in mathematics and science: The amount and type of mathematics and science courses students took were strong predictors of achievement in mathematics and science; Teachers' race, experience, certification status, graduate courses completed and professional development influenced African American students' achievement in mathematics and science; Aspects of classroom climate including teacher-pupil relationship, classroom management, students' perception of quality instructions, praise and rewards system might influence African American students' achievement in mathematics and science; Teachers' beliefs pertaining to students' background and intellectual ability might influence their educational expectation of African American students and subsequently student achievement in mathematics and science; Teaching strategies such as reviewing, lecturing and using graphing calculators had a positive influence on mathematics achievement while using computers, discussion and using other books than mathematics textbooks had negative influences on mathematics achievement; Computer use in science had positive influence on science achievement while homework had a positive

  18. Student Engagement in a Computer Rich Science Classroom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hunter, Jeffrey C.

    The purpose of this study was to examine the student lived experience when using computers in a rural science classroom. The overarching question the project sought to examine was: How do rural students relate to computers as a learning tool in comparison to a traditional science classroom? Participant data were collected using a pre-study survey, Experience Sampling during class and post-study interviews. Students want to use computers in their classrooms. Students shared that they overwhelmingly (75%) preferred a computer rich classroom to a traditional classroom (25%). Students reported a higher level of engagement in classes that use technology/computers (83%) versus those that do not use computers (17%). A computer rich classroom increased student control and motivation as reflected by a participant who shared; "by using computers I was more motivated to get the work done" (Maggie, April 25, 2014, survey). The researcher explored a rural school environment. Rural populations represent a large number of students and appear to be underrepresented in current research. The participants, tenth grade Biology students, were sampled in a traditional teacher led class without computers for one week followed by a week using computers daily. Data supported that there is a new gap that separates students, a device divide. This divide separates those who have access to devices that are robust enough to do high level class work from those who do not. Although cellular phones have reduced the number of students who cannot access the Internet, they may have created a false feeling that access to a computer is no longer necessary at home. As this study shows, although most students have Internet access, fewer have access to a device that enables them to complete rigorous class work at home. Participants received little or no training at school in proper, safe use of a computer and the Internet. It is clear that the majorities of students are self-taught or receive guidance

  19. Defining Computational Thinking for Mathematics and Science Classrooms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weintrop, David; Beheshti, Elham; Horn, Michael; Orton, Kai; Jona, Kemi; Trouille, Laura; Wilensky, Uri

    2016-02-01

    Science and mathematics are becoming computational endeavors. This fact is reflected in the recently released Next Generation Science Standards and the decision to include "computational thinking" as a core scientific practice. With this addition, and the increased presence of computation in mathematics and scientific contexts, a new urgency has come to the challenge of defining computational thinking and providing a theoretical grounding for what form it should take in school science and mathematics classrooms. This paper presents a response to this challenge by proposing a definition of computational thinking for mathematics and science in the form of a taxonomy consisting of four main categories: data practices, modeling and simulation practices, computational problem solving practices, and systems thinking practices. In formulating this taxonomy, we draw on the existing computational thinking literature, interviews with mathematicians and scientists, and exemplary computational thinking instructional materials. This work was undertaken as part of a larger effort to infuse computational thinking into high school science and mathematics curricular materials. In this paper, we argue for the approach of embedding computational thinking in mathematics and science contexts, present the taxonomy, and discuss how we envision the taxonomy being used to bring current educational efforts in line with the increasingly computational nature of modern science and mathematics.

  20. Pedagogical Transformations of Science Content Knowledge in Korean Elementary Classrooms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, Phil Seok; Kim, Kyoung Suk

    2013-06-01

    While a solid understanding of science content knowledge is important in developing expertise in science teaching, it is not necessarily a sufficient condition to teach science effectively in elementary schools. Teachers need to have the ability to transform their knowledge into forms learnable by students. Based on this perspective, the current study explored how science content knowledge was pedagogically transformed in Korean elementary classrooms. Data sources included video-recorded science lessons of five elementary teachers in a metropolitan city of Korea. The analysis of the data revealed that the Korean teachers often engaged in transforming science content knowledge by means of different semiotic modes, including language, pictures, materials, actions, and their complex combinations. Further, their representations of scientific knowledge were in diverse forms, such as personifications, analogies, quiz questions, pictorial models, diagrams, animations, real-life examples, hand demonstrations, videos, flash tools, and songs-and-dances. Future research involving a wider range of participants, such as students, content specialists, and teachers with weak and strong content understanding, was suggested to confirm the findings of this study and find more various ways of pedagogical transformation of science subject matter knowledge.

  1. "No More Mr. Nice Guy": Preservice Teachers' Conflict with Classroom Management in a Predominantly African-American Urban Elementary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higgins, Karen M.; Moule, Jean

    2009-01-01

    Using methods of naturalistic inquiry, this study examines preservice teachers' conflict with classroom management strategies used in a predominantly African-American urban elementary school. It highlights the theory/practice dilemma, focusing on the tensions between the democratic strategies taught in university classes and the more authoritarian…

  2. Terrific Trichomes (and Other Specialised Cells) in African Violets: How to Get a Lot from One Plant in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cottrell, Vicki M.

    2013-01-01

    African violet (genus "Saintpaulia") was identified as a particularly suitable genus for the study of specialised plant cells in the classroom using microscopes. The techniques described here involve simple preparation without staining. The cells and structures that can be investigated include: trichomes (hairs); stomata; guard cells and…

  3. Classroom Management Training for Teachers in Urban Environments Serving Predominately African American Students: A Review of the Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larson, Kristine E.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was to review the literature in terms of professional development activities that researchers have enlisted to reduce student problem behaviors and improve classroom management competencies among teachers who work in urban environments serving predominately African American students. First, the author conducted a…

  4. How Homes Influence Schools: Early Parenting Predicts African American Children's Classroom Social-Emotional Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Claire E.; Rimm-Kaufman, Sara E.

    2014-01-01

    Data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten Cohort were used to examine the extent to which early parenting predicted African American children's kindergarten social-emotional functioning. Teachers rated children's classroom social-emotional functioning in four areas (i.e., approaches to learning, self-control,…

  5. African American and European American Children in Diverse Elementary Classrooms: Social Integration, Social Status, and Social Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Travis; Rodkin, Philip C.

    2011-01-01

    With a sample of African American and European American 3rd- and 4th-grade children (N = 486, ages 8-11 years), this study examined classroom ethnic composition, peer social status (i.e., social preference and perceived popularity as nominated by same- and cross-ethnicity peers), and patterns of ethnic segregation (i.e., friendship, peer group,…

  6. Racial and Emotional Factors Predicting Teachers' Perceptions of Classroom Behavioral Maladjustment for Urban African American Male Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Duane E.; Coard, Stephanie I.; Stevenson, Howard C.; Bentley, Keisha; Zamel, Pamela

    2009-01-01

    The present study investigated the predictive influence of students' reactive emotional coping and racial socialization experiences on teachers' perceptions of classroom behavior adjustment problems. Participants were 148 African American male youth attending a secondary school in a large northeastern city. Behavioral outcomes included teacher…

  7. Graduate students teaching elementary earth science through interactive classroom lessons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caswell, T. E.; Goudge, T. A.; Jawin, E. R.; Robinson, F.

    2014-12-01

    Since 2005, graduate students in the Brown University Department of Earth, Environmental, and Planetary Studies have volunteered to teach science to second-grade students at Vartan Gregorian Elementary School in Providence, RI. Initially developed to bring science into classrooms where it was not explicitly included in the curriculum, the graduate student-run program today incorporates the Providence Public Schools Grade 2 science curriculum into weekly, interactive sessions that engage the students in hypothesis-driven science. We will describe the program structure, its integration into the Providence Public Schools curriculum, and 3 example lessons relevant to geology. Lessons are structured to develop the students' ability to share and incorporate others' ideas through written and oral communication. The volunteers explain the basics of the topic and engage the students with introductory questions. The students use this knowledge to develop a hypothesis about the upcoming experiment, recording it in their "Science Notebooks." The students record their observations during the demonstration and discuss the results as a group. The process culminates in the students using their own words to summarize what they learned. Activities of particular interest to educators in geoscience are called "Volcanoes!", "The "Liquid Race," and "Phases of the Moon." The "Volcanoes!" lesson explores explosive vs. effusive volcanism using two simulated volcanoes: one explosive, using Mentos and Diet Coke, and one effusive, using vinegar and baking soda (in model volcanoes that the students construct in teams). In "Liquid Race," which explores viscosity and can be integrated into the "Volcanoes!" lesson, the students connect viscosity to flow speed by racing liquids down a ramp. "Phases of the Moon" teaches the students why the Moon has phases, using ball and stick models, and the terminology of the lunar phases using cream-filled cookies (e.g., Oreos). These lessons, among many others

  8. Teaching Ocean Sciences in the 21st Century Classroom: Lab to Classroom Videoconferencing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peach, C. L.; Gerwick, W.; Gerwick, L.; Senise, M.; Jones, C. S.; Malloy, K.; Jones, A.; Trentacoste, E.; Nunnery, J.; Mendibles, T.; Tayco, D.; Justice, L.; Deutscher, R.

    2010-12-01

    Teaching Ocean Science in the 21st Century Classroom (TOST) is a Center for Ocean Sciences Education Excellence (COSEE CA) initiative aimed at developing and disseminating technology-based instructional strategies, tools and ocean science resources for both formal and informal science education. San Diego Unified School District (SDUSD), Scripps Institution of Oceanography (SIO) and the Lawrence Hall of Science (LHS) have established a proving ground for TOST activities and for development of effective, sustainable solutions for researchers seeking to fulfill NSF and other funding agency broader impact requirements. Lab to Classroom Videoconferencing: Advances in Information and Communications Technology (ICT) are making it easier to connect students and researchers using simple online tools that allow them to interact in novel ways. COSEE CA is experimenting with these tools and approaches to identify effective practices for providing students with insight into the research process and close connections to researchers and their laboratory activities. At the same time researchers, including graduate students, are learning effective communication skills and how to align their presentations to specific classroom needs - all from the comfort of their own lab. The lab to classroom videoconferencing described here is an ongoing partnership between the Gerwick marine biomedical research lab and a group of three life science teachers (7th grade) at Pershing Middle School (SDUSD) that started in 2007. Over the last 5 years, the Pershing science teachers have created an intensive, semester-long unit focused on drug discovery. Capitalizing on the teacher team’s well-developed unit of study and the overlap with leading-edge research at SIO, COSEE CA created the videoconferencing program as a broader impact solution for the lab. The team has refined the program over 3 iterations, experimenting with structuring the activities to most effectively reach the students. In the

  9. Connecting Science and Literacy in the Classroom: Using Space and Earth Science to Support Language Arts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wessen, A. S.; Cobabe-Ammann, E. A.

    2009-12-01

    The connections between science and literacy in the classroom have received increasing attention over the last two decades, as more and more evidence demonstrates that science provides an exciting vehicle in which to engage students on the path to literacy improvement. Combining literacy with science allows students to creatively explore the world or universe, and it. Combining science and literacy improves both reading and science scores, and increases students’ interest in science. At a time when over 40% of students beyond the 5th grade are reading two or more levels below grade level and are struggling with their current materials, finding ways to excite and engage them in the reading process is key. Literacy programs incorporating unique space science content can help prepare children for standardized language arts tests. It also engages our nation’s youngest learners and their teachers with the science, math, and technology of exploration in a language arts format. This session focuses on programs and products that bring the excitement of earth and space science into the literacy classroom, with a focus on research-based approached to combining science and language arts. Reading, Writing and Rings! Grades 1-2

  10. Learning Science through Talking Science in Elementary Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tank, Kristina Maruyama; Coffino, Kara

    2014-01-01

    Elementary students in grade two make sense of science ideas and knowledge through their contextual experiences. Mattis Lundin and Britt Jakobson find in their research that early grade students have sophisticated understandings of human anatomy and physiology. In order to understand what students' know about human body and various systems,…

  11. The Influence of Momentary Classroom Goal Structures on Student Engagement and Achievement in High School Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zaleski, Diana Janet

    2012-01-01

    Teachers' instructional practices fundamentally shape students' classroom experiences. However, it is still unclear what patterns of instructional practice are related to specific classroom goal structures, and how momentary changes in classroom goal structures affect students' momentary cognitive engagement in high school science.…

  12. Learning Environment Research in Science Classrooms: Past Progress and Future Prospects. NARST Monograph, Number Two.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fraser, Barry J.

    Many questions of interest to teachers, educational researchers, curriculum developers, and policymakers in science education can be asked about classroom environment. Does a classroom's environment affect student learning attitudes? What is the impact of a new curriculum or teaching method on the nature of a classroom's environment? Can teachers…

  13. Opportunities for Inquiry Science in Montessori Classrooms: Learning from a Culture of Interest, Communication, and Explanation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rinke, Carol R.; Gimbel, Steven J.; Haskell, Sophie

    2013-01-01

    Although classroom inquiry is the primary pedagogy of science education, it has often been difficult to implement within conventional classroom cultures. This study turned to the alternatively structured Montessori learning environment to better understand the ways in which it fosters the essential elements of classroom inquiry, as defined by…

  14. Factors impacting teachers' argumentation instruction in their science classrooms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNeill, Katherine L.; Katsh-Singer, Rebecca; González-Howard, María; Loper, Suzanna

    2016-08-01

    Science education research, reform documents and standards include scientific argumentation as a key learning goal for students. The role of the teacher is essential for implementing argumentation in part because their beliefs about argumentation can impact whether and how this science practice is integrated into their classroom. In this study, we surveyed 42 middle school science teachers and conducted follow-up interviews with 25 to investigate the factors that teachers believe impact their argumentation instruction. Teachers responded that their own learning goals had the greatest impact on their argumentation instruction while influences related to context, policy and assessment had the least impact. The minor influence of policy and assessment was in part because teachers saw a lack of alignment between these areas and the goals of argumentation. In addition, although teachers indicated that argumentation was an important learning goal, regardless of students' backgrounds and abilities, the teachers discussed argumentation in different ways. Consequently, it may be more important to help teachers understand what counts as argumentation, rather than provide a rationale for including argumentation in instruction. Finally, the act of trying out argumentation in their own classrooms, supported through resources such as curriculum, can increase teachers' confidence in teaching argumentation.

  15. A Proposal for Ozone Science Podcasting in a Middle Science Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piecka, Debra; Studnicki, Elaine; Zuckerman-Parker, Michelle

    2008-01-01

    The use of podcasting has grown exponentially. Research projects are racing to keep up with this growth to understand implications for learning and instruction. This project specifically attempts to understand if the use and development of podcasts by students for students influence learning in a 7th grade science classroom. Using a technology…

  16. The Social Science Teacher. 1972. Collected Conference Papers: Social Science Concepts Classroom Methods.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noble, Pat, Ed.; And Others

    Papers in this publication are collected from a conference on social science concepts and classroom methods which focused on the theories of Jerome Bruner. The first article, entitled "Jerome Bruner," outlines four of Bruner's themes--structure, readiness, intuition, and interest--which relate to cognitive learning. Three papers--"Socialization"…

  17. Composing Science: A Facilitator's Guide to Writing in the Science Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elliott, Leslie Atkins; Jaxon, Kim; Salter, Irene

    2016-01-01

    Offering expertise in the teaching of writing (Kim Jaxon) and the teaching of science (Leslie Atkins Elliott and Irene Salter), this book will help instructors create classrooms in which students use writing to learn and think scientifically. The authors provide concrete approaches for engaging students in practices that mirror the work that…

  18. Turkish preservice science teachers' socioscientific issues-based teaching practices in middle school science classrooms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Genel, Abdulkadir; Sami Topçu, Mustafa

    2016-01-01

    Background: Despite a growing body of research and curriculum reforms including socioscientific issues (SSI) across the world, how preservice science teachers (PST) or in-service science teachers can teach SSI in science classrooms needs further inquiry. Purpose: The purpose of this study is to describe the abilities of PSTs to teach SSI in middle school science classrooms, and the research question that guided the present study is: How can we characterize Turkish PSTs' SSI-based teaching practices in middle school science classrooms (ages 11-14)? Sample: In order to address the research question of this study, we explored 10 Turkish PSTs' SSI-based teaching practices in middle school science classrooms. A purposeful sampling strategy was used, thus, PSTs were specifically chosen because they were ideal candidates to teach SSI and to integrate SSI into the science curricula since they were seniors in the science education program who had to take the field experience courses. Design and method: The participants' SSI teaching practices were characterized in light of qualitative research approach. SSI-based teaching practices were analyzed, and the transcripts of all videotape recordings were coded by two researchers. Results: The current data analysis describes Turkish PSTs' SSI-based teaching practices under five main categories: media, argumentation, SSI selection and presentation, risk analysis, and moral perspective. Most of PSTs did not use media resources in their lesson and none of them considered moral perspective in their teaching. While the risk analyses were very simple and superficial, the arguments developed in the classrooms generally remained at a simple level. PSTs did not think SSI as a central topic and discussed these issues in a very limited time and at the end of the class period. Conclusions: The findings of this study manifest the need of the reforms in science education programs. The present study provides evidence that moral, media

  19. Managing Inquiry-Based Science: Challenges in Enacting Complex Science Instruction in Elementary and Middle School Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Christopher J.; Rooks, Deborah L.

    2010-01-01

    Effectively enacting inquiry-based science instruction entails considerable changes in classroom management practices. In this article, we describe five interconnected management areas that need to be addressed when managing an inquiry-oriented K-8 science classroom. We introduce a pyramid model as a framework for thinking about these management…

  20. Teaching Science in a Technology-Rich Environment: The Impact of Three Innovative Tools on Secondary Science Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Felt, Wallace A.

    2011-01-01

    This qualitative case study of a rural high school examines the impact of technology tools on secondary science classrooms. Specifically, document cameras, student response systems, and probeware are examined for their affect in instructional practices in science classrooms where they are used. Observational data, student surveys, and teacher…

  1. Inclusive Science Education: What Does It Look Like? Confronting Homophobia and Providing Equity for Homosexuals in Our Science Classrooms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merkle, Dale G.

    This paper provides a current picture of what is happening to homosexual students in science classrooms, and discusses the necessity of promoting an understanding of what needs to be done to make science classrooms inclusive for gays and lesbians. A summary of a research study that used a survey of homosexual students' attitudes toward school and…

  2. The Influence of Informal Science Education Experiences on the Development of Two Beginning Teachers' Science Classroom Teaching Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katz, Phyllis; McGinnis, J. Randy; Riedinger, Kelly; Marbach-Ad, Gili; Dai, Amy

    2013-01-01

    In case studies of two first-year elementary classroom teachers, we explored the influence of informal science education (ISE) they experienced in their teacher education program. Our theoretical lens was identity development, delimited to classroom science teaching. We used complementary data collection methods and analysis, including interviews,…

  3. ``Science Talks'' in Kindergarten Classrooms: Improving Classroom Practice Through Collaborative Action Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Meilan; Passalacqua, Susan; Lundeberg, Mary; Koehler, Matthew J.; Eberhardt, Jan; Parker, Joyce; Urban-Lurain, Mark; Zhang, Tianyi; Paik, Sunhee

    2010-03-01

    In this study we described an action research project enacted by a veteran Kindergarten teacher (Sarah) in the context of a professional development program. Over the course of a year, Sarah collaborated with other teachers in a small group to investigate how to use “Science Talks” to promote student learning in Kindergarten classrooms. A Problem-Based Learning approach was adopted to guide the collaborative action research. Based on a rich set of data sources, we concluded that Sarah’s action research improved student learning and led to her own professional growth. We also identified important conditions in support of action research.

  4. Space Science in the Kindergarten Classroom and Beyond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonett, D.

    2000-12-01

    With the advent of probes to our closest planet Mars and the multi-national construction of Earth's first International Space Station, it is not presumptive to introduce 5 year old school children to the space sciences. K. E. Little Elementary School is located in the community of Bacliff, Texas. It is the largest elementary school (950 students) in the Dickinson Independent School District. K. E. Little is a Title 1 school with a multi-ethnic student population. It's close proximity to the Johnson Space Center and the Lunar and Planetary Institute provide ample instructional support and material. Last fall, two kindergarten classes received space science instruction. Both were class sizes of 19 with one class predominantly children of Vietnamese immigrants. Our goal was to create curiosity and awareness through a year-long integrated space science program of instruction. Accurate information of the space sciences was conveyed through sources i.e. books and videos, as well as conventional song, movement, and artistic expression. Videotaping and photographs replaced traditional anecdotal records. Samples of student work were compiled for classroom and school display. This year, two fifth grade classes will receive space science instruction using the Jason Project XII curriculum. Students will engage in a year-long exploration of the Hawaiian Islands. Information will be conveyed via internet and live video presentations as well as traditional sources i.e. books and videos, as well as song, movement, and artistic expression. Comparison of volcanic activity in Hawaii to volcanoes on other planets will be one of several interplanetary correlations. Samples of student work will be compiled for classroom, school, and community display.

  5. Signs of taste for science: a methodology for studying the constitution of interest in the science classroom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderhag, P.; Wickman, P.-O.; Hamza, K. M.

    2015-06-01

    In this paper we present a methodological approach for analyzing the transformation of interest in science through classroom talk and action. To this end, we use the construct of taste for science as a social and communicative operationalization, or proxy, to the more psychologically oriented construct of interest. To gain a taste for science as part of school science activities means developing habits of performing and valuing certain distinctions about ways to talk, act and be that are jointly construed as belonging in the school science classroom. In this view, to learn science is not only about learning the curriculum content, but also about learning a normative and aesthetic content in terms of habits of distinguishing and valuing. The approach thus complements previous studies on students' interest in science, by making it possible to analyze how taste for science is constituted, moment-by-moment, through talk and action in the science classroom. In developing the method, we supplement theoretical constructs coming from pragmatism and Pierre Bourdieu with empirical data from a lower secondary science classroom. The application of the method to this classroom demonstrates the potential that the approach has for analyzing how conceptual, normative, and aesthetic distinctions within the science classroom interact in the constitution of taste for, and thereby potentially also in the development of interest in science among students.

  6. Fostering a Sense of Wonder in the Science Classroom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hadzigeorgiou, Yannis Petros

    2012-10-01

    This paper reports on a study undertaken with the primary aim of investigating the role of wonder in the learning process. The study was carried out by a 9th grade science teacher in collaboration with a university professor. The teacher taught two classrooms of 27 and 30 students respectively, by trying to evoke a sense of wonder only in one of them. To this end the teacher identified ideas and phenomena as potential sources of wonder and initiated the instruction through these ideas and phenomena. Observation and especially student optional journals were the main instruments of the research. A quantitative analysis of journal entries made by the students of both classrooms, provided evidence for higher involvement for the students—both males and females—of the classroom where the teacher evoked a sense of wonder. Also an analysis of students' comments provided evidence that wonder, experienced as astonishment and a shock of awareness can help students change their outlook on natural phenomena. Moreover two paper-and-pencil tests administered at the end of the school year provided additional evidence that wonder had an effect on students' ability to remember "wonder-full" ideas and also an effect on better understanding, of at least, three phenomena. This empirical evidence of better retention and understanding is evidence of the role of wonder as an attention catcher and generally of the role of affective factors in the learning process.

  7. Creating a virtual community of practice to investigate legitimate peripheral participation by African American middle school girls in science activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edwards, Leslie D.

    How do teenage girls develop an interest in science? What kinds of opportunities can science teachers present to female students that support their engagement with learning science? I studied one aspect of this issue by focusing on ways students could use science to enhance or gain identities that they (probably) already valued. To do that I created technology-rich activities and experiences for an after school class in science and technology for middle school girls who lived in a low socio-economic urban neighborhood. These activities and experiences were designed to create a virtual community of practice whose members used science in diverse ways. Student interest was made evident in their responses to the activities. Four conclusions emerged. (1) Opportunities to learn about the lives and work of admired African American business women interested students in learning by linking it to their middle-class aspirations and their interest in things that money and status can buy. (2) Opportunities to learn about the lives and work of African American women experts in science in a classroom context where students then practiced similar kinds of actual scientific tasks engaged students in relations of legitimate peripheral participation in a virtual and diverse community of practice focused on science which was created in the after-school classes. (3) Opportunities where students used science to show off for family, friends, and supporters of the after-school program, identities they valued, interested them enough that they engaged in long-term science and technology projects that required lots of revisions. (4) In response to the opportunities presented, new and enhanced identities developed around becoming a better student or becoming some kind of scientist.

