Science.gov

Sample records for african studies center

  1. Computer Networks and African Studies Centers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuntz, Patricia S.

    The use of electronic communication in the 12 Title VI African Studies Centers is discussed, and the networks available for their use are reviewed. It is argued that the African Studies Centers should be on the cutting edge of contemporary electronic communication and that computer networks should be a fundamental aspect of their programs. An…

  2. Recruitment Challenges: Lessons from Senior Centers and Older African-American Participants in a Literacy Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ntiri, Daphne W.; Stewart, Merry

    2010-01-01

    This article reviews the challenges encountered in the recruitment of urban older African-Americans in a study to explore the effects of interactive educational intervention on functional health literacy and diabetes knowledge. Our methods included identification of challenges related to the individual characteristics of seniors' centers that…

  3. Family Structure, Parental Investment, and Educational Outcomes among Black South Africans. Population Studies Center Research Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Kermyt G.

    This study examined the relationship between family structure, expenditures on education, and children's educational outcomes for black South Africans, using the nationally representative 1995 October Household Survey. The analyses focused on 28,215 individuals, ages 10 to 24 years, who had not completed secondary schools. The findings indicated…

  4. Constructing an Authentic Self: The Challenges and Promise of African-Centered Pedagogy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merry, Michael S.; New, William

    2008-01-01

    African-centered pedagogy aims to cultivate a positive and productive culturally based identity for Black children, and African-centered schools endeavor to supply that cultural base, placing the history, culture, and life experiences of individuals of African descent at the center of everything that they do. Our study examines the historical…

  5. Standardized data collection for multi-center clinical studies of severe malaria in African children: establishing the SMAC network

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Terrie; Olola, Christopher; Valim, Clarissa; Agbenyega, Tsiri; Kremsner, Peter; Krishna, Sanjeev; Kwiatkowski, Dominic; Newton, Charles; Missinou, Michel; Pinder, Margaret; Wypij, David

    2006-01-01

    The Severe Malaria in African Children (SMAC) network was established to conduct mortality-based trials. Although falciparum malaria kills more than one million children each year, single centers cannot enroll enough patients to detect reductions of 20–30% in mortality rates. Our aim was to quantify and describe severe malaria across a variety of epidemiological settings so that we could design intervention studies with more precise sample size estimates. We used a standardized surveillance mechanism to capture clinical, laboratory, and outcome data on all parasitemic children admitted to hospital. Between December 2000 and December 2003, 20,333 patients were enrolled in five sites. The frequency of severe malaria syndromes (cerebral malaria, severe malarial anemia and acidosis) differed between sites, as did the syndrome-specific mortality rates. Intervention studies targeted at reducing mortality in one or a combination of severe malaria syndromes would require 3–4 years to complete within the existing network. These data provide more accurate estimates of the disease burden of children hospitalized for malaria in sub-Saharan Africa. Networks are required to recruit enough patients for mortality-based studies and to encompass the epidemiological diversity of malaria in sub-Saharan Africa. SMAC represents the first effort to develop this capacity. PMID:16551469

  6. African Studies Computer Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuntz, Patricia S.

    African studies computer resources that are readily available in the United States with linkages to Africa are described, highlighting those most directly corresponding to African content. Africanists can use the following four fundamental computer systems: (1) Internet/Bitnet; (2) Fidonet; (3) Usenet; and (4) dial-up bulletin board services. The…

  7. Student-Centered Designs of Pan-African Literature Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    M'Baye, Babacar

    2010-01-01

    A student-centered teaching methodology is an essential ingredient of a successful Pan-African literary course. In this article, the author defines Pan-Africanism and how to go about designing a Pan-African literature course. The author combines reading assignments with journals, film presentations, and lectures in a productive learning…

  8. African-Centered Schooling in Theory and Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pollard, Diane S., Ed.; Ajirotutu, Cheryl S., Ed.

    This book tells the story of two African-centered schools, an elementary school and a middle school, in an urban public school system. Both schools were originally conceived as "all male academies," but legal and political obstacles caused both to become coeducational, although still African-centered. The factors that affected the implementation…

  9. Toward a Caribbean psychology: an African-centered approach.

    PubMed

    Sutherland, Marcia Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    Although the Americas and Caribbean region are purported to comprise different ethnic groups, this article’s focus is on people of African descent, who represent the largest ethnic group in many countries. The emphasis on people of African descent is related to their family structure, ethnic identity, cultural, psychohistorical, and contemporary psychosocial realities. This article discusses the limitations of Western psychology for theory, research, and applied work on people of African descent in the Americas and Caribbean region. In view of the adaptations that some people of African descent have made to slavery, colonialism, and more contemporary forms of cultural intrusions, it is argued that when necessary, notwithstanding Western psychology’s limitations, Caribbean psychologists should reconstruct mainstream psychology to address the psychological needs of these Caribbean people. The relationship between theory and psychological interventions for the optimal development of people of African descent is emphasized throughout this article. In this regard, the African-centered and constructionist viewpoint is argued to be of utility in addressing the psychological growth and development of people of African descent living in the Americas and Caribbean region. PMID:22013618

  10. A Teacher's Guide to African Narratives. Studies in African Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Brien, Sara Talis

    This guide is designed to help secondary school teachers include African literature in their classes. It furnishes English and social studies teachers with a foundation for teaching African literature by offering critical commentary on the texts themselves. A synthesis of anthropological and historical material is presented to help both teachers…

  11. Comparative Validity of MMPI-2 Scores of African American and Caucasian Mental Health Center Clients.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNulty, John L.; Graham, John R.; Ben-Porath, Yossef S.; Stein, L. A. R.

    1997-01-01

    The comparative validity of Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 (MMPI-2) scores for 123 African American and 561 Caucasian clients from a community mental health center was studied by contrasting mean MMPI-2 scores and correlations between these scores and therapists' ratings. Correlations were not significantly different for racial…

  12. Making Connections with the Past: (Un)Masking African American History at a Neighborhood Community Center

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stiler, Gary; Allen, Lisa

    2006-01-01

    The Carver Community Center in Evansville, Indiana, uses an academic enrichment program to support neighborhood students. The curriculum involves children in learning about African-American literary traditions and folk art. The Center's work is based on the premise that African-American children need to encounter the reality of history as in…

  13. Beyond Afrocentricism: Alternatives for African American Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Perry A.

    1991-01-01

    Discusses new directions for African-American studies curricula. Argues that the Afrocentrist perspective presents a static model that does not adequately address the dynamic interaction of Afrocentric sensibility with Western-dominated economic, cultural, and political structures. The African-American studies discipline should be conceptualized…

  14. URBAN STUDIES CENTER.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    HEBOUT, JOHN E.

    THE CENTER WORKS WITH RUTGERS UNIVERSITY TO MAKE USE OF URBAN STUDIES IN APPROPRIATE RESEARCH AND TEACHING PROGRAMS AND IN OTHER INTELLECTUAL SERVICES TO THE COMMUNITY. THE FIVE MAIN RESPONSIBILITIES OF THE CENTER - EXTENSION, RESEARCH AND EDUCATION, LIBRARY SERVICES, OPPORTUNITIES EXPANSION PROJECT, AND THE URBAN FELLOWSHIP PROGRAM - ARE…

  15. Embracing the Village and Tribe: Critical Thinking for Social Workers from an African-Centered Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dyson, Yarneccia D.; Brice, Tanya Smith

    2016-01-01

    The social work department at a small historically Black college implemented an African-centered approach to the course Critical Thinking for Social Workers for freshmen students who declared social work as their major. We firmly believe that knowing and understanding the history and legacy of people of African descent is extremely important in…

  16. Application of the Schumann resonance spectral decomposition in characterizing the main African thunderstorm center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dyrda, Michał; Kulak, Andrzej; Mlynarczyk, Janusz; Ostrowski, Michał; Kubisz, Jerzy; Michalec, Adam; Nieckarz, Zenon

    2014-12-01

    In this paper we present a new method for quantifying the main tropical thunderstorm regions based on extremely low frequency (ELF) electromagnetic wave measurements from a single station—the Hylaty ELF station in Central Europe. Our approach is based on Schumann resonance (SR) measurements, which we apply as an example to thunderstorms in Africa. By solving the inverse problem, using the SR power spectrum templates derived analytically, we calculate distances to the most powerful thunderstorm centers and present simplified 1-D thunderstorm lightning activity "maps" in absolute units C2m2/s. We briefly describe our method of SR power spectrum analysis and present how this method is used with real observational data. We obtained the monthly lightning activity maps of the African storm centers with a spatial resolution of 1° and temporal resolution of 10 min for January and August 2011. This allowed us to study the varying location and intensities of the African storm centers in different seasons of the year. A cross check of the obtained lightning activity maps with Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission satellite data recorded by the Lightning Imaging Sensor and the derived correlation coefficients between SR and optical data were used to validate the proposed method. We note that modeling a maximum possible number of resonance modes in the SR power spectra (in our case, seven resonances) is essential in application of the proposed approach.

  17. Health parties for African American study recruitment.

    PubMed

    Sadler, Georgia Robins; York, Crystal; Madlensky, Lisa; Gibson, Kathi; Wasserman, Linda; Rosenthal, Eric; Barbier, Leslie; Newman, Vicky A; Tso, Cindy

    2006-01-01

    Innovative strategies are needed to increase minorities' research participation. Using existing social networks within the African American community, "home health parties" were tested as a way to recruit African American women to a breast cancer control study. Parties included social, educational, and recruitment components. All women attending health parties consented, completed a survey, and received the study's preliminary breast cancer risk assessment. There were no differences in rates of participation for subsequent study components between women recruited via parties versus other methods. Health parties are viable recruitment strategies, reduce barriers to participation, provide a supportive environment, and are relatively inexpensive. PMID:17020516

  18. Karla Holloway to Lead African and African-American Studies at Duke University.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawkins, B. Denise

    1996-01-01

    The appointment of Karla F. C. Holloway, an African American woman, as director of the Duke University (North Carolina) African American Studies program is representative of an institutional effort to stabilize the program and to recruit African American scholars to the institution, across disciplines. During Holloway's interim directorship,…

  19. Racism, Racial Resilience, and African American Youth Development: Person-Centered Analysis as a Tool to Promote Equity and Justice.

    PubMed

    Neblett, Enrique W; Sosoo, Effua E; Willis, Henry A; Bernard, Donte L; Bae, Jiwoon; Billingsley, Janelle T

    2016-01-01

    Racism constitutes a significant risk to the healthy development of African American youth. Fortunately, however, not all youth who experience racism evidence negative developmental outcomes. In this chapter, we examine person-centered analysis (PCA)-a quantitative technique that investigates how variables combine across individuals-as a useful tool for elucidating racial and ethnic protective processes that mitigate the negative impact of racism. We review recent studies employing PCA in examinations of racial identity, racial socialization, and other race-related experiences, as well as how these constructs correlate with and impact African American youth development. We also consider challenges and limitations of PCA and conclude with a discussion of future research and how PCA might be used to promote equity and justice for African American and other racial and ethnic minority youth who experience racism. PMID:27474422

  20. Caring School Leadership: A South African Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Vyver, Cornelius P.; van der Westhuizen, Philip C.; Meyer, L. W.

    2014-01-01

    The research pivoted on the question whether South African school principals fulfilled their caring role towards teachers. The aims of the study were threefold. First, to determine how principals rated their care-giving, secondly to determine whether significant discrepancies existed between principals' rating of their care-giving and…

  1. African Americans and Hospice Care: A Culture-Centered Exploration of Enrollment Disparities.

    PubMed

    Dillon, Patrick J; Basu, Ambar

    2016-11-01

    Over the past decade, scholars and practitioners have called for efforts to reduce disparities in the cost and quality of end-of-life care; a key contributor to these disparities is the underuse of hospice care by African American patients. While previous studies have often relied on interviewing minority individuals who may or may not have been terminally ill and of whom few were using hospice care services, this essay draws upon the culture-centered approach to report the findings of a grounded theory analysis of 39 interviews with 26 African American hospice patients (n = 10) and lay caregivers (n = 16). Participants identified several barriers to hospice enrollment and reported how they were able to overcome these barriers by reframing/prioritizing cultural values and practices, creating alternative goals for hospice care, and relying on information obtained outside the formal health system. These findings have implications for understanding hospice experiences, promoting hospice access, and improving end-of-life care. PMID:27007165

  2. Engaging African American and Latino Adolescent Males through School-Based Health Centers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bains, Ranbir Mangat; Franzen, Carolyn W.; White-Frese', Jesse

    2014-01-01

    African American and Latino males are less likely to seek mental health services and obtain adequate care than their White counterparts. They are more likely to receive mental health services in school-based health centers (SBHCs) than in other community-based setting. The purpose of this article was to understand the issues and reasons these…

  3. The Development of an African-Centered Urban High School by Trial and Error

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Theresa Y.; Jeremiah, Maxine

    2011-01-01

    As part of the Small Schools movement in Chicago Public Schools, a high school dedicated to African-centered education was chartered. The virtues of Ma'at and the Nguzo Saba, otherwise known as the seven principles of Kwanza, were the foundational principles of the school and were to be integrated into all of the practices and policies of the…

  4. Teaching African American Youth: Learning from the Lives of Three African American Social Studies Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McBride, Chantee Earl

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the life histories of three African American social studies teachers, focusing on the evolution and changes in their identities, perspectives, and attitudes related to their profession and instructional practice. In addition, the study addresses the significance of the teachers' racialized experiences as African Americans and…

  5. Contrastive Studies - African Languages and English. Specialised Bibliography C9.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    British Council, London (England). English-Teaching Information Centre.

    This selective bibliography lists 8 books and 19 journal articles dealing with contrastive studies of African languages and English. The entries range in date from 1953 to 1972 with the majority published since 1965. The books cited are African and British publications and the articles appeared in well-known African, European or American…

  6. Social Studies in African Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adeyemi, Michael B., Ed.

    This collection of essays is organized into two sections: Section 1 deals with general issues in social studies, while Section 2 examines social studies education in Botswana, Ethiopia, Ghana, Kenya, Malawi, Namibia, Nigeria, Tanzania, and Zambia. Essays in Section One are: (1) "The Historical Context of Education in British Colonial Africa" (L.…

  7. Mapping the African thunderstorm center in absolute units using Schumann resonance spectral decomposition method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dyrda, Michal; Kulak, Andrzej; Mlynarczyk, Janusz

    2015-04-01

    Monitoring of the global lightning activity provides a very useful tool to study the global warming phenomenon and the other longer-scale climate changes induced by humans. The lightning activity is measured using various observational methods form space (optical satellite observations) as well as from the ground mostly by VLF /LF lightning detection networks, i.e. World Wide Lightning Location Network (WWLLN) or lightning detection network (LINET) in Europe. However, the global lightning activity measurements are possible only in the ELF range. Here we examine the African thunderstorm activity center, which is the most violent and active one. In a spherical damped resonator, such as the Earth-ionosphere cavity, the electromagnetic field is described by the solution of an inhomogeneous wave equation. For such equation the general solution can be expressed by the superposition of the solutions of the homogeneous equation, describing the resonance field, and the component, which is quite strong close to the source and weakens with source-observer separation. Thus, the superposition of the standing wave field with the field of traveling waves, which supply the energy from the lighting discharges to the global resonator, is a main reason for an asymmetric shape of the observational Schumann resonance (SR) power spectra, which highly deviate from the Lorentz curves. It is possible to separate this component from the signal using the spectrum decomposition method proposed by Kułak et al. [2006]. In our approach, we apply the inverse problem solution for determining the distance of the dominant lightning source. The distances to the thunderstorm centers are calculated using the analytical models for the electromagnetic waves propagation in the Earth-ionosphere cavity. Such forms of analytic solutions of the resonant field in the spherical cavity is the zonal harmonic series representation, described by Mushtak and Williams [2002] and we calculated the sets of such curves

  8. Changing Fatherhood: An Exploratory Qualitative Study with African and African Caribbean Men in England

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Robert; Hewison, Alistair; Wildman, Stuart; Roskell, Carolyn

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents findings from a qualitative study undertaken with 46 African and African Caribbean men exploring their experiences of fatherhood. Data analysis was informed by Connell's theoretical work on changing gender relations. Findings indicate that fathers' lives were mediated by masculinities, racism, gender, migration and…

  9. Centering on Independent Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Stephanie

    Independent study is an instructional approach that can have enormous power in the classroom. It can be used successfully with students at all ability levels, even though it is often associated with gifted students. Independent study is an opportunity for students to study a subject of their own choosing under the guidance of a teacher. The…

  10. Design of the Lifestyle Improvement through Food and Exercise (LIFE) study: a randomized controlled trial of self-management of type 2 diabetes among African American patients from safety net health centers.

    PubMed

    Lynch, Elizabeth B; Liebman, Rebecca; Ventrelle, Jennifer; Keim, Kathryn; Appelhans, Bradley M; Avery, Elizabeth F; Tahsin, Bettina; Li, Hong; Shapera, Merle; Fogelfeld, Leon

    2014-11-01

    The Lifestyle Improvement through Food and Exercise (LIFE) study is a community-based randomized-controlled trial to measure the effectiveness of a lifestyle intervention to improve glycemic control among African Americans with type 2 diabetes attending safety net clinics. The study enrolled African American adults with a diagnosis of type 2 diabetes and HbA1c ≥ 7.0 who had attended specific safety net community clinics in the prior year. 210 patients will be enrolled and randomized to either the LIFE intervention or a standard of care control group, which consists of two dietitian-led diabetes self-management classes. The LIFE intervention was delivered in 28 group sessions over 12 months and focused on improving diet through dietitian-led culturally-tailored nutrition education, increasing physical activity through self-monitoring using an accelerometer, increasing ability to manage blood sugar through modifications to lifestyle, and providing social support for behavior change. In addition to the group sessions, peer supporters made regular telephone calls to participants to monitor progress toward behavioral goals and provide social support. The 12-month intervention phase was followed by a six-month maintenance phase consisting of two group sessions. The primary outcome of the study is change in A1C from baseline to 12 months, and an additional follow-up will occur at 18 months. The hypothesis of the study is that the participants in the LIFE intervention will show a greater improvement in glycemic control over 12 months than participants in the control group. PMID:25245954

  11. Design of the Lifestyle Improvement through Food and Exercise (LIFE) study: A randomized controlled trial of self-management of type 2 diabetes among African American patients from safety net health centers

    PubMed Central

    Liebman, Rebecca; Ventrelle, Jennifer; Keim, Kathryn; Appelhans, Bradley M.; Avery, Elizabeth F.; Tahsin, Bettina; Li, Hong; Shapera, Merle; Fogelfeld, Leon

    2014-01-01

    The Lifestyle Improvement through Food and Exercise (LIFE) study is a community-based randomized-controlled trial to measure the effectiveness of a lifestyle intervention to improve glycemic control among African Americans with type 2 diabetes attending safety net clinics. The study enrolled African American adults with a diagnosis of type 2 diabetes and HbA1c ≥ 7.0 who had attended specific safety net community clinics in the prior year. 210 patients will be enrolled and randomized to either the LIFE intervention or a standard of care control group, which consists of two dietitian-led diabetes self-management classes. The LIFE intervention was delivered in 30 group sessions over 12-months and focused on improving diet through dietitian-led culturally-tailored nutrition education, increasing physical activity through self-monitoring using an accelerometer, increasing ability to manage blood sugar through modifications to lifestyle, and providing social support for behavior change. In addition to the group sessions, peer supporters made regular telephone calls to participants to monitor progress towards behavioral goals and provide social support. The 12-month intervention phase was followed by a six-month maintenance phase consisting of two group sessions. The primary outcome of the study is change in A1C from baseline to 12-months, and an additional follow-up will occur at 18-months. The hypothesis of the study is that the participants in the LIFE intervention will show a greater improvement in glycemic control over 12-months than participants in the control group. PMID:25245954

  12. Center for thin film studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shannon, Robert P.; Gibson, Ursula J.

    1987-11-01

    This report covers the first year of operation of the URI Thin Film Center (TFC), and describes a diverse array of studies on thin-film materials, substrates, and their processing and analysis. Individual efforts are highlighted in sections on nucleation studies, ion-assisted deposition, Rutherford backscattering spectrometry, Brillouin scattering, a continuum theory of the evolution of structure in thin films, a study of polishing parameters relevant to the preparation of substrates, and the setup of a characterization facility for the Center.

