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Sample records for african self-consciousness scale

  1. Perceived Attractiveness, Facial Features, and African Self-Consciousness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chambers, John W., Jr.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Investigated relationships between perceived attractiveness, facial features, and African self-consciousness (ASC) among 149 African American college students. As predicted, high ASC subjects used more positive adjectives in descriptions of strong African facial features than did medium or low ASC subjects. Results are discussed in the context of…

  2. Self-consciousness and social anxiety in youth: the Revised Self-Consciousness Scales for Children.

    PubMed

    Takishima-Lacasa, Julie Y; Higa-McMillan, Charmaine K; Ebesutani, Chad; Smith, Rita L; Chorpita, Bruce F

    2014-12-01

    Despite the established relationship between self-consciousness (SC) and anxiety and depression in adults, there is a paucity of research examining SC in children and adolescents. We therefore sought to examine the factor structure, reliability, and validity of scores for a revised version of the Self-Consciousness Scales for Children, a measure of SC in youth. The Revised Self-Consciousness Scale for Children (R-SCS-C) was examined in 2 studies using a community sample of children and adolescents. In the 1st study, 1,207 youth (685 girls) ages 7 to 18 completed the R-SCS-C as well as measures of imaginary audience, anxiety, depression, and positive and negative affect. Results of an exploratory factor analysis of the R-SCS-C conducted on a randomly selected subsample (n = 603) supported a 3-factor solution, including the subscales of Public Self-Consciousness, Private Self-Consciousness, and Social Anxiety. A subsequent confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) conducted on the remaining half of the sample (n = 604) revealed that this model fit the data well. Additionally, subsequent multigroup CFAs by gender and age demonstrated good model fit across both gender and younger (ages 7 to 12 years) and older (ages 13 to 18 years) cohorts. In the 2nd study, 245 youth completed the R-SCS-C twice, approximately 2 weeks apart. The R-SCS-C scores in these samples demonstrated acceptable internal consistency, convergent and divergent validity, and test-retest reliability. Implications of these findings and directions for future research are discussed.

  3. A Confirmatory Factoring of the Self-Consciousness Scale.

    PubMed

    Bernstein, I H; Teng, G; Garbin, C P

    1986-10-01

    Fenigstein, Scheier, and Buss (1975) developed a three subscale inventory designed to measure self-consciousness. Burnkrant and Page (1984) used confirmatory factor analysis to evaluate the scale and concluded that five items did not belong to their assigned scales and that one of the original subscales really measured two separable traits. Burnkrant and Page's conclusions may simply reflect incidental properties of the item statistics and could weaken the scale if adopted. Fenigstein et al.'s representation fits the data quite well in its original form. However, items on their social anxiety scale also tend to evoke relatively large variability over subjects and items on their public self-consciousness scale tend to evoke relatively little variability. In other words, items on their subscales differ nearly as much statistically as they do substantively.

  4. Development and validation of the Body and Appearance Self-Conscious Emotions Scale (BASES).

    PubMed

    Castonguay, Andrée L; Sabiston, Catherine M; Crocker, Peter R E; Mack, Diane E

    2014-03-01

    The purpose of these studies was to develop a psychometrically sound measure of shame, guilt, authentic pride, and hubristic pride for use in body and appearance contexts. In Study 1, 41 potential items were developed and assessed for item quality and comprehension. In Study 2, a panel of experts (N=8; M=11, SD=6.5 years of experience) reviewed the scale and items for evidence of content validity. Participants in Study 3 (n=135 males, n=300 females) completed the BASES and various body image, personality, and emotion scales. A separate sample (n=155; 35.5% male) in Study 3 completed the BASES twice using a two-week time interval. The BASES subscale scores demonstrated evidence for internal consistency, item-total correlations, concurrent, convergent, incremental, and discriminant validity, and 2-week test-retest reliability. The 4-factor solution was a good fit in confirmatory factor analysis, reflecting body-related shame, guilt, authentic and hubristic pride subscales of the BASES. The development and validation of the BASES may help advance body image and self-conscious emotion research by providing a foundation to examine the unique antecedents and outcomes of these specific emotional experiences.

  5. [Loneliness and self-consciousness in high-school students].

    PubMed

    Moroi, K

    1985-10-01

    To examine relationships between loneliness and various aspects of self-consciousness in high-school students, UCLA Loneliness Scale (Russell, Peplau, & Cutrona, 1980), Self-Esteem Scale (Rosenberg, 1979), Self-Consciousness Scale (Fenigstein, Scheier, & Buss, 1975), Self-Monitoring Scale (Synder, 1974), and a High-School Life Questionnaire were administered to the first grade students in a high school (N = 182). Loneliness (alpha = .885), higher for males than for females, was significantly correlated with various aspects of their high-school lives. Loneliness was negatively correlated with self-esteem and self-monitoring, and was positively correlated with social anxiety. Only for males, a positive correlation was obtained between loneliness and private self-consciousness. Discriminant analysis and other correlational analyses also suggested that loneliness in males was related to various aspects of self-consciousness.

  6. Private and Public Self-Consciousness in Clinical and Non-Clinical Samples.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knapp, Patricia Ann; Deluty, Robert H.

    1987-01-01

    Explored private and public self-consciousness as measured by two subscales of Self-Consciousness Scale. Results from study of 60 college students support assumption that private and public subscales measure relatively stable traits. Psychiatric patient subjects (N=120) in second study differed from undergraduates in first study in strength of…

  7. Factor structure of the Persian version of general, social, and negative self-consciousness of appearance domains of Derriford Appearance Scale 59: an application in the field of burn injuries

    PubMed Central

    Sadeghi-Bazargani, Homayoun; Zare, Zahra; Ranjbar, Fatemeh

    2017-01-01

    Background The Derriford Appearance Scale 59 (DAS59) is a widely used measure of the spectrum of psychological distress and dysfunction that is characteristic of disfigurement. Also, disfigurement due to burn injury leads to feeling guilty or less socially competent, avoiding social situations, suicide, poor self-esteem, sexual difficulties, and depression. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to translate and culturally adapt three subscales of DAS59 into Persian language and to investigate its factor structure for Iranian burned patients. Method Translation–back translation of the scale into Persian was done. The internal consistency of the translated scale was evaluated by Cronbach’s alpha. Next, construct validity of the translated instrument was assessed by exploratory factor analysis using principal components and rotation of varimax methods. This research involved a convenience sample of 189 adult burned patients with disfigurement in their face, head, ears, neck, hands, and legs. Result The Cronbach’s alpha for overall scale, subscales 1, 2, and 3 were 0.93, 0.93, 0.89, and 0.80, respectively. The best solution from the principal components analysis of the 40 items of the DAS59 revealed three factors corresponding to the three subscales with 20 items: factor 1 (general self-consciousness of appearance) consisted of 9 statements accounting for 33.23% of the variance (eigenvalue =9.23); factor 2 (social self-consciousness of appearance) consisted of 7 statements accounting for 22.91% of the variance (eigenvalue =1.53); and factor 3 (negative self-concept) consisted of 4 statements accounting for 14.98% of the variance (eigenvalue =1.13). Conclusion The factor structure of the three subscales of DAS59 provides a widely acceptable, psychometrically robust, factorial self-report scale to assess distress and dysfunction in problems of appearance among Iranian burned patients, and facilitates further research into the efficacy of treatment approaches for

  8. Self-consciousness concept and assessment in self-report measures

    PubMed Central

    DaSilveira, Amanda; DeSouza, Mariane L.; Gomes, William B.

    2015-01-01

    This study examines how self-consciousness is defined and assessed using self-report questionnaires (Self-Consciousness Scale (SCS), Self-Reflection and Insight Scale, Self-Absorption Scale, Rumination-Reflection Questionnaire, and Philadelphia Mindfulness Scale). Authors of self-report measures suggest that self-consciousness can be distinguished by its private/public aspects, its adaptive/maladaptive applied characteristics, and present/past experiences. We examined these claims in a study using 602 young adults to whom the aforementioned scales were administered. Data were analyzed as follows: (1) correlation analysis to find simple associations between the measures; (2) factorial analysis using Oblimin rotation of total scores provided from the scales; and (3) factorial analysis considering the 102 items of the scales all together. It aimed to clarify relational patterns found in the correlations between SCSs, and to identify possible latent constructs behind these scales. Results support the adaptive/maladaptive aspects of self-consciousness, as well as distinguish to some extent public aspects from private ones. However, some scales that claimed to be theoretically derived from the concept of Private Self-Consciousness correlated with some of its public self-aspects. Overall, our findings suggest that while self-reflection measures tend to tap into past experiences and judged concepts that were already processed by the participants’ inner speech and thoughts, the Awareness measure derived from Mindfulness Scale seems to be related to a construct associated with present experiences in which one is aware of without any further judgment or logical/rational symbolization. This sub-scale seems to emphasize the role that present experiences have in self-consciousness, and it is argued that such a concept refers to what has been studied by phenomenology and psychology over more than 100 years: the concept of pre-reflective self-conscious. PMID:26191030

  9. Object of desire self-consciousness theory.

    PubMed

    Bogaert, Anthony F; Brotto, Lori A

    2014-01-01

    In this article, the authors discuss the construct of object of desire self-consciousness, the perception that one is romantically and sexually desirable in another's eyes. The authors discuss the nature of the construct, variations in its expression, and how it may function as part of a self-schemata or script related to romance and sexuality. The authors suggest that object of desire self-consciousness may be an adaptive, evolved psychological mechanism allowing sexual and romantic tactics suitable to one's mate value. The authors also suggest that it can act as a signal that one has high mate value in the sexual marketplace. The authors then review literature (e.g., on fantasies, on sexual activity preferences, on sexual dysfunctions, on language) suggesting that object of desire self-consciousness plays a particularly important role in heterosexual women's sexual/romantic functioning and desires.

  10. Self-consciousness, friendship quality, and adolescent internalizing problems

    PubMed Central

    Bowker, Julie C.; Rubin, Kenneth H.

    2013-01-01

    The correlates between public and private self-consciousness and internalizing difficulties were examined during early adolescence. Friendship quality was assessed as a possible moderator of the relation between self-consciousness and maladjustment. One hundred and thirty-seven young adolescents (N = 87 girls; M age = 13.98 years) reported on their self-consciousness, internalizing problems, and the quality of their best friendship. Results indicated stronger associations between private self-consciousness and internalizing correlates than between public self-consciousness and internalizing problems, suggesting that private self-consciousness may be a stronger risk factor during adolescence. Contrary to expectations, evidence revealed that positive friendship quality may exacerbate some difficulties associated with self-consciousness. Results pertaining to friendship quality add to the growing literature on the ways in which friendships can contribute to adjustment difficulties. PMID:19998530

  11. The relationship between life satisfaction, self-consciousness, and the Myers-Briggs type inventory dimensions.

    PubMed

    Harrington, R; Loffredo, D A

    2001-07-01

    The study was an investigation of the relationship between psychological well-being, life satisfaction, self-consciousness, and the four Myers-Briggs Type Indicator dimensions (MBTI; I. B. Myers & M. H. McCaulley, 1985). The participants were 97 college students (79 women and 18 men whose mean age was 31.4 years). All the students were administered four instruments, the Psychological Well-Being Inventory (C. D. Ryff, 1989), the Satisfaction With Life Scale (E. Diener, R. A. Emmons, R. J. Larsen, & S. Griffin, 1985), the Self-Consciousness Scale-Revised (M. F. Scheier & C. S. Carver, 1985), and the MBTI (Form G Self-Scoring). MANOVAs revealed significant differences on three of the four dimensions of the MBTI with extraverts showing higher psychological well-being and life satisfaction and lower self-consciousness than introverts. Intuition types scored higher in psychological well-being and lower in self-consciousness than Sensing types. Judging types scored higher in psychological well-being than Perceiving types. Correlational analyses showed that most dimensions of psychological well-being were negatively related to self-consciousness. The relationship between life satisfaction and personality variables is discussed.

  12. Effect of Gender on Students' Emotion with Gender-Related Public Self-Consciousness as a Moderator in Mixed-Gender Physical Education Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moon, Minkwon; Jeon, Hyunsoo; Kwon, Sungho

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigates whether gender-related public self-consciousness moderates the relationship between students' gender and emotions in mixed-gender physical education classes. The Positive and Negative Affect Scales and the Gender-related Public Self-Consciousness Scale were administered to 380 middle-school students in South Korea.…

  13. Self-Consciousness, Friendship Quality, and Adolescent Internalizing Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowker, Julie C.; Rubin, Kenneth H.

    2009-01-01

    The correlates between public and private self-consciousness and internalizing difficulties were examined during early adolescence. Friendship quality was assessed as a possible moderator of the relation between self-consciousness and maladjustment. One hundred and thirty-seven young adolescents (N = 87 girls; M age = 13.98 years) reported on…

  14. Self-Consciousness and Personality Characteristics among Prison Inmates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De La Serna, Marcelo; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Examined the personality characteristics of male prison inmates. Results indicate some personality traits and two clinical syndromes are useful in differentiating prison inmates with high and low scores on measures of private self-consciousness. Suggests persons with high self-consciousness are more suspicious, obsessive-compulsive, and likely to…

  15. Self-conscious affects: their adaptive Functions and relationship to depressive mood.

    PubMed

    Uji, Masayo; Kitamura, Toshinori; Nagata, Toshiaki

    2011-01-01

    This study used a structural equation model to examine the influence of resilience on the four self-conscious affects (guilt-proneness, shame-proneness, externalization, and detachment) assessed in the Test of Self-Conscious Affect-3 (TOSCA-3) and their impact on depressive mood. Our subject population consisted of 447 Japanese university students. The first analysis explored which TOSCA-3 affects help an individual adapt to stressful situations. The concept of "resilience" was used as an indicator to evaluate the adaptive functions. We based this on the assumption that an individual with higher resilience is able to use more adaptive affects. In the second analysis, taking the above relationship between resilience and the self-conscious affects into consideration, we examined how those variables as well as a negative life event are related to depressive mood. To assess the resilience level and depressive mood, we adopted the Resilience Scale (RS) and Self-rating Depressive Scale (SDS), respectively. The first analysis showed that the more resilient an individual was, the more prone they were to "detachment" and the less "shame" they experienced. The level of resilience did not have a significant effect on "guilt" or "externalization." In the second analysis we found that "resilience" had a direct inverse effect on depressive mood that was also mediated by "shame" and "detachment." We discuss how the particular self-conscious affects comprising each adaptive function are related to depressive mood.

  16. Neural correlates of processing "self-conscious" vs. "basic" emotions.

    PubMed

    Gilead, Michael; Katzir, Maayan; Eyal, Tal; Liberman, Nira

    2016-01-29

    Self-conscious emotions are prevalent in our daily lives and play an important role in both normal and pathological behavior. Despite their immense significance, the neural substrates that are involved in the processing of such emotions are surprisingly under-studied. In light of this, we conducted an fMRI study in which participants thought of various personal events which elicited feelings of negative and positive self-conscious (i.e., guilt, pride) or basic (i.e., anger, joy) emotions. We performed a conjunction analysis to investigate the neural correlates associated with processing events that are related to self-conscious vs. basic emotions, irrespective of valence. The results show that processing self-conscious emotions resulted in activation within frontal areas associated with self-processing and self-control, namely, the mPFC extending to the dACC, and within the lateral-dorsal prefrontal cortex. Processing basic emotions resulted in activation throughout relatively phylogenetically-ancient regions of the cortex, namely in visual and tactile processing areas and in the insular cortex. Furthermore, self-conscious emotions differentially activated the mPFC such that the negative self-conscious emotion (guilt) was associated with a more dorsal activation, and the positive self-conscious emotion (pride) was associated with a more ventral activation. We discuss how these results shed light on the nature of mental representations and neural systems involved in self-reflective and affective processing.

  17. Multisensory brain mechanisms of bodily self-consciousness.

    PubMed

    Blanke, Olaf

    2012-07-18

    Recent research has linked bodily self-consciousness to the processing and integration of multisensory bodily signals in temporoparietal, premotor, posterior parietal and extrastriate cortices. Studies in which subjects receive ambiguous multisensory information about the location and appearance of their own body have shown that these brain areas reflect the conscious experience of identifying with the body (self-identification (also known as body-ownership)), the experience of where 'I' am in space (self-location) and the experience of the position from where 'I' perceive the world (first-person perspective). Along with phenomena of altered states of self-consciousness in neurological patients and electrophysiological data from non-human primates, these findings may form the basis for a neurobiological model of bodily self-consciousness.

  18. Behavioral, Neural, and Computational Principles of Bodily Self-Consciousness.

    PubMed

    Blanke, Olaf; Slater, Mel; Serino, Andrea

    2015-10-07

    Recent work in human cognitive neuroscience has linked self-consciousness to the processing of multisensory bodily signals (bodily self-consciousness [BSC]) in fronto-parietal cortex and more posterior temporo-parietal regions. We highlight the behavioral, neurophysiological, neuroimaging, and computational laws that subtend BSC in humans and non-human primates. We propose that BSC includes body-centered perception (hand, face, and trunk), based on the integration of proprioceptive, vestibular, and visual bodily inputs, and involves spatio-temporal mechanisms integrating multisensory bodily stimuli within peripersonal space (PPS). We develop four major constraints of BSC (proprioception, body-related visual information, PPS, and embodiment) and argue that the fronto-parietal and temporo-parietal processing of trunk-centered multisensory signals in PPS is of particular relevance for theoretical models and simulations of BSC and eventually of self-consciousness.

  19. Self-Consciousness, Evaluation of Physical Characteristics, and Physical Attractiveness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Robert G.; Gilliland, LuNell

    1981-01-01

    Investigated the relationship between public self-consciousness and speed of processing information about self. Results indicated that high public self-conciousness subjects required less time to report evaluations of their physical features. In a second study high public self-conciousness was shown to be positively related to judged physical…

  20. The temporal structure of resting-state brain activity in the medial prefrontal cortex predicts self-consciousness.

    PubMed

    Huang, Zirui; Obara, Natsuho; Davis, Henry Hap; Pokorny, Johanna; Northoff, Georg

    2016-02-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated an overlap between the neural substrate of resting-state activity and self-related processing in the cortical midline structures (CMS). However, the neural and psychological mechanisms mediating this so-called "rest-self overlap" remain unclear. To investigate the neural mechanisms, we estimated the temporal structure of spontaneous/resting-state activity, e.g. its long-range temporal correlations or self-affinity across time as indexed by the power-law exponent (PLE). The PLE was obtained in resting-state activity in the medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) and the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) in 47 healthy subjects by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). We performed correlation analyses of the PLE and Revised Self-Consciousness Scale (SCSR) scores, which enabled us to access different dimensions of self-consciousness and specified rest-self overlap in a psychological regard. The PLE in the MPFC's resting-state activity correlated with private self-consciousness scores from the SCSR. Conversely, we found no correlation between the PLE and the other subscales of the SCSR (public, social) or between other resting-state measures, including functional connectivity, and the SCSR subscales. This is the first evidence for the association between the scale-free dynamics of resting-state activity in the CMS and the private dimension of self-consciousness. This finding implies the relationship of especially the private dimension of self with the temporal structure of resting-state activity.

  1. Video ergo sum: manipulating bodily self-consciousness.

    PubMed

    Lenggenhager, Bigna; Tadi, Tej; Metzinger, Thomas; Blanke, Olaf

    2007-08-24

    Humans normally experience the conscious self as localized within their bodily borders. This spatial unity may break down in certain neurological conditions such as out-of-body experiences, leading to a striking disturbance of bodily self-consciousness. On the basis of these clinical data, we designed an experiment that uses conflicting visual-somatosensory input in virtual reality to disrupt the spatial unity between the self and the body. We found that during multisensory conflict, participants felt as if a virtual body seen in front of them was their own body and mislocalized themselves toward the virtual body, to a position outside their bodily borders. Our results indicate that spatial unity and bodily self-consciousness can be studied experimentally and are based on multisensory and cognitive processing of bodily information.

  2. [I, Robot: artificial intelligence, uniqueness and self-consciousness].

    PubMed

    Agrest, Martín

    2008-01-01

    The cinematographic version of the science fiction classical book by Isaac Asimov (I, Robot) is used as a starting point, from the Artificial Intelligence perspective, in order to analyze what it is to have a self. Uniqueness or the exchange impossibility and the continuity of being one self are put forward to understand the movie's characters as well as the possibilities of feeling self conscious.

  3. Limited role of body satisfaction and body image self-consciousness in sexual frequency and satisfaction in pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Radoš, Sandra Nakić; Vraneš, Hrvojka Soljačić; Šunjić, Marijana

    2014-01-01

    This cross-sectional study examined the role of maternal body image and body image self-consciousness in sexual satisfaction and intercourse frequency during pregnancy when controlling for satisfaction with partnership. Pregnant women in their third trimester of pregnancy (N = 150) participated in the study. Body image was measured by the Body Areas Satisfaction Scale (BASS) and Body Image Self-Consciousness Scale (BISC), while relationship satisfaction was measured by different subscales of the Perceived Quality of Marital Relationship (PQMR) Scale. Sexual satisfaction was also measured by one of the subscales of the PQMR (Intimate Relationship). The sexual behavior questionnaire comprised questions about frequency of sexual intercourse, desire, and other aspects of sexual functioning as well as the reasons that might prevent women from having intercourse during pregnancy. Findings suggested that satisfaction with body image and body image self-consciousness were related to sexual satisfaction. Nevertheless, other aspects of partnership, such as communication, appeared to be much more important predictors of sexual satisfaction than body image variables. The best predictor of sexual frequency was fear that intercourse might harm the fetus. Implications for education about sexuality issues in pregnancy are discussed.

  4. Self-Consciousness and Death Cognitions from a Terror Management Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taubman-Ben-Ari, Orit; Noy, Adi

    2010-01-01

    Two studies explored the connection between self-consciousness and death cognitions. In Study 1 (n = 56), a positive association was found between accessibility of death-related thoughts and the ruminative dimension of self-consciousness. In Study 2 (n = 212), a mortality salience induction led to higher validation of cultural worldviews (a more…

  5. Role of right pregenual anterior cingulate cortex in self-conscious emotional reactivity

    PubMed Central

    Sollberger, Marc; Seeley, William W.; Rankin, Katherine P.; Ascher, Elizabeth A.; Rosen, Howard J.; Miller, Bruce L.; Levenson, Robert W.

    2013-01-01

    Self-conscious emotions such as embarrassment arise when one’s actions fail to meet salient social expectations and are accompanied by marked physiological and behavioral activation. We investigated the neural correlates of self-conscious emotional reactivity in 27 patients with behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD), a neurodegenerative disease that disrupts self-conscious emotion and targets brain regions critical for emotional functioning early in the disease course, and in 33 healthy older controls. Subjects participated in an embarrassing karaoke task in which they watched a video clip of themselves singing. They also watched a sad film clip; these data were used to control for non-self-conscious emotional reactivity in response to audiovisual stimuli. Using Freesurfer to quantify regional brain volumes from structural magnetic resonance imaging, right pregenual anterior cingulate cortex (pACC) gray matter volume was the only brain region that was a significant predictor of self-conscious emotion. Smaller pACC volume was associated with attenuated physiological and behavioral self-conscious emotional reactivity, and this relationship was not specific to diagnosis. We argue that these results reflect the significant role that right pACC plays in the visceromotor responding that accompanies self-conscious emotion and that neurodegeneration in this region may underlie the self-conscious emotional decline seen in bvFTD. PMID:22345371

  6. Self-consciousness in non-communicative patients.

    PubMed

    Laureys, Steven; Perrin, Fabien; Brédart, Serge

    2007-09-01

    The clinical and para-clinical examination of residual self-consciousness in non-communicative severely brain damaged patients (i.e., coma, vegetative state and minimally conscious state) remains exceptionally challenging. Passive presentation of the patient's own name and own face are known to be effective attention-grabbing stimuli when clinically assessing consciousness at the patient's bedside. Event-related potential and functional neuroimaging studies using such self-referential stimuli are currently being used to disentangle the cognitive hierarchy of self-processing. We here review neuropsychological, neuropathological, electrophysiological and neuroimaging studies using the own name and own face paradigm obtained in conscious waking, sleep, pharmacological coma, pathological coma and related disorders of consciousness. Based on these results we discuss what we currently do and do not know about the functional significance of the neural network involved in "automatic" and "conscious" self-referential processing.

  7. Self-objectification, body self-consciousness during sexual activities, and sexual satisfaction in college women.

    PubMed

    Claudat, Kim; Warren, Cortney S

    2014-09-01

    Few studies examine the mechanisms that link body image to sexual satisfaction in women. Using the tenets of objectification theory, this study investigated the relationships between body surveillance, body shame, body self-consciousness during sexual activities, and sexual satisfaction in an ethnically diverse sample of American female college students (N=368), while controlling for relationship status and body mass index. Results based on self-report measures of these constructs suggested that body shame and body self-consciousness during sexual activity were negatively correlated with sexual satisfaction. Additionally, path analysis indicated that body surveillance predicted increased body self-consciousness during sexual activity, partially mediated by body shame. Body self-consciousness, in turn, predicted decreased sexual satisfaction. Overall, study findings highlight the negative consequences of body image concerns for women's sexual satisfaction.

  8. Beyond the justification hypothesis: a broader theory of the evolution of self-consciousness.

    PubMed

    Vazire, Simine; Robins, Richard W

    2004-12-01

    We evaluate Henriques' Justification Hypothesis (JH; this issue) and argue that his explanation for the evolution of self-consciousness is overly narrow and the evolutionary sequence of events is backwards. Instead, we propose a broader theory of the evolution of self-consciousness, with four categories of adaptive functions: (a) self-regulation, (b) selective information processing, (c) understanding others, and (d) identity formation.

  9. Self-conscious robotic system design process--from analysis to implementation.

    PubMed

    Chella, Antonio; Cossentino, Massimo; Seidita, Valeria

    2011-01-01

    Developing robotic systems endowed with self-conscious capabilities means realizing complex sub-systems needing ad-hoc software engineering techniques for their modelling, analysis and implementation. In this chapter the whole process (from analysis to implementation) to model the development of self-conscious robotic systems is presented and the new created design process, PASSIC, supporting each part of it, is fully illustrated.

  10. The effect of a culturally-informed therapy on self-conscious emotions and burden in caregivers of patients with schizophrenia: A randomized clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Weisman de Mamani, Amy; Suro, Giulia

    2015-01-01

    Objective Caring for a family member with schizophrenia often results in high degrees of self-conscious emotions (shame and guilt/self -blame), burden, and other serious mental health consequences. Research suggests that ethnic and cultural factors strongly influence the manner in which family members respond to mental illness. Research further indicates that certain cultural practices and values (spirituality, collectivism) may assist family members in coping with the self-conscious emotions and burden associated with caregiving. With this in mind, we have developed a family focused, culturally-informed treatment for schizophrenia (CIT-S). Method Using a sample of 113 caregivers of patients with schizophrenia (60% Hispanic, 28.2% Caucasian, 8% African American and 3.8% “Other”), we assessed the ability of CIT-S to reduce self-conscious emotions and caregiver burden above and beyond a three-session psychoeducation (PSY-ED) control condition. We further examined whether self-conscious emotions mediated the relationship between treatment type and caregiver burden. Results In line with expectations, CIT-S was found to outperform PSY-ED in reducing guilt/self-blame and caregiver burden. Furthermore, consistent with hypotheses, reductions in guilt/self-blame were found to mediate the changes observed between treatment type and caregiver burden. While caregivers in both treatment groups demonstrated significant post treatment reductions in shame, CIT-S was not found to outperform PSY-ED in reducing levels of this construct. Conclusions Results suggest that caregivers of patients with schizophrenia may respond well to a treatment that specifically taps in to their cultural beliefs, values, and behaviors in helping them cope with schizophrenia in a loved one. Study implications and future directions are discussed. PMID:26654115

  11. General Dissociation Scale and Hypnotizability with African American College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sapp, Marty; Hitchcock, Kim

    The purpose of this study was to assess the reliability of the General Dissociation Scale with African American college students, and provide additional data on how to assess hypnotizability with these students. Two-hundred and two undergraduate African American college students participated in this study. Students completed the HGSHS:A, a measure…

  12. Public self-consciousness moderates the link between displacement behaviour and experience of stress in women.

    PubMed

    Mohiyeddini, Changiz; Bauer, Stephanie; Semple, Stuart

    2013-07-01

    When stressed, people typically show elevated rates of displacement behaviour--activities such as scratching and face touching that seem irrelevant to the ongoing situation. Growing evidence indicates that displacement behaviour may play a role in regulating stress levels, and thus may represent an important component of the coping response. Recently, we found evidence that this stress-regulating effect of displacement behaviour is found in men but not in women. This sex difference may result from women's higher levels of public self-consciousness, which could inhibit expression of displacement behaviour due to the fear of projecting an inappropriate image. Here, we explored the link between public self-consciousness, displacement behaviour and stress among 62 healthy women (mean age = 26.59 years; SD = 3.61). We first assessed participants' public self-consciousness, and then quantified displacement behaviour, heart rate and cognitive performance during a Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) and used self-report questionnaires to assess the experience of stress afterwards. Public self-consciousness was negatively correlated with rate of displacement behaviour, and positively correlated with both the subjective experience of stress post-TSST and the number of mistakes in the cognitive task. Moderation analyses revealed that for women high in public self-consciousness, high levels of displacement behaviour were associated with higher reported levels of stress and poorer cognitive performance. For women low in public self-consciousness, stress levels and cognitive performance were unrelated to displacement behaviour. Our findings indicate that public self-consciousness is associated with both the expression of displacement behaviour and how such behaviour mediates responses to social stress.

  13. Experimental changes in bodily self-consciousness are tuned to the frequency sensitivity of proprioceptive fibres.

    PubMed

    Palluel, Estelle; Aspell, Jane Elizabeth; Lavanchy, Tom; Blanke, Olaf

    2012-04-18

    Several lines of evidence suggest an important implication of proprioceptive signals in bodily self-consciousness. By manipulating proprioceptive signals using muscle vibration, here, we investigated whether such effects depend on the vibration frequency by testing three different vibratory stimuli applied at the lower limbs (20, 40 and 80 Hz). We thus explored whether frequency-specific proprioceptive interference that has been reported in postural or motor tasks will also be found for measures of bodily self-consciousness. Self-identification (questionnaires) and visuotactile integration (asking participants to make tactile discriminations) were quantified during synchronous and asynchronous stroking conditions that are known to manipulate bodily self-consciousness. We found that even though muscle vibrations were applied at the same body location in all cases, 20 Hz vibrations did not alter the magnitude of self-identification and visuotactile integration, whereas 40 and 80 Hz vibrations did. These frequency-specific effects extend earlier vibration effects on motor and postural tasks to bodily self-consciousness. We suggest that the observed changes in bodily self-consciousness are due to altered proprioceptive signals from the lower limbs and that these changes depend on the tuning of Ia fibres to muscle vibration.

  14. The vestibular system: a spatial reference for bodily self-consciousness.

    PubMed

    Pfeiffer, Christian; Serino, Andrea; Blanke, Olaf

    2014-01-01

    Self-consciousness is the remarkable human experience of being a subject: the "I". Self-consciousness is typically bound to a body, and particularly to the spatial dimensions of the body, as well as to its location and displacement in the gravitational field. Because the vestibular system encodes head position and movement in three-dimensional space, vestibular cortical processing likely contributes to spatial aspects of bodily self-consciousness. We review here recent data showing vestibular effects on first-person perspective (the feeling from where "I" experience the world) and self-location (the feeling where "I" am located in space). We compare these findings to data showing vestibular effects on mental spatial transformation, self-motion perception, and body representation showing vestibular contributions to various spatial representations of the body with respect to the external world. Finally, we discuss the role for four posterior brain regions that process vestibular and other multisensory signals to encode spatial aspects of bodily self-consciousness: temporoparietal junction, parietoinsular vestibular cortex, ventral intraparietal region, and medial superior temporal region. We propose that vestibular processing in these cortical regions is critical in linking multisensory signals from the body (personal and peripersonal space) with external (extrapersonal) space. Therefore, the vestibular system plays a critical role for neural representations of spatial aspects of bodily self-consciousness.

  15. The vestibular system: a spatial reference for bodily self-consciousness

    PubMed Central

    Pfeiffer, Christian; Serino, Andrea; Blanke, Olaf

    2014-01-01

    Self-consciousness is the remarkable human experience of being a subject: the “I”. Self-consciousness is typically bound to a body, and particularly to the spatial dimensions of the body, as well as to its location and displacement in the gravitational field. Because the vestibular system encodes head position and movement in three-dimensional space, vestibular cortical processing likely contributes to spatial aspects of bodily self-consciousness. We review here recent data showing vestibular effects on first-person perspective (the feeling from where “I” experience the world) and self-location (the feeling where “I” am located in space). We compare these findings to data showing vestibular effects on mental spatial transformation, self-motion perception, and body representation showing vestibular contributions to various spatial representations of the body with respect to the external world. Finally, we discuss the role for four posterior brain regions that process vestibular and other multisensory signals to encode spatial aspects of bodily self-consciousness: temporoparietal junction, parietoinsular vestibular cortex, ventral intraparietal region, and medial superior temporal region. We propose that vestibular processing in these cortical regions is critical in linking multisensory signals from the body (personal and peripersonal space) with external (extrapersonal) space. Therefore, the vestibular system plays a critical role for neural representations of spatial aspects of bodily self-consciousness. PMID:24860446

  16. Does cognitive self-consciousness link older adults' cognitive functioning to obsessive-compulsive symptoms?

    PubMed

    Prouvost, Caroline; Calamari, John E; Woodard, John L

    2016-10-01

    To elucidate how obsessional symptoms might develop or intensify in late-life, we tested a risk model. We posited that cognitive self-consciousness (CSC), a tendency to be aware of and monitor thinking, would increase reactivity to aging-related cognitive changes and mediate the relationship between cognitive functioning and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) symptoms. Older adults (Mage = 76.7 years) completed the Dementia Rating Scale-2 (DRS-2), a CSC measure, and an OCD symptom measure up to four times over 18 months. A model that included DRS-2 age and education adjusted total score as the indicator of cognitive functioning fit the data well, and CSC score change mediated the relationship between initial cognitive functioning and changes in OCD symptoms. In tests of a model that included DRS-2 Initiation/Perseveration (I/P) and Conceptualization subscale scores, the model again fit the data well. Conceptualization scores, but not I/P scores, were related to later OCD symptoms, and change in CSC scores again mediated the relationship. Lower scores on initial cognitive functioning measures predicted increases in CSC scores over time, which in turn predicted increases in OCD symptoms over the 18 months of the study. Implications for understanding late-life obsessional problems are discussed.

  17. Triggers of self-conscious emotions in the sexually transmitted infection testing process

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Self-conscious emotions (shame, guilt and embarrassment) are part of many individuals' experiences of seeking STI testing. These emotions can have negative impacts on individuals' interpretations of the STI testing process, their willingness to seek treatment and their willingness to inform sexual partners in light of positive STI diagnoses. Because of these impacts, researchers have called for more work to be completed on the connections between shame, guilt, embarrassment and STI testing. We examine the specific events in the STI testing process that trigger self-conscious emotions in young adults who seek STI testing; and to understand what it is about these events that triggers these emotions. Semi-structured interviews with 30 adults (21 women, 9 men) in the Republic of Ireland. Findings Seven specific triggers of self-conscious emotions were identified. These were: having unprotected sex, associated with the initial reason for seeking STI testing; talking to partners and peers about the intention to seek STI testing; the experience of accessing STI testing facilities and sitting in clinic waiting rooms; negative interactions with healthcare professionals; receiving a positive diagnosis of an STI; having to notify sexual partners in light of a positive STI diagnosis; and accessing healthcare settings for treatment for an STI. Self-conscious emotions were triggered in each case by a perceived threat to respondents' social identities. Conclusion There are multiple triggers of self-conscious emotions in the STI testing process, ranging from the initial decision to seek testing, right through to the experience of accessing treatment. The role of self-conscious emotions needs to be considered in each component of service design from health promotion approaches, through facility layout to the training of all professionals involved in the STI testing process. PMID:20716339

  18. Exploring Cultural Differences in the Recognition of the Self-Conscious Emotions

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Joanne M.; Robins, Richard W.

    2015-01-01

    Recent research suggests that the self-conscious emotions of embarrassment, shame, and pride have distinct, nonverbal expressions that can be recognized in the United States at above-chance levels. However, few studies have examined the recognition of these emotions in other cultures, and little research has been conducted in Asia. Consequently the cross-cultural generalizability of self-conscious emotions has not been firmly established. Additionally, there is no research that examines cultural variability in the recognition of the self-conscious emotions. Cultural values and exposure to Western culture have been identified as contributors to variability in recognition rates for the basic emotions; we sought to examine this for the self-conscious emotions using the University of California, Davis Set of Emotion Expressions (UCDSEE). The present research examined recognition of the self-conscious emotion expressions in South Korean college students and found that recognition rates were very high for pride, low but above chance for shame, and near zero for embarrassment. To examine what might be underlying the recognition rates we found in South Korea, recognition of self-conscious emotions and several cultural values were examined in a U.S. college student sample of European Americans, Asian Americans, and Asian-born individuals. Emotion recognition rates were generally similar between the European Americans and Asian Americans, and higher than emotion recognition rates for Asian-born individuals. These differences were not explained by cultural values in an interpretable manner, suggesting that exposure to Western culture is a more important mediator than values. PMID:26309215

  19. Exploring Cultural Differences in the Recognition of the Self-Conscious Emotions.

    PubMed

    Chung, Joanne M; Robins, Richard W

    2015-01-01

    Recent research suggests that the self-conscious emotions of embarrassment, shame, and pride have distinct, nonverbal expressions that can be recognized in the United States at above-chance levels. However, few studies have examined the recognition of these emotions in other cultures, and little research has been conducted in Asia. Consequently the cross-cultural generalizability of self-conscious emotions has not been firmly established. Additionally, there is no research that examines cultural variability in the recognition of the self-conscious emotions. Cultural values and exposure to Western culture have been identified as contributors to variability in recognition rates for the basic emotions; we sought to examine this for the self-conscious emotions using the University of California, Davis Set of Emotion Expressions (UCDSEE). The present research examined recognition of the self-conscious emotion expressions in South Korean college students and found that recognition rates were very high for pride, low but above chance for shame, and near zero for embarrassment. To examine what might be underlying the recognition rates we found in South Korea, recognition of self-conscious emotions and several cultural values were examined in a U.S. college student sample of European Americans, Asian Americans, and Asian-born individuals. Emotion recognition rates were generally similar between the European Americans and Asian Americans, and higher than emotion recognition rates for Asian-born individuals. These differences were not explained by cultural values in an interpretable manner, suggesting that exposure to Western culture is a more important mediator than values.

  20. Gender differences in self-conscious emotional experience: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Else-Quest, Nicole M; Higgins, Ashley; Allison, Carlie; Morton, Lindsay C

    2012-09-01

    The self-conscious emotions (SCE) of guilt, shame, pride, and embarrassment are moral emotions, which motivate adherence to social norms and personal standards and emerge in early childhood following the development of self-awareness. Gender stereotypes of emotion maintain that women experience more guilt, shame, and embarrassment but that men experience more pride. To estimate the magnitude of gender differences in SCE experience and to determine the circumstances under which these gender differences vary, we meta-analyzed 697 effect sizes representing 236,304 individual ratings of SCE states and traits from 382 journal articles, dissertations, and unpublished data sets. Guilt (d = -0.27) and shame (d = -0.29) displayed small gender differences, whereas embarrassment (d = -0.08), authentic pride (d = -0.01), and hubristic pride (d = 0.09) showed gender similarities. Similar to previous findings of ethnic variations in gender differences in other psychological variables, gender differences in shame and guilt were significant only for White samples or samples with unspecified ethnicity. We found larger gender gaps in shame with trait (vs. state) scales, and in guilt and shame with situation- and scenario-based (vs. adjective- and statement-based) items, consistent with predictions that such scales and items tend to tap into global, nonspecific assessments of the self and thus reflect self-stereotyping and gender role assimilative effects. Gender differences in SCE about domains such as the body, sex, and food or eating tended to be larger than gender differences in SCE about other domains. These findings contribute to the literature demonstrating that blanket stereotypes about women's greater emotionality are inaccurate.

  1. Central scalp alopecia photographic scale in African American women.

    PubMed

    Olsen, E A; Callender, V; Sperling, L; McMichael, A; Anstrom, K J; Bergfeld, W; Durden, F; Roberts, J; Shapiro, J; Whiting, D A

    2008-01-01

    Central centrifugal cicatricial alopecia (CCCA) is a common but poorly understood cause of hair loss in African American women. A photographic scale was developed that captures the pattern and severity of the central hair loss seen with CCCA in order to help identify this problem in the general community and to potentially correlate clinical data with hair loss. The utility and reproducibility of this photographic scale was determined in a group of 150 African American women gathered for a health and beauty day who were evaluated by both four investigators experienced in the diagnosis of hair disorders and by the subjects themselves.

  2. Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene modulates private self-consciousness and self-flexibility.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bei; Ru, Wenzhao; Yang, Xing; Yang, Lu; Fang, Pengpeng; Zhu, Xu; Shen, Guomin; Gao, Xiaocai; Gong, Pingyuan

    2016-08-01

    Dopamine levels in the brain influence human consciousness. Inspired by the role of Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) in inactivating dopamine in the brain, we investigated to what extent COMT could modulate individual's self-consciousness dispositions and self-consistency by genotyping the COMT Val158Met (rs4680) polymorphism and measuring self-consciousness and self-consistency and congruence in a college student population. The results indicated that COMT Val158Met polymorphism significantly modulated the private self-consciousness. The individuals with Val/Val genotype, corresponding to lower dopamine levels in the brain, were more likely to be aware of their feelings and beliefs. The results also indicated that this polymorphism modulated one's self-flexibility. The individuals with Val/Val genotype showed higher levels of stereotype in self-concept compared with those with Met/Met genotype. These findings suggest that COMT is a predictor of the individual differences in self-consciousness and self-flexibility.

  3. Reprint of "Breathing and sense of self: visuo-respiratory conflicts alter body self-consciousness".

    PubMed

    Adler, Dan; Herbelin, Bruno; Similowski, Thomas; Blanke, Olaf

    2014-12-01

    Bodily self-consciousness depends on the processing of interoceptive and exteroceptive signals. It can be disrupted by inducing signal conflicts. Breathing, at the crossroad between interoception and exteroception, should contribute to bodily self-consciousness. We induced visuo-respiratory conflicts in 17 subjects presented with a virtual body or a parallelepidedal object flashing synchronously or asynchronously with their breathing. A questionnaire detected illusory changes in bodily self-consciousness and breathing agency (the feeling of sensing one's breathing command). Changes in self-location were tested by measuring reaction time during mental ball drop (MBD). Synchronous illumination changed the perceived location of breathing (body: p=0.008 vs. asynchronous; object: p=0.013). It resulted in a significant change in breathing agency, but no changes in self-identification. This was corroborated by prolonged MBD reaction time (body: +0.045s, 95%CI [0.013; 0.08], p=0.007). We conclude that breathing modulates bodily self-consciousness. We also conclude that one can induce the irruption of unattended breathing into consciousness without modifying respiratory mechanics or gas exchange.

  4. Breathing and sense of self: visuo-respiratory conflicts alter body self-consciousness.

    PubMed

    Adler, Dan; Herbelin, Bruno; Similowski, Thomas; Blanke, Olaf

    2014-11-01

    Bodily self-consciousness depends on the processing of interoceptive and exteroceptive signals. It can be disrupted by inducing signal conflicts. Breathing, at the crossroad between interoception and exteroception, should contribute to bodily self-consciousness. We induced visuo-respiratory conflicts in 17 subjects presented with a virtual body or a parallelepidedal object flashing synchronously or asynchronously with their breathing. A questionnaire detected illusory changes in bodily self-consciousness and breathing agency (the feeling of sensing one's breathing command). Changes in self-location were tested by measuring reaction time during mental ball drop (MBD). Synchronous illumination changed the perceived location of breathing (body: p=0.008 vs. asynchronous; object: p=0.013). It resulted in a significant change in breathing agency, but no changes in self-identification. This was corroborated by prolonged MBD reaction time (body: +0.045s, 95%CI [0.013; 0.08], p=0.007). We conclude that breathing modulates bodily self-consciousness. We also conclude that one can induce the irruption of unattended breathing into consciousness without modifying respiratory mechanics or gas exchange.

  5. Body-related self-conscious emotions relate to physical activity motivation and behavior in men.

    PubMed

    Castonguay, Andree L; Pila, Eva; Wrosch, Carsten; Sabiston, Catherine M

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the associations between the body-related self-conscious emotions of shame, guilt, and pride and physical activity motivation and behavior among adult males. Specifically, motivation regulations (external, introjected, indentified, intrinsic) were examined as possible mediators between each of the body-related self-conscious emotions and physical activity behavior. A cross-sectional study was conducted with adult men (N = 152; Mage = 23.72, SD = 10.92 years). Participants completed a questionnaire assessing body-related shame, guilt, authentic pride, hubristic pride, motivational regulations, and leisure-time physical activity. In separate multiple mediation models, body-related shame was positively associated with external and introjected regulations and negatively correlated with intrinsic regulation. Guilt was positively linked to external, introjected, and identified regulations. Authentic pride was negatively related to external regulation and positively correlated with both identified and intrinsic regulations and directly associated with physical activity behavior. Hubristic pride was positively associated with intrinsic regulation. Overall, there were both direct and indirect effects via motivation regulations between body-related self-conscious emotions and physical activity (R(2) shame = .15, guilt = .16, authentic pride = .18, hubristic pride = .16). These findings highlight the importance of targeting and understanding self-conscious emotions contextualized to the body and links to motivation and positive health behavior among men.

  6. Scientific Understanding: Lacey's "Critical Self-Consciousness" Seen as Echoes of J.D. Bernal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cross, Roger T.

    1999-01-01

    Suggests that Hugh Lacey's vision of the schooling of science through the development of critical self-consciousness has been articulated by others at different times and probably from different ideological perspectives. Claims that knowledge of these other opinions will help Lacey in his search for education in science which promotes citizens'…

  7. Variability in Self-Presentations to Others: The Effect of Public Self-Consciousness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tunnell, Gil

    It is generally believed that the audience influences one's self-presentation. Research has described the person sensitive to the public aspects of behavior to be in a state of public self-awareness. This construct of public self-consciousness was examined in relation to the individual's self-presentations to several different audiences. A median…

  8. Leg muscle vibration modulates bodily self-consciousness: integration of proprioceptive, visual, and tactile signals.

    PubMed

    Palluel, Estelle; Aspell, Jane Elizabeth; Blanke, Olaf

    2011-05-01

    Behavioral studies have used visuo-tactile conflicts between a participant's body and a visually presented fake or virtual body to investigate the importance of bodily perception for self-consciousness (bodily self-consciousness). Illusory self-identification with a fake body and changes in tactile processing--modulation of visuo-tactile cross-modal congruency effects (CCEs)--were reported in previous findings. Although proprioceptive signals are deemed important for bodily self-consciousness, their contribution to the representation of the full body has not been studied. Here we investigated whether and how self-identification and tactile processing (CCE magnitude) could be modified by altering proprioceptive signals with 80-Hz vibrations at the legs. Participants made elevation judgments of tactile cues (while ignoring nearby lights) during synchronous and asynchronous stroking of a seen fake body. We found that proprioceptive signals during vibrations altered the magnitude of self-identification and mislocalization of touch (CCE) in a synchrony-dependent fashion: we observed an increase of self-identification and CCE magnitude during asynchronous stroking. In a second control experiment we studied whether proprioceptive signals per se, or those from the lower limbs in particular, were essential for these changes. We applied vibrations at the upper limbs (which provide no information about the position of the participant's body in space) and in this case observed no modulation of bodily self-consciousness or tactile perception. These data link proprioceptive signals from the legs that are conveyed through the dorsal column-medial lemniscal pathway to bodily self-consciousness. We discuss their integration with bodily signals from vision and touch for full-body representations.

  9. A neuroscientific account of how vestibular disorders impair bodily self-consciousness

    PubMed Central

    Lopez, Christophe

    2013-01-01

    The consequences of vestibular disorders on balance, oculomotor control, and self-motion perception have been extensively described in humans and animals. More recently, vestibular disorders have been related to cognitive deficits in spatial navigation and memory tasks. Less frequently, abnormal bodily perceptions have been described in patients with vestibular disorders. Altered forms of bodily self-consciousness include distorted body image and body schema, disembodied self-location (out-of-body experience), altered sense of agency, as well as more complex experiences of dissociation and detachment from the self (depersonalization). In this article, I suggest that vestibular disorders create sensory conflict or mismatch in multisensory brain regions, producing perceptual incoherence and abnormal body and self perceptions. This hypothesis is based on recent functional mapping of the human vestibular cortex, showing vestibular projections to the primary and secondary somatosensory cortex and in several multisensory areas found to be crucial for bodily self-consciousness. PMID:24367303

  10. Scientific Understanding: Lacey's `Critical Self-Consciousness' Seen as Echoes of J.D. Bernal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cross, Roger T.

    From a consideration of the nature of scientific understanding and the control of nature Lacey proposes a set of criteria by which the reform of science teaching might be guided. He uses the term critical self-consciousness to describe the development of learner's appreciation of the character of scientific activity, its applications, and the choices citizens face in society. By this latter he means responsible participation, presumably in the debates surrounding the character of scientific activity, its applications, and the choices inherent in these. In this paper I show that Lacey's vision of the schooling of science through the development of critical self-consciousness has been articulated by others at different epochs, and probably from different ideological perspectives. Knowledge of these will help Lacey in his search for an education in science which promotes citizens' participation rather than alienating them from decision-making in society.

  11. The brain network reflecting bodily self-consciousness: a functional connectivity study.

    PubMed

    Ionta, Silvio; Martuzzi, Roberto; Salomon, Roy; Blanke, Olaf

    2014-12-01

    Several brain regions are important for processing self-location and first-person perspective, two important aspects of bodily self-consciousness. However, the interplay between these regions has not been clarified. In addition, while self-location and first-person perspective in healthy subjects are associated with bilateral activity in temporoparietal junction (TPJ), disturbed self-location and first-person perspective result from damage of only the right TPJ. Identifying the involved brain network and understanding the role of hemispheric specializations in encoding self-location and first-person perspective, will provide important information on system-level interactions neurally mediating bodily self-consciousness. Here, we used functional connectivity and showed that right and left TPJ are bilaterally connected to supplementary motor area, ventral premotor cortex, insula, intraparietal sulcus and occipitotemporal cortex. Furthermore, the functional connectivity between right TPJ and right insula had the highest selectivity for changes in self-location and first-person perspective. Finally, functional connectivity revealed hemispheric differences showing that self-location and first-person perspective modulated the connectivity between right TPJ, right posterior insula, and right supplementary motor area, and between left TPJ and right anterior insula. The present data extend previous evidence on healthy populations and clinical observations in neurological deficits, supporting a bilateral, but right-hemispheric dominant, network for bodily self-consciousness.

  12. Turning body and self inside out: visualized heartbeats alter bodily self-consciousness and tactile perception.

    PubMed

    Aspell, Jane Elizabeth; Heydrich, Lukas; Marillier, Guillaume; Lavanchy, Tom; Herbelin, Bruno; Blanke, Olaf

    2013-12-01

    Prominent theories highlight the importance of bodily perception for self-consciousness, but it is currently not known whether bodily perception is based on interoceptive or exteroceptive signals or on integrated signals from these anatomically distinct systems. In the research reported here, we combined both types of signals by surreptitiously providing participants with visual exteroceptive information about their heartbeat: A real-time video image of a periodically illuminated silhouette outlined participants' (projected, "virtual") bodies and flashed in synchrony with their heartbeats. We investigated whether these "cardio-visual" signals could modulate bodily self-consciousness and tactile perception. We report two main findings. First, synchronous cardio-visual signals increased self-identification with and self-location toward the virtual body, and second, they altered the perception of tactile stimuli applied to participants' backs so that touch was mislocalized toward the virtual body. We argue that the integration of signals from the inside and the outside of the human body is a fundamental neurobiological process underlying self-consciousness.

  13. The brain network reflecting bodily self-consciousness: a functional connectivity study

    PubMed Central

    Ionta, Silvio; Martuzzi, Roberto; Salomon, Roy

    2014-01-01

    Several brain regions are important for processing self-location and first-person perspective, two important aspects of bodily self-consciousness. However, the interplay between these regions has not been clarified. In addition, while self-location and first-person perspective in healthy subjects are associated with bilateral activity in temporoparietal junction (TPJ), disturbed self-location and first-person perspective result from damage of only the right TPJ. Identifying the involved brain network and understanding the role of hemispheric specializations in encoding self-location and first-person perspective, will provide important information on system-level interactions neurally mediating bodily self-consciousness. Here, we used functional connectivity and showed that right and left TPJ are bilaterally connected to supplementary motor area, ventral premotor cortex, insula, intraparietal sulcus and occipitotemporal cortex. Furthermore, the functional connectivity between right TPJ and right insula had the highest selectivity for changes in self-location and first-person perspective. Finally, functional connectivity revealed hemispheric differences showing that self-location and first-person perspective modulated the connectivity between right TPJ, right posterior insula, and right supplementary motor area, and between left TPJ and right anterior insula. The present data extend previous evidence on healthy populations and clinical observations in neurological deficits, supporting a bilateral, but right-hemispheric dominant, network for bodily self-consciousness. PMID:24396007

  14. Increased functional connectivity between superior colliculus and brain regions implicated in bodily self-consciousness during the rubber hand illusion.

    PubMed

    Olivé, Isadora; Tempelmann, Claus; Berthoz, Alain; Heinze, Hans-Joachim

    2015-02-01

    Bodily self-consciousness refers to bodily processes operating at personal, peripersonal, and extrapersonal spatial dimensions. Although the neural underpinnings of representations of personal and peripersonal space associated with bodily self-consciousness were thoroughly investigated, relatively few is known about the neural underpinnings of representations of extrapersonal space relevant for bodily self-consciousness. In the search to unravel brain structures generating a representation of the extrapersonal space relevant for bodily self-consciousness, we developed a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study to investigate the implication of the superior colliculus (SC) in bodily illusions, and more specifically in the rubber hand illusion (RHi), which constitutes an established paradigm to study the neural underpinnings of bodily self-consciousness. We observed activation of the colliculus ipsilateral to the manipulated hand associated with eliciting of RHi. A generalized form of context-dependent psychophysiological interaction analysis unravelled increased illusion-dependent functional connectivity between the SC and some of the main brain areas previously involved in bodily self-consciousness: right temporoparietal junction (rTPJ), bilateral ventral premotor cortex (vPM), and bilateral postcentral gyrus. We hypothesize that the collicular map of the extrapersonal space interacts with maps of the peripersonal and personal space generated at rTPJ, vPM and the postcentral gyrus, producing a unified representation of space that is relevant for bodily self-consciousness. We suggest that processes of multisensory integration of bodily-related sensory inputs located in this unified representation of space constitute one main factor underpinning emergence of bodily self-consciousness.

  15. Subjective and physical dimensions of bodily self-consciousness, and their dis-integration in anorexia nervosa.

    PubMed

    Legrand, Dorothée

    2010-02-01

    The present investigation concerns the multidimensionality of self-consciousness. I will specifically address this general issue by focusing on bodily self-consciousness and by considering how one is conscious of one's body through consciousness of both its physicality and its subjectivity. Here, physicality is defined as the belongingness to the physical world; subjectivity is defined as the fact of being a subject of conscious experience. Once subjectivity and physicality are differentiated from each other, the difficulty is to clarify the integration of these dimensions of bodily self-consciousness into a single experience of one's body: how does the consciousness of one's body integrate one's consciousness of one's body-as-subjective and one's consciousness of one's body-as-physical? In this investigation, I describe different forms of bodily self-consciousness in ways that shed light on the intermingling of subjectivity and physicality. I argue that being conscious of one's body-as-subjective involves experiencing one's belongingness to the physical world; conversely, being conscious of one's body-as-physical involves experiencing it as one's own; either way, such forms of bodily self-consciousness involve experiencing both the subjectivity and the physicality of one's body. The hypothesis here is that the imbalance of these dimensions relative to each other would be pathological. I will thus underline the normal multidimensionality of bodily self-consciousness by considering its pathological breakdown as it happens in anorexia nervosa.

  16. Salience and valence of appearance in a population with a visible difference of appearance: direct and moderated relationships with self-consciousness, anxiety and depression.

    PubMed

    Moss, Timothy P; Lawson, Victoria; White, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Psychometric measures of appearance salience and valence, CARSAL and CARVAL, have been previously demonstrated to be key factors underpinning appearance related self-consciousness and negative affect in the general population. However, the extent to which the scales are appropriate for people with a visibly different appearance has not previously been reported. Neither has the moderating effect of appearance salience (CARSAL) on the relationship between appearance valence (CARVAL) and appearance self-consciousness, previously shown in a general population sample, been replicated with people who are visibly different. Twelve hundred and sixty five participants with a visible difference in either secondary care (n = 651) or the community (n = 614) provided data. Analysis confirmed the psychometric qualities of both CARSAL and CARVAL, and the conceptual independence of each scale. The scales also demonstrated independent and interdependent relationships with social anxiety and avoidance in relation to appearance, depression and anxiety. Appearance salience moderated the relationship with valence on these psychosocial measures. In summary, this paper corroborates the use of CARSAL and CARVAL with both visibly different and general adult populations for the measurement of appearance salience and valence.