  8. Teaching science in culturally diverse classrooms: The relevance of multicultural coursework on novice teachers' instructional choice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cunha, Thais B. P. da

    Science education reform in the United States has been slow to reduce the troubling science achievement gap between students from mainstream and non-mainstream backgrounds. Recent data suggest the gap persists in spite of improved attention to the multicultural education of teachers, and in spite of recent, more culturally inclusive and responsive curricular materials and instructional recommendations. In this study, I examine the cases of two European American male novice science teachers in middle schools with highly diverse populations, exploring their perceptions of the necessity of adapting their instructional approaches and the science curricula in order to meet the needs of their predominantly Native American, Mexican American, and African American students. Two theoretical frameworks inform this study, Rodriguez's (2005) sociotransformative constructivism, and Freire's critical pedagogy. I apply a qualitative case study method, to better understand and analyze the classroom setting and power relations of the context. Data consist of semi-structured interviews with each teacher, classroom observation and other field notes, the science curricular and instructional materials, and teachers' lesson plans. Each teacher acknowledged the ethnicities of students positively and noticed distinctive ethnocultural features (e.g., quinceaneras, Mexican Americans). Yet, their teaching approaches were primarily teacher-centric and monocultural. Each followed the book, usually lecturing, and striving dutifully to "cover" the topics. They did not solicit students' knowledge or engage them in dialog to explore their thinking. Even when the curriculum guide detailed relevant science knowledge students of some cultural groups might have, both teachers declined to use it. These well-meaning teachers did not fully perceive that students whose culture was different from their own might have different and relevant knowledge, experiences, or histories which were resources for

  9. Designing for students' science learning using argumentation and classroom debate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, Philip Laverne

    1998-12-01

    This research investigates how to design and introduce an educational innovation into a classroom setting to support learning. The research yields cognitive design principles for instruction involving scientific argumentation and debate. Specifically, eighth-grade students used a computer learning environment to construct scientific arguments and to participate in a classroom debate. The instruction was designed to help students integrate their science understanding by debating: How far does light go, does light die out over distance or go forever until absorbed? This research explores the tension between focusing students' conceptual change on specific scientific phenomena and their development of integrated understanding. I focus on the importance of connecting students' everyday experiences and intuitions to their science learning. The work reported here characterizes how students see the world through a filter of their own understanding. It explores how individual and social mechanisms in instruction support students as they expand the range of ideas under consideration and distinguish between these ideas using scientific criteria. Instruction supported students as they engaged in argumentation and debate on a set of multimedia evidence items from the World-Wide-Web. An argument editor called SenseMaker was designed and studied with the intent of making individual and group thinking visible during instruction. Over multiple classroom trials, different student cohorts were increasingly supported in scientific argumentation involving systematic coordination of evidence with theoretical ideas about light. Students' knowledge representations were used as mediating "learning artifacts" during classroom debate. Two argumentation conditions were investigated. The Full Scope group prepared to defend either theoretical position in the debate. These students created arguments that included more theoretical conjectures and made more conceptual progress in understanding

  10. Classroom questioning strategies as indicators of inquiry based science instruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goossen, Linda Hale

    Inquiry teaching often rests upon the assumption that through the use of questioning and response strategies, teachers can stimulate students to actively construct knowledge. Based on this hypothesis, middle-school science lessons were observed and questioning and response strategies were identified that are related to inquiry-based instruction. Twenty-four science lessons were observed, videotaped, and ranked by inquiry characteristics other than questioning strategy. The video and audio portions of the recordings were analyzed to determine the student and teacher's questioning and response strategies in each classroom. These strategies were then compared to teaching style, along a continuum from traditional to inquiry, to identify questioning and response strategies that stimulate students to ask questions, solve problems, analyze evidence, consider alternative explanations, and other similar inquiry behaviors. The analyses indicated several questioning strategies of teachers that are related to inquiry teaching and learning and might be used as indicators of inquiry teaching in middle school science lessons. These include the number of content-related questions asked by teachers, the number of divergent questions asked by teachers, the number of times teachers probe for the intended response, the number of times teachers answer students' questions, and the number questions per concept asked by teachers. Perhaps more important was the observation that even after several decades of emphasizing the importance of inquiry methods in science education, neither students nor teachers participating in this study are asking higher-level cognitive questions deemed to be an important facet in the effective teaching and learning of science.

  11. Using Science and the Internet as Everyday Classroom Tools

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mandel, Eric

    1999-01-01

    The Everyday Classroom Tools project developed a K-6 inquiry-based curriculum to bring the tools of scientific inquiry, together with the Internet, into the elementary school classroom. Our curriculum encourages students and teachers to experience the adventure of science through investigation of the world around us. In this project, experts in computer science and astronomy at SAO worked closely with teachers and students in Massachusetts elementary schools to design and model activities which are developmentally appropriate, fulfill the needs of the curriculum standards of the school district, and provide students with a chance to experience for themselves the joy and excitement of scientific inquiry. The results of our efforts are embodied in the Threads of Inquiry, a series of free-flowing dialogues about inquiry-inspiring investigations that maintain a solid connection with our experience and with one another. These investigations are concerned with topics such as the motion of the Earth, shadows, light, and time. Our work emphasizes a direct hands-on approach through concrete experience, rather than memorization of facts.

  12. Polar Science: From the Field to the Classroom (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Neill, M.; O'Brien, K.

    2010-12-01

    The ARMADA Project was a National Science Foundation Project organized by the Office of Marine Programs of the University of Rhode Island. ARMADA connected scientists and teachers to conduct field research together and share directly with the classroom. In addition to the field research, ARMADA teachers mentored new science teachers to assist in teacher retention and presented at National Science Teachers’ Association National Conventions. As an ARMADA teacher, I participated in two polar research experiences. In 2007, I worked with scientists from the University of Barcelona, Spain in the Arctic off the coast of Svalbard conducting seafloor mapping and sediment core sampling. My second research experience was to Antarctica in 2009 with Dr. Kristin O’Brien and her team studying Antarctic Ice Fish and their tolerance to temperature change. Sharing ship time with Dr. O’Brien was a team of scientists from Duke University studying humpback whales and their feeding behaviors. I was able to join both research teams and share the information with students, colleagues and the community. Connecting directly with scientists in the field has not only increased my personal knowledge of polar science, but has been invaluable to my teaching efforts. While in the Arctic, I was able to conduct a telephone conference with my students and the lead scientist via the satellite phone. From Antarctica I connected with several classes from Fairhope High School in a “Live from Antarctica” video conference. I was able to take them on a “virtual tour” of Palmer Station and Dr. O’Brien and Dr. Crockett answered student questions about Antarctic Fish. During both expeditions, I maintained a daily blog that enable my students to follow along with my research experience. Being able to bring the most current scientific research into the classroom with these expeditions has been inspiring for the students, colleagues and community.

  13. The influence of momentary classroom goal structures on student engagement and achievement in high school science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaleski, Diana Janet

    Teachers' instructional practices fundamentally shape students' classroom experiences. However, it is still unclear what patterns of instructional practice are related to specific classroom goal structures, and how momentary changes in classroom goal structures affect students' momentary cognitive engagement in high school science. This study examined the relationship between classroom goal structures in high school science and two different learning outcomes: (1) students' cognitive engagement in science and (2) students' science course grades. To achieve this aim, classroom goal structures were examined as both a variable feature of the classroom that shifts from activity to activity (i.e., momentary classroom goal structure), and as a single global characteristic describing the dominant goal structure of a classroom over time (i.e., global classroom goal structure). Students' momentary cognitive engagement significantly increased when instructional moments were mastery or performance goal structured compared to moments that had no identifiable goal structure. However, no relationships were found between global classroom goal structure and cognitive engagement or science course grades.

  14. A phenomenological case study concerning science teacher educators' beliefs and teaching practices about culturally relevant pedagogy and preparing K-12 science teachers to engage African American students in K-12 science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Underwood, Janice Bell

    Due to the rising diversity in today's schools, science teacher educators (STEs) suggest that K-12 teachers must be uniquely prepared to engage these students in science classrooms. Yet, in light of the increasing white-black science achievement gap, it is unclear how STEs prepare preservice teachers to engage diverse students, and African Americans in particular. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to find out how STEs prepare preservice teachers to engage African American students in K-12 science. Thus, using the culturally relevant pedagogy (CRP) framework, this phenomenological case study explored beliefs about culturally relevant science teaching and the influence of reported beliefs and experiences related to race on STEs' teaching practices. In the first phase, STE's in a mid-Atlantic state were invited to participate in an electronic survey. In the second phase, four participants, who were identified as exemplars, were selected from the survey to participate in three semi-structured interviews. The data revealed that STEs were more familiar with culturally responsive pedagogy (CResP) in the context of their post-secondary classrooms as opposed to CRP. Further, most of the participants in part one and two described modeling conventional ways they prepare their preservice teachers to engage K-12 students, who represent all types of diversity, without singling out any specific race. Lastly, many of the STEs' in this study reported formative experiences related to race and beliefs in various manifestations of racism have impacted their teaching beliefs and practices. The findings of this study suggest STEs do not have a genuine understanding of the differences between CRP and CResP and by in large embrace CResP principles. Secondly, in regards to preparing preservice teachers to engage African American students in science, the participants in this study seemed to articulate the need for ideological change, but were unable to demonstrate pedagogical changes

  15. A study of the historical role of African Americans in science, engineering and technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Keith Wayne

    2000-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if there is adequate documentation of an historical role of African and African American involvement in science, engineering, and technology. Through the use of history of science and technology research methodology, along with an examination of the sociological and economic impacts of adequately accredited innovations and inventions contributed by Africans and African Americans, the researcher investigated their contributions to the following areas of science and technology: life science, physical sciences and chemistry, engineering, and science education. In regard to the timeframe for this study, the researcher specifically investigated African and African American involvement in science and technology that includes periods prior to black enslavement, scientific racism and colonialism, as well as during and after those periods. This research study reveals that there are adequate historical data regarding African and African American contributions to science, engineering, and technology. The data reveals that for many millennia African peoples have been continually involved in science and world science histories. The data further show that the numbers of African Americans acquiring BS, MS, Ph.D., Doctor of Science and Doctor of Engineering degrees in science and engineering disciplines are increasing. That these increases are not happening at a rate representative of the present or future African American percentages of the population. Consequently, because of future changes in our nation's demographics, increasing the numbers of people from under-represented groups who pursue scientific and engineering professions has become a matter of national security at the highest levels of government. Moreover, African Americans, Hispanics, and Native Americans are not pursuing careers or taking courses in science and engineering at a rate high enough to fulfill the prospective needs for the United States' industries, government

  16. Effects of Classroom Assessment on Student Motivation in Fifth-Grade Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stefanou, Candice; Parkes, Jay

    2003-01-01

    Explored the claim that performance assessments foster a more positive motivational orientation for students than supplied-response assessments when used in the classroom. Fifth graders in three science classrooms were exposed to three types of assessment. Surveys investigated students' attitudes toward science, goal orientation, and cognitive…

  17. Relation between Classroom Climate and Achievement in Physical Science of Secondary School Pupils

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    R., Smitha; Sajan, K. S.

    2010-01-01

    This study estimates the extent of relationship between "Achievement in Physical Science" and "Classroom Climate" for the total sample and Sub sample based on gender. The tools used for collecting the data are scale of classroom climate and achievement test in physical science. The study reveals that boys show indifferent or negligible but…

  18. Multilevel Effects of Student and Classroom Factors on Elementary Science Achievement in Five Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaya, Sibel; Rice, Diana C.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the effects of individual student factors and classroom factors on elementary science achievement within and across five countries. The student-level factors included gender, self-confidence in science and home resources. The classroom-level factors included teacher characteristics, instructional variables and classroom…

  19. Pre-Service Secondary Science and Mathematics Teachers' Classroom Management Styles in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yilmaz, Kursad

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine Pre-service secondary science and mathematics teachers' classroom management styles in Turkey. In addition, differences in pre-service secondary science and mathematics teachers' classroom management styles by gender, and field of study were examined. In the study, the survey model was employed. The research…

  20. An Evolutionary Approach to Harnessing Complex Systems Thinking in the Science and Technology Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yoon, Susan A.

    2008-01-01

    Educational efforts to incorporate ethical decision-making in science classrooms about current science and technology issues have met with great challenges. Some research suggests that the inherent complexity in both the subject matter content and the structure and dynamics of classrooms contribute to this challenge. This study seeks to…

  1. The Relationship between Teachers' Knowledge and Beliefs about Science and Inquiry and Their Classroom Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saad, Rayana; BouJaoude, Saouma

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate relationships between teachers' attitudes toward science, knowledge and beliefs about inquiry, and science classroom teaching practices. Specifically, the study addressed three questions: What are teachers' beliefs and knowledge about inquiry? What are teachers' teaching related classroom practices? Do…

  2. Is the Inquiry Real? Working Definitions of Inquiry in the Science Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leonard, William H.; Penick, John E.

    2009-01-01

    When describing activities in today's K-12 science classrooms, the word inquiry often causes some confusion. As a result, many of us find ourselves asking the same questions: How do we know when inquiry is authentic? What should happen in an inquiry-centered science classroom? What is the teacher's role in an inquiry-centered class and what is the…

  3. Exploring the Impact of Learning Objects in Middle School Mathematics and Science Classrooms: A Formative Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kay, Robin H.; Knaack, Liesel

    2008-01-01

    The current study offers a formative analysis of the impact of learning objects in middle school mathematics and science classrooms. Five reliable and valid measures of effectiveness were used to examine the impact of learning objects from the perspective of 262 students and 8 teachers (14 classrooms) in science or mathematics. The results…

  4. Perezhivanie and Classroom Discourse: A Cultural-Historical Perspective on "Discourse of Design Based Science Classroom Activities"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Megan; March, Sue

    2015-01-01

    Flavio Azevedo, Peggy Martalock and Tugba Keser challenge the "argumentation focus of science lessons" and propose that through a 'design-based approach' emergent conversations with the teacher offer possibilities for different types of discussions to enhance pedagogical discourse in science classrooms. This important paper offers a…

  5. A Study of Urban African American Students' Conceptions of School and Media Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson-Whitt, Eugenia Stacell

    2012-01-01

    In order to inquire into the persistent underrepresentation of urban minority students in the sciences, this study explored three urban African American students' conceptualizations of school science and media science, with emphases on the representation of science in "Crime Scene Investigation" ("CSI"). Based on the data…

  6. Makiguchian pedagogy in the middle school science classroom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pagan, Iris Teresa

    In an atmosphere of multi-culturism and the increasing need for innovative methods for science teaching, investigating educators from different parts of the world is well regarded. Tsunesaburo Makiguchi (1871--1944) was a prescient thinker who foreshadowed many of the modern social constructivist ideals of teaching before they became formalized in Western thought. He believed in the harmonious balance between an individual and society as the only viable goal of education. With this in mind, he introduced the concepts of "evaluation," "cognition" and "value creation" that embody this balance. "Cognition" is associated with "truth" and "evaluation" is involved with the subject-object relationship. Moreover, Makiguchian pedagogy's concept of "value creation" offers a sociological and philosophical basis for "classroom inclusion." Additionally, Makiguchian pedagogy is compared to John Dewey's philosophy as well as the educational philosophy expressed in The National Science Standards. In this teacher participant study, classroom observational data showed that several dimensions of Makiguchian pedagogical practice occurred conjointly with relatively high frequencies. These included frequent occurrences of interactional conversation between students and teacher merged within a context of expressions of personal and collective values, social contextual references, valuing and personal evaluative statements, and episodic information that the students contributed from personal experiences relevant to the science topics. Additionally, Likert-type questionnaire data collected from the students who experienced the Makiguchian lessons, and observational data from professional colleagues who viewed video taped records of the lessons, provided additional corroborative evidence supporting the researcher's findings. A content analysis of lesson plans containing Makiguchian principles of teaching and learning in relation to the ensuing classroom performance of the teacher showed a

  7. Elementary Science Students' Motivation and Learning Strategy Use: Constructivist Classroom Contextual Factors in a Life Science Laboratory and a Traditional Classroom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milner, Andrea R.; Templin, Mark A.; Czerniak, Charlene M.

    2011-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the influence of constructivist classroom contextual factors in a life science laboratory and a traditional science classroom on elementary students' motivation and learning strategy use. The Constructivist Teaching Inventory was used to examine classroom contextual factors. The Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire was used to examine student motivation and learning strategies. A Wilcoxon nonparametric test determined that constructivist teaching practices were found to occur more often in the life laboratory than in the regular classroom. Although constructivist teaching practices increased at each observation time in both the regular classroom and in the life laboratory, a Friedman test determined that they were not statistically significant increases. Paired sample t tests determined that student motivation and learning strategies were higher in the life laboratory than in the regular classroom overall as well as at each survey time except for learning strategies at Post 1. A 2 × 4 between 3 within repeated measure ANOVA determined that student MSLQ motivation and learning strategy scores in the regular classroom varied statistically significantly by teacher. Student MSLQ motivation and learning strategy scores in the life laboratory varied statistically significantly by teacher. To triangulate data, individual interviews of students were conducted at the end of the semester and revealed students regard the life laboratory as an asset to their science study; however, students do appreciate and value working in the learning environment that the regular classroom provides.

  8. Undergraduate-driven interventions to increase representation in science classrooms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freilich, M.; Aluthge, D.; Bryant, R. M.; Knox, B.; McAdams, J.; Plummer, A.; Schlottman, N.; Stanley, Z.; Suglia, E.; Watson-Daniels, J.

    2014-12-01

    Recognizing that racial, ethnic, and gender underrepresentation in science classrooms persists despite intervention programs and institutional commitments to diversity, a group of undergraduates from a variety of backgrounds and academic disciplines came together for a group independent study to (a) study the theoretical foundations of the current practice of science and of programs meant to increase diversity, (b) utilize the experiences of course participants and our peers to better understand the drivers of underrepresentation, and (c) design and implement interventions at Brown University. We will present on individual and small group projects designed by course members in collaboration with faculty. The projects emerged from an exploration of literature in history, philosophy, and sociology of science, as well as an examination of anthropological and psychological studies. We also evaluated the effectiveness of top-down and bottom-up approaches that have already been attempted in developing our projects. They focus on the specific problems faced by underrepresented minorities, women, LGBTQ+ people, and well-represented minorities. We will share experiences of faculty-student collaboration and engaged scholarship focused on representation in science and discuss student-designed interventions.

  9. The influence of classroom climate on science process and content achievement of community college students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haukoos, Gerry D.; Penick, John E.

    The effect of two specific classroom climates on learning of science process skills and content achievement in college level science classes was studied. Two classroom climates were established and designated as discovery classroom climate (DCC) and nondiscovery classroom climate (NDCC). The term discovery denotes the degree of freedom the teacher established in classroom interactions, both verbal and nonverbal. Verbal interactions were monitored with the Science Laboratory Interaction Categories. These data indicate that students in the two classroom climates achieved equally as well on learning of biological content of the course, but students in the discovery classroom climate achieved significantly higher scores in science process skills as measured by the Welch Science Process Inventory. This study, conducted in a large, suburban community college, offers some useful information to the person who has educational goals beyond, but including, the learning of science information and concepts, and possibly science process. Students in the less directive discovery climate learned as much content as those in a more directive comparison class-they lost nothing of what is traditionally sought in a college science class. In addition, the discovery climate facilitated the development of science process skills which were significantly better than the comparison class. A five-week intensive class using the discovery climate was found to provide as much content acquisition as the ten-week nondiscovery climate.

  10. Impact of Science Tutoring on African Americans' Science Scores on the High School Students' Graduation Examination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, Edward

    This study investigated the relationship between an after-school tutorial program for African American high school students at a Title I school and scores on the science portion of the High School Graduation Examination (HSGE). Passing the examination was required for graduation. The target high school is 99% African American and the passing rate of the target high school was 42%---lower than the state average of 76%. The purpose of the study was to identify (a) the relationship between a science tutorial program and scores on the science portion of the HSGE, (b) the predictors of tutoring need by analyzing the relationship between biology grades and scores on the science portion of the HSGE, and (c) the findings between biology grades and scores on the science portion of the HSGE by analyzing the relationship between tutorial attendance and HSGE scores. The study was based on Piaget's cognitive constructivism, which implied the potential benefits of tutorials on high-stakes testing. This study used a 1-group pretest-posttest, quantitative methodology. Results showed a significant relationship between tutoring and scores on the biology portion of the HSGE. Results found no significant relationship between the tutorial attendance and the scores on the biology portion of the HSGE or between the biology grades and scores on the biology portion of the HSGE before tutoring. It has implications for positive social change by providing educational stakeholders with empirically-based guidance in determining the potential benefit of tutorial intervention strategies on high school graduation examination scores.

  11. Achieving Equity through Critical Science Agency: An Ethnographic Study of African American Students in a Health Science Career Academy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haun-Frank, Julie

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the potential of a High School Health Science Career Academy to support African American students' science career trajectories. I used three key theoretical tools---critical science agency (Basu, 2007; Calabrese Barton & Tan, 2008), power (Nespor, 1994), and cultural production (Carlone, 2004; Eisenhart &…

  12. Teaching about the Epistemology of Science in Upper Secondary Schools: An Analysis of Teachers' Classroom Talk

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryder, Jim; Leach, John

    2008-01-01

    We begin by drawing upon the available literature to identify four characteristics of teacher talk likely to support student learning about the epistemology of science: making appropriate statements about the epistemology of science in the classroom, linking the epistemology of science with specific science concepts, stating and justifying…

  13. Inquiry-Based Instruction in Secondary Science Classrooms: A Survey of Teacher Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gejda, Linda M.; LaRocco, Diana J.

    2006-01-01

    Background: For ten years, the National Science Education Standards (National Research Council, 1996) have served as the foundation for Connecticut's teacher certification in science and the expectations of teacher practice secondary science classrooms. Furthermore, beginning science teachers must demonstrate the ability to teach in an…

  14. Teaching and Learning in the Mixed-Reality Science Classroom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tolentino, Lisa; Birchfield, David; Megowan-Romanowicz, Colleen; Johnson-Glenberg, Mina C.; Kelliher, Aisling; Martinez, Christopher

    2009-12-01

    As emerging technologies become increasingly inexpensive and robust, there is an exciting opportunity to move beyond general purpose computing platforms to realize a new generation of K-12 technology-based learning environments. Mixed-reality technologies integrate real world components with interactive digital media to offer new potential to combine best practices in traditional science learning with the powerful affordances of audio/visual simulations. This paper introduces the realization of a learning environment called SMALLab, the Situated Multimedia Arts Learning Laboratory. We present a recent teaching experiment for high school chemistry students. A mix of qualitative and quantitative research documents the efficacy of this approach for students and teachers. We conclude that mixed-reality learning is viable in mainstream high school classrooms and that students can achieve significant learning gains when this technology is co-designed with educators.

  15. Success in Science among Young African American Women: The Role of Minority Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanson, Sandra L.

    2007-01-01

    A conceptual framework that integrates critical gender theory and a multicultural approach is used to examine young African American women's experiences in high school science. Research reveals considerable success for these young women. The multicultural approach suggests that the unique history and culture of African American families may play a…

  16. Providing African-American Students Access to Science and Mathematics. Research Report #2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Robert C.

    This review examines African American students' access to science and mathematics education, their status and achievement in these fields, factors influencing achievement, and strategies to address the current situation. African Americans are highly underrepresented in the scientific and technical fields. This situation should be corrected because…

  17. Family Matters: Familial Support and Science Identity Formation for African American Female STEM Majors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Ashley Dawn

    2013-01-01

    This research seeks to understand the experiences of African American female undergraduates in STEM. It investigates how familial factors and science identity formation characteristics influence persistence in STEM while considering the duality of African American women's status in society. This phenomenological study was designed using critical…

  18. Career Commitment and African American Women in Undergraduate STEM Majors: The Role of Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenkins, Felysha L.