  13. Race Consciousness. African-American Studies for the New Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fossett, Judith Jackson, Ed.; Tucker, Jeffrey A., Ed.

    This collection of essays represents new scholarship in African American studies, drawing lessons from the past and providing insights into current intellectual trends. Topics such as the culture of America as a culture of race, legacies of slavery and colonialism, crime and welfare politics, and African American cultural studies are addressed.…

  14. Knowledge about Inquiry: A Study in South African High Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaigher, Estelle; Lederman, Norman; Lederman, Judith

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports a study on South African learners' knowledge about scientific inquiry using the Views About Scientific Inquiry (VASI) Questionnaire. The sample consisted of 105 grade 11 learners from 7 schools across the socio-economic spectrum in a South African city. A rubric for scoring the VASI Questionnaire was developed and refined…

  15. PSI-Center Validation Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, B. A.; Akcay, C.; Glasser, A. H.; Hansen, C. J.; Jarboe, T. R.; Marklin, G. J.; Milroy, R. D.; Morgan, K. D.; Norgaard, P. C.; Shumlak, U.; Sutherland, D. A.; Victor, B. S.; Sovinec, C. R.; O'Bryan, J. B.; Held, E. D.; Ji, J.-Y.; Lukin, V. S.

    2014-10-01

    The Plasma Science and Innovation Center (PSI-Center - http://www.psicenter.org) supports collaborating validation platform experiments with 3D extended MHD simulations using the NIMROD, HiFi, and PSI-TET codes. Collaborators include the Bellan Plasma Group (Caltech), CTH (Auburn U), HBT-EP (Columbia), HIT-SI (U Wash-UW), LTX (PPPL), MAST (Culham), Pegasus (U Wisc-Madison), SSX (Swarthmore College), TCSU (UW), and ZaP/ZaP-HD (UW). The PSI-Center is exploring application of validation metrics between experimental data and simulations results. Biorthogonal decomposition (BOD) is used to compare experiments with simulations. BOD separates data sets into spatial and temporal structures, giving greater weight to dominant structures. Several BOD metrics are being formulated with the goal of quantitive validation. Results from these simulation and validation studies, as well as an overview of the PSI-Center status will be presented.

  16. South African-ness Among Adolescents: The Emergence of a Collective Identity within the Birth to Twenty Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Norris, Shane A; Roeser, Robert W.; Richter, Linda M; Lewin, Nina; Ginsburg, Carren; Fleetwood, Stella A; Taole, Elizabeth; van der Wolf, Kees

    2009-01-01

    We assessed the emergence of a South African identity among Black, Colored (mixed ancestral origin), White (predominantly English speaking), and Indian adolescents participating in a birth cohort study called “Birth to Twenty” in Johannesburg, South Africa. We examined young people's certainty of their self-categorization as South African, the centrality of their personal, racial and linguistic, and South African identities in their self-definition, and their perceptions of South African life and society today. These results reflect a historical opportunity for full citizenship and national enfranchisement that the end of Apartheid heralded for Black and Colored individuals. Black and Colored youth tend to be more certain about their South African-ness, have a more collective identity, and have a more positive perception around South Africa. In contrast, White and Indian youth are less certain about their South African-ness, have a more individualistic identity, and have a less positive perception about South Africa today. PMID:19461896

  17. Planning the Social Studies Programme for the Contemporary African Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Enaohwo, J. Okpako

    1989-01-01

    Identifies characteristics of a viable social studies program for African nations, urging multidisciplinary and integrated approaches. Offers a cyclical framework for planning a curriculum which includes defining the problem, setting objectives, identifying methods of implementation, evaluation, and regeneration. (LS)

  18. African and Pacific Literature: A Comparative Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Kristine L.

    Literary writing in Africa and the Pacific addresses themes that reflect colonial experience and the struggles of newly independent nations to cope with change and conflicts between traditional and modern existence. The novels of Chinua Achebe of Nigeria and Ngugi Wa Thiong'o of Kenya illustrate many dominant themes of African literature. Achebe…

  19. Patient-Centered mHealth Living Donor Transplant Education Program for African Americans: Development and Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Sieverdes, John Christopher; Nemeth, Lynne S; Magwood, Gayenell S; Baliga, Prabhakar K; Chavin, Kenneth D; Brunner-Jackson, Brenda; Patel, Sachin K; Ruggiero, Kenneth J

    2015-01-01

    Background There is a critical need to expand the pool of available kidneys for African Americans who are on the transplant wait-list due to the disproportionally lower availability of deceased donor kidneys compared with other races/ethnic groups. Encouraging living donation is one method to fill this need. Incorporating mHealth strategies may be a way to deliver educational and supportive services to African American transplant-eligible patients and improve reach to those living in remote areas or unable to attend traditional group-session-based programs. Before program development, it is essential to perform formative research with target populations to determine acceptability and cultivate a patient-centered and culturally relevant approach to be used for program development. Objective The objectives of this study were to investigate African American kidney transplant recipients’ and kidney donors’/potential donors’ attitudes and perceptions toward mobile technology and its viability in an mHealth program aimed at educating patients about the process of living kidney donation. Methods Using frameworks from the technology acceptance model and self-determination theory, 9 focus groups (n=57) were administered to African Americans at a southeastern medical center, which included deceased/living donor kidney recipients and living donors/potential donors. After a demonstration of a tablet-based video education session and explanation of a group-based videoconferencing session, focus groups examined members’ perceptions about how educational messages should be presented on topics pertaining to the process of living kidney donation and the transplantation. Questionnaires were administered on technology use and perceptions of the potential program communication platform. Transcripts were coded and themes were examined using NVivo 10 software. Results Qualitative findings found 5 major themes common among all participants. These included the following: (1

  20. Patient- and Family-Centered Care as an approach to reducing disparities in asthma outcomes in urban African American children: A review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Harper, Felicity W. K.; Eggly, Susan; Crider, Beverly; Kobayashi, Hitomi; Meert, Kathleen L.; Ball, Allison; Penner, Louis A.; Gray, Herman; Albrecht, Terrance L.

    2016-01-01

    Background Patient- and family-centered care (PFCC) has the potential to address disparities in access and quality of healthcare for African American pediatric asthma patients by accommodating and responding to the individual needs of patients and families. Study Objectives To identify and evaluate research on the impact of family–provider interventions that reflect elements of PFCC on reducing disparities in the provision, access, quality, and use of healthcare services for African American pediatric asthma patients. Methods Electronic searches were conducted using PubMed, CINAHL, and Psyclnfo databases. Inclusion criteria were peer-reviewed, English-language articles on family–provider interventions that (a) reflected one or more elements of PFCC and (b) addressed healthcare disparities in urban African American pediatric asthma patients (≤18years). Results Thirteen interventions or programs were identified and reviewed. Designs included randomized clinical trials, controlled clinical trials, pre-and post-interventions, and program evaluations. Conclusions Few interventions were identified as explicitly providing PFCC in d pediatric asthma context, possibly because of a Iack of consensus on what constitutes PFCC in practice. Some studies have demonstrated that PFCC improves satisfaction and communication during clinical interactions. More empirical research is needed to understand whether PFCC interventions reduce care disparities and improve the provision, access, and quality of asthma healthcare for urban African American children. Electronic databases used PubMed, CINAHL, and Psyclnfo PMID:27269485

  1. African fossil tali: further multivariate morphometric studies.

    PubMed

    Lisowski, F P; Albrecht, G H

    1976-07-01

    Analysis of measurements from the tali of 21 individual fossil primates from Africa shows that the specimens fall into five clearly defined groups. Accordingly, these specimens have been included as groups along with extant species in a subsequent canonical analysis thus allowing the fossils to play their part in the determination of the canonical separations. The results of this procedure show that the five fossil groups lie in a part of the canonical space not occupied by any extant African primate. Their positions are between the envelope of Asiatic apes (Hylobates and Pongo) and the envelope of African forms near the edge which contains Pan and Papio. One fossil group is so similar to Hylobates that its talus may have functioned in locomotion in a parallel manner. Others lie near to Pongo in directions proceeding towards Pan and Papio and it is possible that this similarity may indicate remnants of morphological adaptation for climbing in these fossils. At the same time, however, individual specimens are closer to one or another of the extant groups and this considerable spread suggests that the locomotor adaptations as evidenced by talar morphology, of the primate fauna in Africa, may have been very different from those of the present day. This would not the inconsistent with the different habitats, floras and non-primate faunas that may have characterized the East African scene at these earlier times. Particular fossils from Olduvai and Kromdraai that are supposed to be australopithecine and therefore bipeds, are confirmed (Oxnard, '72; Lisowski et al., '74) as being totally different from man in their talar morphology and essentially rather similar to the majority of the other fossil tali examined. PMID:961834

  2. Experimentally Evaluating the Impact of a School-Based African-Centered Emancipatory Intervention on the Ethnic Identity of African American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Kelly M.; Andrews, Emily; Gaska, Karie; Sullivan, Cris; Bybee, Deborah; Ellick, Kecia L.

    2012-01-01

    Ethnic identity, the extent to which one defines one's self as a member of a particular ethnic group, has been found to be an important predictor of African American adolescents' psychological and behavioral well-being. This study experimentally examined the effects of a school-based emancipatory intervention on the ethnic identity of African…

  3. Mistrust, misperceptions, and miscommunication: A qualitative study of preferences about kidney transplantation among African-Americans

    PubMed Central

    Wachterman, Melissa W.; McCarthy, Ellen P.; Marcantonio, Edward R.; Ersek, Mary

    2015-01-01

    Background Kidney transplantation rates in the United States are lower among African-Americans than among Whites. Well-documented racial disparities in access to transplantation explain some, but not all, of these differences. Prior survey-based research suggests that African-American dialysis patients are less likely than Whites to desire transplantation, but little research has focused on an in-depth exploration of preferences about kidney transplantation among African-Americans. Thus, the purpose of the study was to explore preferences, and compare patients’ expectations about transplantation with actual status on the transplant list. Methods We conducted semi-structured interviews with sixteen African-Americans receiving chronic hemodialysis. We analyzed the interviews using the constant comparative method of qualitative analysis. We also reviewed the dialysis center's transplant list. Results Four dominant themes emerged: 1) Varied desire for transplant; 2) Concerns about donor source; 3) Barriers to transplantation; 4) Lack of communication with nephrologists and transplant team. A thread of mistrust about equity in the transplantation process flowed through themes 2-4. In 7/16 cases, patients’ understanding of their transplant listing status was discordant with their actual status. Conclusions Our study suggests that many African-Americans on hemodialysis are interested in kidney transplantation, but that interest is often tempered by concerns about transplantation, including misconceptions about the risks to recipients and donors. Mistrust about equity in the organ allocation process also contributed to ambivalence. The discordance between patients’ perceptions of listing status and actual status suggests communication gaps between African-American hemodialysis patients and physicians. Clinicians should avoid interpreting ambivalence about transplantation as lack of interest. PMID:25769556

  4. Development of the Jackson Heart Study Coordinating Center

    PubMed Central

    Campbell-Jenkins, Brenda W.; Addison, Clifton C.; Young, Lavon; Anugu, Pramod; Wilson, Gregory; Sarpong, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    The public health burden caused by cardiovascular disease (CVD) continues to adversely affect individuals in terms of cost, life expectancy, medical, pharmaceutical and hospital care. This burden has been excessive in the case of African Americans. The objective of this paper is to chronicle the procedures and processes that were implemented in the development of the Jackson Heart Study Coordinating Center. The Jackson Heart Study (JHS) is a population-based investigation of traditional and emerging risk factors that predict progression to CVD among African Americans. In response to the struggle against CVD, the Jackson Heart Study has convened a professional, technical, and administrative staff with specific competence in the operation of a coordinating center to handle the wide variety of areas related to CVD studies. The Jackson Heart Study Coordinating Center (JHSCC) was created to assure validity of the JHS findings and provide the resources necessary to meet comprehensive statistical needs (planning, implementing and monitoring data analysis); data management (designing, implementing and managing data collection and quality control), and administrative support. The JHSCC began with a commitment to support study functions in order to increase participant recruitment, retention and safety, meet regulatory requirements, prepare progress reports, and facilitate effective communication with the community and between all JHS centers. The JHSCC facilitates the efforts of the JHS scientists through the development and implementation of the study protocol. The efforts of the JHSCC have resulted in the successful preparation of scientific reports and manuscripts for publication and presentation of study findings and results. In summary, the JHSCC has emerged as an effective research mechanism that serves as the driving force behind the Jackson Heart Study activities. PMID:19543408

  5. Key Competencies: African and Afro-American Studies, Elementary Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Philadelphia School District, PA. Office of Curriculum and Instruction.

    Outlined in this booklet are key competencies for African and Afro-American studies courses in kindergarten through grade six in the Philadelphia school system. Afro-American studies are viewed as (1) developing students' ability to gain insights and destroy stereotypes and (2) providing a frame of reference for understanding the forces which have…

  6. Key Competencies: African and Afro-American Studies, Secondary Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Philadelphia School District, PA. Office of Curriculum and Instruction.

    This booklet identifies major competencies for African and Afro-American studies courses in grades seven through 12 in the Philadelphia school system. Afro-American studies are viewed as (1) developing students' ability to gain insights and destroy stereotypes and (2) providing a frame of reference for understanding the forces which have shaped…

  7. A Longitudinal Study of Household Change on African American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnett, Tracey E.; Rowley, Stephanie; Zimmerman, Marc A.; Vansadia, Preeti; Caldwell, Cleopatra Howard

    2011-01-01

    Few studies have examined the effects of household change on adolescent development. We study household composition change and its effect on development, as measured by both internalizing symptoms and externalizing behaviors, in a sample of urban African American adolescents. Household change was defined based on the movement in or out of the…

  8. African American Women's Sexual Objectification Experiences: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Laurel B.; Robinson, Dawn; Dispenza, Franco; Nazari, Negar

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of our study was to investigate African American women's experiences with sexual objectification. Utilizing grounded theory methodology as well as Black feminist thought and objectification theory as the research lenses, the results of this study uncovered how racist, sexist, and classist ideologies contributed to sexual…

  9. Notes toward an African Cultural Studies of Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Handel Kashope

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, the author attempts to sketch out both an argument for and the outlines of what might be termed an African cultural studies of education. This formation would actually be composed of several fields and discourses that are often taken up as quite distinct, namely critical approaches to education, cultural studies, and African…

  10. Center for Creative Studies, Detroit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    AIA Journal, 1976

    1976-01-01

    One of the ten buildings chosen to receive 1976 AIA honor awards, the arts center houses the departments of sculpture, painting, graphics, advertising art, photography, and industrial design. (Author/MLF)

  11. The Inclusion of African-American Study Participants in Web-Based Research Studies: Viewpoint.

    PubMed

    Watson, Bekeela; Robinson, Dana H Z; Harker, Laura; Arriola, Kimberly R Jacob

    2016-01-01

    The use of Web-based methods for research recruitment and intervention delivery has greatly increased as Internet usage continues to grow. These Internet-based strategies allow for researchers to quickly reach more people. African-Americans are underrepresented in health research studies. Due to this, African-Americans get less benefit from important research that could address the disproportionate health outcomes they face. Web-based research studies are one promising way to engage more African-Americans and build trust with the African-American community. With African-Americans' increasing access to the Internet using mobile phones and other mobile phone technologies, we advocate for efforts to increase the representation of African-Americans in research studies by using the Internet as a recruitment tool and conclude with recommendations that support this goal. PMID:27334683

  12. The Inclusion of African-American Study Participants in Web-Based Research Studies: Viewpoint

    PubMed Central

    Harker, Laura; Arriola, Kimberly R. Jacob

    2016-01-01

    The use of Web-based methods for research recruitment and intervention delivery has greatly increased as Internet usage continues to grow. These Internet-based strategies allow for researchers to quickly reach more people. African-Americans are underrepresented in health research studies. Due to this, African-Americans get less benefit from important research that could address the disproportionate health outcomes they face. Web-based research studies are one promising way to engage more African-Americans and build trust with the African-American community. With African-Americans’ increasing access to the Internet using mobile phones and other mobile phone technologies, we advocate for efforts to increase the representation of African-Americans in research studies by using the Internet as a recruitment tool and conclude with recommendations that support this goal. PMID:27334683

  13. Knowledge about Inquiry: A study in South African high schools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaigher, Estelle; Lederman, Norman; Lederman, Judith

    2014-12-01

    This paper reports a study on South African learners' knowledge about scientific inquiry using the Views About Scientific Inquiry (VASI) Questionnaire. The sample consisted of 105 grade 11 learners from 7 schools across the socio-economic spectrum in a South African city. A rubric for scoring the VASI Questionnaire was developed and refined during the process of coding and is presented. Results showed that the learners held more informed views than that reported in previous international studies, except for particularly naive views regarding multiple methods of investigation. The results are discussed in terms of the Revised National Curriculum Statement (RNCS) that was taught from 2003 to 2010 in South African schools. This curriculum was founded on outcomes-based principles, valuing process skills rather than content. The study found that examples provided in the RNCS document correspond closely to the aspects of inquiry as described by the National Research Council. It is argued that the RNCS contributed to the more informed views about inquiry found among South African learners in this study.

  14. Creating a Learning Climate: A South African Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carrim, Nasima Mohamed Hoosen; Basson, Johan Schutte

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to ascertain whether there were differences in how one public and two private South African organizations created a learning climate. Design/methodology/approach: This article is based on a survey and comparative analysis of specific departments in a chemical and gas company, an insurance company, and a…

  15. Community-based strategies for recruiting older, African Americans into a behavioral intervention study

    PubMed Central

    Ellish, Nancy J.; Scott, Deborah; Royak-Schaler, Renee; Higginbotham, Eve J.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To describe community-based strategies that were effective in recruiting older, African-Americans into a behavioral intervention study designed to increase eye examination behavior. Methods Sites were identified that targeted older African-Americans, including senior centers, senior housing, and church groups. We conducted presentations at these sites, networked with community organizations, placed ads on the radio and in newspapers, and attended health fairs. Potential participants also called us in response to flyers and through word of mouth. Results We conducted 147 activities at 118 sites. A total of 688 potential participants were screened, with 330 (48%) enrolling, 33% ineligible, and 19% not interested. Highest enrollment rates were for word of mouth (69%), flyers (67%), and senior centers (66%). Barriers to participation included hesitancy of seniors to leave their apartments to attend presentations and competing health issues taking precedence over eye concerns. Conclusions A multi-faceted recruitment approach, incorporating both direct and indirect activities at a variety of sites, should be used to recruit older African Americans into a behavioral intervention study. Establishing relationships in the community, both prior to initiating recruitment activities and as an ongoing process, was important to the study’s success. PMID:19998638

  16. Innovative tephra studies in the East African Rift System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    WoldeGabriel, Giday; Hart, William K.; Heiken, Grant

    Geosciences investigations form the foundation for paleoanthropological research in the East African Rift System. However, innovative applications of tephra studies for constraining spatial and temporal relations of diverse geological processes, biostratigraphic records, and paleoenvironmental conditions within the East African Rift System were fueled by paleoanthropological investigations into the origin and evolution of hominids and material culture. Tephra is a collective, size-independent term used for any material ejected during an explosive volcanic eruption.The East African Rift System has become a magnet for paleoanthropological research ever since the discovery of the first hominids at Olduvai Gorge, in Tanzania, in the 1950s [Leakey et al., 1961]. Currently, numerous multidisciplinary scientific teams from academic institutions in the United States and Western Europe make annual pilgrimages for a couple of months to conduct paleoanthropological field research in the fossil-rich sedimentary deposits of the East African Rift System in Ethiopia, Kenya, and Tanzania. The field expedition consists of geological, paleontological, archaeological, and paleoenvironmental investigations.