  17. The development of bodily self-consciousness: changing responses to the Full Body Illusion in childhood.

    PubMed

    Cowie, Dorothy; McKenna, Aisling; Bremner, Andrew J; Aspell, Jane E

    2017-03-22

    The present work investigates the development of bodily self-consciousness and its relation to multisensory bodily information, by measuring for the first time the development of responses to the full body illusion in childhood. We tested three age groups of children: 6- to 7-year-olds (n = 28); 8- to 9-year-olds (n = 21); 10- to 11-year-olds (n = 19), and a group of adults (n = 31). Each participant wore a head-mounted display (HMD) which displayed a view from a video camera positioned 2 metres behind their own back. Thus, they could view a virtual body from behind. We manipulated visuo-tactile synchrony by showing the participants a view of their virtual back being stroked with a stick at the same time and same place as their real back (synchronous condition), or at different times and places (asynchronous condition). After each period of stroking, we measured three aspects of bodily self-consciousness: drift in perceived self-location, self-identification with the virtual body, and touch referral to the virtual body. Results show that self-identification with the virtual body was significantly stronger in the synchronous condition than in the asynchronous condition even in the youngest group tested; however, the size of this effect increased with age. Touch referral to the virtual body was greater in the synchronous condition than in the asynchronous condition only for 10- to 11-year-olds and adults. Drift in perceived self-location was greater in the synchronous condition than in the asynchronous condition only for adults. Thus, the youngest age tested can self-identify with a virtual body, but the links between multisensory signals and bodily self-consciousness develop significantly across childhood. This suggests a long period of development of the bodily self and exciting potential for the use of virtual reality technologies with children.

  18. Multi-Sensory and Sensorimotor Foundation of Bodily Self-Consciousness – An Interdisciplinary Approach

    PubMed Central

    Ionta, Silvio; Gassert, Roger; Blanke, Olaf

    2011-01-01

    Scientific investigations on the nature of the self have so far focused on high-level mechanisms. Recent evidence, however, suggests that low-level bottom-up mechanisms of multi-sensory integration play a fundamental role in encoding specific components of bodily self-consciousness, such as self-location and first-person perspective (Blanke and Metzinger, 2009). Self-location and first-person perspective are abnormal in neurological patients suffering from out-of-body experiences (Blanke et al., 2004), and can be manipulated experimentally in healthy subjects by imposing multi-sensory conflicts (Lenggenhager et al., 2009). Activity of the temporo-parietal junction (TPJ) reflects experimentally induced changes in self-location and first-person perspective (Ionta et al., 2011), and dysfunctions in TPJ are causally associated with out-of-body experiences (Blanke et al., 2002). We argue that TPJ is one of the key areas for multi-sensory integration of bodily self-consciousness, that its levels of activity reflect the experience of the conscious “I” as embodied and localized within bodily space, and that these mechanisms can be systematically investigated using state of the art technologies such as robotics, virtual reality, and non-invasive neuroimaging. PMID:22207860

  19. Gender Differences in Object of Desire Self-Consciousness Sexual Fantasies.

    PubMed

    Bogaert, Anthony F; Visser, Beth A; Pozzebon, Julie A

    2015-11-01

    In a recent review article, Bogaert and Brotto (2014) discussed "object of desire self-consciousness," a perception that one is romantically and sexually desirable in another's eyes. They argued that this perception is more relevant to women's sociosexual functioning than it is to men's. In the present study, we attempted to find direct evidence that object of desire themes are linked more to women's sexual desire and arousal than they are to men's by examining the differences in content between men's and women's sexual fantasies. A total of 198 men and women reported on arousing themes in sexual fantasies using three methodologies: endorsement of items on a sexual fantasy questionnaire, sentence completion of sexually-charged scenarios, and open-ended sexual fantasies. The men and women also rated their attractiveness and were rated for attractiveness by two female experimenters. On all three fantasy composites, women endorsed more object of desire themes than did men, and these effects occurred independent of the subjective and observer-rated attractiveness measures. The results were discussed in relation to theorizing that object of desire self-consciousness can function as part of many women's self-schemata or scripts related to romance and sexuality.

  20. The role of body-related self-conscious emotions in motivating women's physical activity.

    PubMed

    Sabiston, Catherine M; Brunet, Jennifer; Kowalski, Kent C; Wilson, Philip M; Mack, Diane E; Crocker, Peter R E

    2010-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to test a model where body-related self-conscious emotions of shame, guilt, and pride were associated with physical activity regulations and behavior. Adult women (N = 389; M age = 29.82, SD = 15.20 years) completed a questionnaire assessing body-related pride, shame, and guilt, motivational regulations, and leisure-time physical activity. The hypothesized measurement and structural models were deemed adequate, as was a revised model examining shame-free guilt and guilt-free shame. In the revised structural model, body-related pride was positively significantly related to identified and intrinsic regulations. Body-related shame-free guilt was significantly associated with external, introjected, and identified regulations. Body-related guilt-free shame was significantly positively related to external and introjected regulation, and negatively associated with intrinsic regulation. Identified and intrinsic regulations were significantly positively related to physical activity (R2 = .62). These findings highlight the importance of targeting and understanding the realm of body-related self-conscious emotions and the associated links to regulations and physical activity behavior.

  1. Right insular damage decreases heartbeat awareness and alters cardio-visual effects on bodily self-consciousness.

    PubMed

    Ronchi, Roberta; Bello-Ruiz, Javier; Lukowska, Marta; Herbelin, Bruno; Cabrilo, Ivan; Schaller, Karl; Blanke, Olaf

    2015-04-01

    Recent evidence suggests that multisensory integration of bodily signals involving exteroceptive and interoceptive information modulates bodily aspects of self-consciousness such as self-identification and self-location. In the so-called Full Body Illusion subjects watch a virtual body being stroked while they perceive tactile stimulation on their own body inducing illusory self-identification with the virtual body and a change in self-location towards the virtual body. In a related illusion, it has recently been shown that similar changes in self-identification and self-location can be observed when an interoceptive signal is used in association with visual stimulation of the virtual body (i.e., participants observe a virtual body illuminated in synchrony with their heartbeat). Although brain imaging and neuropsychological evidence suggest that the insular cortex is a core region for interoceptive processing (such as cardiac perception and awareness) as well as for self-consciousness, it is currently not known whether the insula mediates cardio-visual modulation of self-consciousness. Here we tested the involvement of insular cortex in heartbeat awareness and cardio-visual manipulation of bodily self-consciousness in a patient before and after resection of a selective right neoplastic insular lesion. Cardio-visual stimulation induced an abnormally enhanced state of bodily self-consciousness; in addition, cardio-visual manipulation was associated with an experienced loss of the spatial unity of the self (illusory bi-location and duplication of his body), not observed in healthy subjects. Heartbeat awareness was found to decrease after insular resection. Based on these data we propose that the insula mediates interoceptive awareness as well as cardio-visual effects on bodily self-consciousness and that insular processing of interoceptive signals is an important mechanism for the experienced unity of the self.

  2. Choking under the pressure of a positive stereotype: gender identification and self-consciousness moderate men's math test performance.

    PubMed

    Tagler, Michael J

    2012-01-01

    Choking under pressure occurs when an individual underperforms due to situational pressure. The present study examined whether being the target of a positive social stereotype regarding math ability causes choking among men. Gender identification and self-consciousness were hypothesized to moderate the effect of math-gender stereotypes on men's math test performance. Men high in self-consciousness but low in gender identification significantly underperformed when exposed to gender-relevant test instructions. No significant effects were found under a gender-irrelevant condition. These findings are discussed in the contexts of research on stereotype threat, stereotype lift, and choking under pressure.

  3. The African American Acculturation Scale II: Cross-Validation and Short Form.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Landrine, Hope; Klonoff, Elizabeth A.

    1995-01-01

    Studied African American culture, using a new, shortened, 33-item African American Acculturation Scale (AAAS-33) to assess the scale's validity and reliability. Comparisons between the original form and AAAS-33 reveal high correlations, however, the longer form may be sensitive to some beliefs, practices, and attitudes not assessed by the short…

  4. Familiar music as an enhancer of self-consciousness in patients with Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Arroyo-Anlló, Eva M; Díaz, Juan Poveda; Gil, Roger

    2013-01-01

    The main objective of this paper is to examine the impact of familiar music on self-consciousness (SC) in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). For this purpose, two AD groups of 20 patients matched by age, educational level, gender, illness duration, and cognitive state were assessed using an SC questionnaire before and after music intervention. The SC questionnaire measured several aspects: personal identity, anosognosia, affective state, body representation, prospective memory, introspection and moral judgments. One AD group received familiar music stimulation and another AD group unfamiliar music stimulation over three months. The AD patients who received a familiar music intervention showed a stabilization or improvement in aspects of SC. By contrast, control AD group showed a deterioration of most of the SC aspects after unfamiliar music stimulation, except the SC aspects of body representation and affective state. Familiar music stimulation could be considered as an enhancer of SC in patients with Alzheimer's disease.

  5. Bursts of Self-Conscious Emotions in the Daily Lives of Emerging Adults

    PubMed Central

    Conroy, David E.; Ram, Nilam; Pincus, Aaron L.; Rebar, Amanda L.

    2015-01-01

    Self-conscious emotions play a role in regulating daily achievement strivings, social behavior, and health, but little is known about the processes underlying their daily manifestation. Emerging adults (n = 182) completed daily diaries for eight days and multilevel models were estimated to evaluate whether, how much, and why their emotions varied from day-to-day. Within-person variation in authentic pride was normally-distributed across people and days whereas the other emotions were burst-like and characterized by zero-inflated, negative binomial distributions. Perceiving social interactions as generally communal increased the odds of hubristic pride activation and reduced the odds of guilt activation; daily communal behavior reduced guilt intensity. Results illuminated processes through which meaning about the self-in-relation-to-others is constructed during a critical period of development. PMID:25859164

  6. Bilateral Rolandic Operculum processing underlying heartbeat awareness reflects changes in bodily self-consciousness.

    PubMed

    Blefari, Maria Laura; Martuzzi, Roberto; Salomon, Roy; Bello-Ruiz, Javier; Herbelin, Bruno; Serino, Andrea; Blanke, Olaf

    2017-03-30

    Exteroceptive bodily signals (including tactile, proprioceptive, and visual signals) are important information contributing to self-consciousness. Moreover, prominent theories proposed that visceral signals about internal bodily states are equally or even more important. Neuroimaging studies have described several brain regions which process signals related to bodily self-consciousness (BSC) based on the integration of exteroceptive signals (e.g. the premotor cortex, the angular gyrus, the supramarginal gyrus and the extrastriate body area), and that another brain region, the insula/operculum which is involved in interoception and interoceptive awareness, processes signals critical for self-awareness. Providing evidence for the integration of exteroceptive and interoceptive bodily signals, recent behavioral experiments have demonstrated that the manipulation of interoceptive (i.e. cardiac) signals, coupled with that of exteroceptive (i.e. visual) signals, also modulates BSC. Does this integration occur within or outside the structures described above? To this end, we adapted a recently designed protocol that uses cardio-visual stimulation to induce altered states of BSC to fMRI. Additionally, we measured neural activity in a classical interoceptive task. We found six brain regions (the bilateral Rolandic operculum, the bilateral supramarginal gyrus, the right frontal inferior operculum, and the left temporal superior gyrus) that were activated differently during the interoception task as opposed to a control task. The brain regions which showed the highest selectivity for BSC based on our cardio-visual manipulation were found in the bilateral Rolandic operculum. Given our findings, we propose that the Rolandic operculum processes integrated exteroceptive-interoceptive signals that are necessary for interoceptive awareness as well as BSC. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  7. Self-Consciousness and Assertiveness as Explanatory Variables of L2 Oral Ability: A Latent Variable Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ockey, Gary

    2011-01-01

    Drawing on current theories in personality, second-language (L2) oral ability, and psychometrics, this study investigates the extent to which self-consciousness and assertiveness are explanatory variables of L2 oral ability. Three hundred sixty first-year Japanese university students who were studying English as a foreign language participated in…

  8. Increasing the Predictive Validity of Personality Tests: Private Self-Consciousness and Priming of Trait-Relevant Knowledge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hobden, Karen L.

    This paper discusses two techniques for improving the predictive validity of personality measures: (1) measuring dispositional levels of private self-consciousness, that is, one's tendency to habitually reflect on covert aspects of the self such as thoughts, feelings, perceptions, and motives; and (2) priming trait-relevant knowledge (temporarily…

  9. DMN Operational Synchrony Relates to Self-Consciousness: Evidence from Patients in Vegetative and Minimally Conscious States.

    PubMed

    Fingelkurts, Andrew A; Fingelkurts, Alexander A; Bagnato, Sergio; Boccagni, Cristina; Galardi, Giuseppe

    2012-01-01

    The default mode network (DMN) has been consistently activated across a wide variety of self-related tasks, leading to a proposal of the DMN's role in self-related processing. Indeed, there is limited fMRI evidence that the functional connectivity within the DMN may underlie a phenomenon referred to as self-awareness. At the same time, none of the known studies have explicitly investigated neuronal functional interactions among brain areas that comprise the DMN as a function of self-consciousness loss. To fill this gap, EEG operational synchrony analysis [1, 2] was performed in patients with severe brain injuries in vegetative and minimally conscious states to study the strength of DMN operational synchrony as a function of self-consciousness expression. We demonstrated that the strength of DMN EEG operational synchrony was smallest or even absent in patients in vegetative state, intermediate in patients in minimally conscious state and highest in healthy fully self-conscious subjects. At the same time the process of ecoupling of operations performed by neuronal assemblies that comprise the DMN was highest in patients in vegetative state, intermediate in patients in minimally conscious state and minimal in healthy fully self-conscious subjects. The DMN's frontal EEG operational module had the strongest decrease in operational synchrony strength as a function of selfconsciousness loss, when compared with the DMN's posterior modules. Based on these results it is suggested that the strength of DMN functional connectivity could mediate the strength of self-consciousness expression. The observed alterations similarly occurred across EEG alpha, beta1 and beta2 frequency oscillations. Presented results suggest that the EEG operational synchrony within DMN may provide an objective and accurate measure for the assessment of signs of self-(un)consciousness in these challenging patient populations. This method therefore, may complement the current diagnostic procedures for

  10. The African American Adolescent Respect Scale: A Measure of a Prosocial Attitude

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leary, Joy D.; Brennan, Eileen M.; Briggs, Harold E.

    2005-01-01

    Objectives: The respect that African American youth feel promotes psychological wellness and social identity; conversely, a lack of respect compromises their identities and is viewed as a threat to safety. This article describes the development, psychometric analysis, and validation of the African American Respect Scale, a 20-item instrument…

  11. Testing the Factor Structure of a Scale to Assess African American Acculturation: A Confirmatory Factor Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reid, Robert J.; Brown, Tiffany L.; Peterson, N. Andrew; Snowden, Lonnie; Hines, Alice

    2009-01-01

    Research has pointed to the important role that acculturation plays in understanding a range of physical health behaviors as well as psychological functioning, but only a few studies have attempted to establish reliable and valid measures of African American acculturation. The scale developed by Snowden and Hines (1999) to assess African American…

  12. Self-Conscious emotions’ role in functional outcomes within clinical populations

    PubMed Central

    Macaulay, Rebecca; Cohen, Alex

    2014-01-01

    Patients with severe mental illnesses (SMI) often experience dysfunction in their ability to efficiently carry out everyday roles and/or skills. These deficits are seen across many domains of daily functioning. We suggest that the “self-conscious emotions” of pride and shame play a role in these functional outcomes. Pride and shame appear to facilitate individuals’ ability to evaluate their group status, detect social threats, and to adjust their behaviors accordingly. This study utilized an objective performance measure of functional capacity and a self-report of quality of life (QoL) to examine the respective roles of pride and shame in functional outcomes within two SMI patient groups (schizophrenia and affective disorder) and a community control group. The influence of neurocognition, affect and symptomatology on functional outcomes was also assessed. The patient groups did not differ in cognitive functioning, QoL, or shame. The schizophrenia group reported significantly higher pride and displayed worse objective performance than the other groups. Within each of the groups, shame had an inverse relationship with QoL, while pride positively associated with QoL. Shame associated with worse functional capacity in the schizophrenia group. Shame associated with better functional capacity, while pride associated with worse functional capacity within the affective disorder group. PMID:24508025

  13. Xenomelia: A Social Neuroscience View of Altered Bodily Self-Consciousness

    PubMed Central

    Brugger, Peter; Lenggenhager, Bigna; Giummarra, Melita J.

    2013-01-01

    Xenomelia, the “foreign limb syndrome,” is characterized by the non-acceptance of one or more of one’s own extremities and the resulting desire for elective limb amputation or paralysis. Formerly labeled “body integrity identity disorder” (BIID), the condition was originally considered a psychological or psychiatric disorder, but a brain-centered Zeitgeist and a rapidly growing interest in the neural underpinnings of bodily self-consciousness has shifted the focus toward dysfunctional central nervous system circuits. The present article outlays both mind-based and brain-based views highlighting their shortcomings. We propose that full insight into what should be conceived a “xenomelia spectrum disorder” will require interpretation of individual symptomatology in a social context. A proper social neuroscience of xenomelia respects the functional neuroanatomy of corporeal awareness, but also acknowledges the brain’s plasticity in response to an individual’s history, which is lived against a cultural background. This integrated view of xenomelia will promote the subfield of consciousness research concerned with the unity of body and self. PMID:23630513

  14. [Neural representation of human body schema and corporeal self-consciousness].

    PubMed

    Naito, Eiichi; Morita, Tomoyo

    2014-04-01

    The human brain processes every sensation evoked by altered posture and builds up a constantly changing postural model of the body. This is called a body schema, and somatic signals originating from skeletal muscles and joints, i.e. proprioceptive signals, largely contribute its formation. Recent neuroimaging techniques have revealed neuronal substrates for human body schema. A dynamic limb position model seems to be computed in the central motor network (represented by the primary motor cortex). Here, proprioceptive (kinesthetic) signals from muscle spindles are transformed into motor commands, which may underlie somatic perception of limb movement and facilitate its efficient motor control. Somatic signals originating from different body parts are integrated in the course of hierarchical somatosensory processing, and activity in higher-order somatosensory parietal cortices is capable of representing a postural model of the entire body. The left fronto-parietal network associates internal motor representation with external object representation, allowing the embodiment of external objects. In contrast, the right fronto-parietal regions connected by the most inferior branch of superior longitudinal fasciculus fibers seem to have the functions of monitoring bodily states and updating body schema. We hypothesize that activity in these right-sided fronto-parietal regions is deeply involved in corporeal self-consciousness.

  15. Individual differences and self-regulatory fatigue: optimism, conscientiousness, and self-consciousness.

    PubMed

    Nes, Lise Solberg; Carlson, Charles R; Crofford, Leslie J; de Leeuw, Reny; Segerstrom, Suzanne C

    2011-04-01

    Ability to self-regulate varies and self-regulatory strength is a limited source that can be depleted or fatigued. Research on the impact of individual differences on self-regulatory capacity is still scarce, and this study aimed to examine whether personality factors such as dispositional optimism, conscientiousness, and self-consciousness can impact or buffer self-regulatory fatigue. Participants were patients diagnosed with chronic multi-symptom illnesses (N = 50), or pain free matched controls (N = 50), randomly assigned to either a high or low self-regulation task, followed by a persistence task. Higher optimism predicted longer persistence (p = .04), and there was a trend towards the same effect for conscientiousness (p = .08). The optimism by self-regulation interaction was significant (p = .01), but rather than persisting despite self-regulatory effort, optimists persisted longer only when not experiencing self-regulatory fatigue. The effects of optimism were stronger for controls than patients. There was also a trend towards a similar conscientiousness by self-regulation interaction (p = .06). These results suggest that the well-established positive impact of optimism and conscientiousness on engagement and persistence may be diminished or reversed in the presence of self-regulatory effort or fatigue, adding an important new chapter to the self-regulation, personality, and pain literature.

  16. Genital Appearance Dissatisfaction: Implications for Women’s Genital Image Self-Consciousness, Sexual Esteem, Sexual Satisfaction, and Sexual Risk

    PubMed Central

    Schick, Vanessa R.; Calabrese, Sarah K.; Rima, Brandi N.; Zucker, Alyssa N.

    2010-01-01

    Findings regarding the link between body image and sexuality have been equivocal, possibly because of the insensitivity of many of body image measures to potential variability across sensory aspects of the body (e.g., appearance versus odor), individual body parts (e.g., genitalia versus thighs), and social settings (e.g., public versus intimate). The current study refined existing methods of evaluating women’s body image in the context of sexuality by focusing upon two highly specified dimensions: satisfaction with the visual appearance of the genitalia and self-consciousness about the genitalia during a sexual encounter. Genital appearance dissatisfaction, genital image self-consciousness, and multiple facets of sexuality were examined with a sample of 217 undergraduate women using an online survey. Path analysis revealed that greater dissatisfaction with genital appearance was associated with higher genital image self-consciousness during physical intimacy, which, in turn, was associated with lower sexual esteem, sexual satisfaction, and motivation to avoid risky sexual behavior. These findings underscore the detrimental impact of negative genital perceptions on young women’s sexual wellbeing, which is of particular concern given their vulnerability at this stage of sexual development as well as the high rates of sexually transmitted infections within this age group. Interventions that enhance satisfaction with the natural appearance of their genitalia could facilitate the development of a healthy sexual self-concept and provide long-term benefits in terms of sexual safety and satisfaction. PMID:20824180

  17. African hot spot volcanism: small-scale convection in the upper mantle beneath cratons.

    PubMed

    King, S D; Ritsema, J

    2000-11-10

    Numerical models demonstrate that small-scale convection develops in the upper mantle beneath the transition of thick cratonic lithosphere and thin oceanic lithosphere. These models explain the location and geochemical characteristics of intraplate volcanos on the African and South American plates. They also explain the presence of relatively high seismic shear wave velocities (cold downwellings) in the mantle transition zone beneath the western margin of African cratons and the eastern margin of South American cratons. Small-scale, edge-driven convection is an alternative to plumes for explaining intraplate African and South American hot spot volcanism, and small-scale convection is consistent with mantle downwellings beneath the African and South American lithosphere.

  18. Gender Differences in Self-Conscious Emotions and Motivation to Quit Gambling.

    PubMed

    Kushnir, Vladyslav; Godinho, Alexandra; Hodgins, David C; Hendershot, Christian S; Cunningham, John A

    2016-09-01

    Considerable gender differences have been previously noted in the prevalence, etiology, and clinical features of problem gambling. While differences in affective states between men and women in particular, may explain differential experiences in the process of gambling, the role of affect in motivations for quitting gambling and recovery has not been thoroughly explored. The aim of this study was to examine gender differences within a sample of problem gamblers motivated to quit with or without formal treatment, and further, to explore the interactions between gender, shame and guilt-proneness, and autonomous versus controlled reasons for change. Motivation for change and self-conscious emotional traits were analyzed for 207 adult problem gamblers with an interest in quitting or reducing their gambling (96.6 % not receiving treatment). Overall, gender differences were not observed in clinical and demographic characteristics. However, women exhibited greater shame [F(1,204) = 12.11, p = 0.001] and guilt proneness [F(1,204) = 14.16, p < 0.001] compared to men, whereas men scored higher on trait detachment [F(1,204) = 7.08, p = 0.008]. Controlling for demographic and clinical characteristics, general linear models revealed that autonomous motivation for change was associated with higher guilt-proneness, greater problem gambling severity, and the preparation stage of change; whereas controlled forms of motivation were significantly associated with higher shame-proneness and greater problem gambling severity. No gender effects were observed for either motivation for change. These findings suggest that the process of change can be different for shame-prone and guilt-prone problem gamblers, which may impact behavioral outcomes.

  19. Career Adapt-Abilities Scale--South African Form: Psychometric Properties and Construct Validity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maree, Jacobus Gideon

    2012-01-01

    The Career Adapt-Abilities Scale--South African Form (CAAS) consists of four scales, each with six items that measure concern, control, curiosity, and confidence as psychosocial resources for managing occupational transitions, developmental tasks and work traumas. Internal consistency estimates for the subscale and total scores ranged from good to…

  20. Early and late activity in somatosensory cortex reflects changes in bodily self-consciousness: an evoked potential study.

    PubMed

    Aspell, J E; Palluel, E; Blanke, O

    2012-08-02

    How can we investigate the brain mechanisms underlying self-consciousness? Recent behavioural studies on multisensory bodily perception have shown that multisensory conflicts can alter bodily self-consciousness such as in the "full body illusion" (FBI) in which changes in self-identification with a virtual body and tactile perception are induced. Here we investigated whether experimental changes in self-identification during the FBI are accompanied by activity changes in somatosensory cortex by recording somatosensory-evoked potentials (SEPs). To modulate self-identification, participants were filmed by a video camera from behind while their backs were stroked, either synchronously (illusion condition) or asynchronously (control condition) with respect to the stroking seen on their virtual body. Tibial nerve SEPs were recorded during the FBI and analysed using evoked potential (EP) mapping. Tactile mislocalisation was measured using the crossmodal congruency task. SEP mapping revealed five sequential periods of brain activation during the FBI, of which two differed between the illusion condition and the control condition. Activation at 30-50 ms (corresponding to the P40 component) in primary somatosensory cortex was stronger in the illusion condition. A later activation at ∼110-200 ms, likely originating in higher-tier somatosensory regions in parietal cortex, was stronger and lasted longer in the control condition. These data show that changes in bodily self-consciousness modulate activity in primary and higher-tier somatosensory cortex at two distinct processing steps. We argue that early modulations of primary somatosensory cortex may be a consequence of (1) multisensory integration of synchronous vs. asynchronous visuo-tactile stimuli and/or (2) differences in spatial attention (to near or far space) between the conditions. The later activation in higher-tier parietal cortex (and potentially other regions in temporo-parietal and frontal cortex) likely

  1. Adaptation of an Acculturation Scale for African Refugee Women

    PubMed Central

    Flynn, Priscilla; Asiedu, Gladys B.; Hedberg, Eric; Breitkopf, Carmen Radecki

    2014-01-01

    Newly-arrived African refugees are a vulnerable group of immigrants for whom no validated acculturation measures exist. A valid measurement tool is essential to understand how acculturative processes impact health and health disparities. We adapted the Bicultural Involvement Questionnaire (BIQ) to characterize its reliability among ethnic Somali women residing in Minnesota, and Somali, Somali Bantu, and Burundian women in Arizona. Surveys were administered to 164 adult women. Analyses were conducted along socio-demographic variables of ethnicity, geographic residence, age, and length of time in the United States through t tests and one-way analysis of variance. Exploratory factor analysis was conducted on the modified BIQ. Exploratory factor analyses yielded five subscales: “Speak Native Language”, “Speak English Language”, “Enjoy Native Activities”, “Enjoy American Activities”, and “Desired Ideal Culture”. The subscales of the modified BIQ possessed Cronbach’s α ranging from 0.68 to 0.92, suggestive that all subscales had acceptable to excellent internal consistency. The modified BIQ maintained its psychometric properties across geographic regions of resettled Central and East African refugees. PMID:24573644

  2. [Looking at the self under the microscope of cognitive neurosciences: from self-consciousness to consciousness of others].

    PubMed

    Duval, Céline; Desgranges, Béatrice; Eustache, Francis; Piolino, Pascale

    2009-03-01

    Cognitive neurosciences are interested in the concept of self, resulting from two muddled aspects. This concept relates to both a set of personal complex and multidimensional mental representations about ourselves and the flow of self-consciousness which is associated. It grounds individual identity and is related to the subjectivity of the personal experiences, at the core of continuity over the time. The existence of others seems essential in the construction of self mental representations; that is why the concept of self is strongly related to the theory of mind (ToM). ToM corresponds to the capacity to infer representations or mental states to others. Even if self and ToM researches are often carried out in two distinct fields, it seems like these two concepts share common processes. Recent imaging studies comfort this idea. Activations in a common neuronal network (principally median prefrontal cortex and precuneus) were found during the realization of self or ToM tasks. Thus, our capacity to represent our thoughts and others' one coud have a similar cerebral origin. Self-consciousness and consciousness of others could then be considered as a bidirectional interaction at the very bases of both individual identity and the other's knowledge, which regulate behavior and social interactions.

  3. A New Audience Segmentation Tool for African Americans: The Black Identity Classification Scale

    PubMed Central

    DAVIS, RACHEL E.; ALEXANDER, GWEN; CALVI, JOSEPHINE; WIESE, CHERYL; GREENE, SARAH; NOWAK, MIKE; CROSS, WILLIAM E.; RESNICOW, KEN

    2011-01-01

    Many health communications target African Americans in an attempt to remediate race-based health disparities. Such materials often assume that African Americans are culturally homogeneous; however, research indicates that African Americans are heterogeneous in their attitudes, behaviors, and beliefs. The Black Identity Classification Scale (BICS) was designed as a telephone-administered tool to segment African American audiences into 16 ethnic identity types. The BICS was pretested using focus groups, telephone pretests, and a pilot study (n=306). The final scale was then administered to 625 Black adults participating in a dietary intervention study, where it generally demonstrated good internal consistency reliability. The construct validity of the BICS was also explored by comparing participants’ responses to culturally associated survey items. The distribution of the 16 BICS identity types in the intervention study is presented, as well as select characteristics for participants with core identity components. Although additional research is warranted, these findings suggest that the BICS has good psychometric properties and may be an effective tool for identifying African American audience segments. PMID:20677057

  4. Spiritual Well-Being Scale Ethnic Differences between Caucasians and African-Americans: Follow Up Analyses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Geri; Gridley, Betty; Fleming, Willie

    This follow up study is in response to Miller, Fleming, and Brown-Andersons (1998) study of ethnic differences between Caucasians and African-Americans where the authors suggested that the Spiritual Well-Being (SWB) Scale may need to be interpreted differently depending on ethnicity. In this study, confirmatory factor analyses were conducted for…

  5. Cultural Validity of the Almost Perfect Scale-Revised for African American College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mobley, Michael; Slaney, Robert B.; Rice, Kenneth G.

    2005-01-01

    This study investigated the cross-cultural construct validity of perfectionism using the Almost Perfect Scale-Revised (APS-R; R. B. Slaney, M. Mobley, J. Trippi, J. S. Ashby, & D. G. Johnson, 1996) with 251 African American college students. A LISREL confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) offered support for the 3 subscales of the APS-R: High…

  6. The association between self-consciousness about appearance and psychological adjustment among newly diagnosed breast cancer patients and survivors: the moderating role of appearance investment.

    PubMed

    Moreira, Helena; Canavarro, Maria Cristina

    2012-03-01

    This study examined the moderating role of two facets of appearance investment (self-evaluative salience (SES) and motivational salience (MS)) in the relationship between self-consciousness about appearance and psychological adjustment (depression, anxiety and psychological quality of life (QoL)) in a sample of 134 breast cancer patients (68 newly diagnosed patients and 66 survivors). No significant differences were found between groups on body image variables. Among survivors, the associations between self-consciousness about appearance and the outcome variables were only significant at high (depression, psychological QoL) levels and at moderate (psychological QoL) levels of SES. Self-consciousness about appearance contributed to poor adjustment in both groups. This study demonstrates that appearance investment plays a key role in patients' adjustment and highlights the SES-MS distinction. SES seems to be a vulnerability factor for poor adjustment, and MS seems to be a protective factor that helps women cope with changes in appearance.

  7. Mapping the groundwater vulnerability for pollution at the pan African scale.

    PubMed

    Ouedraogo, Issoufou; Defourny, Pierre; Vanclooster, Marnik

    2016-02-15

    We estimated vulnerability and pollution risk of groundwater at the pan-African scale. We therefore compiled the most recent continental scale information on soil, land use, geology, hydrogeology and climate in a Geographical Information System (GIS) at a resolution of 15 km × 15 km and at the scale of 1:60,000,000. The groundwater vulnerability map was constructed by means of the DRASTIC method. The map reveals that groundwater is highly vulnerable in Central and West Africa, where the watertable is very low. In addition, very low vulnerability is found in the large sedimentary basins of the African deserts where groundwater is situated in very deep aquifers. The groundwater pollution risk map is obtained by overlaying the DRASTIC vulnerability map with land use. The northern, central and western part of the African continent is dominated by high pollution risk classes and this is very strongly related to shallow groundwater systems and the development of agricultural activities. Subsequently, we performed a sensitivity analysis to evaluate the relative importance of each parameter on groundwater vulnerability and pollution risk. The sensitivity analysis indicated that the removal of the impact of vadose zone, the depth of the groundwater, the hydraulic conductivity and the net recharge causes a large variation in the mapped vulnerability and pollution risk. The mapping model was validated using nitrate concentration data of groundwater as a proxy of pollution risk. Pan-African concentration data were inferred from a meta-analysis of literature data. Results shows a good match between nitrate concentration and the groundwater pollution risk classes. The pan African assessment of groundwater vulnerability and pollution risk is expected to be of particular value for water policy and for designing groundwater resources management programs. We expect, however, that this assessment can be strongly improved when better pan African monitoring data related to groundwater

  8. Development and Validation of the Body Size Scale for Assessing Body Weight Perception in African Populations

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Emmanuel; Bernard, Jonathan Y.; Ponty, Amandine; Ndao, Amadou; Amougou, Norbert; Saïd-Mohamed, Rihlat; Pasquet, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Background The social valorisation of overweight in African populations could promote high-risk eating behaviours and therefore become a risk factor of obesity. However, existing scales to assess body image are usually not accurate enough to allow comparative studies of body weight perception in different African populations. This study aimed to develop and validate the Body Size Scale (BSS) to estimate African body weight perception. Methods Anthropometric measures of 80 Cameroonians and 81 Senegalese were used to evaluate three criteria of adiposity: body mass index (BMI), overall percentage of fat, and endomorphy (fat component of the somatotype). To develop the BSS, the participants were photographed in full face and profile positions. Models were selected for their representativeness of the wide variability in adiposity with a progressive increase along the scale. Then, for the validation protocol, participants self-administered the BSS to assess self-perceived current body size (CBS), desired body size (DBS) and provide a “body self-satisfaction index.” This protocol included construct validity, test-retest reliability and convergent validity and was carried out with three independent samples of respectively 201, 103 and 1115 Cameroonians. Results The BSS comprises two sex-specific scales of photos of 9 models each, and ordered by increasing adiposity. Most participants were able to correctly order the BSS by increasing adiposity, using three different words to define body size. Test-retest reliability was consistent in estimating CBS, DBS and the “body self-satisfaction index.” The CBS was highly correlated to the objective BMI, and two different indexes assessed with the BSS were consistent with declarations obtained in interviews. Conclusion The BSS is the first scale with photos of real African models taken in both full face and profile and representing a wide and representative variability in adiposity. The validation protocol proved its

  9. Psychological Aspects of European Cosmology in American Society: African and European Cultures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baldwin, Joseph A.

    1985-01-01

    Discusses the Eurocentric nature of the United States social reality, and investigates psychological and mental health implications for the African-American community. Outlines the basic themes, emphases and criteria of Euro-American cosmology and describes how it can come to dominate the Afro-American's self-consciousness. Suggests ways to…

  10. Photograph use on social network sites among South Korean college students: the role of public and private self-consciousness.

    PubMed

    Shim, Minsun; Lee, Min Ju; Park, Sang Hee

    2008-08-01

    This study challenges theories of computer-mediated communication (CMC) that typically assume a lack of visual cues in CMC and conceptualize them as a situational factor. We examine individual differences in photo use on social network sites and link them to the dispositional tendency of self-consciousness (SC). Included were 231 students from one university in South Korea, who owned and maintained Cyworld profiles (called "mini-homepages"). Findings suggest that public SC, but not private SC, was positively associated with the higher frequency of posting photos, replying to comments on the photos, and scrapping photos on their mini-homepages. The frequency of posting specific content types of photos (concerning social relationships or life events) was also determined by participants' public SC but not by private SC. Implications of the findings for CMC theories are discussed.

  11. The Reliability and Factor Structure of the Career Decision Self-Efficacy Scale-SF with African Americans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chaney, Demetris; Hammond, Marie S.; Betz, Nancy E.; Multon, Karen D.

    2007-01-01

    The present study, based on a sample of 220 African American college students, sought to examine the utility of the Career Decision Self-Efficacy Scale (CDSE) for African Americans. Values of coefficient alpha indicated reliability similar to that found in predominantly White samples. A four-factor structure best represented the data, with a large…

  12. Biogeographical Patterns of Legume-Nodulating Burkholderia spp.: from African Fynbos to Continental Scales

    PubMed Central

    Chimphango, Samson B. M.; Stirton, Charles; Rafudeen, Suhail; Honnay, Olivier; Smets, Erik; Chen, Wen-Ming; Sprent, Janet; James, Euan K.; Muasya, A. Muthama

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Rhizobia of the genus Burkholderia have large-scale distribution ranges and are usually associated with South African papilionoid and South American mimosoid legumes, yet little is known about their genetic structuring at either local or global geographic scales. To understand variation at different spatial scales, from individual legumes in the fynbos (South Africa) to a global context, we analyzed chromosomal (16S rRNA, recA) and symbiosis (nifH, nodA, nodC) gene sequences. We showed that the global diversity of nodulation genes is generally grouped according to the South African papilionoid or South American mimosoid subfamilies, whereas chromosomal sequence data were unrelated to biogeography. While nodulation genes are structured on a continental scale, a geographic or host-specific distribution pattern was not detected in the fynbos region. In host range experiments, symbiotic promiscuity of Burkholderia tuberum STM678T and B. phymatum STM815T was discovered in selected fynbos species. Finally, a greenhouse experiment was undertaken to assess the ability of mimosoid (Mimosa pudica) and papilionoid (Dipogon lignosus, Indigofera filifolia, Macroptilium atropurpureum, and Podalyria calyptrata) species to nodulate in South African (fynbos) and Malawian (savanna) soils. While the Burkholderia-philous fynbos legumes (D. lignosus, I. filifolia, and P. calyptrata) nodulated only in their native soils, the invasive neotropical species M. pudica did not develop nodules in the African soils. The fynbos soil, notably rich in Burkholderia, seems to retain nodulation genes compatible with the local papilionoid legume flora but is incapable of nodulating mimosoid legumes that have their center of diversity in South America. IMPORTANCE This study is the most comprehensive phylogenetic assessment of root-nodulating Burkholderia and investigated biogeographic and host-related patterns of the legume-rhizobial symbiosis in the South African fynbos biome, as well as at

  13. Shame and Guilt in Preschool Depression: Evidence for Elevations in Self-Conscious Emotions in Depression as Early as Age 3

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luby, Joan; Belden, Andy; Sullivan, Jill; Hayen, Robin; McCadney, Amber; Spitznagel, Ed

    2009-01-01

    Background: Empirical findings from two divergent bodies of literature illustrate that depression can arise in the preschool period and that the complex self-conscious emotions of guilt and shame may develop normatively as early as age 3. Despite these related findings, few studies have examined whether the emotions of shame and guilt are salient…

  14. Lack of guilt, guilt, and shame: a multi-informant study on the relations between self-conscious emotions and psychopathology in clinically referred children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Muris, Peter; Meesters, Cor; Heijmans, Jolina; van Hulten, Sandra; Kaanen, Linsy; Oerlemans, Birgit; Stikkelbroeck, Tessa; Tielemans, Tim

    2016-04-01

    The present study examined the relationships between dysregulations in self-conscious emotions and psychopathology in clinically referred children and adolescents. For this purpose, parent-, teacher-, and self-report Achenbach System of Empirically Based Assessment data of 1000 youth aged 4-18 years was analyzed as this instrument not only provides information on the intensity levels of lack of guilt, guilt, and shame, but also on the severity of various types of psychopathology. The results first of all indicated that dysregulations of self-conscious emotions were more common in this clinical sample than in the general population. Further, a consistent pattern was found with regard to the relationships between self-conscious emotions and childhood psychopathology. That is, lack of guilt was predominantly associated with oppositional defiant and conduct (i.e., externalizing) problems, while guilt and shame were primarily linked with affective and anxiety (i.e., internalizing) problems. By and large, these findings confirm what has been found in non-clinical youth, and suggest that self-conscious emotions play a small but significant role in the psychopathology of children and adolescents.

  15. “Seeing” and “feeling” architecture: how bodily self-consciousness alters architectonic experience and affects the perception of interiors

    PubMed Central

    Pasqualini, Isabella; Llobera, Joan; Blanke, Olaf

    2013-01-01

    Over the centuries architectural theory evolved several notions of embodiment, proposing in the nineteenth and twentieth century that architectonic experience is related to physiological responses of the observer. Recent advances in the cognitive neuroscience of embodiment (or bodily self-consciousness) enable empirical studies of architectonic embodiment. Here, we investigated how architecture modulates bodily self-consciousness by adapting a video-based virtual reality (VR) setup previously used to investigate visuo-tactile mechanisms of bodily self-consciousness. While standing in two different interiors, participants were filmed from behind and watched their own virtual body online on a head-mounted display (HMD). Visuo-tactile strokes were applied in synchronous or asynchronous mode to the participants and their virtual body. Two interiors were simulated in the laboratory by placing the sidewalls either far or near from the participants, generating a large and narrow room. We tested if bodily self-consciousness was differently modulated when participants were exposed to both rooms and whether these changes depend on visuo-tactile stimulation. We measured illusory touch, self-identification, and performed length estimations. Our data show that synchronous stroking of the physical and the virtual body induces illusory touch and self-identification with the virtual body, independent of room-size. Moreover, in the narrow room we observed weak feelings of illusory touch with the sidewalls and of approaching walls. These subjective changes were complemented by a stroking-dependent modulation of length estimation only in the narrow room with participants judging the room-size more accurately during conditions of illusory self-identification. We discuss our findings and previous notions of architectonic embodiment in the context of the cognitive neuroscience of bodily self-consciousness and propose an empirical framework grounded in architecture, cognitive

  16. Psychometric properties of the social phobia and social interaction anxiety scales: evidence of construct equivalence in an African American sample.

    PubMed

    Carter, Michele M; Sbrocco, Tracy; Tang, Dickson; Rekrut, Frances M; Condit, Caitlin

    2014-10-01

    This study evaluated the psychometric properties of the Social Phobia Scale and Social Interaction Anxiety scale in a community sample of African Americans. We conducted a confirmatory factor analysis of the combined scales comparing the data to 2- and 3-factor solutions commonly reported in the literature. The results indicated that neither solution produce an adequate fit to the data in this study. We then proceeded to conduct an exploratory factor analysis within a confirmatory framework of both scales. While we were able to extract a 2-factor solution from the data, the item composition of the factors was somewhat different for African Americans than what is typically reported in non-Hispanic White samples. While we conclude that use of the two social anxiety scales is warranted, we make recommendations regarding the interpretation of both scales with African Americans.

  17. Mapping the groundwater vulnerability for pollution at the pan African scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ouedraogo, Issoufou; Defourny, Pierre; Vanclooster, Marnik

    2015-04-01

    We mapped the pan-African intrinsic and specific vulnerability of groundwater systems towards pollution. We compiled the most recent continental scale information on soil, land use, geology, hydrogeology and climate in a Geographical Information System (GIS) at the resolution of 15kmx15km and the 1:60,000,000 scale and implemented an indicator vulnerability model based on the DRASTIC method. The intrinsic vulnerability map reveals that groundwater is highly vulnerable in Central, West and some areas of North Africa, where the watertable is very low. The intrinsic vulnerability is very low in the large sedimentary basins of the African deserts where groundwater situates in very deep aquifers. The specific vulnerability is obtained by overlaying the intrinsic vulnerability with current land use. The specific vulnerability is high in North, Central, and West Africa and strongly related to water table depths and development of agricultural activities. Subsequently, we performed a sensitivity analysis to evaluate the relative importance of each indicator parameter on groundwater vulnerability for pollution. The sensitivity analysis indicated that the removal of the vadose zone impact, the depth of the groundwater, the hydraulic conductivity and the net recharge causes a large variation in the vulnerability index. The pan African assessment of groundwater vulnerability presented in this paper is expected to be of particular value for water policy and for designing water resources management programmes. We expect, however, that this assessment can be strongly improved when pan African monitoring data on groundwater pollution will be integrated in the assessment methodology. Keywords: groundwater vulnerability, pan-Africa, DRASTIC method, Sensitivity analysis, GIS

  18. Rasch analysis of the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale with African Americans.

    PubMed

    Chao, Ruth Chu-Lien; Vidacovich, Courtney; Green, Kathy E

    2017-03-01

    Effectively diagnosing African Americans' self-esteem has posed an unresolved challenge. To address this assessment issue, we conducted exploratory factor analysis and Rasch analysis to assess the psychometric characteristics of the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES, Rosenberg, 1965) for African American college students. The dimensional structure of the RSES was first identified with the first subsample (i.e., calibration subsample) and then held up under cross-validation with a second subsample (i.e., validation subsample). Exploratory factor analysis and Rasch analysis both supported unidimensionality of the measure, with that finding replicated for a random split of the sample. Response scale use was generally appropriate, items were endorsed at a high level reflecting high levels of self-esteem, and person separation and reliability of person separation were adequate, and reflected results similar to those found in prior research. However, as some categories were infrequently used, we also collapsed scale points and found a slight improvement in scale and item indices. No differential item functioning was found by sex or having received professional assistance versus not; there were no mean score differences by age group, marital status, or year in college. Two items were seen as problematic. Implications for theory and research on multicultural mental health are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record

  19. Forensic application of DNA barcoding for identification of illegally traded African pangolin scales.

    PubMed

    Mwale, Monica; Dalton, Desire L; Jansen, Raymond; De Bruyn, Marli; Pietersen, Darren; Mokgokong, Prudent S; Kotzé, Antoinette

    2017-03-01

    The escalating growth in illegal wildlife trade and anthropogenic habitat changes threaten the survival of pangolin species worldwide. All eight extant species have experienced drastic population size reductions globally with a high extinction risk in Asia. Consequently, forensic services have become critical for law enforcement, with a need for standardised and validated genetic methods for reliable identifications. The seizure of three tonnes of pangolin scales, believed to have originated from Africa, by Hong Kong Customs Authorities provided an opportunity for the application of DNA barcoding in identifying scales. Three mitochondrial DNA gene regions (COI, Cyt b, and D-loop) were amplified for a subsample of the confiscated material and compared with taxonomically verified references. All four African species were recovered as monophyletic with high interspecific uncorrected p-distance estimates (0.048-0.188) among genes. However, only three of four African species (Phataginus tricuspis, Phataginus tetradactyla, and Smutsia gigantea, originating from West and Central Africa) and one of four Asian species (Manis javanica from Southeast Asia) were identified among scales. Although the assignment of unknown scales to specific species was reliable, additional genetic tools and representative reference material are required to determine geographic origins of confiscated pangolin specimens.

  20. A meta-analysis and statistical modelling of nitrates in groundwater at the African scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ouedraogo, Issoufou; Vanclooster, Marnik

    2016-06-01

    Contamination of groundwater with nitrate poses a major health risk to millions of people around Africa. Assessing the space-time distribution of this contamination, as well as understanding the factors that explain this contamination, is important for managing sustainable drinking water at the regional scale. This study aims to assess the variables that contribute to nitrate pollution in groundwater at the African scale by statistical modelling. We compiled a literature database of nitrate concentration in groundwater (around 250 studies) and combined it with digital maps of physical attributes such as soil, geology, climate, hydrogeology, and anthropogenic data for statistical model development. The maximum, medium, and minimum observed nitrate concentrations were analysed. In total, 13 explanatory variables were screened to explain observed nitrate pollution in groundwater. For the mean nitrate concentration, four variables are retained in the statistical explanatory model: (1) depth to groundwater (shallow groundwater, typically < 50 m); (2) recharge rate; (3) aquifer type; and (4) population density. The first three variables represent intrinsic vulnerability of groundwater systems to pollution, while the latter variable is a proxy for anthropogenic pollution pressure. The model explains 65 % of the variation of mean nitrate contamination in groundwater at the African scale. Using the same proxy information, we could develop a statistical model for the maximum nitrate concentrations that explains 42 % of the nitrate variation. For the maximum concentrations, other environmental attributes such as soil type, slope, rainfall, climate class, and region type improve the prediction of maximum nitrate concentrations at the African scale. As to minimal nitrate concentrations, in the absence of normal distribution assumptions of the data set, we do not develop a statistical model for these data. The data-based statistical model presented here represents an important

  1. Are Entrepreneurial Intentions Self-Regulated? Self-Consciousness, Core Self-Evaluations and Entrepreneurial Intentions of Higher Education Students.

    PubMed

    Auzoult, Laurent; Lheureux, Florent; Abdellaoui, Sid

    2016-06-20

    The main aim of this study is to demonstrate that private self-consciousness (SC) and core self-evaluations (CSEs) influence their formation, via the perceived feasibility and desirability of entrepreneurship or in interaction with it. Two hundred and sixteen students, from a university, an engineering college and a management school, participated in a survey questionnaire which measured these variables as well as controlled factors (e.g. entrepreneurship education, presence of entrepreneurs in their close social network). The results confirm that CSEs have a positive effect on feasibility and desirability (p < .001) which mediate their effect on intention (p < .007). They also show that private SC has a positive direct effect on intention (p < .001). Additionally, the positive interaction effects of desirability and feasibility and public SC and feasibility on intention are highlighted (p < .05). Unexpectedly, none of the hypothesized moderation effects of private SC were corroborated. The convergence of these results with prior research, the limitations of the study and practical implications are discussed.

  2. The need for absolute truth and self-rumination as basic suppressors in the relationship between private self-consciousness and mental health.

    PubMed

    Şimşek, Ömer Faruk; Ceylandağ, Aylin Ecem; Akcan, Gizem

    2013-01-01

    Self-reflection has not so far been shown to have any specific benefits for mental health except for self-knowledge. Recent research showed that the controversy concerning the relationship between self-reflection and mental health could completely be eliminated if self-rumination and the need for absolute truth, especially the need for absolute truth, were considered as suppressor variables. This research replicated these findings in a different sample and expanded these findings by showing that the same is true for private self-consciousness. The need for absolute truth as a new variable was shown to be highly important in understanding the effects of self-consciousness on mental health.

  3. The perceived racism scale: a multidimensional assessment of the experience of white racism among African Americans.

    PubMed

    McNeilly, M D; Anderson, N B; Armstead, C A; Clark, R; Corbett, M; Robinson, E L; Pieper, C F; Lepisto, E M

    1996-01-01

    The experience of racism is a complex, multidimensional phenomenon. At present, there are few instruments that attempt to capture the experience of racism in all of its complexity. For this study, a new instrument, the Perceived Racism Scale, has been constructed to assess the experience of racism in African Americans in a multidimensional manner. The scale not only provides a measure of the frequency of exposure to many manifestations of racism (including individual and institutional, overt and covert, attitudinal, behavioral, and cultural), but takes a step forward in more comprehensively measuring the experience of racism by assessing emotional and behavioral coping responses to racism. These responses are measured with respect to exposure to racism in three situational domains: on the job, in academic settings, and in the public realm. Measurement of responses to a fourth domain, that of exposure to racist statements, is also included. It is hoped that the Perceived Racism Scale will facilitate a more comprehensive understanding of the experience of racism among African Americans and, through its use in research and clinical settings, will ultimately move us closer to reducing the prevalence and potentially untoward effects of racism.

  4. Factor analysis of the Career Decision Scale on South African high school students.

    PubMed

    Watson, M B; Foxcroft, C D; Stead, G B

    1991-12-01

    A factor analytic study of the Career Decision Scale-High School version of Hartman and Hartman on 312 white South African adolescents from Grades 11 and 12 was undertaken. A simple two-factor structure emerged which accounted for 47.36% of the total variance in the scores. These results support the use of the version as a differential measure of career indecision and indicate that the number and structure of factors can change across populations. The implications of these results for research in South Africa are considered.

  5. Weight-related actual and ideal self-states, discrepancies, and shame, guilt, and pride: examining associations within the process model of self-conscious emotions.

    PubMed

    Castonguay, Andree L; Brunet, Jennifer; Ferguson, Leah; Sabiston, Catherine M

    2012-09-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the associations between women's actual:ideal weight-related self-discrepancies and experiences of weight-related shame, guilt, and authentic pride using self-discrepancy (Higgins, 1987) and self-conscious emotion (Tracy & Robins, 2004) theories as guiding frameworks. Participants (N=398) completed self-report questionnaires. Main analyses involved polynomial regressions, followed by the computation and evaluation of response surface values. Actual and ideal weight self-states were related to shame (R2 = .35), guilt (R2 = .25), and authentic pride (R2 = .08). When the discrepancy between actual and ideal weights increased, shame and guilt also increased, while authentic pride decreased. Findings provide partial support for self-discrepancy theory and the process model of self-conscious emotions. Experiencing weight-related self-discrepancies may be important cognitive appraisals related to shame, guilt, and authentic pride. Further research is needed exploring the relations between self-discrepancies and a range of weight-related self-conscious emotions.

  6. Development and validation of brief scales to measure collectivism, religiosity, racial pride, and time orientation in urban African American women.

    PubMed

    Lukwago, S N; Kreuter, M W; Bucholtz, D C; Holt, C L; Clark, E M

    2001-10-01

    This article describes the development and pilot-testing of brief scales to measure four cultural constructs prevalent in urban African American women. Internal consistency and temporal stability were assessed in two convenience samples (n=47 and n=25) of primarily lower-income African American women. All scales performed well: collectivism alpha=.93, r=.85, p<.001); religiosity (alpha=.88, r=.89, p<.001); racial pride (alpha=.84, r=.52, p<.001); present time orientation (alpha=.73, r=.52, p<.01) and future time orientation (alpha=.72, r=.54, p=.07).

  7. Small-scale thermal upwellings under the northern East African Rift from S travel time tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Civiero, Chiara; Goes, Saskia; Hammond, James O. S.; Fishwick, Stewart; Ahmed, Abdulhakim; Ayele, Atalay; Doubre, Cecile; Goitom, Berhe; Keir, Derek; Kendall, J. Michael; Leroy, Sylvie; Ogubazghi, Ghebrebrhan; Rümpker, Georg; Stuart, Graham W.

    2016-10-01

    There is a long-standing debate over how many and what types of plumes underlie the East African Rift and whether they do or do not drive its extension and consequent magmatism and seismicity. Here we present a new tomographic study of relative teleseismic S and SKS residuals that expands the resolution from previous regional studies below the northern East African Rift to image structure from the surface to the base of the transition zone. The images reveal two low-velocity clusters, below Afar and west of the Main Ethiopian Rift, that extend throughout the upper mantle and comprise several smaller-scale (about 100 km diameter), low-velocity features. These structures support those of our recent P tomographic study below the region. The relative magnitude of S to P residuals is around 3.5, which is consistent with a predominantly thermal nature of the anomalies. The S and P velocity anomalies in the low-velocity clusters can be explained by similar excess temperatures in the range of 100-200°C, consistent with temperatures inferred from other seismic, geochemical, and petrological studies. Somewhat stronger VS anomalies below Afar than west of the Main Ethiopian Rift may include an expression of volatiles and/or melt in this region. These results, together with a comparison with previous larger-scale tomographic models, indicate that these structures are likely small-scale upwellings with mild excess temperatures, rising from a regional thermal boundary layer at the base of the upper mantle.

  8. Revealing the Micro-scale Signature of Endemic Zoonotic Disease Transmission in an African Urban Setting

    PubMed Central

    Bourhy, Hervé; Nakouné, Emmanuel; Hall, Matthew; Nouvellet, Pierre; Lepelletier, Anthony; Talbi, Chiraz; Watier, Laurence; Holmes, Edward C.; Cauchemez, Simon; Lemey, Philippe; Donnelly, Christl A.; Rambaut, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    The development of novel approaches that combine epidemiological and genomic data provides new opportunities to reveal the spatiotemporal dynamics of infectious diseases and determine the processes responsible for their spread and maintenance. Taking advantage of detailed epidemiological time series and viral sequence data from more than 20 years reported by the National Reference Centre for Rabies of Bangui, the capital city of Central African Republic, we used a combination of mathematical modeling and phylogenetic analysis to determine the spatiotemporal dynamics of rabies in domestic dogs as well as the frequency of extinction and introduction events in an African city. We show that although dog rabies virus (RABV) appears to be endemic in Bangui, its epidemiology is in fact shaped by the regular extinction of local chains of transmission coupled with the introduction of new lineages, generating successive waves of spread. Notably, the effective reproduction number during each wave was rarely above the critical value of 1, such that rabies is not self-sustaining in Bangui. In turn, this suggests that rabies at local geographic scales is driven by human-mediated dispersal of RABV among sparsely connected peri-urban and rural areas as opposed to dispersion in a relatively large homogenous urban dog population. This combined epidemiological and genomic approach enables development of a comprehensive framework for understanding disease persistence and informing control measures, indicating that control measures are probably best targeted towards areas neighbouring the city that appear as the source of frequent incursions seeding outbreaks in Bangui. PMID:27058957

  9. Revealing the Micro-scale Signature of Endemic Zoonotic Disease Transmission in an African Urban Setting.

    PubMed

    Bourhy, Hervé; Nakouné, Emmanuel; Hall, Matthew; Nouvellet, Pierre; Lepelletier, Anthony; Talbi, Chiraz; Watier, Laurence; Holmes, Edward C; Cauchemez, Simon; Lemey, Philippe; Donnelly, Christl A; Rambaut, Andrew

    2016-04-01

    The development of novel approaches that combine epidemiological and genomic data provides new opportunities to reveal the spatiotemporal dynamics of infectious diseases and determine the processes responsible for their spread and maintenance. Taking advantage of detailed epidemiological time series and viral sequence data from more than 20 years reported by the National Reference Centre for Rabies of Bangui, the capital city of Central African Republic, we used a combination of mathematical modeling and phylogenetic analysis to determine the spatiotemporal dynamics of rabies in domestic dogs as well as the frequency of extinction and introduction events in an African city. We show that although dog rabies virus (RABV) appears to be endemic in Bangui, its epidemiology is in fact shaped by the regular extinction of local chains of transmission coupled with the introduction of new lineages, generating successive waves of spread. Notably, the effective reproduction number during each wave was rarely above the critical value of 1, such that rabies is not self-sustaining in Bangui. In turn, this suggests that rabies at local geographic scales is driven by human-mediated dispersal of RABV among sparsely connected peri-urban and rural areas as opposed to dispersion in a relatively large homogenous urban dog population. This combined epidemiological and genomic approach enables development of a comprehensive framework for understanding disease persistence and informing control measures, indicating that control measures are probably best targeted towards areas neighbouring the city that appear as the source of frequent incursions seeding outbreaks in Bangui.