    2012-01-01

    Despite the odds, African American women are achieving some success in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM). However, a dearth of empirical evidence exists on the mechanisms that contribute to their persistence. This study contributes to understanding how African American women are successful in obtaining baccalaureate degrees…

  19. Constructing Authority across Racial Difference: A White Teacher Signifyin(g) with African American Students in a High School English Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ford, Amy Carpenter

    2010-01-01

    This in-depth case study of classroom interaction illuminated how a white female teacher and African American students used talk to build positive authority relationships across their racial difference. Racial difference in classrooms can engender cultural misunderstandings between teachers and students around behavior, communication, and learning…

  20. Indigenous Knowledge in the Life Sciences Classroom: Put on Your de Bono Hats!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Beer, Josef; Whitlock, Elrina

    2009-01-01

    The whole world was united in its condemnation of the pre-1994 apartheid regime in South Africa. Apartheid meant that many South Africans were robbed of their democratic voices and cultural identities. In this article, the authors pose the question: Are you guilty of "knowledge apartheid" in your biology classroom? Does every student have a voice…

  1. From Access to Success: Identity Contingencies & African-American Pathways to Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Bryan A.; Henderson, J. Bryan; Gray, Salina; Donovan, Brian; Sullivan, Shayna

    2013-01-01

    We conducted a mixed-methodological study of matriculation issues for African-American students in science. The project compares the experiences of students currently majoring in science (N = 304) with the experiences of those who have succeeded in earning science degrees (N = 307). Using a 57-item Likert scale questionnaire, participants were…

  2. Elementary Teachers' Beliefs about Teaching Science and Classroom Practice: An Examination of Pre/Post NCLB Testing in Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milner, Andrea R.; Sondergeld, Toni A.; Demir, Abdulkadir; Johnson, Carla C.; Czerniak, Charlene M.

    2012-01-01

    The impact of No Child Left Behind (NCLB) mandated state science assessment on elementary teachers' beliefs about teaching science and their classroom practice is relatively unknown. For many years, the teaching of science has been minimized in elementary schools in favor of more emphasis on reading and mathematics. This study examines the…

  3. How to Talk About Science: Lessons from a Middle School Science Classroom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cushman-Patz, B. J.

    2010-12-01

    Middle school students are curious, energetic, and impatient. A middle school science teacher is always challenged to find ways to relate the content she’d like to convey to the students’ everyday lives, working to both satiate and foster their natural curiosity. She must communicate science in language appropriate for her audience, teaching new vocabulary words the first time she uses them, and reviewing them often. A thriving middle school science classroom is noisy, messy, and fun. Understanding what makes this classroom dynamic work can lead to better communication about science to any audience. 1) Know your bottom-line message, and keep it simple. Research science is complicated and nuanced. Your audience may be interested in some of these details, but start with the big picture first, and fill in the details as appropriate. 2) Avoid jargon. Use language that you would use to explain science to your 13-year-old neighbor or your 85-year old grandmother. They know what a volcano is, but they may not know the difference between a crater and a caldera. They definitely don’t know what a phreatomagmatic eruption is. As you introduce necessary jargon into your discussion, define it clearly in terms of something you are sure they do know and understand. 3) Engage the audience. Use pictures; use your hands; use common-reference points. Whenever possible, get the audience members to use their hands to mimic your motion. Encourage them to try to reframe what you say in terms that they’re comfortable with. Make it a two-way conversation 4) Pause. New concepts take time to absorb. Take a breath; give your audience a moment to absorb what you just explained and to formulate questions they may have. 5) Pay attention to cues. Middle school students make it obvious when they’re bored; adults tend to be more subtle. When eyes wander or eyelids droop, ask a question that engages your audience, even if it’s just, “do you follow?” or, “where did I lose you

  4. Science Teacher Beliefs and Classroom Practice Related to Constructivism in Different School Settings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savasci, Funda; Berlin, Donna F.

    2012-02-01

    Science teacher beliefs and classroom practice related to constructivism and factors that may influence classroom practice were examined in this cross-case study. Data from four science teachers in two schools included interviews, demographic questionnaire, Classroom Learning Environment Survey (preferred/perceived), and classroom observations and documents. Using an inductive analytic approach, results suggested that the teachers embraced constructivism, but classroom observations did not confirm implementation of these beliefs for three of the four teachers. The most preferred constructivist components were personal relevance and student negotiation; the most perceived component was critical voice. Shared control was the least preferred, least perceived, and least observed constructivist component. School type, grade, student behavior/ability, curriculum/standardized testing, and parental involvement may influence classroom practice.

  5. Children's Reasoning as Collective Social Action through Problem Solving in Grade 2/3 Science Classrooms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Mijung

    2016-01-01

    Research on young children's reasoning show the complex relationships of knowledge, theories, and evidence in their decision-making and problem solving. Most of the research on children's reasoning skills has been done in individualized and formal research settings, not collective classroom environments where children often engage in learning and reasoning together to solve classroom problems. This study posits children's reasoning as a collective social activity that can occur in science classrooms. The study examined how children process their reasoning within the context of Grade 2/3 science classrooms and how the process of collectivity emerges from classroom interactions and dialogue between children as they attempt to solve their classroom problems. The study findings suggest that children's reasoning involves active evaluation of theories and evidence through collective problem solving, with consensus being developed through dialogical reasoning.

  6. Effects of sustained teacher professional development on the classroom science instruction of elementary school teachers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hauck, Nancy

    The purpose of this study was to determine the extent to which sustained teacher professional development in science education affects the classroom instruction of elementary school teachers in third through sixth grade over a 3-year period. The teachers in the study were all elementary endorsed and prepared to be generalists in the content areas. Science reform has led to more content-specific science standards that are difficult for most elementary teachers to address without professional development. Recent studies on improving elementary science instruction suggest the need for professional development to be long term, embedded in teaching practice in the classroom, and rooted in research on how children learn science. The researcher examined changes in classroom instruction over a 3-year period of teachers who participated in a professional development program designed to meet the elementary science education reform based on recommendations from the National Research Council's report, Taking Science to School: Learning and Teaching Science in Grades K-8. The data that were analyzed to determine the effects of the professional development came from classroom observations of two sets of teachers, one of which was the control set (n = 20). The other was the experimental set (n =22). Classroom observations were administered one time each year over 3 years of treatment to determine whether sustained professional development in science impacted teacher practices in the classroom. This study suggested that classroom science instruction did significantly change through sustained professional development intervention. It also suggested that teaching practices improved in the areas of talk and argument, investigation and inquiry, modeling and representations, alignment with science core concepts, and addressing science misconceptions. Furthermore, findings indicated that teachers who received sustained professional development were more likely to have higher overall

  7. Becoming urban science teachers by transforming middle-school classrooms: A study of the Urban Science Education Fellows Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furman, Melina Gabriela

    The current scenario in American education shows a large achievement and opportunity gap in science between urban children in poverty and more privileged youth. Research has shown that one essential factor that accounts for this gap is the shortage of qualified science teachers in urban schools. Teaching science in a high poverty school presents unique challenges to beginner teachers. Limited resources and support and a significant cultural divide with their students are some of the common problems that cause many novice teachers to quit their jobs or to start enacting what has been described as "the pedagogy of poverty." In this study I looked at the case of the Urban Science Education Fellows Program. This program aimed to prepare preservice teachers (i.e. "fellows") to enact socially just science pedagogies in urban classrooms. I conducted qualitative case studies of three fellows. Fellows worked over one year with science teachers in middle-school classrooms in order to develop transformative action research studies. My analysis focused on how fellows coauthored hybrid spaces within these studies that challenged the typical ways science was taught and learned in their classrooms towards a vision of socially just teaching. By coauthoring these hybrid spaces, fellows developed grounded generativity, i.e. a capacity to create new teaching scenarios rooted in the pragmatic realities of an authentic classroom setting. Grounded generativity included building upon their pedagogical beliefs in order to improvise pedagogies with others, repositioning themselves and their students differently in the classroom and constructing symbols of possibility to guide their practice. I proposed authentic play as the mechanism that enabled fellows to coauthor hybrid spaces. Authentic play involved contexts of moderate risk and of distributed expertise and required fellows to be positioned at the intersection of the margins and the center of the classroom community of practice. In

  8. Revising laboratory work: sociological perspectives on the science classroom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jobér, Anna

    2016-08-01

    This study uses sociological perspectives to analyse one of the core practices in science education: schoolchildren's and students' laboratory work. Applying an ethnographic approach to the laboratory work done by pupils at a Swedish compulsory school, data were generated through observations, field notes, interviews, and a questionnaire. The pupils, ages 14 and 15, were observed as they took a 5-week physics unit (specifically, mechanics). The analysis shows that the episodes of laboratory work could be filled with curiosity and exciting challenges; however, another picture emerged when sociological concepts and notions were applied to what is a very common way of working in the classroom. Laboratory work is characterised as a social activity that is expected to be organised as a group activity. This entails groups becoming, to some extent, `safe havens' for the pupils. On the other hand, this way of working in groups required pupils to subject to the groups and the peer effect, sometimes undermining their chances to learn and perform better. In addition, the practice of working in groups when doing laboratory work left some pupils and the teacher blaming themselves, even though the outcome of the learning situation was a result of a complex interplay of social processes. This article suggests a stronger emphasis on the contradictions and consequences of the science subjects, which are strongly influenced by their socio-historical legacy.

  9. Equity Conscious Instruction in Problem-based Multilingual Science Classrooms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, Elizabeth

    This dissertation examines the instructional and relational moves implemented by an equity-conscious teacher in service of supporting discursive participation among her English Learners specifically in a problem-based science classroom. The research included also examines the evolution of discursive participation among English Learners as well as the nature of collaboration among English Learners and their English Fluent peers. Initial findings suggest that there were productive, unproductive, and problematic responses to the teacher's caring approach. Students saw the teacher as approachable and accessible which resulted in students seeking the teacher out, which in turn meant that the teacher was able to scaffold instruction for her students. Students recognized and appreciated teacher strategies, but did not generally take up or adopt her instructional supports when working with their peers. English Fluent students shielded English Learners from more rigorous participation in an effort to prevent them from feeling uncomfortable. Furthermore, English Learners and their English Fluent peers defined "help" in the context of group work differently. The implications for this work include further addressing the ways in which teachers support and scaffold science instruction, thinking more critically about the ways in which teachers are explicit in modeling instructional strategies, and working with students to better understand the implications of differences in the ways that they define help and collaborate.

  10. Gender differences in teacher-student interactions in science classrooms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, M. Gail; Wheatley, Jack

    1990-12-01

    Thirty physical science and 30 chemistry classes, which contained a total of 1332 students, were observed using the Brophy-Good Teacher-Child Dyadic Interaction System. Classroom interactions were examined for gender differences that may contribute to the underrepresentation of women in physics and engineering courses and subsequent careers. The Brophy-Good coding process allows for examination of patterns of interactions for individuals and groups of pupils. An analysis of variance of the data yielded a significant main effect for teacher praise, call outs, procedural questions, and behavioral warnings based on the sex of the student and a significant teacher-sex main effect for direct questions. Significant two-way interactions were found for the behavioral warning variable for teacher sex and subject by student sex. Female teachers warned male students significantly more than female students. Male teachers warned both genders with similar frequency. Male students also received significantly more behavioral warnings in physical science classes than female students. In chemistry classes, both male and female students received approximately the same number of behavioral warnings.

  11. Need for Planetary Science Data in Formal Education Classrooms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slater, T. F.; Richwine, P. L.; Parker, S. J. Shipp, S. Lowes, L.

    2008-06-01

    Science education reform documents universally call for students to have authentic and meaningful experiences using real data in their science education. The underlying philosophical position is that students analyzing data can have experiences that mimic actual research. In short, research experiences that reflect the scientific spirit of inquiry potentially can: 1) prepare students to address real world complex problems; 2) develop students' ability to use scientific methods; 3) prepare students to critically evaluate the validity of data or evidence and of the consequent interpretations or conclusions; 4) teach quantitative skills, technical methods, and scientific concepts; 5) increase verbal, written, and graphical communication skills; and 6) train students in the values and ethics of working with scientific data. This large-scale, national teacher survey reveals that far too few teachers are comfortable using authentic data in the classroom. Barriers include, but not limited to: 1) difficulty in finding appropriate data and analysis tools; 2) the perceived length of time it takes students to complete an authentic scientific inquiry; and, most importantly, 3) a perceived lack of expert infrastructure and mentors who can help individual students. These results point to the need for a solution that simplifies the number of pathways for students to access data, reduces the number of analysis tools that teachers and students need to master, provides samples of student work that other students can emulate, and provides a nationwide system of online mentors who are willing and able to help students succeed. at scientific inquiry.

  12. Engaging Students with Subject Matter Experts and Science Content Through Classroom Connection Webinars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graff, P. V.; Rampe, E.; Stefanov, W. L.; Vanderbloemen, L.; Higgins, M.

    2015-01-01

    Connecting students and teachers in classrooms with science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) experts provides an invaluable opportunity. Subject matter experts can share exciting science and science-related events as well as help to "translate" science being conducted by professionals. The Expedition Earth and Beyond (EEAB) Program, facilitated by the Astromaterials Research and Exploration Science (ARES) Division at the NASA Johnson Space Center, has been providing virtual access to subject matter experts through classroom connection webinars for the last five years. Each year, the reach of these events has grown considerably, especially over the last nine months. These virtual connections not only help engage students with role models, but are also designed to help teachers address concepts and content standards they are required to teach. These events also enable scientists and subject matter experts to help "translate" current science in an engaging and understandable manner while actively involving classrooms in the journey of science and exploration.

  13. Classroom Discourse in Problem-Based Learning Classrooms in the Health Sciences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodward-Kron, Robyn; Remedios, Louisa

    2007-01-01

    Classroom discourse analysis has contributed to understandings of the nature of student-teacher interactions, and how learning takes place in the classroom; however, much of this work has been undertaken in teacher-directed learning contexts. Student-centred classrooms such as problem-based learning (PBL) approaches are increasingly common in…

  14. Perceptions of selected science careers by African American high school males

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ijames, Erika Denise

    Research indicates that internal and external factors such as role models, stereotypes, and pressures placed on African American males by their family and friends influence their perceptions of science careers (Assibey-Mensah, 1997; Hess & Leal, 1997; Jacobowitz, 1983; Maple & Stage, 1991; Thomas, 1989; Ware & Lee, 1988). The purpose of this research was to investigate the perceptions of African American high school males about selected science careers based on apparent internal and external factors. Two questions guided this research: (1) What are high school African American males' perceptions of science careers? (2) What influences high school African American males' perceptions of science careers? This research was based on a pilot study in which African American college males perceived a selection of science careers along racial and gender lines. The follow-up investigation was conducted at Rockriver High School in Acorn County, and the participants were three college-bound African American males. The decision to choose males was based on the concept of occupational niching along gender lines. In biology, niching is defined as the role of a particular species regarding space and reproduction, and its interactions with other factors. During the seven-week period of the students' senior year, they met with the researcher to discuss their perceptions of science careers. An ethnographic approach was used to allow a richer and thicker narrative to occur. Critical theory was used to describe and interpret the voices of the participants from a social perspective. The data collected were analyzed using a constant comparative analysis technique. The participants revealed role models, negative stereotypes, peer pressure, social pressures, and misconceptions as some of the factors that influenced their perceptions of science careers. Results of this research suggest that by dispelling the misconceptions, educators can positively influence the attitudes and perceptions of

  15. Evaluation of GALAXY Classroom Science for Grades 3-5. Final Report. Executive Summary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guth, Gloria J. A.; Austin, Susan; DeLong, Bo; Pasta, David J.; Block, Clifford

    The GALAXY Classroom is a package of integrated curricular and instructional approaches, supported by the first U.S. interactive satellite communications network designed to facilitate the introduction of innovative curricula to improve student learning in elementary schools. GALAXY Classroom Science for grades 3-5 features the organization of…

  16. Analyzing Stories Told by an Elementary Science Teacher in a Fifth-Grade Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trotman, Alicia M.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to analyze and interpret the stories told by one teacher, Ms. M, in a fifth grade science classroom. In this study, stories are defined as teacher utterances that are used in first person or third person narrative view, and are related to an experience that occurred outside the classroom. This research…

  17. The Relationship between MSPAP and Science Classroom Instruction and Assessment Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cerrillo, Tracy L.; Hansen, Mary A.; Parke, Carol S.; Lane, Suzanne; Scott, Kathryn

    As part of a research project being conducted to determine the impact that the Maryland Learning Outcomes and the Maryland State Performance Assessment Program (MSPAP) are having on classroom instruction and assessment practices, science classroom materials were collected from elementary and middle schools in Maryland during the 1997-1998 school…

  18. Animals in the Classroom: A Guide for Teachers. Elementary Science Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillmor, Mary S.; And Others

    This guide is designed to encourage people to keep animals of all kinds in the classroom and to use them in teaching language arts, mathematics, and social studies, as well as science and nature study. The booklet is divided into four sections. The first section contains an account of a year with desert animals in an ungraded classroom of six- to…

  19. Girls in Primary School Science Classrooms: Theorising beyond Dominant Discourses of Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cervoni, Cleti; Ivinson, Gabrielle

    2011-01-01

    The paper explores the ways girls appropriate gender through actions, gesture and talk to achieve things in primary school science classrooms. It draws on socio-cultural approaches to show that when everyday classroom practices are viewed from multiple planes of analysis, historical, institutional and in the micro dynamics of classroom…

  20. Science Teachers without Classrooms of Their Own: A Study of the Phenomenon of Floating

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dubois, Shannon L.; Luft, Julie A.

    2014-01-01

    "Floating" teachers, or teachers without their own classroom, experience unique affordances and constraints as they develop professionally. To increase the knowledge in this area, this study looks at how traveling to different classrooms affects beginning secondary science teachers' development and instruction. The participants in…

  1. It's in the Bag!: Going beyond the Science Classroom with Take-Home Literacy Bags

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Susan Ferguson; Daughenbaugh, Lynda; Shaw, Edward L., Jr.; Burch, Katrina

    2013-01-01

    Although literacy plays a large role in elementary science classrooms, one thing that offers a challenge for educators is meeting the linguistic needs of English language learners (ELLs) while also meeting their content needs. An additional challenge is ensuring that academic literacy extends beyond the classroom. This article presents ways of…

  2. No Child Is Left Behind in the Family and Consumer Sciences Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Card, Beverly

    2004-01-01

    Over the years, family and consumer sciences (FCS) classrooms have provided education for all students--from the gifted and talented to the mentally challenged. The typical classroom environment is warm, inviting, and realistic. Students work together to apply knowledge to real life experiences. The importance of reading, writing, math, and…

  3. The ClassMaps Survey: A Measure of Middle School Science Students' Perceptions of Classroom Characteristics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doll, Beth; Spies, Robert A.; Champion, Allison; Guerrero, Chelsie; Dooley, Kadie; Turner, April

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the structure, internal consistency, and construct validity of the ClassMaps Survey, a measure of classroom characteristics that are related to students' resilience and classroom success. Participants were 1,019 fifth- through eighth-grade science students who completed the ClassMaps Survey, a survey describing their classroom…

  4. Classroom Talk, Conceptual Change and Teacher Reflection in Bilingual Science Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morton, Tom

    2012-01-01

    This article examines a science teacher's use of and reflections on classroom talk in teaching a unit on genetics on a bilingual education programme. Constructivist, sociocultural and discursive psychological perspectives on conceptual change and classroom talk are reviewed. Data are drawn from three sources: preactive interview, video-recording…

  5. Alternative Assessment Practices of a Classroom Teacher: Alignment with Reform-Based Science Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Serin, Gökhan

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore alignment between reform-based Turkish primary science curriculum and alternative assessment practices of a classroom teacher. Observational case study approach was utilized. A classroom teacher with 32 years of experience and his 31 students participated in the study. The data were collected during one…

  6. Culturally Relevant Teaching in Science Classrooms: Addressing Academic Achievement, Cultural Competence, and Critical Consciousness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boutte, Gloria; Kelly-Jackson, Charlease; Johnson, George Lee

    2010-01-01

    This article provides classroom examples and commentaries for extending and deepening culturally relevant science teaching efforts in classrooms. It examines instructional efforts used by one of the authors with high school and university students. Together, the three authors rethink and reconsider several aspects against a culturally relevant…

  7. Beyond the Flipped Classroom: A Highly Interactive Cloud-Classroom (HIC) Embedded into Basic Materials Science Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liou, Wei-Kai; Bhagat, Kaushal Kumar; Chang, Chun-Yen

    2016-01-01

    The present study compares the highly interactive cloud-classroom (HIC) system with traditional methods of teaching materials science that utilize crystal structure picture or real crystal structure model, in order to examine its learning effectiveness across three dimensions: knowledge, comprehension and application. The aim of this study was to…

  8. The relationship between science classroom facility conditions and ninth grade students' attitudes toward science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ford, Angela Y.

    Over half of the school facilities in America are in poor condition. Unsatisfactory school facilities have a negative impact on teaching and learning. The purpose of this correlational study was to identify the relationship between high school science teachers' perceptions of the school science environment (instructional equipment, demonstration equipment, and physical facilities) and ninth grade students' attitudes about science through their expressed enjoyment of science, importance of time spent on science, and boredom with science. A sample of 11,523 cases was extracted, after a process of data mining, from a databank of over 24,000 nationally representative ninth graders located throughout the United States. The instrument used to survey these students was part of the High School Longitudinal Study of 2009 (HSLS:2009). The research design was multiple linear regression. The results showed a significant relationship between the science classroom conditions and students' attitudes. Demonstration equipment and physical facilities were the best predictors of effects on students' attitudes. Conclusions based on this study and recommendations for future research are made.

  9. Thinking Aloud in the Science Classroom: Can a literacy strategy increase student learning in science?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mockel, Lindsey Joan

    This research study investigated the effect of using the think aloud protocol while reading informational text on students' ability to learn from text in a secondary science classroom. The participants in this study were high school students (n=47) in three classes of a mixed-grade Integrated Biology, Chemistry, and Physics course. The study tracked student achievement during a four-week curriculum unit on the theory of evolution and evidence for biological evolution. All students received instruction on using the think aloud protocol, and all students practiced the think aloud protocol when reading short articles related to scientific evidence for evolution. The researcher measured student's ability to read and understand science text by comparing scores from a reading skills pre-assessment and post-assessment from each student. Student surveys were conducted to gather feedback on the effectiveness of the strategy in teaching students to use a literacy strategy while reading science text. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics.

  10. The impact of single-gender classrooms on science achievement of middle school gifted girls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulkins, David S.

    Studies indicate a gap in science achievement and positive attitudes towards science between gifted male and female students with females performing less than the males. This study investigated the impact of a single-gender classroom environment as opposed to a mixed-gender classroom, on motivation, locus of control, self-concept, and science achievement of middle school gifted girls. The Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire (MSLQ), Review of Personal Effectiveness with Locus of Control (ROPELOC), Test of Science Related Attitudes (TOSRA), and Stanford Achievement Test 10th Edition, were used to measure the dependent variables respectively. The independent-measure t test was used to compare the differences between girls in a single-gender classroom with the ones in a mixed-gender classroom. A significant difference in the external locus of control resulted for girls in the single gender classroom. However, there were no significant differences found in science achievement, motivation, and the attitudes toward science between the two groups. The implication is that a single-gender learning environment and the use of differentiated teaching strategies can help lessen the negative effects of societal stereotypes in today's classrooms. These, along with being cognizant of the differences in learning styles of girls and their male counterparts, will result in a greater level of success for gifted females in the area of science education.

  11. An Analysis of South African Grade 9 Natural Sciences Textbooks for Their Representation of Nature of Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramnarain, Umesh Dewnarain; Chanetsa, Tarisai

    2016-01-01

    This article reports on an analysis and comparison of three South African Grade 9 (13-14 years) Natural Sciences textbooks for the representation of nature of science (NOS). The analysis was framed by an analytical tool developed and validated by Abd-El-Khalick and a team of researchers in a large-scale study on the high school textbooks in the…

  12. Reflections on Success and Retention in Urban Science Education: Voices of Five African-American Science Teachers Who Stayed

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fraser-Abder, Pamela

    2010-01-01

    This study highlights the factors that contribute to excellence in urban science teaching as pinpointed by five urban African-American science teachers who have taught successfully in the urban system for over 10 years. These teachers shared their experiences and reflections on the qualities that contributed to their success and persistence as…

  13. Mapping Our City: Learning To Use Spatial Data in the Middle School Science Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McWilliams, Harold; Rooney, Paul

    Mapping Our City is a two-year project in which middle school teachers and students in Boston explore the uses of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) in project-based science, environmental education, and geography. The project is funded by the National Science Foundation and is being field tested in three Boston middle school science classrooms.…

  14. Multimodal Teacher Input and Science Learning in a Middle School Sheltered Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Ying

    2016-01-01

    This article reports the results of an ethnographic research about the multimodal science discourse in a sixth-grade sheltered classroom involving English Language Learners (ELLs) only. Drawing from the perspective of multimodality, this study examines how science learning is constructed in science lectures through multiple semiotic resources,…

  15. Charcoal Clouds and Weather Writing: Inviting Science to a Middle School Language Arts Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franks, Leslie

    2001-01-01

    Brings science and art into the language arts classroom as a means of exploring cross-curricular connections without losing sight of the priority of writing. Notes that keeping a pseudo science journal in language arts as well as painting and drawing helped students learn more and see more about themselves as learners, both in science and in…

  16. Discovery Bottles: A Unique Inexpensive Tool for the K-2 Science Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Sandy

    2008-01-01

    Discover discovery bottles! These wide-mouth plastic containers of any size filled with objects of different kinds can be terrific tools for science explorations and a great way to cultivate science minds in a K-2 science classroom. In addition, the author has found them to be a useful, inexpensive, and engaging way to help students develop skills…

  17. Safety and science at sea: connecting science research settings to the classroom through live video

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen, E.; Peart, L. W.