  17. Factors Associated with Partnership Experiences, Attitudes, and Perceptions: A Comparative Case Study of Two African Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiteng Kot, Felly

    2011-01-01

    International partnerships have become an increasingly important trend in African higher education. The creation of partnerships with African universities has been on the rise in the last few years. Different factors (U.S., European, and African initiatives) suggest this trend will continue to increase. This study draws from a survey of a random…

  18. A Phenomenological Study Exploring Shortages of African American Male Teachers in Public Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wimbush, Jason D.

    2012-01-01

    This phenomenological research was designed to explore the lived experiences of African American male educators in a mid-Atlantic state through the lens of the phenomenon of shortage of African American male teachers. The overarching question guiding this study addressed the lived experiences of African American male educators in a mid-Atlantic…

  19. Multiple Caregiving among African Americans and Infant Attachments: Issues and an Exploratory Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Jacquelyne Faye

    Attachments of African-American infants should be studied with a focus on cultural practices involved with multiple caregiving. Assessments of African-American infant attachments that use standards of a culture in which care is provided by a primary caretaker should be replaced by assessment based on the cultural perspective of African-Americans.…

  20. Library Media Center Problems: Case Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coburn, Louis

    Problems which arise in school library media centers are considered, using the case study method. The 30 case studies cover: problems in child management; the librarian's role in reading instruction and guidance, and in teaching library skills; conflicting opinions on the management and objectives of the media center; the librarian's role and job…

  1. Correlates of Polyvictimization Among African American Youth: An Exploratory Study.

    PubMed

    Elsaesser, Caitlin M; Voisin, Dexter R

    2015-10-01

    African American adolescents are exposed to high rates of community violence, and recent evidence indicates that these youth may also be at high risk of polyvictimization. Guided by an ecological approach, this study explored individual, familial, and extra-familial correlates of single and multiple forms of violence exposures (i.e., witnessing verbal parental aggression, witnessing or being a victim of community violence exposures) among a sample of 563 urban African American adolescents. Findings indicated that boys reported higher levels of polyvictimization than girls. In addition, the correlates of violence exposures varied by typology and gender. These findings support the development and use of gender-oriented approaches for identifying youth at risk of various types of violence exposures. PMID:25392381

  2. Cancer Inhibitors Isolated from an African Plant | NCI Technology Transfer Center | TTC

    Cancer.gov

    The National Cancer Institute's Molecular Targets Development Program is seeking parties interested in collaborative research to further develop, evaluate, or commercialize cancer inhibitors isolated from the African plant Phyllanthus englerii. The technology is also available for exclusive or non-exclusive licensing.

  3. A Researcher "Called" to "Taboo" Places?: A Burgeoning Research Method in African-Centered Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shockley, Kmt G.

    2009-01-01

    This article presents a self-reflexive analysis of the complexities of conducting Afrocentric education research while living with a "double consciousness." Having been "called" to places that are considered to be "taboo" the author takes readers on a journey that begins in his busy mind and ends in on the African continent in a "rabbit hole."…

  4. Data Center Economizer Contamination and Humidity Study

    SciTech Connect

    Shehabi, Arman; Tschudi, William; Gadgil, Ashok

    2007-03-06

    Data centers require continuous air conditioning to address high internal heat loads (heat release from equipment) and maintain indoor temperatures within recommended operating levels for computers. Air economizer cycles, which bring in large amounts of outside air to cool internal loads when weather conditions are favorable, could save cooling energy. There is reluctance from many data center owners to use this common cooling technique, however, due to fear of introducing pollutants and potential loss of humidity control. Concerns about equipment failure from airborne pollutants lead to specifying as little outside air as permissible for human occupants. To investigate contamination levels, particle monitoring was conducted at 8 data centers in Northern California. Particle counters were placed at 3 to 4 different locations within and outside of each data center evaluated in this study. Humidity was also monitored at many of the sites to determine how economizers affect humidity control. Results from this study indicate that economizers do increase the outdoor concentration in data centers, but this concentration, when averaged annually, is still below current particle concentration limits. Study results are summarized below: (1) The average particle concentrations measured at each location, both outside and at the servers, are shown in Table 1. Measurements show low particle concentrations at all data centers without economizers, regardless of outdoor particle concentrations. Particle concentrations were typically an order of magnitude below both outside particle concentrations and recently published ASHRAE standards. (2) Economizer use caused sharp increases in particle concentrations when the economizer vents were open. The particle concentration in the data centers, however, quickly dropped back to pre-economizer levels when the vents closed. Since economizers only allow outside air part of the time, the annual average concentrations still met the ASHRAE

  5. Cardiometabolic Risk among African-American Women: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Appel, Susan J.; Oster, Robert A.; Floyd, Natalie A.; Ovalle, Fernando

    2010-01-01

    Objective To determine the associations of the Homeostatic Model of Assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-ir), acanthosis nigricans, high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) with two of the commonly used definitions of the metabolic syndrome (Adult Treatment Panel III {ATP III} and International Diabetes Federation {IDF}) among reproductive age healthy free living African-American women. Methods A pilot study with a cross-sectional design examined 33 African-American women aged 20 to 46 (mean 31.24, +/- 7.25), for the presence of metabolic syndrome determined by ATP III and IDF criteria, insulin resistance (HOMA-ir and/or acanthosis nigricans), degree of inflammation (hs-CRP) and presence of dysfibrinolysis (PAI-1). Results HOMA-ir identified insulin resistance in 27 (81.8%) of the women, whereas the presence of acanthosis nigricans indicated that 16 (48 %) of these women manifested insulin resistance. Metabolic syndrome was found in 7 women (21.2 %) by ATP III or 9 (27.3 %) by IDF criteria. Bivariate correlations showed associations between HOMA-ir and waist circumference, body mass index (BMI), acanthosis nigricans, the ATP III and IDF definitions for metabolic syndrome. PAI-1 was significantly correlated with waist circumference, BMI, fasting glucose, HOMA-ir, and ATP III. Both HOMA-ir and PAI-1 were significantly and negatively correlated with HDL-C. hs-CRP was significantly correlated with BMI and 2-hour post glucose. Conclusion Both dysfibrinolysis (PAI-1 levels) and insulin resistance (HOMA-ir) when individually regressed on the ATP III definition of metabolic syndrome explained 32 % and 29% of the respective variance. The addition of HOMA-ir measurement may significantly improve early recognition of cardiometabolic risk among reproductive age African-American women who have not yet met the criteria for the ATP III or IDF definitions of the metabolic syndrome. Likewise, acanthosis nigricans is potentially a

  6. Implementing Family-Centered Prevention in Rural African American Communities: a Randomized Effectiveness Trial of the Strong African American Families Program.

    PubMed

    Kogan, Steven M; Lei, Man-Kit; Brody, Gene H; Futris, Ted G; Sperr, Megan; Anderson, Tracy

    2016-02-01

    Efforts to disseminate evidence-based prevention programs are hampered by a lack of real-world effectiveness trials undertaken with community providers. The Strong African American Families (SAAF) program is an empirically validated intervention designed to prevent problem behavior among rural African American youth. To evaluate the effectiveness of SAAF and its implementation protocols when delivered by a community provider, we conducted a randomized, wait-list-controlled trial with outcome measurements assessed longitudinally at baseline and 6 months after baseline. A total of 465 African American youth and their parents were recruited randomly from public school lists of fifth- and sixth-grade students in eight rural counties in south Georgia. Youth and parents assessed targeted outcomes in their homes. The main outcome, problem behavior vulnerability, was operationalized as a latent construct comprising three indicators: tolerance for deviance, intentions to engage in risky behavior, and affiliations with risk-taking peers. SAAF was implemented with uniformly high levels of adherence (85.5%; SD = 10.8) and attendance (M = 4.1, SD = 2.9, range = 0-7). Intent-to-treat and complier average causal effect analyses revealed significant program effects on intervention-targeted parenting practices, youth self-regulatory processes, and problem behavior vulnerability. SAAF influenced problem behavior vulnerability indirectly via effects on targeted parenting and youth processes. This study supported the effectiveness of SAAF in a community setting when a systematic implementation model supports participant engagement and intervention adherence. PMID:26459373

  7. Strategies for enrollment of African Americans into cancer genetic studies.

    PubMed

    Ewing, Altovise; Thompson, Nicole; Ricks-Santi, Luisel

    2015-03-01

    The enrollment of ethnically diverse populations in genetic and genomic research is vital to the parity of benefits resulting from research with biological specimens. Herein, we discuss strategies that may effectively improve the recruitment of African Americans into genetics studies. Specifically, we show that engaging physicians, genetic counselors, and community members is essential to enrolling participants into genetic studies. We demonstrate the impact of utilizing African American genetic counselors on study enrollment rates and implementing a two-page consent form that improved on a lengthy and inefficient consenting process. Lastly, we provided participants with the option of donating saliva instead of blood for study purposes. Descriptive statistics were used. Using the aforementioned strategies, recruitment goals for the Genetic Basis of Breast Cancer Subtype Study at Howard University (HU) were met. Our overall results yielded 182 participants in 18 months. Recruitment strategies that involve the engagement of physicians, genetic counselors, and community members may help researchers increase the enrollment of ethnically diverse and hard-to-reach participants into genetic studies. PMID:24882437

  8. Strategies for Enrollment of African Americans into Cancer Genetic Studies

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Nicole; Ricks-Santi, Luisel

    2014-01-01

    The enrollment of ethnically diverse populations in genetic and genomic research is vital to the parity of benefits resulting from research with biological specimens. Herein, we discuss strategies that may effectively improve the recruitment of African Americans into genetics studies. Specifically, we show that engaging physicians, genetic counselors, and community members is essential to enrolling participants into genetic studies. We demonstrate the impact of utilizing African American genetic counselors on study enrollment rates and implementing a two-page consent form that improved on a lengthy and inefficient consenting process. Lastly, we provided participants with the option of donating saliva instead of blood for study purposes. Descriptive statistics were used. Using the aforementioned strategies, recruitment goals for the Genetic Basis of Breast Cancer Subtype Study at Howard University (HU) were met. Our overall results yielded 182 participants in 18 months. Recruitment strategies that involve the engagement of physicians, genetic counselors, and community members may help researchers increase the enrollment of ethnically diverse and hard-to-reach participants into genetic studies. PMID:24882437

  9. A Pilot Program in Collaboration with African American Churches Successfully Increases Awareness of the Importance of Cancer Research and Participation in Cancer Translational Research Studies among African Americans

    PubMed Central

    Albertie, Monica; Lesperance, Mary; Weis, Jennifer A.; Coles, Alton; Smith, Nina; Mills, Lynette; Woodward, Timothy; Aspitia, Alvaro Moreno; Vishnu, Prakash; Willis, Floyd; Isley, Amber; Fonseca, Rafael; Vachon, Celine; Rajkumar, S. Vincent

    2013-01-01

    African Americans are underrepresented in cancer research. We evaluate whether collaboration with African American churches can improve cancer awareness and increase participation in translational research protocols among African Americans. From February to April 2010, the Mayo Clinic partnered with African American Jacksonville churches to provide educational programs focused on cancer research and healthy behaviors. Education on multiple myeloma and on-site access to a translational cancer research pilot project evaluating the prevalence of monoclonal gammopathies and t(14,18) in African Americans was offered. Seventy-four percent, 236 out of 318 participants, returned the questionnaires. The majority of participants had never received information on multiple myeloma (67%), had never received clinical research study information (57%), and were enrolled in the translational research studies (55%). Partnerships with African American churches in community education projects that bring research to church venues are effective in improving cancer awareness and in increasing research participation among African Americans. PMID:22072126

  10. Raman spectroscopic study of ancient South African domestic clay pottery.

    PubMed

    Legodi, M A; de Waal, D

    2007-01-01

    The technique of Raman spectroscopy was used to examine the composition of ancient African domestic clay pottery of South African origin. One sample from each of four archaeological sites including Rooiwal, Lydenburg, Makahane and Graskop was studied. Normal dispersive Raman spectroscopy was found to be the most effective analytical technique in this study. XRF, XRD and FT-IR spectroscopy were used as complementary techniques. All representative samples contained common features, which were characterised by kaolin (Al2Si2O5(OH)5), illite (KAl4(Si7AlO20)(OH)4), feldspar (K- and NaAlSi3O8), quartz (alpha-SiO2), hematite (alpha-Fe2O3), montmorillonite (Mg3(Si,Al)4(OH)2 x 4.5 5H(2)O[Mg]0.35), and calcium silicate (CaSiO3). Gypsum (CaSO4 x 2H2O) and calcium carbonates (most likely calcite, CaCO3) were detected by Raman spectroscopy in Lydenburg, Makahane and Graskop shards. Amorphous carbon (with accompanying phosphates) was observed in the Raman spectra of Lydenburg, Rooiwal and Makahane shards, while rutile (TiO(2)) appeared only in Makahane shard. The Raman spectra of Lydenburg and Rooiwal shards further showed the presence of anhydrite (CaSO4). The results showed that South African potters used a mixture of clays as raw materials. The firing temperature for most samples did not exceed 800 degrees C, which suggests the use of open fire. The reddish brown and grayish black colours were likely due to hematite and amorphous carbon, respectively. PMID:16839805

  11. Prevalence and Correlates of Depressive Symptoms and Resiliency among African American Women in a Community-Based Primary Health Care Center

    PubMed Central

    Holden, Kisha B.; Bradford, L. Dianne; Hall, Stephanie P.; Belton, Allyson S.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this cross-sectional pilot study was to determine the prevalence and correlates of depressive symptoms and resiliency among 290 African American women (AAW) in a community-based primary health care center. Descriptive statistics, Pearson product-moment correlation, and logistic regression analyses were conducted. Findings indicate that depressive symptoms are experienced by 49% of the participants, while 10% indicated a history of suicidal ideation. Participants had moderately high resiliency scores that had a statistically significant inverse relationship with depressive symptoms. This suggests that resiliency is potentially a protective factor for depressive symptoms. Depressive symptoms were positively correlated with participants’ diagnosis of at least one chronic disease. The strongest predictors of depressive symptoms were previous diagnoses of a mental health condition and unemployment. This study identifies risk and potential protective factors for depression among a clinic sample of AAW. PMID:24241263

  12. Studies of African wave disturbances with the GISS GCM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Druyan, Leonard M.; Hall, Timothy M.

    1994-01-01

    Simulations made with the general circulation model of the NASA/Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS GCM) run at 4 deg latitude by 5 deg longitude horizontal resolution are analyzed to determine the model's representation of African wave disturbances. Waves detected in the model's lower troposphere over northern Africa during the summer monsoon season exhibit realistic wavelengths of about 2200 km. However, power spectra of the meridional wind show that the waves propagate westward too slowly, with periods of 5-10 days, about twice the observed values. This sluggishness is most pronounced during August, consistent with simulated 600-mb zonal winds that are only about half the observed speeds of the midtropospheric jet. The modeled wave amplitudes are strongest over West Africa during the first half of the summer but decrease dramatically by September, contrary to observational evidence. Maximum amplitudes occur at realistic latitudes, 12 deg - 20 deg N, but not as observed near the Atlantic coast. Spectral analyses suggest some wave modulation of precipitation in the 5-8 day band, and compositing shows that precipitation is slightly enhanced east of the wave trough, coincident with southerly winds. Extrema of low-level convergence west of the wave troughs, coinciding with northerly winds, were not preferred areas for simulated precipitation, probably because of the drying effect of this advection, as waves were generally north of the humid zone. The documentation of African wave disturbances in the GISS GCM is a first step toward considering wave influences in future GCM studies of Sahel drought.

  13. Volcanic Centers in the East African Rift: Imaging Volcanic Processes with Long-Period Event Identification and Ambient Noise Tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patlan, E.; Wamalwa, A. M.; Hardy, S.; Kaip, G.; Velasco, A. A.

    2014-12-01

    Kenya actively seeks to produce geothermal energy, and the country lies within the East African Rift System (EARS). The EARS, an active continental rift zone, appears to be a developing tectonic plate boundary and thus, has a number of active as well as dormant volcanoes through its extent. These volcanic centers can be used as potential sources for geothermal energy. The University of Texas at El Paso (UTEP) and the Geothermal Development Company (GDC) began collaborating to monitor several volcanic centers, which have included passive seismic sensor deployments experiment. A number of seismological techniques will be applied to the data being collected at the four volcanic centers: Menengai, Silali, and Paka, and Korosi. In particular, we will identify long-period signals and tremor local using a time-reversal approach. Low-frequency earthquakes are interpreted as magma passing through conduits of the magma chamber and/or fluid being transported as a function of magma movement or hydrothermal activity. The time-reversal locations will help identify the margin of the volcano and caldera, and faults that could form conduits for fluids. We will also perform ambient noise tomography to image the magma chamber and the conduit feeding the volcanoes. The combination of the velocity snapshots of the magma chamber, low-frequency events, and long period events will help us interpret the activity of the calderas and volcanoes. Overall, all these techniques will help us understand magma movement and volcanic processes in the region.

  14. South African-ness among Adolescents: The Emergence of a Collective Identity within the Birth to Twenty Cohort Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norris, Shane A.; Roeser, Robert W.; Richter, Linda M.; Lewin, Nina; Ginsburg, Carren; Fleetwood, Stella A.; Taole, Elizabeth; van der Wolf, Kees

    2008-01-01

    The authors assessed the emergence of a South African identity among Black, Colored (mixed ancestral origin), White (predominantly English speaking), and Indian adolescents participating in a birth cohort study called "Birth to Twenty" in Johannesburg, South Africa. They examined young people's certainty of their self-categorization as South…

  15. WASCAL - West African Science Service Center on Climate Change and Adapted Land Use Regional Climate Simulations and Land-Atmosphere Simulations for West Africa at DKRZ and elsewhere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamann, Ilse; Arnault, Joel; Bliefernicht, Jan; Klein, Cornelia; Heinzeller, Dominikus; Kunstmann, Harald

    2014-05-01

    Changing climate and hydro-meteorological boundary conditions are among the most severe challenges to Africa in the 21st century. In particular West Africa faces an urgent need to develop effective adaptation and mitigation strategies to cope with negative impacts on humans and environment due to climate change, increased hydro-meteorological variability and land use changes. To help meet these challenges, the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF) started an initiative with institutions in Germany and West African countries to establish together a West African Science Service Center on Climate Change and Adapted Land Use (WASCAL). This activity is accompanied by an establishment of trans-boundary observation networks, an interdisciplinary core research program and graduate research programs on climate change and related issues for strengthening the analytical capabilities of the Science Service Center. A key research activity of the WASCAL Competence Center is the provision of regional climate simulations in a fine spatio-temporal resolution for the core research sites of WASCAL for the present and the near future. The climate information is needed for subsequent local climate impact studies in agriculture, water resources and further socio-economic sectors. The simulation experiments are performed using regional climate models such as COSMO-CLM, RegCM and WRF and statistical techniques for a further refinement of the projections. The core research sites of WASCAL are located in the Sudanian Savannah belt in Northern Ghana, Southern Burkina Faso and Northern Benin. The climate in this region is semi-arid with six rainy months. Due to the strong population growth in West Africa, many areas of the Sudanian Savannah have been already converted to farmland since the majority of the people are living directly or indirectly from the income produced in agriculture. The simulation experiments of the Competence Center and the Core Research Program are

  16. American Indian Studies Center Fortieth Anniversary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nash, Gary B.

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author shares his comments on the past, present, and future of the American Indian Studies Center (AISC). He discusses how AISC was established and describes how American Indian studies have come a long way from the neglect and disparagement of Native Americans in the way American history is written and taught. He also…

  17. PRB CHEMISTRY CASE STUDY: DENVER FEDERAL CENTER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Denver Federal Center permeable reactive barrier is a funnel-and-gate system with four reactive gates, each separated by up to about 120 m of metal sheet pile. In this study, ground water sampling, core collection, and solid phase characterization studies were carried out in...