  10. Psychometric Testing of the Daily Spiritual Experiences Scale Among African Americans in the Jackson Heart Study

    PubMed Central

    Loustalot, Fleetwood; Wyatt, Sharon B.; Sims, Mario; Ellison, Christopher G.; Taylor, Herman A.; Underwood, Lynn

    2009-01-01

    This study provided the first examination of the psychometric properties of the 6-item Daily Spiritual Experiences Scale (DSES) in a large African American sample, the Jackson Heart Study (JHS). The JHS included measures of spiritual (DSES) and religious practices. Internal reliability, dimensionality, fit indices, and correlation were assessed. DSES scores reflected frequent daily spiritual experiences (12.84 ± 4.72) and reliability scores were high (α = 0.85; 95% CI 0.84–0.86). The DSES loaded on a single factor, with significant goodness-of-fit scores (RMSEA = 0.094, P < 0.01). Moderate significant correlations were noted among DSES items. Our findings confirm that the 6-item DSES had excellent psychometric properties in this sample. PMID:19693673

  11. Factor Structure and Psychometric Properties of the Multidimensional Anxiety Scale for Children in an African American Adolescent Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kingery, Julie Newman; Ginsburg, Golda S.; Burstein, Marcy

    2009-01-01

    The current study examined the psychometric properties and factor structure of the Multidimensional Anxiety Scale for Children (MASC) among a community sample of 118 African American students (58 females; ages 14-19 years; mean age = 15.79) in an urban, parochial high school. Adolescents completed the MASC and several other self-report measures of…

  12. Relative time scales reveal multiple origins of parallel disjunct distributions of African caecilian amphibians.

    PubMed

    Loader, Simon P; Pisani, Davide; Cotton, James A; Gower, David J; Day, Julia J; Wilkinson, Mark

    2007-10-22

    Parallel patterns of distribution in different lineages suggest a common cause. Explanations in terms of a single biogeographic event often imply contemporaneous diversifications. Phylogenies with absolute time scales provide the most obvious means of testing temporal components of biogeographic hypotheses but, in their absence, the sequence of diversification events and whether any could have been contemporaneous can be tested with relative date estimates. Tests using relative time scales have been largely overlooked, but because they do not require the calibration upon which absolute time scales depend, they make a large amount of existing molecular data of use to historical biogeography and may also be helpful when calibration is possible but uncertain. We illustrate the use of relative dating by testing the hypothesis that parallel, disjunct east/west distributions in three independent lineages of African caecilians have a common cause. We demonstrate that at least two biogeographic events are implied by molecular data. Relative dating analysis reveals the potential complexity of causes of parallel distributions and cautions against inferring common cause from common spatial patterns without considering the temporal dimension.

  13. Assessing measurement invariance of the Personal Growth Initiative Scale-II among Hispanics, African Americans, and European Americans.

    PubMed

    Shigemoto, Yuki; Thoen, Megan A; Robitschek, Christine; Ashton, Matthew W

    2015-07-01

    This study tested the cross-cultural validity of scores on the Personal Growth Initiative Scale-II (PGIS-II; Robitschek et al., 2012) with Hispanic, African American, and European American community samples. Multigroup confirmatory factor analyses were performed on data from 218 Hispanics, 129 African Americans, and 552 European Americans to examine measurement equivalence among these groups. Measurement invariance of the PGIS-II was established with the original 4 factors of readiness for change, planfulness, using resources, and intentional behavior. These findings suggest the PGIS-II can be administered across these groups and provide meaningful comparisons and interpretations. All samples yielded good internal consistency estimates. The African American sample reported higher means than Hispanic and European American samples for all subscale and total mean scores, and Hispanics scored higher in planfulness, readiness for change, and total score than European Americans, indicating potential cultural factors influencing the scores. Implications for research and clinical practice are discussed.

  14. Directional reflectance and milli-scale feather morphology of the African Emerald Cuckoo, Chrysococcyx cupreus.

    PubMed

    Harvey, Todd Alan; Bostwick, Kimberly S; Marschner, Steve

    2013-09-06

    Diverse plumages have evolved among birds through complex morphological modifications. We investigate how the interplay of light with surface and subsurface feather morphology determines the direction of light propagation, an understudied aspect of avian visual signalling. We hypothesize that milli-scale modifications of feathers produce anisotropic reflectance, the direction of which may be predicted by the orientation of the milli-scale structure. The subject of this study is the African Emerald Cuckoo, Chrysococcyx cupreus, noted for its shimmering green iridescent appearance. Using a spherical gantry, we measured the change in the directional reflectance across the feather surface and over a hemisphere of incident lighting directions. Using a microCT scanner, we also studied the morphology of the structural branches of the barb. We tracked the changes in the directional reflectance to the orientation of the structural branches as observed in the CT data. We conclude that (i) the far-field signal of the feather consists of multiple specular components, each associated with a different structural branch and (ii) the direction of each specular component is correlated to the orientation of the corresponding structure.

  15. Measuring Parental Support for Children’s Physical Activity in White and African American Parents: The Activity Support Scale for Multiple Groups (ACTS-MG)

    PubMed Central

    Davison, Kirsten K.; Li, Kaigang; Baskin, Monica L.; Cox, Tiffany; Affuso, Olivia

    2010-01-01

    Objectives The Activity Support Scale (ACTS) was expanded for use with African American families. Its factorial invariance and internal reliability were examined for non-Hispanic white and African American parents. Methods The ACTS was modified to improve its applicability to African American families based on information from five focus groups with 27 African American parents of elementary school-aged children. Between 2006 and 2008, the revised scale was administered to 119 African American and 117 non-Hispanic white parents in northeastern NY and Alabama. Its factorial invariance across race/ethnicity and internal consistency were examined. Results Factor analysis of the revised scale, the Activity Support Scale for Multiple Groups (ACTS-MG), identified four parenting factors in white and African American parents including logistic support, modeling, use of community resources to promote physical activity (PA), and restriction of sedentary behaviors. Results supported the scale’s internal reliability and factorial invariance across race/ethnicity. Conclusion The ACTS-MG is appropriate for use with non-Hispanic white and African American families and will enable the extension of current research with white families to the examination of strategies supporting PA in African American families. Additional psychometric work with the ACTS-MG is encouraged. PMID:21111755

  16. Evaluating the Measurement Structure of the Abbreviated HIV Stigma Scale in a Sample of African Americans Living with HIV/AIDS

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Eboneé T.; Yaghmaian, Rana A.; Best, Andrew; Chan, Fong; Burrell, Reginald, Jr.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to validate the 10-item version of the HIV Stigma Scale (HSS-10) in a sample of African Americans with HIV/AIDS. Method: One hundred and ten African Americans living with HIV/AIDS were recruited from 3 case management agencies in Baton Rouge, Louisiana. Measurement structure of the HSS-10 was evaluated using…

  17. The Response of African Land Surface Phenology to Large Scale Climate Oscillations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Molly E.; de Beurs, Kirsten; Vrieling, Anton

    2010-01-01

    Variations in agricultural production due to rainfall and temperature fluctuations are a primary cause of food insecurity on the African continent. Analysis of changes in phenology can provide quantitative information on the effect of climate variability on growing seasons in agricultural regions. Using a robust statistical methodology, we describe the relationship between phenology metrics derived from the 26 year AVHRR NDVI record and the North Atlantic Oscillation index (NAO), the Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD), the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO), and the Multivariate ENSO Index (MEI). We map the most significant positive and negative correlation for the four climate indices in Eastern, Western and Southern Africa between two phenological metrics and the climate indices. Our objective is to provide evidence of whether climate variability captured in the four indices has had a significant impact on the vegetative productivity of Africa during the past quarter century. We found that the start of season and cumulative NDVI were significantly affected by large scale variations in climate. The particular climate index and the timing showing highest correlation depended heavily on the region examined. In Western Africa the cumulative NDVI correlates with PDO in September-November. In Eastern Africa the start of the June-October season strongly correlates with PDO in March-May, while the PDO in December-February correlates with the start of the February-June season. The cumulative NDVI over this last season relates to the MEI of March-May. For Southern Africa, high correlations exist between SOS and NAO of September-November, and cumulative NDVI and MEI of March-May. The research shows that climate indices can be used to anticipate late start and variable vigor in the growing season of sensitive agricultural regions in Africa.

  18. Shame and guilt in preschool depression: evidence for elevations in self-conscious emotions in depression as early as age 3

    PubMed Central

    Luby, Joan; Belden, Andy; Sullivan, Jill; Hayen, Robin; McCadney, Amber; Spitznagel, Ed

    2010-01-01

    Background Empirical findings from two divergent bodies of literature illustrate that depression can arise in the preschool period and that the complex self-conscious emotions of guilt and shame may develop normatively as early as age 3. Despite these related findings, few studies have examined whether the emotions of shame and guilt are salient in early childhood depression. This is important to further understand the emotional characteristics of preschool depression. Based on the hypothesis that preschool depression would be uniquely associated with higher levels of shame and maladaptive guilt, these emotions were investigated in a sample that included depressed, anxious, and disruptive disordered preschoolers as well as healthy peers using multiple methods. Method Structured psychiatric diagnoses were derived in a sample of N = 305 preschoolers ascertained from community sites. Pre-schoolers’ tendency to experience shame and guilt were explored using a story stem completion task coded by raters blind to symptoms and diagnosis of the subjects. Guilt experience and reparation behaviors were also measured using parent report. Results Based on preschooler’s emotion themes during the narrative tasks, gender, age, and depression severity predicted unique and significant portions of the variance in preschoolers’ expressions of shame. Parent report measures revealed that increasing depression severity was associated with children’s more frequent experiences of guilt feelings and less frequent attempts at guilt reparation (maladaptive guilt). Conclusions Findings demonstrated that high levels of shame and maladaptive guilt were related to preschool onset depression when using observational measures of children’s internal representations of their self-conscious emotions as well as parent report. These findings demonstrate continuity of these core emotions of depression as early as age 3. These findings suggest that guilt and shame should be explored in clinical

  19. Validation of the Scale of Racial Socialization for African American Adolescents: Steps toward Multidimensionality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevenson, Howard C. Jr.

    1994-01-01

    Investigates the factor structure of a measure of racial socialization attitudes for African American adolescents to determine whether the components of the construct are reliable and measure different phenomena. Four factors, based on research with 200 inner-city adolescents, were found to be very meaningful and moderately reliable. Development…

  20. Development and Validation of the Adolescent Racial and Ethnic Socialization Scale (ARESS) in African American Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Tiffany L.; Krishnakumar, Ambika

    2007-01-01

    Racial and ethnic socialization are an integral part of African American parenting strategies. Varied conceptualizations and operationalizations of racial and ethnic socialization exist within the literature with limited evidence of the validity of existing measures. The purpose of this study is to develop a comprehensive definition of racial and…

  1. Small-scale pig farmers' behavior, silent release of African swine fever virus and consequences for disease spread.

    PubMed

    Costard, Solenne; Zagmutt, Francisco J; Porphyre, Thibaud; Pfeiffer, Dirk Udo

    2015-11-27

    The expanding distribution of African swine fever (ASF) is threatening the pig industry worldwide. Most outbreaks occur in backyard and small-scale herds, where poor farmers often attempt to limit the disease's economic consequences by the emergency sale of their pigs. The risk of African swine fever virus (ASFV) release via this emergency sale was investigated. Simulation modeling was used to study ASFV transmission in backyard and small-scale farms as well as the emergency sale of pigs, and the potential impact of improving farmers and traders' clinical diagnosis ability-its timeliness and/or accuracy-was assessed. The risk of ASFV release was shown to be high, and improving farmers' clinical diagnosis ability does not appear sufficient to effectively reduce this risk. Estimates obtained also showed that the distribution of herd size within the backyard and small-scale sectors influences the relative contribution of these farms to the risk of release of infected pigs. These findings can inform surveillance and control programs.

  2. The Multidimensional Media Influence Scale: confirmatory factor structure and relationship with body dissatisfaction among African American and Anglo American children.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Kristen

    2009-06-01

    The Multidimensional Media Influence Scale (MMIS; Cusumano & Thompson, 2001). Media influence and body image in 8-11-year-old boys and girls: A preliminary report on the multidimensional media influence scale. International Journal of Eating Disorders, 29, 37-44) is a child-appropriate, 3-factor scale designed to assess perceived media influence on body image. It has been used in studies exploring the relationship between the entire scale as well as its subscales (awareness, internalization, and pressure) and variables related to body image. However, the 3-factor structure of the scale has never been confirmed via confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), nor has the scale been evaluated with a racially diverse sample of children. This paper reports the results of CFAs establishing the multidimensionality of the scale and the unidimensionality of its subscales among a sample of 661 girls and boys aged 7-12 years, primarily African American and Anglo American. The pressure factor of the MMIS predicted the idealization of a thinner current (child) and future (adult) body both cross-sectionally and one year later for girls and for Anglo American children.

  3. The Unique Coping Strategies of African American Families with a Loved One with Schizophrenia: The Use of the Family Crisis Oriented Personal Evaluation Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guada, Joseph

    2012-01-01

    This study assesses how a sample of African American families with a loved one with schizophrenia cope using a commonly used family coping scale (F-COPES). The scale's overall performance and psychometric properties were tested to highlight how such families cope. The results demonstrated that families used proactive verses passive ways of coping.…

  4. A sub-national scale geospatial analysis of diamond deposit lootability: the case of the Central African Republic

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Malpeli, Katherine C.; Chirico, Peter G.

    2014-01-01

    The Central African Republic (CAR), a country with rich diamond deposits and a tumultuous political history, experienced a government takeover by the Seleka rebel coalition in 2013. It is within this context that we developed and implemented a geospatial approach for assessing the lootability of high value-to-weight resource deposits, using the case of diamonds in CAR as an example. According to current definitions of lootability, or the vulnerability of deposits to exploitation, CAR's two major diamond deposits are similarly lootable. However, using this geospatial approach, we demonstrate that the deposits experience differing political geographic, spatial location, and cultural geographic contexts, rendering the eastern deposits more lootable than the western deposits. The patterns identified through this detailed analysis highlight the geographic complexities surrounding the issue of conflict resources and lootability, and speak to the importance of examining these topics at the sub-national scale, rather than relying on national-scale statistics.

  5. Intraseasonal precipitation variability on Kilimanjaro and the East African region and its relationship to the large-scale circulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, R. Y.; Vuille, M.; Hardy, D. R.; Bradley, R. S.

    2008-08-01

    Atmospheric circulation anomalies, related to snowfall events on the Tanzanian volcano Kilimanjaro, were analyzed based on hourly snowfall data from an automated weather station (AWS), global precipitation and reanalysis products. Analysis of 5 years of data (2000 2005) shows that snowfall on Kilimanjaro is linked to large-scale circulation anomalies, which can be identified in global reanalysis products. During the long rains season (March May) snowfall on Kilimanjaro is associated with a west to east propagating wave of convective activity, which over East Africa merges with a precipitation-band maintained by steady easterly moisture influx due to cyclonic activity over northern Madagascar. Snowfall events tend to be associated with low wind speed, favorable for the development of surface radiative heating, thereby destabilizing the atmospheric column and initiating upward motion and deep convection. High near-surface specific humidity provides the necessary water vapor so that convection becomes moist. The short rains season (October December) is dominated by east to west moisture transport. This easterly flow extends vertically through much of the troposphere and horizontally from the western Indian Ocean westward across the African continent. An active center of vertical motion and deep convection located over the western Indian Ocean near the East African coastline is responsible for easterly moisture transport and spill-over of precipitation into the East African domain. During positive phases of the Indian Ocean Zonal Mode (IOZM) strong trade winds prevail across the Indian Ocean, which, in combination with enhanced westerlies over the continental interior, tend to enhance low-level wind and moisture convergence near Kilimanjaro. During the negative IOZM phase on the other hand, the trade winds across the Indian Ocean and the westerly flow from the Atlantic Ocean are weaker, moisture convergence is reduced and conditions to initiate deep convection over

  6. Fine-scale genetic structure and cryptic associations reveal evidence of kin-based sociality in the African forest elephant.

    PubMed

    Schuttler, Stephanie G; Philbrick, Jessica A; Jeffery, Kathryn J; Eggert, Lori S

    2014-01-01

    Spatial patterns of relatedness within animal populations are important in the evolution of mating and social systems, and have the potential to reveal information on species that are difficult to observe in the wild. This study examines the fine-scale genetic structure and connectivity of groups within African forest elephants, Loxodonta cyclotis, which are often difficult to observe due to forest habitat. We tested the hypothesis that genetic similarity will decline with increasing geographic distance, as we expect kin to be in closer proximity, using spatial autocorrelation analyses and Tau K(r) tests. Associations between individuals were investigated through a non-invasive genetic capture-recapture approach using network models, and were predicted to be more extensive than the small groups found in observational studies, similar to fission-fusion sociality found in African savanna (Loxodonta africana) and Asian (Elephas maximus) species. Dung samples were collected in Lopé National Park, Gabon in 2008 and 2010 and genotyped at 10 microsatellite loci, genetically sexed, and sequenced at the mitochondrial DNA control region. We conducted analyses on samples collected at three different temporal scales: a day, within six-day sampling sessions, and within each year. Spatial autocorrelation and Tau K(r) tests revealed genetic structure, but results were weak and inconsistent between sampling sessions. Positive spatial autocorrelation was found in distance classes of 0-5 km, and was strongest for the single day session. Despite weak genetic structure, individuals within groups were significantly more related to each other than to individuals between groups. Social networks revealed some components to have large, extensive groups of up to 22 individuals, and most groups were composed of individuals of the same matriline. Although fine-scale population genetic structure was weak, forest elephants are typically found in groups consisting of kin and based on matrilines

  7. Large Spatial Scale of the Phenotype-Environment Color Matching in Two Cryptic Species of African Desert Jerboas (Dipodidae: Jaculus)

    PubMed Central

    Boratyński, Zbyszek; Brito, José Carlos; Campos, João Carlos; Karala, Maija; Mappes, Tapio

    2014-01-01

    We tested the camouflage hypothesis, or the linkage between animal (Saharan rodent) and habitat coloration, on the largest geographical scale yet conducted. We aimed to determine whether phenotypic variation is explained by micro-habitat variation and/or genetic polymorphism to determine 1) the strength of linkage between fur color and local substrate color, and 2) the divergence in fur coloration between two genetic clades, representing cryptic species, throughout the complete range of the African desert jerboas (Jaculus jaculus). We used a combination of museum and field-collected specimens, remote sensing tools, satellite and digital photography and molecular genetic and phylogenetic methods to investigate the above hypotheses. Along with showing that the two divergent genetic clades of jerboas occur sympatrically throughout their African distribution, we showed significant covariation between dorsal fur coloration of the animals and the color of their habitat. We also described significant phenotypic divergence in fur color, consistent with genetic divergence between the sympatric clades. The linkage between environment and phenotype supports the idea that the selection promoting cryptic coloration is persistent in contemporary populations of jerboas, however the phenotypic divergence indicates that it has different strengths (or optima) in the two clades. The mosaic distribution of micro-habitats occupied by geographically sympatric clades suggests that it may influence both ecological and evolutionary dynamics between these two cryptic species. PMID:24714509

  8. Large-Scale Selective Sweep among Segregation Distorter Chromosomes in African Populations of Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Presgraves, Daven C.; Gérard, Pierre R.; Cherukuri, Anjuli; Lyttle, Terrence W.

    2009-01-01

    Segregation Distorter (SD) is a selfish, coadapted gene complex on chromosome 2 of Drosophila melanogaster that strongly distorts Mendelian transmission; heterozygous SD/SD + males sire almost exclusively SD-bearing progeny. Fifty years of genetic, molecular, and theory work have made SD one of the best-characterized meiotic drive systems, but surprisingly the details of its evolutionary origins and population dynamics remain unclear. Earlier analyses suggested that the SD system arose recently in the Mediterranean basin and then spread to a low, stable equilibrium frequency (1–5%) in most natural populations worldwide. In this report, we show, first, that SD chromosomes occur in populations in sub-Saharan Africa, the ancestral range of D. melanogaster, at a similarly low frequency (∼2%), providing evidence for the robustness of its equilibrium frequency but raising doubts about the Mediterranean-origins hypothesis. Second, our genetic analyses reveal two kinds of SD chromosomes in Africa: inversion-free SD chromosomes with little or no transmission advantage; and an African-endemic inversion-bearing SD chromosome, SD-Mal, with a perfect transmission advantage. Third, our population genetic analyses show that SD-Mal chromosomes swept across the African continent very recently, causing linkage disequilibrium and an absence of variability over 39% of the length of the second chromosome. Thus, despite a seemingly stable equilibrium frequency, SD chromosomes continue to evolve, to compete with one another, or evade suppressors in the genome. PMID:19412335

  9. Large-scale phylogeny of chameleons suggests African origins and Eocene diversification.

    PubMed

    Tolley, Krystal A; Townsend, Ted M; Vences, Miguel

    2013-05-22

    Oceanic dispersal has emerged as an important factor contributing to biogeographic patterns in numerous taxa. Chameleons are a clear example of this, as they are primarily found in Africa and Madagascar, but the age of the family is post-Gondwanan break-up. A Malagasy origin for the family has been suggested, yet this hypothesis has not been tested using modern biogeographic methods with a dated phylogeny. To examine competing hypotheses of African and Malagasy origins, we generated a dated phylogeny using between six and 13 genetic markers, for up to 174 taxa representing greater than 90 per cent of all named species. Using three different ancestral-state reconstruction methods (Bayesian and likelihood approaches), we show that the family most probably originated in Africa, with two separate oceanic dispersals to Madagascar during the Palaeocene and the Oligocene, when prevailing oceanic currents would have favoured eastward dispersal. Diversification of genus-level clades took place in the Eocene, and species-level diversification occurred primarily in the Oligocene. Plio-Pleistocene speciation is rare, resulting in a phylogeny dominated by palaeo-endemic species. We suggest that contraction and fragmentation of the Pan-African forest coupled to an increase in open habitats (savannah, grassland, heathland), since the Oligocene played a key role in diversification of this group through vicariance.

  10. A knowledge gap analysis on multi-scale predictive ability for agriculturally derived sediments under South African conditions.

    PubMed

    van Zyl, A J

    2007-01-01

    Agriculture has been implicated as a major source of sediments in South Africa. The aim of the knowledge gap analysis was to understand the production and delivery components of agriculturally derived sediments under South African conditions and to assess the predictive ability to address the fate of these sediments from field to catchment scales. An overview is given of important erosion processes and erosion modelling applied in South Africa at the field and catchment scale. A limitation of the sediment models is that gully erosion is not simulated; therefore, the models should be complemented with gully erosion predictions if gullies are an important sediment source. Field-scale models inadequately predict sediment production localised at hydrologically sensitive areas as a result of saturation excess flow and/or throughflow. The discussion on erosion modelling reveals that more complex models have had limited application in South Africa because they require large and detailed data sets, and may have parameters that are difficult to measure or to estimate. A modelling framework is discussed which allows linking of sediment models requiring readily available data, gully erosion models/maps and the use of other techniques to assess the fate of agriculturally derived sediments from field to catchment scale.

  11. Cross-Cultural Equivalence of the Career Decision-Making Self-Efficacy Scale-Short Form: An Australian and South African Comparison.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Creed, Peter A.; Patton, Wendy; Watson, Mark B.

    2002-01-01

    The Career Decision-Making Self-Efficacy Scale-Short Form was completed by 416 South African and 563 Australian high school students. Analysis found three factors in each sample, but the factors differed between samples and from those of a U.S. sample, suggesting cultural differences in self-efficacy and lack of cultural equivalence for the…

  12. A Factor Analytic Study of the Loneliness and Social Dissatisfaction Scale in a Sample of African-American and Hispanic-American Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bagner, Daniel M.; Storch, Eric A.; Roberti, Jonathan W.

    2004-01-01

    This study investigated the psychometric properties of the Loneliness and Social Dissatisfaction Scale (LSDS) in a sample of African-American and Hispanic-American children. Participants were a non-clinical sample (N = 186) of children ages 11 to 13 in the fifth and sixth grades in a school in the Metropolitan New York area. Confirmatory factor…

  13. Multiple Scales of Control on the Structure and Spatial Distribution of Woody Vegetation in African Savanna Watersheds.

    PubMed

    Vaughn, Nicholas R; Asner, Gregory P; Smit, Izak P J; Riddel, Edward S

    2015-01-01

    Factors controlling savanna woody vegetation structure vary at multiple spatial and temporal scales, and as a consequence, unraveling their combined effects has proven to be a classic challenge in savanna ecology. We used airborne LiDAR (light detection and ranging) to map three-dimensional woody vegetation structure throughout four savanna watersheds, each contrasting in geologic substrate and climate, in Kruger National Park, South Africa. By comparison of the four watersheds, we found that geologic substrate had a stronger effect than climate in determining watershed-scale differences in vegetation structural properties, including cover, height and crown density. Generalized Linear Models were used to assess the spatial distribution of woody vegetation structural properties, including cover, height and crown density, in relation to mapped hydrologic, topographic and fire history traits. For each substrate and climate combination, models incorporating topography, hydrology and fire history explained up to 30% of the remaining variation in woody canopy structure, but inclusion of a spatial autocovariate term further improved model performance. Both crown density and the cover of shorter woody canopies were determined more by unknown factors likely to be changing on smaller spatial scales, such as soil texture, herbivore abundance or fire behavior, than by our mapped regional-scale changes in topography and hydrology. We also detected patterns in spatial covariance at distances up to 50-450 m, depending on watershed and structural metric. Our results suggest that large-scale environmental factors play a smaller role than is often attributed to them in determining woody vegetation structure in southern African savannas. This highlights the need for more spatially-explicit, wide-area analyses using high resolution remote sensing techniques.

  14. Multiple Scales of Control on the Structure and Spatial Distribution of Woody Vegetation in African Savanna Watersheds

    PubMed Central

    Vaughn, Nicholas R.; Asner, Gregory P.; Smit, Izak P. J.; Riddel, Edward S.

    2015-01-01

    Factors controlling savanna woody vegetation structure vary at multiple spatial and temporal scales, and as a consequence, unraveling their combined effects has proven to be a classic challenge in savanna ecology. We used airborne LiDAR (light detection and ranging) to map three-dimensional woody vegetation structure throughout four savanna watersheds, each contrasting in geologic substrate and climate, in Kruger National Park, South Africa. By comparison of the four watersheds, we found that geologic substrate had a stronger effect than climate in determining watershed-scale differences in vegetation structural properties, including cover, height and crown density. Generalized Linear Models were used to assess the spatial distribution of woody vegetation structural properties, including cover, height and crown density, in relation to mapped hydrologic, topographic and fire history traits. For each substrate and climate combination, models incorporating topography, hydrology and fire history explained up to 30% of the remaining variation in woody canopy structure, but inclusion of a spatial autocovariate term further improved model performance. Both crown density and the cover of shorter woody canopies were determined more by unknown factors likely to be changing on smaller spatial scales, such as soil texture, herbivore abundance or fire behavior, than by our mapped regional-scale changes in topography and hydrology. We also detected patterns in spatial covariance at distances up to 50–450 m, depending on watershed and structural metric. Our results suggest that large-scale environmental factors play a smaller role than is often attributed to them in determining woody vegetation structure in southern African savannas. This highlights the need for more spatially-explicit, wide-area analyses using high resolution remote sensing techniques. PMID:26660502

  15. Modeling the Distribution of African Savanna Elephants in Kruger National Park: AN Application of Multi-Scale GLOBELAND30 Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, W.; Hays, B.; Fayrer-Hosken, R.; Presotto, A.

    2016-06-01

    The ability of remote sensing to represent ecologically relevant features at multiple spatial scales makes it a powerful tool for studying wildlife distributions. Species of varying sizes perceive and interact with their environment at differing scales; therefore, it is important to consider the role of spatial resolution of remotely sensed data in the creation of distribution models. The release of the Globeland30 land cover classification in 2014, with its 30 m resolution, presents the opportunity to do precisely that. We created a series of Maximum Entropy distribution models for African savanna elephants (Loxodonta africana) using Globeland30 data analyzed at varying resolutions. We compared these with similarly re-sampled models created from the European Space Agency's Global Land Cover Map (Globcover). These data, in combination with GIS layers of topography and distance to roads, human activity, and water, as well as elephant GPS collar data, were used with MaxEnt software to produce the final distribution models. The AUC (Area Under the Curve) scores indicated that the models created from 600 m data performed better than other spatial resolutions and that the Globeland30 models generally performed better than the Globcover models. Additionally, elevation and distance to rivers seemed to be the most important variables in our models. Our results demonstrate that Globeland30 is a valid alternative to the well-established Globcover for creating wildlife distribution models. It may even be superior for applications which require higher spatial resolution and less nuanced classifications.

  16. Measuring conditions and trends in ecosystem services at multiple scales: the Southern African Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (SAfMA) experience

    PubMed Central

    van Jaarsveld, A.S; Biggs, R; Scholes, R.J; Bohensky, E; Reyers, B; Lynam, T; Musvoto, C; Fabricius, C

    2005-01-01

    The Southern African Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (SAfMA) evaluated the relationships between ecosystem services and human well-being at multiple scales, ranging from local through to sub-continental. Trends in ecosystem services (fresh water, food, fuel-wood, cultural and biodiversity) over the period 1990–2000 were mixed across scales. Freshwater resources appear strained across the continent with large numbers of people not securing adequate supplies, especially of good quality water. This translates to high infant mortality patterns across the region. In some areas, the use of water resources for irrigated agriculture and urban–industrial expansion is taking place at considerable cost to the quality and quantity of freshwater available to ecosystems and for domestic use. Staple cereal production across the region has increased but was outstripped by population growth while protein malnutrition is on the rise. The much-anticipated wood-fuel crisis on the subcontinent has not materialized but some areas are experiencing shortages while numerous others remain vulnerable. Cultural benefits of biodiversity are considerable, though hard to quantify or track over time. Biodiversity resources remain at reasonable levels, but are declining faster than reflected in species extinction rates and appear highly sensitive to land-use decisions. The SAfMA sub-global assessment provided an opportunity to experiment with innovative ways to assess ecosystem services including the use of supply–demand surfaces, service sources and sink areas, priority areas for service provision, service ‘hotspots’ and trade-off assessments. PMID:15814355

  17. The Trophy Hunting of African Lions: Scale, Current Management Practices and Factors Undermining Sustainability

    PubMed Central

    Lindsey, Peter Andrew; Balme, Guy Andrew; Funston, Paul; Henschel, Philipp; Hunter, Luke; Madzikanda, Hilary; Midlane, Neil; Nyirenda, Vincent

    2013-01-01

    The trophy hunting of lions Panthera leo is contentious due to uncertainty concerning conservation impacts and because of highly polarised opinions about the practice. African lions are hunted across at least ∼558,000 km2, which comprises 27–32% of the lion range in countries where trophy hunting of the species is permitted. Consequently, trophy hunting has potential to impart significant positive or negative impacts on lions. Several studies have demonstrated that excessive trophy harvests have driven lion population declines. There have been several attempts by protectionist non-governmental organisations to reduce or preclude trophy hunting via restrictions on the import and export of lion trophies. We document the management of lion hunting in Africa and highlight challenges which need addressing to achieve sustainability. Problems include: unscientific bases for quota setting; excessive quotas and off-takes in some countries; fixed quotas which encourage over-harvest; and lack of restrictions on the age of lions that can be hunted. Key interventions needed to make lion hunting more sustainable, include implementation of: enforced age restrictions; improved trophy monitoring; adaptive management of quotas and a minimum length of lion hunts of at least 21 days. Some range states have made important steps towards implementing such improved management and off-takes have fallen steeply in recent years. For example age restrictions have been introduced in Tanzania and in Niassa in Mozambique, and are being considered for Benin and Zimbabwe, several states have reduced quotas, and Zimbabwe is implementing trophy monitoring. However, further reforms are needed to ensure sustainability and reduce conservation problems associated with the practice while allowing retention of associated financial incentives for conservation. PMID:24058491

  18. The trophy hunting of African lions: scale, current management practices and factors undermining sustainability.

    PubMed

    Lindsey, Peter Andrew; Balme, Guy Andrew; Funston, Paul; Henschel, Philipp; Hunter, Luke; Madzikanda, Hilary; Midlane, Neil; Nyirenda, Vincent

    2013-01-01

    The trophy hunting of lions Panthera leo is contentious due to uncertainty concerning conservation impacts and because of highly polarised opinions about the practice. African lions are hunted across at least ~558,000 km(2), which comprises 27-32% of the lion range in countries where trophy hunting of the species is permitted. Consequently, trophy hunting has potential to impart significant positive or negative impacts on lions. Several studies have demonstrated that excessive trophy harvests have driven lion population declines. There have been several attempts by protectionist non-governmental organisations to reduce or preclude trophy hunting via restrictions on the import and export of lion trophies. We document the management of lion hunting in Africa and highlight challenges which need addressing to achieve sustainability. Problems include: unscientific bases for quota setting; excessive quotas and off-takes in some countries; fixed quotas which encourage over-harvest; and lack of restrictions on the age of lions that can be hunted. Key interventions needed to make lion hunting more sustainable, include implementation of: enforced age restrictions; improved trophy monitoring; adaptive management of quotas and a minimum length of lion hunts of at least 21 days. Some range states have made important steps towards implementing such improved management and off-takes have fallen steeply in recent years. For example age restrictions have been introduced in Tanzania and in Niassa in Mozambique, and are being considered for Benin and Zimbabwe, several states have reduced quotas, and Zimbabwe is implementing trophy monitoring. However, further reforms are needed to ensure sustainability and reduce conservation problems associated with the practice while allowing retention of associated financial incentives for conservation.

  19. Integrating water and carbon fluxes at the ecosystem scale across African ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merbold, Lutz; Brümmer, Christian; Archibald, Sally; Ardö, Jonas; Arneth, Almut; Brüggemann, Nicolas; de Grandcourt, Agnes; Kergoat, Laurent; Moffat, Antje M.; Mougin, Eric; Nouvellon, Yann; Saint-Andre, Laurent; Saunders, Matthew; Scholes, Robert J.; Veenendaal, Elmar; Kutsch, Werner L.

    2013-04-01

    In this study we report on water and carbon dioxide fluxes, measured using the eddy covariance (EC) technology, from different ecosystems in Sub-Saharan Africa. These sites differed in ecosystem type (C3 plant dominated woodlands to C4 plant dominated grass savannas) and covered the very dry regions of the Sahel (250 mm rainfall, Sudan), the tropical areas in Central Africa (1650 mm in Uganda) further south to the subtropical areas in Botswana, Zambia and South Africa (400-900 mm in precipitation). The link between water and carbon dioxide fluxes were evaluated for time periods (see also the corresponding abstract by Bruemmer et al.) without water limitation during the peak growing season. Our results show that plant stomata control ecosystem scale water and carbon dioxide fluxes and mediate between plant growth and plant survival. On continental scale, this switch between maximizing carbon uptake and minimizing water losses, from here on called the "Carbon-Water-Tipping Point" was positively correlated to the mean annual growing season temperature at each site. Even though similar responses of plants were shown at the individual leaf-level scale this has to our knowledge not yet been shown at the ecosystem scale further suggesting a long-term adaptation of the complete ecosystems to certain climatic regions. It remains unclear how this adaption will influence the ecosystem response to ongoing climate change and according temperature increases and changes in precipitation.

  20. Interannual- to multicentiennial-scale variability in the West African Monsoon during the Eemian

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKay, N. P.; Overpeck, J. T.; Shanahan, T. M.; Peck, J. A.; King, J. W.; Scholz, C. A.; Heil, C. W.

    2011-12-01

    The Eemian was the last interglacial period prior to the Holocene, lasting from 130 to 118 ka. Whereas annual insolation during the Eemian was comparable to the Holocene, the substantial differences in seasonal forcing and the reduced extent of continental ice sheets make the interval an important benchmark for understanding how altered climatic forcing drives changes in both global and regional climate. Climate variability during the period is, however, poorly understood, especially on annual to decadal timescales. Here we present the initial results of 4,000-yr-long annually-resolved varve record from the Lake Bosumtwi from the early Eemian (ca. 130 to 126 ka). Lake Bosumtwi (6.5°N, 1.4°W) is a 1.07 Ma impact crater lake in southern Ghana. The lake is hydrologically closed, and is relatively small, and consequently, is particularly sensitive to changes in effective moisture and the West African Monsoon (WAM). In 2004, an ICDP lake drilling expedition recovered the complete 291-m sediment sequence that spans the 1 Myr history of the lake. More than half of the 1 Myr sediment sequence appears to be annually laminated, including the late Holocene. This allows us the rare opportunity to compare long, annually-resolved records between interglacials. We analyzed the varve sequence for major element composition at 25-μm resolution using a high-resolution scanning X-ray fluorescence analyzer (or μXRF). The abundance of terrestrial elements (i.e., Al, Si, K, Ti) in the sediments, as inferred by XRF, has been shown to be a proxy for lake level at Lake Bosumtwi. During the Holocene, lake level in Lake Bosumtwi generally tracked summer insolation; for most of the early Holocene lake level was near the crater rim and the lake overflowed. Summer insolation was substantially higher during the early Eemian (up to 30 W m-2), however there is no evidence of comparably high lake level at Lake Bosumtwi during any part of last interglacial. In contrast, abundant evidence from the

  1. Large-scale response of the Eastern Mediterranean thermohaline circulation to African monsoon intensification during sapropel S1 formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tesi, T.; Asioli, A.; Minisini, D.; Maselli, V.; Dalla Valle, G.; Gamberi, F.; Langone, L.; Cattaneo, A.; Montagna, P.; Trincardi, F.

    2017-03-01

    The formation of Eastern Mediterranean sapropels has periodically occurred during intensification of northern hemisphere monsoon precipitation over North Africa. However, the large-scale response of the Eastern Mediterranean thermohaline circulation during these monsoon-fuelled freshening episodes is poorly constrained. Here, we investigate the formation of the youngest sapropel (S1) along an across-slope transect in the Adriatic Sea. Foraminifera-based oxygen index, redox-sensitive elements and biogeochemical parameters reveal - for the first time - that the Adriatic S1 was synchronous with the deposition of south-eastern Mediterranean S1 beds. Proxies of paleo thermohaline currents indicate that the bottom-hugging North Adriatic Dense Water (NAdDW) suddenly decreased at the sapropel onset simultaneously with the maximum freshening of the Levantine Sea during the African Humid Period. We conclude that the lack of the "salty" Levantine Intermediate Water hampered the preconditioning of the northern Adriatic waters necessary for the NAdDW formation prior to the winter cooling. Consequently, a weak NAdDW limited in turn the Eastern Mediterranean Deep Water (EMDWAdriatic) formation with important consequences for the ventilation of the Ionian basin as well. Our results highlight the importance of the Adriatic for the deep water ventilation and the interdependence among the major eastern Mediterranean water masses whose destabilization exerted first-order control on S1 deposition.

  2. Fine scale patterns of genetic partitioning in the rediscovered African crocodile, Crocodylus suchus (Saint-Hilaire 1807)

    PubMed Central

    Shirley, Matthew H.; Hekkala, Evon R.

    2016-01-01

    Landscape heterogeneity, phylogenetic history, and stochasticity all influence patterns of geneflow and connectivity in wild vertebrates. Fine-scale patterns of genetic partitioning may be particularly important for the sustainable management of widespread species in trade, such as crocodiles. We examined genetic variation within the rediscovered African crocodile, Crocodylus suchus, across its distribution in West and Central Africa. We genotyped 109 individuals at nine microsatellite loci from 16 sampling localities and used three Bayesian clustering techniques and an analysis of contemporary gene flow to identify population structure across the landscape. We identified up to eight genetic clusters that largely correspond to populations isolated in coastal wetland systems and across large distances. Crocodile population clusters from the interior were readily distinguished from coastal areas, which were further subdivided by distance and drainage basin. Migration analyses indicated contemporary migration only between closely positioned coastal populations. These findings indicate high levels of population structure throughout the range of C. suchus and we use our results to suggest a role for molecular tools in identifying crocodile conservation units for this species. Further research, including additional sampling throughout the Congo and Niger drainages, would clarify both the landscape connectivity and management of this species. PMID:27114867

  3. Evolving Complex Networks Analysis of Space-Time Multi-Scale Wavelike Fields: Application to African Rainfall Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oluoch, Kevin; Marwan, Norbert; Trauth, Martin; Kurths, Juergen

    2013-04-01

    Evolving complex networks analysis is a very recent and very promising attempt to describe, in the most realistic ways, complex systems or multi-system dynamics. The Earth system is comprised of many attractors that are multi-scaled, multi-complexity non-linear systems of systems. Space time propagations responsible for precipitation is one example in which the interactions between the aforementioned properties of complex systems can be applied; especially the spatio-temporal wave likeness of spatial patterning and temporal recurrences representative of the underlying dynamics. Tobler's first law of geography states: "Everything is related to everything else, but near things are more related than distant things" (Waldo Tobler, 1970 Economic Geography 46: 234-40). Most time-series analysis are pairwise correlations and even when faced with gridded data, the neighborhood characteristics is never used as an input variable. In our point of view, such analysis ignore vital information on the multi-scale non-linear spatial patterns of the continuities and singularities possibly resulting from underlying random processes. This work in progress is an application, mainly inspired by wave theory and non-linear dynamics. It is a systematic method of methods, which exploits the nonlinear multi-scale wave nature of virtually everything in nature including financial data, disease dynamics et cetera and applies it to climate through complex network analysis of rainfall data. The method uses a continuous spatial wavelet transform for non-linear multi-scale decomposition. Such an output carries all vital information pertaining the singularity structures in the data. Similarity measures are obtained by considering the multi-fractal nature of the distribution of discontinuities. The more similar the point-wise generalized dimensions are in-terms of their continuity, fractal, entropy, information and correlation dimensions, the higher the chance that they characterize similar

  4. A new African soft scale genus, Pseudocribrolecanium gen. nov. (Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Coccidae), erected for two species, including the citrus pest P. andersoni (Newstead) comb. nov

    PubMed Central

    Kondo, Takumasa

    2006-01-01

    A new African genus of soft scale insects, Pseudocribrolecanium gen. nov. is erected to accommodate Akermes colae Green & Laing and Cribrolecanium andersoni (Newstead). The adult females and first-instar nymphs of the two species are redescribed and illustrated. Taxonomic keys to separate the adult females and first-instar nymphs are provided. The affinity of Pseudocribrolecanium with the tribe Paralecaniini in the subfamily Coccinae is discussed. PMID:19537997

  5. A new African soft scale genus, Pseudocribrolecanium gen. nov. (Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Coccidae), erected for two species, including the citrus pest P. andersoni (Newstead) comb. nov.

    PubMed

    Kondo, Takumasa

    2006-01-01

    A new African genus of soft scale insects, Pseudocribrolecanium gen. nov. is erected to accommodate Akermes colae Green & Laing and Cribrolecanium andersoni (Newstead). The adult females and first-instar nymphs of the two species are redescribed and illustrated. Taxonomic keys to separate the adult females and first-instar nymphs are provided. The affinity of Pseudocribrolecanium with the tribe Paralecaniini in the subfamily Coccinae is discussed.

  6. Perceptions of doctors and nurses at a Ugandan hospital regarding the introduction and use of the South African Triage Scale

    PubMed Central

    Blitz, Julia

    2016-01-01

    Background International Hospital Kampala (IHK) experienced a challenge with how to standardise the triaging and sorting of patients. There was no triage tool to help to prioritise which patients to attend to first, with very sick patient often being missed. Aim and setting To explore whether the introduction of the South African Triage Scale (SATS) was seen as valuable and sustainable by the IHK’s outpatient department and emergency unit (OPD and EU) staff. Methods The study used qualitative methods to introduce SATS in the OPD and EU at IHK and to obtain the perceptions of doctors and nurses who had used it for 3–6 months on its applicability and sustainability. Specific questions about challenges faced prior to its introduction, strengths and weaknesses of the triage tool, the impact it had on staff practices, and their recommendations on the continued use of the tool were asked. In-depth interviews were conducted with 4 doctors and 12 nurses. Results SATS was found to be necessary, applicable and recommended for use in the IHK setting. It improved the sorting of patients, as well as nurse-patient and nurse-doctor communication. The IHK OPD & EU staff attained new skills, with nurses becoming more involved in-patient care. It is possibly also useful in telephone triaging and planning of hospital staffing. Conclusion Adequate nurse staffing, a computer application for automated coding of patients, and regular training would encourage consistent use and sustainability of SATS. Setting up a hospital committee to review signs and symptoms would increase acceptability and sustainability. SATS is valuable in the IHK setting because it improved overall efficiency of triaging and care, with significantly more strengths than weaknesses. PMID:27247152

  7. Meat Quality Characteristics of Small East African Goats and Norwegian Crosses Finished under Small Scale Farming Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Hozza, W. A.; Mtenga, L. A.; Kifaro, G. C.; Shija, D. S. N.; Mushi, D. E.; Safari, J. G.; Shirima, E. J. M.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the experiment was to study the effect of feeding system on meat quality characteristics of Small East African (SEA) goats and their crosses with Norwegian (SEA×N) goats finished under small scale farming conditions. Twenty four castrated goats at the age of 18 months with live body weight of 16.7±0.54 kg from each breed (SEA and SEA×N) were distributed in a completely randomized design in a 2×3 factorial arrangement (two breed, and three dietary treatments). The dietary treatments were; no access to concentrate (T0), 66% access to ad libitum concentrate allowance (T66) and 100% access to ad libitum concentrate allowance with 20% refusal (T100) and the experimental period was for 84 days. In addition, all goats were allowed to graze for 2 hours daily and later fed grass hay on ad libitum basis. Daily feed intakes were recorded for all 84-days of experiment after which the animals were slaughtered. Feed intake of T100 animals was 536 g/d, which was 183 g/d higher than that of T66 group. Supplemented goats had significantly (p<0.05) better feed conversion efficiency. The SEA had higher (p<0.05) hot carcass weight (8.2 vs 7.9 kg), true dressing percentage (54.5 vs 53.3) and commercial dressing percentage (43.3 vs 41.6) compared to SEA×N. There was no significant difference (p>0.05) for dressing percentage and carcass conformation among supplemented goats except fatness score, total fat depots and carcass fat which increased (p<0.05) with increasing concentrate levels in the diet. Increasing level of concentrate on offer increased meat dry matter with subsequent increase of fat in the meat. Muscle pH of goats fed concentrate declined rapidly and reached below 6 at 6 h post-mortem but temperature remained at 28°C. Cooking loss and meat tenderness improved (p<0.05) and thawing loss increased (p<0.05) with ageing period. Similarly, meat tenderness improved (p<0.05) with concentrate supplementation. Shear force of muscles varied from 36 to 66, the high

  8. Meat Quality Characteristics of Small East African Goats and Norwegian Crosses Finished under Small Scale Farming Conditions.

    PubMed

    Hozza, W A; Mtenga, L A; Kifaro, G C; Shija, D S N; Mushi, D E; Safari, J G; Shirima, E J M

    2014-12-01

    The aim of the experiment was to study the effect of feeding system on meat quality characteristics of Small East African (SEA) goats and their crosses with Norwegian (SEA×N) goats finished under small scale farming conditions. Twenty four castrated goats at the age of 18 months with live body weight of 16.7±0.54 kg from each breed (SEA and SEA×N) were distributed in a completely randomized design in a 2×3 factorial arrangement (two breed, and three dietary treatments). The dietary treatments were; no access to concentrate (T0), 66% access to ad libitum concentrate allowance (T66) and 100% access to ad libitum concentrate allowance with 20% refusal (T100) and the experimental period was for 84 days. In addition, all goats were allowed to graze for 2 hours daily and later fed grass hay on ad libitum basis. Daily feed intakes were recorded for all 84-days of experiment after which the animals were slaughtered. Feed intake of T100 animals was 536 g/d, which was 183 g/d higher than that of T66 group. Supplemented goats had significantly (p<0.05) better feed conversion efficiency. The SEA had higher (p<0.05) hot carcass weight (8.2 vs 7.9 kg), true dressing percentage (54.5 vs 53.3) and commercial dressing percentage (43.3 vs 41.6) compared to SEA×N. There was no significant difference (p>0.05) for dressing percentage and carcass conformation among supplemented goats except fatness score, total fat depots and carcass fat which increased (p<0.05) with increasing concentrate levels in the diet. Increasing level of concentrate on offer increased meat dry matter with subsequent increase of fat in the meat. Muscle pH of goats fed concentrate declined rapidly and reached below 6 at 6 h post-mortem but temperature remained at 28°C. Cooking loss and meat tenderness improved (p<0.05) and thawing loss increased (p<0.05) with ageing period. Similarly, meat tenderness improved (p<0.05) with concentrate supplementation. Shear force of muscles varied from 36 to 66, the high

  9. Triage capabilities of medical trainees in Ghana using the South African triage scale: an opportunity to improve emergency care

    PubMed Central

    Gyedu, Adam; Agbedinu, Kwabena; Dalwai, Mohammed; Osei-Ampofo, Maxwell; Nakua, Emmanuel Kweku; Oteng, Rockefeller; Stewart, Barclay

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The incidence of emergency conditions is increasing worldwide, particularly in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). However, triage and emergency care training has not been prioritized in LMICs. We aimed to assess the reliability and validity of the South African Triage Scale (SATS) when used by providers not specifically trained in SATS, as well as to compare triage capabilities between senior medical students and senior house officers to examine the effectiveness of our curriculum for house officer training with regards to triage. Methods Sixty each of senior medical students and senior house officers who had not undergone specific triage or SATS training were asked to triage 25 previously validated emergency vignettes using the SATS. Estimates of reliability and validity were calculated. Additionally, over- and under-triage, as well as triage performance between the medical students and house officers was assessed against a reference standard. Results Fifty-nine senior medical students (98% response rate) and 43 senior house officers (72% response rate) completed the survey (84% response rate overall). A total of 2,550 triage assignments were included in the analysis (59 medical student and 43 house officer triage assignments for 25 vignettes each; 1,475 and 1,075 triage assignments, respectively). Inter-rater reliability was moderate (quadratically weighted κ 0.59 and 0.60 for medical students and house officers, respectively). Triage using SATS performed by these groups had low sensitivity (medical students: 54%, 95% CI 49–59; house officers: 55%, 95% CI 48–60) and moderate specificity (medical students: 84%, 95% CI 82 - 89; house officers: 84%, 95% CI 82 - 97). Both groups under-triaged most ‘emergency’ level vignette patients (i.e. SATS Red; 80 and 82% for medical students and house officers, respectively). There was no difference between the groups for any metric. Conclusion Although the SATS has proven utility in a number of

  10. Gas hydrates and fluid venting in ultradeep large scale pockmarks at the southwest african margin off Congo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spiess, V.; Kasten, S.; Schneider, R.; Zuehlsdorff, L.; Bohrmann, G.; Sahling, H.; Breitzke, M.; Bialas, J.; Ivanov, M.; Meteor Shipboard Scientific Party, M56.

    2003-04-01

    As a project in the framework of the German gas hydrate inititiave, funded through the Geotechnologien programme of the German Minister of Education and Research (BMBF) and the German Science Foundation (DFG), investigations at the southwest african continental margin off the Congo river were planned to study the occurrence, evolution and properties of gas hydrates and fluid flow in hemipelagic sediments. R/V Meteor Cruise M56, carried out in 2 legs in November and December 2002 from Douala (Cameroon) and Libreville (Gabon) to Capetown (South Africa), combined an extended geophysical survey program, using high and very high resolution multi-channel seismics, digital sediment echosounding, swath sounding, deep tow side scan sonar, deep tow reflection seismics and tomography with ocean bottom instruments with ocean floor video surveying and sediment and water column sampling with gravity corer, tv-guided multicorer and tv grab, CTD and rosette. 3D seismic data reveal the complex nature of fluid upflow zones and gas hydrate occurrences, which produce acoustic blanking and high amplitude reflections, respectively, in the vicinity of sea floor depressions from a few to several tens of meters depth and a few tens to a few hundred meters diameter. Side Scan data reveal high backscatter patches, which are not completely correlated to the morphology, and which also show pronounced lateral variations. This is in agreement with OFOS video surveys, which confirm patchiness of vent indications as clam fields, tube worm occurrences and the distristribution and amount of carbonate precipitates at the sea floor. Furthermore, video tracks confirmed complex small scale tectonics on the inner flanks of the pockmarks, indicating the collapse of the surrounding hemipelagic sediments. Local enhancements of reflector amplitudes seem to indicate the distribution of shallow gas hydrates, allowing the reconstruction of fluid flow and methane supply as well as gas hydrate growth patterns

  11. Impact of anthropogenic and climatic changes on biomass and diversity of the Central African forests, from local to global scale: original methods for new results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mortier, Frédéric; Gourlet-Fleury, Sylvie; Ouédraogo, Dakis; Picard, Nicolas; Rossi, Vivien

    2014-05-01

    Forests of the Congo Basin, the second most important remaining block of tropical moist forest in the world, are facing increasing anthropogenic pressure and climate change. Understanding the biomass and diversity dynamics under these pressures is one major challenge for African nations and international communities. This talk aims to present original methods to model, infer, and predict growth, biomass and diversity of Central African forests, as well as new results on the impacts of global change on those forests, at various scales. With respect to methods, we will present theoretical frameworks allowing (i) to model growth processes in species-rich ecosystems like tropical rain forests, (ii) to take into account uncertainties in biomass estimation. In terms of results, we will highlight at a local scale, how human activities as well as climatic variations would impact (i) the composition and diversity of forests, (ii) the dynamics of biomass and growth processes. At a global scale, we will demonstrate how environmental filtering controls the above ground biomass. The number of studies are currently increasing over the Congo Basin through several research projects led by our team (CoForTips, DynAfFor) and contributing to various international organization's programs (Cifor, FAO, Comifac, Ofac).

  12. Financial decision-making abilities and financial exploitation in older African Americans: Preliminary validity evidence for the Lichtenberg Financial Decision Rating Scale (LFDRS).

    PubMed

    Lichtenberg, Peter A; Ficker, Lisa J; Rahman-Filipiak, Annalise

    2016-01-01

    This study examines preliminary evidence for the Lichtenberg Financial Decision Rating Scale (LFDRS), a new person-centered approach to assessing capacity to make financial decisions, and its relationship to self-reported cases of financial exploitation in 69 older African Americans. More than one third of individuals reporting financial exploitation also had questionable decisional abilities. Overall, decisional ability score and current decision total were significantly associated with cognitive screening test and financial ability scores, demonstrating good criterion validity. Study findings suggest that impaired decisional abilities may render older adults more vulnerable to financial exploitation, and that the LFDRS is a valid tool.

  13. Identification of the underlying factor structure of the Derriford Appearance Scale 24

    PubMed Central

    Lawson, Victoria; White, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Background. The Derriford Appearance Scale24 (DAS24) is a widely used measure of distress and dysfunction in relation to self-consciousness of appearance. It has been used in clinical and research settings, and translated into numerous European and Asian languages. Hitherto, no study has conducted an analysis to determine the underlying factor structure of the scale. Methods. A large (n = 1,265) sample of community and hospital patients with a visible difference were recruited face to face or by post, and completed the DAS24. Results. A two factor solution was generated. An evaluation of the congruence of the factor solutions on each of the the hospital and the community samples using Tucker’s Coefficient of Congruence (rc = .979) and confirmatory factor analysis, which demonstrated a consistent factor structure. A main factor, general self consciousness (GSC), was represented by 18 items. Six items comprised a second factor, sexual and body self-consciousness (SBSC). The SBSC scale demonstrated greater sensitivity and specificity in identifying distress for sexually significant areas of the body. Discussion. The factor structure of the DAS24 facilitates a more nuanced interpretation of scores using this scale. Two conceptually and statistically coherent sub-scales were identified. The SBSC sub-scale offers a means of identifying distress and dysfunction around sexually significant areas of the body not previously possible with this scale. PMID:26157633

  14. Millennial-scale northwest African droughts related to Heinrich events and Dansgaard-Oeschger cycles: Evidence in marine sediments from offshore Senegal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Itambi, A. C.; von Dobeneck, T.; Mulitza, S.; Bickert, T.; Heslop, D.

    2009-03-01

    We present a suite of new high-resolution records (0-135 ka) representing pulses of aeolian, fluvial, and biogenic sedimentation along the Senegalese continental margin. A multiproxy approach based on rock magnetic, element, and color data was applied on three cores enclosing the present-day northern limit of the ITCZ. A strong episodic aeolian contribution driven by stronger winds and dry conditions and characterized by high hematite and goethite input was revealed north of 13°N. These millennial-scale dust fluxes are synchronous with North Atlantic Heinrich stadials. Fluvial clay input driven by the West African monsoon predominates at 12°N and varies at Dansgaard-Oeschger time scales while marine productivity is strongly enhanced during the African humid periods and marine isotope stage 5. From latitudinal signal variations, we deduce that the last glacial ITCZ summer position was located between core positions at 12°26' and 13°40'N. Furthermore, this work also shows that submillennial periods of aridity over northwest Africa occurred more frequently and farther south than previously thought.