    2011-12-01

    Many science teachers start the year off with classroom safety topics. Annual repetition helps with mastery of this important and basic knowledge, while helping schools to meet their legal obligations for safe lab science. Although these lessons are necessary, they are often topical, rarely authentic and relatively dull. Interesting connections can, however, be drawn between the importance of safety in science classrooms and the importance of safety in academic laboratories, fieldwork, shipboard research, and commercial research. Teachers can leverage these connections through live video interactions with scientists in the field, thereby creating an authentic learning environment. During the School of Rock 2009, a professional teacher research experience aboard the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program's research vessel JOIDES Resolution, safety and nature-of-science curricula were created to help address this need. By experimenting with various topics and locations on the ship that were accessible and applicable to middle school learning, 43 highly visual "safety signs" and activities were identified and presented "live" by graduate students, teachers, scientists; the ship's mates, doctor and technical staff. Students were exposed to realistic science process skills along with safety content from the world's only riserless, deep-sea drilling research vessel. The once-in-a-lifetime experience caused the students' eyes to brighten behind their safety glasses, especially as they recognized the same eye wash station and safety gear they have to wear and attended a ship's fire and safety drill along side scientists in hard hats and personal floatation devices. This collaborative and replicable live vide approach will connect basic safety content and nature-of-science process skills for a memorable and authentic learning experience for students.

  18. Science On-Line --- Earth and Space Science for the Classroom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hawkins, I.; Christian, C. A.; Battle, R.; Malina, R. F.; Craig, N.

    1994-12-01

    With funding from NASA's Astrophysics Division, the Center for Extreme Ultraviolet Astrophysics (CEA) at UC Berkeley is sponsoring an eight-month demonstration project for the Science Information Infrastructure. ``Science On-Line (SOL) --- Earth and Space Science for the Classroom'' began in September 1994 and joins the efforts of UC Berkeley's CEA, Lawrence Hall of Science, and UC Museum of Paleontology, with San Francisco's Exploratorium, and Chicago's Adler Planetarium for the purpose of coordinating on-line resources that respond to the needs of K--12 teachers, students, and the general public. The coordinated resources include on-line science exhibits, virtual museums, cutting-edge NASA images, and NASA data from space and Earth, and focus on teacher-led lesson plan development tapping the unique and up-to-date resources of the Internet to catalyze innovative teaching techniques based on cooperative learning and hands-on activities. These coordinated resources will be formally released on the Internet through Mosaic and the World Wide Web by end of Spring, 1995. An important aspect of the SOL project is a formal evaluation component to be carried out in April/May 1995, when Exploratorium teachers will pilot-test the lesson plans with their own students in a classroom setting. The SOL demonstration project is being evaluated by a graduate student from UCB's School of Education. Part of the outcome of this evaluation is a set of guidelines or a template that allows for replication of this teacher professional development activity by other partners in the Science Information Infrastructure program. This work has been supported by a NASA Astrophysics Division grant and NASA contract NAS5-29298.

  19. The Influence of Informal Science Education Experiences on the Development of Two Beginning Teachers' Science Classroom Teaching Identity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katz, Phyllis; Randy McGinnis, J.; Riedinger, Kelly; Marbach-Ad, Gili; Dai, Amy

    2013-12-01

    In case studies of two first-year elementary classroom teachers, we explored the influence of informal science education (ISE) they experienced in their teacher education program. Our theoretical lens was identity development, delimited to classroom science teaching. We used complementary data collection methods and analysis, including interviews, electronic communications, and drawing prompts. We found that our two participants referenced as important the ISE experiences in their development of classroom science identities that included resilience, excitement and engagement in science teaching and learning-qualities that are emphasized in ISE contexts. The data support our conclusion that the ISE experiences proved especially memorable to teacher education interns during the implementation of the No Child Left Behind policy which concentrated on school-tested subjects other than science.

  20. An examination of the association between demographic and educational factors and African American achievement in science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cottledge, Michael Christopher

    Objective of the Study: The objective of this research study was to investigate whether an association exists between teacher demographic factors (years of teaching experience and gender), 2 educational factors (certification type and certification pathway) and the percent passing rate of tenth grade African American male students on the 2010 science TAKS. Answers to the following questions were sought: 1. Is there an association between teacher demographic factors and the percent passing rate of their tenth grade African American male students on the 2010 science TAKS? 2. Is there an association between teacher educational factors and the percent passing rate of their tenth grade African American male students on the 2010 science TAKS? 3. Is there an association between teacher demographic factors, educational factors and the percent passing rate of their tenth grade African American male students on the 2010 science TAKS? Status of the Question: According to the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS), science and engineering jobs in the U.S. have increased steadily over recent years and by the year 2016 the number of STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering and Math) jobs will have grown by more than 21 percent. This increase in science and engineering jobs will double the growth rate of all other workforce sectors combined. The BLS also reports that qualified minority applicants needed to fill these positions will be few and far between. African Americans, Latinos, and other minorities constitute 24 percent of the U.S. population but only 13 percent of college graduates and just 10 percent of people with college degrees who work in science and engineering (Education Trust, 2009). Drawing on the above information, I proposed the following hypotheses to the research questions: H01: There will be no significant statistical association between the demographic factors teacher gender and years of teaching experience and the percent passing rate of their tenth grade African

  1. Science initial teacher education and superdiversity: educating science teachers for a multi-religious and globalised science classroom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Carvalho, Roussel

    2016-06-01

    Steven Vertovec (2006, 2007) has recently offered a re-interpretation of population diversity in large urban centres due to a considerable increase in immigration patterns in the UK. This complex scenario called superdiversity has been conceptualised to help illuminate significant interactions of variables such as religion, language, gender, age, nationality, labour market and population distribution on a larger scale. The interrelationships of these themes have fundamental implications in a variety of community environments, but especially within our schools. Today, London schools have over 300 languages being spoken by students, all of whom have diverse backgrounds, bringing with them a wealth of experience and, most critically, their own set of religious beliefs. At the same time, Science is a compulsory subject in England's national curriculum, where it requires teachers to deal with important scientific frameworks about the world; teaching about the origins of the universe, life on Earth, human evolution and other topics, which are often in conflict with students' religious views. In order to cope with this dynamic and thought-provoking environment, science initial teacher education (SITE)—especially those catering large urban centres—must evolve to equip science teachers with a meaningful understanding of how to handle a superdiverse science classroom, taking the discourse of inclusion beyond its formal boundaries. Thus, this original position paper addresses how the role of SITE may be re-conceptualised and re-framed in light of the immense challenges of superdiversity as well as how science teachers, as enactors of the science curriculum, must adapt to cater to these changes. This is also the first in a series of papers emerging from an empirical research project trying to capture science teacher educators' own views on religio-scientific issues and their positions on the place of these issues within science teacher education and the science classroom.

  2. Science discourse in a middle-grade classroom attempting learning community-centered science instruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Templin, Mark Arnold

    This dissertation focuses on the development of students' scientific literacy discourse in a middle grade science classroom as the teacher attempted to establish a learning community. Instructional design features included a change in teacher and students' roles such that authority over many classroom decisions was shared and students were encouraged to design their own investigations within the context of extended learning projects. The study followed the progress of two groups of four students, representing diversity in academic performance, gender, and ethnicity, over the course of four months. Target group discourse was recorded once every other school day and then transcribed. Accompanying field notes were written. Classroom artifacts, including a complete set of daily lesson plans, instructional materials, and student products, were collected. The interpretive framework, which highlighted different discourse practices and the instructional moves that supported them, evolved during data analysis as it was repeatedly tried out against the empirical materials through stages of data reduction, display, conclusion drawing, and verification. Analysis of the teacher's practice indicated that he initiated and maintained a classroom learning community by encouraging students to (a) think about their thinking by responding to questions that promoted such reflection; (b) share their reflections and other written products with each other and revise them through peer review; (c) decide for themselves which science content was relevant to their investigations; (d) share problem solving strategies; and (e) debate the meaning of terms so that a common understanding of science concepts could be developed. The teacher modeled and asked questions to promote these reflective and collaborative practices, successively withdrawing his active involvement in group dialogue as the term progressed. Analysis of students' discourse indicated that students increasingly developed

  3. Earth System Science in the Schoolyard: How ESSEA Helped Transform a Middle School Science Classroom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popiolkowski, G.

    2008-12-01

    Teaching science at times means teaching the way we were taught as undergraduates; giving lectures, giving notes and giving worksheets. That was my teaching style in the middle school science classroom for years. I then had the opportunity to take one of the first ESSEA online Earth System Science course for Middle School Science teachers. I discovered from that course different ways to challenge students to question, to research, and to become active learners instead of passive learners. It also made me reflect and analyze the way I had been teaching. Since that time, my program has developed directly as the result of that ESSEA Earth System Science course. It is a combination of several different learning paradigms, direct instruction, constructivism and inquiry. This has taken several years of searching, researching and revising to get to where I am today. The four spheres of Earth System Science, the Biosphere, the Geosphere, the Atmosphere and the Hydrosphere are used and aligned with the Pennsylvania Ecology and Environment standards. Students focus on each sphere's essential question and objectives as they work on several Problem Based Learning(PBL) scenarios and inquiry based hands on activities relating to each sphere. Consequently, the students are personally involved with the construction of meaningful and relevant content and are actively engaged throughout their learning process.

  4. A Cross-National Study of Secondary Science Classroom Environments in Australia and Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fraser, Barry J.; Aldridge, Jill M.; Adolphe, F. S. Gerard

    2010-08-01

    This article reports a cross-national study of classroom environments in Australia and Indonesia. A modified version of the What Is Happening In this Class? (WIHIC) questionnaire was used simultaneously in these two countries to: 1) crossvalidate the modified WIHIC; 2) investigate differences between countries and sexes in perceptions of classroom environment; and 3) investigate associations between students’ attitudes to science and their perceptions of classroom environment. The sample consisted of 1,161 students (594 students from 18 classes in Indonesia and 567 students from 18 classes in Australia). Principal components factor analysis with varimax rotation supported the validity of a revised structure for the WIHIC. Two-way MANOVA revealed some differences between countries and between sexes in students’ perceptions of their classroom environments. Simple correlation and multiple regression analyses revealed generally positive associations between the classroom environment and student attitudes to science in both countries.

  5. Teaching Climate Science in Non-traditional Classrooms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strybos, J.

    2015-12-01

    San Antonio College is the oldest, largest and centrally-located campus of Alamo Colleges, a network of five community colleges based around San Antonio, Texas with a headcount enrollment of approximately 20,000 students. The student population is diverse in ethnicity, age and income; and the Colleges understand that they play a salient role in educating its students on the foreseen impacts of climate change. This presentation will discuss the key investment Alamo Colleges has adopted to incorporate sustainability and climate science into non-traditional classrooms. The established courses that cover climate-related course material have historically had low enrollments. One of the most significant challenges is informing the student population of the value of this class both in their academic career and in their personal lives. By hosting these lessons in hands-on simulations and demonstrations that are accessible and understandable to students of any age, and pursuing any major, we have found an exciting way to teach all students about climate change and identify solutions. San Antonio College (SAC) hosts the Bill R. Sinkin Eco Centro Community Center, completed in early 2014, that serves as an environmental hub for Alamo Colleges' staff and students as well as the San Antonio community. The center actively engages staff and faculty during training days in sustainability by presenting information on Eco Centro, personal sustainability habits, and inviting faculty to bring their classes for a tour and sustainability primer for students. The Centro has hosted professors from diverse disciplines that include Architecture, Psychology, Engineering, Science, English, Fine Arts, and International Studies to bring their classes to center to learn about energy, water conservation, landscaping, and green building. Additionally, Eco Centro encourages and assists students with research projects, including a solar-hydroponic project currently under development with the support

  6. Science and Technology in Africa: The African Union New Initiative and Financial Support Perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ezin, Jean-Pierre

    2010-02-01

    Physics, which is widely touted as the most fundamental of the sciences, underpins the progress in all other branches of science and has a wide range of applications in economic development, including in health, energy research, food security, communication technology and climate change. The African Union (AU) Commission articulates the continental vision of its Member States and its programs are designed to directly contribute to its social and economic development and integration efforts. In the area of science and technology the Department has developed Africa's Science and Technology Consolidated Plan of Action as a strategic policy document through the AU system of conference of ministers responsible for science to guide the continent on common priority programs. The programs in this plan of action that have been transformed into bankable projects under the Book of ``lighthouse projects Phase 1'', adequately respond to Africa's challenges and development needs using science. They can be summarized into three main themes: a pan-African university (PAU) initiative (to combine higher education and scientific research as a network of differentiated PAU in each of the five African regions), African research grants (to strengthen the research capacity of the African institutions and upgrading infrastructures, consolidating their accumulated asset of scientific knowledge), popularization of science and technology and promotion of public participation (to build public understanding and raising awareness on science and technology as a driving agent for social and economic progress for Africa and its integration process) and a science and technology institutional capacity building program). This talk will review these programs as well as the vision of the African Development Bank role in it. )

  7. Inquiry-based instruction in secondary science classrooms: A survey of teacher practice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gejda, Linda Muggeo

    The purpose of this quantitative investigation was to describe the extent to which secondary science teachers, who were certified through Connecticut's BEST portfolio assessment process between 1997 and 2004 and had taught secondary science during the past academic year, reported practicing the indicators of inquiry-based instruction in the classroom and the factors that they perceived facilitated, obstructed, or informed that practice. Indicators of inquiry-based instruction were derived from the Biological Sciences Curriculum Study (BSCS) 5E model (Bybee, 1997). The method for data collection was a researcher-developed, self-report, questionnaire entitled "Inquiry-based Instruction in Secondary Science Classrooms: A Survey", which was developed and disseminated using a slightly modified Dillman (2000) approach. Almost all of the study participants reported practicing the 5Es (engage, explore, explain, elaborate, and evaluate) of inquiry-based instruction in their secondary science classrooms. Time, resources, the need to cover material for mandatory assessments, the science topics or concepts being taught, and professional development on inquiry-based instruction were reported to be important considerations in participants' decisions to practice inquiry-based instruction in their science classrooms. A majority of the secondary science teachers participating in this study indicated they had the time, access to resources and the professional development opportunities they needed to practice inquiry-based instruction in their secondary classrooms. Study participants ranked having the time to teach in an inquiry-based fashion and the need to cover material for mandated testing as the biggest obstacles to their practice of inquiry-based instruction in the secondary classroom. Classroom experience and collegial exchange informed the inquiry-based instruction practice of the secondary science teachers who participated in this study. Recommendations for further research

  8. Promoting Student Interest in Science: The Perspectives of Exemplary African American Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xu, Jianzhong; Coats, Linda T.; Davidson, Mary L.

    2012-01-01

    The authors of this article argue both the urgency and the promise of establishing a constructive conversation among different bodies of research, including science interest, sociocultural studies in science education, and culturally relevant teaching. With the instructional practices of eight exemplary African American elementary teachers serving…

  9. Informal Learning in Science, Math, and Engineering Majors for African American Female Undergraduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McPherson, Ezella

    2014-01-01

    This research investigates how eight undergraduate African American women in science, math, and engineering (SME) majors accessed cultural capital and informal science learning opportunities from preschool to college. It uses the multiple case study methodological approach and cultural capital as frameworks to better understand the participants'…

  10. Seeking to Improve African American Girls' Attitudes toward Science: A Participatory Action Research Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buck, Gayle A.; Cook, Kristin L.; Quigley, Cassie F.; Prince, Pearl; Lucas, Yvonne

    2014-01-01

    In this participatory action research study, we answered the question, How can we improve attitudes toward science education of the African American girls at an elementary school? Girls in grades 3-6 completed the Modified Attitudes toward Science Inventory. A purposeful sample of 30 girls participated in several focus-group interviews throughout…

  11. Exploring How School Counselors Position Low-Income African American Girls as Mathematics and Science Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West-Olatunji, Cirecie; Shure, Lauren; Pringle, Rose; Adams, Thomasenia; Lewis, Dadria; Cholewa, Blaire

    2010-01-01

    The underrepresentation of low-income African American girls in science-related careers is of concern. Applying the concept of positionality, the authors explored how three school counselors at low-resourced schools view this population of learners to either support or discourage mathematics and science careers. The results of this study suggest…

  12. Signs of Taste for Science: A Methodology for Studying the Constitution of Interest in the Science Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderhag, P.; Wickman, P.-O.; Hamza, K. M.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we present a methodological approach for analyzing the transformation of interest in science through classroom talk and action. To this end, we use the construct of "taste for science" as a social and communicative operationalization, or proxy, to the more psychologically oriented construct of interest. To gain a taste for…

  13. Language in Science Classrooms: An Analysis of Physics Teachers' Use of and Beliefs About Language

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oyoo, Samuel Ouma

    2012-10-01

    The world over, secondary school science is viewed mainly as a practical subject. This may be one reason why effectiveness of teaching approaches in science education has often been judged on the kinds of practical activity with which teachers and students engage. In addition to practical work, language—often written (as in science texts) or oral (as in the form of teacher and student talk)—is unavoidable in effective teaching and learning of science. Generally however, the role of (instructional) language in quality of learning of school science has remained out of focus in science education research. This has been in spite of findings in empirical research on difficulties science students encounter with words of the instructional language used in science. The findings have suggested that use of (instructional) language in science texts and classrooms can be a major influence on the level of students' understandings and retention of science concepts. This article reports and discusses findings in an investigation of physics teachers' approaches to use of and their beliefs about classroom instructional language. Direct classroom observations of, interviews with, as well as content analyses of the participant teachers' verbatim classroom talk, were used as the methods of data collection. Evidence is presented of participant physics teachers' lack of explicit awareness of the difficulty, nature, and functional value of different categories of words in the instructional language. In conclusion, the implications of this lack of explicit awareness on the general education (initial and in-service) of school physics teachers are considered.

  14. Closing the Gap: Inquiry in Research and the Secondary Science Classroom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gengarelly, Lara M.; Abrams, Eleanor D.

    2009-02-01

    Teaching students how to conduct authentic scientific inquiry is an essential aspect of recent science education reform efforts. Our National Science Foundation-funded GK-12 program paired science graduate students—fellows—with secondary science teachers in order to enhance inquiry-based instruction. This research examined the roles of the fellows, teachers, and school culture in the implementation of inquiry and the fellows' conceptions of classroom inquiry versus that in their own research. Qualitative data were collected for two academic years. Overall, the classrooms shifted toward a more inquiry-oriented approach over the academic year. Several aspects of school culture influenced inquiry implementation. Fellows described their research as similar in overall structure but less constrained by known concepts, less guided by mentors, and more in-depth than that of secondary school students. The teacher-fellow scientist partnership is a potentially effective professional development model to create positive and lasting change within the science classroom.

  15. How middle school science teachers use trade books in the classroom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pennington, Mary Christina

    The use of trade books by South Carolina middle school science teachers was investigated. Subjects were middle school science teacher currently teaching in a northwestern South Carolina school. A request for participation in a survey was sent via email to middle school science teachers. Statistical tests of responses included frequency and descriptive statistical tests, as well as analysis of variance and least significant difference post-hoc tests. Results of this study show that teachers lack knowledge about trade books, which impacts the use of trade books in the middle school science classroom. Teachers use of trade books is also influenced most by cost of materials and time to use to the trade books in the classroom. Class size and teaching experience also influence trade book use in the middle school science classroom. While teachers profess that trade books are useful as a motivation tool and to improve comprehension, teacher experience, possibly confidence, and class management due to class size stifle their use.

  16. `It's Her Body'. When Students' Argumentation Shows Displacement of Content in a Science Classroom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orlander Arvola, Auli; Lundegård, Iann

    2012-12-01

    This paper approaches learning as a response instead of the acquisition of something previously expected. More specifically, it describes a process of argumentation on socioscientific issues in a classroom situation in school science amongst 15-year-old students in Sweden. The analysis of an argumentation on abortion in a science classroom highlights how science content becomes relevant to students' experiences, but also how the students' unique voices shift focus and cause displacement of the science content. The analysis demonstrates some of the tensions and possible conflicts that may lead to the exclusion of different voices. This paper argues that focusing the research or education on questions that argumentation brings to light creates interesting educational opportunities to identify and incorporate the students' experiences in the classroom. The results indicate, however, that students' spontaneous acts lead to some difficulties in finding a point of contact with the rational discourse of science education.

  17. Teachers' Perception of African American Middle School Girls' Interest in Mathematics and Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Best, Bonnie M.

    Research into African American female underrepresentation in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields has become an area of interest due to the fact that a majority of African American middle school females do not possess the high levels of mathematics and science knowledge because of social and cultural barriers both inside and outside school that challenge their academic success. The purpose of this qualitative interpretative phenomenological study was to explore teachers' shared, lived experiences of teaching mathematics and science to African American middle school girls. Delgado and Stefancic's critical race theory, Pratt-Clarke's critical race feminism, and Baker-Miller's relational-cultural theory were used to guide this study. Research questions focused on the perceptions and experiences of teachers' lived experiences teaching mathematics and science to African American middle school females. Criterion, purposive, and maximum variation sampling techniques were used to recruit 10 teachers who have 3 or more years' experience teaching African American middle school girls. Semistructured face-to-face interviews were the primary data collection source. First cycle and second cycle coding methods were used to support the analysis of this study. Findings suggest that there is a connection between a positive student-teacher relationship and academic success. The results of this study contribute to positive social change by providing empirical evidence policymakers and teachers can use to improve the mathematics and science instruction and practices that are needed to meet the needs of African American middle school females and reduce the underrepresentation and underachievement of African American females in mathematics and science.

  18. A case study on the formation and sharing process of science classroom norms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Jina; Song, Jinwoong

    2016-03-01

    The teaching and learning of science in school are influenced by various factors, including both individual factors, such as member beliefs, and social factors, such as the power structure of the class. To understand this complex context affected by various factors in schools, we investigated the formation and sharing process of science classroom norms in connection with these factors. By examining the developmental process of science classroom norms, we identified how the norms were realized, shared, and internalized among the members. We collected data through classroom observations and interviews focusing on two elementary science classrooms in Korea. From these data, factors influencing norm formation were extracted and developed as stories about norm establishment. The results indicate that every science classroom norm was established, shared, and internalized differently according to the values ingrained in the norms, the agent of norm formation, and the members' understanding about the norm itself. The desirable norms originating from values in science education, such as having an inquiring mind, were not established spontaneously by students, but were instead established through well-organized norm networks to encourage concrete practice. Educational implications were discussed in terms of the practice of school science inquiry, cultural studies, and value-oriented education.

  19. Cultural Perspectives and Thinking: The African American Thinker in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunt, Steve

    Educators who neglect to adapt teaching strategies to different cognitive styles may be placing some students at risk. A literature review suggests that elements of African American culture heavily influence African American students' communicative and cognitive styles. Research indicates that African American cultural values are organized around…

  20. Teaching Environmental Health Science for Informed Citizenship in the Science Classroom and Afterschool Clubs.

    PubMed

    Keselman, Alla; Levin, Daniel M; Hundal, Savreen; Kramer, Judy F; Matzkin, Karen; Dutcher, Gale

    2012-08-01

    In the era of growing concerns about human-induced climate change and sustainable development, it is important for the schools to prepare students for meaningful engagement with environmental policies that will determine the future of our society. To do this, educators need to face a number of challenges. These include deciding on the science knowledge and skills needed for informed citizenship, identifying teaching practices for fostering such knowledge and skills, and finding ways to implement new practices into the tightly packed existing curriculum. This paper describes two collaborative efforts between the U.S. National Library of Medicine (NLM) and University of Maryland College of Education that attempt to meet these challenges. The focus of both projects is on helping students develop information seeking and evaluation and argumentation skills, and applying them to complex socio-scientific issues that have bearing on students' daily lives. The first effort involves co-designing an afterschool environmental health club curriculum with an interdisciplinary team of middle school teachers. The second effort is the development and implementation of a week-long school drinking water quality debate activity in a high school environmental science classroom. Both projects center on Tox Town, an NLM web resource that introduces students to environmental health issues in everyday environments. The paper describes successes and challenges of environmental health curriculum development, including teachers' and researchers' perception of contextual constraints in the club and classroom setting, tensions inherent in co-design, and students' experience with socio-scientific argumentation.