  18. Cosmos, an international center for advanced studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryzhov, Iurii; Alifanov, Oleg; Sadin, Stanley; Coleman, Paul

    1990-01-01

    The concept of Cosmos, a Soviet operating center for aerospace activities, is presented. The main Cosmos participants are the Institute for Aerospace Education, the Institute for Research and Commercial Development, and the Department of Space Policy and Socio-Economic Studies. Cosmos sponsors a number of educational programs, basic research, and studies of the social impact of space-related technologies.

  19. Child Day Care Center Licensing Study, 1997.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Children's Foundation, Washington, DC.

    The 1997 Child Care Center Licensing Study contains an update of information compiled in 1991 by the Children's Foundation. The data was obtained from the central regulatory office of each of the 50 states, the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, and the Virgin Islands. The study is organized in alphabetical order by states and territories. The…

  20. Leaving Home: The Challenges of Black-African International Students Prior to Studying Overseas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caldwell, Elizabeth Frances; Hyams-Ssekasi, Denis

    2016-01-01

    Much of the literature on international students centres on their experiences once they arrive in their host countries. This study explores the preparations of Black-African students for leaving their home countries to study abroad. Semi-structured interviews were carried out with 50 Black-African students studying at one British university. The…

  1. Leadership Practices that Enhance Reading Achievement for African American Males: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dawson, Dawnay Ardrean

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine leadership practices that lead to improving academic achievement for African American males. Specifically, this study examined cultural insensitivity and its impact on educating African American male students in reading. The study utilized several techniques to determine what practices educators used to…

  2. Examining science achievement of African American females in suburban middle schools: A mixed methods study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Topping, Kecia C.

    This dissertation examined factors that affected the science achievement of African American females in suburban middle schools. The research literature informed that African American females are facing the barriers of race, gender, socioeconomic status, and cultural learning style preferences. Nationally used measurements of science achievement such as the Standardized Achievement Test, Tenth edition (SAT-10), National Assessment for Educational Progress, and National Center for Educational Statistics showed that African American females are continuing to falter in the areas of science when compared to other ethnic groups. This study used a transformative sequential explanatory mixed methods design. In the first, quantitative, phase, the relationships among the dependent variables, science subscale SAT-10 NCE scores, yearly averages, and the independent variables, attitude toward science scores obtained from the Modified Fennema-Sherman Attitudes toward Science Scale, socioeconomics, and caregiver status were tested. The participants were 150 African American females in grades 6 through 8 in four suburban middle schools located in the Southeastern United States. The results showed a positive, significant linear relationship between the females' attitude and their science subscale SAT-10 NCE scores and a positive, significant linear relationship between the females' attitudes and their yearly averages in science. The results also confirmed that attitude was a significant predictor of science subscale SAT-10 NCE scores for these females and that attitude and socioeconomics were significant predictors of the females' yearly averages in science. In the second, qualitative, phase, nine females purposefully selected from those who had high and low attitude towards science scores on the scale in the quantitative phase were interviewed. The themes that emerged revealed seven additional factors that impacted the females' science achievement. They were usefulness of science

  3. Key Copyright Issues in African Distance Education: A South African Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ncube, Caroline B.

    2011-01-01

    This report draws primarily on the results of the recently concluded African Copyright and Access to Knowledge (ACA2K) Project, which investigated copyright and access to learning materials in face-to-face, distance education (DE), and dual-mode tertiary educational institutions in Egypt, Ghana, Kenya, Morocco, Mozambique, Senegal, South Africa,…

  4. Beyond the Myth of Confrontation: A Comparative Study of African and African-American Female Protagonists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eko, Ebele

    1986-01-01

    Describes mother-daughter relations in four American and African literary works: Ama Ata Aidoo's "Anowa," Gloria Naylor's "Women of Brewster Place," Bessie Head's "Maru," and Paule Marshall's "Brown Girl Brownstones." Argues that the myth of Black mother-daughter confrontations camouflages deep-seated frustrations associated with racial and sexual…

  5. African Studies in a Canadian Academy: A Tool for Liberation or Marginalization?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fredua-Kwarteng, Eric

    2006-01-01

    This research uses critical race theory (CRT) as a conceptual perspective to study and analyze the experiences of ten students of African descent who enrolled in several African studies courses or related courses in an Ontarian university. The students, two females and eight males were interviewed between June and August 2005, using…

  6. Heritability of Lipid Phenotypes among African-Americans: Jackson Heart Study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Determinants of serum lipid levels include both genetic and non-genetic components. More research is needed to determine the role each plays in serum lipid levels of African-Americans. The Jackson Heart Study Family Sub-Study (JHS, FSS) represents a cohort of African-American adults for which both ...

  7. African American Public Administrators and Cultural Diversity Management: Findings of a Pilot Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohapatra, Manindra K.; And Others

    This paper presents the results of a pilot study of African American public administrators' attitudes toward cultural diversity management in the Fall of 1995. It is based on an open-ended national survey that was mailed to 394 federal, state, and local African American public administrators. The study asked respondents about the special knowledge…

  8. Taking Stock: African American Studies at the Edge of the 21st Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayes, Floyd W., III

    1994-01-01

    Explores the role and place of African American Studies in the academy and in American society. The major intellectual tendencies of the field are examined, and possible future challenges to African American Studies and black intellectual advancement posed by the postindustrial society are considered. (SLD)

  9. Computational Center for Studies of Plasma Microturbulence

    SciTech Connect

    William Dorland

    2006-10-11

    The Maryland Computational Center for Studies of Microturbulence (CCSM) was one component of a larger, multi-institutional Plasma Microturbulence Project, funded through what eventually became DOE's Scientific Discovery Through Advanced Computing Program. The primary focus of research in CCSM was to develop, deploy, maintain, and utilize kinetic simulation techniques, especially the gyrokinetic code called GS2.

  10. Child Day Care Center Licensing Study, 1995.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Children's Foundation, Washington, DC.

    This study updates 1991 information from the Children's Foundation. It contains results of a survey of the regulatory offices of the 50 states, the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, and the Virgin Islands. The information is intended for use by center directors and staff, child advocates, the media, state and local regulatory offices, students,…

  11. Child Care Center Licensing Study, 1998.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Children's Foundation, Washington, DC.

    This report details a study of regulations for day care centers in the 50 United States, the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, and the Virgin Islands. Data were collected by means of a mail questionnaire sent to each state central regulatory office. Following an introduction by Kay Hollestelle, the Children's Foundation executive director, the…

  12. Teacher Curriculum Work Center: A Descriptive Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feiman, Sharon

    This monograph is one of a continuing series initiated to provide materials for teachers, parents, school administrators, and governmental decision-makers that might encourage reexamination of a range of evaluation issues and perspectives about schools and schooling. This monograph is a descriptive study of the Teacher Curriculum Work Center,…

  13. The Center for Star Formation Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hollenbach, D.; Bell, K. R.; Laughlin, G.

    2002-01-01

    The Center for Star Formation Studies, a consortium of scientists from the Space Science Division at Ames and the Astronomy Departments of the University of California at Berkeley and Santa Cruz, conducts a coordinated program of theoretical research on star and planet formation. Under the directorship of D. Hollenbach (Ames), the Center supports postdoctoral fellows, senior visitors, and students; meets regularly at Ames to exchange ideas and to present informal seminars on current research; hosts visits of outside scientists; and conducts a week-long workshop on selected aspects of star and planet formation each summer.

  14. Associations between metabolomic compounds and incident heart failure among African Americans: the ARIC Study.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Yan; Yu, Bing; Alexander, Danny; Manolio, Teri A; Aguilar, David; Coresh, Josef; Heiss, Gerardo; Boerwinkle, Eric; Nettleton, Jennifer A

    2013-08-15

    Heart failure is more prevalent among African Americans than in the general population. Metabolomic studies among African Americans may efficiently identify novel biomarkers of heart failure. We used untargeted methods to measure 204 stable serum metabolites and evaluated their associations with incident heart failure hospitalization (n = 276) after a median follow-up of 20 years (1987-2008) by using Cox regression in data from 1,744 African Americans aged 45-64 years without heart failure at baseline from the Jackson, Mississippi, field center of the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study. After adjustment for established risk factors, we found that 16 metabolites (6 named with known structural identities and 10 unnamed with unknown structural identities, the latter denoted by using the format X-12345) were associated with incident heart failure (P < 0.0004 based on a modified Bonferroni procedure). Of the 6 named metabolites, 4 are involved in amino acid metabolism, 1 (prolylhydroxyproline) is a dipeptide, and 1 (erythritol) is a sugar alcohol. After additional adjustment for kidney function, 2 metabolites remained associated with incident heart failure (for metabolite X-11308, hazard ratio = 0.75, 95% confidence interval: 0.65, 0.86; for metabolite X-11787, hazard ratio = 1.23, 95% confidence interval: 1.10, 1.37). Further structural analysis revealed X-11308 to be a dihydroxy docosatrienoic acid and X-11787 to be an isoform of either hydroxyleucine or hydroxyisoleucine. Our metabolomic analysis revealed novel biomarkers associated with incident heart failure independent of traditional risk factors. PMID:23788672

  15. "Reading" Central African Skies - A Case Study from Southeastern DRC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, Allen F.

    Little is known of the local astronomies of central Africa, and because of decades of horrific civil strife, this is particularly true of the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC). The present case study combines archival consideration of unpublished letters by earliest European visitors with ethnographic research in the mid-1970s among Tabwa and related peoples living along the western shores of and inland from Lake Tanganyika. Early data are very sparse, and in more recent days local astronomy is little-developed; but hypotheses are nonetheless possible about how people understood the regularities of the heavens as well as astonishing events like the apparition of Sungrazer Comets of the 1880s. A mnemonic logic shared by Tabwa, Luba, and other regional groups that was sometimes given material form or realized through performance arts may have informed how central African skies were "read" in earlier times.

  16. The potential for enhancing the power of genetic association studies in African Americans through the reuse of existing genotype data.

    PubMed

    Chen, Gary K; Millikan, Robert C; John, Esther M; Ambrosone, Christine B; Bernstein, Leslie; Zheng, Wei; Hu, Jennifer J; Chanock, Stephen J; Ziegler, Regina G; Bandera, Elisa V; Henderson, Brian E; Haiman, Christopher A; Stram, Daniel O

    2010-09-01

    We consider the feasibility of reusing existing control data obtained in genetic association studies in order to reduce costs for new studies. We discuss controlling for the population differences between cases and controls that are implicit in studies utilizing external control data. We give theoretical calculations of the statistical power of a test due to Bourgain et al (Am J Human Genet 2003), applied to the problem of dealing with case-control differences in genetic ancestry related to population isolation or population admixture. Theoretical results show that there may exist bounds for the non-centrality parameter for a test of association that places limits on study power even if sample sizes can grow arbitrarily large. We apply this method to data from a multi-center, geographically-diverse, genome-wide association study of breast cancer in African-American women. Our analysis of these data shows that admixture proportions differ by center with the average fraction of European admixture ranging from approximately 20% for participants from study sites in the Eastern United States to 25% for participants from West Coast sites. However, these differences in average admixture fraction between sites are largely counterbalanced by considerable diversity in individual admixture proportion within each study site. Our results suggest that statistical correction for admixture differences is feasible for future studies of African-Americans, utilizing the existing controls from the African-American Breast Cancer study, even if case ascertainment for the future studies is not balanced over the same centers or regions that supplied the controls for the current study. PMID:20824062

  17. A Phenomenological Study of African American Males Persisting in Community College Health and Public Safety Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mills-Byrd, Love

    2011-01-01

    This qualitative phenomenological study examined the lived experiences of persisting as described by ten African American men in persisting in a community college program. The primary research question was: "How do African American males describe their lived experiences of persisting in community college health and public programs?" African…

  18. A Case Study of a Southeastern African American Male Mentoring Community College Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Senegal, Pamela Gibson

    2011-01-01

    This research is a qualitative case study exploring the experiences of African American male mentoring community college students. Such programs have proliferated throughout higher education, over the past 20 years, in an effort to improve the retention, performance and goal attainment of African American males. The theoretical framework shaping…

  19. Case Studies of Three African-American Families Use of Literacy during Nonschool Hours

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Patricia A.

    2011-01-01

    The use of literacy during non-school hours of three African-American families was examined. This study used a qualitative research design to probe the meanings and value of literacy in the homes of three African-American families during nonschool hours, including before school, after school, weekends, holidays, and summer breaks. The structure…

  20. A Qualitative Ethnographic Study of African American Leadership in Higher Education Administration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glenn, Scott

    2010-01-01

    The qualitative ethnographic study involved exploring the educational, background, and professional experiences of senior-level African American administrators in higher education. The following research question guided the exploration of the experiences and perceptions of African American administrators in higher education from the Mid-Atlantic…

  1. Recruiting African American Men for Cancer Screening Studies: Applying a Culturally Based Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abernethy, Alexis D.; Magat, Maricar M.; Houston, Tina R.; Arnold, Harold L., Jr.; Bjorck, Jeffrey P.; Gorsuch, Richard L.

    2005-01-01

    In a study of psychosocial factors related to prostate cancer screening (PCS) of African American men, researchers achieved significant success in recruitment. Key strategies included addressing specific barriers to PCS for African American men and placing recruitment efforts in a conceptual framework that addressed cultural issues (PEN-3 model).…

  2. Recruiting Highly Qualified African American Teachers in American Urban Public Schools: A Qualitative Collective Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, LaNora Marcell

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the qualitative collective case study is to identify the weaknesses in the methods used to recruit highly qualified African American preservice teachers in the Washington, DC metropolitan area. The data collection process consisted of one-on-one, open-ended interview questions with 10 highly qualified African American public school…

  3. Discovering the Possibilities: A Study of African American Youth Resistance and Activism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis-Williams, Antoinette

    2007-01-01

    This article presents a study of African American youth resistance and activism. The data revealed that African American youth have a large capacity for activism and ability to resist. Early engagement on issues of social justice, equality and freedom by family, teachers, pastors and community leaders can help to shape political character and…

  4. A Culture-Focused Study with Accomplished Black Educators on Pedagogical Excellence for African American Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Acosta, Melanie M.

    2013-01-01

    To address the pedagogical needs of African American learners, some educational researchers have rejected the seductive tendency to document damage, but rather intentionally showcase excellence in Black education. They have studied highly successful teachers of African American students, their teaching practices, beliefs, and self-efficacy. What…

  5. Final Director's Report On: Institute in African Studies for College Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL.

    This document describes a summer institute held at Northwestern University during the summer of 1970 entitled Institute in African Studies for College Teachers. The program of instruction that was devised had 4 principal objectives in mind: (1) transmission of accurate information and data about African and Afro-American culture and society; (2)…

  6. Barriers to a Backyard National Park: Case Study of African American Communities in Columbia, SC

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Le, Yen; Holmes, Nancy C.

    2012-01-01

    We present an exploratory study of the recreational behaviors, preferences, and opinions of African Americans in the Columbia, South Carolina area and identify potential barriers to visiting Congaree National Park. Focus groups with African American residents of the Columbia South Carolina area revealed that inadequate information, detachment from…

  7. Social Movement Tactics, Organizational Change and the Spread of African-American Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rojas, Fabio

    2006-01-01

    Social movement research suggests that protest is effective because it de-legitimizes existing policies and imposes costs on power holders. The author tests this hypothesis with data on African-American student protest and the creation of departments of African-American Studies. The author finds that nondisruptive protest, such as rallies and…

  8. Space Operations Center: Shuttle interaction study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    The implication of using the Shuttle with the Space Operation Center (SOC), including constraints that the Shuttle will place upon the SOC design. The study identifies the considerations involved in the use of the Shuttle as a part of the SOC concept, and also identifies the constraints to the SOC imposed by the Shuttle in its interactions with the SOC, and on the design or technical solutions which allow satisfactory accomplishment of the interactions.

  9. An engineering journey: A transcendental phenomenological study of African-American female engineers' persistence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Somerville-Midgette, Kristy Nicole

    This transcendental phenomenological research study examined the perspectives and lived experiences of African-American female engineers related to the factors that led to their persistence to enter, persist through, and remain in the field. The study was guided by four research questions: (a) How do K-12 experiences shape African-American female engineers' decisions to enter the STEM field? (b) What persistence factors motivated African-American female engineers to enter the engineering profession? (c) What are the factors that shape African-American female engineers' persistence to progress through postsecondary engineering programs? (d) How do professional experiences shape African-American female engineers' persistence in the field? Cognitive interviewing techniques were used to validate data collection instruments. Interviews, focus groups, and timelines were used to collect data aimed at capturing the essence of the phenomenon of African-American engineers' persistence. The data was analyzed using Moustakas' (1994) phenomenological data analysis methods. The findings indicated that early academic experiences and achievement shaped participants' decision to enter the engineering field. Environmental factors, intrinsic motivation, support systems motivated participants to persist through postsecondary programs and to enter the engineering field. Further research is needed to examine the early academic experiences that encourage African-American females to enter engineering. In addition, research is needed to examine the barriers that lead to attrition of African-American females in engineering.

  10. A Phenomenological Study of Undergraduate African American College Students' Decision to Participate in Study Abroad

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheppel, Alena

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this phenomenological qualitative study was to explore African American undergraduate college students' intentions and reasons for participation in study abroad programs. The study involved gathering data from recorded and transcribed semi-structured interviews with 20 African American volunteer participants. Data analysis…

  11. Studies on soft centered coated snacks.

    PubMed

    Pavithra, A S; Chetana, Ramakrishna; Babylatha, R; Archana, S N; Bhat, K K

    2013-04-01

    Roasted groundnut seeds, amaranth and dates pulp formed the center filling which was coated with sugar, breadings, desiccated coconut and roasted Bengalgram flour (BGF) to get 4 coated snacks. Physicochemical characteristics, microbiological profile, sorption behaviour and sensory quality of 4 coated snacks were determined. Centre filling to coating ratio of the products were in the range of 3:2-7:1, the product having BGF coating had the thinnest coating. Center filling had soft texture and the moisture content was 10.2-16.2% coating had lower moisture content (4.4-8.6%) except for Bengal gram coating, which had 11.1% moisture. Sugar coated snack has lowest fat (11.6%) and protein (7.2%) contents. Desiccated coconut coated snack has highest fat (25.4%) and Bengal gram flour coated snack had highest protein content (15.4%). Sorption studies showed that the coated snack had critical moisture content of 11.2-13.5%. The products were moisture sensitive and hence require packaging in films having higher moisture barrier property. In freshly prepared snacks coliforms, yeast and mold were absent. Mesophillic aerobes count did not show significant change during 90 days of storage at 27 °C and 37 °C. Sensory analysis showed that products had a unique texture due to combined effect of fairly hard coating and soft center. Flavour and overall quality of all the products were rated as very good. PMID:24425933

  12. Predictors of participant adherence and retention in the African American Study of Kidney Disease and Hypertension.

    PubMed

    Brooks, Deborah; Charleston, Jeanne; Dowie, Donna; Gabriel, Avril; Hall, Yvette Baxter; Hiremath, Leena; Lightfoot, Tammy; Sika, Mohammed; Smith, Winifred C; Wang, Xuelei

    2008-01-01

    The African American Study of Kidney Disease and Hypertension (AASK) was conducted over a 7-year period at 21 clinical centers across the United States to investigate whether one of two levels of blood pressure control and/or one of three classes of antihypertensive medications was more effective at slowing the rate of renal disease in African Americans with renal insufficiency presumed secondary to hypertension. Analysis at the end of the study revealed an overall participant retention rate of 90% (still alive and not on dialysis); defined as having had at least one 125I-iothalamate GFR, the primary data collection element, measured in the final year of the study. Adherence, defined as not missing 3 consecutive protocol visits (6 months) during the study, was 77%. Adherence to protocol visits showed that participants assigned to a low blood pressure goal (mean arterial pressure [MAP] of 92 mm/Hg or lower) had a 30% (95% CI, 9%-45%) lower risk of nonadherence as compared to those assigned to the usual goal [MAP of 102-107] (p = 0.006). No statistically significant difference was observed between randomized drug assignments. Higher baseline systolic (p = 0.0001) and diastolic (p = 0.007) blood pressures were associated with a higher risk of nonadherence. Declining to provide an annual income is associated with a higher risk of nonadherence compared to those with incomes of $15,000 or higher (p = 0.04). In discussing the identifying factors that may predict nonadherence and the strategies that assisted in improving adherence and retention, this article offers insights for researchers in achieving high levels of participation in long-term clinical studies. PMID:18472682

  13. Seismometer readings studied in Mission Control Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    The seismometer reading from the impact made by the Apollo 15 Saturn S-IVB stage when it struck the lunar surface is studied by scientists in the Mission Control Center. Dr. Gary Latham (dark suit, wearing lapel button) of Columbia University is responsible for the design and experiment data analysis of the Passive Seismic Experiment of the Apollo Lunar Surface Experiment Package (ALSEP). The man on the left, writing, is Nafi Toksos of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Looking on at upper left is Dave Lammlein, also with Columbia.