  15. Financial Decision-making Abilities and Financial Exploitation in Older African Americans: Preliminary Validity Evidence for the Lichtenberg Financial Decision Rating Scale (LFDRS)

    PubMed Central

    Ficker, Lisa J.; Rahman-Filipiak, Annalise

    2015-01-01

    This study examines preliminary evidence for the Lichtenberg Financial Decision Rating Scale (LFDRS), a new person-centered approach to assessing capacity to make financial decisions, and its relationship to self-reported cases of financial exploitation in 69 older African Americans. More than one third of individuals reporting financial exploitation also had questionable decisional abilities. Overall, decisional ability score and current decision total were significantly associated with cognitive screening test and financial ability scores, demonstrating good criterion validity. Financially exploited individuals, and non-exploited individuals, showed mean group differences on the Mini Mental State Exam, Financial Situational Awareness, Psychological Vulnerability, Current Decisional Ability, and Susceptibility to undue influence subscales, and Total Lichtenberg Financial Decision Rating Scale Score. Study findings suggest that impaired decisional abilities may render older adults more vulnerable to financial exploitation, and that the LFDRS is a valid tool for measuring both decisional abilities and financial exploitation. PMID:26285038

  16. Uplift of the South African Plateau: mantle-scale deformation, long wavelength relief growth and offshore sediment budget

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guillocheau, François; Dauteuil, Olivier; Baby, Guillaume; Robin, Cécile

    2013-04-01

    The South African Plateau is one of the largest very long wavelength relief (x1000 km) of the world that could be related to mantle dynamics and the effect of the African superplume. Unfortunately, the timing of the uplift and the different steps of the relief growth are still debated with a Late Cretaceous uplift scenario and an Oligocene one. Whatever model, few attentions were paid to the evolution of the overall geomorphic system, from the upstream erosional system to the downstream depositional system. This study is based, onshore, on the mapping and chronology of all the macroforms (weathering surfaces and associated alterites, pediments and pediplains, incised rivers, wave-cut platforms) dated by intersection with the few preserved sediments and the volcanics (mainly kimberlites pipes) and, offshore, on a more classical dataset of seismic lines and petroleum wells (characterization and dating of forced regression, sediment volume measurement, etc..). The main result of this study is that the South African Plateau is an old Late Cretaceous Plateau reactivated during Paleogene times and fossilized since the Middle Miocene. • During Late Cretaceous, in a semiarid climatic setting, the main uplift occurred from the east (around 95 Ma) to the west (around 75 Ma) and could result from the migration of the African plate over the African superplume: This is the paroxysm of the erosion with the growth of a large delta offshore present-day Orange River mouth (sedimentation rate around 100 000 km3/Ma). • During Paleocene - Mid Eocene times, in more humid conditions and in response to a more subtle long wavelength deformation, pedimentation occurred mainly localised along Cape Fold Belt feeding a large delta offshore western Cape Peninsula. During Mid Eocene times, all those landscapes are fossilized and weathered by laterites. • Late Eocene and Oligocene is the second period of uplift of the Plateau, localised along its Indian Ocean side (Drackensberg Moutains

  17. The Activity Support Scale for Multiple Groups (ACTS-MG): Child-reported Physical Activity Parenting in African American and Non-Hispanic White Families.

    PubMed

    Lampard, Amy M; Nishi, Akihiro; Baskin, Monica L; Carson, Tiffany L; Davison, Kirsten K

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to assess the psychometric properties of a child-report, multidimensional measure of physical activity (PA) parenting, the Activity Support Scale for Multiple Groups (ACTS-MG), in African American and non-Hispanic white families. The ACTS-MG was administered to children aged 5 to 12 years. A three factor model of PA parenting (Modeling of PA, Logistic Support, and Restricting Access to Screen-based Activities) was tested separately for mother's and fathers' PA parenting. The proposed three-factor structure was supported in both racial groups for mothers' PA parenting and in the African American sample for fathers' PA parenting. Factorial invariance between racial groups was demonstrated for mother's PA parenting. Building on a previous study examining the ACTS-MG parent-report, this study supports the use of the ACTS-MG child-report for mothers' PA parenting. However, further research is required to investigate the measurement of fathers' PA parenting across racial groups.

  18. On the decadal scale correlation between African dust and Sahel rainfall: The role of Saharan heat low–forced winds

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Weijie; Evan, Amato T.; Flamant, Cyrille; Lavaysse, Christophe

    2015-01-01

    A large body of work has shown that year-to-year variations in North African dust emission are inversely proportional to previous-year monsoon rainfall in the Sahel, implying that African dust emission is highly sensitive to vegetation changes in this narrow transitional zone. However, such a theory is not supported by field observations or modeling studies, as both suggest that interannual variability in dust is due to changes in wind speeds over the major emitting regions, which lie to the north of the Sahelian vegetated zone. We reconcile this contradiction showing that interannual variability in Sahelian rainfall and surface wind speeds over the Sahara are the result of changes in lower tropospheric air temperatures over the Saharan heat low (SHL). As the SHL warms, an anomalous tropospheric circulation develops that reduces wind speeds over the Sahara and displaces the monsoonal rainfall northward, thus simultaneously increasing Sahelian rainfall and reducing dust emission from the major dust “hotspots” in the Sahara. Our results shed light on why climate models are, to date, unable to reproduce observed historical variability in dust emission and transport from this region. PMID:26601301

  19. [An examination of support function of humor: construction of a preference scale for supportive humor].

    PubMed

    Miyato, M; Ueno, Y

    1996-10-01

    In this study, we constructed a scale to measure individual preference for supportive humor, and examined whether the preference related to mental health. Two samples of female undergraduates cooperated with survey studies. In the first, a scale was constructed to measure preference for supportive kinds of humor, and relationships were examined between its score, hardiness to negative events, and depression, together with preference for other types of humor identified in a previous study (Ueno, 1992). In the second, the preference was correlated with hedonistic attitudes and private self-consciousness. Main findings were as follows: (1) Of the three types of humor (aggressive, playful, and supportive), only preference for supportive humor correlated with depression. (2) Hedonistic attitudes correlated with preference for each of the three types. (3) Private self-consciousness correlated only with preference for supportive humor.

  20. The Economics of Rural and Urban Small-Scale Industries in Sierra Leone. African Rural Economy Paper No. 14.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liedholm, Carl; Chuta, Enyinna

    Small-scale industry in Sierra Leone, Africa was examined in terms of: labor intensity; output generated per unit of capital; generation of positive economic profits by small-scale industry groups/processes; and seasonal and locational variations. Key analytical issues were the nature of small-scale industry supply and demand processes. Data were…

  1. The Uses of Texting in Sexual Relationships Scale: Associations With Risky Sexual Behavior Among At-Risk African American Emerging Adults.

    PubMed

    Broaddus, Michelle; Dickson-Gomez, Julia

    2016-10-01

    Qualitative and quantitative research was used to create the Uses of Texting in Sexual Relationships scale. At-risk, predominantly African American emerging adults participated in qualitative interviews (N = 20) and quantitative surveys (N = 110) about their uses of text messaging within romantic and sexual relationships. Exploratory factor analysis of items generated from interviews resulted in four subscales: Sexting, Relationship Maintenance, Relationship Development, and Texting for Sexual Safety. Exploratory analyses indicated associations of Sexting with more instances of condomless sex, and Texting for Sexual Safety with fewer instances of condomless sex, which was moderated by relationship power. Further research on the connections between text messaging in relationships and sexual behavior among high-risk and minority young adults is warranted, and intervention efforts to decrease sexual risks need to incorporate these avenues of sexual communication.

  2. What Are the Best and Worst Times in the Lives of South African Township Dwellers? A Content Analysis of the Self-Defined End-Anchors for Bernheim's ACSA Scale of Subjective Well-Being

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moller, V.; Theuns, P.

    2013-01-01

    Bernheim's ACSA, a less conventional measure of subjective well-being originally developed for use in a clinical setting, was applied to a sample of black South African township dwellers (n = 1,020) in the Eastern Cape Province. The Anamnestic Comparative Self Assessment is an experiential self-anchoring scale with concrete anchors (Bernheim in…

  3. Bat trait, genetic and pathogen data from large-scale investigations of African fruit bats, Eidolon helvum.

    PubMed

    Peel, Alison J; Baker, Kate S; Hayman, David T S; Suu-Ire, Richard; Breed, Andrew C; Gembu, Guy-Crispin; Lembo, Tiziana; Fernández-Loras, Andrés; Sargan, David R; Fooks, Anthony R; Cunningham, Andrew A; Wood, James L N

    2016-08-01

    Bats, including African straw-coloured fruit bats (Eidolon helvum), have been highlighted as reservoirs of many recently emerged zoonotic viruses. This common, widespread and ecologically important species was the focus of longitudinal and continent-wide studies of the epidemiological and ecology of Lagos bat virus, henipaviruses and Achimota viruses. Here we present a spatial, morphological, demographic, genetic and serological dataset encompassing 2827 bats from nine countries over an 8-year period. Genetic data comprises cytochrome b mitochondrial sequences (n=608) and microsatellite genotypes from 18 loci (n=544). Tooth-cementum analyses (n=316) allowed derivation of rare age-specific serologic data for a lyssavirus, a henipavirus and two rubulaviruses. This dataset contributes a substantial volume of data on the ecology of E. helvum and its viruses and will be valuable for a wide range of studies, including viral transmission dynamic modelling in age-structured populations, investigation of seasonal reproductive asynchrony in wide-ranging species, ecological niche modelling, inference of island colonisation history, exploration of relationships between island and body size, and various spatial analyses of demographic, morphometric or serological data.

  4. No ecological opportunity signal on a continental scale? Diversification and life-history evolution of African true toads (Anura: Bufonidae).

    PubMed

    Liedtke, H Christoph; Müller, Hendrik; Rödel, Mark-Oliver; Menegon, Michele; Gonwouo, LeGrand Nono; Barej, Michael F; Gvoždík, Václav; Schmitz, Andreas; Channing, Alan; Nagel, Peter; Loader, Simon P

    2016-08-01

    The niche-filling process predicted by the "ecological opportunity" (EO) model is an often-invoked mechanism for generating exceptional diversity in island colonizers. Whether the same process governs lineage accumulation and trait disparity during continental colonization events is less clear. Here, we test this prediction by investigating the rate dynamics and trait evolution of one of Africa's most widespread amphibian colonizers, the true toads (Bufonidae). By reconstructing the most complete molecular phylogeny of African Bufonidae to date, we find that the diversification of lineages in Africa best conforms to a constant rate model throughout time and across subclades, with little support for EO. Evolutionary rates of life-history traits have similarly been constant over time. However, an analysis of generalists and specialists showed a shift toward higher speciation rates associated with habitat specialization. The overall lack of EO signal can be interpreted in a number of ways and we propose several explanations. Firstly, methodological issues might preclude the detection of EO. Secondly, colonizers might not experience true EO conditions and due to the size, ecological heterogeneity and age of landmasses, the diversification processes might be more complex. Thirdly, lower speciation rates of habitat generalists may have affected overall proliferation of lineages.

  5. Bat trait, genetic and pathogen data from large-scale investigations of African fruit bats, Eidolon helvum

    PubMed Central

    Peel, Alison J.; Baker, Kate S.; Hayman, David T. S.; Suu-Ire, Richard; Breed, Andrew C.; Gembu, Guy-Crispin; Lembo, Tiziana; Fernández-Loras, Andrés; Sargan, David R.; Fooks, Anthony R.; Cunningham, Andrew A.; Wood, James L. N.

    2016-01-01

    Bats, including African straw-coloured fruit bats (Eidolon helvum), have been highlighted as reservoirs of many recently emerged zoonotic viruses. This common, widespread and ecologically important species was the focus of longitudinal and continent-wide studies of the epidemiological and ecology of Lagos bat virus, henipaviruses and Achimota viruses. Here we present a spatial, morphological, demographic, genetic and serological dataset encompassing 2827 bats from nine countries over an 8-year period. Genetic data comprises cytochrome b mitochondrial sequences (n=608) and microsatellite genotypes from 18 loci (n=544). Tooth-cementum analyses (n=316) allowed derivation of rare age-specific serologic data for a lyssavirus, a henipavirus and two rubulaviruses. This dataset contributes a substantial volume of data on the ecology of E. helvum and its viruses and will be valuable for a wide range of studies, including viral transmission dynamic modelling in age-structured populations, investigation of seasonal reproductive asynchrony in wide-ranging species, ecological niche modelling, inference of island colonisation history, exploration of relationships between island and body size, and various spatial analyses of demographic, morphometric or serological data. PMID:27479120

  6. Study of zonal large scale wave structure (LSWS) and equatorial scintillation with low-latitude GRBR network over Southeast Asia and African sectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ram Sudarsanam, Tulasi; Yamamoto, Mamoru; Gurubaran, Subramanian; Tsunoda, Roland

    2012-07-01

    The day-to-day variability of Equatorial Spread-F, when and where the equatorial plasma bubbles (EPBs) may initiate, were the challenging problems that puzzling the space weather researchers for several decades. The zonal large scale wave structure (LSWS) at the base of F-layer is the earliest manifestation of seed perturbation for the evolution of EPBs by R-T instability processes, hence, found to play deterministic role on the development of ESF. Yet, only a little is known about LSWS with lack of sufficient observations, primarily because of inability to detect the LSWS with the currently existing instruments except with steerable incoherent scatter radar such as ALTAIR radar. This situation, however, was recently changed with launch of C/NOFS in a unique low-inclination (13 ^{o}) orbit. With the availability of CERTO beacon transmissions from C/NOFS in a near equatorial orbit, it is now possible to detect and resolve the roles by LSWS on a regular basis. A ground based low-latitude GNU Radio Beacon Receiver (GRBR) Network has been recently established that provide coverage of Southeast Asia, Pacific and African low-latitude regions. Recent observations suggest that these wave structures with zonal wave lengths varying between 200 and 800 km can be earliest detected even before E-region sunset and found to grow significantly after sunset, probably, aided by the polarization electric fields. Further, these zonal structures consistently found to be aligned with field lines for several hundreds of kilometers and EPBs were found to grow from the westward walls of upwellings. The characteristic differences on the strength of LSWS between the Asian and African longitudes were identified during the recent increasing solar activity and discussed in this paper.

  7. Large scale prediction of soil properties in the West African yam belt based on mid-infrared soil spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baumann, Philipp; Lee, Juhwan; Paule Schönholzer, Laurie; Six, Johan; Frossard, Emmanuel

    2016-04-01

    Yam (Dioscorea sp.) is an important staple food in West Africa. Fertilizer applications have variable effects on yam tuber yields, and a management option solely based on application of mineral NPK fertilizers may bear the risk of increased organic matter mineralization. Therefore, innovative and sustainable nutrient management strategies need to be developed and evaluated for yam cultivation. The goal of this study was to establish a mid-infrared soil spectroscopic library and models to predict soil properties relevant to yam growth. Soils from yam fields at four different locations in Côte d'Ivoire and Burkina Faso that were representative of the West African yam belt were sampled. The project locations ranged from the humid forest zone (5.88 degrees N) to the northern Guinean savannah (11.07 degrees N). At each location, soils of 20 yam fields were sampled (0-30 cm). For the location in the humid forest zone additional 14 topsoil samples from positions that had been analyzed in the Land Degradation Surveillance Framework developed by ICRAF were included. In total, 94 soil samples were analyzed using established reference analysis protocols. Besides soils were milled and then scanned by fourier transform mid-infrared spectroscopy in the range between 400 and 4000 reciprocal cm. Using partial least squares (PLS) regression, PLS1 calibration models that included soils from the four locations were built using two thirds of the samples selected by Kennard-Stones sampling algorithm in the spectral principal component space. Models were independently validated with the remaining data set. Spectral models for total carbon, total nitrogen, total iron, total aluminum, total potassium, exchangeable calcium, and effective cation exchange capacity performed very well, which was indicated by R-squared values between 0.8 and 1.0 on both calibration and validation. For these soil properties, spectral models can be used for cost-effective, rapid, and accurate predictions

  8. Forecasting cyclic coastal erosion on a multi-annual to multi-decadal scale: Southeast African coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, A. M.; Guastella, L. A.; Botes, Z. A.; Bundy, S. C.; Mather, A. A.

    2014-10-01

    Coastal erosion on the southeast African coastline shows an apparent 18 year cycle which last peaked in 2006. It is in phase with the longshore sediment transport cycle. Both these cycles appear to be in phase with the Lunar Nodal Cycle (LNC). However, the dominant tidal erosion driver on this coast appears to be the 4.4 year Lunar Perigean Subharmonic (LPS). We suggest that the apparent 18 year coastal erosion and longshore sediment budget cycle is a response to the 18 year Mean Annual Precipitation Cycle. This cycle is 180° out of phase with the apparent coastal erosion- and longshore sediment transport- cycles. The summer rainfall areas, of southeastern Africa show an 18 year MAP cyclicity, which drives river runoff and hence controls sediment input to the coast and nearshore environment. The MAP cycle dominates the coastal sediment budget during the LNC trough and suppresses the LPS coastal erosion cycle during this time. This explains why LPS coastal erosion occurs close to the LNC peak. Thus although the LPS cycle dominates the coastline, it is masked during the wet portion of the 18 year MAP cycle. It seems very likely that the LNC drives the MAP cycle in some way but this process is not known. Nevertheless, these relationships can be used to predict, in a general way, both cyclic coastal erosion and the longshore sediment volume fluctuation. This can be translated into a vital coastal planning tool which has the potential to forecast cyclic coastal erosion and hence significantly reduce the sea-defense expenditure bill. Based on this, severe cyclic coastal erosion is anticipated in 2023 and 2024.

  9. How Much We Think of Ourselves and How Little We Think of Others: An Investigation of the Neuronal Signature of Self-Consciousness between Different Personality Traits through an Event-Related Potential Study

    PubMed Central

    Hassan, Auwal Bello; Begum, Tahamina; Reza, Mohammed Faruque; Yusoff, Nasir

    2016-01-01

    Background Previous studies have revealed that self-related tasks (items) receive more attention than non-self-related, and that they elicit event-related potential (ERP) components with larger amplitudes. Since personality has been reported as one of the biological correlates influencing these components, as well as our behavioural differences, it is important to examine how it affects our self-consciousness in relation to tasks of varied relevance and the neurological basis. Methods A total of 33 male and female undergraduate Malaysian medical students of Universiti Sains Malaysia (USM) participated in the study. The participants were divided into two groups, Ambivert (n = 18) and Extravert (n = 15) groups, using the USM personality inventory questionnaire. In the ERP experiment, squares containing standard stimuli of any word other than self and non-self-related nouns (e.g., Bola, Gigi, Anak, etc.; in English: Ball, Teeth, Kids, etc., respectively), those containing self-related pronouns (Saya, Kami or Kita; in English: I, Us or We, respectively), and non-self-related pronouns (Dia, Anda or Mereka; in English: He/She, You or They, respectively), were shown 58%, 21% and 21% of the time, respectively, in a three-stimulus visual oddball paradigm. All words were presented in Bahasa Melayu. The participants were instructed to press 1 for self and 2 for non-self, and ignore standard stimuli. Results Comparison of both N200 and P300 amplitudes for self-related and non-self-related pronouns in the Extravert group revealed significant differences at seven electrode sites, with self-related having larger amplitude at anterior electrodes and less at posterior. This was not seen in the Ambivert group. Conclusion The present study suggests that self-relevant pronouns are psychologically more important to extraverts than to ambiverts; hence, they have more self-awareness. This may be due to large amount of dopamine in the brains of extraverts, which is more concentrated in

  10. Genomic Footprints of Selective Sweeps from Metabolic Resistance to Pyrethroids in African Malaria Vectors Are Driven by Scale up of Insecticide-Based Vector Control

    PubMed Central

    Ndula, Miranda; Irving, Helen; Mzihalowa, Themba

    2017-01-01

    Insecticide resistance in mosquito populations threatens recent successes in malaria prevention. Elucidating patterns of genetic structure in malaria vectors to predict the speed and direction of the spread of resistance is essential to get ahead of the ‘resistance curve’ and to avert a public health catastrophe. Here, applying a combination of microsatellite analysis, whole genome sequencing and targeted sequencing of a resistance locus, we elucidated the continent-wide population structure of a major African malaria vector, Anopheles funestus. We identified a major selective sweep in a genomic region controlling cytochrome P450-based metabolic resistance conferring high resistance to pyrethroids. This selective sweep occurred since 2002, likely as a direct consequence of scaled up vector control as revealed by whole genome and fine-scale sequencing of pre- and post-intervention populations. Fine-scaled analysis of the pyrethroid resistance locus revealed that a resistance-associated allele of the cytochrome P450 monooxygenase CYP6P9a has swept through southern Africa to near fixation, in contrast to high polymorphism levels before interventions, conferring high levels of pyrethroid resistance linked to control failure. Population structure analysis revealed a barrier to gene flow between southern Africa and other areas, which may prevent or slow the spread of the southern mechanism of pyrethroid resistance to other regions. By identifying a genetic signature of pyrethroid-based interventions, we have demonstrated the intense selective pressure that control interventions exert on mosquito populations. If this level of selection and spread of resistance continues unabated, our ability to control malaria with current interventions will be compromised. PMID:28151952

  11. Genomic Footprints of Selective Sweeps from Metabolic Resistance to Pyrethroids in African Malaria Vectors Are Driven by Scale up of Insecticide-Based Vector Control.

    PubMed

    Barnes, Kayla G; Weedall, Gareth D; Ndula, Miranda; Irving, Helen; Mzihalowa, Themba; Hemingway, Janet; Wondji, Charles S

    2017-02-01

    Insecticide resistance in mosquito populations threatens recent successes in malaria prevention. Elucidating patterns of genetic structure in malaria vectors to predict the speed and direction of the spread of resistance is essential to get ahead of the 'resistance curve' and to avert a public health catastrophe. Here, applying a combination of microsatellite analysis, whole genome sequencing and targeted sequencing of a resistance locus, we elucidated the continent-wide population structure of a major African malaria vector, Anopheles funestus. We identified a major selective sweep in a genomic region controlling cytochrome P450-based metabolic resistance conferring high resistance to pyrethroids. This selective sweep occurred since 2002, likely as a direct consequence of scaled up vector control as revealed by whole genome and fine-scale sequencing of pre- and post-intervention populations. Fine-scaled analysis of the pyrethroid resistance locus revealed that a resistance-associated allele of the cytochrome P450 monooxygenase CYP6P9a has swept through southern Africa to near fixation, in contrast to high polymorphism levels before interventions, conferring high levels of pyrethroid resistance linked to control failure. Population structure analysis revealed a barrier to gene flow between southern Africa and other areas, which may prevent or slow the spread of the southern mechanism of pyrethroid resistance to other regions. By identifying a genetic signature of pyrethroid-based interventions, we have demonstrated the intense selective pressure that control interventions exert on mosquito populations. If this level of selection and spread of resistance continues unabated, our ability to control malaria with current interventions will be compromised.

  12. Genetic variants determining survival and fertility in an adverse African environment: a population-based large-scale candidate gene association study

    PubMed Central

    Koopman, Jacob J.E.; Pijpe, Jeroen; Böhringer, Stefan; van Bodegom, David; Eriksson, Ulrika K.; Sanchez-Faddeev, Hernando; Ziem, Juventus B.; Zwaan, Bas; Slagboom, P. Eline; de Knijff, Peter; Westendorp, Rudi G.J.

    2016-01-01

    Human survival probability and fertility decline strongly with age. These life history traits have been shaped by evolution. However, research has failed to uncover a consistent genetic determination of variation in survival and fertility. As an explanation, such genetic determinants have been selected in adverse environments, in which humans have lived during most of their history, but are almost exclusively studied in populations in modern affluent environments. Here, we present a large-scale candidate gene association study in a rural African population living in an adverse environment. In 4387 individuals, we studied 4052 SNPs in 148 genes that have previously been identified as possible determinants of survival or fertility in animals or humans. We studied their associations with survival comparing newborns, middle-age adults, and old individuals. In women, we assessed their associations with reported and observed numbers of children. We found no statistically significant associations of these SNPs with survival between the three age groups nor with women's reported and observed fertility. Population stratification was unlikely to explain these results. Apart from a lack of power, we hypothesise that genetic heterogeneity of complex phenotypes and gene-environment interactions prevent the identification of genetic variants explaining variation in survival and fertility in humans. PMID:27356285

  13. Self Development and Self-Conscious Emotions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Michael; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Investigates the relationship between self-recognition and self-evaluative emotions in two studies on 27 children aged 9-24 months and 44 children aged 22 months. The results of both studies indicate that embarrassment but not wariness was related to self-recognition. (RJC)

  14. National Self-Consciousness and Minority Images.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, Katherine; And Others

    This paper examines the portrayal of blacks, Asians, and native Americans in Fourth of July political cartoons from the 1870's to the 1970's in five American newspapers--the New York Times, Chicago Tribune, Atlanta Constitution, Washington Post, and the Columbus Dispatch. Images of these racial and ethnic groups were compared with images of women…

  15. African American Acculturation and Black Racial Identity: A Preliminary Investigation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pope-Davis, Donald B.; Liu, William M.; Ledesma-Jones, Shannon; Nevitt, Jonathan

    2000-01-01

    Examines the relationship between acculturation and racial identity among African Americans. One hundred eighty-seven African American students completed the Black Racial Identity Attitude Scale and the African American Acculturation Scale (AAAS). Acculturation was associated with three of the five AAAS subscales: Dissonance, Immersion, and…

  16. Narcolepsy in African Americans

    PubMed Central

    Kawai, Makoto; O'Hara, Ruth; Einen, Mali; Lin, Ling; Mignot, Emmanuel

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: Although narcolepsy affects 0.02–0.05% of individuals in various ethnic groups, clinical presentation in different ethnicities has never been fully characterized. Our goal was to study phenotypic expression across ethnicities in the United States. Design/Setting: Cases of narcolepsy from 1992 to 2013 were identified from searches of the Stanford Center for Narcolepsy Research database. International Classification of Sleep Disorders, Third Edition diagnosis criteria for type 1 and type 2 narcolepsy were used for inclusion, but subjects were separated as with and without cataplexy for the purpose of data presentation. Information extracted included demographics, ethnicity and clinical data, HLA-DQB1*06:02, polysomnography (PSG), multiple sleep latency test (MSLT) data, and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) hypocretin-1 level. Patients: 182 African-Americans, 839 Caucasians, 35 Asians, and 41 Latinos with narcolepsy. Results: Sex ratio, PSG, and MSLT findings did not differ across ethnicities. Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) score was higher and age of onset of sleepiness earlier in African Americans compared with other ethnicities. HLA-DQB1*06:02 positivity was higher in African Americans (91.0%) versus others (76.6% in Caucasians, 80.0% in Asians, and 65.0% in Latinos). CSF hypocretin-1 level, obtained in 222 patients, was more frequently low (≤ 110 pg/ml) in African Americans (93.9%) versus Caucasians (61.5%), Asians (85.7%) and Latinos (75.0%). In subjects with low CSF hypocretin-1, African Americans (28.3%) were 4.5 fold more likely to be without cataplexy when compared with Caucasians (8.1%). Conclusions: Narcolepsy in African Americans is characterized by earlier symptom onset, higher Epworth Sleepiness Scale score, higher HLA-DQB1*06:02 positivity, and low cerebrospinal fluid hypocretin-1 level in the absence of cataplexy. In African Americans, more subjects without cataplexy have type 1 narcolepsy. Citation: Kawai M, O'Hara R, Einen M, Lin L

  17. A cross-cultural comparison between South African and British students on the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scales Third Edition (WAIS-III).

    PubMed

    Cockcroft, Kate; Alloway, Tracy; Copello, Evan; Milligan, Robyn

    2015-01-01

    There is debate regarding the appropriate use of Western cognitive measures with individuals from very diverse backgrounds to that of the norm population. Given the dated research in this area and the considerable socio-economic changes that South Africa has witnessed over the past 20 years, this paper reports on the use of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale Third Edition (WAIS-III), the most commonly used measure of intelligence, with an English second language, multilingual, low socio-economic group of black, South African university students. Their performance on the WAIS-III was compared to that of a predominantly white, British, monolingual, higher socio-economic group. A multi-group confirmatory factor analysis showed that the WAIS-III lacks measurement invariance between the two groups, suggesting that it may be tapping different constructs in each group. The UK group significantly outperformed the SA group on the knowledge-based verbal, and some non-verbal subtests, while the SA group performed significantly better on measures of Processing Speed (PS). The groups did not differ significantly on the Matrix Reasoning subtest and on those working memory subtests with minimal reliance on language, which appear to be the least culturally biased. Group differences were investigated further in a set of principal components analyses, which revealed that the WAIS-III scores loaded differently for the UK and SA groups. While the SA group appeared to treat the PS subtests differently to those measuring perceptual organization and non-verbal reasoning, the UK group seemed to approach all of these subtests similarly. These results have important implications for the cognitive assessment of individuals from culturally, linguistically, and socio-economically diverse circumstances.

  18. Habitat selection by African buffalo (Syncerus caffer) in response to landscape-level fluctuations in water availability on two temporal scales.

    PubMed

    Bennitt, Emily; Bonyongo, Mpaphi Casper; Harris, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    Seasonal fluctuations in water availability cause predictable changes in the profitability of habitats in tropical ecosystems, and animals evolve adaptive behavioural and spatial responses to these fluctuations. However, stochastic changes in the distribution and abundance of surface water between years can alter resource availability at a landscape scale, causing shifts in animal behaviour. In the Okavango Delta, Botswana, a flood-pulsed ecosystem, the volume of water entering the system doubled between 2008 and 2009, creating a sudden change in the landscape. We used African buffalo (Syncerus caffer) to test the hypotheses that seasonal habitat selection would be related to water availability, that increased floodwater levels would decrease forage abundance and affect habitat selection, and that this would decrease buffalo resting time, reduce reproductive success and decrease body condition. Buffalo selected contrasting seasonal habitats, using habitats far from permanent water during the rainy season and seasonally-flooded habitats close to permanent water during the early and late flood seasons. The 2009 water increase reduced forage availability in seasonally-flooded habitats, removing a resource buffer used by the buffalo during the late flood season, when resources were most limited. In response, buffalo used drier habitats in 2009, although there was no significant change in the time spent moving or resting, or daily distance moved. While their reproductive success decreased in 2009, body condition increased. A protracted period of high water levels could prove detrimental to herbivores, especially to smaller-bodied species that require high quality forage. Stochastic annual fluctuations in water levels, predicted to increase as a result of anthropogenically-induced climate change, are likely to have substantial impacts on the functioning of water-driven tropical ecosystems, affecting environmental conditions within protected areas. Buffer zones around

  19. Magmatic lithospheric heating and weakening during continental rifting: A simple scaling law, a 2-D thermomechanical rifting model and the East African Rift System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmeling, Harro; Wallner, Herbert

    2012-08-01

    Continental rifting is accompanied by lithospheric thinning and decompressional melting. After extraction, melt is intruded at shallower depth thereby heating and weakening the lithosphere. In a feedback mechanism this weakening may assist rifting and melt production. A one-dimensional kinematic lithospheric thinning model is developed including decompressional melting and intrusional magma deposition. The intrusional heating effect is determined as a function of thinning rate and amount, melting parameters, potential temperature, and the depth range of emplacement. The temperature increases approximately proportionally to the square root of the thinning rate and to the square of the supersolidus potential temperature. Simple scaling laws are derived allowing predicting these effects and the surface heat flux for arbitrary scenarios. Two-dimensional thermomechanical extension models are carried out for a multicomponent (crust-mantle) two-phase (melt-matrix) system with a rheology based on laboratory data including magmatic weakening. In good agreement with the 1-D kinematic models it is found that the lithosphere may heat up by several 100 K. This heating enhances viscous weakening by one order of magnitude or more. In a feedback mechanism rifting is dynamically enforced, leading to a significant increase of rift induced melt generation. Including the effect of lateral focusing of magma toward the rift axis the laws are applied to different segments of the East African Rift System. The amount of intrusional heating increases with maturity of the rift from O(10 K) to up to 200 K or 400 K at the Afar Rift depending on the depth range of the magmatic emplacement.

  20. Habitat Selection by African Buffalo (Syncerus caffer) in Response to Landscape-Level Fluctuations in Water Availability on Two Temporal Scales

    PubMed Central

    Bennitt, Emily; Bonyongo, Mpaphi Casper; Harris, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    Seasonal fluctuations in water availability cause predictable changes in the profitability of habitats in tropical ecosystems, and animals evolve adaptive behavioural and spatial responses to these fluctuations. However, stochastic changes in the distribution and abundance of surface water between years can alter resource availability at a landscape scale, causing shifts in animal behaviour. In the Okavango Delta, Botswana, a flood-pulsed ecosystem, the volume of water entering the system doubled between 2008 and 2009, creating a sudden change in the landscape. We used African buffalo (Syncerus caffer) to test the hypotheses that seasonal habitat selection would be related to water availability, that increased floodwater levels would decrease forage abundance and affect habitat selection, and that this would decrease buffalo resting time, reduce reproductive success and decrease body condition. Buffalo selected contrasting seasonal habitats, using habitats far from permanent water during the rainy season and seasonally-flooded habitats close to permanent water during the early and late flood seasons. The 2009 water increase reduced forage availability in seasonally-flooded habitats, removing a resource buffer used by the buffalo during the late flood season, when resources were most limited. In response, buffalo used drier habitats in 2009, although there was no significant change in the time spent moving or resting, or daily distance moved. While their reproductive success decreased in 2009, body condition increased. A protracted period of high water levels could prove detrimental to herbivores, especially to smaller-bodied species that require high quality forage. Stochastic annual fluctuations in water levels, predicted to increase as a result of anthropogenically-induced climate change, are likely to have substantial impacts on the functioning of water-driven tropical ecosystems, affecting environmental conditions within protected areas. Buffer zones around

  1. Genome-wide patterns of population structure and admixture in West Africans and African Americans.

    PubMed

    Bryc, Katarzyna; Auton, Adam; Nelson, Matthew R; Oksenberg, Jorge R; Hauser, Stephen L; Williams, Scott; Froment, Alain; Bodo, Jean-Marie; Wambebe, Charles; Tishkoff, Sarah A; Bustamante, Carlos D

    2010-01-12

    Quantifying patterns of population structure in Africans and African Americans illuminates the history of human populations and is critical for undertaking medical genomic studies on a global scale. To obtain a fine-scale genome-wide perspective of ancestry, we analyze Affymetrix GeneChip 500K genotype data from African Americans (n = 365) and individuals with ancestry from West Africa (n = 203 from 12 populations) and Europe (n = 400 from 42 countries). We find that population structure within the West African sample reflects primarily language and secondarily geographical distance, echoing the Bantu expansion. Among African Americans, analysis of genomic admixture by a principal component-based approach indicates that the median proportion of European ancestry is 18.5% (25th-75th percentiles: 11.6-27.7%), with very large variation among individuals. In the African-American sample as a whole, few autosomal regions showed exceptionally high or low mean African ancestry, but the X chromosome showed elevated levels of African ancestry, consistent with a sex-biased pattern of gene flow with an excess of European male and African female ancestry. We also find that genomic profiles of individual African Americans afford personalized ancestry reconstructions differentiating ancient vs. recent European and African ancestry. Finally, patterns of genetic similarity among inferred African segments of African-American genomes and genomes of contemporary African populations included in this study suggest African ancestry is most similar to non-Bantu Niger-Kordofanian-speaking populations, consistent with historical documents of the African Diaspora and trans-Atlantic slave trade.

  2. Scales

    MedlinePlus

    Scales are a visible peeling or flaking of outer skin layers. These layers are called the stratum ... Scales may be caused by dry skin, certain inflammatory skin conditions, or infections. Eczema , ringworm , and psoriasis ...

  3. African Aesthetics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abiodun, Rowland

    2001-01-01

    No single traditional discipline can adequately supply answers to the many unresolved questions in African art history. Because of the aesthetic, cultural, historical, and, not infrequently, political biases, already built into the conception and development of Western art history, the discipline of art history as defined and practiced in the West…

  4. African Pentecostalism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrard, David J.

    2009-01-01

    The diversity of African Pentecostalism, its early colonial and missionary history and its current characteristics are described and analysed. Reference is made to methods of training and forms of leadership, and suggestions are made about the reasons for its growth and persistence. (Contains 19 notes.)

  5. Strength-Based Assessment of Rural African American Early Adolescents: Characteristics of Students in High and Low Groups on the Behavioral and Emotional Rating Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farmer, Thomas W.; Clemmer, Jason T.; Leung, Man-Chi; Goforth, Jennifer B.; Thompson, Jana H.; Keagy, Kristin; Boucher, Signe

    2005-01-01

    Early adolescents' strengths were examined in relation to factors that are associated with developmental risk or resilience in two rural low-income southern communities. The sample was comprised of 279 students (101 boys, 178 girls), all of whom were African American and reflected the public school attendance of this community. Parent reports on…

  6. Measurement Characteristics of Dietary Psychosocial Scales in a Weight Gain Prevention Study with 8- to 10-Year-Old African-American Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherrill-Mittleman, D. A.; Klesges, L. M.; Lanctot, J. Q.; Stockton, M. B.; Klesges, R. C.

    2009-01-01

    Few measurement instruments for children's eating behaviors and beliefs have been specifically validated for African-American children. Validation within this population is important because of potential cultural and ethnic influences. Objectives were to evaluate established and newly developed or adapted dietary psychosocial measures in a sample…

  7. An Exploration of African American Students' Attitudes toward Online Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okwumabua, Theresa M.; Walker, Kristin M.; Hu, Xiangen; Watson, Andrea

    2011-01-01

    The current work presents exploratory research findings concerning African American students' attitudes toward online learning. The Online Tutoring Attitudes Scale (OTAS; Graff, 2003) was administered to 124 African American students in a positive youth development program. Findings suggest that African American students' attitudes toward…

  8. African-American Biography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Ron

    1995-01-01

    Suggests sources of information for African American History Month for library media specialists who work with students in grades four through eight. Gale Research's "African-American Reference Library," which includes "African-America Biography,""African-American Chronology," and "African-American Almanac,"…

  9. African Trypanosomiasis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-06-01

    infection by protozoan hemo- flagellates of the Trypanosoma brucei complex, 2 subspe- cies of which cause disease in humans: Trypanosoma bru- cei gambiense...public release; distribution unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES See also ADA545141. Chapter 3 from e-book, Topics on the Pathology of Protozoan and...the brief ferry crossing. 2 3 • Topics on The paThology of proTozoan and invasive arThropod diseases Three severe epidemics of African trypanosomiasis

  10. African Outreach Workshop 1974.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Nancy J.

    This report discusses the 1974 African Outreach Workshop planned and coordinated by the African Studies Program at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. Its major aim was to assist teachers in developing curriculum units on African using materials available in their local community. A second aim was for the African Studies Program to…

  11. Africans in America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hart, Ayanna; Spangler, Earl

    This book introduces African-American history and culture to children. The first Africans in America came from many different regions and cultures, but became united in this country by being black, African, and slaves. Once in America, Africans began a long struggle for freedom which still continues. Slavery, the Civil War, emancipation, and the…

  12. Scales

    ScienceCinema

    Murray Gibson

    2016-07-12

    Musical scales involve notes that, sounded simultaneously (chords), sound good together. The result is the left brain meeting the right brain — a Pythagorean interval of overlapping notes. This synergy would suggest less difference between the working of the right brain and the left brain than common wisdom would dictate. The pleasing sound of harmony comes when two notes share a common harmonic, meaning that their frequencies are in simple integer ratios, such as 3/2 (G/C) or 5/4 (E/C).

  13. Scales

    SciTech Connect

    Murray Gibson

    2007-04-27

    Musical scales involve notes that, sounded simultaneously (chords), sound good together. The result is the left brain meeting the right brain — a Pythagorean interval of overlapping notes. This synergy would suggest less difference between the working of the right brain and the left brain than common wisdom would dictate. The pleasing sound of harmony comes when two notes share a common harmonic, meaning that their frequencies are in simple integer ratios, such as 3/2 (G/C) or 5/4 (E/C).

  14. A Measurement Invariance Examination of the Revised Child Anxiety and Depression Scale in a Southern Sample: Differential Item Functioning between African American and Caucasian Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trent, Lindsay Rae; Buchanan, Erin; Ebesutani, Chad; Ale, Chelsea M.; Heiden, Laurie; Hight, Terry L.; Damon, John D.; Young, John

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the psychometric properties of the Revised Child Anxiety and Depression Scale in a large sample of youth from the Southern United States. The authors aimed to determine (a) if the established six-factor Revised Child Anxiety and Depression Scale structure could be replicated in this Southern sample and (b) if scores were…

  15. Pain intensity assessment: a comparison of selected pain intensity scales for use in cognitively intact and cognitively impaired African American older adults.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Laurie Jowers; Herr, Keela

    2003-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the reliability and validity of selected pain intensity scales including the Faces Pain Scale (FPS), the Verbal Description Scale, the Numeric Rating Scale, and the Iowa Pain Thermometer to assess pain in cognitively impaired minority older adults. A descriptive correlational design was used, and a convenience sample of 57 volunteers age 58 and older residing in the South was recruited for this study. The sample consisted of 8 males and 49 females with a mean age of 76. Fifty-nine percent of the sample completed an 11th grade education or less, and 59% completed high school or college. Seventy-seven percent (n = 44) of the sample scored 24 or less on the mental status exam, indicating some degree of cognitive impairment. The remaining 23% (n = 13) were cognitively intact. All of the participants were able to use each of the scales to rate their pain. Concurrent validity of the scales was supported with Spearman rank correlation coefficients ranging from.74 to.83 in the cognitively impaired group and.81 to.96 in the cognitively intact group. Test-retest reliability at a 2-week interval was acceptable in the cognitively intact group (Spearman rank correlations ranged from.73 to.83) and to a lesser degree in the cognitively impaired group (correlations ranged from.52 to.79). When asked about scale preference, both the cognitively impaired and the intact group indicated a preference for the FPS. Findings from this study suggest that cognitive impairment did not inhibit older minority participants' ability to use a variety of pain intensity scales. Additionally, options should be provided that address individual needs of older adults considering specific cognitive level and disability, education, gender, ethnicity, and cultural influences concerning perceptions of the various pain intensity scales.

  16. Improving AFLP analysis of large-scale patterns of genetic variation--a case study with the Central African lianas Haumania spp (Marantaceae) showing interspecific gene flow.

    PubMed

    Ley, A C; Hardy, O J

    2013-04-01

    AFLP markers are often used to study patterns of population genetic variation and gene flow because they offer a good coverage of the nuclear genome, but the reliability of AFLP scoring is critical. To assess interspecific gene flow in two African rainforest liana species (Haumania danckelmaniana, H. liebrechtsiana) where previous evidence of chloroplast captures questioned the importance of hybridization and species boundaries, we developed new AFLP markers and a novel approach to select reliable bands from their degree of reproducibility. The latter is based on the estimation of the broad-sense heritability of AFLP phenotypes, an improvement over classical scoring error rates, which showed that the polymorphism of most AFLP bands was affected by a substantial nongenetic component. Therefore, using a quantitative genetics framework, we also modified an existing estimator of pairwise kinship coefficient between individuals correcting for the limited heritability of markers. Bayesian clustering confirms the recognition of the two Haumania species. Nevertheless, the decay of the relatedness between individuals of distinct species with geographic distance demonstrates that hybridization affects the nuclear genome. In conclusion, although we showed that AFLP markers might be substantially affected by nongenetic factors, their analysis using the new methods developed considerably advanced our understanding of the pattern of gene flow in our model species.

  17. Informing cancer prevention strategies for African Americans: the relationship of African American acculturation to fruit, vegetable, and fat intake.

    PubMed

    Ard, Jamy D; Skinner, Celette Sugg; Chen, Chuhe; Aickin, Mikel; Svetkey, Laura P

    2005-06-01

    Acculturation has been associated with health-related behaviors in African Americans. We sought to determine if there is a relationship between acculturation and dietary intake in African Americans. African Americans in the PREMIER trial completed the African American Acculturation Scale (AAAS) and 2 nonconsecutive 24-h dietary recalls (n = 238). Analysis of variance (ANOVA) and canonical correlation were used to assess relationships between acculturation and dietary intakes. Canonical correlation (p = 0.05) showed that traditional African Americans had lower intakes of fruits/vegetables and milk/dairy with higher intakes of fats, meat, and nuts. This pattern was supported by differences in the ANOVA. African American acculturation is related to dietary intake. These findings have implications for the design of cancer-related public health messages targeted to African Americans.

  18. Orbital- and millennial-scale changes in the hydrologic cycle and vegetation in the western African Sahel: insights from individual plant wax δD and δ13C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niedermeyer, Eva M.; Schefuß, Enno; Sessions, Alex L.; Mulitza, Stefan; Mollenhauer, Gesine; Schulz, Michael; Wefer, Gerold

    2010-11-01

    To reconstruct variability of the West African monsoon and associated vegetation changes on precessional and millennial time scales, we analyzed a marine sediment core from the continental slope off Senegal spanning the past 44,000 years (44 ka). We used the stable hydrogen isotopic composition ( δD) of individual terrestrial plant wax n-alkanes as a proxy for past rainfall variability. The abundance and stable carbon isotopic composition (δ 13C) of the same compounds were analyzed to assess changes in vegetation composition (C 3/C 4 plants) and density. The δD record reveals two wet periods that coincide with local maximum summer insolation from 38 to 28 ka and 15 to 4 ka and that are separated by a less wet period during minimum summer insolation. Our data indicate that rainfall intensity during the rainy season throughout both wet humid periods was similar, whereas the length of the rainy season was presumably shorter during the last glacial than during the Holocene. Additional dry intervals are identified that coincide with North Atlantic Heinrich stadials and the Younger Dryas interval, indicating that the West African monsoon over tropical northwest Africa is linked to both insolation forcing and high-latitude climate variability. The δ13C record indicates that vegetation of the western Sahel was consistently dominated by C 4 plants during the past 44 ka, whereas C 3-type vegetation increased during the Holocene. Moreover, we observe a gradual ending of the Holocene humid period together with unchanging ratio of C 3 to C 4 plants, indicating that an abrupt aridification due to vegetation feedbacks is not a general characteristic of this time interval.

  19. African Americans and Glaucoma

    MedlinePlus

    ... Involved News About Us Donate In This Section African Americans and Glaucoma email Send this article to a ... glaucoma is the leading cause of blindness in African Americans. Half of those with glaucoma don't know ...

  20. Black African Traditional Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zaslavsky, Claudia

    1970-01-01

    Discusses the traditional number systems and the origin of the number names used by several African peoples living south of the Sahara. Also included are limitations in African mathematical development, and possible topics for research. (RP)

  1. Scale-dependent relationships between the spatial distribution of a limiting resource and plant species diversity in an African grassland ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Anderson, T Michael; McNaughton, Samuel J; Ritchie, Mark E

    2004-04-01

    One cornerstone of ecological theory is that nutrient availability limits the number of species that can inhabit a community. However, the relationship between the spatial distribution of limiting nutrients and species diversity is not well established because there is no single scale appropriate for measuring variation in resource distribution. Instead, the correct scale for analyzing resource variation depends on the range of species sizes within the community. To quantify the relationship between nutrient distribution and plant species diversity, we measured NO(3)(-) distribution and plant species diversity in 16 paired, modified Whittaker grassland plots in Serengeti National Park, Tanzania. Semivariograms were used to quantify the spatial structure of NO(3)(-) from scales of 0.4-26 m. Plant species diversity (Shannon-Weiner diversity index; H ') was quantified in 1-m(2) plots, while plant species richness was measured at multiple spatial scales between 1 and 1000 m(2). Small-scale variation in NO(3)(-) (<0.4 m) was positively correlated with 1-m(2) H ', while 1000-m(2) species richness was a log-normal function of average NO(3)(-) patch size. Nine of the 16 grassland plots had a fractal (self-similar across scales) NO(3)(-) spatial distribution; of the nine fractal plots, five were adjacent to plots that had a non-fractal distribution of NO(3)(-). This finding offered the unique opportunity to test predictions of Ritchie and Olff (1999): when the spatial distribution of limiting resources is fractal, communities should display a left-skewed log-size distribution and a log-normal relationship between net primary production and species richness. These predictions were supported by comparisons of plant size distributions and biomass-richness relationships in paired plots, one with a fractal and one with a non-fractal distribution of NO(3)(-). In addition, fractal plots had greater large-scale richness than paired non-fractal plots (1,0-1000 m(2)), but neither

  2. Avian thermoregulation in the heat: scaling of heat tolerance and evaporative cooling capacity in three southern African arid-zone passerines.

    PubMed

    Whitfield, Maxine C; Smit, Ben; McKechnie, Andrew E; Wolf, Blair O

    2015-06-01

    Many birds can defend body temperature (Tb) far below air temperature (Ta) during acute heat exposure, but relatively little is known about how avian heat tolerance and evaporative cooling capacity varies with body mass (Mb), phylogeny or ecological factors. We determined maximum rates of evaporative heat dissipation and thermal end points (Tb and Ta associated with thermoregulatory failure) in three southern African ploceid passerines, the scaly-feathered weaver (Sporopipes squamifrons, Mb≈10 g), sociable weaver (Philetairus socius, Mb≈25 g) and white-browed sparrow-weaver (Plocepasser mahali, Mb≈40 g). Birds were exposed to a ramped profile of progressively increasing Ta, with continuous monitoring of behaviour and Tb used to identify the onset of severe hyperthermia. The maximum Ta birds tolerated ranged from 48°C to 54°C, and was positively related to Mb. Values of Tb associated with severe heat stress were in the range of 44 to 45°C. Rates of evaporative water loss (EWL) increased rapidly when Ta exceeded Tb, and maximum evaporative heat dissipation was equivalent to 141-222% of metabolic heat production. Fractional increases in EWL between Ta<40°C and the highest Ta reached by each species were 10.8 (S. squamifrons), 18.4 (P. socius) and 16.0 (P. mahali). Resting metabolic rates increased more gradually with Ta than expected, probably reflecting the very low chamber humidity values we maintained. Our data suggest that, within a taxon, larger species can tolerate higher Ta during acute heat stress.

  3. Relationships between population density, fine-scale genetic structure, mating system and pollen dispersal in a timber tree from African rainforests

    PubMed Central

    Duminil, J; Daïnou, K; Kaviriri, D K; Gillet, P; Loo, J; Doucet, J-L; Hardy, O J

    2016-01-01

    Owing to the reduction of population density and/or the environmental changes it induces, selective logging could affect the demography, reproductive biology and evolutionary potential of forest trees. This is particularly relevant in tropical forests where natural population densities can be low and isolated trees may be subject to outcross pollen limitation and/or produce low-quality selfed seeds that exhibit inbreeding depression. Comparing reproductive biology processes and genetic diversity of populations at different densities can provide indirect evidence of the potential impacts of logging. Here, we analysed patterns of genetic diversity, mating system and gene flow in three Central African populations of the self-compatible legume timber species Erythrophleum suaveolens with contrasting densities (0.11, 0.68 and 1.72 adults per ha). The comparison of inbreeding levels among cohorts suggests that selfing is detrimental as inbred individuals are eliminated between seedling and adult stages. Levels of genetic diversity, selfing rates (∼16%) and patterns of spatial genetic structure (Sp ∼0.006) were similar in all three populations. However, the extent of gene dispersal differed markedly among populations: the average distance of pollen dispersal increased with decreasing density (from 200 m in the high-density population to 1000 m in the low-density one). Overall, our results suggest that the reproductive biology and genetic diversity of the species are not affected by current logging practices. However, further investigations need to be conducted in low-density populations to evaluate (1) whether pollen limitation may reduce seed production and (2) the regeneration potential of the species. PMID:26696137

  4. Relationships between population density, fine-scale genetic structure, mating system and pollen dispersal in a timber tree from African rainforests.

    PubMed

    Duminil, J; Daïnou, K; Kaviriri, D K; Gillet, P; Loo, J; Doucet, J-L; Hardy, O J

    2016-03-01

    Owing to the reduction of population density and/or the environmental changes it induces, selective logging could affect the demography, reproductive biology and evolutionary potential of forest trees. This is particularly relevant in tropical forests where natural population densities can be low and isolated trees may be subject to outcross pollen limitation and/or produce low-quality selfed seeds that exhibit inbreeding depression. Comparing reproductive biology processes and genetic diversity of populations at different densities can provide indirect evidence of the potential impacts of logging. Here, we analysed patterns of genetic diversity, mating system and gene flow in three Central African populations of the self-compatible legume timber species Erythrophleum suaveolens with contrasting densities (0.11, 0.68 and 1.72 adults per ha). The comparison of inbreeding levels among cohorts suggests that selfing is detrimental as inbred individuals are eliminated between seedling and adult stages. Levels of genetic diversity, selfing rates (∼16%) and patterns of spatial genetic structure (Sp ∼0.006) were similar in all three populations. However, the extent of gene dispersal differed markedly among populations: the average distance of pollen dispersal increased with decreasing density (from 200 m in the high-density population to 1000 m in the low-density one). Overall, our results suggest that the reproductive biology and genetic diversity of the species are not affected by current logging practices. However, further investigations need to be conducted in low-density populations to evaluate (1) whether pollen limitation may reduce seed production and (2) the regeneration potential of the species.

  5. The African Connection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oguntoyinbo, Lekan

    2012-01-01

    From student and faculty exchanges to joint research projects, U.S. universities maintain a broad spectrum of collaborative relationships with African universities. It's unclear how many U.S. colleges and universities have partnerships with African universities. The African Studies Association, an organization of scholars, doesn't keep that kind…

  6. The Role of Small Scale Industry in Employment Generation and Rural Development: Initial Research Results from Sierra Leone. African Rural Employment Paper No. 11.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chuta, Enyinna; Liedholm, Carl

    Urban and rural small scale industry and employment generation in Sierra Leone, Africa were studied via a 2 phase procedure. Phase 1 data collection (March-June, 1974) involved a random sampling procedure based on locality size. The following information was obtained from each of the localities (cities, towns, and villages) and "enumeration…

  7. Relationships between root density of the African grass Hyparrhenia diplandra and nitrification at the decimetric scale: an inhibition-stimulation balance hypothesis.

    PubMed Central

    Lata, J C; Guillaume, K; Degrange, V; Abbadie, L; Lensi, R

    2000-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that Lamto savannah exhibits two different types of nitrogen cycle with high and low nitrification sites and suggested that the perennial grass Hyparrhenia diplandra is responsible for this duality at a subpopulation level, with one ecotype being thought to be able to inhibit nitrification. The present work aimed to investigate the relationships between nitrification and the roots of H. diplandra at two scales. (i) Site-scale experiments gave new insight into the hypothesized control of nitrification by H. diplandra tussocks: the two ecotypes exhibited opposite influences, inhibition in a low nitrification site (A) and stimulation in a high nitrification site (B). (ii) Decimetric-scale experiments demonstrated close negative or positive relationships (in sites A or B, respectively) between the roots and nitrification (in the 0-10 cm soil layer), showing an unexpectedly high sensitivity of the nitrification process to root density. In both soils, the correlation between the roots and nitrification decreased with depth and practically disappeared in the 20-30 cm soil layer (where the nitrification potential was found to be very low). Therefore, the impact of H. diplandra on nitrification may be viewed as an inhibition-stimulation balance. PMID:10787164

  8. Assessing Stigma among African Americans Living with HIV

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Deepa; Molina, Yamile; Lambert, Nina; Cohn, Susan E.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose In the present study, we validated a culturally adapted stigma scale designed to assess stigma among African Americans living with HIV. Methods We collected data on the scale using an audio computer assisted self-interview (ACASI) format. We validated the scale with a sample of 62 African American participants living with HIV. Results Findings demonstrated that stigma can be measured succinctly and effectively in a 14-item scale with two subscales measuring enacted and internalized stigma. Discussion We identified many advantages to using the scale, which demonstrated good psychometric properties when used with an audio computer assisted self-interview format and with an African American sample. We recommend this scale’s use in both clinical practice and research study of HIV-stigma reduction interventions with African American populations. PMID:27761520

  9. Cultural Orientation as a Protective Factor against Tobacco and Marijuana Smoking for African American Young Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nasim, Aashir; Corona, Rosalie; Belgrave, Faye; Utsey, Shawn O.; Fallah, Niloofar

    2007-01-01

    The present study examined cultural orientation as a protective factor against tobacco and marijuana smoking for African American young women (ages 18 to 25). African American college students (N = 145) from a predominantly White university were administered subscales from the African American Acculturation Scale-Revised (AAAS-R); the shortened…

  10. Fractal Simulations of African Design in Pre-College Computing Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eglash, Ron; Krishnamoorthy, Mukkai; Sanchez, Jason; Woodbridge, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    This article describes the use of fractal simulations of African design in a high school computing class. Fractal patterns--repetitions of shape at multiple scales--are a common feature in many aspects of African design. In African architecture we often see circular houses grouped in circular complexes, or rectangular houses in rectangular…

  11. Feeling Normal? Long-Term Follow-up of Patients with a Cleft Lip-Palate after Rhinoplasty with the Derriford Appearance Scale (DAS-59).