  1. Teaching Environmental Health Science for Informed Citizenship in the Science Classroom and Afterschool Clubs

    PubMed Central

    Keselman, Alla; Levin, Daniel M.; Hundal, Savreen; Kramer, Judy F.; Matzkin, Karen; Dutcher, Gale

    2013-01-01

    In the era of growing concerns about human-induced climate change and sustainable development, it is important for the schools to prepare students for meaningful engagement with environmental policies that will determine the future of our society. To do this, educators need to face a number of challenges. These include deciding on the science knowledge and skills needed for informed citizenship, identifying teaching practices for fostering such knowledge and skills, and finding ways to implement new practices into the tightly packed existing curriculum. This paper describes two collaborative efforts between the U.S. National Library of Medicine (NLM) and University of Maryland College of Education that attempt to meet these challenges. The focus of both projects is on helping students develop information seeking and evaluation and argumentation skills, and applying them to complex socio-scientific issues that have bearing on students’ daily lives. The first effort involves co-designing an afterschool environmental health club curriculum with an interdisciplinary team of middle school teachers. The second effort is the development and implementation of a week-long school drinking water quality debate activity in a high school environmental science classroom. Both projects center on Tox Town, an NLM web resource that introduces students to environmental health issues in everyday environments. The paper describes successes and challenges of environmental health curriculum development, including teachers’ and researchers’ perception of contextual constraints in the club and classroom setting, tensions inherent in co-design, and students’ experience with socio-scientific argumentation. PMID:24382985

  2. Teaching Environmental Health Science for Informed Citizenship in the Science Classroom and Afterschool Clubs.

    PubMed

    Keselman, Alla; Levin, Daniel M; Hundal, Savreen; Kramer, Judy F; Matzkin, Karen; Dutcher, Gale

    2012-08-01

    In the era of growing concerns about human-induced climate change and sustainable development, it is important for the schools to prepare students for meaningful engagement with environmental policies that will determine the future of our society. To do this, educators need to face a number of challenges. These include deciding on the science knowledge and skills needed for informed citizenship, identifying teaching practices for fostering such knowledge and skills, and finding ways to implement new practices into the tightly packed existing curriculum. This paper describes two collaborative efforts between the U.S. National Library of Medicine (NLM) and University of Maryland College of Education that attempt to meet these challenges. The focus of both projects is on helping students develop information seeking and evaluation and argumentation skills, and applying them to complex socio-scientific issues that have bearing on students' daily lives. The first effort involves co-designing an afterschool environmental health club curriculum with an interdisciplinary team of middle school teachers. The second effort is the development and implementation of a week-long school drinking water quality debate activity in a high school environmental science classroom. Both projects center on Tox Town, an NLM web resource that introduces students to environmental health issues in everyday environments. The paper describes successes and challenges of environmental health curriculum development, including teachers' and researchers' perception of contextual constraints in the club and classroom setting, tensions inherent in co-design, and students' experience with socio-scientific argumentation. PMID:24382985

  3. African-American males in computer science---Examining the pipeline for clogs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stone, Daryl Bryant

    The literature on African-American males (AAM) begins with a statement to the effect that "Today young Black men are more likely to be killed or sent to prison than to graduate from college." Why are the numbers of African-American male college graduates decreasing? Why are those enrolled in college not majoring in the science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) disciplines? This research explored why African-American males are not filling the well-recognized industry need for Computer Scientist/Technologists by choosing college tracks to these careers. The literature on STEM disciplines focuses largely on women in STEM, as opposed to minorities, and within minorities, there is a noticeable research gap in addressing the needs and opportunities available to African-American males. The primary goal of this study was therefore to examine the computer science "pipeline" from the African-American male perspective. The method included a "Computer Science Degree Self-Efficacy Scale" be distributed to five groups of African-American male students, to include: (1) fourth graders, (2) eighth graders, (3) eleventh graders, (4) underclass undergraduate computer science majors, and (5) upperclass undergraduate computer science majors. In addition to a 30-question self-efficacy test, subjects from each group were asked to participate in a group discussion about "African-American males in computer science." The audio record of each group meeting provides qualitative data for the study. The hypotheses include the following: (1) There is no significant difference in "Computer Science Degree" self-efficacy between fourth and eighth graders. (2) There is no significant difference in "Computer Science Degree" self-efficacy between eighth and eleventh graders. (3) There is no significant difference in "Computer Science Degree" self-efficacy between eleventh graders and lower-level computer science majors. (4) There is no significant difference in "Computer Science Degree

  4. A Framework for Facilitating Equitable Discourse in Science Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schiller, Ellen; Joseph, Jann

    2010-01-01

    In traditional classroom discourse, the teacher controls the discussion, asking most of the questions and calling on students to respond. This model does not work well for the inquiry-based classroom, which depends on engagement, peer interaction, and student ownership of learning. In this article, the authors present an alternative framework for…

  5. Question Asking in the Science Classroom: Teacher Attitudes and Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eshach, Haim; Dor-Ziderman, Yair; Yefroimsky, Yana

    2014-01-01

    Despite the wide agreement among educators that classroom learning and teaching processes can gain much from student and teacher questions, their potential is not fully utilized. Adopting the view that reporting both teachers' (of varying age groups) views and actual classroom practices is necessary for obtaining a more complete view of the…

  6. Classroom Blogging: What Is the Role in Science Learning?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sawmiller, Alison

    2010-01-01

    Educators are encouraged to integrate technology into their classrooms because today's student is exposed to all sorts of digital devices in their daily life. Classroom blogging is an excellent way to use the internet for more than just research. Blogging capitalizes on student interest in the internet. When done properly, a blog can serve as an…

  7. What Should My Science Classroom Rules Be and How Can I Get My Students to Follow Them?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frazier, Wendy M.; Sterling, Donna R.

    2005-01-01

    This article discusses the rules science teachers need and how to implement these rules in the class. What should my science classroom rules be? Ideally, this question is asked prior to the teacher's entry to the classroom during their teacher training and revisited throughout their coursework preparation and student teaching. A science teacher…

  8. Understanding and Practice of Argumentation: A Pilot Study with Mainland Chinese Pre-Service Teachers in Secondary Science Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xie, Qun; So, Winnie Wing Mui

    2012-01-01

    Argumentation is recognized as a significant aspect of science education for the development of students' scientific literacy, and the science teacher is the key factor in organizing argumentative discourse in the science classroom. Composing argumentation in the classroom requires teachers to not only acquire the basic understandings and skills…

  9. Inside versus outside the science classroom: examining the positionality of two female science teachers at the boundaries of science education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teo, Tang Wee

    2014-08-01

    The third wave feminist studies in science education take the stance that science teaching is political and that social change is possible through interrogating power inequalities and decentering science to balance out power. For science educators, this means developing an awareness of positionality, which I define here as a stance undertaken by an individual as she or he recognizes and makes sense of the workings of the factors and forces that constitute the politics of her/his context. In this paper, I analyze the positionalities of a female Hispanic American and a female Chinese Singaporean science teacher that influenced the ways in which they interacted with students in the consensual process of science meaning making and relationship building in and outside the classroom. The findings drawn from the analysis of the teachers' transcribed interviews and written reflections show that their personal histories, experiences with social stereotyping and control by authority shaped their positionality. They constructed alternative curriculum spaces empowering themselves and their students to transcend perceived limitations and have voice. However, their positionality did not lead them to question the boundary they saw between the social bias and content of science education. Several implications for teacher education are discussed.

  10. Inside versus outside the science classroom: examining the positionality of two female science teachers at the boundaries of science education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teo, Tang Wee

    2015-06-01

    The third wave feminist studies in science education take the stance that science teaching is political and that social change is possible through interrogating power inequalities and decentering science to balance out power. For science educators, this means developing an awareness of positionality, which I define here as a stance undertaken by an individual as she or he recognizes and makes sense of the workings of the factors and forces that constitute the politics of her/his context. In this paper, I analyze the positionalities of a female Hispanic American and a female Chinese Singaporean science teacher that influenced the ways in which they interacted with students in the consensual process of science meaning making and relationship building in and outside the classroom. The findings drawn from the analysis of the teachers' transcribed interviews and written reflections show that their personal histories, experiences with social stereotyping and control by authority shaped their positionality. They constructed alternative curriculum spaces empowering themselves and their students to transcend perceived limitations and have voice. However, their positionality did not lead them to question the boundary they saw between the social bias and content of science education. Several implications for teacher education are discussed.

  11. Senior science teachers' experience of teaching in a changing multicultural classroom: A case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryan, Mark

    Demographic changes within the US are bringing significant changes in the cultural make-up of the classrooms in our schools. Results from national and state assessments indicate a growing achievement gap between the science scores of white students and students from minority communities. This gap indicates a disconnect somewhere in the science classrooms. This study examines the teacher's perspective of the changing learning environment. The study focuses on senior teachers with traditional Midwestern backgrounds and little multicultural experience assuming these teachers had little or no education in multicultural education. Senior teachers are also more likely to have completed their science education within a traditional Universalist perspective of science and likewise have little or no education in multicultural science. The research method was comparative case studies of a purposeful sample of nine science teachers within a community experiencing significant demographic change, seven core senior teachers and two frame of reference teachers. The interviews examined the teachers' awareness of their own cultural beliefs and the impact of those beliefs on classroom practices, the teachers' understanding of cultural influences on the students' academic performance, and the relationships between the teachers' understanding of the cultural aspects of the nature of science and their classroom practices. Analysis of the interview data revealed that the teachers maintain a strong, traditional Midwestern worldview for classroom expectations and they are generally unaware of the impact of those standards on the classroom environment. The teachers were supportive of minority students within their classroom, changing several practices to accommodate student needs, but they were unaware of the broader cultural influences on student learning. The teachers had a poor understanding of the nature of science and none of them recognized a cultural element of NOS. They maintained a

  12. African-American students' perceptions of the factors which influence their decisions in science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miles, Rhea Lynne

    The purpose of this study was to determine to what extent given factors have influenced the enrollment in, achievement in, and the completion of science courses by African-American students, as well as the interest to pursue a career in a science-related field. The extent to which African-American student participation in science enrichment programs influenced these decisions in science was also evaluated. Finally, specific factors that influenced the decisions of African-American students who had participated in a science enrichment program were compared to those who had not. More than half of the students surveyed agreed that career opportunities in science, counselor/teacher recommendations, or a personal interest in science were major factors that influenced their enrollment in a science course that they had taken in the past or that they were presently enrolled in at school. Self-motivation, parents, and teachers were also agreed to be influential factors on academic achievement in science. Additionally, these same factors were agreed to influence at least half of the student respondent's completion of a science course and the desire to pursue a science-related occupation. Over half of the African-American respondents who participated in a science enrichment program agreed that their participation influenced their decision to enroll in, achieve in, and complete a science class, or want to pursue a career in a science-related field. The students, who had participated in a science enrichment program, agreed more than those who had not that, career opportunities in science and parent recommendations influenced their decision to enroll in past or present science classes. Student participants of a science enrichment program also agreed more than those students who had not participated in one that self-motivation influenced academic achievement in their present science class. Finally, participants of an extra-curricular science activity agreed more than those who

  13. Literacy learning in secondary school science classrooms: A cross-case analysis of three qualitative studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dillon, Deborah R.; O'Brien, David G.; Moje, Elizabeth B.; Stewart, Roger A.

    The purpose of this cross-case analysis is to illustrate how and why literacy was incorporated into science teaching and learning in three secondary classrooms. Research questions guiding the analysis include: (a) How were literacy events shaped by the teachers' philosophies about teaching science content and teaching students? and (b) How was literacy (reading, writing, and oral language) structured by the teachers and manifested in science lessons? The methodology of ethnography and the theoretical framework of symbolic interactionism were employed in the three studies on which the cross-case analysis was based. The researchers assumed the role of participant observers, collecting data over the period of 1 year in each of the three classrooms. Data, in the form of fieldnotes, interviews, and artifacts, were collected. In each study, data were analyzed using the constant comparative method (Glaser & Strauss, 1967) to determine patterns in the teachers' beliefs about learning and how these influenced their choice of literacy activities. The cross-case analysis was conducted to determine patterns across the three teachers and their classrooms. The findings from this analysis are used to compare how the teachers' philosophies of teaching science and their beliefs about how students learn influenced their use of literacy practices during lessons. Specifically, each teacher's use of literacy activities varied based on his or her beliefs about teaching science concepts. Furthermore, reading, writing, and oral language were important vehicles to learning science concepts within daily classroom activities in the three classrooms.Received: 1 April 1993; Revised: 30 August 1993;

  14. The Effect of African Culture on African American Students' Achievement on Selected Geometry Topics in the Elementary Mathematics Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moses-Snipes, Pamela R.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate to what extent studying topics in a cultural context affected African American students' achievement. Mathematics achievement was measured by a pre-assessment and post-assessment. The literature addresses the fact that all students can benefit from learning about culture and mathematics. Several…

  15. An Experimental Examination of Quick Writing in the Middle School Science Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benedek-Wood, Elizabeth; Mason, Linda H.; Wood, Philip H.; Hoffman, Katie E.; McGuire, Ashley

    2014-01-01

    A staggered A-B design study was used to evaluate the effects of Self- Regulated Strategy Development (SRSD) instruction for quick writing in middle school science across four classrooms. A sixth-grade science teacher delivered all students' writing assessment and SRSD instruction for informative quick writing. Results indicated that…

  16. Ways to Prepare Future Teachers to Teach Science in Multicultural Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Billingsley, Berry

    2016-01-01

    Roussel De Carvalho uses the notion of superdiversity to draw attention to some of the pedagogical implications of teaching science in multicultural schools in cosmopolitan cities such as London. De Carvalho makes the case that if superdiverse classrooms exist then Science Initial Teacher Education has a role to play in helping future science…

  17. Technology Integration in an Elementary Science Classroom: Its Impact on Teaching and Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Popejoy, Kate

    The purpose of this study was to explore the following questions: (a) what practice, if any, develops in the elementary science classroom to nurture development of technology as an imaginative extension of the learning environment; (b) how does an elementary teacher's practice change as technology is integrated into the science curriculum, how do…

  18. How WebQuests Can Enhance Science Learning Principles in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Subramaniam, Karthigeyan

    2012-01-01

    This article examines the merits of WebQuests in facilitating students' in-depth understanding of science concepts using the four principles of learning gathered from the National Research Council reports "How People Learn: Brain, Mind, Experience, and School" (1999) and the "How Students Learn: Science in the Classroom" (2005) as an analytic…

  19. Effects of MyTeachingPartner-Math/Science on Teacher-Child Interactions in Prekindergarten Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whittaker, Jessica Vick; Kinzie, Mable B.; Williford, Amanda; DeCoster, Jamie

    2016-01-01

    Research Findings: This study examined the impact of MyTeachingPartner-Math/Science, a system of math and science curricula and professional development, on the quality of teachers' interactions with children in their classrooms. Schools were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 intervention conditions (Basic: curricula providing within-activity, embedded…

  20. Multilevel Effects of Student and Classroom Factors on Elementary Science Achievement in Five Countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaya, Sibel; Rice, Diana C.

    2010-07-01

    This study examined the effects of individual student factors and classroom factors on elementary science achievement within and across five countries. The student-level factors included gender, self-confidence in science and home resources. The classroom-level factors included teacher characteristics, instructional variables and classroom composition. Results for the USA and four other countries, Singapore, Japan, Australia and Scotland, were reported. Multilevel effects were examined through Hierarchical Linear Modelling, using the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study 2003 fourth grade dataset. Overall, the results showed that selected student background characteristics were consistently related to elementary science achievement in countries investigated. At the student level, higher levels of home resources and self-confidence and at the classroom level, higher levels of class mean home resources yielded higher science scores on the TIMSS 2003. In general, teacher and instructional variables were minimally related to science achievement. There was evidence of positive effects of teacher support in the USA and Singapore. The emphasis on science inquiry was positively related to science achievement in Singapore and negatively related in the USA and Australia. Recommendations for practice and policy were discussed.

  1. Issues in Science Assessment in a Bilingual/Biliterate Elementary Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karpel, Jennifer A.; Abell, Sandra K.

    This study examines the types, uses, and roles of science assessment in a bilingual/biliterate (Spanish/English) elementary classroom in the Honduras during one unit of science instruction. Focus is placed on how one teacher used assessment to a) inform practice; b) evaluate student learning; and c) modify curricula and teaching strategies to meet…

  2. Classroom-Based Science Research at the Introductory Level: Changes in Career Choices and Attitude

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, Melinda; Dunbar, David; Ratmansky, Lisa; Boyd, Kimberly; Lopatto, David

    2011-01-01

    Our study, focused on classroom-based research at the introductory level and using the Phage Genomics course as the model, shows evidence that first-year students doing research learn the process of science as well as how scientists practice science. A preliminary but notable outcome of our work, which is based on a small sample, is the change in…

  3. The Distinction between Experimental and Historical Sciences as a Framework for Improving Classroom Inquiry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, Ron

    2014-01-01

    Inquiry experiences in secondary science classrooms are heavily weighted toward experimentation. We know, however, that many fields of science (e.g., evolutionary biology, cosmology, and paleontology), while they may utilize experiments, are not justified by experimental methodologies. With the focus on experimentation in schools, these fields of…

  4. The Development of Qualitative Classroom Action Research Workshop for In-Service Science Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buaraphan, Khajornsak

    2016-01-01

    In-service science teachers in Thailand are mandated to conduct classroom research, which can be quantitative and qualitative research, to improve teaching and learning. Comparing to quantitative research, qualitative research is a research approach that most of the Thai science teachers are not familiar with. This situation impedes science…

  5. Use of Instructional Technologies in Science Classrooms: Teachers' Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savasci Açikalin, Funda

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate how science teachers use instructional technologies in science classrooms. Participants were 63 teachers who have just completed an alternative teaching certificate program in one of the largest universities in Turkey. They were asked to make a lesson plan based on any topic by assuming that they had an…

  6. BioBridge Professional Development: Bringing Innovative Science into the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Babendure, Jeremy; Thompson, Loren; Peterman, Karen; Teiper, Leanne; Gastil, Heather; Liwanag, Heather; Glenn-Lee, Shelley

    2011-01-01

    The BioBridge Professional Development model was created to bring current and relevant science into the high school classroom. The purpose of this intervention was to connect teachers with relevant science and to create innovative, hands-on activities that engage students, with the goal of increasing student interest in STEM careers. To this end,…

  7. Factors Affecting the Implementation of Argument in the Elementary Science Classroom. A Longitudinal Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Anita M.; Hand, Brian

    2009-01-01

    This longitudinal case study describes the factors that affect an experienced teacher's attempt to shift her pedagogical practices in order to implement embedded elements of argument into her science classroom. Research data was accumulated over 2 years through video recordings of science classes. The Reformed Teacher Observation Protocol (RTOP)…

  8. Addressing Next Generation Science Standards: A Method for Supporting Classroom Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pellien, Tamara; Rothenburger, Lisa

    2014-01-01

    The Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) will define science education for the foreseeable future, yet many educators struggle to see the bridge between current practice and future practices. The inquiry-based methods used by Extension professionals (Kress, 2006) can serve as a guide for classroom educators. Described herein is a method of…

  9. Conflicts in Science the Classroom: Documentation and Management through Phenomenological Methodology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oloruntegbe, K. O.; Omoniyi, A. O.; Omoniyi, M. B. I.; Ojelade, I. A.

    2011-01-01

    The study investigated the nature of conflicts that are generated in the science classroom. Twenty video-recorded lessons taught by 10 randomly selected pre-service science teachers in teaching practice in a few Nigerian secondary schools were analyzed. Beside the expected goal attainment of the lessons a number of negative conflicts were…

  10. Shaping Science and Math Curriculum in the Age of Glasnost: Reports from Soviet Classrooms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoloff, David L.

    This paper describes the changes in the science and mathematics curriculum in Soviet classrooms since the 1984 reforms and the "glasnostic" climate. The first section discusses the trends in Soviet education including the humanist, national, moral and materialistic trends. The second section examines variations in the science curriculum since the…

  11. Using the Interactive Whiteboard to Resource Continuity and Support Multimodal Teaching in a Primary Science Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillen, J.; Littleton, K.; Twiner, A.; Staarman, J. K.; Mercer, N.

    2008-01-01

    All communication is inherently multimodal, and understandings of science need to be multidimensional. The interactive whiteboard offers a range of potential benefits to the primary science classroom in terms of relative ease of integration of a number of presentational and ICT functions, which, taken together, offers new opportunities for…

  12. Investigating Secondary Science Teachers' Beliefs about Multiculturalism and Its Implementation in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petty, Lori L.; Narayan, Ratna

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore secondary science teachers' beliefs about multiculturalism and its implementation in their classrooms. Participants included nine secondary science teachers, with experience ranging from 1 to 15 years of teaching. Data were collected through interviews, using a semi-structured interview protocol…

  13. Learning with Web Tools, Simulations, and Other Technologies in Science Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Todd; Wang, Shaing Kwei; Hsu, Hui-Yin; Duffy, Aaron M.; Wolf, Paul G.

    2010-01-01

    This position paper proposes the enhancement of teacher and student learning in science classrooms by tapping the enormous potential of information communication and technologies (ICTs) as cognitive tools for engaging students in scientific inquiry. This paper serves to challenge teacher-held assumptions about students learning science "from…

  14. Steps to Fostering a Learning Community in the Primary Science Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pressick-Kilborn, Kimberley

    2009-01-01

    "Teaching Science" has, as one of its predecessors, the "Investigating" journal, which first appeared in 1988. Looking back ten years, the winner of the "Most Valuable Paper Award" for 1999 was Kimberley Pressick-Kilborn for her article--"Steps to Fostering a Learning Community in the Primary Science Classroom". In this edition of "Teaching…

  15. Responsible Use of Live Animals and Dissection in the Science Classroom. NSTA Position Statement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Science Teachers Association (NJ1), 2008

    2008-01-01

    National Science Teachers Association (NSTA) has revised a position statement published in June 2005. This revised statement examines the issues surrounding the integration of animals into the K-12 science curriculum and highlights key considerations that should be addressed when deciding to introduce live animals in the classroom and involve…

  16. "It's Her Body". When Students' Argumentation Shows Displacement of Content in a Science Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orlander Arvola, Auli; Lundegard, Iann

    2012-01-01

    This paper approaches learning as a response instead of the acquisition of something previously expected. More specifically, it describes a process of argumentation on socioscientific issues in a classroom situation in school science amongst 15-year-old students in Sweden. The analysis of an argumentation on abortion in a science classroom…

  17. The Impact of an Integrated Approach to Science and Literacy in Elementary School Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cervetti, Gina N.; Barber, Jacqueline; Dorph, Rena; Pearson, P. David; Goldschmidt, Pete G.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the efficacy of an integrated science and literacy approach at the upper-elementary level. Teachers in 94 fourth grade classrooms in one Southern state participated. Half of the teachers taught the treatment unit, an integrated science-literacy unit on light and energy designed using a curriculum model that engages students…

  18. Playing Modeling Games in the Science Classroom: The Case for Disciplinary Integration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sengupta, Pratim; Clark, Doug

    2016-01-01

    The authors extend the theory of "disciplinary integration" of games for science education beyond the virtual world of games, and identify two key themes of a practice-based theoretical commitment to science learning: (1) materiality in the classroom, and (2) iterative design of multiple, complementary, symbolic inscriptions (e.g.,…

  19. Elementary Students Using a Tablet-Based Note-Taking Application in the Science Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paek, Seungoh; Fulton, Lori A.