  14. AIDS-Related Stigmas and Safe-Sex Practices of African-American College Students: A Pilot Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chandler, Donald S., Jr.

    This study examined the safe-sex practices of African-American colleges students in light of culturally-specific beliefs that stigmatize Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) in the African-American community. A total of 21 self-selected, sexually-active African-American students (15 females and 6 males) aged 18-22 completed the AIDS…

  15. The Will to Achieve: A Phenomenological Study of the Experiences of African American High Achieving Students and Their Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spencer, Natalie Faye

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this research study was to understand the experiences of high achieving African American students and their parents. The experiences of high achieving African American students and their parents have been missing from literature on the academic achievement of African American students. Much of the literature that has been published…

  16. Plasma adiponectin concentrations and correlates in African Americans in the Hypertension Genetic Epidemiology Network (HyperGEN) study.

    PubMed

    Shikany, James M; Lewis, Cora E; Freedman, Barry I; Arnett, Donna K; Leiendecker-Foster, Catherine; Jones, Tamekia L; Redden, David T; Oberman, Albert

    2007-08-01

    Adiponectin has demonstrated insulin-sensitizing, antiatherogenic, and anti-inflammatory properties, and may be an important risk factor for coronary heart disease and diabetes. Relatively few previous studies of plasma adiponectin have included sizable numbers of African Americans. The objective of the study was to investigate plasma concentrations of adiponectin and correlates of these concentrations in African Americans. This was a cross-sectional analysis that took place within the Hypertension Genetic Epidemiology Network. This study included 211 normotensive offspring (aged 22-37 years) of hypertensive siblings recruited by the Hypertension Genetic Epidemiology Network Birmingham, AL, field center. In addition to measuring plasma adiponectin, demographic and lifestyle data were collected, and anthropometric, clinical, and laboratory measurements were obtained. Mean plasma adiponectin concentration was 5.5+/-3.8 microg/mL. Adiponectin was 55% higher in women than in men: 6.5+/-4.4 vs 4.2+/-2.5 microg/mL, respectively (P<.0001). In a multivariable analysis, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentration was positively associated and male sex and insulin concentration were negatively associated with plasma adiponectin concentration. Plasma adiponectin concentrations in these African Americans were lower than those reported in other racial/ethnic groups, including Japanese, whites, and Pima Indians. The directions of the associations of plasma adiponectin with other factors were in agreement with results in other racial/ethnic groups. PMID:17618943

  17. A study of the historical role of African Americans in science, engineering and technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Keith Wayne

    2000-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if there is adequate documentation of an historical role of African and African American involvement in science, engineering, and technology. Through the use of history of science and technology research methodology, along with an examination of the sociological and economic impacts of adequately accredited innovations and inventions contributed by Africans and African Americans, the researcher investigated their contributions to the following areas of science and technology: life science, physical sciences and chemistry, engineering, and science education. In regard to the timeframe for this study, the researcher specifically investigated African and African American involvement in science and technology that includes periods prior to black enslavement, scientific racism and colonialism, as well as during and after those periods. This research study reveals that there are adequate historical data regarding African and African American contributions to science, engineering, and technology. The data reveals that for many millennia African peoples have been continually involved in science and world science histories. The data further show that the numbers of African Americans acquiring BS, MS, Ph.D., Doctor of Science and Doctor of Engineering degrees in science and engineering disciplines are increasing. That these increases are not happening at a rate representative of the present or future African American percentages of the population. Consequently, because of future changes in our nation's demographics, increasing the numbers of people from under-represented groups who pursue scientific and engineering professions has become a matter of national security at the highest levels of government. Moreover, African Americans, Hispanics, and Native Americans are not pursuing careers or taking courses in science and engineering at a rate high enough to fulfill the prospective needs for the United States' industries, government

  18. Behavioral studies of learning in the Africanized honey bee (Apis mellifera L.).

    PubMed

    Abramson, Charles I; Aquino, Italo S

    2002-01-01

    Experiments on basic classical conditioning phenomena in adult and young Africanized honey bees (Apis mellifera L.) are described. Phenomena include conditioning to various stimuli, extinction (both unpaired and CS only), conditioned inhibition, color and odor discrimination. In addition to work on basic phenomena, experiments on practical applications of conditioning methodology are illustrated with studies demonstrating the effects of insecticides on learning and the reaction of bees to consumer products. Electron microscope photos are presented of Africanized workers, drones, and queen bees. Possible sub-species differences between Africanized and European bees are discussed. PMID:12097861

  19. The New Center for Advanced Energy Studies

    SciTech Connect

    L.J. Bond; K. Kostelnik; R.A. Wharton; A. Kadak

    2006-06-01

    A secure and affordable energy supply is essential for achieving U.S. national security, in continuing U.S. prosperity and in laying the foundation to enable future economic growth. The next generation energy workforce in the U.S. is a critical element in meeting both national and global energy needs. The Center for Advanced Energy Studies (CAES) was established in 2005 in response to U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) requirements. CAES, located at the new Idaho National Laboratory (INL), will address critical energy education, research, policy study and training needs. CAES is a unique joint partnership between the Battelle Energy Alliance (BEA), the State of Idaho, an Idaho University Consortium (IUC), and a National University Consortium (NUC). CAES will be based in a new facility that will foster collaborative academic and research efforts among participating institutions.

  20. Academic Potential among African American Adolescents in Juvenile Detention Centers: Implications for Reentry to School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toldson, Ivory A.; Woodson, Kamilah M.; Braithwaite, Ronald; Holliday, Rhonda C.; De La Rosa, Mario

    2010-01-01

    The study explores Black adolescent detainees' academic potential and motivation to return to school, to inform best practices and policies for juvenile reentry to educational settings. Adolescent detainees (N = 1,576) who were recruited from 1 male and 1 female youth detention facility, responded to surveys that assessed postdetention educational…

  1. Postmortem examinations on deceased neonates: a rarely utilized procedure in an African referral center.

    PubMed

    Ugiagbe, Ezekiel E; Osifo, Osarumwense D

    2012-01-01

    Postmortem examination remains the gold standard for the correct diagnosis of many diseases and for unraveling unexplained causes of death. This paper reports on the poor utilization of autopsy services and encourages parents/caregivers and practitioners to perform postmortem examinations on deceased neonates in sub-Saharan Africa. In a retrospective study, the records of 1093 neonates (653 males and 440 females, ratio 1.5∶1) who died at the University of Benin Teaching Hospital and who were brought to the mortuary between 2006 and 2010 were reviewed to determine the utilization of and factors influencing postmortem examination. Sixty-two percent of the neonates died within the 1st week of life, and only 9 (0.8%) underwent a postmortem examination. Findings in the 9 postmortem studies performed on 7 males and 2 females provided additional information on the causes of death. The religious beliefs that neonates should not be subjected to postmortem study and beliefs that dead neonates are taboo and a punishment by the gods for past wrongdoings influenced 511 (46.8%) parents/caregivers to refuse postmortem analysis. The practitioners did not request postmortem study in 281 (25.7%) of the cases. The utilization of postmortem examination was marginal in this setting. We advocate the need for public enlightenment campaigns to modify the attitudes of parents/caregivers toward the postmortem study of deceased neonates. Policies should be formulated to mandate postmortem examinations of deceased neonates to enhance insight into neonatal disease, unravel unexplained causes of death, and improve the standard of neonatal care in this subregion. PMID:21991941

  2. Bosom Biscuits: A Study of African American Intergenerational Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daniel, Jack L.; Effinger, Marta, J.

    1996-01-01

    Documents the contents and sources of nurturing advice that primary caregivers provided to a group of African American faculty members and administrators located at an urban university campus. Responses from 31 subjects reveal primary caregivers, mostly mothers, stressed getting a good education, engaging in hard work, and behaving morally.…

  3. The Transformation of Music Education: A South African Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Villiers, Alethea

    2015-01-01

    In this paper I reflect on transformation in South African education policy, post-1994. The new curriculum for schools was underpinned by the democratic values of the constitution and was a time of renewal for music education. However, over time as the original curriculum documents were revised, the focus of promoting indigenous traditions was…

  4. Group Counseling for African American Elementary Students: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steen, Sam

    2009-01-01

    This article describes a group counseling intervention promoting academic achievement and ethnic identity development for twenty fifth grade African American elementary students. The Multigroup Ethnic Identity Measure (MEIM) scores of students participating in the treatment group improved significantly over those in the control group. Implications…

  5. Academic potential among African American adolescents in juvenile detention centers: Implications for reentry to school

    PubMed Central

    Toldson, Ivory A.; Woodson, Kamilah M.; Braithwaite, Ronald; Holliday, Rhonda C.

    2010-01-01

    The study explores Black adolescent detainees academic potential and motivation to return to school to inform best practices and policies for juvenile reentry to educational settings. Adolescent detainees (N = 1,576) who were recruited from one male and one female youth detention facility, responded to surveys that assessed post-detention educational plans, as well as social and emotional characteristics, and criminal history. Multivariate analysis techniques were used to compare factors across race and gender, and plot linear relationships between key indicators of academic potential with associate factors. Findings revealed that youth were more likely to evince academic potential when they had a healthy level of self-esteem, adequate future goal orientation, positive mood, family and community involvement, fewer traumatic events, and less delinquent activity. PMID:21654936

  6. African Outreach Workshop 1974.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Nancy J.

    This report discusses the 1974 African Outreach Workshop planned and coordinated by the African Studies Program at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. Its major aim was to assist teachers in developing curriculum units on African using materials available in their local community. A second aim was for the African Studies Program to…

  7. Center for Advanced Energy Studies Program Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Kevin Kostelnik

    2005-09-01

    The world is facing critical energy-related challenges regarding world and national energy demands, advanced science and energy technology delivery, nuclear engineering educational shortfalls, and adequately trained technical staff. Resolution of these issues is important for the United States to ensure a secure and affordable energy supply, which is essential for maintaining U.S. national security, continued economic prosperity, and future sustainable development. One way that the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is addressing these challenges is by tasking the Battelle Energy Alliance, LLC (BEA) with developing the Center for Advanced Energy Studies (CAES) at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). By 2015, CAES will be a self-sustaining, world-class, academic and research institution where the INL; DOE; Idaho, regional, and other national universities; and the international community will cooperate to conduct critical energy-related research, classroom instruction, technical training, policy conceptualization, public dialogue, and other events.

  8. A Randomized Controlled Exercise Training Trial on Insulin Sensitivity in African American Men: The ARTIIS study

    PubMed Central

    Newton, Robert L.; Johnson, William D.; Hendrick, Chelsea; Harris, Melissa; Andrews, Emanuel; Johannsen, Neil; Rodarte, Ruben Q.; Hsia, Daniel S.; Church, Timothy S.

    2015-01-01

    Background Lack of regular physical activity at prescribed intensity levels is a modifiable risk factor for insulin resistance and the development of diabetes. African American men are at increased risk for developing diabetes and most African American men are not meeting the current recommended levels of physical activity. The primary objective of the Aerobic Plus Resistance Training and Insulin Resistance in African American Men (ARTIIS) study is to determine the effectiveness of an exercise training intervention aimed at reducing diabetes risk factors in African American men at risk for developing diabetes. Methods Insufficiently active 35–70 year old African American men with a family history of diabetes were eligible for the study. The 5-month randomized controlled trial assigns 116 men to an exercise training or healthy living control arm. The exercise training arm combines aerobic and resistance training according to the current national physical activity recommendations and is conducted in community (YMCA) facilities. The healthy living arm receives information promoting healthy lifestyle changes. Outcomes Insulin response to an oral glucose load is the primary outcome measure, and changes in physiological parameters, cardiorespiratory fitness, strength, body composition, and psychological well-being comprise the secondary outcomes. Conclusions The ARTIIS study is one of the first adequately powered, rigorously designed studies to investigate the effects of an aerobic plus resistance exercise training program and to assess adherence to exercise training in community facilities, in African American men. PMID:25979318

  9. Rationale and design of the Pan-African Sudden Cardiac Death survey: the Pan-African SCD study

    PubMed Central

    Bonny, Aimé; Bonny, Aimé; Ngantcha, Marcus; Ndongo Amougou, Sylvie; Kane, Adama; Marrakchi, Sonia; Okello, Emmy; Taty, Georges; Gehani, Abdulrrazzak; Diakite, Mamadou; Talle, Mohammed A; Lambiase, Pier D; Houenassi, Martin; Chin, Ashley; Otieno, Harun; Temu, Gloria; Koffi Owusu, Isaac; Karaye, Kamilu M; Awad, Abdalla AM; Gregers Winkel, Bo; Priori, Silvia G; Priori, Silvia G

    2014-01-01

    Summary Background The estimated rate of sudden cardiac death (SCD) in Western countries ranges from 300 000 to 400 000 annually, which represents 0.36 to 1.28 per 1 000 inhabitants in Europe and the United States. The burden of SCD in Africa is unknown. Our aim is to assess the epidemiology of SCD in Africa. Methods The Pan-Africa SCD study is a prospective, multicentre, community-based registry monitoring all cases of cardiac arrest occurring in victims over 15 years old. We will use the definition of SCD as ‘witnessed natural death occurring within one hour of the onset of symptoms’ or ‘unwitnessed natural death within 24 hours of the onset of symptoms’. After appro val from institutional boards, we will record demographic, clinical, electrocardiographic and biological variables of SCD victims (including survivors of cardiac arrest) in several African cities. All deaths occurring in residents of districts of interest will be checked for past medical history, circumstances of death, and autopsy report (if possible). We will also analyse the employment of resuscitation attempts during the time frame of sudden cardiac arrest (SCA) in various patient populations throughout African countries. Conclusion This study will provide comprehensive, contemporary data on the epidemiology of SCD in Africa and will help in the development of strategies to prevent and manage cardiac arrest in this region of the world. PMID:25192301

  10. Case Study of the Merrimack Education Center.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Havelock, Ronald G.; Havelock, Mary C.

    To test the concept of linkage as a means of improving educational practice by more effective utilization of research-based knowledge and resources, the operations of the Merrimack Education Center were compared with the Havelock linkage model. On-site interviews were conducted with Center personnel and written materials were reviewed; school…

  11. Environmental Studies. Plano Outdoor Learning Center.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plano Independent School District, TX.

    This curriculum guide for the Plano Intermediate School District (Texas) Outdoor Learning Center is divided into three major sections. Section I provides information on the numbered stations/posts found along the perimeter and inner trails of the center and includes brief comments on the philosophy of environmental education and the history…

  12. Writing Centers in Context: Twelve Case Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kinkead, Joyce A., Ed.; Harris, Jeanette G., Ed.

    This book profiles 12 writing centers that function effectively on their college and university campuses. Following an introduction that provides an overview and suggests ways the book can be used, the centers are examined in detail in the following chapters: (1) "A Multiservice Writing Lab in a Multiversity: The Purdue University Writing Lab"…

  13. Concurrent sexual partnerships among African American women in Philadelphia: results from a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Nunn, Amy; Dickman, Samuel; Cornwall, Alexandra; Kwakwa, Helena; Mayer, Kenneth H.; Rosengard, Cynthia

    2014-01-01

    Background African American women are disproportionately affected by HIV/AIDS. Concurrent sexual partnerships may contribute to racial disparities in HIV infection. Little is known about attitudes and practices related to concurrency among African American women and the social, structural and behavioral factors that influence concurrency. Methods We recruited 19 heterosexual African American women engaging in concurrent sexual partnerships from a public health clinic in Philadelphia in 2009. We conducted in-depth interviews exploring social norms, attitudes and practices about concurrency, and the structural, social and behavioral factors influencing concurrent sexual partnerships. Grounded theory guided interview protocols and data analysis. Results Seventeen women reported one main and one or more non-main partners; two reported no main partners. Many women used condoms more frequently with non-main than main partners, noting they trust main partners more than non-main partners. Social factors influencing concurrency included social normalization of concurrency, inability to negotiate partners’ other concurrent partnerships, being unmarried, and not trusting main and non-main partners. Not trusting partners and the community at large were the most commonly cited reasons that women engaged in concurrent partnerships. Structural factors included economic dependence on partners, partners’ dependence on women for economic support and housing, and incarceration that interrupted partnerships. Behavioral factors including alcohol and cocaine use influenced concurrency. Conclusions Social, structural, and behavioral factors strongly influenced these African American women’s concurrent sexual partnerships. Many evidence-based interventions (EBIs) disseminated by the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) focus largely on behavioral factors and may fail to address the social and structural factors influencing African American women’s sexual networks

  14. An ImmunoChip study of multiple sclerosis risk in African Americans

    PubMed Central

    Isobe, Noriko; Madireddy, Lohith; Khankhanian, Pouya; Matsushita, Takuya; Caillier, Stacy J.; Moré, Jayaji M.; Gourraud, Pierre-Antoine; McCauley, Jacob L.; Beecham, Ashley H.; Piccio, Laura; Herbert, Joseph; Khan, Omar; Cohen, Jeffrey; Stone, Lael; Santaniello, Adam; Cree, Bruce A. C.; Onengut-Gumuscu, Suna; Rich, Stephen S.; Hauser, Stephen L.; Sawcer, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    The aims of this study were: (i) to determine to what degree multiple sclerosis-associated loci discovered in European populations also influence susceptibility in African Americans; (ii) to assess the extent to which the unique linkage disequilibrium patterns in African Americans can contribute to localizing the functionally relevant regions or genes; and (iii) to search for novel African American multiple sclerosis-associated loci. Using the ImmunoChip custom array we genotyped 803 African American cases with multiple sclerosis and 1516 African American control subjects at 130 135 autosomal single nucleotide polymorphisms. We conducted association analysis with rigorous adjustments for population stratification and admixture. Of the 110 non-major histocompatibility complex multiple sclerosis-associated variants identified in Europeans, 96 passed stringent quality control in our African American data set and of these, >70% (69) showed over-representation of the same allele amongst cases, including 21 with nominally significant evidence for association (one-tailed test P < 0.05). At a further eight loci we found nominally significant association with an alternate correlated risk-tagging single nucleotide polymorphism from the same region. Outside the regions known to be associated in Europeans, we found seven potentially associated novel candidate multiple sclerosis variants (P < 10−4), one of which (rs2702180) also showed nominally significant evidence for association (one-tailed test P = 0.034) in an independent second cohort of 620 African American cases and 1565 control subjects. However, none of these novel associations reached genome-wide significance (combined P = 6.3 × 10−5). Our data demonstrate substantial overlap between African American and European multiple sclerosis variants, indicating common genetic contributions to multiple sclerosis risk. PMID:25818868