    PubMed

    Albers, Andreas E; Reichelt, Andreas C; Nolst-Trenité, Gilbert J; Menger, Dirk Jan

    2016-04-01

    The stigma of nasal deformity due to a congenital cleft lip-palate has an undeniable influence on the affected patient's life. It is therefore of interest to investigate if efforts to reduce esthetic and functional impairments by rhinoplasty (single or multiple) can result in an increased satisfaction with appearance and a self-perception similar to the noncleft population. Retrospective scoring before and after rhinoplasty using the validated Derriford Appearance Scale (DAS-59) and subsequent statistical evaluation and comparison to datasets available in the literature for further classification was used. Of the 61 patients who underwent at least one rhinoplasty, 26 responded to all questions. The mean age of responders was approximately 30 years of age and the male:female ratio was 1:1.2. The scale showed a significant overall improvement after surgery. The full scale and all subscale scores of the DAS-59 were significantly reduced after surgery demonstrating an improvement in the respective categories. Most importantly, if postoperative results were compared with a population concerned and unconcerned about appearance, no difference "facial self-consciousness" of appearance was apparent. Also postoperative subscores for "general self-consciousness" (GSC) and "social self-consciousness" of appearance (SSC) showed no difference from those obtained from the population concerned about appearance. The postoperative subscore for "sexual and bodily self-consciousness" of appearance (SBSC) indicated improvement beyond the level found in the concerned control population. Due to only a low improvement in the difference compared with the subscore representing a "negative self-concept," a statistically significant difference to the concerned population remained, possibly indicating that therapy beyond surgery is needed for improvement. After rhinoplasty, the investigated group of cleft lip-palate patients with nasal deformities showed an improvement in their self

  12. The African superswell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nyblade, Andrew A.; Robinson, Scott W.

    1994-01-01

    Maps of residual bathymetry in the ocean basins around the African continent reveal a broad bathymetric swell in the southeastern Atlantic Ocean with an amplitude of about 500 m. We propose that this region of anomalously shallow bathymetry, together with the contiguous eastern and southern African plateaus, form a superswell which we refer to as the African superswell. The origin of the African superswell is uncertain. However, rifting and volcanism in eastern Africa, as well as heat flow measurements in southern Africa and the southeastern Atlantic Ocean, suggest that the superswell may be attributed, at least in part, to heating of the lithosphere.

  13. Understanding African American Males

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Edward Earl

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the socialization skills, self-esteem, and academic readiness of African American males in a school environment. Discussions with students and the School Perceptions Questionnaire provided data for this investigation. The intended targets for this investigation were African American students; however, there…

  14. Africans Away from Home.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarke, John Henrik

    Africans who were brought across the Atlantic as slaves never fully adjusted to slavery or accepted its inevitability. Resistance began on board the slave ships, where many jumped overboard or committed suicide. African slaves in South America led the first revolts against tyranny in the New World. The first slave revolt in the Caribbean occurred…

  15. Educating African American Males

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Edward E.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Schools across America spend money, invest in programs, and sponsor workshops, offer teacher incentives, raise accountability standards, and even evoke the name of Obama in efforts to raise the academic achievement of African American males. Incarceration and college retention rates point to a dismal plight for many African American…

  16. 16 Extraordinary African Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lobb, Nancy

    This collection for children tells the stories of 16 African Americans who helped make America what it is today. African Americans can take pride in the heritage of these contributors to society. Biographies are given for the following: (1) Sojourner Truth, preacher and abolitionist; (2) Frederick Douglass, abolitionist; (3) Harriet Tubman, leader…

  17. Keeping African Masks Real

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waddington, Susan

    2012-01-01

    Art is a good place to learn about our multicultural planet, and African masks are prized throughout the world as powerfully expressive artistic images. Unfortunately, multicultural education, especially for young children, can perpetuate stereotypes. Masks taken out of context lose their meaning and the term "African masks" suggests that there is…

  18. Neotropical Africanized honey bees have African mitochondrial DNA.

    PubMed

    Smith, D R; Taylor, O R; Brown, W M

    1989-05-18

    Non-indigenous African honey bees have invaded most of South and Central America in just over 30 years. The genetic composition of this population and the means by which it rapidly colonizes new territory remain controversial. In particular, it has been unclear whether this 'Africanized' population has resulted from interbreeding between African and domestic European bees, or is an essentially pure African population. Also, it has not been known whether this population expanded primarily by female or by male migration. Restriction site mapping of 62 mitochondrial DNAs of African bees from Brazil, Venezuela and Mexico reveals that 97% were of African (Apis mellifera scutellata) type. Although neotropical European apiary populations are rapidly Africanized by mating with neotropical African males, there is little reciprocal gene flow to the neotropical African population through European females. These are the first genetic data to indicate that the neotropical African population could be expanding its range by female migration.

  19. Commentary: The Self in Self-Conscious Emotions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Michael

    1992-01-01

    Maintains that the monograph, "Self-Evaluation in Young Children," by Stipek and others, forces a consideration of the "self" in "self-evaluation," and a rethinking of views about emotions. It attests to the lack of information on effects of socialization in early childhood. Monograph should add to research on the connection between cognition and…

  20. The Self-Conscious Spectator. Occasional Papers, 30.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benton, Michael

    This paper addresses the issue of aesthetic response in relation to both literature and painting. Although "spectator theory" crops up in various forms in accounts of what happens when one reads stories or looks at pictures, the original intention of accommodating both under a single theory proved too complex. The paper, therefore, is confined to…

  1. Self-Awareness, Self-Consciousness, and Reactance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carver, Charles S.

    Research was undertaken to test the hypothesis that reactance-based responses are facilitated by self-focused attention. (Psychological reactance has been defined as a motivational state that occurs when a person perceives that his or her freedom has been threatened in some way.) In addition, these studies served as further tests of the predictive…

  2. Are CRIS Cluster Patterns Differentially Associated with African American Enculturation and Social Distance?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chavez-Korell, Shannon; Vandiver, Beverly J.

    2012-01-01

    The authors examined whether Black racial identity cluster patterns, using Cross Racial Identity Scale (CRIS) scores, were differentially associated with preference for African American culture and social distance from various cultural groups. African American college students (N = 351) completed the CRIS, an enculturation scale, and a social…

  3. African American Suicide

    MedlinePlus

    ... accounted for 83.8% of Caucasian elderly suicides. • Firearms were the predominant method of suicide among African ... per 100,000 annually. Source: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. National Vital Statistics System. Mortality Data. ...

  4. Obesity and African Americans

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Management System Report to Congress Knowledge Center Capacity Building Information Services Events Calendar Resource Guide Justice ... Workforce Diversity Grants Youth Program Grants Other Grants Planning and Evaluation Grantee Best Practices Black/African American ...

  5. African N Assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bekunda, M.; Galford, G. L.; Hickman, J. E.; Palm, C.

    2011-12-01

    Africa's smallholder agricultural systems face unique challenges in planning for reducing poverty, concurrent with adaptation and mitigation to climate change. At continental level, policy seeks to promote a uniquely African Green Revolution to increase crop yields and food production, and improve local livelihoods. However, the consequences on the environment and climate are not clear; these pro-economic development measures should be linked to climate change adaptation and mitigation measures, and research is required to help achieve these policy proposals by identifying options, and testing impacts. In particular, increased nitrogen (N) inputs are essential for increasing food production in Africa, but are accompanied by inevitable increases in losses to the environment. These losses appear to be low at input levels promoted in agricultural development programs, while the increased N inputs both increase current food production and appear to reduce the vulnerability of food production to changes in climate. We present field and remote sensing evidence from Malawi that subsidizing improved seed and fertilizers increases resilience to drought without adding excess N to the environment. In Kenya, field research identified thresholds in N2O losses, where emissions are very low at fertilization rates of less than 200 kg ha-1. Village-scale models have identified potential inefficiencies in the food production process where the largest losses of reactive N occur, and which could be targeted to reduce the amount of N released to the environment. We further review some on-going research activities and progress in Africa that compare different methods of managing resources that target resilience in food production and adaptation to climate change, using nutrient N as an indicator, while evaluating the effects of these resource management practices on ecosystems and the environment.

  6. A continuum of admixture in the Western Hemisphere revealed by the African Diaspora genome.

    PubMed

    Mathias, Rasika Ann; Taub, Margaret A; Gignoux, Christopher R; Fu, Wenqing; Musharoff, Shaila; O'Connor, Timothy D; Vergara, Candelaria; Torgerson, Dara G; Pino-Yanes, Maria; Shringarpure, Suyash S; Huang, Lili; Rafaels, Nicholas; Boorgula, Meher Preethi; Johnston, Henry Richard; Ortega, Victor E; Levin, Albert M; Song, Wei; Torres, Raul; Padhukasahasram, Badri; Eng, Celeste; Mejia-Mejia, Delmy-Aracely; Ferguson, Trevor; Qin, Zhaohui S; Scott, Alan F; Yazdanbakhsh, Maria; Wilson, James G; Marrugo, Javier; Lange, Leslie A; Kumar, Rajesh; Avila, Pedro C; Williams, L Keoki; Watson, Harold; Ware, Lorraine B; Olopade, Christopher; Olopade, Olufunmilayo; Oliveira, Ricardo; Ober, Carole; Nicolae, Dan L; Meyers, Deborah; Mayorga, Alvaro; Knight-Madden, Jennifer; Hartert, Tina; Hansel, Nadia N; Foreman, Marilyn G; Ford, Jean G; Faruque, Mezbah U; Dunston, Georgia M; Caraballo, Luis; Burchard, Esteban G; Bleecker, Eugene; Araujo, Maria Ilma; Herrera-Paz, Edwin Francisco; Gietzen, Kimberly; Grus, Wendy E; Bamshad, Michael; Bustamante, Carlos D; Kenny, Eimear E; Hernandez, Ryan D; Beaty, Terri H; Ruczinski, Ingo; Akey, Joshua; Barnes, Kathleen C

    2016-10-11

    The African Diaspora in the Western Hemisphere represents one of the largest forced migrations in history and had a profound impact on genetic diversity in modern populations. To date, the fine-scale population structure of descendants of the African Diaspora remains largely uncharacterized. Here we present genetic variation from deeply sequenced genomes of 642 individuals from North and South American, Caribbean and West African populations, substantially increasing the lexicon of human genomic variation and suggesting much variation remains to be discovered in African-admixed populations in the Americas. We summarize genetic variation in these populations, quantifying the postcolonial sex-biased European gene flow across multiple regions. Moreover, we refine estimates on the burden of deleterious variants carried across populations and how this varies with African ancestry. Our data are an important resource for empowering disease mapping studies in African-admixed individuals and will facilitate gene discovery for diseases disproportionately affecting individuals of African ancestry.

  7. A continuum of admixture in the Western Hemisphere revealed by the African Diaspora genome

    PubMed Central

    Mathias, Rasika Ann; Taub, Margaret A.; Gignoux, Christopher R.; Fu, Wenqing; Musharoff, Shaila; O'Connor, Timothy D.; Vergara, Candelaria; Torgerson, Dara G.; Pino-Yanes, Maria; Shringarpure, Suyash S.; Huang, Lili; Rafaels, Nicholas; Boorgula, Meher Preethi; Johnston, Henry Richard; Ortega, Victor E.; Levin, Albert M.; Song, Wei; Torres, Raul; Padhukasahasram, Badri; Eng, Celeste; Mejia-Mejia, Delmy-Aracely; Ferguson, Trevor; Qin, Zhaohui S.; Scott, Alan F.; Yazdanbakhsh, Maria; Wilson, James G.; Marrugo, Javier; Lange, Leslie A.; Kumar, Rajesh; Avila, Pedro C.; Williams, L. Keoki; Watson, Harold; Ware, Lorraine B.; Olopade, Christopher; Olopade, Olufunmilayo; Oliveira, Ricardo; Ober, Carole; Nicolae, Dan L.; Meyers, Deborah; Mayorga, Alvaro; Knight-Madden, Jennifer; Hartert, Tina; Hansel, Nadia N.; Foreman, Marilyn G.; Ford, Jean G.; Faruque, Mezbah U.; Dunston, Georgia M.; Caraballo, Luis; Burchard, Esteban G.; Bleecker, Eugene; Araujo, Maria Ilma; Herrera-Paz, Edwin Francisco; Gietzen, Kimberly; Grus, Wendy E.; Bamshad, Michael; Bustamante, Carlos D.; Kenny, Eimear E.; Hernandez, Ryan D.; Beaty, Terri H.; Ruczinski, Ingo; Akey, Joshua; Campbell, Monica; Chavan, Sameer; Foster, Cassandra; Gao, Li; Horowitz, Edward; Ortiz, Romina; Potee, Joseph; Gao, Jingjing; Hu, Yijuan; Hansen, Mark; Deshpande, Aniket; Locke, Devin P.; Grammer, Leslie; Kim, Kwang-YounA; Schleimer, Robert; De La Vega, Francisco M.; Szpiech, Zachary A.; Oluwole, Oluwafemi; Arinola, Ganiyu; Correa, Adolfo; Musani, Solomon; Chong, Jessica; Nickerson, Deborah; Reiner, Alexander; Maul, Pissamai; Maul, Trevor; Martinez, Beatriz; Meza, Catherine; Ayestas, Gerardo; Landaverde-Torres, Pamela; Erazo, Said Omar Leiva; Martinez, Rosella; Mayorga, Luis F.; Ramos, Hector; Saenz, Allan; Varela, Gloria; Vasquez, Olga Marina; Samms-Vaughan, Maureen; Wilks, Rainford J.; Adegnika, Akim; Ateba-Ngoa, Ulysse; Barnes, Kathleen C.

    2016-01-01

    The African Diaspora in the Western Hemisphere represents one of the largest forced migrations in history and had a profound impact on genetic diversity in modern populations. To date, the fine-scale population structure of descendants of the African Diaspora remains largely uncharacterized. Here we present genetic variation from deeply sequenced genomes of 642 individuals from North and South American, Caribbean and West African populations, substantially increasing the lexicon of human genomic variation and suggesting much variation remains to be discovered in African-admixed populations in the Americas. We summarize genetic variation in these populations, quantifying the postcolonial sex-biased European gene flow across multiple regions. Moreover, we refine estimates on the burden of deleterious variants carried across populations and how this varies with African ancestry. Our data are an important resource for empowering disease mapping studies in African-admixed individuals and will facilitate gene discovery for diseases disproportionately affecting individuals of African ancestry. PMID:27725671

  8. Coccidioidomycosis in African Americans

    PubMed Central

    Ruddy, Barbara E.; Mayer, Anita P.; Ko, Marcia G.; Labonte, Helene R.; Borovansky, Jill A.; Boroff, Erika S.; Blair, Janis E.

    2011-01-01

    Coccidioidomycosis is caused by Coccidioides species, a fungus endemic to the desert regions of the southwestern United States, and is of particular concern for African Americans. We performed a PubMed search of the English-language medical literature on coccidioidomycosis in African Americans and summarized the pertinent literature. Search terms were coccidioidomycosis, Coccidioides, race, ethnicity, African, black, and Negro. The proceedings of the national and international coccidioidomycosis symposia were searched. All relevant articles and their cited references were reviewed; those with epidemiological, immunologic, clinical, and therapeutic data pertaining to coccidioidomycosis in African Americans were included in the review. Numerous studies documented an increased predilection for severe coccidioidal infections, coccidioidomycosis-related hospitalizations, and extrapulmonary dissemination in persons of African descent; however, most of the published studies are variably problematic. The immunologic mechanism for this predilection is unclear. The clinical features and treatment recommendations are summarized. Medical practitioners need to be alert to the possibility of coccidioidomycosis in persons with recent travel to or residence in an area where the disease is endemic. PMID:21193657

  9. Mental Health and African Americans

    MedlinePlus

    ... Minority Population Profiles > Black/African American > Mental Health Mental Health and African Americans Poverty level affects mental health ... compared to 120% of non-Hispanic whites. 1 MENTAL HEALTH STATUS Serious psychological distress among adults 18 years ...

  10. Neuropsychological screening tests in African Americans.

    PubMed Central

    Lampley-Dallas, V. T.

    2001-01-01

    Neuropsychological tests are instruments used to diagnose a variety of cognitive conditions. This article will review a few of the brief scales commonly used in screening for dementia. It will also discuss the properties of and problems with some of the brief scales that are commonly used to screen African Americans for dementia, highlighting the various biases. The Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) is the most widely known and utilized cognitive impairment instrument in the United States. Whether or not it is biased to race after adjusting the scores for educational attainment remains controversial. The Blessed Information-Memory-Concentration Test (BIMC), Blessed Orientation-Memory-Concentration Test (BOMC), Short Portable Mental Status Questionnaire (SPMSQ), and Neurobehavioral Cognitive Status Examination (NCSE) are other screening tests used to diagnose dementia. Some of these tests have been found to misclassify many more African Americans as demented compared to the proportion of whites that are misclassified. The Cambridge Cognitive Examination (CAMCOG) is the only brief neuropsychological scale designed to actually diagnose early dementia, but it is not known if it is biased for African Americans. PMID:11560287

  11. The Struggles over African Languages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maseko, Pam; Vale, Peter

    2016-01-01

    In this interview, African Language expert Pam Maseko speaks of her own background and her first encounter with culture outside of her mother tongue, isiXhosa. A statistical breakdown of South African languages is provided as background. She discusses Western (originally missionary) codification of African languages and suggests that this approach…

  12. African rainforests: past, present and future

    PubMed Central

    Malhi, Yadvinder; Adu-Bredu, Stephen; Asare, Rebecca A.; Lewis, Simon L.; Mayaux, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    The rainforests are the great green heart of Africa, and present a unique combination of ecological, climatic and human interactions. In this synthesis paper, we review the past and present state processes of change in African rainforests, and explore the challenges and opportunities for maintaining a viable future for these biomes. We draw in particular on the insights and new analyses emerging from the Theme Issue on ‘African rainforests: past, present and future’ of Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B. A combination of features characterize the African rainforest biome, including a history of climate variation; forest expansion and retreat; a long history of human interaction with the biome; a relatively low plant species diversity but large tree biomass; a historically exceptionally high animal biomass that is now being severely hunted down; the dominance of selective logging; small-scale farming and bushmeat hunting as the major forms of direct human pressure; and, in Central Africa, the particular context of mineral- and oil-driven economies that have resulted in unusually low rates of deforestation and agricultural activity. We conclude by discussing how this combination of factors influences the prospects for African forests in the twenty-first century. PMID:23878339

  13. The landscape of recombination in African Americans

    PubMed Central

    Hinch, Anjali G.; Tandon, Arti; Patterson, Nick; Song, Yunli; Rohland, Nadin; Palmer, Cameron D.; Chen, Gary K.; Wang, Kai; Buxbaum, Sarah G.; Akylbekova, Meggie; Aldrich, Melinda C.; Ambrosone, Christine B.; Amos, Christopher; Bandera, Elisa V.; Berndt, Sonja I.; Bernstein, Leslie; Blot, William J.; Bock, Cathryn H.; Boerwinkle, Eric; Cai, Qiuyin; Caporaso, Neil; Casey, Graham; Cupples, L. Adrienne; Deming, Sandra L.; Diver, W. Ryan; Divers, Jasmin; Fornage, Myriam; Gillanders, Elizabeth M.; Glessner, Joseph; Harris, Curtis C.; Hu, Jennifer J.; Ingles, Sue A.; Isaacs, Williams; John, Esther M.; Kao, W. H. Linda; Keating, Brendan; Kittles, Rick A.; Kolonel, Laurence N.; Larkin, Emma; Le Marchand, Loic; McNeill, Lorna H.; Millikan, Robert C.; Murphy, Adam; Musani, Solomon; Neslund-Dudas, Christine; Nyante, Sarah; Papanicolaou, George J.; Press, Michael F.; Psaty, Bruce M.; Reiner, Alex P.; Rich, Stephen S.; Rodriguez-Gil, Jorge L.; Rotter, Jerome I.; Rybicki, Benjamin A.; Schwartz, Ann G.; Signorello, Lisa B.; Spitz, Margaret; Strom, Sara S.; Thun, Michael J.; Tucker, Margaret A.; Wang, Zhaoming; Wiencke, John K.; Witte, John S.; Wrensch, Margaret; Wu, Xifeng; Yamamura, Yuko; Zanetti, Krista A.; Zheng, Wei; Ziegler, Regina G.; Zhu, Xiaofeng; Redline, Susan; Hirschhorn, Joel N.; Henderson, Brian E.; Taylor, Herman A.; Price, Alkes L.; Hakonarson, Hakon; Chanock, Stephen J.; Haiman, Christopher A.; Wilson, James G.; Reich, David; Myers, Simon R.

    2011-01-01

    Recombination, together with mutation, is the ultimate source of genetic variation in populations. We leverage the recent mixture of people of African and European ancestry in the Americas to build a genetic map measuring the probability of crossing-over at each position in the genome, based on about 2.1 million crossovers in 30,000 unrelated African Americans. At intervals of more than three megabases it is nearly identical to a map built in Europeans. At finer scales it differs significantly, and we identify about 2,500 recombination hotspots that are active in people of West African ancestry but nearly inactive in Europeans. The probability of a crossover at these hotspots is almost fully controlled by the alleles an individual carries at PRDM9 (P<10−245). We identify a 17 base pair DNA sequence motif that is enriched in these hotspots, and is an excellent match to the predicted binding target of African-enriched alleles of PRDM9. PMID:21775986

  14. The landscape of recombination in African Americans.

    PubMed

    Hinch, Anjali G; Tandon, Arti; Patterson, Nick; Song, Yunli; Rohland, Nadin; Palmer, Cameron D; Chen, Gary K; Wang, Kai; Buxbaum, Sarah G; Akylbekova, Ermeg L; Aldrich, Melinda C; Ambrosone, Christine B; Amos, Christopher; Bandera, Elisa V; Berndt, Sonja I; Bernstein, Leslie; Blot, William J; Bock, Cathryn H; Boerwinkle, Eric; Cai, Qiuyin; Caporaso, Neil; Casey, Graham; Cupples, L Adrienne; Deming, Sandra L; Diver, W Ryan; Divers, Jasmin; Fornage, Myriam; Gillanders, Elizabeth M; Glessner, Joseph; Harris, Curtis C; Hu, Jennifer J; Ingles, Sue A; Isaacs, William; John, Esther M; Kao, W H Linda; Keating, Brendan; Kittles, Rick A; Kolonel, Laurence N; Larkin, Emma; Le Marchand, Loic; McNeill, Lorna H; Millikan, Robert C; Murphy, Adam; Musani, Solomon; Neslund-Dudas, Christine; Nyante, Sarah; Papanicolaou, George J; Press, Michael F; Psaty, Bruce M; Reiner, Alex P; Rich, Stephen S; Rodriguez-Gil, Jorge L; Rotter, Jerome I; Rybicki, Benjamin A; Schwartz, Ann G; Signorello, Lisa B; Spitz, Margaret; Strom, Sara S; Thun, Michael J; Tucker, Margaret A; Wang, Zhaoming; Wiencke, John K; Witte, John S; Wrensch, Margaret; Wu, Xifeng; Yamamura, Yuko; Zanetti, Krista A; Zheng, Wei; Ziegler, Regina G; Zhu, Xiaofeng; Redline, Susan; Hirschhorn, Joel N; Henderson, Brian E; Taylor, Herman A; Price, Alkes L; Hakonarson, Hakon; Chanock, Stephen J; Haiman, Christopher A; Wilson, James G; Reich, David; Myers, Simon R

    2011-07-20

    Recombination, together with mutation, gives rise to genetic variation in populations. Here we leverage the recent mixture of people of African and European ancestry in the Americas to build a genetic map measuring the probability of crossing over at each position in the genome, based on about 2.1 million crossovers in 30,000 unrelated African Americans. At intervals of more than three megabases it is nearly identical to a map built in Europeans. At finer scales it differs significantly, and we identify about 2,500 recombination hotspots that are active in people of West African ancestry but nearly inactive in Europeans. The probability of a crossover at these hotspots is almost fully controlled by the alleles an individual carries at PRDM9 (P value < 10(-245)). We identify a 17-base-pair DNA sequence motif that is enriched in these hotspots, and is an excellent match to the predicted binding target of PRDM9 alleles common in West Africans and rare in Europeans. Sites of this motif are predicted to be risk loci for disease-causing genomic rearrangements in individuals carrying these alleles. More generally, this map provides a resource for research in human genetic variation and evolution.

  15. The time-transgressive termination of the African Humid Period

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shanahan, Timothy M.; McKay, Nicholas P.; Hughen, Konrad A.; Overpeck, Jonathan T.; Otto-Bliesner, Bette; Heil, Clifford W.; King, John; Scholz, Christopher A.; Peck, John

    2015-02-01

    During the African Humid Period about 14,800 to 5,500 years ago, changes in incoming solar radiation during Northern Hemisphere summers led to the large-scale expansion and subsequent collapse of the African monsoon. Hydrologic reconstructions from arid North Africa show an abrupt onset and termination of the African Humid Period. These abrupt transitions have been invoked in arguments that the African monsoon responds rapidly to gradual forcing as a result of nonlinear land surface feedbacks. Here we present a reconstruction of precipitation in humid tropical West Africa for the past 20,000 years using the hydrogen isotope composition of leaf waxes preserved in sediments from Lake Bosumtwi, Ghana. We show that over much of tropical and subtropical Africa the monsoon responded synchronously and predictably to glacial reorganizations of overturning circulation in the Atlantic Ocean, but the response to the relatively weaker radiative forcing during the African Humid Period was more spatially and temporally complex. A synthesis of hydrologic reconstructions from across Africa shows that the termination of the African Humid Period was locally abrupt, but occurred progressively later at lower latitudes. We propose that this time-transgressive termination of the African Humid Period reflects declining rainfall intensity induced directly by decreasing summer insolation as well as the gradual southward migration of the tropical rainbelt that occurred during this interval.

  16. The genetic structure and history of Africans and African Americans.

    PubMed

    Tishkoff, Sarah A; Reed, Floyd A; Friedlaender, Françoise R; Ehret, Christopher; Ranciaro, Alessia; Froment, Alain; Hirbo, Jibril B; Awomoyi, Agnes A; Bodo, Jean-Marie; Doumbo, Ogobara; Ibrahim, Muntaser; Juma, Abdalla T; Kotze, Maritha J; Lema, Godfrey; Moore, Jason H; Mortensen, Holly; Nyambo, Thomas B; Omar, Sabah A; Powell, Kweli; Pretorius, Gideon S; Smith, Michael W; Thera, Mahamadou A; Wambebe, Charles; Weber, James L; Williams, Scott M

    2009-05-22

    Africa is the source of all modern humans, but characterization of genetic variation and of relationships among populations across the continent has been enigmatic. We studied 121 African populations, four African American populations, and 60 non-African populations for patterns of variation at 1327 nuclear microsatellite and insertion/deletion markers. We identified 14 ancestral population clusters in Africa that correlate with self-described ethnicity and shared cultural and/or linguistic properties. We observed high levels of mixed ancestry in most populations, reflecting historical migration events across the continent. Our data also provide evidence for shared ancestry among geographically diverse hunter-gatherer populations (Khoesan speakers and Pygmies). The ancestry of African Americans is predominantly from Niger-Kordofanian (approximately 71%), European (approximately 13%), and other African (approximately 8%) populations, although admixture levels varied considerably among individuals. This study helps tease apart the complex evolutionary history of Africans and African Americans, aiding both anthropological and genetic epidemiologic studies.

  17. Elective: African Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenkins, Kenneth V.

    The make-up of a course in African literature for high school students is discussed. It is pointed out that the course can be constructed on already familiar lines. High school students will be able to describe clearly, for example, the relationship between environment and character or the dilemma of characters caught between traditional values…

  18. African Americans and Agriculture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Joan

    2000-01-01

    Reviews the opportunities available in the field of agriculture for African American students and notes efforts of the 136 colleges of agriculture to publicize their offerings and recruit students. Profiles six black leaders in agriculture, highlighting their achievements in research and aid to developing countries. A table provides data on annual…

  19. African Literature: Selected Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deschenes, Martin O.; Waters, Harold A.

    This bibliography of resources for the teaching of African literature includes over 100 citations of books, textbooks, anthologies, plays, novels, short stories, and periodicals in French and English. Publishing house addresses, audiovisual aids, professional organizations, and a course list are also cited. The books are listed under the following…

  20. African Americans and Mathematics Outcomes on National Assessment of Educational Progress: Parental and Individual Influences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noble, Richard, III; Morton, Crystal Hill

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated within group differences between African American female and male students who participated in the 2009 National Assessment of Educational Progress mathematics assessment. Using results from participating states, we compare average scale scores of African American students based on home regulatory environment and interest…

  1. South African Teachers' Attitudes toward the Inclusion of Learners with Different Abilities in Mainstream Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donohue, Dana K.; Bornman, Juan

    2015-01-01

    This research sought to examine South African teachers' attitudes toward the inclusion of learners with different abilities in their hypothetical mainstream classrooms. Participants were 93 South African teachers who responded to the Teachers' Attitudes and Expectations Scale, a measure developed for this study, regarding four vignettes depicting…

  2. Large-scale pattern of genetic differentiation within African rainforest trees: insights on the roles of ecological gradients and past climate changes on the evolution of Erythrophleum spp (Fabaceae)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The evolutionary events that have shaped biodiversity patterns in the African rainforests are still poorly documented. Past forest fragmentation and ecological gradients have been advocated as important drivers of genetic differentiation but their respective roles remain unclear. Using nuclear microsatellites (nSSRs) and chloroplast non-coding sequences (pDNA), we characterised the spatial genetic structure of Erythrophleum (Fabaceae) forest trees in West and Central Africa (Guinea Region, GR). This widespread genus displays a wide ecological amplitude and taxonomists recognize two forest tree species, E. ivorense and E. suaveolens, which are difficult to distinguish in the field and often confused. Results Bayesian-clustering applied on nSSRs of a blind sample of 648 specimens identified three major gene pools showing no or very limited introgression. They present parapatric distributions correlated to rainfall gradients and forest types. One gene pool is restricted to coastal evergreen forests and corresponds to E. ivorense; a second one is found in gallery forests from the dry forest zone of West Africa and North-West Cameroon and corresponds to West-African E. suaveolens; the third gene pool occurs in semi-evergreen forests and corresponds to Central African E. suaveolens. These gene pools have mostly unique pDNA haplotypes but they do not form reciprocally monophyletic clades. Nevertheless, pDNA molecular dating indicates that the divergence between E. ivorense and Central African E. suaveolens predates the Pleistocene. Further Bayesian-clustering applied within each major gene pool identified diffuse genetic discontinuities (minor gene pools displaying substantial introgression) at a latitude between 0 and 2°N in Central Africa for both species, and at a longitude between 5° and 8°E for E. ivorense. Moreover, we detected evidence of past population declines which are consistent with historical habitat fragmentation induced by Pleistocene climate

  3. Understanding traditional African healing

    PubMed Central

    MOKGOBI, M.G.

    2015-01-01

    Traditional African healing has been in existence for many centuries yet many people still seem not to understand how it relates to God and religion/spirituality. Some people seem to believe that traditional healers worship the ancestors and not God. It is therefore the aim of this paper to clarify this relationship by discussing a chain of communication between the worshipers and the Almighty God. Other aspects of traditional healing namely types of traditional healers, training of traditional healers as well as the role of traditional healers in their communities are discussed. In conclusion, the services of traditional healers go far beyond the uses of herbs for physical illnesses. Traditional healers serve many roles which include but not limited to custodians of the traditional African religion and customs, educators about culture, counselors, social workers and psychologists. PMID:26594664

  4. Ectoparasites of African Mammals.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-11-30

    This study consisted of ectoparasites from approximately 100,000 African small mammals, representing probably more than 500 species of which many are...study of ectoparasites may provide information concerning interactions among animal reservoirs of disease, and (3) an understanding of ecological...parameters for ectoparasites and their hosts may enhance understanding of epidemiological patterns. Of the four major groups dealt with, considerably more

  5. Diversity among African Pygmies

    PubMed Central

    Ramírez Rozzi, Fernando V.; Sardi, Marina L.

    2010-01-01

    Although dissimilarities in cranial and post-cranial morphology among African pygmies groups have been recognized, comparative studies on skull morphology usually pull all pygmies together assuming that morphological characters are similar among them and different with respect to other populations. The main aim of this study is to compare cranial morphology between African pygmies and non-pygmies populations from Equatorial Africa derived from both the Eastern and the Western regions in order to test if the greatest morphological difference is obtained in the comparison between pygmies and non-pygmies. Thirty three-dimensional (3D) landmarks registered with Microscribe in four cranial samples (Western and Eastern pygmies and non-pygmies) were obtained. Multivariate analysis (generalized Procrustes analysis, Mahalanobis distances, multivariate regression) and complementary dimensions of size were evaluated with ANOVA and post hoc LSD. Results suggest that important cranial shape differentiation does occur between pygmies and non-pygmies but also between Eastern and Western populations and that size changes and allometries do not affect similarly Eastern and Western pygmies. Therefore, our findings raise serious doubt about the fact to consider African pygmies as a homogenous group in studies on skull morphology. Differences in cranial morphology among pygmies would suggest differentiation after divergence. Although not directly related to skull differentiation, the diversity among pygmies would probably suggest that the process responsible for reduced stature occurred after the split of the ancestors of modern Eastern and Western pygmies. PMID:21049030

  6. Human African trypanosomiasis.

    PubMed

    Lejon, Veerle; Bentivoglio, Marina; Franco, José Ramon

    2013-01-01

    Human African trypanosomiasis or sleeping sickness is a neglected tropical disease that affects populations in sub-Saharan Africa. The disease is caused by infection with the gambiense and rhodesiense subspecies of the extracellular parasite Trypanosoma brucei, and is transmitted to humans by bites of infected tsetse flies. The disease evolves in two stages, the hemolymphatic and meningoencephalitic stages, the latter being defined by central nervous system infection after trypanosomal traversal of the blood-brain barrier. African trypanosomiasis, which leads to severe neuroinflammation, is fatal without treatment, but the available drugs are toxic and complicated to administer. The choice of medication is determined by the infecting parasite subspecies and disease stage. Clinical features include a constellation of nonspecific symptoms and signs with evolving neurological and psychiatric alterations and characteristic sleep-wake disturbances. Because of the clinical profile variability and insidiously progressive central nervous system involvement, disease staging is currently based on cerebrospinal fluid examination, which is usually performed after the finding of trypanosomes in blood or other body fluids. No vaccine being available, control of human African trypanosomiasis relies on diagnosis and treatment of infected patients, assisted by vector control. Better diagnostic tools and safer, easy to use drugs are needed to facilitate elimination of the disease.

  7. African Americans in bereavement: grief as a function of ethnicity.

    PubMed

    Laurie, Anna; Neimeyer, Robert A

    2008-01-01

    Few empirical studies have explored the grieving process among different ethnic groups within the United States, and very little is known about how African Americans and Caucasians may differ in their experience of loss. The purpose of this study was to examine the African-American experience of grief, with particular emphasis on issues of identity change, interpersonal dimensions of the loss, and continuing attachments with the deceased. Participants were 1,581 bereaved college students (940 Caucasians and 641 African Americans) attending classes at a large southern university. Each participant completed the Inventory of Complicated Grief-Revised, the Continuing Bonds Scale, and questions regarding the circumstances surrounding his or her loss. Results revealed that African Americans experienced more frequent bereavement by homicide, maintenance of a stronger continuing bond with the deceased, greater grief for the loss of extended kin beyond the immediate family, and a sense of support in their grief, despite their tendency to talk less with others about the loss or seek professional support for it. Overall, African Americans reported higher levels of complicated grief symptoms than Caucasians, especially when they spent less time speaking to others about their loss experience. Implications of these findings for bereavement support services for African Americans were briefly noted.

  8. East African Rift Valley, Kenya

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    This rare, cloud free view of the East African Rift Valley, Kenya (1.5N, 35.5E) shows a clear view of the Turkwell River Valley, an offshoot of the African REift System. The East African Rift is part of a vast plate fracture which extends from southern Turkey, through the Red Sea, East Africa and into Mozambique. Dark green patches of forests are seen along the rift margin and tea plantations occupy the cooler higher ground.

  9. African American Male Student-Athletes: Identity and Academic Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Brien, Kathryn Mary

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the current research was to examine racial, male and athletic identities and their individual and collective impact on the academic performance of African American male Division I student-athletes (AAMSAs). Data was collected using the Multidimensional Inventory of Black Identity (MIBI), the Male Role Norms Scale (MRNS), and the…

  10. Environmental Attitudes and Information Sources among African American College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, E. Bun

    2008-01-01

    The author examined the environmental attitudes of African American college students by using the 15-item New Ecological Paradigm (NEP) Scale. The author also attempted to determine their everyday environmental behaviors such as recycling and conservation and investigated major information sources for local, national, and international…

  11. African-American college student attitudes toward physics and their effect on achievement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drake, Carl Timothy

    The purpose of this study was to investigate factors affecting the attitudes that African-American college students have towards introductory college physics. The population targeted for this study consisted of African-American males and females enrolled in introductory college physics classes at an urban public historical black college or university (HBCU) located in the southeastern United States. Nine of the Fennema-Sherman Mathematics Attitude Scales, modified for physics, were used to analyze the attitudes of the 135 participants enrolled in an introductory college physics class. The nine scales used to measure the students' attitudes were Attitude Toward Success in Physics Scale (AS), The Physics as a Male Domain Scale (MD), The Mother Scale (M), The Father Scale (F), The Teacher Scale (T), The Confidence in Learning Physics Scale (C), The Physics Anxiety Scale (A), The Effectance Motivation Scale in Physics (E), and The Physics Usefulness Scale (U). Hypothesis I states that there is a significant difference in the domain scores of African-American college students in the Fennema-Sherman Math Attitudes Scales adapted for physics. It was found using a repeated measures ANOVA that there was a significant difference between the attitudes of African-Americans on the nine attitude scales of the Fennema-Sherman Math Attitude Scales, F(8,992) = 43.09, p < .001. Hypothesis II states that there is a statistically significant difference in domain scores between African-American males and African-American females in the Fennema-Sherman Attitude Scales. It was found using a MANOVA that there was not a significant difference between the domain scores of African-American males and African-American females, F(8, 116) = .38, p > .05. Hypothesis III states that there is a statistically significant relationship between attitude towards physics and achievement for African-American students. The students with good attitudes toward physics would have a higher level of achievement

  12. Elder Abuse among African Americans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tauriac, Jesse J.; Scruggs, Natoschia

    2006-01-01

    Perceptions of extreme, moderate, and mild forms of elder abuse among African-American women (n=25) and men (n=10) were examined. African-American respondents emphasized physical abuse when giving examples of extremely abusive behavior. Along with physical abuse, verbal abuse was the most frequently identified form of abuse, and was significantly…

  13. African ethics and voluntary euthanasia.

    PubMed

    Omonzejele, P F

    2004-01-01

    This paper outlines the relationship between euthanasia and its ethical norms and practices in a part of West Africa. The various sub-types of euthanasia are described in detail, parallel with the role of African ethical theories in determining their relevance. The author discusses the implications of this approach relative to the social and economic state of African communities.

  14. African American Administrators and Staff

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Dianne; Taylor, Janice D.; Burrell, Charlotte; Stewart, Gregory

    2006-01-01

    This article explores the issues of African American participation in the administrative ranks of the academy. The authors find that African Americans tend to hold positions that are marginal in academic organizations, lacking power and influence, and that not much has changed over recent decades. Forces influencing this condition are explored,…

  15. African-Americans and Alcoholism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sigmon, Scott B.

    To better serve people in a counseling relationship, it is useful to understand them not only culturally, but demographically as well. This paper traces historical, religious, demographic aspects and treatment of alcohol abuse in African Americans. Historically, alcohol abuse and alcohol dependence have varied for African Americans. During the…

  16. Africanization in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Pinto, M. Alice; Rubink, William L.; Patton, John C.; Coulson, Robert N.; Johnston, J. Spencer

    2005-01-01

    The expansion of Africanized honeybees from South America to the southwestern United States in <50 years is considered one of the most spectacular biological invasions yet documented. In the American tropics, it has been shown that during their expansion Africanized honeybees have low levels of introgressed alleles from resident European populations. In the United States, it has been speculated, but not shown, that Africanized honeybees would hybridize extensively with European honeybees. Here we report a continuous 11-year study investigating temporal changes in the genetic structure of a feral population from the southern United States undergoing Africanization. Our microsatellite data showed that (1) the process of Africanization involved both maternal and paternal bidirectional gene flow between European and Africanized honeybees and (2) the panmitic European population was replaced by panmitic mixtures of A. m. scutellata and European genes within 5 years after Africanization. The post-Africanization gene pool (1998–2001) was composed of a diverse array of recombinant classes with a substantial European genetic contribution (mean 25–37%). Therefore, the resulting feral honeybee population of south Texas was best viewed as a hybrid swarm. PMID:15937139

  17. Identification of common cystic fibrosis mutations in African-Americans with cystic fibrosis increases the detection rate to 75%.

    PubMed Central

    Macek, M; Mackova, A; Hamosh, A; Hilman, B C; Selden, R F; Lucotte, G; Friedman, K J; Knowles, M R; Rosenstein, B J; Cutting, G R

    1997-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF)--an autosomal recessive disorder caused by mutations in CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) and characterized by abnormal chloride conduction across epithelial membranes, leading to chronic lung and exocrine pancreatic disease--is less common in African-Americans than in Caucasians. No large-scale studies of mutation identification and screening in African-American CF patients have been reported, to date. In this study, the entire coding and flanking intronic sequence of the CFTR gene was analyzed by denaturing gradient-gel electrophoresis and sequencing in an index group of 82 African-American CF chromosomes to identify mutations. One novel mutation, 3120+1G-->A, occurred with a frequency of 12.3% and was also detected in a native African patient. To establish frequencies, an additional group of 66 African-American CF chromosomes were screened for mutations identified in two or more African-American patients. Screening for 16 "common Caucasian" mutations identified 52% of CF alleles in African-Americans, while screening for 8 "common African" mutations accounted for an additional 23%. The combined detection rate of 75% was comparable to the sensitivity of mutation analysis in Caucasian CF patients. These results indicate that African-Americans have their own set of "common" CF mutations that originate from the native African population. Inclusion of these "common" mutations substantially improves CF mutation detection rates in African-Americans. PMID:9150159

  18. Cancer statistics for African Americans.

    PubMed

    Ghafoor, Asma; Jemal, Ahmedin; Cokkinides, Vilma; Cardinez, Cheryll; Murray, Taylor; Samuels, Alicia; Thun, Michael J

    2002-01-01

    The American Cancer Society provides estimates on the number of new cancer cases and deaths, and compiles health statistics on African Americans in a biennial publication, Cancer Facts and Figures for African Americans. The compiled statistics include cancer incidence, mortality, survival, and lifestyle behaviors using the most recent data on incidence and survival from the National Cancer Institute's (NCI) Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) program, mortality data from the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS), and behavioral information from the Behavior Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS), Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS), and National Health Interview Survey (NHIS). It is estimated that 132,700 new cases of cancer and 63,100 deaths will occur among African Americans in the year 2003. Although African Americans have experienced higher incidence and mortality rates of cancer than whites for many years, incidence rates have declined by 2.7 percent per year in African-American males since 1992, while stabilizing in African-American females. During the same period, death rates declined by 2.1 percent and 0.4 percent per year among African-American males and females, respectively. The decrease in both incidence and death rates from cancer among African-American males was the largest of any racial or ethnic group. Nonetheless, African Americans still carry the highest cancer burden among US racial and ethnic groups. Most cancers detectable by screening are diagnosed at a later stage and survival rates are lower within each stage of disease in African Americans than in whites. The extent to which these disparities reflect unequal access to health care versus other factors is an active area of research.

  19. Intelligence as a Function of Conservatism among White South African Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katz, Yaacov J.

    1990-01-01

    Uses the Social-Religious-Political Scale, the G.D. Wilson and J.R. Patterson Conservatism Scale, and the South African Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale to examine the relationship of conservative political attitudes to intelligence. Found no significant relationship between conservatism and high or low intelligence in this sample of 100 South…

  20. East African ROAD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tekle, Kelali

    2016-10-01

    In the developing world astronomy had been treated as the science of elites. As a result of this overwhelming perception, astronomy compared with other applied sciences has got less attention and its role in development has been insignificant. However, the IAU General Assembly decision in 2009 opened new opportunity for countries and professionals to deeply look into Astronomy and its role in development. Then, the subsequent establishment of regional offices in the developing world is helping countries to integrate astronomy with other earth and space based sciences so as to progressively promote its scientific and development importance. Gradually nations have come to know that space is the frontier of tomorrow and the urgency of preeminence on space frontier starts at primary school and ascends to tertiary education. For this to happen, member nations in east African region have placed STEM education at the center of their education system. For instance, Ethiopian has changed University enrollment strategy to be in favor of science and engineering subjects, i.e. every year seventy percent of new University entrants join science and engineering fields while thirty percent social science and humanities. Such bold actions truly promote astronomy to be conceived as gateway to science and technology. To promote the concept of astronomy for development the East African regional office has actually aligned it activities to be in line with the focus areas identified by the IAU strategy (2010 to 2020).

  1. African oil plays

    SciTech Connect

    Clifford, A.J. )

    1989-09-01

    The vast continent of Africa hosts over eight sedimentary basins, covering approximately half its total area. Of these basins, only 82% have entered a mature exploration phase, 9% have had little or no exploration at all. Since oil was first discovered in Africa during the mid-1950s, old play concepts continue to bear fruit, for example in Egypt and Nigeria, while new play concepts promise to become more important, such as in Algeria, Angola, Chad, Egypt, Gabon, and Sudan. The most exciting developments of recent years in African oil exploration are: (1) the Gamba/Dentale play, onshore Gabon; (2) the Pinda play, offshore Angola; (3) the Lucula/Toca play, offshore Cabinda; (4) the Metlaoui play, offshore Libya/Tunisia; (5) the mid-Cretaceous sand play, Chad/Sudan; and (6) the TAG-I/F6 play, onshore Algeria. Examples of these plays are illustrated along with some of the more traditional oil plays. Where are the future oil plays likely to develop No doubt, the Saharan basins of Algeria and Libya will feature strongly, also the presalt of Equatorial West Africa, the Central African Rift System and, more speculatively, offshore Ethiopia and Namibia, and onshore Madagascar, Mozambique, and Tanzania.

  2. Bioenergy and African transformation.

    PubMed

    Lynd, Lee R; Sow, Mariam; Chimphango, Annie Fa; Cortez, Luis Ab; Brito Cruz, Carlos H; Elmissiry, Mosad; Laser, Mark; Mayaki, Ibrahim A; Moraes, Marcia Afd; Nogueira, Luiz Ah; Wolfaardt, Gideon M; Woods, Jeremy; van Zyl, Willem H

    2015-01-01

    Among the world's continents, Africa has the highest incidence of food insecurity and poverty and the highest rates of population growth. Yet Africa also has the most arable land, the lowest crop yields, and by far the most plentiful land resources relative to energy demand. It is thus of interest to examine the potential of expanded modern bioenergy production in Africa. Here we consider bioenergy as an enabler for development, and provide an overview of modern bioenergy technologies with a comment on application in an Africa context. Experience with bioenergy in Africa offers evidence of social benefits and also some important lessons. In Brazil, social development, agricultural development and food security, and bioenergy development have been synergistic rather than antagonistic. Realizing similar success in African countries will require clear vision, good governance, and adaptation of technologies, knowledge, and business models to myriad local circumstances. Strategies for integrated production of food crops, livestock, and bioenergy are potentially attractive and offer an alternative to an agricultural model featuring specialized land use. If done thoughtfully, there is considerable evidence that food security and economic development in Africa can be addressed more effectively with modern bioenergy than without it. Modern bioenergy can be an agent of African transformation, with potential social benefits accruing to multiple sectors and extending well beyond energy supply per se. Potential negative impacts also cut across sectors. Thus, institutionally inclusive multi-sector legislative structures will be more effective at maximizing the social benefits of bioenergy compared to institutionally exclusive, single-sector structures.

  3. Microstructure-mediated Optical Effects in Southern African Snakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Ishan; Alexander, Graham

    2017-03-01

    The scales of the African Viper Bitis arietans were tested for optical effects. Spectral intensity was recorded at incident angles over the visible spectrum for dark, pale, and ventral scale regions. The lowest spectral intensity recordings were associated with scales which have the greatest level of micro-structuring. Our results indicate that scale appearance in B. arietans is a product of microstructure-mediated optical effects. The optical effect may play a role in improving the ecological performance of the snake in its natural environment.

  4. A Bibliography of African Languages and Linguistics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, John D., Comp.; Goff, Harry, Comp.

    The present bibliography of African languages and linguistics includes not only works relating to the "Negro-African" languages, but also those dealing with the African varieties of Arabic, the Hamitic languages, Malagasy, Afrikaans, and various Creoles. (The greater part of the entries relate to the indigenous languages of the African continent…

  5. Religiosity, self-efficacy for exercise, and African American women.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Bridget K; Wicks, Mona Newsome

    2012-09-01

    Physical inactivity among African American women persists despite health promotion efforts targeting this population. In the African American faith community, thinking patterns related to personal versus divine control over health status could affect self-efficacy beliefs and physical activity behavior. Religiosity, a determinate of self-efficacy for exercise, is influenced by culture. This exploratory pilot study assessed the psychometric properties and relevance of selected study instruments and relationships among the study variables in African American women recruited through a rural church. Findings indicated a trend toward significance among study variables and that the God Locus of Health Control and Physical Exercise Self-Efficacy Scales were reliable for capturing attitudes about ability to engage in physical activity and religiosity in this sample. Six of the twenty-five women recruited failed to complete the Stanford Brief Activity Survey for Work and Leisure Time Activity correctly, suggesting the need to revise instructions prior to future instrument administration.

  6. Horizontal and vertical dimensions of individualism-collectivism: a comparison of African Americans and European Americans.

    PubMed

    Komarraju, Meera; Cokley, Kevin O

    2008-10-01

    The current study examined ethnic differences in horizontal and vertical dimensions of individualism and collectivism among 96 African American and 149 European American college students. Participants completed the 32-item Singelis et al. (1995) Individualism/Collectivism Scale. Multivariate analyses of variance results yielded a main effect for ethnicity, with African Americans being significantly higher on horizontal individualism and European Americans being higher on horizontal collectivism and vertical individualism. A moderated multiple regression analysis indicated that ethnicity significantly moderated the relationship between individualism and collectivism. Individualism and collectivism were significantly and positively associated among African Americans, but not associated among European Americans. In addition, collectivism was related to grade point average for African Americans but not for European Americans. Contrary to the prevailing view of individualism-collectivism being unipolar, orthogonal dimensions, results provide support for individualism-collectivism to be considered as unipolar, related dimensions for African Americans.

  7. Challenges Experienced by District-Based Support Teams in the Execution of Their Functions in a Specific South African Province

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Makhalemele, Thabo; Nel, Mirna

    2016-01-01

    This article reports on the findings of an embedded mixed-method South African study that investigated the challenges experienced by District-Based Support Team (DBST) members in the sub-directorate of Inclusive Education of a South African province in the execution of their functions. A Likert-scale questionnaire and individual semi-structured…

  8. The African Millennium Villages

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez, Pedro; Palm, Cheryl; Sachs, Jeffrey; Denning, Glenn; Flor, Rafael; Harawa, Rebbie; Jama, Bashir; Kiflemariam, Tsegazeab; Konecky, Bronwen; Kozar, Raffaela; Lelerai, Eliud; Malik, Alia; Modi, Vijay; Mutuo, Patrick; Niang, Amadou; Okoth, Herine; Place, Frank; Sachs, Sonia Ehrlich; Said, Amir; Siriri, David; Teklehaimanot, Awash; Wang, Karen; Wangila, Justine; Zamba, Colleen

    2007-01-01

    We describe the concept, strategy, and initial results of the Millennium Villages Project and implications regarding sustainability and scalability. Our underlying hypothesis is that the interacting crises of agriculture, health, and infrastructure in rural Africa can be overcome through targeted public-sector investments to raise rural productivity and, thereby, to increased private-sector saving and investments. This is carried out by empowering impoverished communities with science-based interventions. Seventy-eight Millennium Villages have been initiated in 12 sites in 10 African countries, each representing a major agroecological zone. In early results, the research villages in Kenya, Ethiopia, and Malawi have reduced malaria prevalence, met caloric requirements, generated crop surpluses, enabled school feeding programs, and provided cash earnings for farm families. PMID:17942701

  9. [African population in history].

    PubMed

    Yang, S

    1984-11-29

    The growth rate of the African population has been fluctuating throughout history, affected by political, social, and economic events. 6000 years ago, the majority of the population was based in North Africa, because farming had been developed there. However, between the 11th and the 16th centuries, there was a constant decline in the population of that region, due to invasions from Europe and the black plague. During the same period, the population in the area south of the Sahara grew rapidly, as people there had gone into the iron tool period and farming had been developed. From the 16th to the mid-17th Century, population growth was considerable in Africa; more people had learned the technology of irrigation, corn and potatoes had been introduced from South America, and colonialism was not yet an issue. From the mid-17th to the mid-19th Century, there was no growth, due to the slave trade and wars between tribes. One estimate sets the direct and indirect loss during this period, as a result of the slave trade, at 100 million people. From the 1850s to the end of World War I, population growth started up again, chiefly influenced by the fact that the slave trade had essentially come to a half and modern medical care had become available on the continent. However, in central Africa, the region which suffered the worst blow from the slave trade, growth was very slow, while in East Africa the population was declining because of wars between colonists and natives, as well as natural disasters. Increases in population during this period were a result of immigration from Europe and India. From the end of World War I to the present, growth has been rapid, given improvements in medical services and standards of living, while most of the former colonies became independent after the 1950s. Consequently, almost all African countries are under great pressure now with regard to their populations.

  10. Central African Republic.

    PubMed

    1989-11-01

    The Central African Republic contains 242,000 square miles, which rolling terrain almost 2000 feet above sea level. The climate is tropical, and it has a population of 2.8 million people with a 2.5% growth rate. There are more than 80 ethnic groups including Baya 34%, Banda 28%, Sara 10%, Mandja 9%, Mboum 9%, and M'Baka 7%. The religions are traditional African 35%, protestant 25%, Roman Catholic 25%, and Muslim 15%, and the languages are French and Sangho. The infant mortality rate is 143/1000, with expectancy at 49 years and a 40% literacy rate. The work force of 1 million is 70% agricultural, industry 6% and commerce and service 6% and government 3%. The government consists of a president assisted by cabinet ministers and a single party. Natural resources include diamonds, uranium, timber, gold, and oil, and major industries are beverages, textiles, and soap. Agricultural products feature coffee, cotton, peanuts, tobacco, food crops and livestock. Most of the population live in rural areas and most of the 80 ethnic groups have their own language. This is one of the world's least developed countries, with a per capita income of $375/year. The main problems with development are the poor transportation infrastructure, and the weak internal and international marketing systems. The US and various international organizations have aided in agriculture development, health programs, and family planning. US investment is mainly in diamond and gold mining, and although oil drilling has been successful it is not economically feasible at current prices.

  11. What are Hospice Providers in the Carolinas Doing to Reach African Americans in Their Service Area?

    PubMed Central

    Payne, Richard; Kuchibhatla, Maragatha N.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Experts and national organizations recommend that hospices work to increase service to African Americans, a group historically underrepresented in hospice. Objective: The study objective was to describe strategies among hospices in North and South Carolina to increase service to African Americans and identify hospice characteristics associated with these efforts. Methods: The study was a cross-sectional survey using investigator-developed scales to measure frequency of community education/outreach, directed marketing, efforts to recruit African American staff, cultural sensitivity training, and goals to increase service to African Americans. We used nonparametric Wilcoxon tests to compare mean scale scores by sample characteristics. Results: Of 118 eligible hospices, 79 (67%) completed the survey. Over 80% were at least somewhat concerned about the low proportion of African Americans they served, and 78.5% had set goals to increase service to African Americans. Most were engaged in community education/outreach, with 92.4% reporting outreach to churches, 76.0% to social services organizations, 40.5% to businesses, 35.4% to civic groups, and over half to health care providers; 48.0% reported directed marketing via newspaper and 40.5% via radio. The vast majority reported efforts to recruit African American staff, most often registered nurses (63.75%). Nearly 90% offered cultural sensitivity training to staff. The frequency of strategies to increase service to African Americans did not vary by hospice characteristics, such as profit status, size, or vertical integration, but was greater among hospices that had set goals to increase service to African Americans. Conclusions: Many hospices are engaged in efforts to increase service to African Americans. Future research should determine which strategies are most effective. PMID:26840854

  12. African Passages: Journaling through Archetypes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spencer, Patricia

    1990-01-01

    Explores how students (through an awareness of literary archetypes and journal writing) can use African stories to cross cultures, time, and continents, making connections between their worlds and the worlds of others. (MG)

  13. Early African Hominids: Pedagogic Patterns.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, James L.

    1984-01-01

    By studying early African hominids, students can learn about the interactive testing and creative aspects of scientific thinking and sharpen their geographical skills. It is impossible to study this topic without giving prominence to space and time. (RM)

  14. African-Americans and Alzheimer's

    MedlinePlus

    ... African-Americans are at a higher risk for Alzheimer's disease. Many Americans dismiss the warning signs of Alzheimer's, ... two times more likely to develop late-onset Alzheimer's disease than whites and less likely to have a ...

  15. The perception of optimal profile in African Americans versus white Americans as assessed by orthodontists and the lay public.

    PubMed

    Hall, D; Taylor, R W; Jacobson, A; Sadowsky, P L; Bartolucci, A

    2000-11-01

    This study was designed to assess the perceived optimal profiles of African Americans versus white Americans. A survey was conducted using profile silhouettes of 30 African American and 30 white patients, ranging in age from 7 to 17 years. Twenty white orthodontists, 18 African American orthodontists, 20 white laypersons, and 20 African American laypersons evaluated the profiles. The preference of each rater for each of the 60 profiles was scored on an attached visual analog scale. Eighteen cephalometric variables were measured for each profile, and statistical analyses were performed on the profiles that had a mean rating of 60 or greater from an analog scale of 0 to 100. The results show the following 6 cephalometric variables were significant: Z-angle, skeletal convexity at A-point, upper lip prominence, lower lip prominence, nasomental angle, and mentolabial sulcus. All raters preferred the African American sample to have a greater profile convexity than they preferred for the white sample. The raters preferred the African American sample with upper and lower lips that were more prominent compared with the white sample. However, only the choice of the African American orthodontists for the African American sample was significantly different for this parameter. The white orthodontists gave the highest mean scores for the profile chosen, whereas the African American laypersons gave the lowest scores.