    2016-01-01

    This exploratory study investigates the potential of a tablet-based note-taking application (TbNA) to serve as a digital notebook in support of students' classroom science practices. An elementary teacher (Grades 4-5) from a public charter school integrated a TbNA into her science class for one semester while participating in professional…

  20. The Intertextuality of Children's Explanations in a Technology-Enriched Early Years Science Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kumpulainen, Kristiina; Vasama, Satu; Kangassalo, Marjatta

    2003-01-01

    This study examines the sociocultural trajectories of children's conceptual thinking in a technology-enriched early years science classroom (N=22). Of specific analytic interest is the intertextuality of children's science-related explanations constructed during adult-child dialogic interviews and peer-centred inquiry around a multimedia…

  1. Fostering Instrumentalist Conceptions of the Nature of Science: A Classroom Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larson, Jane O.

    This case study of learning explores the relationship between a chemistry teacher's instrumentalist perspective on the nature of science, the classroom culture that flourished through curriculum enactment during the course of a school year, and development of perspectives on science by his students. An ethnographic methodology was employed, with…

  2. Examining the Effects of Integrated Science, Engineering, and Nonfiction Literature on Student Learning in Elementary Classrooms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tank, Kristina Maruyama

    In recent years there has been an increasing emphasis on the integration of multiple disciplines in order to help prepare more students to better address the complex challenges they will face in the 21st century. Exposing students to an integrated and multidisciplinary approach will help them to better understand the connections between subjects instead of as individual and separate subjects. Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) Integration has been suggested as an approach that would model a multidisciplinary approach while also offering authentic and meaningful learning experiences to students. However, there is limited research on STEM integration in the elementary classroom and additional research is needed to better define and explore the effects of this integration for both students and science educators. With the recent recommendations for teaching both science and engineering in elementary classrooms (NRC, 2012), two common models include teaching science through inquiry and teaching science through engineering-design pedagogies. This study will explore both of these models as it seeks to better understand one piece of the larger issue of STEM and STEM integration by examining how the integration of science, engineering, and nonfiction literature affects students learning in elementary classrooms. This study employed an embedded mixed methods design to measure the effects of this integration on student learning in four fifth grade classrooms from the same elementary school. The findings revealed that the students who participated in the nonfiction reading instruction that was integrated with their science instruction showed a greater increase in all measures of student learning in both science and reading when compared to the control students. The findings from the integrated science, engineering and nonfiction literature revealed similar findings with the treatment students showing a greater increase in the measures of student learning

  3. Exploring the meaning of practicing classroom inquiry from the perspectives of National Board Certified Science Teachers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karaman, Ayhan

    Inquiry has been one of the most prominent terms of the contemporary science education reform movement (Buck, Latta, & Leslie-Pelecky, 2007; Colburn, 2006; Settlage, 2007). Practicing classroom inquiry has maintained its central position in science education for several decades because science education reform documents promote classroom inquiry as the potential savior of science education from its current problems. Likewise, having the capabilities of teaching science through inquiry has been considered by National Board for Professional Teaching Standards [NBPTS] as one of the essential elements of being an accomplished science teacher. Successful completion of National Board Certification [NBC] assessment process involves presenting a clear evidence of enacting inquiry with students. Despite the high-profile of the word inquiry in the reform documents, the same is not true in schools (Crawford, 2007). Most of the science teachers do not embrace this type of approach in their everyday teaching practices of science (Johnson, 2006; Luera, Moyer, & Everett, 2005; Smolleck, Zembal-Saul, & Yoder, 2006; Trumbull, Scarano, & Bonney, 2006). And the specific meanings attributed to inquiry by science teachers do not necessarily match with the original intentions of science education reform documents (Matson & Parsons, 2006; Wheeler, 2000; Windschitl, 2003). Unveiling the various meanings held by science teachers is important in developing better strategies for the future success of science education reform efforts (Jones & Eick, 2007; Keys & Bryan, 2001). Due to the potential influences of National Board Certified Science Teachers [NBCSTs] on inexperienced science teachers as their mentors, examining inquiry conceptions of NBCSTs is called for. How do these accomplished practitioners understand and enact inquiry? The purpose of this dissertation research study was twofold. First, it investigated the role of NBC performance assessment process on the professional development

  4. Learning to write in science: A study of English language learners' writing experience in sixth-grade science classrooms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Yang

    Writing is a predictor of academic achievement and is essential for student success in content area learning. Despite its importance, many students, including English language learners (ELLs), struggle with writing. There is thus a need to study students' writing experience in content area classrooms. Informed by systemic functional linguistics, this study examined 11 ELL students' writing experience in two sixth grade science classrooms in a southeastern state of the United States, including what they wrote, how they wrote, and why they wrote in the way they did. The written products produced by these students over one semester were collected. Also collected were teacher interviews, field notes from classroom observations, and classroom artifacts. Student writing samples were first categorized into extended and nonextended writing categories, and each extended essay was then analyzed with respect to its schematic structure and grammatical features. Teacher interviews and classroom observation notes were analyzed thematically to identify teacher expectations, beliefs, and practices regarding writing instruction for ELLs. It was found that the sixth-grade ELLs engaged in mostly non-extended writing in the science classroom, with extended writing (defined as writing a paragraph or longer) constituting roughly 11% of all writing assignments. Linguistic analysis of extended writing shows that the students (a) conveyed information through nouns, verbs, adjectives, adverbial groups and prepositional phrases; (b) constructed interpersonal context through choices of mood, modality, and verb tense; and (c) structured text through thematic choices and conjunctions. The appropriateness of these lexicogrammatical choices for particular writing tasks was related to the students' English language proficiency levels. The linguistic analysis also uncovered several grammatical problems in the students' writing, including a limited range of word choices, inappropriate use of mood

  5. Family matters: Familial support and science identity formation for African American female STEM majors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parker, Ashley Dawn

    This research seeks to understand the experiences of African American female undergraduates in STEM. It investigates how familial factors and science identity formation characteristics influence persistence in STEM while considering the duality of African American women's status in society. This phenomenological study was designed using critical race feminism as the theoretical framework to answer the following questions: 1) What role does family play in the experiences of African American women undergraduate STEM majors who attended two universities in the UNC system? 2) What factors impact the formation of science identity for African American women undergraduate STEM majors who attended two universities in the UNC system? Purposive sampling was used to select the participants for this study. The researcher conducted in-depth interviews with 10 African American female undergraduate STEM major from a predominantly White and a historically Black institution with the state of North Carolina public university system. Findings suggest that African American families and science identity formation influence the STEM experiences of the African American females interviewed in this study. The following five themes emerged from the findings: (1) independence, (2) support, (3) pressure to succeed, (4) adaptations, and (5) race and gender. This study contributes to the literature on African American female students in STEM higher education. The findings of this study produced knowledge regarding policies and practices that can lead to greater academic success and persistence of African American females in higher education in general, and STEM majors in particular. Colleges and universities may benefit from the findings of this study in a way that allows them to develop and sustain programs and policies that attend to the particular concerns and needs of African American women on their campuses. Finally, this research informs both current and future African American female

  6. Classrooms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butin, Dan

    This paper addresses classroom design trends and the key issues schools should consider for better classroom space flexibility and adaptability. Classroom space design issues when schools embrace technology are discussed, as are design considerations when rooms must accommodate different grade levels, the importance of lighting, furniture…

  7. Electrical Circuits in the Mathematics/Computer Science Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMillan, Robert D.

    1988-01-01

    Shows how, with little or no electrical background, students can apply Boolean algebra concepts to design and build integrated electrical circuits in the classroom that will reinforce important ideas in mathematics. (PK)

  8. Exploring the contexts of urban science classrooms: Cogenerative dialogues, coteaching, and cosmopolitanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emdin, Christopher

    The body of work presented in this dissertation is a response to the reported association between poor outcomes in science achievement and students of color in urban schools. By presenting counterexamples to the cultural motif that urban students of color perform poorly in science, I argue that poor achievement cannot be traced to a group of people but can be linked to institutions promoting subject delivery methods that instill distaste for science and compel students to display an illusion of disinterest in school. There are two major goals of this study. First, I plan to demonstrate how plans of action generated by coteachers and cogenerative dialogue groups can coalesce under the ethos of making science and schooling accessible to populations that are traditionally marginalized from science achievement. My second aim is to develop mechanisms for transforming science learning contexts into cosmopolitan learning communities that develop student success in science. Through a three-year ethnographic study of physics and chemistry classrooms in a high school in New York City, I present explorations of the culture and context of the urban classroom as a chief means to meet my goals. In my research, I find that obstacles to identity development around science can be tied to corporate understandings of teaching and learning that are amenable to local efforts toward change. This change is facilitated through the use of transformative tools like cogenerative dialogues, coteaching, and cosmopolitanism. Through the application of these research tools, I uncover and investigate how various misalignments that present themselves in physics and chemistry classrooms serve as signifiers of macro issues that permeate science classrooms from larger fields. By utilizing cogenerative dialogues as a tool for investigating both micro enactments within classrooms and the macro structures that generate these enactments, I show how students and teachers can work together as co

  9. Creating a Pipeline for African American Computing Science Faculty: An Innovative Faculty/Research Mentoring Program Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charleston, LaVar J.; Gilbert, Juan E.; Escobar, Barbara; Jackson, Jerlando F. L.

    2014-01-01

    African Americans represent 1.3% of all computing sciences faculty in PhD-granting departments, underscoring the severe underrepresentation of Black/African American tenure-track faculty in computing (CRA, 2012). The Future Faculty/Research Scientist Mentoring (FFRM) program, funded by the National Science Foundation, was found to be an effective…

  10. Performance-based classrooms: A case study of two elementary teachers of mathematics and science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Kenneth W.

    This case study depicts how two elementary teachers develop classrooms devoted to performance-based instruction in mathematics and science. The purpose is to develop empirical evidence of classroom practices that leads to a conceptual framework about the nature of performance-based instruction. Performance-based assessment and instruction are defined from the literature to entail involving students in tasks that are complex and engaging, requiring them to apply knowledge and skills in authentic contexts. In elementary mathematics and science, such an approach emphasizes problem solving, exploration, inquiry, and reasoning. The body of the work examines teacher beliefs, curricular orientations, instructional strategies, assessment approaches, management and organizational skills, and interpersonal relationships. The focus throughout is on those aspects that foster student performance in elementary mathematics and science. The resulting framework describes five characteristics that contribute to performance-based classrooms: a caring classroom community, a connectionist learning theory, a thinking and doing curriculum, diverse opportunities for learning, and ongoing assessment, feedback, and adjustment. The conclusion analyzes factors external to the classroom that support or constrain the development of performance-based classrooms and discusses the implications for educational policy and further research.

  11. Use of the Outdoor Classroom and Nature-Study to Support Science and Literacy Learning: A Narrative Case Study of a Third-Grade Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eick, Charles J.

    2012-01-01

    A case study of an exemplary third grade teacher's use of the outdoor classroom for meeting both state science and language arts standards is described. Data from the researcher's field journal, teacher lesson plans, and teacher interviews document how this teacher used nature-study to bridge outdoor classroom experiences with the state science…

  12. Teaching White Students Black History: The African-American Experience in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burrell, Leon F.; Walsh, Robert L.

    2001-01-01

    Many white students are barely exposed to African-American history throughout their schooling. When students do examine the other side of American history, the one not generally found in their textbooks, they often wonder why they have not learned this before. An understanding of African-American history is central to any effort to eliminate…

  13. The Discipline Gap and African Americans: Defiance or Cooperation in the High School Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gregory, A.; Weinstein, R. S.

    2008-01-01

    African Americans are over-represented in school suspensions, yet little is known about the underlying contributing dynamics. Study 1 reviewed a high school's annual discipline data and 442 students referred for defiance. African Americans were over-represented in referrals for defiance and most students received referrals from one or several…

  14. Unpacking (White) Privilege in a South African University Classroom: A Neglected Element in Multicultural Educational Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swartz, Sharlene; Arogundade, Emma; Davis, Danya

    2014-01-01

    Multiculturalism currently aims for the political accommodation of difference instead of the subversion of the resulting privileges of difference. In the South African context such a distinction is especially important since the economic and symbolic subjugation of the majority of Black South Africans continues despite political transformation,…

  15. Bidialectal African American Adolescents' Beliefs about Spoken Language Expectations in English Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Godley, Amanda; Escher, Allison

    2012-01-01

    This article describes the perspectives of bidialectal African American adolescents--adolescents who speak both African American Vernacular English (AAVE) and Standard English--on spoken language expectations in their English classes. Previous research has demonstrated that many teachers hold negative views of AAVE, but existing scholarship has…

  16. Cognitive Research and Elementary Science Instruction: From the Laboratory, to the Classroom, and Back

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klahr, David; Li, Junlei

    2005-06-01

    Can cognitive research generate usable knowledge for elementary science instruction? Can issues raised by classroom practice drive the agenda of laboratory cognitive research? Answering yes to both questions, we advocate building a reciprocal interface between basic and applied research. We discuss five studies of the teaching, learning, and transfer of the "Control of Variables Strategy" in elementary school science. Beginning with investigations motivated by basic theoretical questions, we situate subsequent inquiries within authentic educational debates—contrasting hands-on manipulation of physical and virtual materials, evaluating direct instruction and discovery learning, replicating training methods in classroom, and narrowing science achievement gaps. We urge research programs to integrate basic research in "pure" laboratories with field work in "messy" classrooms. Finally, we suggest that those engaged in discussions about implications and applications of educational research focus on clearly defined instructional methods and procedures, rather than vague labels and outmoded "-isms."

  17. A cultural historical theoretical perspective of discourse and design in the science classroom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, Megan

    2015-06-01

    Flavio Azevedo, Peggy Martalock and Tugba Keser have initiated an important conversation in science education as they use sociocultural theory to introduce design based scenarios into the science classroom. This response seeks to expand Azevedo, Martalock and Keser's article The discourse of design- based science classroom activities by using a specific perspective within a sociocultural framework. Through using a cultural historical (Vygotsky in The history and development of higher mental functions, Plenum Press, New York, 1987) reading of design based activity and discourse in the science classroom, it is proposed that learning should be an integral part of these processes. Therefore, everyday and scientific concepts are explained and expanded in relation to Inventing Graphing and discourse presented in Azevedo, Martalock and Keser's article. This response reports on the importance of teacher's being explicit in relation to connecting everyday and scientific concepts alongside design based activity and related science concepts when teaching students. It is argued that explicit teaching of concepts should be instigated prior to analysis of discourse in the science classroom as it is only with experience and understanding these processes that students have the resources to call upon to argue like practicing scientists.

  18. A Vision of Improvement of Learning: South African Teachers' Conceptions of Classroom Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sethusha, Mantsose Jane

    2013-01-01

    This article explored conceptions that teachers hold about classroom assessment and how these conceptions influence their classroom assessment practices. The qualitative study employed a case study approach. Semi-structured interviews, observations and document analyses were used. The study utilized Brown's (2004) conceptual framework on…

  19. From Science Studies to Scientific Literacy: A View from the Classroom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allchin, Douglas

    2014-09-01

    The prospective virtues of using history and philosophy of science in science teaching have been pronounced for decades. Recently, a role for nature of science in supporting scientific literacy has become widely institutionalized in curriculum standards internationally. This short review addresses these current needs, highlighting the concrete views of teachers in the classroom, eschewing ideological ideals and abstract theory. A practical perspective highlights further the roles of history and philosophy—and of sociology, too—and even broadens their importance. It also indicates the relevance of a wide range of topics and work in Science Studies now generally absent from science educational discourse. An extensive reference list is provided.

  20. Reversing the standard direction: Science emerging from the lives of African American students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seiler, Gale

    2001-11-01

    Recognizing the persistent science achievement gap between inner-city African American students and students from mainstream, White society, this article suggests that the imposition of external standards on inner-city schools will do little to ameliorate this gap because such an approach fails to address the significance of the social and cultural lives of the students. Instead, it is suggested that the use of critical ethnographic research would enable educators to learn from the students how science education can change to meet their aims and interests. The article includes a report on how a science lunch group in an inner-city high school forged a community based on respect and caring and how this community afforded African American male teens the opportunity to participate in science in new ways.

  1. A New Look at Genre and Authenticity: Making Sense of Reading and Writing Science News in High School Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kohnen, Angela M.

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative study examined the importance of the genre and authenticity as teachers sought to bring science journalism to the high school science classroom. Undertaken as part of the National Science Foundation-funded grant "Science Literacy through Science Journalism (SciJourn)," this work was conducted as a series of smaller…

  2. H3Africa and the African life sciences ecosystem: building sustainable innovation.

    PubMed

    Dandara, Collet; Huzair, Farah; Borda-Rodriguez, Alexander; Chirikure, Shadreck; Okpechi, Ikechi; Warnich, Louise; Masimirembwa, Collen

    2014-12-01

    Interest in genomics research in African populations is experiencing exponential growth. This enthusiasm stems in part from the recognition that the genomic diversity of African populations is a window of opportunity for innovations in postgenomics medicine, ecology, and evolutionary biology. The recently launched H3Africa initiative, for example, captures the energy and momentum of this interest. This interdisciplinary socio-technical analysis highlights the challenges that have beset previous genomics research activities in Africa, and looking ahead, suggests constructive ways H3Africa and similar large scale science efforts could usefully chart a new era of genomics and life sciences research in Africa that is locally productive and globally competitive. As independent African scholars and social scientists, we propose that any serious global omics science effort, including H3Africa, aiming to build genomics research capacity and capability in Africa, needs to fund the establishment of biobanks and the genomic analyses platforms within Africa. Equally they need to prioritize community engagement and bioinformatics capability and the training of African scientists on these platforms. Historically, the financial, technological, and skills imbalance between Africa and developed countries has created exploitative frameworks of collaboration where African researchers have become merely facilitators of Western funded and conceived research agendas involving offshore expatriation of samples. Not surprisingly, very little funding was allocated to infrastructure and human capital development in the past. Moving forward, capacity building should materialize throughout the entire knowledge co-production trajectory: idea generation (e.g., brainstorming workshops for innovative hypotheses development by African scientists), data generation (e.g., genome sequencing), and high-throughput data analysis and contextualization. Additionally, building skills for political science

  3. H3Africa and the African life sciences ecosystem: building sustainable innovation.

    PubMed

    Dandara, Collet; Huzair, Farah; Borda-Rodriguez, Alexander; Chirikure, Shadreck; Okpechi, Ikechi; Warnich, Louise; Masimirembwa, Collen

    2014-12-01

    Interest in genomics research in African populations is experiencing exponential growth. This enthusiasm stems in part from the recognition that the genomic diversity of African populations is a window of opportunity for innovations in postgenomics medicine, ecology, and evolutionary biology. The recently launched H3Africa initiative, for example, captures the energy and momentum of this interest. This interdisciplinary socio-technical analysis highlights the challenges that have beset previous genomics research activities in Africa, and looking ahead, suggests constructive ways H3Africa and similar large scale science efforts could usefully chart a new era of genomics and life sciences research in Africa that is locally productive and globally competitive. As independent African scholars and social scientists, we propose that any serious global omics science effort, including H3Africa, aiming to build genomics research capacity and capability in Africa, needs to fund the establishment of biobanks and the genomic analyses platforms within Africa. Equally they need to prioritize community engagement and bioinformatics capability and the training of African scientists on these platforms. Historically, the financial, technological, and skills imbalance between Africa and developed countries has created exploitative frameworks of collaboration where African researchers have become merely facilitators of Western funded and conceived research agendas involving offshore expatriation of samples. Not surprisingly, very little funding was allocated to infrastructure and human capital development in the past. Moving forward, capacity building should materialize throughout the entire knowledge co-production trajectory: idea generation (e.g., brainstorming workshops for innovative hypotheses development by African scientists), data generation (e.g., genome sequencing), and high-throughput data analysis and contextualization. Additionally, building skills for political science

  4. H3Africa and the African Life Sciences Ecosystem: Building Sustainable Innovation

    PubMed Central

    Huzair, Farah; Borda-Rodriguez, Alexander; Chirikure, Shadreck; Okpechi, Ikechi; Warnich, Louise; Masimirembwa, Collen

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Interest in genomics research in African populations is experiencing exponential growth. This enthusiasm stems in part from the recognition that the genomic diversity of African populations is a window of opportunity for innovations in postgenomics medicine, ecology, and evolutionary biology. The recently launched H3Africa initiative, for example, captures the energy and momentum of this interest. This interdisciplinary socio-technical analysis highlights the challenges that have beset previous genomics research activities in Africa, and looking ahead, suggests constructive ways H3Africa and similar large scale science efforts could usefully chart a new era of genomics and life sciences research in Africa that is locally productive and globally competitive. As independent African scholars and social scientists, we propose that any serious global omics science effort, including H3Africa, aiming to build genomics research capacity and capability in Africa, needs to fund the establishment of biobanks and the genomic analyses platforms within Africa. Equally they need to prioritize community engagement and bioinformatics capability and the training of African scientists on these platforms. Historically, the financial, technological, and skills imbalance between Africa and developed countries has created exploitative frameworks of collaboration where African researchers have become merely facilitators of Western funded and conceived research agendas involving offshore expatriation of samples. Not surprisingly, very little funding was allocated to infrastructure and human capital development in the past. Moving forward, capacity building should materialize throughout the entire knowledge co-production trajectory: idea generation (e.g., brainstorming workshops for innovative hypotheses development by African scientists), data generation (e.g., genome sequencing), and high-throughput data analysis and contextualization. Additionally, building skills for political

  5. Representin' and Disrespectin': African-American Wind Band Students' Meanings of a Composition-Based Secondary Music Curriculum and Classroom Power Structures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, Adria Rachel; Carter, Bruce Allen

    2013-01-01

    Although cultural diversity is important to the social context of classrooms, few researchers have explored school music experiences from the perspective of students of colour. Possibly of greater concern is the absence of research examining African-American students' educational experiences in early secondary education, during which time the…

  6. Brains--Computers--Machines: Neural Engineering in Science Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chudler, Eric H.; Bergsman, Kristen Clapper

    2016-01-01

    Neural engineering is an emerging field of high relevance to students, teachers, and the general public. This feature presents online resources that educators and scientists can use to introduce students to neural engineering and to integrate core ideas from the life sciences, physical sciences, social sciences, computer science, and engineering…

  7. Supporting Inquiry in Science Classrooms with the Web

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simons, Krista; Clark, Doug

    2005-01-01

    This paper focuses on Web-based science inquiry and five representative science learning environments. The discussion centers around features that sustain science inquiry, namely, data-driven investigation, modeling, collaboration, and scaffolding. From the perspective of these features five science learning environments are detailed: Whyville,…

  8. Renegotiating the pedagogic contract: Teaching in digitally enhanced secondary science classrooms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ajayi, Ajibola Oluneye

    This qualitative case study explores the effects of emerging digital technology as a teaching and learning tool in secondary school science classrooms. The study examines three teachers' perspectives on how the use of technology affects the teacher-student pedagogic relationship. The "pedagogic contract" is used as a construct to analyze the changes that took place in these teachers' classrooms amid the use of this new technology. The overarching question for this research is: How was the pedagogic contract renegotiated in three secondary science teachers' classrooms through the use of digitally enhanced science instruction. To answer this question, data was collected via semi-structured teacher interviews, classroom observations, and analysis of classroom documents such as student assignments, tests and Study Guides. This study reveals that the everyday use of digital technologies in these classrooms resulted in a re-negotiated pedagogic contract across three major dimensions: content of learning, method and management of learning activities, and assessment of learning. The extent to which the pedagogic contract was renegotiated varied with each of the teachers studied. Yet in each case, the content of learning was extended to include new topics, and greater depth of learning within the mandated curriculum. The management of learning was reshaped around metacognitive strategies, personal goal-setting, individual pacing, and small-group learning activities. With the assessment of learning, there was increased emphasis on self-directed interactive testing as a formative assessment tool. This study highlights the aspects of science classrooms that are most directly affected by the introduction of digital technologies and demonstrates how those changes are best understood as a renegotiation of the teacher-student pedagogic contract.

  9. Factors Influencing Elementary Teachers' Positioning of African American Girls as Science and Mathematics Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pringle, Rose M.; Brkich, Katie Milton; Adams, Thomasenia Lott; West-Olatunii, Cirecie; Archer-Banks, Diane A.