  15. Evaluation of Genome Wide Association Study Associated Type 2 Diabetes Susceptibility Loci in Sub Saharan Africans.

    PubMed

    Adeyemo, Adebowale A; Tekola-Ayele, Fasil; Doumatey, Ayo P; Bentley, Amy R; Chen, Guanjie; Huang, Hanxia; Zhou, Jie; Shriner, Daniel; Fasanmade, Olufemi; Okafor, Godfrey; Eghan, Benjamin; Agyenim-Boateng, Kofi; Adeleye, Jokotade; Balogun, Williams; Elkahloun, Abdel; Chandrasekharappa, Settara; Owusu, Samuel; Amoah, Albert; Acheampong, Joseph; Johnson, Thomas; Oli, Johnnie; Adebamowo, Clement; Collins, Francis; Dunston, Georgia; Rotimi, Charles N

    2015-01-01

    Genome wide association studies (GWAS) for type 2 diabetes (T2D) undertaken in European and Asian ancestry populations have yielded dozens of robustly associated loci. However, the genomics of T2D remains largely understudied in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), where rates of T2D are increasing dramatically and where the environmental background is quite different than in these previous studies. Here, we evaluate 106 reported T2D GWAS loci in continental Africans. We tested each of these SNPs, and SNPs in linkage disequilibrium (LD) with these index SNPs, for an association with T2D in order to assess transferability and to fine map the loci leveraging the generally reduced LD of African genomes. The study included 1775 unrelated Africans (1035 T2D cases, 740 controls; mean age 54 years; 59% female) enrolled in Nigeria, Ghana, and Kenya as part of the Africa America Diabetes Mellitus (AADM) study. All samples were genotyped on the Affymetrix Axiom PanAFR SNP array. Forty-one of the tested loci showed transferability to this African sample (p < 0.05, same direction of effect), 11 at the exact reported SNP and 30 others at SNPs in LD with the reported SNP (after adjustment for the number of tested SNPs). TCF7L2 SNP rs7903146 was the most significant locus in this study (p = 1.61 × 10(-8)). Most of the loci that showed transferability were successfully fine-mapped, i.e., localized to smaller haplotypes than in the original reports. The findings indicate that the genetic architecture of T2D in SSA is characterized by several risk loci shared with non-African ancestral populations and that data from African populations may facilitate fine mapping of risk loci. The study provides an important resource for meta-analysis of African ancestry populations and transferability of novel loci. PMID:26635871

  16. Evaluation of Genome Wide Association Study Associated Type 2 Diabetes Susceptibility Loci in Sub Saharan Africans

    PubMed Central

    Adeyemo, Adebowale A.; Tekola-Ayele, Fasil; Doumatey, Ayo P.; Bentley, Amy R.; Chen, Guanjie; Huang, Hanxia; Zhou, Jie; Shriner, Daniel; Fasanmade, Olufemi; Okafor, Godfrey; Eghan, Benjamin; Agyenim-Boateng, Kofi; Adeleye, Jokotade; Balogun, Williams; Elkahloun, Abdel; Chandrasekharappa, Settara; Owusu, Samuel; Amoah, Albert; Acheampong, Joseph; Johnson, Thomas; Oli, Johnnie; Adebamowo, Clement; Collins, Francis; Dunston, Georgia; Rotimi, Charles N.

    2015-01-01

    Genome wide association studies (GWAS) for type 2 diabetes (T2D) undertaken in European and Asian ancestry populations have yielded dozens of robustly associated loci. However, the genomics of T2D remains largely understudied in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), where rates of T2D are increasing dramatically and where the environmental background is quite different than in these previous studies. Here, we evaluate 106 reported T2D GWAS loci in continental Africans. We tested each of these SNPs, and SNPs in linkage disequilibrium (LD) with these index SNPs, for an association with T2D in order to assess transferability and to fine map the loci leveraging the generally reduced LD of African genomes. The study included 1775 unrelated Africans (1035 T2D cases, 740 controls; mean age 54 years; 59% female) enrolled in Nigeria, Ghana, and Kenya as part of the Africa America Diabetes Mellitus (AADM) study. All samples were genotyped on the Affymetrix Axiom PanAFR SNP array. Forty-one of the tested loci showed transferability to this African sample (p < 0.05, same direction of effect), 11 at the exact reported SNP and 30 others at SNPs in LD with the reported SNP (after adjustment for the number of tested SNPs). TCF7L2 SNP rs7903146 was the most significant locus in this study (p = 1.61 × 10−8). Most of the loci that showed transferability were successfully fine-mapped, i.e., localized to smaller haplotypes than in the original reports. The findings indicate that the genetic architecture of T2D in SSA is characterized by several risk loci shared with non-African ancestral populations and that data from African populations may facilitate fine mapping of risk loci. The study provides an important resource for meta-analysis of African ancestry populations and transferability of novel loci. PMID:26635871

  17. Recruiting intergenerational African American males for biomedical research Studies: a major research challenge.

    PubMed

    Byrd, Goldie S; Edwards, Christopher L; Kelkar, Vinaya A; Phillips, Ruth G; Byrd, Jennifer R; Pim-Pong, Dora Som; Starks, Takiyah D; Taylor, Ashleigh L; Mckinley, Raechel E; Li, Yi-Ju; Pericak-Vance, Margaret

    2011-06-01

    The health and well-being of all individuals, independent of race, ethnicity, or gender, is a significant public health concern. Despite many improvements in the status of minority health, African American males continue to have the highest age-adjusted mortality rate of any race-sex group in the United States. Such disparities are accounted for by deaths from a number of diseases such as diabetes, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), cancer, and cardiovascular disease, as well as by many historical and present social and cultural constructs that present as obstacles to better health outcomes. Distrust of the medical community, inadequate education, low socioeconomic status, social deprivation, and underutilized primary health care services all contribute to disproportionate health and health care outcomes among African Americans compared to their Caucasian counterparts. Results of clinical research on diseases that disproportionately affect African American males are often limited in their reliability due to common sampling errors existing in the majority of biomedical research studies and clinical trials. There are many reasons for underrepresentation of African American males in clinical trials, including their common recollection and interpretation of relevant historical of biomedical events where minorities were abused or exposed to racial discrimination or racist provocation. In addition, African American males continue to be less educated and more disenfranchised from the majority in society than Caucasian males and females and their African American female counterparts. As such, understanding their perceptions, even in early developmental years, about health and obstacles to involvement in research is important. In an effort to understand perspectives about their level of participation, motivation for participation, impact of education, and engagement in research, this study was designed to explore factors that impact their willingness to participate. Our

  18. Overcoming barriers to health-care access: A qualitative study among African migrants in Guangzhou, China.

    PubMed

    Lin, Lavinia; Brown, Katherine B; Hall, Brian J; Yu, Fan; Yang, Jingqi; Wang, Jason; Schrock, Joshua M; Bodomo, Adams B; Yang, Ligang; Yang, Bin; Nehl, Eric J; Tucker, Joseph D; Wong, Frank Y

    2016-10-01

    Guangzhou is China's third most populous city, and the region's burgeoning manufacturing economy has attracted many young African businessmen and entrepreneurs to the city. The aims of this study were to examine strategies that African migrants in Guangzhou have adopted in response to health-care barriers, and explore their perceptions of how to address their needs. Twenty-five semi-structured interviews and two focus groups were conducted among African migrants residing in Guangzhou, China. Facing multiple barriers to care, African migrants have adopted a number of suboptimal and unsustainable approaches to access health care. These included: using their Chinese friends or partners as interpreters, self-medicating, using personal connections to medical doctors, and travelling to home countries or countries that offer English-speaking doctors for health care. Health-care providers and health organisations in Guangzhou have not yet acquired sufficient cultural competence to address the needs of African migrants residing in the city. Introducing linguistically and culturally competent health-care services in communities concentrated with African migrants may better serve the population. With the growing international migration to China, it is essential to develop sustainable approaches to improving health-care access for international migrants, particularly those who are marginalised. PMID:26400191

  19. An Exploratory Study of Responses to Low-Dose Lithium in African Americans and Hispanics

    PubMed Central

    Arnold, Jodi Gonzalez; Salcedo, Stephanie; Ketter, Terrence A.; Calabrese, Joseph R.; Rabideau, Dustin J.; Nierenberg, Andrew A.; Bazan, Melissa; Leon, Andrew C.; Friedman, Edward S.; Iosifescu, Dan; Sylvia, Louisa G.; Ostacher, Michael; Thase, Michael; Reilly-Harrington, Noreen A.; Bowden, Charles L.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Few prospective studies examine the impact of ethnicity or race on outcomes with lithium for bipolar disorder. This exploratory study examines differences in lithium response and treatment outcomes in Hispanics, African Americans, and non-Hispanic Whites with bipolar disorder in the Lithium Treatment Moderate Dose Use Study (LiTMUS). Methods LiTMUS was a six-site randomized controlled trial of low-dose lithium added to optimized treatment (OPT; personalized, evidence-based pharmacotherapy) versus OPT alone in outpatients with bipolar disorder. Of 283 participants, 47 African Americans, 39 Hispanics, and 175 non-Hispanic whites were examined. We predicted minority groups would have more negative medication attitudes and higher attrition rates, but better clinical outcomes. Results African Americans in the lithium group improved more on depression and life functioning compared to whites over the 6 month study. African Americans in the OPT only group had marginal improvement on depression symptoms. For Hispanics, satisfaction with life did not significantly improve in the OPT only group, in contrast to whites and African Americans who improved over time on all measures. Attitudes toward medications did not differ across ethnic/racial groups. Conclusions African Americans show some greater improvements with lithium than non-Hispanic whites, and Hispanics showed more consistent improvements in the lithium group. The impact of low-dose lithium should be studied in a larger sample as there may be particular benefit for African Americans and Hispanics. Given that the control group (regardless of ethnicity/race) had significant improvements, optimized treatment may be beneficial for any ethnic group. PMID:25827507

  20. African Americans Respond Poorly to Hepatitis C Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black Issues in Higher Education, 2004

    2004-01-01

    African Americans have a significantly lower response rate to treatment for chronic hepatitis C than non-Hispanic Whites, according to a new study led by Duke University Medical Center researchers. Some African Americans--19 percent--did respond to the drug combination of peginterferon alfa-2b and ribavirin. But in non-Hispanic Whites with the…

  1. Higher prevalence of proximal colon polyps and villous histology in African-Americans undergoing colonoscopy at a single equal access center

    PubMed Central

    Vega, Kenneth J.

    2015-01-01

    Background In the United States, African Americans (AA) have the highest incidence and mortality from colorectal cancer (CRC) of any racial group. Few studies have evaluated if AA who undergo colonoscopy are more likely to have aggressive neoplasia (polyp) tumor biology compared to Caucasians (C). The primary aim of the study was to compare polyp characteristics between AA and C undergoing outpatient colonoscopy. Methods A single center retrospective cohort study was performed at a single Veteran Administration (VA) health care system. The charts of 4,038 veterans undergoing colonoscopy from 2005 to 2008 were reviewed. After applying exclusion criteria, data was analyzed for 1,388 persons. Categorical variables were compared using the chi-square test and data were expressed as percentages. Continuous variables were compared using student’s t-test and the data were expressed as mean with standard deviation. Results A total of 37% of AA had proximal polyps compared to 21% of C (P<0.0001). Twenty-four percent of AA had polyps with villous histology compared to 16% of C (P=0.01). Twelve percent of AA had hyperplastic polyps compared to 20% of C (P=0.02). There was no difference in the overall prevalence of tubular adenomas, adenomatous polyps with high-grade dysplasia, number, size or polyp morphology between groups. Conclusions In an equal access healthcare system and under varying indications, AA have more proximal polyps and polyps with more aggressive histology compared to C. This could partially explain the higher incidence of CRC in AA, and the increased likelihood for AA to develop advanced proximal neoplasia. PMID:26697195

  2. RESQme studies for SDC regional computing centers

    SciTech Connect

    Day, C.T.

    1993-02-01

    The Technical Design Report for the SDC proposes a model for offline computing which includes a computing center at the SSCL, containing all of the physics data, together with a number of regional computing centers around the world. These regional centers would contain subsets of the data, and would support the daily work of most physicists. For large or unusual requests, where the data are not held at the regional center, the requests would automatically be forwarded to the SSCL. It is assumed that the closeness'' of the regional centers and their reduced demand from fewer users would result in improved system performance. Such a system is too complex to model analytically; simulation is the only viable approach. However, Monte Carlo models built from scratch for complicated systems are very difficult to maintain and hard to modify. Fortunately, we have obtained from IBM a modeling framework, RESQme, explicitly designed for building statistical models of computer systems. This note describes a first pass at modeling the proposed offline system.

  3. RESQme studies for SDC regional computing centers

    SciTech Connect

    Day, C.T.

    1993-02-01

    The Technical Design Report for the SDC proposes a model for offline computing which includes a computing center at the SSCL, containing all of the physics data, together with a number of regional computing centers around the world. These regional centers would contain subsets of the data, and would support the daily work of most physicists. For large or unusual requests, where the data are not held at the regional center, the requests would automatically be forwarded to the SSCL. It is assumed that the ``closeness`` of the regional centers and their reduced demand from fewer users would result in improved system performance. Such a system is too complex to model analytically; simulation is the only viable approach. However, Monte Carlo models built from scratch for complicated systems are very difficult to maintain and hard to modify. Fortunately, we have obtained from IBM a modeling framework, RESQme, explicitly designed for building statistical models of computer systems. This note describes a first pass at modeling the proposed offline system.

  4. Efficacy of an HIV/STI sexual risk-reduction intervention for African American adolescent girls in juvenile detention centers: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    DiClemente, Ralph J; Davis, Teaniese L; Swartzendruber, Andrea; Fasula, Amy M; Boyce, Lorin; Gelaude, Deborah; Gray, Simone C; Hardin, James; Rose, Eve; Carry, Monique; Sales, Jessica M; Brown, Jennifer L; Staples-Horne, Michelle

    2014-01-01

    Few HIV/STI interventions exist for African American adolescent girls in juvenile detention. The objective was to evaluate the efficacy of an intervention to reduce incident STIs, improve HIV-preventive behaviors, and enhance psychosocial outcomes. We conducted a randomized controlled trial among African American adolescent girls (13-17 years, N = 188) in juvenile detention from March 2011 to May 2012. Assessments occurred at baseline and 3- and 6-months post-randomization and included: audio computer-assisted self-interview, condom skills assessment, and self-collected vaginal swab to detect Chlamydia and gonorrhea. The Imara intervention included three individual-level sessions and four phone sessions; expedited partner therapy was offered to STI-positive adolescents. The comparison group received the usual care provided by the detention center: STI testing, treatment, and counseling. At the 6-month assessment (3-months post-intervention), Imara participants reported higher condom use self-efficacy (p < 0.001), HIV/STI knowledge (p < 0.001), and condom use skills (p < 0.001) compared to control participants. No significant differences were observed between trial conditions in incident Chlamydia or gonorrhea infections, condom use, or number of vaginal sex partners. Imara for detained African American adolescent girls can improve condom use skills and psychosocial outcomes; however, a critical need for interventions to reduce sexual risk remains. PMID:25190056

  5. Efficacy of an HIV/STI Sexual Risk-Reduction Intervention for African American Adolescent Girls in Juvenile Detention Centers: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    DiClemente, Ralph J.; Davis, Teaniese L.; Swartzendruber, Andrea; Fasula, Amy M.; Boyce, Lorin; Gelaude, Deborah; Gray, Simone C.; Hardin, James; Rose, Eve; Carry, Monique; Sales, Jessica M.; Brown, Jennifer L.; Staples-Horne, Michelle

    2014-01-01

    Background Few HIV/STI interventions exist for African American adolescent girls in juvenile detention. Objective The objective was to evaluate the efficacy of an intervention to reduce incident STIs, improve HIV-preventive behaviors, and enhance psychosocial outcomes. Methods We conducted a randomized controlled trial among African American adolescent girls (13-17 years, N=188) in juvenile detention from March 2011 to May 2012. Assessments occurred at baseline and 3- and 6-months post-randomization and included: audio computer-assisted self-interview, condom skills assessment, and self-collected vaginal swab to detect Chlamydia and gonorrhea. Intervention The Imara intervention included three individual-level sessions and four phone sessions; expedited partner therapy was offered to STI-positive adolescents. The comparison group received the usual care provided by the detention center: STI testing, treatment and counseling. Results At the 6-month assessment (3-months post-intervention) Imara participants reported higher condom use self-efficacy (p<0.001), HIV/STI knowledge (p<0.001), and condom use skills (p<0.001) compared to control participants. No significant differences were observed between trial conditions in incident Chlamydia or gonorrhea infections, condom use, or number of vaginal sex partners. Conclusions Imara for detained African American adolescent girls can improve condom use skills and psychosocial outcomes; however, a critical need for interventions to reduce sexual risk remains. PMID:25190056

  6. Overview of the Jackson Heart Study: a study of cardiovascular diseases in African American men and women.

    PubMed

    Sempos, C T; Bild, D E; Manolio, T A

    1999-03-01

    The Jackson Heart Study is a partnership among Jackson State University, Tougaloo College, the University of Mississippi Medical Center and the National Institutes of Health's National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) and Office of Research on Minority Health. The purposes of the study are to: (1) establish a single-site cohort study to identify the risk factors for the development of cardiovascular diseases, especially those related to hypertension, in African American men and women; (2) build research capabilities in minority institutions by building partnerships; (3) attract minority students to careers in public health and epidemiology; and (4) establish an NHLBI Field Site in Jackson, Mississippi, similar to those established for the Framingham Heart Study and the Honolulu Heart Program. The study will consist of participants from the Jackson site of the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study and a sample of residents from the Jackson metropolitan area. The study will have a sample size of approximately 6,500 men and women aged 35-84 years and will include approximately 400 families. Exam 1 is scheduled to take place in the spring of the year 2000. PMID:10100686

  7. Posttraumatic stress disorder in African Americans: A two year follow-up study

    PubMed Central

    Benítez, Carlos I. Pérez; Sibrava, Nicholas J.; Wood, Laura Kohn; Bjornsson, Andri S.; Zlotnick, Caron; Weisberg, Risa; Keller, Martin B.

    2015-01-01

    The present study was a prospective, naturalistic, longitudinal investigation of the two year course of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in a sample of African Americans with anxiety disorders. The study objectives were to examine the two year course of PTSD and to evaluate differences between African Americans with PTSD and anxiety disorders and African Americans with anxiety disorders but no PTSD with regard to comorbidity, psychosocial impairment, physical and emotional functioning, and treatment participation. The participants were 67 African Americans with PTSD and 98 African Americans without PTSD (mean age 41.5 years, 67.3% female). Individuals with PTSD were more likely to have higher comorbidity, lower functioning, and they were less likely to seek treatment than those with other anxiety disorders but no PTSD. The rate of recovery from PTSD over two years was .10 and recovery from comorbid Major Depressive Disorder was .55. PTSD appears to be persistent over time in this populattion. The rates of recovery were lower than what has been reported in previous longitudinal studies with predominantly non-Latino Whites. It is imperative to examine barriers to treatment and factors related to treatment engagement for this population. PMID:25086766

  8. A molecular phylogenetic study of southern African Apiaceae.

    PubMed

    Calviño, Carolina I; Tilney, Patricia M; Wyk, Ben-Erik van; Downie, Stephen R

    2006-12-01

    It has been suggested that southern Africa is the origin of the predominantly herbaceous Apiaceae subfamily Apioideae and that the woody habit is plesiomorphic. We expand previous molecular phylogenetic analyses of the family by considering all but three of the approximately 38 genera native to southern Africa, including all genera whose members, save one, have a woody habit. Representatives of five other genera are included because they may be closely related to these southern African taxa. Chloroplast DNA rps16 intron and/or nuclear rDNA ITS sequences for 154 accessions are analyzed using maximum parsimony, Bayesian, and maximum likelihood methods. Within Apioideae, two major clades hitherto unrecognized in the subfamily are inferred. The monogeneric Lichtensteinia clade is sister group to all other members of the subfamily, whereas the Annesorhiza clade (Annesorhiza, Chamarea, and Itasina) plus Molopospermum (and Astydamia in the ITS trees) are the successive sister group to all Apioideae except Lichtensteinia. Tribe Heteromorpheae is expanded to include Pseudocarum, "Oreofraga" ined., and five genera endemic to Madagascar. The southern African origin of subfamily Apioideae is corroborated (with subsequent migration northward into Eurasia along two dispersal routes), and the positions of the herbaceous Lichtensteinia and Annesorhiza clades within the subfamily suggest, surprisingly, that its ancestor was herbaceous, not woody. PMID:21642128

  9. The Birth of a South African Child Development Center for 2- to 6-Year-Olds: An International Partnership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeMarie, Darlene; Cherian, Lily

    2012-01-01

    Providing high-quality education and care for young children at a historically Black university in rural South Africa was a challenging task. But despite many obstacles, two teacher educators (an American and a South African) worked together, partnered with a surprising collection of others, seized every possible opportunity, and persisted, seeing…

  10. Qualitative study of African-American job satisfaction in a scientific/technical research environment

    SciTech Connect

    Krossa, C.D.