  16. Hepatitis C in African Americans.

    PubMed

    Saab, Sammy; Jackson, Christian; Nieto, Jose; Francois, Fritz

    2014-10-01

    The care of hepatitis C virus (HCV) in African Americans represents an opportunity to address a major health disparity in medicine. In all facets of HCV infection, African Americans are inexplicably affected, including in the prevalence of the virus, which is higher among them compared with most of the racial and ethnic groups. Ironically, although fibrosis rates may be slow, hepatocellular carcinoma and mortality rates appear to be higher among African Americans. Sustained viral response (SVR) rates have historically significantly trailed behind Caucasians. The reasons for this gap in SVR are related to both viral and host factors. Moreover, low enrollment rates in clinical trials hamper the study of the efficacy of anti-viral therapy. Nevertheless, the gap in SVR between African Americans and Caucasians may be narrowing with the use of direct-acting agents. Gastroenterologists, hepatologists, primary care physicians, and other health-care providers need to address modifiable risk factors that affect the natural history, as well as treatment outcomes, for HCV among African Americans. Efforts need to be made to improve awareness among health-care providers to address the differences in screening and referral patterns for African Americans.

  17. Scales, scales and more scales.

    PubMed

    Weitzenhoffer, Andre M

    2002-01-01

    This article examines the nature, uses, and limitations of the large variety of existing, so-called, hypnosis scales; that is, instruments that have been proposed for the assessment of hypnotic behavior. Although the major aim of most of the scales ostensively seems to be to assess several aspects of hypnotic states, they are found generally to say little about these and much more about responses to suggestions. The greatest application of these scales is to be found in research, but they also have a limited place in clinical work.

  18. The African Pediatric Fellowship Program: Training in Africa for Africans.

    PubMed

    Wilmshurst, Jo M; Morrow, Brenda; du Preez, Avril; Githanga, David; Kennedy, Neil; Zar, Heather J

    2016-01-01

    Africa has a significant burden of childhood disease, with relatively few skilled health care professionals. The African Paediatric Fellowship Programme was developed by the Department of Pediatrics and Child Health at the University of Cape Town to provide relevant training for African child health professionals, by Africans, within Africa. Trainees identified by partner academic institutions spend 6 months to 2 years training in the Department of Pediatrics and allied disciplines. They then return to their home institution to build practice, training, research, and advocacy. From 2008 to 2015, 73 physicians have completed or are completing training in general pediatrics or a pediatric subspecialty. At 1 year posttraining, 98% to 100% are practicing back in their home institution. The impact of the returning fellows is evident from their practice interventions, research collaborations, and positions as stakeholders who can change health care policies. Thirty-three centers in 13 African countries are partners with the program, and the program template is now followed by other partner sites in Africa. Increasing and retaining the skills pool of African child health specialists is building a network of motivated, highly skilled clinicians who are equipped to advance child health in Africa.

  19. Phylogenomics of African guenons.

    PubMed

    Moulin, Sibyle; Gerbault-Seureau, Michèle; Dutrillaux, Bernard; Richard, Florence Anne

    2008-01-01

    The karyotypes of 28 specimens belonging to 26 species of Cercopithecinae have been compared with each other and with human karyotype by chromosome banding and, for some of them, by Zoo-FISH (human painting probes) techniques. The study includes the first description of the karyotypes of four species and a synonym of Cercopithecus nictitans. The chromosomal homologies obtained provide us with new data on a large number of rearrangements. This allows us to code chromosomal characters to draw Cercopithecini phylogenetic trees, which are compared to phylogenetic data based on DNA sequences. Our findings show that some of the superspecies proposed by Kingdon (1997 The Kingdon Field Guide to African Mammals, Academic Press.) and Groves (2001 Primates Taxonomy, Smithsonian Institution Press) do not form homogeneous groups and that the genus Cercopithecus is paraphyletic, in agreement with previous molecular analyses. The evolution of Cercopithecini karyotypes is mainly due to non-centromeric chromosome fissions and centromeric shifts or inversions. Non-Robertsonian translocations occurred in C. hamlyni and C. neglectus. The position of chromosomal rearrangements in the phylogenetic tree leads us to propose that the Cercopithecini evolution proceeded by either repeated fission events facilitated by peculiar genomic structures or successive reticulate phases, in which heterozygous populations for few rearranged chromosomes were present, allowing the spreading of chromosomal forms in various combinations, before the speciation process.

  20. An African ethic for nursing?

    PubMed

    Haegert, S

    2000-11-01

    This article derives from a doctoral thesis in which a particular discourse was used as a 'paradigm case'. From this discourse an ethic set within a South African culture arose. Using many cultural 'voices' to aid the understanding of this narrative, the ethic shows that one can build on both a 'justice' and a 'care' ethic. With further development based on African culture one can take the ethic of care deeper and reveal 'layers of understanding'. Care, together with compassion, forms the foundation of morality. Nursing ethics has followed particular western moral philosophers. Often nursing ethics has been taught along the lines of Kohlberg's theory of morality, with its emphasis on rules, rights, duties and general obligations. These principles were universalistic, masculine and noncontextual. However, there is a new ethical movement among Thomist philosophers along the lines to be expounded in this article. Nurses such as Benner, Bevis, Dunlop, Fry and Gadow--to name but a few--have welcomed the concept of an 'ethic of care'. Gilligan's work gave a feminist view and situated ethics in the everyday aspects of responsiveness, responsibility, context and concern. Shutte's search for a 'philosophy for Africa' has resulted in finding similarities in Setiloane and in Senghor with those of Thomist philosophers. Using this African philosophy and a research participant's narrative, an African ethic evolves out of the African proverb: 'A person is a person through other persons', or its alternative rendering: 'I am because we are: we are because I am.' This hermeneutic narrative reveals 'the way affect imbues activity with ethical meaning' within the context of a black nursing sister in a rural South African hospital. It expands upon the above proverb and incorporates the South African constitutional idea of 'Ubuntu' (compassion and justice or humanness).

  1. Perceived Racism and Career Self-Efficacy in African American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rollins, Vanessa B.; Valdez, Jesse N.

    2006-01-01

    African American adolescents' perceptions of racism and career self-efficacy relationships are examined. Participants in a southwestern urban high school completed the Multigroup Ethnic Identity Measure, Racism and Life Experiences Scale-Personal and -Group, and career decision and career task self-efficacy scales. Results indicate that…

  2. African easterly wave energetics on intraseasonal timescales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alaka, Ghassan J., Jr.

    African easterly waves (AEWs) are synoptic-scale eddies that dominate North African weather in boreal summer. AEWs propagate westward with a maximum amplitude near 700 hPa and a period of 2.5-6-days. AEWs and associated perturbation kinetic energy (PKE) exhibit significant intraseasonal variability in tropical North Africa during boreal summer, which directly impacts local agriculture and tropical cyclogenesis. This study performs a comprehensive analysis of the 30-90-day variability of AEWs and associated energetics using both reanalysis data and model output. Specifically, the PKE and perturbation available potential energy (PAPE) budgets are used to understand the factors that contribute to PKE maxima in West Africa and the extent to which these surges of AEW activity are modulated by the Madden-Julian oscillation (MJO). The role of the MJO in the intraseasonal variability of AEWs is assessed by comparing PKE sources as a function of an MJO index and a local 30-90-day West African PKE index. Since East Africa is an initiation zone for AEW activity and is modulated by the MJO, the relationship between this region and West Africa is a primary focus in this study. The intraseasonal variability of AEW energetics is first investigated in reanalysis products. While reanalysis data depicts a similar evolution of 30-90-day PKE anomalies in both the MJO and a local PKE index, the MJO index describes only a small (yet still significant) fraction of the local 30-90-day variance. In boreal summers with more significant MJO days, the correlation between the two indices is higher. Baroclinic energy conversions are important for the initiation of 30-90-day West African PKE events east of Lake Chad. In West Africa, both barotropic and baroclinic energy conversions maintain positive PKE anomalies before they propagate into the Atlantic. The primary role of diabatic heating is to destroy PAPE in a negative feedback to baroclinic energy conversions in West Africa. More frequent

  3. African absolute plate motion and True Polar Wander at about 50Ma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harada, Y.; Wessel, P.

    2011-12-01

    Using new data set of seamount ages on the African plate, a model of motion of the African plate relative to the African hotspots are calculated by the Polygonal Finite Rotation Method; PFRM (Harada and Hamano, 2000). The new motion of the African plate has more abrupt change at about 50Ma than the previous models of the African plate mainly due to the PFRM which can allow the finite pole of the plate rotation to move continuously. The new model of the motion fits positions and ages of the almost all seamounts which are created by the African hotspots, whereas the previous models do not fit with positions of northwestern hotspots of the African plate such as Canary, Cape Verde, Meteor and Bathymetric hotspot. The new model suggests that the African plate rotated counter clockwise abruptly at about 50Ma. To compare the 50Ma abrupt change with coeval event at the Pacific plate motion, we utilized the paleomagnetic data from both plates. From the apparent geomagnetic polar wander path of the African plate and African plate motion relative to the African hotspots, we calculated geomagnetic polar motion relative to the African hotspots. Similarly, we calculated geomagnetic polar motion relative to the Pacific hotspots from the Pacific sets of paleomagnetic data and plate motion. The geomagnetic polar motion or true polar wander should be only one, therefore we can calculate relative motion of the African hotspots and the Pacific hotspots. The result shows that there was no significant motion between two groups of hotspots since about 70Ma. The new true polar wander path since 70Ma, thus, presented by averaging the two models of motions, and this has about 90 degree clockwise change of directions at about 50Ma. This study strongly suggests below. 1, There was coeval event of the African plate motion with Hawaii-Emperor bend event at the Pacific plate. 2, There was no significant relative motion between global hotspots for the time scale of 70Myr even though there was

  4. African American Preschoolers' Language, Emergent Literacy Skills, and Use of African American English: A Complex Relation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connor, Carol McDonald; Craig, Holly K.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined the relation between African American preschoolers' use of African American English (AAE) and their language and emergent literacy skills in an effort to better understand the perplexing and persistent difficulties many African American children experience learning to read proficiently. Method: African American…

  5. Technical Consulting: The African-American Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitfield, Tracy N.

    2010-01-01

    The qualitative research study explored the organizational characteristics necessary in addressing the low concentration of African American technical consultants employed in the information technology industry. Using research participants' professional experience, participants responded to a developed questionnaire. African American technical…

  6. Plio-pleistocene African climate

    SciTech Connect

    deMenocal, P.B.

    1995-10-06

    Marine records of African climate variability document a shift toward more arid conditions after 2.8 million years ago (Ma), evidently resulting from remote forcing by cold North Atlantic sea-surface temperatures associated with the onset of Northern Hemisphere glacial cycles. African climate before 2.8 Ma was regulated by low-latitude insolation forcing of monsoonal climate due to Earth orbital precession. Major steps in the evolution of African hominids and other vertebrates are coincident with shifts to more arid, open conditions near 2.8 Ma, 1.7 Ma, and 1.0 Ma, suggesting that some Pliocene (Plio)-Pleistocene speciation events may have been climatically mediated. 65 refs., 6 figs.

  7. Plio-Pleistocene African Climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demenocal, Peter B.

    1995-10-01

    Marine records of African climate variability document a shift toward more arid conditions after 2.8 million years ago (Ma), evidently resulting from remote forcing by cold North Atlantic sea-surface temperatures associated with the onset of Northern Hemisphere glacial cycles. African climate before 2.8 Ma was regulated by low-latitude insolation forcing of monsoonal climate due to Earth orbital precession. Major steps in the evolution of African hominids and other vertebrates are coincident with shifts to more arid, open conditions near 2.8 Ma, 1.7 Ma, and 1.0 Ma, suggesting that some Pliocene (Plio)-Pleistocene speciation events may have been climatically mediated.

  8. African perceptions of female attractiveness.

    PubMed

    Coetzee, Vinet; Faerber, Stella J; Greeff, Jaco M; Lefevre, Carmen E; Re, Daniel E; Perrett, David I

    2012-01-01

    Little is known about mate choice preferences outside Western, educated, industrialised, rich and democratic societies, even though these Western populations may be particularly unrepresentative of human populations. To our knowledge, this is the first study to test which facial cues contribute to African perceptions of African female attractiveness and also the first study to test the combined role of facial adiposity, skin colour (lightness, yellowness and redness), skin homogeneity and youthfulness in the facial attractiveness preferences of any population. Results show that youthfulness, skin colour, skin homogeneity and facial adiposity significantly and independently predict attractiveness in female African faces. Younger, thinner women with a lighter, yellower skin colour and a more homogenous skin tone are considered more attractive. These findings provide a more global perspective on human mate choice and point to a universal role for these four facial cues in female facial attractiveness.

  9. The African Cultural Astronomy Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urama, Johnson O.; Holbrook, Jarita C.

    2011-06-01

    Indigenous, endogenous, traditional, or cultural astronomy focuses on the many ways that people and cultures interact with celestial bodies. In most parts of Africa, there is very little or no awareness about modern astronomy. However, like ancient people everywhere, Africans wondered at the sky and struggled to make sense of it. The African Cultural Astronomy Project aims to unearth the body of traditional knowledge of astronomy possessed by peoples of the different ethnic groups in Africa and to consider scientific interpretations when appropriate for cosmogonies and ancient astronomical practices. Regardless of scientific validity, every scientist can relate to the process of making observations and creating theoretical mechanisms for explaining what is observed. Through linking the traditional and the scientific, it is believed that this would be used to create awareness and interest in astronomy in most parts of Africa. This paper discusses the vision, challenges and prospects of the African Cultural Astronomy Project in her quest to popularize astronomy in Africa.

  10. Developing generalism in the South African context.

    PubMed

    Howe, Amanda C; Mash, Robert J; Hugo, Jannie F M

    2013-10-11

    The largest impact on the South African burden of disease will be made in community-based and primary healthcare (PHC) settings and not in referral hospitals. Medical generalism is an approach to the delivery of healthcare that routinely applies a broad and holistic perspective to the patient's problems and is a feature of PHC. A multi-professional team of generalists, who share similar values and principles, is needed to make this a reality. Ward-based outreach teams include community health workers and nurses with essential support from doctors. Expert generalists - family physicians - are required to support PHC as well as provide care at the district hospital. All require sufficient training, at scale, with greater collaboration and integration between training programmes. District clinical specialist teams are both an opportunity and a threat. The value of medical generalism needs to be explained, advocated and communicated more actively. 

  11. The Africanization of honeybees (Apis mellifera L.) of the Yucatan: a study of a massive hybridization event across time.

    PubMed

    Clarke, Kylea E; Rinderer, Thomas E; Franck, Pierre; Quezada-Euán, Javier G; Oldroyd, Benjamin P

    2002-07-01

    Until recently, African and European subspecies of the honeybee (Apis mellifera L.) had been geographically separated for around 10,000 years. However, human-assisted introductions have caused the mixing of large populations of African and European subspecies in South and Central America, permitting an unprecedented opportunity to study a large-scale hybridization event using molecular analyses. We obtained reference populations from Europe, Africa, and South America and used these to provide baseline information for a microsatellite and mitochondrial analysis of the process of Africanization of the bees of the Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico. The genetic structure of the Yucatecan population has changed dramatically over time. The pre-Africanized Yucatecan population (1985) comprised bees that were most similar to samples from southeastern Europe and northern and western Europe. Three years after the arrival of Africanized bees (1989), substantial paternal gene flow had occurred from feral Africanized drones into the resident European population, but maternal gene flow from the invading Africanized population into the local population was negligible. However by 1998, there was a radical shift with both African nuclear alleles (65%) and African-derived mitochondria (61%) dominating the genomes of domestic colonies. We suggest that although European mitochondria may eventually be driven to extinction in the feral population, stable introgression of European nuclear alleles has occurred.

  12. Towards a Norm in South African Englishes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Walt, Johann L.; van Rooy, Bertus

    2002-01-01

    Investigates the perception and application of the norm in South African English with specific reference to Black South African English. Hypothesizes that South African English is in the hibernation and expansion phase. Three sets of data are presented and analyzed. (Author/VWL)

  13. African American Teaching and the Matriarchal Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeffries, Rhonda Baynes

    This paper discusses the role of matriarchs in African-American culture, explaining that traditionally, African-American matriarchs arise from a combination of African norms and American social positions that naturally forces them to assume leadership conditions. The roles these women assume are a response to the desire to survive in a society…

  14. Freedom Road: Adult Education of African Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Elizabeth A., Ed.

    This book contains six chapters by various authors about the history of African Americans' contributions and participation in adult education. The book reports on how some African American leaders saw the connection between education and the eventual freedom or uplift of the African American people. Following a foreword (Phyllis M. Cunningham) and…

  15. Engaging African Americans in Smoking Cessation Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallen, Jacqueline; Randolph, Suzanne; Carter-Pokras, Olivia; Feldman, Robert; Kanamori-Nishimura, Mariano

    2014-01-01

    Background: African Americans are disproportionately exposed to and targeted by prosmoking advertisements, particularly menthol cigarette ads. Though African Americans begin smoking later than whites, they are less likely to quit smoking than whites. Purpose: This study was designed to explore African American smoking cessation attitudes,…

  16. Increasing Reading Engagement in African American Boys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Husband, Terry

    2014-01-01

    Much has been written concerning the challenges many teachers face in engaging African American males in reading practices. While much of this extant scholarship focuses on African American males at the pre-adolescent stage of development and beyond, little has been written regarding increasing reading engagement in African American boys in P-5…

  17. African Expressions in Hispano-American Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coleman, Ben C.

    This revised version of a lecture on the relationship of African language and Hispano-American literature illustrates the historical influence of the African slave on representative literature and modern culture of the Caribbean Islands. Introductory remarks focus on the migratory patterns of the African slaves. The concept of negritude is then…

  18. An Introduction to West African Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taiwo, Oladele

    Intended to provide help for those interested in studying West African literature, this book is divided into three parts. Part One provides background information: the various African oral traditions are discussed, related to the way of life of the people, and examined for the extent to which they form the basis of present West African literary…

  19. Empowering African genomics for infectious disease control.

    PubMed

    Folarin, Onikepe A; Happi, Anise N; Happi, Christian T

    2014-11-07

    At present, African scientists can only participate minimally in the genomics revolution that is transforming the understanding, surveillance and clinical treatment of infectious diseases. We discuss new initiatives to equip African scientists with knowledge of cutting-edge genomics tools, and build a sustainable critical mass of well-trained African infectious diseases genomics scientists.

  20. Aerosol interactions with African/Atlantic climate dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosseinpour, F.; Wilcox, E. M.

    2014-07-01

    Mechanistic relationships exist between variability of dust in the oceanic Saharan air layer (OSAL) and transient changes in the dynamics of Western Africa and the tropical Atlantic Ocean. This study provides evidence of possible interactions between dust in the OSAL region and African easterly jet-African easterly wave (AEJ-AEW) system in the climatology of boreal summer, when easterly wave activity peaks. Synoptic-scale changes in instability and precipitation in the African/Atlantic intertropical convergence zone are correlated with enhanced aerosol optical depth (AOD) in the OSAL region in response to anomalous 3D overturning circulations and upstream/downstream thermal anomalies at above and below the mean-AEJ level. Upstream and downstream anomalies are referred to the daily thermal/dynamical changes over the West African monsoon region and the Eastern Atlantic Ocean, respectively. Our hypothesis is that AOD in the OSAL is positively correlated with the downstream AEWs and negatively correlated with the upstream waves from climatological perspective. The similarity between the 3D pattern of thermal/dynamical anomalies correlated with dust outbreaks and those of AEWs provides a mechanism for dust radiative heating in the atmosphere to reinforce AEW activity. We proposed that the interactions of OSAL dust with regional climate mainly occur through coupling of dust with the AEWs.

  1. The African Genome Variation Project shapes medical genetics in Africa.

    PubMed

    Gurdasani, Deepti; Carstensen, Tommy; Tekola-Ayele, Fasil; Pagani, Luca; Tachmazidou, Ioanna; Hatzikotoulas, Konstantinos; Karthikeyan, Savita; Iles, Louise; Pollard, Martin O; Choudhury, Ananyo; Ritchie, Graham R S; Xue, Yali; Asimit, Jennifer; Nsubuga, Rebecca N; Young, Elizabeth H; Pomilla, Cristina; Kivinen, Katja; Rockett, Kirk; Kamali, Anatoli; Doumatey, Ayo P; Asiki, Gershim; Seeley, Janet; Sisay-Joof, Fatoumatta; Jallow, Muminatou; Tollman, Stephen; Mekonnen, Ephrem; Ekong, Rosemary; Oljira, Tamiru; Bradman, Neil; Bojang, Kalifa; Ramsay, Michele; Adeyemo, Adebowale; Bekele, Endashaw; Motala, Ayesha; Norris, Shane A; Pirie, Fraser; Kaleebu, Pontiano; Kwiatkowski, Dominic; Tyler-Smith, Chris; Rotimi, Charles; Zeggini, Eleftheria; Sandhu, Manjinder S

    2015-01-15

    Given the importance of Africa to studies of human origins and disease susceptibility, detailed characterization of African genetic diversity is needed. The African Genome Variation Project provides a resource with which to design, implement and interpret genomic studies in sub-Saharan Africa and worldwide. The African Genome Variation Project represents dense genotypes from 1,481 individuals and whole-genome sequences from 320 individuals across sub-Saharan Africa. Using this resource, we find novel evidence of complex, regionally distinct hunter-gatherer and Eurasian admixture across sub-Saharan Africa. We identify new loci under selection, including loci related to malaria susceptibility and hypertension. We show that modern imputation panels (sets of reference genotypes from which unobserved or missing genotypes in study sets can be inferred) can identify association signals at highly differentiated loci across populations in sub-Saharan Africa. Using whole-genome sequencing, we demonstrate further improvements in imputation accuracy, strengthening the case for large-scale sequencing efforts of diverse African haplotypes. Finally, we present an efficient genotype array design capturing common genetic variation in Africa.

  2. The African Genome Variation Project shapes medical genetics in Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gurdasani, Deepti; Carstensen, Tommy; Tekola-Ayele, Fasil; Pagani, Luca; Tachmazidou, Ioanna; Hatzikotoulas, Konstantinos; Karthikeyan, Savita; Iles, Louise; Pollard, Martin O.; Choudhury, Ananyo; Ritchie, Graham R. S.; Xue, Yali; Asimit, Jennifer; Nsubuga, Rebecca N.; Young, Elizabeth H.; Pomilla, Cristina; Kivinen, Katja; Rockett, Kirk; Kamali, Anatoli; Doumatey, Ayo P.; Asiki, Gershim; Seeley, Janet; Sisay-Joof, Fatoumatta; Jallow, Muminatou; Tollman, Stephen; Mekonnen, Ephrem; Ekong, Rosemary; Oljira, Tamiru; Bradman, Neil; Bojang, Kalifa; Ramsay, Michele; Adeyemo, Adebowale; Bekele, Endashaw; Motala, Ayesha; Norris, Shane A.; Pirie, Fraser; Kaleebu, Pontiano; Kwiatkowski, Dominic; Tyler-Smith, Chris; Rotimi, Charles; Zeggini, Eleftheria; Sandhu, Manjinder S.

    2015-01-01

    Given the importance of Africa to studies of human origins and disease susceptibility, detailed characterization of African genetic diversity is needed. The African Genome Variation Project provides a resource with which to design, implement and interpret genomic studies in sub-Saharan Africa and worldwide. The African Genome Variation Project represents dense genotypes from 1,481 individuals and whole-genome sequences from 320 individuals across sub-Saharan Africa. Using this resource, we find novel evidence of complex, regionally distinct hunter-gatherer and Eurasian admixture across sub-Saharan Africa. We identify new loci under selection, including loci related to malaria susceptibility and hypertension. We show that modern imputation panels (sets of reference genotypes from which unobserved or missing genotypes in study sets can be inferred) can identify association signals at highly differentiated loci across populations in sub-Saharan Africa. Using whole-genome sequencing, we demonstrate further improvements in imputation accuracy, strengthening the case for large-scale sequencing efforts of diverse African haplotypes. Finally, we present an efficient genotype array design capturing common genetic variation in Africa.

  3. Enhancing collaboration between China and African countries for schistosomiasis control.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jing; Yu, Qing; Tchuenté, Louis-Albert Tchuem; Bergquist, Robert; Sacko, Moussa; Utzinger, Jürg; Lin, Dan-Dan; Yang, Kun; Zhang, Li-Juan; Wang, Qiang; Li, Shi-Zhu; Guo, Jia-Gang; Zhou, Xiao-Nong

    2016-03-01

    Schistosomiasis remains an important public health issue, with a large number of cases reported across sub-Saharan Africa, and parts of Asia and Latin America. China was once highly endemic, but has made substantial progress and is moving towards elimination of schistosomiasis. Meanwhile, despite long-term, repeated, school-based chemotherapy in many African countries, more than 90% of all schistosomiasis cases are concentrated in Africa, and hence, this continent constitutes the key challenge for schistosomiasis control. Opportunities and issues for international collaboration in the fight against schistosomiasis are outlined with a focus on China's experiences, including the role of public health authorities and intersectoral collaboration, use of new and effective snail control approaches and diagnostic tools adapted to the specific stage of control, as well as the strengthening of risk mapping and surveillance-response mechanisms. Training courses targeting African governmental officials and professionals, coupled with field visits of African scientists and control programme managers to China, and vice versa, are considered important for improved schistosomiasis control and elimination. The crucial question remains whether the Chinese experience can be translated and applied in African countries to improve the effectiveness of health interventions and scale-up.

  4. Heart failure in African Americans.

    PubMed

    Yancy, Clyde W

    2005-10-10

    The demographics of the United States are changing, and in the next few decades there will no longer be a racial/ethnic majority population. Increased awareness of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in special populations is warranted as these populations increase. Heart failure carries a substantial burden on those affected, particularly African Americans, who have a disproportionate burden of heart disease. Current treatments for heart failure include angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, beta-blockers, angiotensin II-receptor antagonists, and vasodilating agents. This review discusses the unique characteristics of CVD in African Americans and addresses the need for targeted treatments to reduce the excess burden found in this population.

  5. Psychometric properties of instruments for assessing depression among African youth: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Mutumba, Massy; Tomlinson, Mark; Tsai, Alexander C.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To systematically review the psychometric properties of instruments used to screen for major depressive disorder or assess depression symptom severity among African youth. Methods: Systematic search terms were applied to seven bibliographic databases: African Journals Online, the African Journal Archive, CINAHL, Embase, MEDLINE, PsycINFO, and the WHO African Index Medicus. Studies examining the reliability and/or validity of depression assessment tools were selected for inclusion if they were based on data collected from youth (any author definition) in an African member state of the United Nations. We extracted data on study population characteristics, sampling strategy, sample size, the instrument assessed, and the type of reliability and/or validity evidence provided. Results: Of 1,027 records, we included 23 studies of 10,499 youth in 10 African countries. Most studies reported excellent scale reliability, but there was much less evidence of equivalence or criterion-related validity. No measures were validated in more than two countries. Conclusions: There is a paucity of evidence on the reliability or validity of depression assessment among African youth. The field is constrained by a lack of established criterion standards, but studies incorporating mixed methods offer promising strategies for guiding the process of cross-cultural development and validation. PMID:25391712

  6. The Role of the African Union in African Peacekeeping Operations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-03-26

    Government in Sirte , Libya, on 9 September 1999. The AU was formed to address some of the issues identified during the analysis of the OAU PKOs. The...Establishment of the African Union The Sirte Declaration led to the establishment of the AU in 2002. One of the AU’s objectives was to enhance the security

  7. African-American spirituality: a concept analysis.

    PubMed

    Newlin, Kelley; Knafl, Kathleen; Melkus, Gail D'Eramo

    2002-12-01

    Culturally competent care for African Americans requires sensitivity to spirituality as a component of the cultural context. To foster understanding, measurement, and delivery of the spiritual component of culturally competent care, this article presents an evolutionary concept analysis of African-American spirituality. The analysis is based on a sample of multidisciplinary research studies reflecting spirituality of African Americans. Findings indicate that African-American spirituality involves quintessential, internal, external, consoling, and transformative attributive dimensions. Findings are considered in relation to previous conceptual analyses of spirituality and suggest that defining attributes of African-American spirituality are both global and culturally prominent. Implications for practice and research are discussed.

  8. Cryptococcal meningitis in African children.

    PubMed

    Subramanyam, V R; Mtitimila, E; Hart, C A; Broadhead, R L

    1997-06-01

    Three cases of cryptococcal meningitis in Malawian children aged 6 weeks, 3 years and 9 years are described. Only 23 cases of cryptococcal meningitis in children have been described previously, but in children from Europe and the USA. These are therefore the first cases of cryptococcosis to be described in African children.

  9. Wellness among African American Counselors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Day-Vines, Norma L.; Holcomb-McCoy, Cheryl

    2007-01-01

    Although there are various definitions of wellness, few conceptual definitions have addressed the contextual dimensions of wellness relative to African American counselors. The authors present an overview of generic models of wellness, discuss factors that both inhibit and promote wellness, offer some culture-specific models of wellness, and…

  10. African American Men in College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cuyjet, Michael J., Ed.

    2006-01-01

    This book is a much-needed resource that includes examples of real-world programs and activities to enhance academic success in the college environment for African American men. The examples are collected from a variety of institutions across the country. With contributions from leading practitioners and scholars in the field, this book explores…

  11. Improvisation in West African Musics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Locke, David

    1980-01-01

    Discussed is music of the sub-Sahara. Vocal, instrumental, and dance drumming from the Sudan Desert, the North Coast, East Horn, Central and West Africa, and contrapuntal yodeling of Pygmies is described. For African musicians, the ability to improvise, and creativity, are gifts from God. Includes selected readings and recordings. (KC)

  12. Developing anatomical terms in an African language.

    PubMed

    Madzimbamuto, Farai Daniel

    2012-02-23

    Clinical and technical information imparted in most African languages involves inexact terminology and code switching, so it lacks the explanatory power characterised by the English language. African languages are absent in the tertiary science education environment and forums where African scientists could present scientific material in the medium of African languages. This limits the development of African languages in the scientific domain. There has recently been a trend in several African languages to develop and intellectualise them, especially in the field of medical sciences. The ChiShona language is used to explore the ability of an African language to develop new terminology, to name the vertebral skeleton and describe it scientifically. It uses word compounding to demonstrate terminology development. ChiShona has similarities with several hundred other Bantu languages in East, Central and Southern Africa. Advancing this language can promote similar developments in others, making them more explanatory for the lay public and health professionals.

  13. Further constraints on the African superplume structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ni, Sidao; Helmberger, Don V.

    2003-11-01

    It is well established that there is a large-scale low velocity structure in the lowermost mantle beneath Africa, extending from the Southeastern Atlantic Ocean to the Southwestern Indian Ocean with a volume greater than 10 billion km 3 (>7000 km long, 1000 km across and 1200 km high) [Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 206 (2003) 119]. This low velocity structure is often called the African superplume. Various studies also require sharp boundaries for the plume. However, as for its height and shear velocity reduction, there has been some controversy, especially concerning the velocities at the core-mantle-boundary (CMB). Here, we present an assortment of phases involving S diff, SKS, S and S cS with both vertical and horizontal paths sampling a 2D corridor through the structure. Travel time and waveform modeling of these seismic phases argues for a model with shear velocity reduction of approximately 3% within the superplume (which is basically a 200 km thick layer low velocity layer beneath the Southern Atlantic Ocean, and a 1200 km high structure beneath South Africa), and against a model of a substantially reduced low velocity layer (up to 10%, 300 km) beneath the superplume. We also analyzed P diff and the differential times of P cP-P and compared them with S diff and S cS-S observations along the same great circle paths. The P-velocity is not very anomalous, at most -0.5%, much smaller than -1% as expected from a thermal anomaly with -3% lower S-velocity [Geophys. Res. Lett. 27 (2000) 421], thus again arguing for a chemical origin which was suggested from the modeling of African superplume sharp sides [Science 296 (2002) 1850].

  14. Some African American Males' Perspectives on the Black Woman.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burrow, Rufus, Jr.

    1992-01-01

    Presents views of Frederick Douglass, W. E. B. Du Bois, Malcolm X, and James Hal Cone (African-American male leaders) toward African-American women in the United States. Discusses the role of African-American men in addressing and eradicating sexism in African-American churches and the African-American community. (SLD)

  15. Bioquality Hotspots in the Tropical African Flora.

    PubMed

    Marshall, Cicely A M; Wieringa, Jan J; Hawthorne, William D

    2016-12-05

    Identifying areas of high biodiversity is an established way to prioritize areas for conservation [1-3], but global approaches have been criticized for failing to render global biodiversity value at a scale suitable for local management [4-6]. We assembled 3.1 million species distribution records for 40,401 vascular plant species of tropical Africa from sources including plot data, herbarium databases, checklists, and the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF) and cleaned the records for geographic accuracy and taxonomic consistency. We summarized the global ranges of tropical African plant species into four weighted categories of global rarity called Stars. We applied the Star weights to summaries of species distribution data at fine resolutions to map the bioquality (range-restricted global endemism) of areas [7]. We generated confidence intervals around bioquality scores to account for the remaining uncertainty in the species inventory. We confirm the broad significance of the Horn of Africa, Guinean forests, coastal forests of East Africa, and Afromontane regions for plant biodiversity but also reveal the variation in bioquality within these broad regions and others, particularly at local scales. Our framework offers practitioners a quantitative, scalable, and replicable approach for measuring the irreplaceability of particular local areas for global biodiversity conservation and comparing those areas within their global and regional context.

  16. The UCAR Africa Initiative: Enabling African Solutions to African Needs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandya, R.; Bruintjes, R.; Foote, B.; Heck, S.; Hermann, S.; Hoswell, L.; Konate, M.; Kucera, P.; Laing, A.; Lamptey, B.; Moncrieff, M.; Ramamurthy, M.; Roberts, R.; Spangler, T.; Traoré, A.; Yoksas, T.; Warner, T.

    2007-12-01

    The University Corporation for Atmospheric Research (UCAR) Africa Initiative (AI) is a coordinated effort aimed at building sustainable partnerships between UCAR and African institutions in order to pursue research and applications for the benefit of the African people. The initiative is based on four fundamental operating principles, concisely summarized by the overall philosophy of enabling African solutions to African needs. The four principles are: • Collaborate with African institutions • Focus on institutional capacity building and research support • Explore science research themes critical to Africa and important for the world • Leverage the research infrastructure in UCAR to add value These principles are realized in a set of pilot activities, chosen for their high probability of short-term results and ability to set the stage for longer-term collaboration. The three pilot activities are listed below. 1. A modest radar network and data-distribution system in Mali and Burkina Faso, including a data-sharing MOU between the Mail and Burkina Faso Weather Services. 2. A partnership among UCAR, the Ghana Meteorological Agency, and the Ghana university community to develop an operational Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model for West Africa. The output is used by researchers and operational forecasters in Africa. Model output is also part of a demonstration project that aims to allow humanitarian agencies to share geo-referenced information in Africa via a web portal. 3. A workshop in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso from April 2-6, 2007, with the theme Improving Lives by Understanding Weather. The workshop, co-organized with Programme SAAGA and the Commité Permanent Inter-Etats de Lutte Contre la Sécheresse dans le Sahel (CILSS), included over 80 participants from 18 countries, and produced a set of recommendations for continued collaboration. Our presentation will provide an update of these pilot activities and point to future directions. Recognizing

  17. [Return of African sleeping sickness].

    PubMed

    Stingl, Peter

    2006-09-14

    At present there is a steady rise in African sleeping sickness (trypanosomiasis) transmitted by the Tsetse fly, and which if left untreated, is fatal. Thanks to more than so years of neglect by research, our therapeutic repertoire is limited to medications with a high level of toxicity. Both WHO and international aid organizations are pushing hard for the development of new, more efficient drugs that can be readily applied in the field.

  18. African-Centered Education: An Approach to Schooling for Social Justice for African American Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marks, Jay B.; Tonso, Karen L.

    2006-01-01

    This essay argues that offering African American students an African-centered education is one way to promote social justice in public education. We begin with a summary of the inadequate educations offered to many African American students, and then use philosophical interpretations of equal educational opportunity to delineate the requirements…

  19. Investigating Instructional Practices of an African American Male Mathematics Teacher with Underachieving African American Male Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muhammad, Rhonda K.

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative study examined the instructional practices of an experienced African American mathematics teacher to determine his perceived capabilities in augmenting academic proficiency for his African American male students. Provided in this descriptive case study are the lived experiences of an African American male teacher working to move…

  20. 75 FR 2844 - African Development Foundation, Board of Directors Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-19

    ...; ] AFRICAN DEVELOPMENT FOUNDATION African Development Foundation, Board of Directors Meeting Time: Tuesday, January 26, 2010, 8:30 a.m. to 1 p.m. Place: African Development Foundation, Conference Room, 1400...

  1. 75 FR 45600 - African Development Foundation, Board of Directors Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-03

    ...; ] AFRICAN DEVELOPMENT FOUNDATION African Development Foundation, Board of Directors Meeting Time: Tuesday, August 17, 2010, 8:30 a.m. to 1 p.m. Place: African Development Foundation, Conference Room, 1400...

  2. Race, health, and the African Diaspora.

    PubMed

    Spigner, Clarence

    Health inequalities exist throughout the African Diaspora and are viewed in this article as largely color-coded. In developed, developing, and undeveloped nations today, "racial" stratification is consistently reflected in an inability to provide adequate health regardless of national policy or ideology. For instance, African Americans experience less than adequate health care very similar to Blacks in Britain, in spite of each nations differing health systems. Latin America's Africana Negra communities experience poorer health similar to Blacks throughout the Caribbean. The African continent itself is arguably the poorest on earth. A common history of racism correlates with health disparities across the African Diaspora.

  3. African American girls and the challenges ahead.

    PubMed

    Rozie-Battle, Judith L

    2002-01-01

    The research on the psychosocial development of African American girls is limited. Information that is available focuses on teen pregnancy and health issues such as nutrition and physical activity. African American girls are facing challenges, including poverty, crime, poor self-esteem, and peer pressure. Despite some of the negative characteristics attributed to African American girls, many are achieving some success. Policy makers and service providers need to recognize the resiliency and unique needs of African American girls and develop services that ensure their needs are being fully met.

  4. Rhinoplasty in the African-American patient.

    PubMed

    Rohrich, Rod J; Muzaffar, Arshad R

    2003-03-01

    Because of the increasing popularity of rhinoplasty in the African-American patient, we delineate how a rhinoplasty surgeon can perform this challenging technique to obtain uniform and consistent results. First, we address how one can appreciate and analyze the various aesthetic concepts of beauty and the unique anatomic characteristics of the African-American nose. Second, we present a pragmatic, systematic analysis of the African-American nose. Last, we describe the techniques consistently used to modify the African-American nose while achieving or maintaining facial harmony using the open approach to rhinoplasty. Specific case analyses are presented to demonstrate utilization of the technique.

  5. The African diaspora: history, adaptation and health.

    PubMed

    Rotimi, Charles N; Tekola-Ayele, Fasil; Baker, Jennifer L; Shriner, Daniel

    2016-12-01

    The trans-Atlantic slave trade brought millions of Africans to the New World. Advances in genomics are providing novel insights into the history and health of Africans and the diasporan populations. Recent examples reviewed here include the unraveling of substantial hunter-gatherer and 'Eurasian' admixtures across sub-Saharan Africa, expanding our understanding of ancestral African genetics; the global ubiquity of mixed ancestry; the revealing of African ancestry in Latin Americans that likely derived from the slave trade; and understanding of the ancestral backgrounds of APOL1 and LPL found to influence kidney disease and lipid levels, respectively, providing specific insights into disease etiology and health disparities.

  6. Gentle Africanized bees on an oceanic island.

    PubMed

    Rivera-Marchand, Bert; Oskay, Devrim; Giray, Tugrul

    2012-11-01

    Oceanic islands have reduced resources and natural enemies and potentially affect life history traits of arriving organisms. Among the most spectacular invasions in the Western hemisphere is that of the Africanized honeybee. We hypothesized that in the oceanic island Puerto Rico, Africanized bees will exhibit differences from the mainland population such as for defensiveness and other linked traits. We evaluated the extent of Africanization through three typical Africanized traits: wing size, defensive behavior, and resistance to Varroa destructor mites. All sampled colonies were Africanized by maternal descent, with over 65% presence of European alleles at the S-3 nuclear locus. In two assays evaluating defense, Puerto Rican bees showed low defensiveness similar to European bees. In morphology and resistance to mites, Africanized bees from Puerto Rico are similar to other Africanized bees. In behavioral assays on mechanisms of resistance to Varroa, we directly observed that Puerto Rican Africanized bees groomed-off and bit the mites as been observed in other studies. In no other location, Africanized bees have reduced defensiveness while retaining typical traits such as wing size and mite resistance. This mosaic of traits that has resulted during the invasion of an oceanic island has implications for behavior, evolution, and agriculture.

  7. Gentle Africanized bees on an oceanic island

    PubMed Central

    Rivera-Marchand, Bert; Oskay, Devrim; Giray, Tugrul

    2012-01-01

    Oceanic islands have reduced resources and natural enemies and potentially affect life history traits of arriving organisms. Among the most spectacular invasions in the Western hemisphere is that of the Africanized honeybee. We hypothesized that in the oceanic island Puerto Rico, Africanized bees will exhibit differences from the mainland population such as for defensiveness and other linked traits. We evaluated the extent of Africanization through three typical Africanized traits: wing size, defensive behavior, and resistance to Varroa destructor mites. All sampled colonies were Africanized by maternal descent, with over 65% presence of European alleles at the S-3 nuclear locus. In two assays evaluating defense, Puerto Rican bees showed low defensiveness similar to European bees. In morphology and resistance to mites, Africanized bees from Puerto Rico are similar to other Africanized bees. In behavioral assays on mechanisms of resistance to Varroa, we directly observed that Puerto Rican Africanized bees groomed-off and bit the mites as been observed in other studies. In no other location, Africanized bees have reduced defensiveness while retaining typical traits such as wing size and mite resistance. This mosaic of traits that has resulted during the invasion of an oceanic island has implications for behavior, evolution, and agriculture. PMID:23144660

  8. Concurrent validity of the Learning and Study Strategies Inventory (LASSI): a study of African American precollege students.

    PubMed

    Flowers, Lamont A; Bridges, Brian K; Moore III, James L

    2012-01-01

    Concurrent validation procedures were employed, using a sample of African American precollege students, to determine the extent to which scale scores obtained from the first edition of the Learning and Study Strategies Inventory (LASSI) were appropriate for diagnostic purposes. Data analysis revealed that 2 of the 10 LASSI scales (i.e., Anxiety and Test Strategies) significantly correlated with a measure of academic ability. These results suggested that scores obtained from these LASSI scales may provide valid assessments of African American precollege students’ academic aptitude. Implications for teachers, school counselors, and developmental studies professionals were discussed.

  9. Drivers of recent trends in African landscape fires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andela, Niels; van der Werf, Guido R.

    2014-05-01

    Wildfires play an important role in savannah ecosystem dynamics and are an important source of emissions of (greenhouse) gasses and aerosols. Africa is nowadays responsible for about 70% of global burned area and about 50% of fire carbon emissions. Although it has been reported that fire activity varies according to climatic and anthropogenic influences, much remains unclear about the drivers of the spatial distribution of fire activity over the continent and its temporal dynamics. Resolving the drivers of this spatiotemporal variability is crucial to understand the future role of fire on the African continent. Satellite observations are the preferred way to monitor fire activity at this scale and the satellite fire record starts to be long enough to study recent trends in fire occurrence, the subject of our work. We developed a model to account for variations in fire activity due to climate, and investigated the role of sea surface temperatures on rainfall patterns and thus fire dynamics. Spatial variation and trends in land cover were used to improve understanding of underlying trends caused by socio-economic changes. Results elucidate the importance of various drivers on recent trends in African landscape fires and allow new insights in the future of African fire dynamics.

  10. Racial Socialization's Moderating Effect between Poverty Stress and Psychological Symptoms for African American Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Derek; Foster, Jennifer; Anderson, Shawanda; Mance, GiShawn

    2009-01-01

    Research indicates that African Americans living in an oppressive society may be at an increased risk of experiencing psychological symptoms. Oppressive society has been defined as the continual denial of resources to marginalized groups. This study examined the possible moderating effects of racial socialization (using Scale of Racial…

  11. Role Perceptions of Foster Care in African American Kinship and Nonkinship Foster Parents: A Quantitative Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warde, Bryan

    2008-01-01

    This article reports on a study that examined a cohort of African American kinship (n = 57) and nonkinship (n = 53) foster parents' perceptions of their role responsibilities as a foster care provider. The Foster Parent Role Perception (FPRP) scale was used to measure perceived role responsibility. Results indicated that both the kinship and…

  12. Peer Victimization and Social-Psychological Adjustment in Hispanic and African-American Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Storch, Eric A.; Nock, Matthew K.; Masia-Warner, Carrie; Barlas, Mitchell E.

    2003-01-01

    We examined the relation of overt and relational victimization to depressive symptoms, fear of negative evaluation (FNE), social avoidance, and loneliness in a sample of Hispanic and African-American children. The Social Experience Questionnaire, Children's Depression Inventory, Social Anxiety Scale for Children--Revised, and Asher Loneliness…

  13. African American Student Athletes' Perceptions of Career Transition in Sport: A Qualitative and Visual Elicitation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, C. Keith; Lawrence, Suzanne Malia

    2003-01-01

    This study focuses on 26 African American athletes and explores their perceptions of athletic career transition. Participants consisted of student athletes from a United States National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division IIA institution in the Southeastern region. Participants completed the Life After Sports Scale (LASS), a 58-item…

  14. A Comparison of Family Environment Characteristics among White (Non-Hispanic), Hispanic, and African Caribbean Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McEachern, Adriana G.; Kenny, Maureen C.

    2002-01-01

    To investigate differences in the family environments of different cultural groups, the Family Environment Scale and a clinical interview were administered to 153 college students from White (non-Hispanic), Hispanic, and African Caribbean backgrounds. A multivariate analysis of covariance and post hoc comparisons revealed significant differences…

  15. African Geography for Schools: A Handbook for Teachers. A Unesco Source Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brouillette, B., Ed.; And Others

    This book is the first in a series of UNESCO guide books for teaching geography on a continental scale, dealing with either land masses or vast regional groups which have common characteristics. Written by African geographers, it is intended for primary and secondary school teachers, teacher-training institutions in Africa, and also for geography…

  16. Evaluating Large-Scale Interactive Radio Programmes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Potter, Charles; Naidoo, Gordon

    2009-01-01

    This article focuses on the challenges involved in conducting evaluations of interactive radio programmes in South Africa with large numbers of schools, teachers, and learners. It focuses on the role such large-scale evaluation has played during the South African radio learning programme's development stage, as well as during its subsequent…

  17. Validating the Cross Racial Identity Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vandiver, Beverly J.; Cross, William E., Jr.; Worrell, Frank C.; Fhagen-Smith, Peony E.

    2002-01-01

    Validation work on the Cross Racial Identity Scale (CRIS; B. J. Vandiver et al., 2000) is described in 2 studies using African American college students. In Study 1, an exploratory factor analysis supported the presence of 6 CRIS subscales. In Study 2, confirmatory factor analysis provided support for a 2-factor higher order model of the 6 CRIS…

  18. Conflict and human African trypanosomiasis.

    PubMed

    Berrang-Ford, Lea; Lundine, Jamie; Breau, Sebastien

    2011-02-01

    Human African Trypanosomiasis (HAT) has reemerged in sub-Saharan Africa as a disease of major public health importance. The success of HAT elimination in sub-Saharan Africa is subject to the feasibility of controlling, eliminating, or mitigating the determinants of incidence in affected countries. Conflict has been widely recognized and cited as a contributing factor to the resurgence of HAT in many countries, as well as to continuing HAT incidence in politically unstable and resource-poor regions. Despite extensive anecdotal and qualitative recognition of the role of conflict, there has been no quantitative research of this topic at the population level in affected African countries. We characterize the qualitative and quantitative associations between HAT incidence and conflict-related processes in HAT-affected African countries over the past 30 years. HAT and conflict-related data were collected for 35 affected countries in sub-Saharan Africa for the years 1976-2004. Descriptive and univariate inferential statistics, as well as negative binomial regression modeling, are used to assess the associations between HAT and conflict. A space-time scan statistic is used to identify significant incidence clusters. Clusters of HAT incidence over the past 30 years have predominantly coincided with periods of conflict or socio-political instability. HAT cases occurred significantly more often in countries and during years with conflict, high political terror, and internationalized civil war. The results indicate a lag period between the start of conflict events and a peak in incidence of approximately 10 years. We recommend explicit consideration and quantification of socio-political measures such as conflict and terror indices in GIS (Geographic Information Systems)-based risk assessments for HAT policy and intervention.

  19. Hydrogenotrophic microbiota distinguish native Africans from African and European Americans.

    PubMed

    Nava, Gerardo M; Carbonero, Franck; Ou, Junhai; Benefiel, Ann C; O'Keefe, Stephen J; Gaskins, H Rex

    2012-06-01

    Reduced susceptibility to sporadic colorectal cancer in native Africans (NA) is correlated with low consumption of animal products and greater microbial production of colonic methane. In this context, two hydrogenotrophic microbial groups are of interest, methanogenic Archaea (MA) utilizing H2 to produce methane and sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) generating hydrogen sulfide, which has been linked with chronic inflammatory disorders of the colon. In the present study, stool samples from NA, consuming a diet high in resistant starch and low in animal products, and from African Americans (AA) and European Americans (EA), both consuming a typical Western diet, were examined for genetic diversity and structure of Archaea, MA and SRB communities. In general, a greater proportion of NA than AA and EA harboured the full range of targeted hydrogenotrophic groups. Terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of 16S rRNA genes and specific functional genes, combined with multivariate statistical analyses, revealed that NA harboured more diverse and different Archaea and MA populations than AA and EA. Also, NA harboured significantly distinct SRB populations compared with AA and EA. Taken together, these data are consistent with diet selecting for distinct hydrogenotrophic microbiota.

  20. France: Africans and the French Revolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fatunde, Tunde

    1989-01-01

    The French Revolution had profound and long-term effects for Africans, both in Africa and throughout the Western hemisphere. Revolutionary leaders not only opposed the emancipation of slaves in French territories but supported an intensified slave trade, sparking numerous rebellions. French exploitation of Africans extended well into the twentieth…

  1. African (Black) Psychology: Issues and Synthesis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baldwin, Joseph A.

    1986-01-01

    Reviews the recent attempts of Black psychologists and social scientists to formulate a conceptual-operational framework for the study of psychological phenomena as they bear on the cultural-survival conditions of Black-African people. Outlines issues and problems in the attempt to define African (Black) psychology and discusses its relation to…

  2. Kunta Kinte's Struggle to be African

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Courlander, Harold

    1986-01-01

    This article reveals the differences between the character Kunta Kinte and the historical record concerning African males in the preslavery period. Kunta's non-African behaviors include displays of blind anger and rage, prudishness, and actions unknown in his Mandinka culture. These represent the many misrepresentations and ambiguities in Alex…

  3. Multicultural Curriculum: African American Children's Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Violet J.

    1991-01-01

    Traces and analyzes the history of African American children's literature defined as "culturally conscious," an authentic body of literature written about and for African American children. Discusses the current status of this literature and indicates a change in focus in the last century. Authors' perspectives, and the implications for…

  4. African American Undergraduates and the Academic Library

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitmire, Ethelene

    2006-01-01

    This study examines the academic library experiences of African American undergraduates attending a research university in the Midwest. Data collection techniques included questionnaires and ethnographic observations. The results indicated that African American undergraduates are using the academic library primarily to read and to study with their…

  5. African Education and Globalization: Critical Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abdi, Ali A., Ed.; Puplampu, Korbla P., Ed.; Dei, George J. Sefa, Ed.

    2006-01-01

    Containing both theoretical discussions of globalization and specific case analyses of individual African countries, this collection of essays examines the intersections of African education and globalization with multiple analytical and geographical emphases and intentions. The 11 essays critically analyze the issues from historical, cultural,…

  6. Smoking Cessation in African-Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahluwalia, Jasjit S.

    1996-01-01

    Because the smoking behavior of African Americans differs considerably from that of other groups, researchers examined differences between African Americans who did and did not use the nicotine patch as an adjunct to counseling and education for smoking cessation. Results indicated the nicotine patch significantly improved six-month cessation…

  7. Genetics Home Reference: African iron overload

    MedlinePlus

    ... of a genetic condition? Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center Frequency African iron overload is common in rural areas of central and ... more about the gene associated with African iron overload SLC40A1 Related Information What is a gene? What is a gene ...

  8. Cultural Expressions of the African American Child.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akbar, Na'im

    Interpretations of the differences between the African American child and the Caucasian child in North America follow two major trends. In one the differences in the African American child are viewed as deviance from the Euro-American norm and therefore inferior or pathological. In the other, the differences are viewed as deviant but adaptive…

  9. A Mirror Image African American Student Reflections

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cannon Dawson, Candice

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation is a narrative inquiry research project that focuses on the collegiate experiences of African American students at both historically black colleges and universities (HBCUs) and predominantly white institutions (PWIs). I look at how African American college students who engage in race or culturally specific activities, the degree…

  10. Syntactic Variation in West African English.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bamiro, Edmund O.

    1995-01-01

    Describes syntactic variation in West African English with examples from West African English literature and identifies and describes subjectless sentences, deletion of the -ly morpheme in manner adjuncts, omission of function words, reduplication, tag questions, substitution of prepositions in idiomatic usage, and focus constructions. (53…

  11. Experiences of African American College Graduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Aundria Chephan

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the reasons that African-American alumni from a historically Black university (HBCU) and a predominantly White university (PWI) chose to attend, remain in, and graduate from college. The central research question was how do African Americans describe their college experiences? The secondary research…

  12. Hidden Education among African Americans during Slavery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gundaker, Grey

    2007-01-01

    Background/Context: Historical studies examine aspects of African American education in and out of school in detail (Woodson 1915, 1933, Bullock 1970, Anderson 1988, Morris 1982, Rachal 1986, Rose 1964, Webber 1978, Williams 2005). Scholars of African American literacy have noted ways that education intersects other arenas such as religion and…

  13. African Americans in the Early Republic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nash, Gary B.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses five topics on African Americans that are essential to studying United States History in the years between 1760 and 1830: (1) African Americans in the Revolutionary War ; (2) the rise of free black communities; (3) early abolitionism; (4) the spread of slavery; and (5) black resistance to slavery. (CMK)

  14. A Reader's Guide to African Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zell, Hans M., Ed.; Silver, Helene, Ed.

    This annotated bibliography lists 820 literary works by black African authors south of the Sahara writing in English and in French. Reference material, critical works, and anthologies (many by non-Africans) are also included. The bibliography--excluding reference and critical works and anthologies--is divided into two sections. "Writings in…

  15. Precolonial African History. AHA Pamphlets, 501.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curtin, Philip D.

    This pamphlet surveys western historiography of precolonial Africa. Prior to World War II, African history emphasized the European role in Africa, relegating African history before European colonization to minor importance. Only after the increase in university enrollments and funding in the 1960's did opportunities for innovative research and new…

  16. New data on African health professionals abroad

    PubMed Central

    Clemens, Michael A; Pettersson, Gunilla

    2008-01-01

    Background The migration of doctors and nurses from Africa to developed countries has raised fears of an African medical brain drain. But empirical research on the causes and effects of the phenomenon has been hampered by a lack of systematic data on the extent of African health workers' international movements. Methods We use destination-country census data to estimate the number of African-born doctors and professional nurses working abroad in a developed country circa 2000, and compare this to the stocks of these workers in each country of origin. Results Approximately 65,000 African-born physicians and 70,000 African-born professional nurses were working overseas in a developed country in the year 2000. This represents about one fifth of African-born physicians in the world, and about one tenth of African-born professional nurses. The fraction of health professionals abroad varies enormously across African countries, from 1% to over 70% according to the occupation and country. Conclusion These numbers are the first standardized, systematic, occupation-specific measure of skilled professionals working in developed countries and born in a large number of developing countries. PMID:18186916

  17. Depression, Sociocultural Factors, and African American Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunn, Vanessa Lynn; Craig, Carlton David

    2009-01-01

    The authors discuss depression in African American women from a sociocultural perspective, including aspects of oppression and racism that affect symptom manifestation. The authors highlight John Henryism as a coping mechanism, the history and continuing role of the African American church as a safe haven, and strategies for culturally competent…

  18. An African Perspective on Human Rights.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shiman, David

    1992-01-01

    Presents a series of classroom activities comparing differing views of human rights in the United Nations Universal Declaration of Human Rights and the African Charter on Human and People's Rights. Includes excerpts from the African Charter on Human and People's Rights and the full text of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. (CFR)

  19. Prostate Cancer Genetics in African Americans

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-11-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-11-1-0566 TITLE: Prostate Cancer Genetics in African Americans PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Henry T. Lynch, MD CONTRACTING...W81XWH-11-1-0566 November 2015 Final 15Aug2011 - 14Aug2015 Prostate Cancer Genetics in African Americans Henry T. Lynch Nothing listed 36

  20. South African Students' Views of the Universe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lemmer, M.; Lemmer, T. N.; Smit, J. J. A.