    2012-01-01

    Despite recent progress toward gender equity in science and mathematics education, the underachievement of low-income African American girls remains a challenge when compared with their white counterparts. Furthermore, the causes of this persistent underachievement have not been explored thoroughly. We have initiated a three-year longitudinal…

  10. Frameworks for Africa-UK Research Collaboration in the Social Sciences and Humanities: African University Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harle, Jonathan

    2007-01-01

    This report was commissioned by the British Academy's Africa Panel to examine the challenges facing African universities when undertaking collaborative research with UK and other international partners, particularly in the social sciences and humanities. It draws principally on a consultation undertaken by the Association of Commonwealth…

  11. Changing Stories: Trajectories of Identification among African American Youth in a Science Outreach Apprenticeship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polman, Joseph L.; Miller, Diane

    2010-01-01

    This article reports on a descriptive study of youth identity as developing through "trajectories of identification" in a science outreach apprenticeship program designed to transition urban African American youth to professional work and career aspirations. A sociocultural framework of identity development is utilized, incorporating the notions…

  12. Third Grade African American Students' Views of the Nature of Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walls, Leon

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the nature of science (NOS) views of lower elementary grade level students, including their views of scientists. Participants were 23 third-grade African American students from two Midwest urban settings. A multiple instrument approach using an open-ended questionnaire, semi-structured interviews, a modified version of the…

  13. Reversing the "Standard" Direction: Science Emerging from the Lives of African American Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seiler, Gale

    2001-01-01

    Recognizes the persistent science achievement gap between inner-city African American students and students from the mainstream and suggests that the imposition of external standards on inner-city schools will do little to ameliorate this gap because such an approach fails to address the significance of the social and cultural lives of the…

  14. The Relationship between African Traditional Cosmology and Students' Acquisition of a Science Process Skill.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jegede, Olugbemiro J.; Okebukola, Peter Akinsola

    This study investigated the influence of students' belief in traditional African cosmology, beliefs, and superstitions on observation skills. Data was collected from 319 science students with a mean age of 16.9 years from one Nigerian University. Instruments used were the Traditional Cosmology Test and the Test of Observational Skills. The results…

  15. Equity in Science at South African Schools: A Pious Platitude or an Achievable Goal?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramnarain, Umesh Dewnarain

    2011-01-01

    The apartheid policies in South Africa had a marked influence on the accessibility and quality of school science experienced by the different race groups. African learners in particular were seriously disadvantaged in this regard. The issues of equity and redress were foremost in transformation of the education system, and the accompanying…

  16. What Do Children Write in Science? A Study of the Genre Set in a Primary Science Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Honig, Sheryl

    2010-01-01

    This article reports on the types of scientific writing found in two primary grade classrooms. These results are part of a larger two-year study whose purpose was to examine the development of informational writing of second- and third-grade students as they participated in integrated science-literacy instruction. The primary purpose of the…

  17. A Study of Secondary Science Teacher Efficacy and Level of Constructivist Instructional Practice Implementation in West Virginia Science Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knapp, Amanda Kristen

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the level of use of selected constructivist instructional practices and level of teacher efficacy in West Virginia secondary science classrooms. The study next sought to determine if a relationship existed between level of use of the constructivist practices and teacher efficacy. In addition the study…

  18. Uncovering Black/African American and Latina/o students' motivation to learn science: Affordances to science identity development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahfood, Denise Marcia

    The following dissertation reports on a qualitative exploration that serves two main goals: (1) to qualitatively define and highlight science motivation development of Black/African American and Latina/o students as they learn science in middle school, high school, and in college and (2) to reveal through personal narratives how successful entry and persistence in science by this particular group is linked to the development of their science identities. The targeted population for this study is undergraduate students of color in science fields at a college or university. The theoretical frameworks for this study are constructivist theory, motivation theory, critical theory, and identity theories. The methodological approach is narrative which includes students' science learning experiences throughout the course of their academic lives. I use The Science Motivation Questionnaire II to obtain baseline data to quantitatively assess for motivation to learn science. Data from semi-structured interviews from selected participants were collected, coded, and configured into a story, and emergent themes reveal the important role of science learning in both informal and formal settings, but especially in informal settings that contribute to better understandings of science and the development of science identities for these undergraduate students of color. The findings have implications for science teaching in schools and teacher professional development in science learning.

  19. Hierarchical Effects of School-, Classroom-, and Student-Level Factors on the Science Performance of Eighth-Grade Taiwanese Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsai, Liang-Ting; Yang, Chih-Chien

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to understand the effect of student-, classroom-, and school-level factors on the science performance of 8th-grade Taiwanese students in the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) 2011 by using multilevel analysis. A total of 5,042 students from 153 classrooms of 150 schools participated in the TIMSS…

  20. Research on same-gender grouping in eighth-grade science classrooms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friend, Jennifer Ingrid

    This study examined two hypotheses related to same-gender grouping of eighth-grade science classes in a public middle-school setting in suburban Kansas City. The first hypothesis, male and female students enrolled in same-gender eighth-grade science classes demonstrate more positive science academic achievement than their male and female peers enrolled in mixed-gender science classes. The second hypothesis, same-gender grouping of students in eighth-grade science has a positive effect on classroom climate. The participants in this study were randomly assigned to class sections of eighth-grade science. The first experimental group was an eighth-grade science class of all-male students (n = 20) taught by a male science teacher. The control group used for comparison to the male same-gender class consisted of the male students (n = 42) in the coeducational eighth-grade science classes taught by the same male teacher. The second experimental group was an eighth-grade science class of all-female students (n = 23) taught by a female science teacher. The control group for the female same-gender class consisted of female students (n = 61) in the coeducational eighth-grade science classes taught by the same female teacher. The male teacher and the female teacher did not vary instruction for the same-gender and mixed-gender classes. Science academic achievement was measured for both groups through a quantitative analysis using grades on science classroom assessment and overall science course grades. Classroom climate was measured through qualitative observations and through qualitative and quantitative analysis of a twenty-question student survey administered at the end of each trimester grading period. The results of this study did not indicate support for either hypothesis. Data led to the conclusions that same-gender grouping did not produce significant differences in student science academic achievement, and that same-gender classes did not create a more positive

  1. Orchestrating student discourse opportunities and listening for conceptual understandings in high school science classrooms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kinard, Melissa Grass

    Scientific communities have established social mechanisms for proposing explanations, questioning evidence, and validating claims. Opportunities like these are often not a given in science classrooms (Vellom, Anderson, & Palincsar, 1993) even though the National Science Education Standards (NSES, 1996) state that a scientifically literate person should be able to "engage intelligently in public discourse and debate about important issues in science and technology" (National Research Council [NRC], 1996). Research further documents that students' science conceptions undergo little modification with the traditional teaching experienced in many high school science classrooms (Duit, 2003, Dykstra, 2005). This case study is an examination of the discourse that occurred as four high school physics students collaborated on solutions to three physics lab problems during which the students made predictions and experimentally generated data to support their predictions. The discourse patterns were initially examined for instances of concept negotiations. Selected instances were further examined using Toulmin's (2003) pattern for characterizing argumentation in order to understand the students' scientific reasoning strategies and to document the role of collaboration in facilitating conceptual modifications and changes. Audio recordings of the students' conversations during the labs, written problems turned in to the teacher, interviews of the students, and observations and field notes taken during student collaboration were used to document and describe the students' challenges and successes encountered during their collaborative work. The findings of the study indicate that collaboration engaged the students and generated two types of productive science discourse: concept negotiations and procedure negotiations. Further analysis of the conceptual and procedure negotiations revealed that the students viewed science as sensible and plausible but not as a tool they could

  2. Facilitating cultural border crossing in urban secondary science classrooms: A study of inservice teachers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monteiro, Anna Karina

    Research acknowledges that if students are to be successful science, they must learn to navigate and cross cultural borders that exist between their own cultures and the subculture of science. This dissertation utilized a mixed methods approach to explore how inservice science teachers working in urban schools construct their ideas of and apply the concepts about the culture of science and cultural border crossing as relevant to the teaching and learning of science. The study used the lenses of cultural capital, social constructivism, and cultural congruency in the design and analysis of each of the three phases of data collection. Phase I identified the perspectives of six inservice science teachers on science culture, cultural border crossing, and which border crossing methods, if any, they used during science teaching. Phase II took a dialectical approach as the teachers read about science culture and cultural border crossing during three informal professional learning community meetings. This phase explored how teachers constructed their understanding of cultural border crossing and how the concept applied to the teaching and learning of science. Phase III evaluated how teachers' perspectives changed from Phase I. In addition, classroom observations were used to determine whether teachers' practices in their science classrooms changed from Phase I to Phase III. All three phases collected data through qualitative (i.e., interviews, classroom observations, and surveys) and quantitative (Likert items) means. The findings indicated that teachers found great value in learning about the culture of science and cultural border crossing as it pertained to their teaching methods. This was not only evidenced by their interviews and surveys, but also in the methods they used in their classrooms. Final conclusions included how the use of student capital resources (prior experiences, understandings and knowledge, ideas an interests, and personal beliefs), if supported by

  3. A comparison of student and teacher perceptions of assessment in science classrooms in South Dakota

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elkhader, Virginia

    Assessments have been a central topic of concern in the American educational system for the past several years. With the enactment of the No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act into law (P.L.107-110), student assessment has become a high stakes event in all school districts. This study was timely with the onset of testing and state reporting of performance in science this year. The purpose of this dissertation was to study and compare students' and teachers' perceptions of assessment practices in science classrooms. Using survey instruments designed for each group, high school students enrolled in science classes and teachers providing instruction in these classes provided demographic information and their perceptions of the science assessment practices in these classrooms. Students were administered the Students Perception Assessment Questionnaire and teachers were administered a researcher modified version of this instrument. A total of 447 students enrolled in five South Dakota school district high schools completed the student survey with 15 matched teacher surveys. Survey results indicated there was inconsistency between how the classroom teacher and students perceived assessments in the science classrooms. Only Congruence for Planning Learning and Transparency in Assessment responses were positively related between the teachers and students. Some 60% of the categorical assessment variables were not significantly related indicating teachers and students are not perceiving the science classroom assessment practices similarly. Individual science disciplines were also analyzed separately. Students in biology classes perceived assessment practices differently based on the grades they were earning in the class. High achieving students saw these practices as more similar to their teachers' perceptions than the low achieving students. Chemistry students who liked science also perceived the science assessments more similar to teacher perceptions than did students who were

  4. Is there a correlation between students' perceptions of their middle school science classroom learning environment and their classroom grades?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snyder, Wayne

    The purpose of this study was to determine if the marking period grades of middle school science students are correlated with their perception of the classroom learning environment, and if so could such an indicator be used in feedback loops for ongoing classroom learning environment evaluation and evolution. The study examined 24 classrooms in three districts representing several different types of districts and a diverse student population. The independent variable was the students' perceptions of their classroom learning environment (CLE). This variable was represented by their responses on the WIHIC (What Is Happening In This Class) questionnaire. The dependent variable was the students' marking period grades. Background data about the students was included, and for further elaboration and clarification, qualitative data was collected through student and teacher interviews. Middle school science students in this study perceived as most positive those domains over which they have more locus of control. Perceptions showed some variance by gender, ethnicity, teacher/district, and socio-economic status when viewing the absolute values of the domain variables. The patterns of the results show consistency between groups. Direct correlation between questionnaire responses and student grades was not found to be significant except for a small significance with "Task Orientation". This unexpected lack of correlation may be explained by inconsistencies between grading schemes, inadequacies of the indicator instrument, and/or by the one-time administration of the variables. Analysis of the qualitative and quantitative data led to the conclusion that this instrument is picking up information, but that revisions in both the variables and in the process are needed. Grading schemes need to be decomposed, the instrument needs to be revised, and the process needs to be implemented as a series of regular feed-back loops.

  5. The Sounds of Rain. Integrating Science in Your Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cowens, John

    2005-01-01

    Rainsticks are African and South American musical instruments that recreate the soothing sounds of rain. They were originally made of bamboo or dried cacti tubes. Inside the tubes are small river pebbles and cactus thorns. The longer the tube, the longer-lasting the "music." This article gives instructions for making both a large and small…

  6. A Systemic Functional Linguistic Analysis of the Utterances of Three South African Physical Sciences Teachers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jawahar, Kavish; Dempster, Edith R.

    2013-06-01

    In this study, the sociocultural view of science as a language and some quantitative language features of the complementary theoretical framework of systemic functional linguistics are employed to analyse the utterances of three South African Physical Sciences teachers. Using a multi-case study methodology, this study provides a sophisticated description of the utterances of Pietermaritzburg Physical Sciences teachers in language contexts characterised by varying proportions of English Second Language (ESL) students in each class. The results reveal that, as expected, lexical cohesion as measured by the cohesive harmony index and proportion of repeated content words relative to total words, increased with an increasing proportion of ESL students. However, the use of nominalisation by the teachers and the lexical density of their utterances did not decrease with an increasing proportion of ESL students. Furthermore, the results reveal that each individual Physical Sciences teacher had a 'signature' talk, unrelated to the language context in which they taught. This study signals the urgent and critical need for South African science teacher training programmes to place a greater emphasis on the functional use of language for different language contexts in order to empower South African Physical Sciences teachers to adequately apprentice their students into the use of the register of scientific English.

  7. Rhetorical construction of cells in science and in a science classroom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsatsarelis, Charalampos; Ogborn, Jon; Jewitt, Carey; Kress, Gunther

    2000-12-01

    The construction of entities (such as cells) is a gradual process, not the result of direct and immediate reading of the ‘facts.’ This paper argues that this is the case for both scientists and pupils in science education. The paper is based on an analysis of the historical formation of the notion of cells by scientists, and our analysis of a lesson on the microscopic observation of onion cells. A description of the ways that early scientists worked, shows the fluidity of the rhetoric and the various rhetorical experimentations that they used to interpret what they saw through the microscope. An analogouscase appears to happen in the science classroom where teachers use analogies, metaphors and examples to rhetorically shape pupils' views. However, there are important differences in the way they used forms of argumentation. What was new for Hooke, is given for pupils from the beginning of the lesson; Hooke's use of the cell metaphor could be imagined as the end of a packaging process while pupils exploration of cells through analogies could be described as an unpackaging process of an already known entiry.

  8. The influence of a Classroom Model of Scientific Scholarship on Four Girls' Trajectories of Identification with Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, Melissa Sunshine

    This study examines the teacher's role in shaping the identity construction resources available in a classroom and the ways in which individual students take up, modify, and appropriate those resources to construct themselves as scientists through interaction with their teacher and peers. Drawing on frameworks of identity construction and social positioning, I propose that the locally-negotiated classroom-level cultural model of what it means to be a "good" science student forms the arena in which students construct a sense of their own competence at, affiliation with, and interest in science. The setting for this study was a 6th grade science class at a progressive urban elementary school whose population roughly represents the ethnic and socioeconomic diversity of the state of California. The teacher was an experienced science and math teacher interested in social justice and inquiry teaching. Drawing from naturalistic observations, video and artifact analysis, survey data, and repeated interviews with students and the teacher, I demonstrated what it meant to be a "good" science student in this particular cultural community by analyzing what was required, reinforced, and rewarded in this classroom. Next, I traced the influence of this particular classroom's conception of what it meant to be good at science on the trajectories of identification with science of four 6th grade girls selected to represent a variety of stances towards science, levels of classroom participation, and personal backgrounds. Scientific scholarship in this class had two parts: values related to science as a discipline, and a more generic set of school-related values one might see in any classroom. Different meanings of and values for science were indexed in the everyday activities of the classroom: science as a language for describing the natural world, science as a set of rhetorical values, science as an adult social community, and science as a place for mess and explosions. Among school

  9. Integrating Science in Your Classroom: Wax On, Wane Off

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cowens, John

    2006-01-01

    The changing figures of the waxing and waning moon are among the most conspicuous of celestial phenomena and were some of the first to be understood. This paper describes a classroom activity designed to teach children about the phases of the moon.

  10. Working with DNA & Bacteria in Precollege Science Classrooms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horn, Toby Mogollon; Frame, Kathy, Ed.

    This document describes ways to work with DNA and host organisms in precollege classrooms. The guidelines are intended to assist the teacher who already has training in working with microbes, DNA, and associated chemicals. The contents of the guidelines include: (1) Permitted DNA molecules, vectors, and recommended host organisms for constructing…

  11. Rock Your Classroom!: Use Subwoofers to Teach Electricity and Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karns, Robert J.

    2007-01-01

    It may not seem like school is the best place to crank up the bass for glass-cracking extreme energy, but subwoofers just might make better teaching and learning tools than they do music makers. Faced with the fact that electricity is invisible, electrical technology students encounter significant challenges in the classroom when abstract concepts…

  12. Generating Testable Questions in the Science Classroom: The BDC Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tseng, ChingMei; Chen, Shu-Bi Shu-Bi; Chang, Wen-Hua

    2015-01-01

    Guiding students to generate testable scientific questions is essential in the inquiry classroom, but it is not easy. The purpose of the BDC ("Big Idea, Divergent Thinking, and Convergent Thinking") instructional model is to to scaffold students' inquiry learning. We illustrate the use of this model with an example lesson, designed…

  13. A Science Classroom That's More than a Game

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barlow, Tim; Fleming, Barry

    2016-01-01

    "Blended" and "flipped" pedagogies are becoming more common features of classrooms as the technological revolution continues. While the appropriate use of technology in the learning environment can serve to motivate some students, significant problems surrounding student motivation and engagement remain. As such, the…

  14. How Students Learn: History, Mathematics, and Science in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Academies Press, 2005

    2005-01-01

    How do you get a fourth-grader excited about history? How do you even begin to persuade high school students that mathematical functions are relevant to their everyday lives? In this volume, practical questions that confront every classroom teacher are addressed using the latest exciting research on cognition, teaching, and learning. How Students…

  15. Successful Co-Teaching in the Science Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forbes, Leslie; Billet, Stacy

    2012-01-01

    Co-teaching has become a popular concept in the field of education, especially as related to special education. Students with exceptionalities in co-taught classes have been found to improve in academics, behavior, social skills, and self-esteem as compared to those taught solely in a special education classroom. There are five main forms of…

  16. Using Smart Boards and Manipulatives in the Elementary Science Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Susan F.; Shaw, Edward L., Jr.; Daughenbaugh, Lynda

    2014-01-01

    This study summarizes the results of a survey administered to 48 elementary schools in the largest school district in a southeastern U.S. state, conducted by university faculty to evaluate the use of SMART Boards and hands-on experiences, the objectives of which were to identify preparedness of elementary classroom teachers in teaching elementary…

  17. Technology-Supported Learning Environments in Science Classrooms in India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gupta, Adit; Fisher, Darrell

    2012-01-01

    The adoption of technology has created a major impact in the field of education at all levels. Technology-supported classroom learning environments, involving modern information and communication technologies, are also entering the Indian educational system in general and the schools in Jammu region (Jammu & Kashmir State, India) in particular.…

  18. Reconsidering Everyday Assessment in the Art Classroom: Ceramics and Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stokrocki, Mary

    2005-01-01

    Educational assessment is more than measurement, rubrics, and grades. Its real focus needs to be on learning. Art educators need to pay attention to the assessment of daily learning as well. Everyday assessment of classroom learning is crucial because it provides feedback directly to students in the process of their learning, more than mere…

  19. Team Science: Organizing Classroom Experiments That Develop Group Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coffin, Marilyn

    This book contains classroom experiments designed to promote group skills. Each lesson has 4 parts: a 3-minute set-up; 5-minute warm-up, 25-minute experiment, and 5-minute clean-up. During each part, each member of the group is responsible for performing a specific task. Included are 34 labs that cover a range of topics: observations, physical…

  20. Citizen Science in the Classroom: Perils and Promise of the New Web

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loughran, T.; Dirksen, R.

    2010-12-01

    Classroom citizen science projects invite students to generate, curate, post, query, and analyze data, publishing and discussing results in potentially large collaborative contexts. The new web offers a rich palette of such projects for any STEM educator to select from or create. This easy access to citizen science in the classroom is full of both promise and peril for science education. By offering examples of classroom citizen science projects in particle physics, earth and environmental sciences, each supported by a common mashup of technologies available to ordinary users, we will illustrate something of the promise of these projects for science education, and point to some of the challenges and failure modes--the peril--raised by easy access and particularly easy publication of data. How one sensibly responds to this promise and peril depends on how one views the goals of science (or more broadly, STEM) education: either as the equipping of individual students with STEM knowledge and skills so as to empower them for future options, or as the issuing of effective invitations into STEM communities. Building on the claim that these are complementary perspectives, both of value, we will provide an example of a classroom citizen science project analyzed from both perspectives. The BOSCO classroom-to-classroom water source mapping project provides students both in Northern Uganda and in South Dakota a collaborative platform for analyzing and responding to local water quality concerns. Students gather water quality data, use Google Forms embedded in a project wiki to enter data in a spreadsheet, which then automatically (through Mapalist, a free web service) gets posted to a Google Map, itself embedded in the project wiki. Using these technologies, data is thus collected and posted for analysis in a collaborative environment: the stage is set for classroom citizen science. In the context of this project we will address the question of how teachers can take advantage

  1. Teacher and Student Perceptions on High School Science Flipped Classrooms: Educational Breakthrough or Media Hype?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hunley, Rebecca C.

    For years educators have struggled to ensure students meet the rigors of state mandated tests. Challenges that often impede student success are student absences, school closings due to weather, and remediation for students who need additional help while advanced students can move ahead. Many educators, especially secondary math and science teachers, have responded to these issues by implementing a teaching strategy called the flipped classroom where students view lectures, power points, or podcasts outside of school and class time shifts to allow opportunities for collaborative learning. The purpose of this research was to evaluate teacher and student perceptions of high school flipped science classrooms. A qualitative phenomenological study was conducted to observe 3 high school science teachers from Georgia, North Carolina, and Tennessee selected through purposeful sampling who have used the flipped classroom method for a minimum of 2 years. Analysis of data from an online survey, direct observation, teacher interviews, and student focus groups helped to identify challenges and benefits of this teaching and learning strategy. Findings indicated that teachers find the flipped classroom beneficial to build student relationships but requires a significant amount of time to develop. Mixed student reactions revealed benefits of a flipped classroom as a successful learning tool for current and future endeavors for college or career preparation.

  2. Ethnographic case study of a high school science classroom: Strategies in stem education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sohn, Lucinda N.

    Historically, science education research has promoted that learning science occurs through direct physical experiences. In recent years, the need for best practices and student motivation have been highlighted in STEM research findings. In response to the instructional challenges in STEM education, the National Research Council has provided guidelines for improving STEM literacy through best practices in science and mathematics instruction. A baseline qualitative ethnographic case study of the effect of instructional practices on a science classroom was an opportunity to understand how a teacher and students work together to learn in an International Baccalaureate life science course. This study was approached through an interpretivist lens with the assumption that learning science is socially constructed. The following were the research questions: 1.) How does the teacher implement science instruction strategies in the classroom? 2.) In what ways are students engaged in the classroom? 3.) How are science concepts communicated in the classroom? The total 35 participants included a high school science teacher and two classes of 11th grade students in the International Baccalaureate program. Using exploratory qualitative methods of research, data was collected from field notes and transcripts from a series of classroom observations, a single one-on-one interview with the teacher and two focus groups with students from each of the two classes. Three themes emerged from text coded using initial and process coding with the computer assisted qualitative data analysis software, MAXQDA. The themes were: 1.) Physical Forms of Communication Play Key Role in Instructional Strategy, 2.) Science Learning Occurs in Casual Environment Full of Distractions, and 3.) Teacher Persona Plays Vital Role in Classroom Culture. The findings provided insight into the teacher's role on students' motivation to learn science. The recommendation for STEM programs and new curriculum is a

  3. "But at school … I became a bit shy": Korean immigrant adolescents' discursive participation in science classrooms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryu, Minjung

    2013-09-01

    In reform-based science curricula, students' discursive participation is highly encouraged as a means of science learning as well as a goal of science education. However, Asian immigrant students are perceived to be quiet and passive in classroom discursive situations, and this reticence implies that they may face challenges in discourse-rich science classroom learning environments. Given this potentially conflicting situation, the present study aims to understand how and why Asian immigrant students participate in science classroom discourse. Findings from interviews with seven Korean immigrant adolescents illustrate that they are indeed hesitant to speak up in classrooms. Drawing upon cultural historical perspectives on identity and agency, this study shows how immigrant experiences shaped the participants' othered identity and influenced their science classroom participation, as well as how they negotiated their identities and situations to participate in science classroom and peer communities. I will discuss implications of this study for science education research and science teacher education to support classroom participation of immigrant students.