    1996-09-01

    Many studies have been conducted in the area of job satisfaction. Its necessary attributes sor components have been studied, analyzed, validated, standardized, and normed, onpredominantly white male populations. Few of these studies have focused on people of color, specifically African-Americans, and fewer still on those African-Americans working in a high-tech, scientific and research environments. The researchers have defined what is necessary for the current dominent culture`s population, but are their findings applicable and valid for our nation`s other cultures and ethnic groups? Among the conclusions: the subjects felt that there was no real difference in job satisfiers from their white colleagues; however the subjects had the sense of community (African-American) and the need to give back to it. Frustrations included politics, funding, and lack of control.

  11. 2005 Workforce Study: Ohio Early Childhood Centers. General Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoneburner, Chris

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to understand the characteristics of the current workforce in early childhood. This report highlights key characteristics of the 2005 early childhood center workforce in Ohio. Survey packets were sent to 3.600 randomly selected centers in April 2005, representing centers licensed by the Ohio Department of Job and…

  12. African American Students as Isolates in Gifted/Programs of Study: Challenging Forces and Successful Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Karen N.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to show findings through the examination of African American students as isolates in gifted/programs of study: their challenges and successes. To achieve this purpose a qualitative, exploratory case study was used and data were collected through in-depth interviews of the participants (six) and heuristic inquiry of…

  13. A question of trust: user-centered design requirements for an informatics intervention to promote the sexual health of African-American youth

    PubMed Central

    Veinot, Tiffany C; Campbell, Terrance R; Kruger, Daniel J; Grodzinski, Alison

    2013-01-01

    Objective We investigated the user requirements of African-American youth (aged 14–24 years) to inform the design of a culturally appropriate, network-based informatics intervention for the prevention of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STI). Materials and Methods We conducted 10 focus groups with 75 African-American youth from a city with high HIV/STI prevalence. Data analyses involved coding using qualitative content analysis procedures and memo writing. Results Unexpectedly, the majority of participants’ design recommendations concerned trust. Youth expressed distrust towards people and groups, which was amplified within the context of information technology-mediated interactions about HIV/STI. Participants expressed distrust in the reliability of condoms and the accuracy of HIV tests. They questioned the benevolence of many institutions, and some rejected authoritative HIV/STI information. Therefore, reputational information, including rumor, influenced HIV/STI-related decision making. Participants’ design requirements also focused on trust-related concerns. Accordingly, we developed a novel trust-centered design framework to guide intervention design. Discussion Current approaches to online trust for health informatics do not consider group-level trusting patterns. Yet, trust was the central intervention-relevant issue among African-American youth, suggesting an important focus for culturally informed design. Our design framework incorporates: intervention objectives (eg, network embeddedness, participation); functional specifications (eg, decision support, collective action, credible question and answer services); and interaction design (eg, member control, offline network linkages, optional anonymity). Conclusions Trust is a critical focus for HIV/STI informatics interventions for young African Americans. Our design framework offers practical, culturally relevant, and systematic guidance to designers to reach this underserved group

  14. Vomiting Center reanalyzed: An electrical stimulation study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, A. D.; Wilson, V. J.

    1982-01-01

    Electrical stimulation of the brainstem of 15 decerebrate cats produced stimulus-bound vomiting in only 4 animals. Vomiting was reproducible in only one cat. Effective stimulating sites were located in the solitary tract and reticular formation. Restricted localization of a vomiting center, stimulation of which evoked readily reproducible results, could not be obtained.

  15. Student-Centered and Teacher-Centered Classroom Management: A Case Study of Three Elementary Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrett, Tracey

    2008-01-01

    The major purpose of this case study was to document the classroom management beliefs and practices of three teachers reputed to implement student-centered instruction and to examine the relationship between their instructional and managerial approaches. More specifically, do teachers who use student-centered instruction also implement…

  16. Client Impact Study of Six Detoxification Centers ("Sub-Acute Receiving Centers").

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayer, Steven E.; And Others

    Results are reported of a study to determine the effects of detoxification centers on the people who use their services. A detoxification center is "a social rehabilitation facility established for the purpose of facilitating access into care and rehabilitation by detoxifying and evaluating the person and providing entrance into the continuum of…

  17. Genome-wide association studies in Africans and African Americans: Expanding the Framework of the Genomics of Human Traits and Disease

    PubMed Central

    Peprah, Emmanuel; Xu, Huichun; Tekola-Ayele, Fasil; Royal, Charmaine D.

    2014-01-01

    Genomic research is one of the tools for elucidating the pathogenesis of diseases of global health relevance, and paving the research dimension to clinical and public health translation. Recent advances in genomic research and technologies have increased our understanding of human diseases, genes associated with these disorders, and the relevant mechanisms. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have proliferated since the first studies were published several years ago, and have become an important tool in helping researchers comprehend human variation and the role genetic variants play in disease. However, the need to expand the diversity of populations in GWAS has become increasingly apparent as new knowledge is gained about genetic variation. Inclusion of diverse populations in genomic studies is critical to a more complete understanding of human variation and elucidation of the underpinnings of complex diseases. In this review, we summarize the available data on GWAS in recent-African ancestry populations within the western hemisphere (i.e. African Americans and peoples of the Caribbean) and continental African populations. Furthermore, we highlight ways in which genomic studies in populations of recent African ancestry have led to advances in the areas of malaria, HIV, prostate cancer, and other diseases. Finally, we discuss the advantages of conducting GWAS in recent African ancestry populations in the context of addressing existing and emerging global health conditions. PMID:25427668

  18. A Qualitative Study: African-American Girls' Perceptions of Why Physical Activity Declines in High School.

    PubMed

    Williams, Wanda M; Berry, Diane C

    2015-12-01

    African-American adolescent girls are less physically active than any other U.S. racial/ethnic group. The school environment may contribute to physical inactivity in this group. The purpose of this study was to explore African-American girls' perceptions offactors that contribute to girls being less physically active in high school. Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis (IPA) was used to identify individual perceptions of girls regarding physical activity. This resulted in four themes: personal appearances, scheduling/timing of classes, environmental/facilities issues, and lack of variety of activities in PE classes. Thefindings from this study indicated that African-American adolescent girls did not feel the physical or social school environment encouraged or supported them to be physically active. PMID:27045158

  19. The Genetic Contribution of West-African Ancestry to Protection against Central Obesity in African-American Men but Not Women: Results from the ARIC and MESA Studies

    PubMed Central

    Klimentidis, Yann C.; Arora, Amit; Zhou, Jin; Kittles, Rick; Allison, David B.

    2016-01-01

    Over 80% of African-American (AA) women are overweight or obese. A large racial disparity between AA and European-Americans (EA) in obesity rates exists among women, but curiously not among men. Although socio-economic and/or cultural factors may partly account for this race-by-sex interaction, the potential involvement of genetic factors has not yet been investigated. Among 2814 self-identified AA in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities study, we estimated each individual's degree of West-African genetic ancestry using 3437 ancestry informative markers. We then tested whether sex modifies the association between West-African genetic ancestry and body mass index (BMI), waist-circumference (WC), and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), adjusting for income and education levels, and examined associations of ancestry with the phenotypes separately in males and females. We replicated our findings in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (n = 1611 AA). In both studies, we find that West-African ancestry is negatively associated with obesity, especially central obesity, among AA men, but not among AA women (pinteraction = 4.14 × 10−5 in pooled analysis of WHR). In conclusion, our results suggest that the combination of male gender and West-African genetic ancestry is associated with protection against central adiposity, and suggest that the large racial disparity that exists among women, but not men, may be at least partly attributed to genetic factors. PMID:27313598

  20. Sheep Pox: Experimental Studies with a West African Isolate

    PubMed Central

    Afshar, A.; Bundza, A.; Myers, D. J.; Dulac, G. C.; Thomas, F. C.

    1986-01-01

    Under conditions of a maximum security laboratory, four cross-bred sheep were inoculated intradermally only or intradermally and intratracheally with a West African isolate of sheep pox virus. All sheep had increased temperature and depression by the fourth or fifth day after infection. Nasal and lacrimal discharge and coughing occurred in all sheep but were more severe in sheep receiving the virus via the tracheal route. From the fifth day after infection, numerous papular erythematous skin lesions developed at the inoculation sites. These were 3-7 mm in diameter and gradually became nodular. Some of these lesions healed and others coalesced to form tumorlike masses. In one sheep, euthanized 14 days after intradermal and intratracheal inoculation, nodular lesions were found in the skin around the eyes, nostrils, oral and perianal regions, the mucosa of the rumen and throughout the lungs. Histologically, skin nodules were characterized by ischemic necrosis, vasculitis, microvesicualtion, eosinophilic cytoplasmic inclusions in the dermal epithelial cells and vacuolar nuclear degeneration. The pulmonary lesion was that of proliferative alveolitis with occasional cytoplasmic inclusions in the alveolar cells and macrophages. Ultrastructurally, large cuboidal virus particles were found both in the skin lesion and inoculated tissue cultures. The sheep pox virus structure was easily distinguished from contagious ecthyma virus, a parapoxvirus which causes sporadic disease in Canada. Serum neutralizing antibodies developed in all the sheep by 14 days postinfection. The clinical and pathological characteristics of experimental sheep pox produced with this West African isolate were similar to those caused by Neethling virus of lumpy skin disease in cattle. ImagesFigure 2., Figure 3., Figure 4., Figure 5., Figure 6.Figure 7., Figure 8., Figure 9., Figure 10.Figure 12.Figure 13. PMID:17422683

  1. Yale Study: African-American Women Report More Menopause Symptoms than White Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black Issues in Higher Education, 2005

    2005-01-01

    A study of African-American women in menopause shows that while they experience many of the same symptoms as White women, they report more vasomotor symptoms such as dizziness and bloating, according to a study by a Yale School of Nursing researcher. The women reported symptoms common among White women in menopause--hot flashes, irregular…

  2. African American Women Scholars and International Research: Dr. Anna Julia Cooper's Legacy of Study Abroad

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Stephanie Y.

    2009-01-01

    EIn this article, the author presents a little-known but detailed history of Black women's tradition of study abroad. Specifically, she situates Dr. Anna Julia Cooper within the landscape of historic African American students who studied in Japan, Germany, Jamaica, England, Italy, Haiti, India, West Africa, and Thailand, in addition to France. The…

  3. Academic Performance Differences among Male and Female African American Students: An Urban High School Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simmons, Livia A.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine differences between male and female African American high school students in an urban setting. The participants were from a senior academy located in a Southern state. Of the 270 participants in the study, 76 were seniors, 89 were juniors, 95 were sophomores, and 10 were freshmen. The gender composition…

  4. Unpacking the Predominance of Case Study Methodology in South African Postgraduate Educational Research, 1995-2004

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rule, P.; Davey, B.; Balfour, R. J.

    2011-01-01

    The Project Postgraduate Educational Research (PPER) data indicate that case study is the most popular methodology among South African education masters and doctorate students in the period 1995-2004. This article reflects on the reasons for the preference for case study by considering epistemological and contextual factors. It unpacks the links…

  5. Language Practices and Perceptions: A Case Study of Six South African Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomson, Carol; Stakhnevich, Julia

    2010-01-01

    Using a critical perspective as its framework, this article reports on a case study that explored language practices and perceptions of six South African teachers who participated in a professional development workshop entitled "Language Across the Curriculum." The study reveals the conflicting attitudes of the teachers toward the role of language…

  6. Teaching About/Learning from: Africa. A Series. African Studies Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bucher, Henry H.; And Others

    This document suggests methods and materials for introducing students in junior and senior high school social studies courses to African culture and history. The document is presented in five parts. Part I proposes objectives for studying about Africa, including that Africa is an important part of the world, provides insight into other cultures,…

  7. A Phenomenological Study on the Leadership Development of African American Women Executives in Academia and Business

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Deanna Rachelle

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative phenomenological study was to explore the intersectionality of race and gender for African American women through their lived experiences of how they developed into leaders. This research study was designed to determine how the intersection of race and gender identities contributed to the elements of leadership…

  8. Results from a Prostate Cancer Admixture Mapping Study in African American Men

    PubMed Central

    Bock, Cathryn H.; Schwartz, Ann G.; Ruterbusch, Julie J.; Levin, Albert M.; Neslund-Dudas, Christine; Land, Susan J.; Wenzlaff, Angela S.; Reich, David; McKeigue, Paul; Chen, Wei; Heath, Elisabeth I.; Powell, Isaac J.; Kittles, Rick A.; Rybicki, Benjamin A.

    2010-01-01

    There are considerable racial disparities in prostate cancer risk, with a 60% higher incidence rate among African American (AA) men compared with European American (EA) men, and a 2.4 fold higher mortality rate in AA men than in EA men. Recently, studies have implicated several African-ancestry associated prostate cancer susceptibility loci on chromosome 8q24. In the current study, we performed admixture mapping in AA men from two independent case-control studies of prostate cancer to confirm the 8q24 ancestry association and also identify other genomic regions that may harbor prostate cancer susceptibility genes. A total of 482 cases and 261 controls were genotyped for 1,509 ancestry informative markers across the genome. The mean estimated individual admixture proportions were 20% European and 80% African. The most significant observed increase in European ancestry occurred at rs2141360 on chromosome 7q31 in both the case-only (p=0.0000035) and case-control analyses. The most significant observed increase in African ancestry across the genome occurred at a locus on chromosome 5q35 identified by SNPs rs7729084 (case-only analysis: p=0.002), and rs12474977 (case-control analysis: p=0.004), which are separated by 646 kb and were adjacent to one another on the panel. On chromosome 8, rs4367565 was associated with the greatest excess African ancestry in both the case-only and case-control analyses (case-only and case-control p=0.02), confirming previously reported African-ancestry associations with chromosome 8q24. In conclusion, we confirmed ancestry associations on 8q24, and identified additional ancestry-associated regions potentially harboring prostate cancer susceptibility loci. PMID:19568772

  9. Elevated Hypertension Risk for African-Origin Populations in Biracial Societies: Modeling the Epidemiologic Transition Study

    PubMed Central

    COOPER, Richard S.; FORRESTER, Terrence E.; PLANGE-RHULE, Jacob; BOVET, Pascal; LAMBERT, Estelle V.; DUGAS, Lara R.; CARGILL, Kathryn E; DURAZO-ARVIZU, Ramon A.; SHOHAM, David A.; TONG, Liping; CAO, Guichan; LUKE, Amy

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Blood pressures in persons of African descent exceed those of other racial/ethnic groups in the US. Whether this trait is attributable to genetic factors in African-origin populations, or a result of inadequately measured environmental exposures, such as racial discrimination, is not known. To study this question we conducted a multi-site comparative study of communities in the African diaspora, drawn from metropolitan Chicago, Kingston, Jamaica, rural Ghana, Cape Town, South Africa, and the Seychelles. Methods At each site 500 participants between the ages of 25 and 49, with approximately equal sex balance, were enrolled for a longitudinal study of energy expenditure and weight gain. In this report we describe the patterns of blood pressure and hypertension observed at baseline among the sites. Results Mean systolic and diastolic blood pressures were very similar in the US and South Africa in both men and women, although among women the prevalence of hypertension was higher in the US (24 vs. 17%, respectively). After adjustment for multiple covariates, relative to participants in the U.S., systolic blood pressure was significantly higher among South Africans by 9.7 mmHg (p<0.05) and significantly lower for each of the other sites: viz, Jamaica, −7.9 mmHg (p=0.06), Ghana, −12.8 mmHg (p<0.01), Seychelles, −11.1 mmHg (p=0.01). Conclusion These data are consistent with prior findings of a blood pressure gradient in societies of the African diaspora and confirm that African-origin populations with lower social status in multi-racial societies, such as the US and South Africa, experience more hypertension than anticipated based on anthropometric and measurable socioeconomic risk factors. PMID:25426566

  10. A Phenomenological Study of Perceptions of Identity and Leadership among African-American Female Administrators within Public Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dowdy, June Pickett

    2011-01-01

    This phenomenological study explores how African-American female administrators (individually and collectively) perceive the relationship between their identity and their leadership voice. The study focuses upon perceptions of 11 African-American female administrators who serve the 14 main campuses of the universities constituting the Pennsylvania…

  11. Exploring Generational Identity in the Professional Lives of African-American Women: A Participatory Action Research Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Charles D.

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the professional lives of African-American women in relation to their affiliations to a generation. Relationships between race, gender, generation, and class are explored. This study builds on the work of generational theorists and feminist scholars, and seeks to understand the experiences of African-American women in an…

  12. Algebra Matters: An Ethnographic Study of Successful African American Male Algebra 1 Students in a Suburban Middle School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirkwood, Kirk

    2012-01-01

    Alarming statistics reveal that African American male students are encountering long-standing challenges in K-12 mathematics. However, few studies have explored the phenomena associated with African American males and K-12 mathematics education, particularly at the middle school level in the context of an Algebra 1 course of study. The purpose of…

  13. Not Merely a Matter of Academics: Student Experiences of a South African University as Study-Abroad Destination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paola, R. J.; Lemmer, E. M.