    2003-01-01

    Investigates perceptions of the universe of (n=232) first-year physics students from two South African universities. Compared results with Aristotelian and Newtonian views as well as with those of children as revealed in a literature survey. Results also showed that a statistically significant larger number of African than European students have…

  1. Supporting Change: Working with South African Universities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moran, Anne D.; Volmink, John

    1986-01-01

    University and pre-university education in South Africa is briefly described, along with areas where U.S. universities can assist South African organizations working to promote equal access to quality education. Three basic areas are explored: financial aid for South African students; manpower support to help in tutorials and academic research;…

  2. British African Caribbean Women and Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adkison-Bradley, Carla; Maynard, Donna; Johnson, Phillip; Carter, Stephaney

    2009-01-01

    Depression is a common condition among women in the United Kingdom. However, little is known about the context of depression among British African Caribbean women. This article offers a preliminary discussion regarding issues and information pertaining to depression among British African Caribbean women. Characteristics and symptoms of depression…

  3. The Process of Africanizing the Social Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merryfield, Merry M.; Tlou, Josiah

    1995-01-01

    Investigates social studies curriculum reform in Botswana, Kenya, Malawi, Nigeria, and Zimbabwe. Reports on each country contain a brief overview of the historical situation and current syllabus, and a discussion of the ongoing "Africanization" process. Concludes with a definition of "Africanization," its purpose, and…

  4. Improving African American Achievement in Geometry Honors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mims, Adrian B.

    2010-01-01

    This case study evaluated the significance of implementing an enrichment mathematics course during the summer to rising African American ninth graders entitled, "Geometry Honors Preview." In the past, 60 to 70 percent of African American students in this school district had withdrawn from Geometry Honors by the second academic quarter. This study…

  5. A Reevaluation of African Education: Woodson Revisited.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okafor, Victor Oguejiofor

    1992-01-01

    Reviews the ideas of C. G. Woodson (1875-1950) about the inappropriate education received by African Americans. Although Woodson's book, "The Mis-Education of the Negro," was written in 1933, his diagnosis of the state of the African-American community appears to hold up well today. (SLD)

  6. African Americans and World War II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kersten, Andrew E.

    2002-01-01

    Focuses on the experience of African Americans during World War II on the homefront and in the armed forces. States that African Americans not only fought fascism overseas but also apartheid in the United States, also known as the "Double V." (CMK)

  7. Prostate cancer in men of African origin.

    PubMed

    McGinley, Kathleen F; Tay, Kae Jack; Moul, Judd W

    2016-02-01

    Men of African origin are disproportionately affected by prostate cancer: prostate cancer incidence is highest among men of African origin in the USA, prostate cancer mortality is highest among men of African origin in the Caribbean, and tumour stage and grade at diagnosis are highest among men in sub-Saharan Africa. Socioeconomic, educational, cultural, and genetic factors, as well as variations in care delivery and treatment selection, contribute to this cancer disparity. Emerging data on single-nucleotide-polymorphism patterns, epigenetic changes, and variations in fusion-gene products among men of African origin add to the understanding of genetic differences underlying this disease. On the diagnosis of prostate cancer, when all treatment options are available, men of African origin are more likely to choose radiation therapy or to receive no definitive treatment than white men. Among men of African origin undergoing surgery, increased rates of biochemical recurrence have been identified. Understanding differences in the cancer-survivorship experience and quality-of-life outcomes among men of African origin are critical to appropriately counsel patients and improve cultural sensitivity. Efforts to curtail prostate cancer screening will likely affect men of African origin disproportionately and widen the racial disparity of disease.

  8. The TG/HDL-C ratio does not predict insulin resistance in overweight women of African descent: a study of South African, African American and West African women.

    PubMed

    Knight, Michael G; Goedecke, Julia H; Ricks, Madia; Evans, Juliet; Levitt, Naomi S; Tulloch-Reid, Marshall K; Sumner, Anne E

    2011-01-01

    Women of African descent have a high prevalence of diseases caused by insulin resistance. To positively impact cardiometabolic health in Black women, effective screening tests for insulin resistance must be identified. Recently, the TG/HDL-C ratio has been recommended as a tool to predict insulin resistance in overweight people. While the ratio predicts insulin resistance in White women, it is ineffective in African American women. As there are no data for African women, we tested the ability of the TG/HDL-C ratio to predict insulin resistance in Black women from South Africa, West Africa and the United States. For comparison, the ratio was also tested in White women from South Africa. Participants were 801 women (157 Black South African, 382 African American, 119 West African, 143 White South African, age 36 +/- 9y [mean +/- SD]). Standardized scores were created from log-transformed homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance values from each population. Participants in the upper third of their population distribution were classified as insulin-resistant. To predict insulin resistance by the TC/HDL-C ratio, area under the receiver operating characteristic (AUC-ROC) curve was used and criteria were: 0.50 for no discrimination and > or = 0.70 for acceptable. Seventy-one percent of the Black women were overweight vs 51% of White women (P<.01). In overweight White women, AUC-ROC curve for prediction of insulin resistance by TG/HDL-C was 0.76 +/- 0.06, but below the 0.70 threshold in each group of overweight Black women (Black South African: 0.64 +/- 0.06, African American: 0.66 +/- 0.03, and West African: 0.63 +/- 0.07). Therefore, TG/HDL-C does not predict insulin resistance in overweight African American women and this investigation extends that finding to overweight Black South African and West African women. Resources to identify effective markers of insulin resistance are needed to improve cardiometabolic health in women of African descent.

  9. The extent of burning in African savanna

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cahoon, D. R. JR.; Levine, J. S.; Cofer, W. R. Iii; Stocks, B. J.

    1994-01-01

    The temporal and spatial distribution of African savanna grassland fires has been examined, and the areal extent of these fires has been estimated for the subequatorial African continent. African savanna fires have been investigated using remote sensing techniques and imagery collected by low-light sensors on Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) satellites and by the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) which is aboard polar orbiting National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) satellites. DMSP imagery has been used to map the evolution of savanna burning over all of the African continent and the analysis of AVHRR imagery has been used to estimate the areal extent of the burning in the southern hemispheric African savannas. The work presented primarily reflects the analysiscompleted for the year 1987. However, comparisons have been made with other years and the representativeness of the 1987 analysis is discussed.

  10. Intimate partner violence in African American women.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Doris Williams; Sharps, Phyllis W; Gary, Faye A; Campbell, Jacquelyn C; Lopez, Loretta M

    2002-01-01

    Violence against African American women, specifically intimate partner abuse, has a significant impact on their health and well being. Intimate partner femicide and near fatal intimate partner femicide are the major causes of premature death and disabling injuries for African American women. Yet, despite this, there is a paucity of research and interventions specific and culturally relevant for these women. This article focuses on issues relevant to intimate partner violence and abuse against African American women by examining existing empirical studies of prevalence and health outcomes of intimate partner violence against women in general, plus what limited research there is about African American women, specifically. It includes a discussion of specific recommendations for research, practice, education, and policy to reduce and prevent intimate partner violence against African American women.

  11. African Americans and the medical establishment.

    PubMed

    Smith, C

    1999-09-01

    The African American community's response to the AIDS epidemic has reflected the profound mistrust of the medical establishment which many African Americans feel. Among African Americans, the belief that the epidemic originated in a genocidal plot is widespread. It is thought that organized medicine has been significantly involved in this plot. If we look at African Americans' historical relationship to the medical establishment from the era of slavery to the recent past, the suspicious attitudes which make such beliefs possible can be seen as an intelligible response to a new disease which disproportionately affects African Americans. Successful medical and public health responses to the epidemic have depended and will continue to depend upon overcoming the historical legacy of suspicion and gaining the trust of the community.

  12. Public Health Risks from Illegally Imported African Bushmeat and Smoked Fish : Public Health Risks from African Bushmeat and Smoked Fish.

    PubMed

    Chaber, Anne-Lise; Cunningham, Andrew

    2016-03-01

    Large-scale importation of bushmeat from West and Central Africa into Europe was reported in 2010. We sampled 18 illegal African bushmeat consignments seized at Charles de Gaulle airport, Paris, France and tested for the presence of bacteria. Additionally, five smuggled smoked fish were analysed for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, which are known carcinogens. All bushmeat samples had viable counts of aerobic bacteria above levels considered safe for human consumption. We also identified zoonotic bacterial pathogens in bushmeat and unsafe levels of carcinogens in fish. The illegal importation of meat is a potential risk for the introduction of pathogens.

  13. Financing vaccinations - the South African experience.

    PubMed

    Blecher, Mark S; Meheus, Filip; Kollipara, Aparna; Hecht, Robert; Cameron, Neil A; Pillay, Yogan; Hanna, Luisa

    2012-09-07

    South Africa provides a useful country case study for financing vaccinations. It has been an early adopter of new vaccinations and has financed these almost exclusively from domestic resources, largely through general taxation. National vaccination policy is determined by the Department of Health, based on advice from a national advisory group on immunisation. Standard health economic criteria of effectiveness, cost-effectiveness, affordability and burden of disease are used to assess whether new vaccinations should be introduced. Global guidelines and the advice of local and international experts are also helpful in making the determination to introduce new vaccines. In terms of recent decisions to introduce new vaccines against pneumococcal disease and rotavirus diarrhoea in children, the evidence has proved unequivocal. Universal rollout has been implemented even though this has led to a fivefold increase in national spending on vaccines. The total cost to government remains below 1-1.5% of public expenditures for health, which is viewed by the South African authorities as affordable and necessary given the number of lives saved and morbidity averted. To manage the rapid increase in domestic spending, efforts have been made to scale up coverage over several years, give greater attention to negotiating price reductions and, in some cases, obtain initial donations or frontloaded deliveries to facilitate earlier universal rollout. There has been strong support from a wide range of stakeholders for the early introduction of new generation vaccines.

  14. How can psychological theory help to promote condom use in sub-Saharan African developing countries?

    PubMed

    Campbell, T

    1997-06-01

    Condom use for HIV prevention has been very inconsistent in most sub-Saharan African countries. Studies from around the continent report that knowledge about HIV transmission is variable and seems to be related to gender, socioeconomic and educational status. There is a large body of psychological knowledge about HIV prevention which has been applied to condom promotion campaigns in developed countries. These approaches to condom promotion, based on formal theory, have not been used on a wide scale in African countries and this paper explores ways in which psychological theory might be appropriately applied in a situation of high HIV prevalence.

  15. Use of Machine Learning Techniques for Identification of Robust Teleconnections to East African Rainfall Variability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, J. Brent; Robertson, F. R.; Funk, C.

    2014-01-01

    Hidden Markov models can be used to investigate structure of subseasonal variability. East African short rain variability has connections to large-scale tropical variability. MJO - Intraseasonal variations connected with appearance of "wet" and "dry" states. ENSO/IOZM SST and circulation anomalies are apparent during years of anomalous residence time in the subseasonal "wet" state. Similar results found in previous studies, but we can interpret this with respect to variations of subseasonal wet and dry modes. Reveal underlying connections between MJO/IOZM/ENSO with respect to East African rainfall.

  16. HMO employment and African-American physicians.

    PubMed Central

    Briscoe, Forrest; Konrad, Thomas R.

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To assess the level and determinants of African-American physicians' employment in health maintenance organizations (HMOs), particularly early in their careers. METHODS: We analyzed data from the 1991 and 1996 Young Physicians Surveys to assess racial differences in the likelihood of HMO employment (n = 3,705). Using multinomial logistic regression, we evaluated four explanations for an observed relationship between African-American physicians and HMO employment: human capital stratification among organizations, race-based affinity between physicians and patients, financial constraints due to debt burden, and different organizational hiring practices. Using binomial logistic regression, we also evaluated differences in the odds of being turned down for a prior practice position, of subsequently leaving the current practice organization and of later having career doubts. RESULTS: Without any controls, African-American physicians were 4.52 times more likely to practice in HMOs than Caucasian physicians. After controlling for human capital stratification, racial concordance and financial constraints, African-American physicians remained 2.48 times more likely to practice in HMOs than Caucasian physicians. In addition, 19.2% of African-American physicians in HMOs reported being turned down for another job, far more than any other racial/ethnic group in the HMO setting and any racial/ethnic group, including African-American physicians in the non-HMO setting (including all other practice locations). Five years later, those same African-American physicians from HMOs also reported significantly more turnover (7.50 times more likely than non-HMO African-American physicians to leave their current practice) and doubt about their careers (2.17 times more likely than non-HMO African-American physicians to express serious career doubts). CONCLUSIONS: African-American physicians were disproportionately hired into HMO settings, impacting their subsequent careers. PMID

  17. Toward the Development of the Stereotypic Roles for Black Women Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Anita Jones; Witherspoon, Karen McCurtis; Speight, Suzette L.

    2004-01-01

    Preliminary findings on the validation of the Stereotypic Roles for Black Women Scale (SRBWS) are presented. A sample of 186 African American women took the SRBWS along with the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale and the Racial Identity Attitude Scale-B. A confirmatory factor analysis supported a four-factor structure of the scale, and moderate…

  18. African Easterly Jet: Barotropic Instability, Waves, and Cyclogenesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, Man-Li C; Reale, Oreste; Schubert, Siegfried D.; Suarez, Max J.; Thorncroft, Chris D.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the structure of the African easterly jet, focusing on instability processes on a seasonal and subseasonal scale, with the goal of identifying features that could provide increased predictability of Atlantic tropical cyclogenesis. The Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) is used as the main investigating tool. MERRA is compared with other reanalyses datasets from major operational centers around the world and was found to describe very effectively the circulation over the African monsoon region. In particular, a comparison with precipitation datasets from the Global Precipitation Climatology Project shows that MERRA realistically reproduces seasonal precipitation over that region. The verification of the generalized Kuo barotropic instability condition computed from seasonal means is found to have the interesting property of defining well the location where observed tropical storms are detected. This property does not appear to be an artifact of MERRA and is present also in the other adopted reanalysis datasets. Therefore, the fact that the areas where the mean flow is unstable seems to provide a more favorable environment for wave intensification, could be another factor to include-in addition to sea surface temperature, vertical shear, precipitation, the role of Saharan air, and others-among large-scale forcings affecting development and tropical cyclone frequency. In addition, two prominent modes of variability are found based on a spectral analysis that uses the Hilbert-Huang transform: a 2.5-6-day mode that corresponds well to the African easterly waves and also a 6-9-day mode that seems to be associated with tropical- extratropical interaction.

  19. The African Folktale. An Instructional Unit for Seventh Grade English.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dobbs, Sherry

    The document presents a 3-week seventh grade English unit on the African folktale. The guide is one of a number of products developed by a summer workshop for teachers on African curriculum development. The objectives are to help students develop respect for African cultures and lifestyles, compare values of African and American ethnic…

  20. School Counseling for African American Adolescents: The Alfred Adler Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sapp, Marty

    2010-01-01

    This article discusses how Adlerian counseling can be used as a form of school counseling for African American adolescents. Moreover, school counseling for African American adolescents is discussed within the context of African American culture. Due to the strength-based nature of Adlerian approach, it can capitalize on African American…

  1. Towards an Africological Pedagogical Approach to African Civilization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okafor, Victor Oguejiofor

    1996-01-01

    Presents a case study of controversies related to African studies and makes the case for an Africological pedagogical approach to African Civilization. The title "African Civilization" reflects the African place in the whole of world civilization even though that place is itself a multiple entity. (SLD)

  2. A brief report on WAIS-R normative data collection in Mayo's Older African Americans Normative Studies.

    PubMed

    Lucas, John A; Ivnik, Robert J; Smith, Glenn E; Ferman, Tanis J; Willis, Floyd B; Petersen, Ronald C; Graff-Radford, Neill R

    2005-06-01

    Historically, neuropsychological measures such as the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised (WAIS-R) have yielded unacceptably high rates of misdiagnosis of impairment among cognitively normal African Americans, primarily due to poor test specificity and inadequate representation of ethnic minorities in the normative sample. In this report, we briefly review these issues and describe efforts by investigators in Mayo's Older African Americans Normative Studies (MOAANS) to develop more appropriate norms for African American elders on the WAIS-R. During MOAANS data collection, the third edition of the WAIS (WAIS-III) was introduced with updated representation of ethnic minorities in the normative database. More recently, specific demographic corrections for African Americans have been derived for WAIS-III subtest scores and indices. As such, WAIS-R normative estimates are not presented here. Interested readers who wish to obtain a full set of MOAANS WAIS-R norms, however, are invited to contact the authors for these data.

  3. African American cancer patients' pain experience.

    PubMed

    Im, Eun-Ok; Lim, Hyun-Ju; Clark, Maresha; Chee, Wonshik

    2008-01-01

    Although very little is known about African American cancer patients' pain experience, a few studies have indicated that their cancer pain experience is unique and somewhat different from that of other ethnic groups. The purpose of the study reported in this article was to explore African American cancer patients' pain experience using an online forum. This study was a qualitative online forum designed from a feminist perspective and conducted among 11 African American cancer patients who were recruited through both Internet and real settings. Nine online forum topics were used to administer the 6-month online forum, and the data were analyzed using thematic analysis. Four themes emerged through the data analysis process. First, participants viewed cancer as a challenge in life that they should fight against. Second, cancer pain was differentiated from ordinary pain because cancer was stigmatized in their culture. Third, participants viewed that African Americans, especially women, were culturally raised to be strong, and this African American cultural heritage inhibited cancer patients from expressing pain and seeking help for pain management. Finally, the findings indicated certain changes in perspectives among African American cancer patients during the disease process, which might make them tolerate pain through praying to God and reading the Bible. Based on the findings, we suggest further studies among diverse groups of African American cancer patients, with a focus on cultural attitudes toward cancer pain and influences of family on cancer pain experience.

  4. West Indian Ocean variability and East African fish catch.

    PubMed

    Jury, M; McClanahan, T; Maina, J

    2010-08-01

    We describe marine climate variability off the east coast of Africa in the context of fish catch statistics for Tanzania and Kenya. The time series exhibits quasi-decadal cycles over the period 1964-2007. Fish catch is up when sea surface temperature (SST) and atmospheric humidity are below normal in the tropical West Indian Ocean. This pattern relates to an ocean Rossby wave in one phase of its east-west oscillation. Coastal-scale analyses indicate that northward currents and uplift on the shelf edge enhance productivity of East African shelf waters. Some of the changes are regulated by the south equatorial current that swings northward from Madagascar. The weather is drier and a salty layer develops in high catch years. While the large-scale West Indian Ocean has some impact on East African fish catch, coastal dynamics play a more significant role. Climatic changes are reviewed using 200 years of past and projected data. The observed warming trend continues to increase such that predicted SST may reach 30 degrees C by 2100 while SW monsoon winds gradually increase, according to a coupled general circulation model simulation with a gradual doubling of CO(2).

  5. Illegal killing for ivory drives global decline in African elephants.

    PubMed

    Wittemyer, George; Northrup, Joseph M; Blanc, Julian; Douglas-Hamilton, Iain; Omondi, Patrick; Burnham, Kenneth P

    2014-09-09

    Illegal wildlife trade has reached alarming levels globally, extirpating populations of commercially valuable species. As a driver of biodiversity loss, quantifying illegal harvest is essential for conservation and sociopolitical affairs but notoriously difficult. Here we combine field-based carcass monitoring with fine-scale demographic data from an intensively studied wild African elephant population in Samburu, Kenya, to partition mortality into natural and illegal causes. We then expand our analytical framework to model illegal killing rates and population trends of elephants at regional and continental scales using carcass data collected by a Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species program. At the intensively monitored site, illegal killing increased markedly after 2008 and was correlated strongly with the local black market ivory price and increased seizures of ivory destined for China. More broadly, results from application to continental data indicated illegal killing levels were unsustainable for the species between 2010 and 2012, peaking to ∼ 8% in 2011 which extrapolates to ∼ 40,000 elephants illegally killed and a probable species reduction of ∼ 3% that year. Preliminary data from 2013 indicate overharvesting continued. In contrast to the rest of Africa, our analysis corroborates that Central African forest elephants experienced decline throughout the last decade. These results provide the most comprehensive assessment of illegal ivory harvest to date and confirm that current ivory consumption is not sustainable. Further, our approach provides a powerful basis to determine cryptic mortality and gain understanding of the demography of at-risk species.

  6. Parochialism or Self-Consciousness? Internationality in Medical History Journals 1997–2006

    PubMed Central

    Steinke, Hubert; Lang, Yves

    2011-01-01

    Research councils, universities and funding agencies are increasingly asking for tools to measure the quality of research in the humanities. One of their preferred methods is a ranking of journals according to their supposed level of internationality. Our quantitative survey of seventeen major journals of medical history reveals the futility of such an approach. Most journals have a strong national character with a dominance of native language, authors and topics. The most common case is a paper written by a local author in his own language on a national subject regarding the nineteenth or twentieth century. American and British journals are taken notice of internationally but they only rarely mention articles from other history of medicine journals. Continental European journals show a more international review of literature, but are in their turn not noticed globally. Increasing specialisation and fragmentation has changed the role of general medical history journals. They run the risk of losing their function as international platforms of discourse on general and theoretical issues and major trends in historiography, to international collections of papers. Journal editors should therefore force their authors to write a more international report, and authors should be encouraged to submit papers of international interest and from a more general, transnational and methodological point of view. PMID:22028500

  7. Divergent Influences of Private and Public Self-Consciousness in a Compliance Paradigm.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Froming, William J.; Carver, Charles S.

    1981-01-01

    Examined the effects exerted upon compliance behavior by two types of dispositional self-conciousness. Subjects (N=65) were induced to make incorrect responses on a perceptual task by means of simulated group pressure. Results indicated that private self-conciousness was associated with the tendency to make judgments using internal perceptions.…

  8. Uncovering the affective core of conscientiousness: the role of self-conscious emotions.

    PubMed

    Fayard, Jennifer V; Roberts, Brent W; Robins, Richard W; Watson, David

    2012-02-01

    We conducted 3 studies to test the idea that guilt is a key affective component of Conscientiousness and that it can account for the relation between Conscientiousness and negative affect. Study 1 used meta-analysis to show that Conscientiousness was associated with specific emotions and overall negative affect but was most strongly associated with guilt. Conscientiousness was negatively related to guilt experience but positively related to guilt proneness. Also, guilt experience mediated the relation between Conscientiousness and negative affect. Study 2 (N = 142) examined the relation between facets of Conscientiousness and guilt. We replicated results from Study 1 and showed that the relation between Conscientiousness and guilt was not due to overlap with Extraversion and Neuroticism. Study 3 (n = 176) examined the interplay between Conscientiousness and guilt on grades in a short-term longitudinal study. These studies showed that Conscientiousness is primarily related to guilt and highlighted the importance of examining the emotional substrate of Conscientiousness.

  9. Development of Self-Consciousness: At What Age Does Audience Pressure Disrupt Performance?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tice, Dianne M.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Hypothesized that audience pressure would prove most detrimental to the skilled performance of adolescents (due to vulnerability to self-awareness) but not of children. Performances of skilled players of video games with and without audience indicated a curvilinear relationship between age and performance change which confirmed the hypothesis.…

  10. The Self-Conscious Mind and the Meaning and Mystery of Personal Existence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eccles, John C.

    1981-01-01

    Human beings must realize the great unknowns in the material makeup and operation of the brain, in the relationship of brain to mind, in the creative imagination, and in the uniqueness of the psyche. The essential feature of the dualist-interaction theory is that mind and body are independent entities which somehow interact. (JN)

  11. Disparities between white and African-American children in immunization coverage.

    PubMed Central

    Barker, Lawrence E.; Chu, Susan Y.; Li, Qian; Shaw, Kate M.; Santoli, Jeanne M.

    2006-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: A recent study has shown that the national-scale difference in immunization coverage between non-Hispanic white (abbreviated "white") and non-Hispanic African-American (abbreviated "African-American") children aged 19-35 months in the United States has increased by about 1 percentage point annually. We examined how this widening gap differs with geography and income. METHODS: We used data from the National Immunization Survey, 1998-2003, a national telephone survey. We examined differences between white and African-American children in immunization coverage within income groups (at or above versus below the federal poverty level) for each census region (northeast, south, midwest and west). We tested the hypothesis of constant disparity over time. RESULTS: Among households at or above the federal poverty level in the northeast census region, disparity is widening (white coverage minus African-American coverage was -0.5 in 1998 but 15.5 in 2003). Among household at or above the federal poverty level in the midwest census region, disparity is narrowing (white coverage minus African-American coverage was 13.9 in 1998 but 2.5 in 2003). We found no significant evidence of a trend in other groups. CONCLUSIONS: Widening national-level disparity in immunization coverage is primarily attributable to trends in the northeast census region. Addressing the widening disparity in coverage requires new strategies that consider current social and economic contexts. PMID:16708496

  12. An examination of Euro-American and African-American differences in social physique anxiety among college women.

    PubMed

    Jordan, Eleanor H; Smisson, Cassandra P; Burke, Kevin L; Joyner, A Barry; Czech, Daniel R

    2005-02-01

    Many studies have examined sex differences in social physique anxiety; however, few researchers have examined possible perceptual differences in such anxiety based on ethnicity. The present purpose was to examine social physique anxiety among college-age women of Euro-American and African-American descent. Participants (N = 91) from physical activity classes at a university located in the southeastern United States completed the Social Physique Anxiety Scale. The participants were 67 Euro-Americans and 24 African Americans. An independent t test yielded a significant difference (p =.01) between groups on Eklund's scale, which supports the hypothesis.

  13. Enslaved Africans and doctors in South Carolina.

    PubMed

    Goodson, Martia Graham

    2003-03-01

    This interpretation of the relationship between enslavement and American medicine in 19th century South Carolina reveals the intimacy that existed between Africans enslaved in that state and the doctors who practiced and taught there. Enslaved Africans were resourceful and reliable medical figures in the slave community. Their knowledge of medical botany permeated the slave quarters and plantation hospitals and was appropriated into southern medical knowledge. The trajectories of the careers of three South Carolina physicians are tied to their practice around and on the enslaved. The beginnings of gynecological surgery are linked to 1840s experimentation on enslaved African women performed by one of them.

  14. East African wetland-catchment data base for sustainable wetland management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leemhuis, Constanze; Amler, Esther; Diekkrüger, Bernd; Gabiri, Geofrey; Näschen, Kristian

    2016-10-01

    Wetlands cover an area of approx. 18 Mio ha in the East African countries of Kenya, Rwanda, Uganda and Tanzania, with still a relative small share being used for food production. Current upland agricultural use intensification in these countries due to demographic growth, climate change and globalization effects are leading to an over-exploitation of the resource base, followed by an intensification of agricultural wetland use. We aim on translating, transferring and upscaling knowledge on experimental test-site wetland properties, small-scale hydrological processes, and water related ecosystem services under different types of management from local to national scale. This information gained at the experimental wetland/catchment scale will be embedded as reference data within an East African wetland-catchment data base including catchment physical properties and a regional wetland inventory serving as a base for policy advice and the development of sustainable wetland management strategies.

  15. Henipavirus RNA in African Bats

    PubMed Central

    Gloza-Rausch, Florian; Seebens, Antje; Annan, Augustina; Ipsen, Anne; Kruppa, Thomas; Müller, Marcel A.; Kalko, Elisabeth K. V.; Adu-Sarkodie, Yaw; Oppong, Samuel; Drosten, Christian

    2009-01-01

    Background Henipaviruses (Hendra and Nipah virus) are highly pathogenic members of the family Paramyxoviridae. Fruit-eating bats of the Pteropus genus have been suggested as their natural reservoir. Human Henipavirus infections have been reported in a region extending from Australia via Malaysia into Bangladesh, compatible with the geographic range of Pteropus. These bats do not occur in continental Africa, but a whole range of other fruit bats is encountered. One of the most abundant is Eidolon helvum, the African Straw-coloured fruit bat. Methodology/Principal Findings Feces from E. helvum roosting in an urban setting in Kumasi/Ghana were tested for Henipavirus RNA. Sequences of three novel viruses in phylogenetic relationship to known Henipaviruses were detected. Virus RNA concentrations in feces were low. Conclusions/Significance The finding of novel putative Henipaviruses outside Australia and Asia contributes a significant extension of the region of potential endemicity of one of the most pathogenic virus genera known in humans. PMID:19636378

  16. Enhancing the African bioethics initiative

    PubMed Central

    Ogundiran, Temidayo O

    2004-01-01

    Background Medical ethics has existed since the time of Hippocrates. However, formal training in bioethics did not become established until a few decades ago. Bioethics has gained a strong foothold in health sciences in the developed world, especially in Europe and North America. The situation is quite different in many developing countries. In most African countries, bioethics – as established and practiced today in the west- is either non-existent or is rudimentary. Discussion Though bioethics has come of age in the developed and some developing countries, it is still largely "foreign" to most African countries. In some parts of Africa, some bioethics conferences have been held in the past decade to create research ethics awareness and ensure conformity to international guidelines for research with human participants. This idea has arisen in recognition of the genuine need to develop capacity for reviewing the ethics of research in Africa. It is also a condition required by external sponsors of collaborative research in Africa. The awareness and interest that these conferences have aroused need to be further strengthened and extended beyond research ethics to clinical practice. By and large, bioethics education in schools that train doctors and other health care providers is the hook that anchors both research ethics and clinical ethics. Summary This communication reviews the current situation of bioethics in Africa as it applies to research ethics workshops and proposes that in spite of the present efforts to integrate ethics into biomedical research in Africa, much still needs to be done to accomplish this. A more comprehensive approach to bioethics with an all-inclusive benefit is to incorporate formal ethics education into health training institutions in Africa. PMID:15488145

  17. Recent climatological trend of the Saharan heat low and its impact on the West African climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lavaysse, Christophe; Flamant, Cyrille; Evan, Amato; Janicot, Serge; Gaetani, Marco

    2016-12-01

    The Saharan heat low (SHL) plays a pivotal role in the West African monsoon system in spring and summer. The recent trend in SHL activity has been analysed using two sets of numerical weather prediction (NWP) model reanalyses and Atmospheric Models Intercomparison Project simulations from 15 climate models performed in the framework of the 5th Coupled Models Intercomparison Project (CMIP5) exercise. A local increase of temperature in the Sahara during the 90s is found in the two sets of NWP models temperature. This increase is stronger within the SHL region than over the surrounding areas. Using different temporal filters (under 25 days, 25-100 days and above 300 days), we show that this is accompanied by a slight but widespread increase of temperature, and a change in the filtered signal under 25 days during the transition period of the 90s. We also show that SHL pulsations occurring at different time scales impact the West Africa climate on a variety of spatial scales, from the regional scale (for the high band pass) to the synoptic scale (for the low band pass signal). Despite a large variability in the temporal trends for 15 climate models from the CMIP5 project, the warming trend in the 90s is observed in the models ensemble mean. Nevertheless, large discrepancies are found between the NWP models reanalyses and the climate model simulations regarding the spatial and temporal evolutions of the SHL as well as its impact on West African climate at the different time scales. These comparisons also reveal that climate models represent the West African monsoon interactions with SHL pulsations quite differently. We provide recommendations to use some of them depending on the time scales of the processes at play (synoptic, seasonal, interannual) and based on key SHL metrics (location, mean intensity, global trend, interaction with the West African monsoon dynamics).

  18. Reported Racial Discrimination, Trust in Physicians, and Medication Adherence Among Inner-City African Americans With Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Hargraves, J. Lee; Rosal, Milagros; Briesacher, Becky A.; Schoenthaler, Antoinette; Person, Sharina; Hullett, Sandral; Allison, Jeroan

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. We sought to determine if reported racial discrimination was associated with medication nonadherence among African Americans with hypertension and if distrust of physicians was a contributing factor. Methods. Data were obtained from the TRUST project conducted in Birmingham, Alabama, 2006 to 2008. All participants were African Americans diagnosed with hypertension and receiving care at an inner city, safety net setting. Three categories of increasing adherence were defined based on the Morisky Medication Adherence Scale. Trust in physicians was measured with the Hall General Trust Scale, and discrimination was measured with the Experiences of Discrimination Scale. Associations were quantified by ordinal logistic regression, adjusting for gender, age, education, and income. Results. The analytic sample consisted of 227 African American men and 553 African American women, with a mean age of 53.7 ±9.9 years. Mean discrimination scores decreased monotonically across increasing category of medication adherence (4.1, 3.6, 2.9; P = .025), though the opposite was found for trust scores (36.5, 38.5, 40.8; P < .001). Trust mediated 39% (95% confidence interval = 17%, 100%) of the association between discrimination and medication adherence. Conclusions. Within our sample of inner city African Americans with hypertension, racial discrimination was associated with lower medication adherence, and this association was partially mediated by trust in physicians. Patient, physician and system approaches to increase “earned” trust may enhance existing interventions for promoting medication adherence. PMID:24028222

  19. CLANIMAE: Climatic and Anthropogenic Impacts on African Ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verschuren, D.; André, L.; Mahy, G.; Cocquyt, C.; Plisnier, P.-D.; Gelorini, V.; Rumes, B.; Lebrun, J.; Bock, L.; Marchant, R.

    2009-04-01

    Global studies of historical land use focusing on the large-scale landscape change that can potentially affect global climate (via effects on surface albedo, aerosols, and the carbon cycle) have concluded that the impact of pre-colonial East African cultures on regional ecosystems was limited, due to very low mean population density. This contrasts with the paradigm in East African archaeology and paleoecology that the onset of anthropogenic deforestation started at least 2500 years ago, following the introduction of iron metallurgy by Bantu immigrants. This conflict highlights the present lack of real data on historical climate-environment-human interactions in East Africa, which are eminently relevant to sustainable natural resource management and biodiversity conservation in a future of continued population growth and global climate change. CLANIMAE responds to the urgent need of a correct long-term perspective to today's climate-environment-human interactions in East Africa, by reconstructing simultaneously the histories of past climate change and of vegetation and water-quality changes over the last 2500 years, through multi-disciplinary analysis of dated lake-sediment records. The climate reconstructions integrate information on biological, geochemical and sedimentological indicators of past changes in the water balance of the study lakes, which cover the climatological gradient from (sub-)humid western Uganda to semi-arid eastern Kenya. Reconstruction of past terrestrial vegetation dynamics is based on analyses of fossil plant pollen and phytoliths, plus the fossil spores of fungi associated with the excrements of large domestic animals as indicators of lake use by pastoralists. The evolution of water quality through time is reconstructed using silicon isotopes in diatom algae as proxy indicator for past phytoplankton productivity, and paleoecological analyses of fossil diatoms and aquatic macrophytes, following calibration of diatom and macrophyte species

  20. Changes in northeast African hydrology and vegetation associated with Pliocene-Pleistocene sapropel cycles.

    PubMed

    Rose, Cassaundra; Polissar, Pratigya J; Tierney, Jessica E; Filley, Timothy; deMenocal, Peter B

    2016-07-05

    East African climate change since the Late Miocene consisted of persistent shorter-term, orbital-scale wet-dry cycles superimposed upon a long-term trend towards more open, grassy landscapes. Either or both of these modes of palaeoclimate variability may have influenced East African mammalian evolution, yet the interrelationship between these secular and orbital palaeoclimate signals remains poorly understood. Here, we explore whether the long-term secular climate change was also accompanied by significant changes at the orbital-scale. We develop northeast African hydroclimate and vegetation proxy data for two 100 kyr-duration windows near 3.05 and 1.75 Ma at ODP Site 967 in the eastern Mediterranean basin, where sedimentation is dominated by eastern Sahara dust input and Nile River run-off. These two windows were selected because they have comparable orbital configurations and bracket an important increase in East African C4 grasslands. We conducted high-resolution (2.5 kyr sampling) multiproxy biomarker, H- and C-isotopic analyses of plant waxes and lignin phenols to document orbital-scale changes in hydrology, vegetation and woody cover for these two intervals. Both intervals are dominated by large-amplitude, precession-scale (approx. 20 kyr) changes in northeast African vegetation and rainfall/run-off. The δ(13)Cwax values and lignin phenol composition record a variable but consistently C4 grass-dominated ecosystem for both intervals (50-80% C4). Precessional δDwax cycles were approximately 20-30‰ in peak-to-peak amplitude, comparable with other δDwax records of the Early Holocene African Humid Period. There were no significant differences in the means or variances of the δDwax or δ(13)Cwax data for the 3.05 and 1.75 Ma intervals studied, suggesting that the palaeohydrology and palaeovegetation responses to precessional forcing were similar for these two periods. Data for these two windows suggest that the eastern Sahara did not experience the

  1. Chronic lymphocytic leukemia in African Americans.

    PubMed

    Coombs, Catherine C; Falchi, Lorenzo; Weinberg, J Brice; Ferrajoli, Alessandra; Lanasa, Mark C

    2012-11-01

    Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is the most prevalent leukemia in the United States with almost 4390 attributable deaths per year. Epidemiologic data compiled by the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) program identifies important differences in incidence and survival for African Americans with CLL. Although the incidence of CLL is lower among African Americans than among Caucasians (4.6 and 6.2 per 100 000 men, respectively), age-adjusted survival is inferior. African American patients with CLL are almost twice as likely to die from a CLL-related complication in the first 5 years after diagnosis as are Caucasian patients with CLL. The biologic basis for these observations is almost entirely unexplored, and a comprehensive clinical analysis of African American patients with CLL is lacking. This is the subject of the present review.

  2. HIV/AIDS among African Americans

    MedlinePlus

    ... person’s chance of getting or transmitting HIV. The poverty rate is higher among African Americans than other racial/ethnic groups. The socioeconomic issues associated with poverty—including limited access to high-quality health care, ...

  3. Cardiac assessment of African hedgehogs (Atelerix albiventris).

    PubMed

    Black, Peter A; Marshall, Cecilia; Seyfried, Alice W; Bartin, Anne M

    2011-03-01

    Cardiomyopathy is a common finding in captive African hedgehogs (Atelerix albiventris) at postmortem exam. To date, treatment attempts have been mostly empirical and unrewarding. The objective of this study was to determine reference cardiac values for captive African hedgehogs based on echocardiogram, electrocardiogram (ECG), and radiographs. Adult African hedgehogs with no clinical signs of cardiac disease (n = 13) were selected. Each animal was anesthetized with isoflurane via facemask and an echocardiogram, ECG, and radiographs were performed. Standard measurements were taken and the descriptive statistics performed. Values were comparable to limited data available in other hedgehog species and other similar-sized exotic species. Two animals were removed from consideration of reference values due to valvular defects that were considered significant. These data are the first establishing cardiac parameters in normal African hedgehogs using radiographic cardiac measurement, echocardiogram, and ECG. Evaluating animals with possible cardiomyopathy may allow for earlier diagnosis and more successful treatment.

  4. Mellonee Burnim on African American Music.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Patricia Shehan

    1995-01-01

    Describes the role and influence of Mellonee Burnim on U.S. music education. Discusses the origins and impact of African American gospel music. Includes a list of selected resources and two lesson plans featuring gospel music. (CFR)

  5. The Combined Influence of Psychological Factors on Biomarkers of Renal Functioning in African Americans

    PubMed Central

    Gholson, Georica K.; Mwendwa, Denée T.; Wright, Regina Sims; Callender, Clive O.; Campbell, Alfonso L.

    2015-01-01

    Objective African Americans are disproportionately affected by chronic kidney disease (CKD). Recent research has documented that psychological factors have a significant influence on the progression and treatment of CKD. However, extant evidence exists that has examined the link between psychological factors and renal function in African Americans. The purpose of the study was to determine if psychological factors were associated with several biomarkers of renal functioning in this group. Participants 129 African American participants, with a mean age of 44.4 years (SD512.25). Design and Setting Data were analyzed from a cross-sectional study entitled Stress and Psychoneuroimmunological Factors in Renal Health and Disease. Main Predictor Measures Participants completed the Beck Depression Inventory-II, Cook Medley Scale, and Perceived Stress Scale-10. Main Outcome Measures Systolic blood pressure, as well as blood and urine samples, were collected and served as biomarkers of renal functioning. Results Our findings indicated that psychological factors were not associated with renal functioning. Age, sex, and systolic blood pressure emerged as significant predictors of renal functioning. Conclusions Depressive symptomatology, perceived stress, and hostility did not influence renal functioning in this sample. This unexpected finding may be attributed to the fact that this sample population was not elevated on depressive symptoms, perceived stress, or hostility. Elevated levels of these psychological factors, as well as other psychological factors associatd with the CKD, may be more influential on renal functioning in African Americans. PMID:26118136

  6. The Rift Valley of African Plate in Elasto-Plastic Creeping over Magma Motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamura, Shigehisa

    2016-04-01

    This is a brief note to a problem on the Rift Valley in the eastern Africa. It is said that this valley was formed in an age 20,000,000 years before present though the valley is yet continuing to move eastward at an annual rate of about 5 cm/year in a geographical trend. Adding to some of the scientists tell that the separation threat of the easternAfrica from the mother land of the Africa under the effect of African crust motion over the magma. However, it is now geological understanding that the land of the Africa has been kept its basic coastal configulation in geographic pattern since the time more than 20,000,000 years before present. Sothat, it is hard to consider the above noted African land separation by part could be in the next age in a time scale of 20,000,000 years. As far as, we concern the geographic data obtaoned by the ground based survey of the African typical mountain peaks, the highest mountain peak 5885m (in 1980) is for Kilimanjaro, Kibo Peak though one of the scientific almanacs tells us its peak height as 5890m (in 2009). As for the Mount Kenia, the peak height is as 5199m (in 1980) and 5200m(in 2009). At a glance, it looks to be a trend in altimetry of the African typical mountain. Now, what trends are noted for the peak heights could be taken to suggesting the geological activity on the earth surface to maintain in a spherical shape approximately on the orbit around the Sun. In these several ten years, the digitizing of the data has been promoted even for the topographic patterns on the earth though its time scaling is extremely short comparing to the geological time scaling. Now, it should be found what is effective to monitor any trends of the African crust in motion as well as variations of the mountain peaks.

  7. What physicians should know about Africanized honeybees.

    PubMed Central

    Sherman, R A

    1995-01-01

    The Africanized honeybee, popularly known as the "killer bee," is already well established in Texas and has recently entered California and Arizona. As the Africanized honeybee spreads in North America, the medical community must become aware of the problems associated with this insect and ensure that sting emergencies can be handled quickly and appropriately. The major differences between Africanized and European honeybees are that the former are more irritable, they swarm more readily and frequently, they defend their hives more vehemently, and they sting more collectively. It is not the composition nor the volume of an individual bee's venom, but rather the cumulative dose of multiple stings that accounts for the morbidity and mortality associated with Africanized honeybee-sting incidents. Even nonallergic persons are susceptible to the toxic effects of these large combined venom loads. Africanized honeybee-sting victims are treated the same as victims of European honeybee stings. Authorities will prepare for the bees' arrival by expanding public awareness, teaching risk-avoidance behavior, providing for the removal of troublesome hives, and developing sting treatment protocols that can be initiated rapidly in the field or emergency departments. Health care professionals should participate in the educational efforts and in the development of needed emergency response protocols so that the effects of the Africanized honeybee will be merely a nuisance rather than a plague. PMID:8553637

  8. Partiality and distributive justice in African bioethics.

    PubMed

    Wareham, Christopher Simon

    2017-04-01

    African ethical theories tend to hold that moral agents ought to be partial, in the sense that they should favour members of their family or close community. This is considered an advantage over the impartiality of many Western moral theories, which are regarded as having counterintuitive implications, such as the idea that it is unethical to save a family member before a stranger. The partiality of African ethics is thought to be particularly valuable in the context of bioethics. Thaddeus Metz, in particular, argues that his African-derived theory best accounts for a number of plausible intuitions, such as the intuition that health care practitioners ought to be biased towards the patients for whom they are directly responsible. In this article, I claim that the plausible intuitions drawn on in favour of partiality can be satisfactorily explained on the basis of impartial moral theories. Moreover, I argue that blanket acceptance of partiality has problematic consequences for distributive justice in resource allocation in biomedical contexts. By contrast, impartial theories can justify plausible instances of partiality whilst avoiding the pitfalls of fully partial moral theories. Although this provides grounds for abandoning partiality in principle, I claim that this finding should not be seen as damaging to African medical ethics. Instead, it prompts investigation of underexplored possibilities of impartial African moral theories. To demonstrate the value of this direction, I sketch some novel and attractive conceptions that combine impartiality with elements of African ethics.

  9. Tulbaghia--A Southern African Phytomedicine.

    PubMed

    Styger, Gustav; Aboyade, Oluwaseyi M; Gibson, Diana; Hughes, Gail

    2016-04-01

    The phytomedicine Tulbaghia consists of the fresh or dried subterranean organs of various Tulbaghia species. The genus is endemic to Southern Africa and includes about 20 species, of which only T. alliacea and T. capensis are naturally found in the winter rainfall climate area (the Western Cape). The genus forms part of the Alliaceae family and is a geophyte (plants with an underground perennation organ and leaves that die back annually). Their habitat can range from semi-desert to wet and boggy terrain. Wild garlic is most commonly prepared as an infusion or boiled in water and taken orally. Externally, as a medicated bath, wild garlic is used to treat paralysis and rheumatism and to reduce the temperature in a feverish patient. Internally, rhizome or bulb preparations are taken orally to treat fever; as a remedy for colds and influenza, asthma, tuberculosis, and stomach problems; as an antihypertensive; or to expel intestinal worms. It is also used as a prophylactic against winter infections. Rhizome pieces are often placed in castor oil to make eardrops. For fever and high blood pressure, a tea is made from the bulbs or rhizomes and a small cup taken three times daily. The leaves of the plant are used to treat esophageal cancer and may also be eaten as a vegetable. The demand for Tulbaghia in both formal and informal markets has grown exponentially. Sustainable harvesting focuses on only harvesting enough of the plant so that it still has the capacity for self-renewal. However, because both the above-ground and underground parts of Tulbaghia are commonly used in African traditional medicine, destructive harvesting of the whole plant is inevitable, thus necessitating the large-scale organized propagation of these plants. It is therefore important to establish a new strategy for the sustainable harvesting of these plants as commercial crops.

  10. Transvalued species in an African forest.

    PubMed

    Remis, Melissa J; Hardin, Rebecca

    2009-12-01

    We combined ethnographic investigations with repeated ecological transect surveys in the Dzanga-Sangha Dense Forest Reserve (RDS), Central African Republic, to elucidate consequences of intensifying mixed use of forests. We devised a framework for transvaluation of wildlife species, which means the valuing of species on the basis of their ecological, economic, and symbolic roles in human lives. We measured responses to hunting, tourism, and conservation of two transvalued species in RDS: elephants (Loxodonta cyclotis) and gorillas (Gorilla gorilla). Our methods included collecting data on encounter rates and habitat use on line transects. We recorded cross-cultural variation in ideas about and interactions with these species during participant observation of hunting and tourism encounters and ethnographic interviews with hunters, conservation staff, researchers, and tourists. Ecologically, gorillas used human-modified landscapes successfully, and elephants were more vulnerable than gorillas to hunting. Economically, tourism and encounters with elephants and gorillas generated revenues and other benefits for local participants. Symbolically, transvaluation of species seemed to undergird competing institutions of forest management that could prove unsustainable. Nevertheless, transvaluation may also offer alternatives to existing social hierarchies, thereby integrating local and transnational support for conservation measures. The study of transvaluation requires attention to transnational flows of ideas and resources because they influence transspecies interactions. Cross-disciplinary in nature, transvalution of species addresses the political and economic challenges to conservation because it recognizes the varied human communities that shape the survival of wildlife in a given site. Transvaluation of species could foster more socially inclusive management and monitoring approaches attuned to competing economic demands, specific species behaviors, and human

  11. Increasing carbon storage in intact African tropical forests.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Simon L; Lopez-Gonzalez, Gabriela; Sonké, Bonaventure; Affum-Baffoe, Kofi; Baker, Timothy R; Ojo, Lucas O; Phillips, Oliver L; Reitsma, Jan M; White, Lee; Comiskey, James A; Djuikouo K, Marie-Noël; Ewango, Corneille E N; Feldpausch, Ted R; Hamilton, Alan C; Gloor, Manuel; Hart, Terese; Hladik, Annette; Lloyd, Jon; Lovett, Jon C; Makana, Jean-Remy; Malhi, Yadvinder; Mbago, Frank M; Ndangalasi, Henry J; Peacock, Julie; Peh, Kelvin S-H; Sheil, Douglas; Sunderland, Terry; Swaine, Michael D; Taplin, James; Taylor, David; Thomas, Sean C; Votere, Raymond; Wöll, Hannsjörg

    2009-02-19

    The response of terrestrial vegetation to a globally changing environment is central to predictions of future levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide. The role of tropical forests is critical because they are carbon-dense and highly productive. Inventory plots across Amazonia show that old-growth forests have increased in carbon storage over recent decades, but the response of one-third of the world's tropical forests in Africa is largely unknown owing to an absence of spatially extensive observation networks. Here we report data from a ten-country network of long-term monitoring plots in African tropical forests. We find that across 79 plots (163 ha) above-ground carbon storage in live trees increased by 0.63 Mg C ha(-1) yr(-1) between 1968 and 2007 (95% confidence interval (CI), 0.22-0.94; mean interval, 1987-96). Extrapolation to unmeasured forest components (live roots, small trees, necromass) and scaling to the continent implies a total increase in carbon storage in African tropical forest trees of 0.34 Pg C yr(-1) (CI, 0.15-0.43). These reported changes in carbon storage are similar to those reported for Amazonian forests per unit area, providing evidence that increasing carbon storage in old-growth forests is a pan-tropical phenomenon. Indeed, combining all standardized inventory data from this study and from tropical America and Asia together yields a comparable figure of 0.49 Mg C ha(-1) yr(-1) (n = 156; 562 ha; CI, 0.29-0.66; mean interval, 1987-97). This indicates a carbon sink of 1.3 Pg C yr(-1) (CI, 0.8-1.6) across all tropical forests during recent decades. Taxon-specific analyses of African inventory and other data suggest that widespread changes in resource availability, such as increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations, may be the cause of the increase in carbon stocks, as some theory and models predict.

  12. The African upper mantle: the view from surface waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fishwick, Stewart

    2014-05-01

    Given the sparse distribution of seismic stations across significant regions of the African continent surface wave tomography is the ideal seismological technique to give a clear picture of the large scale structure for the upper mantle. An updated tomographic model is presented, and reviewed in comparison with other tomography for the region. Cratonic regions are clearly outlined with fast velocities extending to depths of >175km. Areas of slow shear velocity, at depths of 100-150km, show good correlation with long wavelength gravity highs and areas of uplifted topography. The numerous temporary deployments of seismometers along the East African rift system provide strong constraints on the structure in this region. Importantly, many of the seismological features are now converging in a range of tomographic models, adding to the confidence in interpretations. However, significant challenges remain, both for seismology and for the interpretations of the results. Pushing towards smaller features and higher resolution to understand geological problems is still difficult. For example, the mantle structure imaged beneath the Bushveld Complex remains very variable depending on the technique used. Lithospheric thickness can be estimated using a variety of proxies - comparisons of this are shown for southern Africa. But, are the seismic models actually compatible with a mineral physics view of the lithosphere? From a geodynamic perspective, how do localised regions of low velocity in the upper mantle relate to the larger patterns of whole mantle circulation? While seismic imaging is providing an increasingly clear picture of the present velocity structure more integration is still needed to answer many of the questions related to the African continent.

  13. Port of Sanctuary: The Aesthetic of the African/African American and the Barnes Foundation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hollingsworth, Charles H.

    1994-01-01

    Asserts that, although it has been ignored by most art historians and art educators, the Barnes Foundation was founded upon a unique African/African American esthetic influence. Describes influences on the life of Dr. Albert C. Barnes, his world view, and the decision to establish the Barnes Foundation and its art collection. (CFR)

  14. Trade in Educational Services: Reflections on the African and South African Higher Education System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sehoole, Chika Trevor

    2004-01-01

    This article discusses and analyses the emergence of globalisation and its impact on developments within the African continent. Africa's response at a regional level through the New Partnership for Africa's Development and at a subregional level through the Southern African Development Community's "Protocol on Education" come under…

  15. "Women ... Mourn and Men Carry on": African Women Storying Mourning Practices--A South African Example

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kotze, Elmarie; Els, Lishje; Rajuili-Masilo, Ntsiki

    2012-01-01

    African mourning of loss of lives in South Africa has been shaped by discursive practices of both traditional African cultures and the sociopolitical developments under apartheid and in post-apartheid South Africa. This article reports on changes in mourning practices on the basis of a literature review and uses a collection of examples to…

  16. African American Pastors' Beliefs and Actions Regarding Childhood Incest in the African American Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wells, Tesia Denis

    2012-01-01

    This quantitative study sought to explore African American pastors' beliefs and actions regarding childhood incest in the African American community and their decisions to inform the proper authorities. This exploratory study was developed in order to draw both public and academic attention to the understudied phenomenon of childhood incest within…

  17. An Ambivalent Community: International African Students in Residence at a South African University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weber, Everard

    2016-01-01

    This is a qualitative case study of the experiences and perceptions of South African and especially international, African students living in university residences in South Africa. The concept, community, is used to interpret interview data. This community was characterised by ambivalent social relations: There was discrimination by South Africans…

  18. The Pedagogy of African American Parents: Learning from Educational Excellence in the African American Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watkins, Audrey P.

    2006-01-01

    This qualitative study of how parents teach their children to excel academically in the African American community seeks to establish the validity of the pedagogical practices of working class African American families by investigating the educational leadership of two families on Chicago's south side. The study acknowledges the significance of…

  19. African swine fever virus serotype-specific proteins are significant protective antigens for African swine fever

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    African swine fever (ASF) is an emerging disease threat for the swine industry worldwide. No ASF vaccine is available and progress is hindered by lack of knowledge concerning the extent of African swine fever virus (ASFV) strain diversity and the viral antigens conferring type specific protective im...

  20. Changing Fatherhood: An Exploratory Qualitative Study with African and African Caribbean Men in England

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Robert; Hewison, Alistair; Wildman, Stuart; Roskell, Carolyn

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents findings from a qualitative study undertaken with 46 African and African Caribbean men exploring their experiences of fatherhood. Data analysis was informed by Connell's theoretical work on changing gender relations. Findings indicate that fathers' lives were mediated by masculinities, racism, gender, migration and generational…

  1. A SNP test to identify Africanized honeybees via proportion of 'African' ancestry.

    PubMed

    Chapman, Nadine C; Harpur, Brock A; Lim, Julianne; Rinderer, Thomas E; Allsopp, Michael H; Zayed, Amro; Oldroyd, Benjamin P

    2015-11-01

    The honeybee, Apis mellifera, is the world's most important pollinator and is ubiquitous in most agricultural ecosystems. Four major evolutionary lineages and at least 24 subspecies are recognized. Commercial populations are mainly derived from subspecies originating in Europe (75-95%). The Africanized honeybee is a New World hybrid of A. m. scutellata from Africa and European subspecies, with the African component making up 50-90% of the genome. Africanized honeybees are considered undesirable for bee-keeping in most countries, due to their extreme defensiveness and poor honey production. The international trade in honeybees is restricted, due in part to bans on the importation of queens (and semen) from countries where Africanized honeybees are extant. Some desirable strains from the United States of America that have been bred for traits such as resistance to the mite Varroa destructor are unfortunately excluded from export to countries such as Australia due to the presence of Africanized honeybees in the USA. This study shows that a panel of 95 single nucleotide polymorphisms, chosen to differentiate between the African, Eastern European and Western European lineages, can detect Africanized honeybees with a high degree of confidence via ancestry assignment. Our panel therefore offers a valuable tool to mitigate the risks of spreading Africanized honeybees across the globe and may enable the resumption of queen and bee semen imports from the Americas.

  2. African Games of Strategy: A Teaching Manual. African Outreach Series, No. 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crane, Louise

    Appreciation of African games has increased in this country; especially board games which have been popularized through commercial versions. African games are invaluable resources for studying subjects requiring mathematical concepts, as well as social studies, history, geography, and languages. This manual presents some of the better known…

  3. The irrational beliefs inventory: cross-cultural comparisons between South African and previously published Dutch and American samples.

    PubMed

    du Plessis, Marilize; Möller, André T; Steel, Henry R

    2004-12-01

    The Irrational Beliefs Inventory gives a measure of irrational beliefs, as postulated by Ellis's Rational Emotive Behavior therapy. Given the increasing cross-cultural use of psychometric scales, it is important to assess whether the psychometric properties of the inventory are consistent across cultures. In the present study cross-cultural applicability, in terms of internal consistency and independence of subscales, was investigated for an ad hoc sample of White (n= 100, M age = 21.3 yr., SD=4.0) and Black (n=82, M age=19.8 yr., SD=2.2) undergraduate South African university students. Cronbach coefficients alpha for the subscales and Pearson correlations between subscales for American and Dutch students, as reported by Bridges and Sanderman, were compared with those indices for the South African students. The magnitude and rank order of Cronbach alpha, as well as the correlations between subscales for the three groups showed strong similarities. Values of alpha for the Black South African students were lower in magnitude on all subscales than those for American, Dutch, and White South African samples, but intercorrelations between subscale scores were consistent. Findings in the present study are supportive of the cross-cultural applicability of the Irrational Beliefs Inventory to White South African students but not to South African Black students.