  4. Perezhivanie and classroom discourse: a cultural-historical perspective on "Discourse of design based science classroom activities"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, Megan; March, Sue

    2015-06-01

    Flavio Azevedo, Peggy Martalock and Tugba Keser challenge the `argumentation focus of science lessons' and propose that through a `design-based approach' emergent conversations with the teacher offer possibilities for different types of discussions to enhance pedagogical discourse in science classrooms. This important paper offers a "preliminary contribution to a general theory" regarding the link between activity types and discourse practices. Azevedo, Martalock and Keser offer a general perspective with a sociocultural framing for analysis of classroom discourse. Interestingly the specific concepts drawn upon are from conversation analysis; there are few sociocultural concepts explored in detail. Therefore, in this article we focus on a cultural historical (Vygotsky in The collected works of L. S. Vygotsky. The history and development of higher mental functions, vol 4. Plenum Press, New York, 1987; The Vygotsky reader. Black, Cambridge, 1994) methodology to explore, analyse and explain how we would use a different theoretical lens. We argue that a cultural historical reading of argumentation in science lessons and design based activity will expand Azevedo, Martalock and Keser's proposed general theory of activity types and discourse practices. Specifically, we use Lev Vygotksy's idea of perezhivanie as the unit of analysis to reconceptualise this important paper. We focus on the holistic category of students' emotional experience through discourse while developing scientific awareness.

  5. Beyond the Flipped Classroom: A Highly Interactive Cloud-Classroom (HIC) Embedded into Basic Materials Science Courses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liou, Wei-Kai; Bhagat, Kaushal Kumar; Chang, Chun-Yen

    2016-06-01

    The present study compares the highly interactive cloud-classroom (HIC) system with traditional methods of teaching materials science that utilize crystal structure picture or real crystal structure model, in order to examine its learning effectiveness across three dimensions: knowledge, comprehension and application. The aim of this study was to evaluate the (HIC) system, which incorporates augmented reality, virtual reality and cloud-classroom to teach basic materials science courses. The study followed a pretest-posttest quasi-experimental research design. A total of 92 students (aged 19-20 years), in a second-year undergraduate program, participated in this 18-week-long experiment. The students were divided into an experimental group and a control group. The experimental group (36 males and 10 females) was instructed utilizing the HIC system, while the control group (34 males and 12 females) was led through traditional teaching methods. Pretest, posttest, and delayed posttest scores were evaluated by multivariate analysis of covariance. The results indicated that participants in the experimental group who used the HIC system outperformed the control group, in the both posttest and delayed posttest, across three learning dimensions. Based on these results, the HIC system is recommended to be incorporated in formal materials science learning settings.

  6. Experiences of African American Young Women in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolo, Yovonda Ingram

    African American women are underrepresented in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields throughout the United States. As the need for STEM professionals in the United States increases, it is important to ensure that African American women are among those professionals making valuable contributions to society. The purpose of this phenomenological study was to describe the experiences of African American young women in relation to STEM education. The research question for this study examined how experiences with STEM in K-10 education influenced African American young women's academic choices in their final years in high school. The theory of multicontextuality was used to provide the conceptual framework. The primary data source was interviews. The sample was composed of 11 African American young women in their junior or senior year in high school. Data were analyzed through the process of open coding, categorizing, and identifying emerging themes. Ten themes emerged from the answers to research questions. The themes were (a) high teacher expectations, (b) participation in extra-curricular activities, (c) engagement in group-work, (d) learning from lectures, (e) strong parental involvement, (f) helping others, (g) self-efficacy, (h) gender empowerment, (i) race empowerment, and (j) strategic recruitment practices. This study may lead to positive social change by adding to the understanding of the experiences of African American young women in STEM. By doing so, these findings might motivate other African American young women to pursue advanced STEM classes. These findings may also provide guidance to parents and educators to help increase the number of African American women in STEM.

  7. Student cognition and motivation during the Classroom BirdWatch citizen science project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomasek, Terry Morton

    The purpose of this study was to examine and describe the ways various stakeholders (CBW project developer/coordinator, elementary and middle school teachers, and 5th through 8th grade students) envisioned, implemented and engaged in the citizen science project, eBird/Classroom BirdWatch. A multiple case study mixed-methods research design was used to examine student engagement in the cognitive processes associated with scientific inquiry as part of citizen science participation. Student engagement was described based on a sense of autonomy, competence, relatedness and intrinsic motivation. A goal of this study was to expand the taxonomy of differences between authentic scientific inquiry and simple inquiry to include those inquiry tasks associated with participation in citizen science by describing how students engaged in this type of science. This research study built upon the existing framework of cognitive processes associated with scientific inquiry described by Chinn and Malhotra (2002). This research provides a systematic analysis of the scientific processes and related reasoning tasks associated with the citizen science project eBird and the corresponding curriculum Classroom BirdWatch . Data consisted of responses to surveys, focus group interviews, document analysis and individual interviews. I suggest that citizen science could be an additional form of classroom-based science inquiry that can promote more authentic features of scientific inquiry and engage students in meaningful ways.

  8. The Promotion of Science in an African Country.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toure, Saliou

    1988-01-01

    Describes how government ministries and agencies are attempting to promote the cause of science. Describes the place of science in societies and the need for scientific popularization. States that work has been done in the areas of training, crops, and the establishment of bodies of three kinds. (RT)

  9. Taming the Alien Genre: Bringing Science Fiction into the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bucher, Kathrine T.; Manning, M. Lee

    2001-01-01

    Notes the popularity of the science fiction/fantasy genre, and offers a definition of these genres. Discusses teachers' reluctance to read or teach science fiction, but emphasizes its appeal and its usefulness. Discusses how teachers can select and use good science fiction books. Offers a checklist for evaluating such books, and suggests 18…

  10. Lessons Learned from Citizen Science in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, Steven A.; Nicosia, Kristina; Jordan, Rebecca C.

    2012-01-01

    Mueller, Tippins, and Bryan's contrast of the current limitations of science education with the potential virtues of citizen science provides an important theoretical perspective about the future of democratized science and K-12 education. However, the authors fail to adequately address the existing barriers and constraints to moving…

  11. Re/Thinking the Nature of Technology in Science Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Mijung; Roth, Wolff-Michael

    2016-01-01

    With increasing technological changes and needs in society, technology and engineering education has received much attention in school science. Yet, technology traditionally has been subordinated to science or simply taken as the application of science. This position has resulted in a limited understanding of teaching technological and engineering…

  12. The Indiana Science Initiative: Lessons from a Classroom Observation Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Nicole D.; Walker, William S.; Weaver, Gabriela C.; Sorge, Brandon H.

    2015-01-01

    The Indiana Science Initiative (ISI) is a systemic effort to reform K-8 science education. The program provides teachers with professional development, reform-oriented science modules, and materials support. To examine the impact of the initiative's professional development, a participant observation study was conducted in the program's pilot…

  13. Scaffolding Science Talk: The role of teachers' questions in the inquiry classroom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawalkar, Aisha; Vijapurkar, Jyotsna

    2013-08-01

    Teachers' questions in the inquiry classroom not only explore and make student thinking explicit in the class but also serve to guide and scaffold it. Several studies analysing teachers' questions and their categories have been reported; however the need for a fine-grained analysis has been felt, especially in the inquiry setting. This study attempts a fine-grained analysis of the rich variety of teachers' questions and their roles in an inquiry science classroom, which are illustrated with vignettes from our classes. We present a sequential typology of teachers' questions that emerged from this empirical study, one that brings out their progression in an inquiry class. We juxtapose them with the ones asked during traditional teaching. We also examine, through teachers' self-reports, their motivations for questioning. This work leads towards a characterisation of the complex process of teaching science as an inquiry that teachers interested in moving towards more constructivist teaching practices in their classrooms may find helpful.

  14. Developing Elementary Teachers' Understandings of Hedges and Personal Pronouns in Inquiry-Based Science Classroom Discourse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliveira, Alandeom W.

    2010-02-01

    This study examined the effectiveness of introducing elementary teachers to the scholarly literature on personal pronouns and hedges in classroom discourse, a professional development strategy adopted during a summer institute to enhance teachers’ social understanding (i.e., their understanding of the social functions of language in science discussions). Teachers became aware of how hedges can be employed to remain neutral toward students’ oral contributions to classroom discussions, invite students to share their opinions and articulate their own ideas, and motivate students to inquire. Teachers recognized that the combined use of I and you can render their feedback authoritative, you can shift the focus from the investigation to students’ competence, and we can lead to authority loss. It is argued that explicitness, reflectivity, and contextualization are essential features of professional development programs aimed at improving teachers’ understandings of the social dimension of inquiry-based science classrooms and preparing teachers to engage in inquiry-based teacher-student interactions.

  15. The Southern African Regional Science Initiative (SAFARI 2000). Dry-Season Campaign: An Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swap, R. J.; Annegarn, H. J.; Suttles, J. T.; Haywood, J.; Hely, C.; Hobbs, P. V.; Holben, B. N.; Ji, J.; King, M. D.; Bhartia, P. K. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The Southern African Regional Science Initiative (SAFARI 2000) is an international science project investigating the southern African earth-atmosphere-human system. The experiment was conducted over a two-year period March 1999 - March 2001. The dry season field campaign (August-Steptember 2000) was the most intensive activity and involving over 200 scientists from 18 different nations. The main objectives of this campaign were to characterize and quantify the biogenic, pyrogenic and anthropogenic aerosol and trace gas emissions and their transport and transformations in the atmosphere and to validate the NASA Earth Observing System (EOS) satellite Terra within a scientific context. Five aircraft, namely two South African Weather Service aircraft, University of Washington CV-580, the UK Meteorological Office C-130 and the NASA ER-2, with different altitude capabilities, participated in the campaign. Additional airborne sampling of southern African air masses that had moved downwind of the subcontinent was conducted by the CSIRO over Australia. Multiple observations were taken in various sectors for a variety of synoptic conditions. Flight missions were designed to maximize synchronous over-flights of the NASA TERRA satellite platform, above regional ground validation and science targets. Numerous smaller-scale ground validation activities took place throughout the region during the campaign period.

  16. Cultivating Citizen Scientists in the Undergraduate Science Classroom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Egger, A. E.

    2007-12-01

    Several studies indicate a strong correlation between the number of college science courses and science literacy. It is not surprising, then, that the majority of participants in citizen science projects are college graduates who enrolled in at least two science courses. If one goal of citizen science projects is to increase civic science literacy, research suggests that most are preaching to the choir. Attracting a wider audience to citizen science is, therefore, a key challenge. One way to address this challenge is to attract students to enroll and succeed in science courses in college, even if they do not pursue a major in the science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) disciplines. In fact, only 20% of students receive a degree in STEM, yet virtually all undergraduates are required to take at least one science course. Introductory science courses are therefore critical to cultivating citizen scientists, as they include a large proportion of non- STEM majors. Indeed, a major thrust of recent undergraduate STEM educational reform has been the promotion of 'science for all'. The science for all concept goes beyond recruiting students into the STEM disciplines to promoting a level of scientific literacy necessary to make informed decisions. A clear implication of this inclusive attitude is the need to redesign introductory science courses to make them accessible and explicitly related to scientific literacy. This does not mean dumbing down courses; on the contrary, it means engaging students in real scientific investigations and incorporating explicit teaching about the process of science, thus fostering a lifelong appreciation for (and, hopefully, participation in) science. Unfortunately, many students enter college with minimal understanding of the process of science. And when they arrive in their introductory classes, science is presented to them as a system of facts to be memorized - comparable to memorizing a poem in a foreign language without

  17. Exploring the contexts of urban science classrooms. Part 2: The emergence of rituals in the learning of science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emdin, Christopher

    2007-04-01

    In Part 1 of this paper, I described the corporate and communal nature of research, teaching, and learning in urban science classrooms as both a theoretical approach to understanding, and way of viewing practices within these fields. By providing a new approach to theorizing the cultural misalignments that are prevalent in urban schools, I look to provide an informative tool for investigating under-discussed dynamics that impact science teaching and learning. In this body of work, I further expose the nature of the corporate|communal by describing practices that define communal practice. I do so conversant of the fact that synthesizing my previous work on corporate and communal practices necessarily pushes science education researchers and teachers to look for somewhat tactile explications of communal practices. That is to say, if communal practices do exist within the corporate structures of science classrooms, how do they present themselves and how can they be targeted? This paper begins a journey into such a study and focuses on student transactions, fundamental interactions and rituals as a key to redefining and attaining success in urban science classrooms.

  18. Teacher and student perspectives on motivation within the high school science classroom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pickens, Melanie Turnure

    The purpose of this study was to investigate teacher and student perspectives on the motivation of high school science students and to explore specific motivational strategies used by teachers as they attempt to enhance student motivation. Four science teachers took part in an initial audio-taped interview, classroom observations with debriefing conversations, and a final audio-taped interview to discuss findings and allow member checking for data triangulation and interpretation. Participating teachers also took part in a final focus group interview. Student participants from each teacher's class were given a Likert style anonymous survey on their views about motivation and learning, motivation in science class, and specific motivational strategies that emerged in their current science class. This study focused on effective teaching strategies for motivation commonly used by the four teachers and on specific teaching strategies used by two of these four teachers in different tracks of science classes. The intent was to determine not only what strategies worked well for all types of science classes, but also what specific motivational approaches were being used in high and low tracked science classes and the similarities and differences between them. This approach provided insight into the differences in motivating tracked students, with the hope that other educators in specific tracks might use such pedagogies to improve motivation in their own science classrooms. Results from this study showed that science teachers effectively motivate their students in the following ways: Questioning students to engage them in the lesson, exhibiting enthusiasm in lesson presentations, promoting a non-threatening environment, incorporating hands-on activities to help learn the lesson concepts, using a variety of activities, believing that students can achieve, and building caring relationships in the classroom. Specific to the higher tracked classroom, effective motivational

  19. Argumentation-Teaching as a Method to Introduce Indigenous Knowledge into Science Classrooms: Opportunities and Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hewson, Mariana G.; Ogunniyi, Meshach B.

    2011-01-01

    An innovative school science curriculum in South Africa requires the inclusion of African societal/cultural knowledge, such as indigenous knowledge (IK). The main project involves introducing argumentation to accomplish this requirement. We used a focus group plus critical incident technique to ascertain nine teachers' understandings of…

  20. Science Teacher Decision-Making in Classrooms with Cultural Diversity: A Case Study Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGinnis, J. Randy; And Others

    The purpose of this study was to explore science teacher decision-making with students of diverse populations. The research site was a suburban middle school located in the southeast. The student body consisted of African Americans, Caucasians, and international students from 62 different countries. Extensive social contextual research was…

  1. Portraying Science in the Classroom: The Manifestation of Scientists' Beliefs in Classroom Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southerland, Sherry A.; Gess-Newsome, Julie; Johnston, Adam

    2003-01-01

    If the goals of science education reform are to be realized, science instruction must change across the academic spectrum, including at the collegiate level. This study examines the beliefs and teaching practices of three scientists as they designed and implemented an integrated science course for nonmajors that was designed to emphasize the…

  2. Teachers' perceptions of effective science, technology, and mathematics professional development and changes in classroom practices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boriack, Anna Christine

    The purpose of this study is to examine teachers' perceptions of professional development and changes in classroom practice. A proposed conceptual framework for effective professional development that results in changes in classroom practices was developed. Data from two programs that provided professional development to teachers in the areas of technology, mathematics, and science was used to inform the conceptual framework. These two programs were Target Technology in Texas (T3) and Mathematics, Science, and Technology Teacher Preparation Academies (MSTTPA). This dissertation used a multiple article format to explore each program separately, yet the proposed conceptual framework allowed for comparisons to be made between the two programs. The first study investigated teachers' perceptions of technology-related professional development after their districts had received a T3 grant. An online survey was administrated to all teachers to determine their perceptions of technology-related professional development along with technology self-efficacy. Classroom observations were conducted to determine if teachers were implementing technology. The results indicated that teachers did not perceive professional development as being effective and were not implementing technology in their classrooms. Teachers did have high technology self-efficacy and perceived adequate school support, which implies that effective professional development may be a large factor in whether or not teachers implement technology in their classrooms. The second study evaluated participants' perceptions of the effectiveness of mathematics and science professional development offered through a MSTTP academy. Current and former participants completed an online survey which measured their perceptions of academy activities and school environment. Participants also self-reported classroom implementation of technology. Interviews and open-ended survey questions were used to provide further insight into

  3. Improving college science teaching through peer coaching and classroom assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Sode, J.R.

    1994-12-31

    Peer coaching involves the observation of one teacher by another. This observation is accompanied by open and honest reflective discussion. The three main components of peer coaching are pre conference (for setting observation guidelines and building trust), observation (the sytematic collection of classroom data), and post conference (a non evaluative examination and discussion of the classroom). The non-evaluative post conference involves an examination of the teaching/learning process that occurred during the observation phase. In effective assessment, information on what and how well students are learning is used to make decisions about overall program improvement and to implement continuous classroom improvement. During peer coaching and assessment neither the instructor nor the students are formally evaluated. This session presents a sequential process in which the peer coaching steps of pre conference, observation, and post conference are combined with assessment to provide instructional guidance. An actual cast study, using the student complaint, {open_quotes}Lectures are boring and useless,{close_quotes} is used to demonstrate the process.

  4. The undergraduate science classroom in action: Negotiating curriculum through practice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panish, Virginia Seebart

    This interpretive study describes and analyzes how current reforms in undergraduate biology education come to life and consequence in the classroom. The reforms call for fewer "dull" lectures and more "active learning," but few studies have described and analyzed the actions of students and professors in either traditional or reform classrooms or the assumptions upon which the reforms or standard practices are based. I focus on the participation structures in large, introductory courses to document the complex, contingent relationships between curricular forms and participant actions. Students are not simply "passive" during lectures or "active" during small-group activities, and professors do not methodologically implement a "relevant," "inquiry-based" curriculum. Rather, all are engaged in continuous negotiations over their reciprocal prerogatives and obligations in shifting participation structures. An analysis of ongoing negotiations demonstrates how participants work to maintain a classroom "treaty of avoidance"---an implicit agreement that reduces threats posed by the institutional context, while simultaneously undermining educational purposes. Understanding curriculum as a process of negotiation rather than as a technical-rational tool that can "fix" undergraduate education is a conceptual shift upon which better curriculum development and implementation depend.

  5. The Role of Classroom Artifacts in the Clinical Supervision of Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pyle, Eric J.

    1998-01-01

    Classroom artifacts, physical objects produced by teachers or students for specific instructional purposes, have a special importance in science instruction. Article uses three examples of supervisory styles (directive, collaborative, and nondirective) to illustrate how a supervisor might approach the use of artifacts while assisting a science…

  6. Inquiry and Learning: Realizing Science Standards in the Classroom. The Thinking Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Layman, John W.; And Others

    This book provides a focused, extended response to the question How does standards-based science instruction look and feel in the classroom? This question is addressed by considering two related issues: (1) "How can teachers cultivate the quality of scientific thinking and understanding defined by standards?" and (2) "How can teachers verify that…

  7. Characterising Individual and Social Concept Development in Collaborative Computer Science Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmboe, Christian; Scott, Phil H.

    2005-01-01

    Within-group similarities and between-group differences are used to illustrate the socio-cultural nature of the concept-building process in highly collaborative computer science classrooms. Simultaneously, a social constructivist perspective is used to describe the individual aspects of this development. The study uses written explanations from…

  8. Classroom Environment and Student Outcomes Associated with Using Anthropometry Activities in High School Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lightburn, Millard E.; Fraser, Barry J.

    The study involved implementing and evaluating activities that actively engage students in the process of gathering, processing and analyzing data derived from human body measurements, with students using their prior knowledge acquired in science, mathematics, and computer classes to interpret this information. In the classroom activities…

  9. Subject-Matter Experts in Urban Schools: Journeys of Enacted Identities in Science and Mathematics Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ye, Li; Varelas, Maria; Guajardo, Raphael

    2011-01-01

    This study explored how two mathematics/science subject-matter experts (Fellows) conceptualized urban classrooms and the students they worked with for a year, how they negotiated academic achievement with cultural and sociopolitical competence, and how their identities as educators were co-constructed and enacted. Using grounded theory, Fellows'…

  10. Using Science Trade Books to Support Inquiry in the Elementary Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrison, Judith A.; Young, Terrell A.

    2008-01-01

    Students can imitate scientists at work by conducting inquiry investigations in the classroom, thereby exhibiting a multitude of skills and competencies. As stated by Bransford and Donovan (2005), learning science as a process of inquiry involves students in observation, imagination, and reasoning about the phenomena under investigation. Rather…

  11. Classroom Management Systems for Implementation of Individualized Instruction; Utilizing Science in Programs for the Handicapped.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yonkers City School District, NY.

    Presented are proceedings and products from a special study institute on individualized instruction in science for the handicapped (New York, 1974) in which both teachers of the handicapped and regular classroom teachers participated. It is explained that objectives of the institute included acquainting teachers of special education with the…

  12. Preparing Children for Success: Integrating Science, Math, and Technology in Early Childhood Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kermani, Hengameh; Aldemir, Jale

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to study if purposeful math, science, and technology curriculum projects and activities would support Pre-K children's performance in these subject matter areas. In this study, 58 Pre-K children from 4 Pre-K classrooms in a public Pre-K programme in North Carolina participated. Through a quasi-experimental,…

  13. Cognitive Research and Elementary Science Instruction: From the Laboratory, to the Classroom, and Back

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klahr, David; Li, Junlei

    2005-01-01

    Can cognitive research generate usable knowledge for elementary science instruction? Can issues raised by classroom practice drive the agenda of laboratory cognitive research? Answering yes to both questions, we advocate building a reciprocal interface between basic and applied research. We discuss five studies of the teaching, learning, and…

  14. Science Teaching Reform through Professional Development: Teachers' Use of a Scientific Classroom Discourse Community Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Elizabeth B.; Baker, Dale R.; Helding, Brandon A.

    2015-01-01

    This report outlines a 2-year investigation into how secondary science teachers used professional development (PD) to build scientific classroom discourse communities (SCDCs). Observation data, teacher, student, and school demographic information were used to build a hierarchical linear model. The length of time that teachers received PD was the…

  15. Design Principles for High School Engineering Design Challenges: Experiences from High School Science Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schunn, Christian

    2011-01-01

    At the University of Pittsburgh, the author and his colleagues have been exploring a range of approaches to design challenges for implementation in high school science classrooms. In general, their approach has always involved students working during class time over the course of many weeks. So, their understanding of what works must be…

  16. Prisoners or Volunteers: Developing Mutual Respect in the Elementary Science Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huber, Richard A.; And Others

    This study was conducted to investigate how teacher educators might help preservice teachers enrolled in a science methods course understand the need for mutual respect rather than coercion between pupil and teacher in an elementary classroom. An evaluation instrument was developed that consisted of a pre and post open-ended response to a…

  17. Inclusivity in the Classroom and International Achievement in Mathematics and Science: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnard-Brak, Lucy; Wei, Tianlan; Schmidt, Marcelo; Sheffield, Rebecca

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Few studies have examined the role of inclusivity in international assessments of student achievement, such as the TIMSS (Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study). The current study examined how the inclusivity of students with disabilities at the classroom level across countries may be associated with achievement scores,…

  18. Exploring the Impact of Web-Based Learning Tools in Middle School Mathematics and Science Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kay, Robin

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the impact of Web-Based Learning Tools (WBLTs), also known as learning objects, in middle school mathematics and science classrooms. Survey, qualitative, and student performance data were collected from a sample of 18 teachers and 443 students. Teachers were very positive about the learning benefits, quality of WBLTs, and…

  19. Turkish Mathematics and Science Teachers' Technology Use in Their Classroom Instruction: Findings from TIMSS 2011

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tas, Yasemin; Balgalmis, Esra

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this study was to describe Turkish mathematics and science teachers' use of computer in their classroom instruction by utilizing TIMSS 2011 data. Analyses results revealed that teachers most frequently used computers for preparation purpose and least frequently used computers for administration. There was no difference in teachers'…

  20. NASA CONNECT(TradeMark): Space Suit Science in the Classroom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, William B.; Giersch, Chris; Bensen, William E.; Holland, Susan M.

    2003-01-01

    NASA CONNECT's(TradeMark) program titled Functions and Statistics: Dressed for Space initially aired on Public Broadcasting Stations (PBS) nationwide on May 9, 2002. The program traces the evolution of past space suit technologies in the design of space suits for future flight. It serves as the stage to provide educators, parents, and students "space suit science" in the classroom.