  4. Antigenic variation in African trypanosomes

    PubMed Central

    Horn, David

    2014-01-01

    Studies on Variant Surface Glycoproteins (VSGs) and antigenic variation in the African trypanosome, Trypanosoma brucei, have yielded a remarkable range of novel and important insights. The features first identified in T. brucei extend from unique to conserved-among-trypanosomatids to conserved-among-eukaryotes. Consequently, much of what we now know about trypanosomatid biology and much of the technology available has its origin in studies related to VSGs. T. brucei is now probably the most advanced early branched eukaryote in terms of experimental tractability and can be approached as a pathogen, as a model for studies on fundamental processes, as a model for studies on eukaryotic evolution or often all of the above. In terms of antigenic variation itself, substantial progress has been made in understanding the expression and switching of the VSG coat, while outstanding questions continue to stimulate innovative new approaches. There are large numbers of VSG genes in the genome but only one is expressed at a time, always immediately adjacent to a telomere. DNA repair processes allow a new VSG to be copied into the single transcribed locus. A coordinated transcriptional switch can also allow a new VSG gene to be activated without any detectable change in the DNA sequence, thereby maintaining singular expression, also known as allelic exclusion. I review the story behind VSGs; the genes, their expression and switching, their central role in T. brucei virulence, the discoveries that emerged along the way and the persistent questions relating to allelic exclusion in particular. PMID:24859277

  5. H3Africa and the African life sciences ecosystem: building sustainable innovation.

    PubMed

    Dandara, Collet; Huzair, Farah; Borda-Rodriguez, Alexander; Chirikure, Shadreck; Okpechi, Ikechi; Warnich, Louise; Masimirembwa, Collen

    2014-12-01

    Interest in genomics research in African populations is experiencing exponential growth. This enthusiasm stems in part from the recognition that the genomic diversity of African populations is a window of opportunity for innovations in postgenomics medicine, ecology, and evolutionary biology. The recently launched H3Africa initiative, for example, captures the energy and momentum of this interest. This interdisciplinary socio-technical analysis highlights the challenges that have beset previous genomics research activities in Africa, and looking ahead, suggests constructive ways H3Africa and similar large scale science efforts could usefully chart a new era of genomics and life sciences research in Africa that is locally productive and globally competitive. As independent African scholars and social scientists, we propose that any serious global omics science effort, including H3Africa, aiming to build genomics research capacity and capability in Africa, needs to fund the establishment of biobanks and the genomic analyses platforms within Africa. Equally they need to prioritize community engagement and bioinformatics capability and the training of African scientists on these platforms. Historically, the financial, technological, and skills imbalance between Africa and developed countries has created exploitative frameworks of collaboration where African researchers have become merely facilitators of Western funded and conceived research agendas involving offshore expatriation of samples. Not surprisingly, very little funding was allocated to infrastructure and human capital development in the past. Moving forward, capacity building should materialize throughout the entire knowledge co-production trajectory: idea generation (e.g., brainstorming workshops for innovative hypotheses development by African scientists), data generation (e.g., genome sequencing), and high-throughput data analysis and contextualization. Additionally, building skills for political science

  6. H3Africa and the African Life Sciences Ecosystem: Building Sustainable Innovation

    PubMed Central

    Huzair, Farah; Borda-Rodriguez, Alexander; Chirikure, Shadreck; Okpechi, Ikechi; Warnich, Louise; Masimirembwa, Collen

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Interest in genomics research in African populations is experiencing exponential growth. This enthusiasm stems in part from the recognition that the genomic diversity of African populations is a window of opportunity for innovations in postgenomics medicine, ecology, and evolutionary biology. The recently launched H3Africa initiative, for example, captures the energy and momentum of this interest. This interdisciplinary socio-technical analysis highlights the challenges that have beset previous genomics research activities in Africa, and looking ahead, suggests constructive ways H3Africa and similar large scale science efforts could usefully chart a new era of genomics and life sciences research in Africa that is locally productive and globally competitive. As independent African scholars and social scientists, we propose that any serious global omics science effort, including H3Africa, aiming to build genomics research capacity and capability in Africa, needs to fund the establishment of biobanks and the genomic analyses platforms within Africa. Equally they need to prioritize community engagement and bioinformatics capability and the training of African scientists on these platforms. Historically, the financial, technological, and skills imbalance between Africa and developed countries has created exploitative frameworks of collaboration where African researchers have become merely facilitators of Western funded and conceived research agendas involving offshore expatriation of samples. Not surprisingly, very little funding was allocated to infrastructure and human capital development in the past. Moving forward, capacity building should materialize throughout the entire knowledge co-production trajectory: idea generation (e.g., brainstorming workshops for innovative hypotheses development by African scientists), data generation (e.g., genome sequencing), and high-throughput data analysis and contextualization. Additionally, building skills for political

  7. African female sexuality and the heterosexual form.

    PubMed

    Mcfadden, P

    1994-03-01

    All women find sexuality problematical, especially women living in countries that were colonized or colonized others. The stereotype of repressed sexuality in Victorian England found its antithesis in the stereotype of promiscuous African sexuality which had to be "civilized" and controlled through religion and repression. Colonizing nations have seen the discourse on sexuality move from the private to the public domain, while Africa maintains its silence on the subject. Sexuality is a difficult topic because it embraces the most intimate and individual of our human emotions, thus, it is difficult even to voice sexual preferences to a lifetime partner. In addition, especially in Africa, sexuality is a very gender-specific social construct. Africans foster heterosexuality through socialization from early childhood and discourage any sign of sexual stimulation in their children. After teaching that humans are "naturally" heterosexual, Africans teach their children that marriage is essential for the moral uprightness of society, although most Africans are, in fact, raised in many types of alternative families. Critique of the heterosexual form is literally nonexistent in African feminist genre because African sexuality is really male sexuality. When people assert that an African culture exists, they really mean that patriarchal constructs about maleness and femaleness pervade the continent. Women are not expected to experience sexual satisfaction, and, indeed, the practice of female genital mutilation assures that they will never experience sexual pleasure. This practice assures that female sexuality exists only through men. It represents a misogynist point of view about the female body and is equally repulsive whether it takes the form of "excision" of a part of the clitoris or removal of all of the external genitalia. This practice controls female sexuality by depriving women of the opportunity to masturbate or to engage in homosexual relations. The resulting option

  8. Interest grows in African oil and gas opportunities

    SciTech Connect

    Knott, D.

    1997-05-12

    As African countries continue a slow drift towards democratic government and market economics, the continent is increasingly attractive to international oil and gas companies. Though Africa remains politically diverse, and its volatile politics remains a major barrier to petroleum companies, a number of recent developments reflect its growing significance for the industry. Among recent projects and events reflecting changes in Africa: oil and gas exporter Algeria has invited foreign oil companies to help develop major gas discoveries, with a view to boosting exports to Europe; oil and gas producer Egypt invited foreign companies to explore in the Nile Delta region, and the result appears to be a flowering world scale gas play; west African offshore exploration has entered deep water and new areas, and a number of major projects are expected in years to come; Nigeria`s reputation as a difficult place to operate has been justified by recent political and civil events, but a long-planned liquefied natural gas (LNG) export plant is being built there; South Africa, which has returned to the international scene after years of trade isolation because of apartheid, is emerging as a potential driver for energy industry schemes throughout the continent. Activities are discussed.

  9. Implications of spatial genetic patterns for conserving African leopards.

    PubMed

    Ropiquet, Anne; Knight, Andrew T; Born, Céline; Martins, Quinton; Balme, Guy; Kirkendall, Lawrence; Hunter, Luke; Senekal, Charl; Matthee, Conrad A

    2015-11-01

    The leopard (Panthera pardus) is heavily persecuted in areas where it predates livestock and threatens human well-being. Attempts to resolve human-leopard conflict typically involve translocating problem animals; however, these interventions are rarely informed by genetic studies and can unintentionally compromise the natural spatial genetic structure and diversity, and possibly the long-term persistence, of the species. No significant genetic discontinuities were definable within the southern African leopard population. Analysis of fine-scale genetic data derived from mitochondrial and nuclear DNA revealed that the primary natural process shaping the spatial genetic structure of the species is isolation-by-distance (IBD). The effective gene dispersal (σ) index can inform leopard translocations and is estimated to be 82 km for some South African leopards. The importance of adopting an evidence-based strategy is discussed for supporting the integration of genetic data, spatial planning and social learning institutions so as to promote collaboration between land managers, government agency staff and researchers.

  10. Monitoring and Predicting the African Climate for Food Security

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thiaw, W. M.

    2015-12-01

    Drought is one of the greatest challenges in Africa due to its impact on access to sanitary water and food. In response to this challenge, the international community has mobilized to develop famine early warning systems (FEWS) to bring safe food and water to populations in need. Over the past several decades, much attention has focused on advance risk planning in agriculture and water. This requires frequent updates of weather and climate outlooks. This paper describes the active role of NOAA's African Desk in FEWS. Emphasis is on the operational products from short and medium range weather forecasts to subseasonal and seasonal outlooks in support of humanitarian relief programs. Tools to provide access to real time weather and climate information to the public are described. These include the downscaling of the U.S. National Multi-model Ensemble (NMME) to improve seasonal forecasts in support of Regional Climate Outlook Forums (RCOFs). The subseasonal time scale has emerged as extremely important to many socio-economic sectors. Drawing from advances in numerical models that can now provide a better representation of the MJO, operational subseasonal forecasts are included in the African Desk product suite. These along with forecasts skill assessment and verifications are discussed. The presentation will also highlight regional hazards outlooks basis for FEWSNET food security outlooks.

  11. The state of measurement of self-esteem of African American women.

    PubMed

    Hatcher, Jennifer

    2007-07-01

    This article critically reviews the state of measurement of self-esteem in African American women. The Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, the Tennessee Self-Concept Scale, and the Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory are three commonly used measures. However, their validity for African American women has not been adequately tested. Given the unique nature of the self-esteem of this group, related to experiences of racism and sexism, the accurate measurement of this construct is important. This review provided support for the internal consistency of each measure with alpha coefficients ranging from .74 to .87. However, the validity of the measures was not fully supported. Suggestions for further research specific to the unique needs of this population are discussed.

  12. Relationship of African Americans' sociodemographic characteristics to belief in conspiracies about HIV/AIDS and birth control.

    PubMed Central

    Bogart, Laura M.; Thorburn, Sheryl

    2006-01-01

    Although prior research shows that substantial proportions of African Americans hold conspiracy beliefs, little is known about the subgroups of African Americans most likely to endorse such beliefs. We examined the relationship of African Americans' sociodemographic characteristics to their conspiracy beliefs about HIV/AIDS and birth control. Anonymous telephone surveys were conducted with a targeted random-digit-dial sample of 500 African Americans (15-44 years) in the contiguous United States. Respondents reported agreement with statements capturing beliefs in HIV/AIDS conspiracies (one scale) and birth control conspiracies (two scales). Sociodemographic variables included gender, age, education, employment, income, number of people income supports, number of living children, marital/cohabitation status, religiosity and black identity. Multivariate analyses indicated that stronger HIV/AIDS conspiracy beliefs were significantly associated with male gender, black identity and lower income. Male gender and lower education were significantly related to black genocide conspiracy beliefs, and male gender and high religiosity were significantly related to contraceptive safety conspiracy beliefs. The set of sociodemographic characteristics explained a moderately small amount of the variance in conspiracy beliefs regarding HIV/AIDS (R2 range=0.07-0.12) and birth control (R2 range=0.05-0.09). Findings suggest that conspiracy beliefs are not isolated to specific segments of the African-American population. PMID:16895286

  13. Sleep paralysis and trauma, psychiatric symptoms and disorders in an adult African American population attending primary medical care.

    PubMed

    Mellman, Thomas A; Aigbogun, Notalelomwan; Graves, Ruth Elaine; Lawson, William B; Alim, Tanya N

    2008-01-01

    The occurrence of sleep paralysis (SP) absent narcolepsy appears to not be uncommon in African Americans and probably other non-European groups. Prior research has linked SP to trauma and psychiatric disorders and suggested a specific relationship to panic disorder in African Americans. The objective of our study was to evaluate relationships of SP with trauma, concurrent psychiatric symptoms and lifetime psychiatric diagnoses in an adult African American population recruited from primary care. Cross sectional study with surveys and diagnostic interviews; Patients attending primary care clinics filled out a survey that determined the 6 month prevalence and associated features of SP, a panic disorder screen, the self-rated Hamilton Depression Scale, and an inventory of trauma exposure. A subset of trauma-exposed participants (N = 142) received comprehensive diagnostic interviews that incorporated the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV and the Clinician Assessed PTSD Scale. Four hundred and forty-one adults participated (mean age-40.0 SD = 13.3, 68% female, 95% African American). Fourteen percent endorsed recent SP. In approximately 1/3 of those with SP, episodes also featured panic symptoms. SP was strongly associated with trauma history, and concurrent anxiety and mood symptoms. SP was not associated with specific psychiatric disorders other than lifetime (but not current) alcohol or substance use disorders. Our findings suggest that SP is not uncommon in adult African Americans and is associated with trauma and concurrent distress but not with a specific psychiatric diagnosis.

  14. Comparing Gifted and Nongifted African American and Euro-American Students on Cognitive and Academic Variables Using Local Norms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jordan, Kelli R.; Bain, Sherry K.; McCallum, R. Steve; Mee Bell, Sherry

    2012-01-01

    A total of 47 gifted and nongifted African American and Euro-American elementary students were rated by their teachers on a multidimensional instrument developed to minimize language considerations and to rely on local norms (Universal Multiple Abilities Scales [UMAS; McCallum & Bracken, 2012a]). Results from two factorial MANOVAs revealed no…

  15. Menopause Symptoms and Attitudes of African American Women: Closing the Knowledge Gap and Expanding Opportunities for Counseling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huffman, Shirley B.; Myers, Jane E.; Tingle, Lynne R.; Bond, Lloyd A.

    2005-01-01

    Menopause, a normal midlife transition for women, remains poorly understood, especially for minority women. A total of 226 African American midlife women completed the Menopause Symptoms List (J. M. Perz, 1997); Menopause Attitude Scale (C. Bowles, 1986); Attitudes Toward Menopause checklist (B. L. Neugarten, V. Wood, R. J. Kraines, & B. Loomes,…

  16. Sex-Role Egalitarian Attitudes and Gender Role Socialization Experiences of African American Men and Women: A Mixed Methods Paradigm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heard, Courtney Christian Charisse

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the sex-role egalitarian attitudes and gender role socialization experiences of African American men and women. A sequential mixed-methods design was employed to research this phenomenon. The Sex-Role Egalitarianism Scale-Short Form BB (SRES-BB) was utilized to assess sex-role egalitarian attitudes (King…

  17. Cellblocks or Classrooms?: The Funding of Higher Education and Corrections and Its Impact on African American Men.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schiraldi, Vincent; Ziedenberg, Jason

    The impact of state funding of higher education and corrections on African American men was studied by analyzing the National Association of State Budget Officers' annual state expenditure reports for the 15-year period from 1985 to 2000. To ensure proper scale, all 1985 figures were converted to 2000-year dollars by using the Bureau of Labor…

  18. An Analysis of South African Grade 9 Natural Sciences Textbooks for Their Representation of Nature of Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramnarain, Umesh Dewnarain; Chanetsa, Tarisai

    2016-01-01

    This article reports on an analysis and comparison of three South African Grade 9 (13-14 years) Natural Sciences textbooks for the representation of nature of science (NOS). The analysis was framed by an analytical tool developed and validated by Abd-El-Khalick and a team of researchers in a large-scale study on the high school textbooks in the…

  19. "It's Not Like a Job Now; It's Part of Me": Exploring African Women's Experiences in the Irish Childcare Sector

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrity, Sheila; McGrath, Brian

    2011-01-01

    A small-scale qualitative research study was recently carried out in the West of Ireland to explore the experiences of African childminders who had established new childcare services. The intention of the study was to explore the issues, concerns and challenges of this group of providers given their unique position as recently settled, ethnic…

  20. Racial Bias in Personality Assessment: Using the MMPI-2 to Predict Psychiatric Diagnoses of African American and Caucasian Chemical Dependency Inpatients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monnot, Matthew J.; Quirk, Stuart W.; Hoerger, Michael; Brewer, Linda

    2009-01-01

    An assessment of predictive bias was conducted on numerous scales of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 (MMPI-2; J. N. Butcher, W. G. Dahlstrom, J. R. Graham, A. Tellegen, & B. Kaemmer, 1989), including the Restructured Clinical (RC) scales, in the prediction of clinical diagnostic status for African American and Caucasian male…

  1. Afriphone Literature as a Prototypical Form of African Literature: Insights from Prototype Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bodomo, Adams

    2016-01-01

    What is the most prototypical form of African literature? Shouldn't we be using African languages to produce African literary texts, shouldn't we produce more Afriphone African literature compared to Europhone African literature or Afro-Europhone literature? This issue underlies the reality that the vast majority of African writers presumably…

  2. Pattern of breast cancer among white-American, African-American, and nonimmigrant west-African women.

    PubMed Central

    Ijaduola, T. G.; Smith, E. B.

    1998-01-01

    This study reviews the current understanding of the pattern of breast cancer among whites, African Americans, and West Africans who have never immigrated to the US to find better ways of improving the prevention, early detection, and care of breast cancer world-wide. In the United States, the behavior pattern of breast cancer in African-American women differs from that of white women. Among the three populations, breast cancer appears to be least common in nonimmigrant West-African women. The peak incidence in African Americans and West Africans occurs around the premenopausal period while it occurs postmenopausal period in whites. Also, unlike white women, West-African and African-American women present late for treatment with a greater cancer burden and consequently lower survival rates. The predominant histological type is infiltrating ductal carcinoma in the three groups but the highest percentage (33%) of infiltrating poorly differentiated anaplastic carcinoma occurs in West Africans. Menstrual and obstetric history, obesity, and high body mass index status appear to be greater specific risk factors among African Americans than among West Africans. African Americans and West Africans have three "Ls" in common: late stage in seeking treatment, lower age at peak incidence with severe tumor burden, and consequently lower survival rates. There is a need for more detailed population-based research at molecular levels to elucidate the basis for some of these features. PMID:9770955

  3. The African University and the Duty to Co-Operate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agblemagnon, N'Sougan

    1984-01-01

    Because of their history rooted in human rights, African universities can now practically and politically undertake international and interinstitutional cooperative projects for human rights and intercultural understanding, especially through such alliances as the Association of African Universities. (MSE)

  4. Men of African Descent and Carcinoma of the Prostate Consortium

    Cancer.gov

    The Men of African Descent and Carcinoma of the Prostate Consortium collaborates on epidemiologic studies to address the high burden of prostate cancer and to understand the causes of etiology and outcomes among men of African ancestry.

  5. What about African Americans and High Blood Pressure?

    MedlinePlus

    ANSWERS by heart Lifestyle + Risk Reduction High Blood Pressure What About African Americans and High Blood Pressure? The prevalence of high blood pressure in African Americans is among the highest in ...

  6. Chemotherapy of human African trypanosomiasis.

    PubMed

    Burchmore, Richard J S; Ogbunude, Patrick O J; Enanga, Bertin; Barrett, Michael P

    2002-01-01

    Human African trypanosomiasis or sleeping sickness is resurgent [1,2]. The disease is caused by subspecies of the parasitic haemoflagellate, Trypanosoma brucei. Infection starts with the bite of an infected tsetse fly (Glossina spp.). Parasites move from the site of infection to the draining lymphatic vessels and blood stream. The parasites proliferate within the bloodstream and later invade other tissues including the central nervous system. Once they have established themselves within the CNS, a progressive breakdown of neurological function accompanies the disease. Coma precedes death during this late phase. Two forms of the disease are recognised, one caused by Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense, endemic in Eastern and Southern Africa, in which parasites rapidly invade the CNS causing death within weeks if untreated. T. b. gambiense, originally described in West Africa, but also widespread in Central Africa, proliferates more slowly and can take several years before establishing a CNS-involved infection. Many countries are in the midst of epidemics caused by gambiense-type parasites. Four drugs have been licensed to treat the disease [3]; two of them, pentamidine and suramin, are used prior to CNS involvement. The arsenic-based drug, melarsoprol is used once parasites are established in the CNS. The fourth, eflornithine, is effective against late stage disease caused by T. b. gambiense, but is ineffective against T. b. rhodesiense. Another drug, nifurtimox is licensed for South American trypanosomiasis but also been used in trials against melarsoprol-refractory late sage disease. This review focuses on what is known about modes of action of current drugs and discusses targets for future drug development.

  7. KSC kicks off African-American History Month

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Clothed in her traditional African garb, Michelle Amos, mistress of ceremonies, welcomes the audience on Feb. 3 at the kick-off of African-American History Month. The theme for this year's observation is 'Heritage and Horizons: The African-American Legacy and the Challenges of the 21st Century.' February is designated each year as a time to celebrate the achievements and contributions of African Americans to Kennedy Space Center, NASA and the nation.

  8. Lift every voice: voices of African-American lesbian elders.

    PubMed

    Woody, Imani

    2015-01-01

    Old lesbians of African descent have experienced racism, heterosexism, homophobia, and ageism. This article explores the topics of aging, ageism, heterosexism, and minority stress among older African-American lesbians. The narratives and subsequent analysis offer significant contributions to the dialogue regarding Black aging lesbians in the aging and lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) communities generally and in the African-American and African-American lesbian communities specifically.

  9. Population Genomics of sub-saharan Drosophila melanogaster: African diversity and non-African admixture.

    PubMed

    Pool, John E; Corbett-Detig, Russell B; Sugino, Ryuichi P; Stevens, Kristian A; Cardeno, Charis M; Crepeau, Marc W; Duchen, Pablo; Emerson, J J; Saelao, Perot; Begun, David J; Langley, Charles H

    2012-01-01

    Drosophila melanogaster has played a pivotal role in the development of modern population genetics. However, many basic questions regarding the demographic and adaptive history of this species remain unresolved. We report the genome sequencing of 139 wild-derived strains of D. melanogaster, representing 22 population samples from the sub-Saharan ancestral range of this species, along with one European population. Most genomes were sequenced above 25X depth from haploid embryos. Results indicated a pervasive influence of non-African admixture in many African populations, motivating the development and application of a novel admixture detection method. Admixture proportions varied among populations, with greater admixture in urban locations. Admixture levels also varied across the genome, with localized peaks and valleys suggestive of a non-neutral introgression process. Genomes from the same location differed starkly in ancestry, suggesting that isolation mechanisms may exist within African populations. After removing putatively admixed genomic segments, the greatest genetic diversity was observed in southern Africa (e.g. Zambia), while diversity in other populations was largely consistent with a geographic expansion from this potentially ancestral region. The European population showed different levels of diversity reduction on each chromosome arm, and some African populations displayed chromosome arm-specific diversity reductions. Inversions in the European sample were associated with strong elevations in diversity across chromosome arms. Genomic scans were conducted to identify loci that may represent targets of positive selection within an African population, between African populations, and between European and African populations. A disproportionate number of candidate selective sweep regions were located near genes with varied roles in gene regulation. Outliers for Europe-Africa F(ST) were found to be enriched in genomic regions of locally elevated

  10. Antineoplastic constituents of some Southern African plants.

    PubMed

    Charlson, A J

    1980-12-01

    Extracts of several Southern African plants which have been used in folk remedies have been prepared, and the extracts were tested in a variety of experimental tumour test-systems. Raphionacme hirsuta and Cheilanthes contracta have been used in African anticancer medicines. Extracts of these plants showed antitumor activity in some rodent test-systems, but the results were not confirmed. In the folk-lore, Haemanthus natalensis has been used in emetics and Urginea capitata preparations have been used to vaccinate African chiefs. Extracts of these plants showed significant cytotoxicity in the KB cell culture test-system. Infusions of Brunsvigia radulosa have been used as folk remedies for abdominal troubles. An extract of this Amaryllis plant increased the life span of P-388 leukaemic mice. Amaryllis bellandonna has also been investigated. Extracts of Amaryllis belladonna had to be fractionated in order to produce significant antitumour activity in the P-388 lymphocytic leukaemia test-system.

  11. IDEAL Symposium on the East African Lakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, T. C.; Kelts, K.; Lehman, J. T.; Wuest, A.

    A vast array of interdisciplinary problems presented by the African Great Lakes were highlighted at the International Symposium on the Limnology, Climatology and Paleoclimatology of the East African Lakes, organized by the International Decade for the East African Lakes (IDEAL) February 17-21 in Jinja, Uganda. Approximately 125 scientists attended from North America, Europe, Africa, and New Zealand. Jinja is located on the northern shore of Lake Victoria at the head-waters of the Nile and is the site of the host institution for the symposium, the Uganda Freshwater Fisheries Research Organization (UFFRO). The conveners of the symposium were Tom Johnson of Duke University, George Kitaka of UNESCO-ROSTA, and Eric Odada of the University of Nairobi.

  12. Trichomonas vaginalis, HIV, and African-Americans.

    PubMed Central

    Sorvillo, F.; Smith, L.; Kerndt, P.; Ash, L.

    2001-01-01

    Trichomonas vaginalis may be emerging as one of the most important cofactors in amplifying HIV transmission, particularly in African-American communities of the United States. In a person co-infected with HIV, the pathology induced by T. vaginalis infection can increase HIV shedding. Trichomonas infection may also act to expand the portal of entry for HIV in an HIV-negative person. Studies from Africa have suggested that T. vaginalis infection may increase the rate of HIV transmission by approximately twofold. Available data indicate that T. vaginalis is highly prevalent among African-Americans in major urban centers of the United States and is often the most common sexually transmitted infection in black women. Even if T. vaginalis increases the risk of HIV transmission by a small amount, this could translate into an important amplifying effect since Trichomonas is so common. Substantial HIV transmission may be attributable to T. vaginalis in African-American communities of the United States. PMID:11747718

  13. Volumetric analysis of the African elephant ventricular system.

    PubMed

    Maskeo, Busisiwe C; Spocter, Muhammed A; Haagensen, Mark; Manger, Paul R

    2011-08-01

    This study used magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to determine the volume of the ventricular system in the brain of three adult male African elephants (Loxodonta africana). The ventricular system of the elephant has a volume of ∼240 mL, an order of magnitude larger than that seen in the adult human. Despite this large size, allometric analysis indicates that the volume of the ventricles in the elephant is what one would expect for a mammal with an ∼5 kg brain. Interestingly, our comparison with other mammals revealed that primates appear to have small relative ventricular volumes, and that megachiropterans and microchiropterans follow different scaling rules when comparing ventricular volume to brain mass indicating separate phylogenetic histories. The current study provides context for one aspect of the elephant brain in the broader picture of mammalian brain evolution.

  14. Regional environmental simulation of African cattle herding societies

    SciTech Connect

    Krummel, J.R.; Markin, J.B.; O'Neill, R.V.

    1986-03-01

    Regional analyses of the interaction between human populations and natural resources must integrate landscape scale environmental problems. An approach that considers human culture, environmental processes, and resource needs offers an appropriate methodology. With this methodology, we analyze problems of food availability in African cattle-keeping societies. The analysis interrelates cattle biomass, forage availability, milk and blood production, crop yields, gathering, food subsidies, population, and variable precipitation. While an excess of cattle leads to overgrazing, cattle also serve as valuable food storage mechanisms during low rainfall periods. Food subsidies support higher population levels but do not alter drought-induced population fluctuations. Variable precipitation patterns require solutions that stabilize year-to-year food production and also address problems of overpopulation.

  15. Cancer statistics for African Americans, 2013.

    PubMed

    DeSantis, Carol; Naishadham, Deepa; Jemal, Ahmedin

    2013-05-01

    In this article, the American Cancer Society estimates the number of new cancer cases and deaths for African Americans and compiles the most recent data on cancer incidence, mortality, survival, and screening prevalence based upon incidence data from the National Cancer Institute, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and the North American Association of Central Cancer Registries and mortality data from the National Center for Health Statistics. It is estimated that 176,620 new cases of cancer and 64,880 deaths will occur among African Americans in 2013. From 2000 to 2009, the overall cancer death rate among males declined faster among African Americans than whites (2.4% vs 1.7% per year), but among females, the rate of decline was similar (1.5% vs 1.4% per year, respectively). The decrease in cancer death rates among African American males was the largest of any racial or ethnic group. The reduction in overall cancer death rates since 1990 in men and 1991 in women translates to the avoidance of nearly 200,000 deaths from cancer among African Americans. Five-year relative survival is lower for African Americans than whites for most cancers at each stage of diagnosis. The extent to which these disparities reflect unequal access to health care versus other factors remains an active area of research. Overall, progress in reducing cancer death rates has been made, although more can and should be done to accelerate this progress through ensuring equitable access to cancer prevention, early detection, and state-of-the-art treatments.

  16. The management of hypertension in African Americans.

    PubMed

    Ferdinand, Keith C; Armani, Annemarie M

    2007-06-01

    The prevalence of hypertension in blacks in the United States is among the highest in the world. Compared with whites, blacks develop hypertension at an earlier age, their average blood pressures are much higher and they experience worse disease severity. Consequently, blacks have a 1.3 times greater rate of nonfatal stroke, 1.8 times greater rate of fatal stroke, 1.5 times greater rate of heart disease death, 4.2 times greater rate of end-stage kidney disease, and a 50% higher frequency of heart failure; overall, mortality due to hypertension and its consequences is 4 to 5 times more likely in African Americans than in whites. The increased prevalence of hypertension and excessive target organ damage is due to a combination of genetic and, most likely, environmental factors. There are no clinical trial data at present to suggest that lower-than-usual BP targets should be set for high-risk demographic groups such as African Americans. The primary means of prevention and early treatment of hypertension in African Americans will be the appropriate use of lifestyle modification. The International Society of Hypertension in Blacks guidelines realize that most patients will require combination therapy, many of them first-line, to reach appropriate BP goals. Although certain classes and combinations of antihypertensive agents have been well-established to be effective, the choice of drugs for combination therapy in African American patients may be different. Within the African American group, the responsiveness to monotherapy with ACE inhibitors, angiotensin receptor blockers, and beta blockers may be less than the responsiveness to diuretics and calcium channel blockers, but these differences are corrected when diuretics are added to the neurohormonal antagonists. Of note, African American patients with systolic BP >15 mm Hg or a diastolic BP >10 mm Hg above goal should be treated with first-line combination therapy.

  17. Assessing the contributions of East African and West Pacific warming to the 2014 boreal spring East African drought

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Funk, Christopher C.; Shukla, Shraddhanand; Hoell, Andrew; Livneh, Ben

    2015-01-01

    Anthropogenic warming contributed to the 2014 East African drought by increasing East African and west Pacific temperatures, and increasing the gradient between standardized western and central Pacific SST causing reduced rainfall, evapotranspiration, and soil moisture.

  18. Oral Cancer in African Americans: Addressing Health Disparities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dodd, Virginia J.; Watson, Jennifer M.; Choi, Youjin; Tomar, Scott L.; Logan, Henrietta L.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: To explore factors underlying African Americans' perceptions of oral cancer and the oral cancer exam. Study findings were used to guide development of oral cancer messages designed to increase oral cancer exams among African Americans. Methods: Focus groups were conducted to understand African Americans' attitudes and expectations…

  19. Exposure of African-American Youth to Alcohol Advertising.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2003

    The marketing of alcohol products in African-American communities has, on occasion, stirred national controversy and met with fierce resistance from African Americans and others. Despite occasional media and community spotlights on the marketing of alcohol products in the African-American community, there has been no systematic review of the…

  20. Teaching African Politics at American Colleges and Universities: A Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenski, Henry C.; Kenski, Margaret C.

    Political scientists who teach African politics courses at U.S. colleges and universities were surveyed in 1973 to (1) discover successful teaching techniques, approaches, and texts; (2) determine the popularity of courses in African politics; and (3) collect data on the status of African politics as a research area. A questionnaire was mailed to…

  1. Neo-African Literature: A History of Black Writing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jahn, Janheinz

    Chapters in this book classify the literature reflecting the overlap of African and Western cultures according to its content, stylistic features, and patterns of literary expression. Areas covered are (1) early writers of African descent; (2) the African scene--oral, Afro-Arabic, "apprentice" and "protest," and Southern Bantu literatures; (3) the…

  2. Exploring How African American Faculty Cope with Classroom Racial Stressors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pittman, Chavella T.

    2010-01-01

    This study was an examination of how African American faculty discussed their coping with racially stressful classrooms. Despite aims for racial equality in higher education, the classroom has been a significant site of racial stressors for African American facility. Analysis of interviews with 16 (8 women, 8 men) African American faculty at a…

  3. Engaging Youth through African-Derived Dance and Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franklin, Kikora

    2013-01-01

    This article provides a brief history of African and African-derived dance and culture and highlights the physical health, dance education, historical, and cultural benefits of a school-based program that incorporates African dance as its core component. The article also includes the phases of the programming and brings attention to potential…

  4. The Notion of Ubuntu and Communalism in African Educational Discourse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Venter, Elza

    2004-01-01

    The notion of "ubuntu" and "communalism" is of great importance in an African educational discourse, as well as in African Philosophy of Education and in African philosophical discourse. "Ubuntu" is a philosophy that promotes the common good of society and includes humanness as an essential element of human growth. In…

  5. Achievement and Underachievement: The Experiences of African Caribbeans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhamie, Jasmine

    2012-01-01

    The disproportionate representation of African Caribbeans in all the negative educational statistics has been well documented. Despite this, there are African Caribbeans who achieve academically but relatively few studies have explored this area. This study aimed to investigate the factors that contribute to African Caribbean academic success,…

  6. African-American Males' Health Perceptions and Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNeal, CoSandra; Perkins, Isaac; Lyons, Shenia

    2006-01-01

    Research on African American men's health is limited. Perception and knowledge of health may have a significant effect on health seeking behavior and self care. This study was designed to examine factors that may influence health perception and knowledge among African American males. This is a cross-sectional study of 343 African American males…

  7. Perceptions of Domestic Violence: A Dialogue with African American Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bent-Goodley, Tricia B.

    2004-01-01

    Although empirical research has accumulated over the past 20 years regarding African Americans and domestic violence, many questions remain about African American perceptions of domestic violence. This article explores African American women's perceptions about domestic violence through three focus groups held at a New York social services agency.…

  8. African American Educational Leadership in the School Superintendency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Eva C.

    2013-01-01

    African American educational leadership has long been part of American education and African American activism to resist oppression. However, the field of educational leadership has rarely included the contributions of African American leaders, particularly women leaders, into mainstream leadership theory and practices. This omission is difficult…

  9. Some Growth Points in African Child Development Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Serpell, Robert; Marfo, Kofi

    2014-01-01

    We reflect on ways in which research presented in earlier chapters responds to challenges of generating an African child development field and identify additional issues calling for the field's attention. The chapters collectively display a variety of African contexts and reflexive evidence of the authors' African cultural roots. Connecting…

  10. 77 FR 5375 - National African American History Month, 2012

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-03

    ... Documents#0;#0; ] Proclamation 8776 of January 31, 2012 National African American History Month, 2012 By the... for the better. During National African American History Month, we celebrate the rich legacy of... African American women are not limited to those recorded and retold in our history books. Their impact...

  11. 76 FR 6519 - National African American History Month, 2011

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-04

    ... February 4, 2011 Part II The President Proclamation 8627--National African American History Month, 2011 #0..., 2011 National African American History Month, 2011 By the President of the United States of America A... breaking down barriers. During National African American History Month, we celebrate the vast...

  12. From Crisis to Empowerment: African American Women in Community Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bates, Marcie Ann

    2012-01-01

    Social challenges tear at the fabric of the African American family, revealing complexities that identify a de facto leader, the African American woman. She exists in a chasm of overt circumstances which heavily influences her successes. The purpose of this study is to identify factors that motivated seven female African American community college…

  13. The African Storybook and Language Teacher Identity in Digital Times

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stranger--Johannessen, Espen; Norton, Bonny

    2017-01-01

    The African Storybook (ASb) is a digital initiative that promotes multilingual literacy for African children by providing openly licenced children's stories in multiple African languages, as well as English, French, and Portuguese. Based on Darvin and Norton's (2015) model of identity and investment, and drawing on the Douglas Fir Group's (2016)…

  14. Barriers to Hospice Use among African Americans: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington, Karla T.; Bickel-Swenson, Denise; Stephens, Nathan

    2008-01-01

    The present review was undertaken to explore recent evidence in the professional literature pertaining to use of hospice services by African Americans. The article addresses the research methods that have been used to study African American hospice use, obstacles to African American participation in hospice that have been identified, and…

  15. Persistence among African American Males in the Honors College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson Goins, Johnell Roxann

    2014-01-01

    Retaining African American students, specifically African American males, is an issue that plagues the American higher education system. Research shows that African American male students are the lowest represented group in the gifted studies programs (Ford, 2010). Lockie and Burke (1999); Chen and DeJardins (2010) and Bell (2010a) found that…

  16. African American Males in Counseling: Who's Pulling the Trigger Now?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bethea-Whitfield, Patricia

    African American males face numerous challenges to their physical and psychological well-being. This project is a survey of the literature and trends relative to African American males from 1987 to the present. In reviewing the fifteen years since Parham and McDavis published their now famous article on African American men as an endangered…

  17. Student-Centered Designs of Pan-African Literature Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    M'Baye, Babacar

    2010-01-01

    A student-centered teaching methodology is an essential ingredient of a successful Pan-African literary course. In this article, the author defines Pan-Africanism and how to go about designing a Pan-African literature course. The author combines reading assignments with journals, film presentations, and lectures in a productive learning…

  18. Representing African American Women in U.S. History Textbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schocker, Jessica B.; Woyshner, Christine

    2013-01-01

    This article addresses the dearth of African American women in high school U.S. history textbooks. The authors conducted a content analysis of the images in an African American history textbook and found that black women are underrepresented. Women are found in less than 15 percent of the images in the African American history text, while they…

  19. Empowerment Groups for Urban African American Girls: A Response

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holcomb-McCoy, Cheryl C.

    2005-01-01

    Although the author wanted to read Bemak, Chung, and Siroskey-Sabdo's article in an objective sense, her response to their article is most likely influenced by her own experiences as an African American female and mother of an African American daughter. To her, the paramount issue facing African American females is the double and sometimes triple…

  20. Women of African Descent: Persistence in Completing Doctorates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iddrisu, Vannetta Bailey

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the educational persistence of women of African descent (WOAD) in pursuit of a doctorate degree at universities in the southeastern United States. WOAD are women of African ancestry born outside the African continent. These women are heirs to an inner dogged determination and spirit to survive despite all odds (Pulliam, 2003,…

  1. Against the Wind: Five South Africans Follow Their Dreams.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Lesley

    This book for beginning readers tells the story of five South Africans who, though not very famous, all did things that no black South African had ever done before. They include: Simon Mkhize who, year after year, ran the Comrades Marathon unofficially, ignoring its racial bans; Magema M. Fuze, who was the first black South African to publish a…

  2. African Education Research. Part One: Issues and Patterns.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bigelow, Ross Edgar

    This study of 416 African Education Research (AER) projects was conducted to: (a) provide information on current studies by Africans on African education; (b) provide a framework for critical analysis of research based on a classification of the issues; and (c) provide a listing and discussion of continuing research resources which would aid…

  3. Increase in African dust flux at the onset of commercial agriculture in the Sahel region.

    PubMed

    Mulitza, Stefan; Heslop, David; Pittauerova, Daniela; Fischer, Helmut W; Meyer, Inka; Stuut, Jan-Berend; Zabel, Matthias; Mollenhauer, Gesine; Collins, James A; Kuhnert, Henning; Schulz, Michael

    2010-07-08

    The Sahara Desert is the largest source of mineral dust in the world. Emissions of African dust increased sharply in the early 1970s (ref. 2), a change that has been attributed mainly to drought in the Sahara/Sahel region caused by changes in the global distribution of sea surface temperature. The human contribution to land degradation and dust mobilization in this region remains poorly understood, owing to the paucity of data that would allow the identification of long-term trends in desertification. Direct measurements of airborne African dust concentrations only became available in the mid-1960s from a station on Barbados and subsequently from satellite imagery since the late 1970s: they do not cover the onset of commercial agriculture in the Sahel region approximately 170 years ago. Here we construct a 3,200-year record of dust deposition off northwest Africa by investigating the chemistry and grain-size distribution of terrigenous sediments deposited at a marine site located directly under the West African dust plume. With the help of our dust record and a proxy record for West African precipitation we find that, on the century scale, dust deposition is related to precipitation in tropical West Africa until the seventeenth century. At the beginning of the nineteenth century, a sharp increase in dust deposition parallels the advent of commercial agriculture in the Sahel region. Our findings suggest that human-induced dust emissions from the Sahel region have contributed to the atmospheric dust load for about 200 years.

  4. Linking Nontraditional Physical Activity and Preterm Delivery in Urban African-American Women

    PubMed Central

    Sealy-Jefferson, Shawnita; Hegner, Kristy; Misra, Dawn P.

    2015-01-01

    Background Traditional risk factors for preterm delivery (PTD) do not account for the disparate rates among African-American women. Physical activity during pregnancy may protect women from PTD, but few studies exist in African Americans. Our objective was to examine the relationships between PTD and intensity and duration of leisure time physical activity (LTPA) as well as non-LTPA such as stair climbing and walking for a purpose during pregnancy. Methods Data were from a hybrid retrospective/prospective cohort study of urban low-income African-American women enrolled from 2001 to 2004 in the Baltimore PTD Study (n = 832). PTD was defined as birth before 37 completed weeks of gestation. Study participants reported physical activity during prenatal (n = 456) and post-partum (n = 376) interviews. Findings The rate of PTD was 16.7%. In unadjusted log-binomial regression models, we found no significant associations. However, in models adjusted for illicit drug use, locus of control, and a validated family resources scale, we found a significant decrease in prevalence of PTD for women who walked for a purpose more than 30 min/d (prevalence ratio, 0.64; 95% CI, 0.43–0.94), compared with women who walked less than or equal to 30 min/d. Conclusions These results suggest that walking for a purpose during pregnancy may confer protection against PTD among urban low-income African Americans. PMID:24981398

  5. Paleocene emergence of elephant relatives and the rapid radiation of African ungulates.

    PubMed

    Gheerbrant, Emmanuel

    2009-06-30

    Elephants are the only living representatives of the Proboscidea, a formerly diverse mammalian order whose history began with the 55-million years (mys) old Phosphatherium. Reported here is the discovery from the early late Paleocene of Morocco, ca. 60 mys, of the oldest and most primitive elephant relative, Eritherium azzouzorum n.g., n.sp., which is one of the earliest known representatives of modern placental orders. This well supported stem proboscidean is extraordinarily primitive and condylarth-like. It provides the first dental evidence of a resemblance between the proboscideans and African ungulates (paenungulates) on the one hand and the louisinines and early macroscelideans on the other. Eritherium illustrates the origin of the elephant order at a previously unknown primitive stage among paenungulates and "ungulates." The primitive morphology of Eritherium suggests a recent and rapid paenungulate radiation after the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary, probably favoured by early endemic African paleoecosystems. At a broader scale, Eritherium provides a new old calibration point of the placental tree and supports an explosive placental radiation. The Ouled Abdoun basin, which yields the oldest known African placentals, is a key locality for elucidating phylogeny and early evolution of paenungulates and other related endemic African lineages.

  6. Improving health services for African migrants in China: A health diplomacy perspective

    PubMed Central

    McLaughlin, Megan M.; Lee, Margaret C.; Hall, Brian J.; Bulterys, Marc; Ling, Li; Tucker, Joseph D.

    2014-01-01

    Global health has been an increasingly prominent component of foreign policy in the last decade. The term health diplomacy has been used to describe this growing interface between foreign policy and global health, and it encompasses both the concept of using health to further foreign policy objectives, as well as the idea that diplomatic tools can be helpful for attaining public health goals. The Chinese presence in Africa has grown in the last 15 years, generating increased interest in Sino-African relations. While much has been written in recent years about the Chinese presence in Africa, the growing numbers of Africans in China have attracted considerably less attention. Many are small-scale traders and might be expected to face many of the health challenges common among foreign migrants, but their health needs have been largely unrecognised. In this paper, we consider how a health diplomacy approach could be applied to African migrants in China, and the potential advantages and limitations of this strategy. We identify areas of overlap between public health, trade, and foreign policy goals that can be emphasised to generate support for improved services for African migrants in China and to engage partners from a diversity of sectors. PMID:24807820

  7. Improving health services for African migrants in China: A health diplomacy perspective.

    PubMed

    McLaughlin, Megan M; Lee, Margaret C; Hall, Brian J; Bulterys, Marc; Ling, Li; Tucker, Joseph D

    2014-01-01

    Global health has become an increasingly prominent component of foreign policy in the last decade. The term health diplomacy has been used to describe this growing interface between foreign policy and global health, and it encompasses both the concept of using health to further foreign policy objectives as well as the idea that diplomatic tools can be helpful for attaining public health goals. The Chinese presence in Africa has grown in the last 15 years, generating increased interest in Sino-African relations. While much has been written in recent years about the Chinese presence in Africa, the growing numbers of Africans in China have attracted considerably less attention. Many are small-scale traders and might be expected to face many of the health challenges common among foreign migrants, but their health needs have been largely unrecognised. In this paper, we consider how a health diplomacy approach could be applied to African migrants in China, and the potential advantages and limitations of this strategy. We identify areas of overlap between public health, trade and foreign policy goals that can be emphasised to generate support for improved services for African migrants in China and to engage partners from a diversity of sectors.

  8. The Southern African Regional Science Initiative (SAFARI 2000). Dry-Season Campaign: An Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swap, R. J.; Annegarn, H. J.; Suttles, J. T.; Haywood, J.; Hely, C.; Hobbs, P. V.; Holben, B. N.; Ji, J.; King, M. D.; Bhartia, P. K. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The Southern African Regional Science Initiative (SAFARI 2000) is an international science project investigating the southern African earth-atmosphere-human system. The experiment was conducted over a two-year period March 1999 - March 2001. The dry season field campaign (August-Steptember 2000) was the most intensive activity and involving over 200 scientists from 18 different nations. The main objectives of this campaign were to characterize and quantify the biogenic, pyrogenic and anthropogenic aerosol and trace gas emissions and their transport and transformations in the atmosphere and to validate the NASA Earth Observing System (EOS) satellite Terra within a scientific context. Five aircraft, namely two South African Weather Service aircraft, University of Washington CV-580, the UK Meteorological Office C-130 and the NASA ER-2, with different altitude capabilities, participated in the campaign. Additional airborne sampling of southern African air masses that had moved downwind of the subcontinent was conducted by the CSIRO over Australia. Multiple observations were taken in various sectors for a variety of synoptic conditions. Flight missions were designed to maximize synchronous over-flights of the NASA TERRA satellite platform, above regional ground validation and science targets. Numerous smaller-scale ground validation activities took place throughout the region during the campaign period.

  9. The West African Monsoon in the Regional Climate Model COSMO-CLM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kothe, S.; Ahrens, B.

    2010-09-01

    The West African Monsoon is in parts of Africa the exceedingly climatic process with a high influence on flora, fauna and economy. In this study we evaluated ECHAM5 and ERA-Interim driven CCLM regional climate simulations of Africa to analyze the reproduction of characteristics of the West African Monsoon in the model. As indicators for the monsoon we looked at the total precipitation and the outgoing long-wave radiation (OLR) as a hint for convective clouds. Additionally the West African Monsoon Index (WAMI) should give a view at the dynamical component of the monsoon. Compared to the large-scale driving models, CCLM was not able to achieve more accurate results. There were regional strong under- and overestimations in precipitation but the mean values showed quite good results with a maximum difference of about 20%. For the ECHAM5 driven CCLM simulation, the strongest overestimation of precipitation at the African West coast, was combined with a strong overestimation of OLR, which indicated too much convection in this area. The model caught the WAMI very well. In a next step we want to quantify the influence of the driving model and the impact of surface features like the surface albedo on the monsoon.

  10. Trends and variability in East African rainfall and temperature observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seregina, Larisa; Ermert, Volker; Fink, Andreas H.; Pinto, Joaquim G.

    2014-05-01

    The economy of East Africa is highly dependent on agriculture, leading to a strong vulnerability of local society to fluctuations in seasonal rainfall amounts, including extreme events. Hence, the knowledge about the evolution of seasonal rainfall under future climate conditions is crucial. Rainfall regimes over East Africa are influenced by multiple factors, including two monsoon systems, several convergence zones and the Rift Valley lakes. In addition, local conditions, like topography, modulate the large-scale rainfall pattern. East African rainfall variability is also influenced by various teleconnections like the Indian Ocean Zonal Mode and El Niño Southern Oscillation. Regarding future climate projections, regional and global climate models partly disagree on the increase or decrease of East African rainfall. The specific aim of the present study is the acquirement of historic data from weather stations in East Africa (Kenya, Tanzania, Ruanda and Uganda), the use of gridded satellite (rainfall) products (ARC2 and TRMM), and three-dimensional atmospheric reanalysis (e.g., ERA-Interim) to quantify climate variability in the recent past and to understand its causes. Climate variability and trends, including changes in extreme events, are evaluated using ETCCDI climate change and standardized precipitation indices. These climate indices are determined in order to investigate the variability of temperature and rainfall and their trends with the focus on most recent decades. In the follow-up, statistical and dynamical analyses are conducted to quantify the local impact of pertinent large-scale modes of climate variability (Indian Ocean Zonal Mode, El Niño Southern Oscillation, Sea Surface Temperature of the Indian Ocean).

  11. Diversity and origin of South African chickens.

    PubMed

    Mtileni, B J; Muchadeyi, F C; Maiwashe, A; Chimonyo, M; Groeneveld, E; Weigend, S; Dzama, K

    2011-10-01

    The objectives of this study were to analyze the genetic diversity and structure of South African conserved and field chicken populations and to investigate the maternal lineages of these chicken populations. Four South African conserved chicken populations (n = 89), namely, Venda (VD_C), Ovambo, Naked Neck, and Potchefstroom Koekoek from the Animal Production Institute of the Agricultural Research Council, and 2 field populations, the Venda and Ovambo (OV_F), from which the Ovambo and the Venda conservation flocks were assumed to have been sampled, were genotyped for 460 bp of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) D-loop sequence. Haplotypes of these chickens were aligned to 7 Japanese and 9 Chinese and Eurasian chicken mtDNA D-loop sequences taken from GenBank and reflecting populations from presumed centers of domestication. Sequence analysis revealed 48 polymorphic sites that defined 13 haplotypes in the South African chicken populations. All 6 South African conserved and field chicken populations observed were found to be polymorphic, with the number of haplotypes ranging from 3 for VD_C to 8 for OV_F. The lowest haplotype diversity, 0.54 ± 0.08, was observed in VD_C chickens, whereas the highest value, 0.88 ± 0.05, was observed in OV_F chickens. Genetic diversity between the 4 South African conserved and 2 field chicken populations constituted 12.34% of the total genetic variation, whereas within-population diversity constituted 87.66% of the total variation. The median network analysis of the mtDNA D-loop haplotypes observed in the South African conserved and field populations and the reference set resulted in 5 main clades. All 6 South African chickens were equally represented in the major clade, E, which is presumed to be of Indian subcontinent maternal origin and may have its roots in Southeast Asia. The results showed multiple maternal lineages of South African chickens. Conservation flocks and field chicken populations shared the major haplotypes A, D and E

  12. Mammary gland tumors in captive African hedgehogs.

    PubMed

    Raymond, J T; Gerner, M

    2000-04-01

    From December 1995 to July 1999, eight mammary gland tumors were diagnosed in eight adult captive female African hedgehogs (Atelerix albiventris). The tumors presented as single or multiple subcutaneous masses along the cranial or caudal abdomen that varied in size for each hedgehog. Histologically, seven of eight (88%) mammary gland tumors were malignant. Tumors were classified as solid (4 cases), tubular (2 cases), and papillary (2 cases). Seven tumors had infiltrated into the surrounding stroma and three tumors had histologic evidence of neoplastic vascular invasion. Three hedgehogs had concurrent neoplasms. These are believed to be the first reported cases of mammary gland tumors in African hedgehogs.

  13. E-Voting: A South African Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swanepoel, E.; Thomson, K.; van Niekerk, J. F.

    The South African democracy, despite being worthy of admiration, is in its infancy. As such its electoral processes still needs to be nurtured and protected. Since 1994 there has been four national elections. All of these have been declared "free and fair" by the Independent Electoral Commission. However, there has been some problems and growing pains. This paper firstly discusses the current electoral system in South Africa. It then examines E-voting systems and discusses the feasibility of such a voting system for use in the South African context.

  14. The impact of a culturally enhanced drug prevention program on drug and alcohol refusal efficacy among urban African American girls.

    PubMed

    Belgrave, Faye Z; Reed, Melba C; Plybon, Laura E; Corneille, Maya

    2004-01-01

    This study examined the utility of the Specific Event Drug and Alcohol Refusal Efficacy scale (SEDARE) as an outcome of a culturally enhanced drug abuse prevention program for urban African-American girls in early adolescence. The SEDARE captures the perceived likelihood that youth will use drugs and alcohol in specific situations. Ninety-two girls participated in the program. Girls in the intervention group had higher drug refusal efficacy as measured by the SEDARE than girls in the comparison group. Girls varied in situations they perceived they could refuse drugs and alcohol. Findings are discussed with implications for drug abuse prevention programs for urban African-American girls.

  15. The African VLBI network project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loots, Anita

    2015-01-01

    larger teams in science, engineering and technology issues and collaborate with the broader global science community to develop new African radio astronomy science communities.

  16. Epidemiology of human African trypanosomiasis

    PubMed Central

    Franco, Jose R; Simarro, Pere P; Diarra, Abdoulaye; Jannin, Jean G

    2014-01-01

    Human African trypanosomiasis (HAT), or sleeping sickness, is caused by Trypanosoma brucei gambiense, which is a chronic form of the disease present in western and central Africa, and by Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense, which is an acute disease located in eastern and southern Africa. The rhodesiense form is a zoonosis, with the occasional infection of humans, but in the gambiense form, the human being is regarded as the main reservoir that plays a key role in the transmission cycle of the disease. The gambiense form currently assumes that 98% of the cases are declared; the Democratic Republic of the Congo is the most affected country, with more than 75% of the gambiense cases declared. The epidemiology of the disease is mediated by the interaction of the parasite (trypanosome) with the vectors (tsetse flies), as well as with the human and animal hosts within a particular environment. Related to these interactions, the disease is confined in spatially limited areas called “foci”, which are located in Sub-Saharan Africa, mainly in remote rural areas. The risk of contracting HAT is, therefore, determined by the possibility of contact of a human being with an infected tsetse fly. Epidemics of HAT were described at the beginning of the 20th century; intensive activities have been set up to confront the disease, and it was under control in the 1960s, with fewer than 5,000 cases reported in the whole continent. The disease resurged at the end of the 1990s, but renewed efforts from endemic countries, cooperation agencies, and nongovernmental organizations led by the World Health Organization succeeded to raise awareness and resources, while reinforcing national programs, reversing the trend of the cases reported, and bringing the disease under control again. In this context, sustainable elimination of the gambiense HAT, defined as the interruption of the transmission of the disease, was considered as a feasible target for 2030. Since rhodesiense HAT is a zoonosis

  17. "Brothers Gonna Work It Out:" Understanding the Pedagogic Performance of African American Male Teachers Working with African American Male Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Anthony L.

    2009-01-01

    Drawing from ethnographic data, this paper explores how African American male teachers working with African American male students performed their pedagogy. This paper highlights how teachers' understanding of African American males social and educational needs shaped their pedagogical performance. Interestingly however, teachers' performance was…

  18. Scale and scaling in soils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Scale is recognized as a central concept in the description of the hierarchical organization of our world. Pressing environmental and societal problems such require an understanding of how processes operate at different scales, and how they can be linked across scales. Soil science as many other dis...

  19. Mechanisms of African Aerosol-Climate Interactions and their Forcing on Dynamical Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosseinpour, F.; Wilcox, E. M.

    2012-12-01

    African climate is often interpreted as a continental scale phenomenon which could have strong complex remote influences on global atmospheric circulation, as well as large scale patterns of climate variability and climate change. More than 90% of aerosol optical depth (AOD) over West Africa, and more than 80% over the eastern tropical Atlantic Ocean during summer are contributed by dust particles (K. M. Lau et. al., 2009). Dust aerosols and smoke from wildfires can propagate vertically above the boundary layer, which allows zonal winds in mid-troposphere to transport them thousands of kilometers horizontally. This process can extend their atmospheric life cycles, and their global climatic impact. In this study, ensemble of the Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) and the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data sets for warm season were used to better understand the long-term effect of African radiative forcing on large-scale dynamical systems, and their interaction with climatic circulations. In cloud free condition, strong positive correlation exists between the total precipitation and soil wetness over western tropics of Africa and AOD for dust particles over Northern Africa. Increasing absorption of short-wave radiation by smoke in South-West Africa is accompanied with more precipitation in the ITCZ, which is associated with positive core of vorticity at 500 hPa over western African tropical region. African dust and smoke has warming effect in the vertical averaged of troposphere. In warm season, the long-term average of atmospheric heating due to dust and smoke ranges from 10 to 35 Wm-2. Furthermore, the climatic variability is the least over western tropics of Africa which could be due to feedback of soil memory. Convection along with the net downward long-wave radiative flux at surface has increased over the northern African dust region, while these components have decreased over the southern African

  20. "Now the African reigns supreme": the rise of African boxing on the Witwatersrand, 1924-1959.

    PubMed

    Fleming, Tyler

    2011-01-01

    This essay explores the growth of boxing among the African populations on the Witwatersrand region of South Africa between 1924 and 1959. It details how the sport's jump in popularity with Africans paralleled migration to Johannesburg. Africans increasingly saw boxing as an activity and skill conducive with survival in this new environment, and thus the sport grew in popularity, stature, and skill-level amongst this emergent urban population. The essay further explores the various ways that the sport was disseminated and popularized during the era, thus detailing how the sport reached both the African masses and petit-bourgeois educated elite. As their presence in Johannesburg became more and more permanent, boxing came to encompass various meanings and ideals, such as notions of discipline, independence and civility, to these urban populations.