    2013-01-01

    Study abroad programmes attract considerable numbers of American college students; however, very few select an African country as their study-abroad destination. This article explores the experiences of American undergraduates who made the uncommon choice of a South African university as destination for a mid-length immersion type programme. The…

  14. Against the Odds: A Phenomenological Study of African American Male Teachers in a Rural Elementary/High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reeves-Weaver, Ann

    2010-01-01

    Many studies have documented the failure and attrition of African American male students to complete high school or college. Much less attention has been given to the ways in which these students successfully matriculate from these institutions. The purpose of this phenomenological study was to understand the experiences of African American male…

  15. The Balance of Two Worlds: A Study of the Perceptions of African American Female Principals and Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wells, Caprica

    2013-01-01

    This qualitative study focused on the power of story and narrative through examining the perceptions of African American female principals who are passionate about social justice leadership and making a real difference in the lives of students. The study also shared the perceptions of African American female principals regarding the challenges…

  16. The Subtlety of Age, Gender, and Race Barriers: A Case Study of Early Career African American Female Principals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jean-Marie, Gaetane

    2013-01-01

    While all educational leaders face challenges in achieving success, African American female principals often face a unique set of challenges associated with the complexity of their gender, race, and, as examined in this study, age. This case study investigates the experiences of two highly visible, early career African American female principals…

  17. Narcolepsy in African Americans

    PubMed Central

    Kawai, Makoto; O'Hara, Ruth; Einen, Mali; Lin, Ling; Mignot, Emmanuel

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: Although narcolepsy affects 0.02–0.05% of individuals in various ethnic groups, clinical presentation in different ethnicities has never been fully characterized. Our goal was to study phenotypic expression across ethnicities in the United States. Design/Setting: Cases of narcolepsy from 1992 to 2013 were identified from searches of the Stanford Center for Narcolepsy Research database. International Classification of Sleep Disorders, Third Edition diagnosis criteria for type 1 and type 2 narcolepsy were used for inclusion, but subjects were separated as with and without cataplexy for the purpose of data presentation. Information extracted included demographics, ethnicity and clinical data, HLA-DQB1*06:02, polysomnography (PSG), multiple sleep latency test (MSLT) data, and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) hypocretin-1 level. Patients: 182 African-Americans, 839 Caucasians, 35 Asians, and 41 Latinos with narcolepsy. Results: Sex ratio, PSG, and MSLT findings did not differ across ethnicities. Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) score was higher and age of onset of sleepiness earlier in African Americans compared with other ethnicities. HLA-DQB1*06:02 positivity was higher in African Americans (91.0%) versus others (76.6% in Caucasians, 80.0% in Asians, and 65.0% in Latinos). CSF hypocretin-1 level, obtained in 222 patients, was more frequently low (≤ 110 pg/ml) in African Americans (93.9%) versus Caucasians (61.5%), Asians (85.7%) and Latinos (75.0%). In subjects with low CSF hypocretin-1, African Americans (28.3%) were 4.5 fold more likely to be without cataplexy when compared with Caucasians (8.1%). Conclusions: Narcolepsy in African Americans is characterized by earlier symptom onset, higher Epworth Sleepiness Scale score, higher HLA-DQB1*06:02 positivity, and low cerebrospinal fluid hypocretin-1 level in the absence of cataplexy. In African Americans, more subjects without cataplexy have type 1 narcolepsy. Citation: Kawai M, O'Hara R, Einen M, Lin L

  18. Data Center Energy Benchmarking: Part 4 - Case Study on aComputer-testing Center (No. 21)

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Tengfang; Greenberg, Steve

    2007-08-01

    The data center in this study had a total floor area of 8,580 square feet (ft{sup 2}) with one-foot raised-floors. It was a rack lab with 440 racks, and was located in a 208,240 ft{sup 2} multi-story office building in San Jose, California. Since the data center was used only for testing equipment, it was not configured as a critical facility in terms of electrical and cooling supply. It did not have a dedicated chiller system but served by the main building chiller plant and make-up air system. Additionally, it was served by a single electrical supply with no provision for backup power. The data center operated on a 24 hour per day, year-round cycle, and users had all hour full access to the data center facility. The study found that data center computer load accounted for 23% of the overall building electrical load, while the total power consumption attributable to the data center including allocated cooling load and lighting was 30% of the total facility load. The density of installed computer loads (rack load) in the data center was 63 W/ft{sup 2}. Power consumption density for all data center allocated load (including cooling and lighting) was 84 W/ft{sup 2}, approximately 12 times the average overall power density in rest of the building (non-data center portion). For the data center, 75% of the overall electric power was the rack critical loads, 11% of the power was consumed by chillers, 9% by CRAH units, 1% by lighting system, and about 4% of the power was consumed by pumps. The ratio of HVAC to IT power demand in the data center in this study was approximately 0.32. General recommendations for improving overall data center energy efficiency include improving the lighting control, airflow optimization, and control of mechanical systems serving the data center in actual operation. This includes chilled water system, airflow management and control in data centers. Additional specific recommendations or considerations to improve energy efficiency are provided

  19. Data Center Energy Benchmarking: Part 3 - Case Study on an ITEquipment-testing Center (No. 20)

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Tengfang; Greenberg, Steve

    2007-07-01

    The data center in this study had a total floor area of 3,024 square feet (ft{sup 2}) with one-foot raised-floors. It was a rack lab with 147 racks, and was located in a 96,000 ft{sup 2} multi-story office building in San Jose, California. Since the data center was used only for testing equipment, it was not configured as a critical facility in terms of electrical and cooling supply. It did not have a dedicated chiller system but was served by the main building chiller plant and make-up air system. Additionally it was served by only a single electrical supply with no provision for backup power in the event of a power outage. The Data Center operated on a 24 hour per day, year-round cycle, and users had full-hour access to the data center facility. The study found that data center computer load accounted for 15% of the overall building electrical load, while the total power consumption attributable to the data center including allocated cooling load and lighting was 22% of the total facility load. The density of installed computer loads (rack load) in the data center was 61 W/ft{sup 2}. Power consumption density for all data center allocated load (including cooling and lighting) was 88 W/ft{sup 2}, approximately eight times the average overall power density in rest of the building (non-data center portion). The building and its data center cooling system was provided with various energy optimizing systems that included the following: (1) Varying chilled water flow rate through variable speed drives on the primary pumps. (2) No energy losses due to nonexistence of UPS or standby generators. (3) Minimized under-floor obstruction that affects the delivery efficiency of supply air. (4) Elimination of dehumidification/humidification within the CRAH units. For the data center, 70% of the overall electric power was the rack critical loads, 14% of the power was consumed by chillers, 12% by CRAH units, 2% by lighting system, and about 2% of the power was consumed by chilled

  20. The Africanization of honeybees (Apis mellifera L.) of the Yucatan: a study of a massive hybridization event across time.

    PubMed

    Clarke, Kylea E; Rinderer, Thomas E; Franck, Pierre; Quezada-Euán, Javier G; Oldroyd, Benjamin P

    2002-07-01

    Until recently, African and European subspecies of the honeybee (Apis mellifera L.) had been geographically separated for around 10,000 years. However, human-assisted introductions have caused the mixing of large populations of African and European subspecies in South and Central America, permitting an unprecedented opportunity to study a large-scale hybridization event using molecular analyses. We obtained reference populations from Europe, Africa, and South America and used these to provide baseline information for a microsatellite and mitochondrial analysis of the process of Africanization of the bees of the Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico. The genetic structure of the Yucatecan population has changed dramatically over time. The pre-Africanized Yucatecan population (1985) comprised bees that were most similar to samples from southeastern Europe and northern and western Europe. Three years after the arrival of Africanized bees (1989), substantial paternal gene flow had occurred from feral Africanized drones into the resident European population, but maternal gene flow from the invading Africanized population into the local population was negligible. However by 1998, there was a radical shift with both African nuclear alleles (65%) and African-derived mitochondria (61%) dominating the genomes of domestic colonies. We suggest that although European mitochondria may eventually be driven to extinction in the feral population, stable introgression of European nuclear alleles has occurred. PMID:12206246

  1. Raising African American Student Graduation Rates: A Best Practices Study of Predominantly White Liberal Arts Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pool, Robert W.

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative study sought to explore best practices at small, private liberal arts institutions that experienced large increases in African American graduation rates. Particular focus was on institutions that enrolled less than 17% minority students whose overall enrollment fell within the middle 50% of all SAT scores and the middle 50% of…

  2. School Counselors' Activities in Predominantly African American Urban Schools: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dye, Lacretia

    2014-01-01

    A total of 102 school counselors who worked in predominantly African American urban schools in Michigan were surveyed to ascertain how frequently they engaged in school counseling activities as conceptualized by the American School Counseling Association. Additionally, this exploratory study sought to determine whether there were differences in…

  3. Problematic Situations Associated with Dating Experiences and Relationships among Urban African American Adolescents: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Terri N.; Erwin, Elizabeth H.; Helms, Sarah W.; Masho, Saba W.; Farrell, Albert D.

    2010-01-01

    This qualitative study focused on the identification of problem situations associated with adolescent dating experiences and relationships, including those that placed youth at risk for dating violence perpetration or victimization. Interviews were conducted with 44 African American middle and high school students in an urban school system.…

  4. Achievement-Related Casual Attribution: A South African Cross-Cultural Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Louw, Johann; Louw-Potgieter, Joha

    1986-01-01

    Students from three South African Universities, representing three ethnic groups, explain their perceived success or failure on a class test and rated the importance of casual attributions derived from previous studies. Important factors that emerged were as follow: (1) effort, (2) academic skills, (3) understanding. (Author/LHW)

  5. Middle-Aged Independent-Living African Americans' Selections for Advance Directives: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDaniel, Brenda J.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this collective embedded qualitative case study was to examine the perspectives of three middle-aged independent-living African Americans who had participated in the process of advance care planning (ACP) and completed at least two advance directives (ADs), a Durable Power of Attorney for Health Care (DPAHC) and a Living Will (LW).…

  6. Educational Development in Africa: II -- Costing and Financing. IIEP African Studies Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyons, Raymond, Ed.; Poignant, Raymond, Ed.

    This book contains three monographs based on research conducted in a number of African countries between 1965 and 1967 in an attempt to illuminate some of the problems confronting educational planners in developing countries. This book is one of three related volumes of case studies on educational planning in the English-speaking countries of…

  7. RECRUITING AND RETAINING AFRICAN-AMERICANS FOR AN EXPOSURE STUDY IN SOUTHEAST RALEIGH

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) recently completed a study of African-Americans' exposure to particulate matter (PM) in Southeast Raleigh. A primary goal was to compare PM levels measured at ambient and residential sites with those from personal exposure monitors...

  8. Data Networks and Sustainability Education in African Universities: A Case Study for Sub-Saharan Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bothun, Gregory D.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to provide a case study report of the development of data networks and initial connectivity in the Sub-Saharan African (SSA) region and how that development evolved into the formation of research and education (R&E) networks that enable new collaborations and curriculum potential.…

  9. African American Women in Higher Education Attainment: A Qualitative Narrative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maples, Inga D.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative narrative study was to look at how African American women who are learners or who have been learners in higher education settings have internalized and interpreted the issues that have occurred in their teaching-learning environments and what coping mechanisms they have used to resolve or deflect negative…

  10. Influences on Labor Market Outcomes of African American College Graduates: A National Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strayhorn, Terrell L.

    2008-01-01

    Using an expanded econometric model, this study sought to estimate more precisely the net effect of independent variables (i.e., attending an HBCU) on three measures of labor market outcomes for African American college graduates. Findings reveal a statistically significant, albeit moderate, relationship between measures of background, human and…

  11. Stories of Six Successful African American Males High School Students: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Land, A'Lesia; Mixon, Jason R.; Butcher, Jennifer; Harris, Sandra

    2014-01-01

    This qualitative, narrative study explored experiences of six successful African American male high school students. Findings suggested that barriers prior to high school were negative elements in the home and community. To be successful in high school, they overcame barriers of absent fathers, disruptive homes, negative community, and peers, and…

  12. Factors Influencing African Postgraduate International Students' Choice of South Africa as a Study Destination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mpinganjira, Mercy

    2012-01-01

    Many African countries are concerned with the targeting of international postgraduate students by developed countries for skilled migration. Increased provision of postgraduate studies within the continent would go a long way in dealing with the problem. Success will however depend on the ability of countries in the continent to attract…

  13. Educational Development in Africa: III -- Integration and Administration. IIEP African Studies Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyons, Raymond, Ed.; Poignant, Raymond, Ed.

    This book contains four monographs based on research conducted in a number of African countries between 1965 and 1967 in an attempt to illuminate some of the problems confronting educational planners in developing countries. The book is one of three related volumes of case studies on educational planning in the English-speaking countries of…

  14. High-Achieving African American Male High School Students: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilt, Jason C.

    2011-01-01

    This case study highlighted the fundamental reasons why a small group of African American male high school seniors in the selected school district succeeded academically while their same race peers did not. Through classroom observation, interviews, and focus groups, the researcher uncovered factors related to instructional practices and classroom…

  15. Hybrid Discursive Practices in a South African Multilingual Primary Classroom: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Makoe, Pinky; McKinney, Carolyn

    2009-01-01

    The data discussed in this paper is drawn from research conducted in a multilingual urban primary school in Johannesburg, South Africa, where the official language of instruction is English and the majority of learners are African language speakers, frequently with very limited English proficiency. The paper presents a case study of one child who…

  16. An Exploratory Study of the Career Decisions of African American and Hispanic Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waller, Johnnye

    2010-01-01

    There is a need for culturally diverse teachers. Weiher (2000) studied the relationship between African American and Hispanic student achievement and schools with teachers from diverse ethnic backgrounds. Results indicated the greater the difference between the percentage of ethnically diverse teachers and the percentage of diverse students, the…

  17. The Delivery of Business Courses via the African Virtual University: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graber, Mark; Bolt, Susan

    2011-01-01

    In this case study the delivery of business courses as a result of the partnership between the African Virtual University (AVU) and Curtin University in Western Australia is described. From 2004 to 2008, degree and diploma business courses were delivered using WebCT in the four AVU partner locations: Addis Ababa University (Ethiopia), Kigali…

  18. A Study of Urban African American Students' Conceptions of School and Media Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson-Whitt, Eugenia Stacell

    2012-01-01

    In order to inquire into the persistent underrepresentation of urban minority students in the sciences, this study explored three urban African American students' conceptualizations of school science and media science, with emphases on the representation of science in "Crime Scene Investigation" ("CSI"). Based on the data…

  19. Narratives of Identity: Perceptions on Persistence a Qualitative Study of Successful African American College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Millane, Maureen

    2011-01-01

    Persistence by minority students is recognized as critical in increasing the number of college graduates. Little research has been conducted on the select, but not elite, universities where the majority of students matriculate. This study provided the voices of 25 urban low SES African American college students who have successfully persisted at a…

  20. Seroepidemiological study of African horse sickness virus in The Gambia.

    PubMed Central

    Staeuber, N; Fye, B; Zinsstag, J; McCullough, K C

    1993-01-01

    An indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used for the screening of horse sera from The Gambia for antibodies against African horse sickness virus (AHSV). The AHSV antigen used for coating was semipurified according to the method of Manning and Chen (Curr. Microbiol. 4:381, 1980); control mock-infected Vero cell antigen was treated in the same manner. A total of 459 horse serum samples were assayed at a single dilution (1:10), and their reactivities were compared with those of reference positive anti-AHSV and reference negative horse sera. A total of 81% of the horse serum samples clearly contained antibodies against AHSV; this consisted of 18% (of the total number of serum samples) strongly positive, 46.5% moderately positive, and 16.5% weakly but still clearly positive. Such results suggest a high prevalence of AHSV in the regions from whence the samples originated. Reports from investigations in other countries in this area of West Africa have also shown a high prevalence for anti-AHSV antibodies in equids. The question is raised as to how the animals became seropositive and whether the observations represent an increased resistance of horses living in a region in which AHS is enzootic. PMID:8370760

  1. The Primary Open-Angle African-American Glaucoma Genetics (POAAGG) Study: Baseline Demographics

    PubMed Central

    Charlson, Emily S.; Sankar, Prithvi S.; Miller-Ellis, Eydie; Regina, Meredith; Fertig, Raymond; Salinas, Julia; Pistilli, Maxwell; Salowe, Rebecca J.; Rhodes, Allison L.; Merritt, William T.; Chua, Michael; Trachtman, Benjamin T.; Gudiseva, Harini V.; Collins, David W.; Chavali, Venkata Ramana Murthy; Nichols, Charles; Henderer, Jeffrey; Ying, Gui-shuang; Varma, Rohit; Jorgenson, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Objective To describe the baseline characteristics of the Primary Open-Angle African-American Glaucoma Genetics (POAAGG) study cohort, the largest African-American primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) population recruited at a single institution (University of Pennsylvania, Department of Ophthalmology, Scheie Eye Institute) to date. Design Population-based, cross-sectional, case-control study. Participants 2,520 African-American subjects 35 years and older, recruited from the greater Philadelphia, Pennsylvania area. Methods Each subject underwent a detailed interview and eye examination. The interview assessed demographic, behavioral, medical, and ocular risk factors. Current zip codes surrounding the University of Pennsylvania were recorded and United States census data were queried to infer socioeconomic status. The eye exam included measurement of visual acuity and intraocular pressure, a detailed anterior and posterior segment examination including gonioscopy, dilated fundus and optic disc examination, visual fields, stereo disc photography, optical coherence tomography imaging, and measurement of central corneal thickness. Main Outcome Measures The baseline characteristics of gender, age, and glaucoma diagnosis were collected. Body mass index (BMI), hypertension, diabetes, and alcohol and tobacco use, as well as ocular conditions including blindness, cataract, non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy, age-related macular degeneration, and use of ocular medication and surgery, were examined. Median population density, income, education level, and other socioeconomic measures were determined for the study cohort. Results Of the 2,520 African-Americans recruited to the POAAGG study to date, 2,067 (82.0%) including 807 controls and 1,260 POAG cases met all inclusion criteria and completed the detailed clinical ocular exam. Cases were more likely to have a lower BMI (p<0.01) and report a history of blindness (visual acuity of 20/200 or worse, p<0.001), while controls

  2. A study of mycobacteria isolated from cervical lymph glands of African patients in Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Šula, Ladislav; Stott, H.; Kubín, M.; Kiaer, J.

    1960-01-01

    Tuberculosis of the cervical lymph glands is common among Africans, but little is known at present about the causal type of mycobacterium. A study was therefore made in 1958, jointly by WHO and the Kenya Medical Department, to isolate and type mycobacteria from specimens of cervical lymph glands from African patients. From 57 such specimens, collected throughout Kenya and sent to the Tuberculosis Research Institute in Prague for bacteriological and histological examination, 41 strains—all typed as Myco. tuberculosis var. hominis—were isolated, studied in subculture, and tested for drug sensitivity and animal pathogenicity. The cultural, pathogenic, biochemical, and other characteristics of these strains show that mycobacteria isolated from tuberculous cervical lymph glands of Africans essentially resemble those similarly isolated from Europeans, but that all of them were of the human type. No bovine or atypical strains were isolated. The importance of investigating the chest condition of Africans suspected of having tuberculous cervical lymph glands is demonstrated by the high incidence of chest lesions revealed on radiological examination of such persons. This report describes in detail the various methods employed in the study for making cultures, drug sensitivity tests, and histological examinations; the characteristics of the mycobacterial strains isolated; and the results of the bacteriological, clinical, histological, and radiological examinations performed. ImagesFIG. 1FIG. 2FIG. 3FIG. 4FIG. 5FIG. 6FIG. 7FIG. 8FIG. 9FIG. 10FIG. 11FIG. 12 PMID:20604079

  3. Navigating the Path toward Graduation: A Qualitative Case Study of African American Male Persistence at a Predominantly White Institution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simmons, Lamont D.

    2013-01-01

    While higher education personnel continue to be challenged in fostering student persistence, they are especially perplexed with how to promote higher persistence and retention rates among African American men. The purpose of this qualitative research study was to understand how African American male undergraduate students persist at a…

  4. Teachers' Perceptions about their Own and their Schools' Readiness for Computer Implementation: A South African Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    du Plessis, Andre; Webb, Paul

    2012-01-01

    This case study, involving 30 participating teachers from six previously disadvantaged South African schools, provides data on teacher perceptions of the challenges related to implementing Information and Communication Technology (ICT). The schools had minimal resources as a residual result of the South African apartheid policy prior to 1994 and…

  5. The Status of Archives and Records Management Systems and Services in African Member States: A RAMP Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Laar, Evert

    A comprehensive questionnaire was sent to 49 African national archival agencies in April 1982 to survey the needs of African Member States for assistance in the development of archives. This study is based on the 27 (55%) questionnaires that were returned. The participating agencies were grouped into three categories: agencies located in…

  6. The Experience of African Students Studying Nursing in the United States in Relation to Their Use of Critical Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tyson, Donald Lee

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative study explores the critical thinking experiences of African nursing students enrolled in several universities in the U.S. Using a semi-structured interview approach, twelve African students discussed their experiences using and learning a western critical thinking approach, as well as described their educational experiences in…

  7. A Pilot Study of Coping Processes Utilized by African-American Male Adolescents Living in Violent Communities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sparks, Elizabeth

    This paper is a preliminary report on a study that explored the ways in which African American male adolescents cope with the interpersonal assaultive violence that takes place in their urban communities. Participants were 27 African American male adolescents, aged 13-19, who live in and/or spend the majority of their non-school hours interacting…

  8. African American Female Community College Graduates: A Phenomenological Study of Motivation and Success Strategies for Persistence in Minnesota

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mattison, Tamara D.

    2013-01-01

    African American females at the community level have low persistence rates and the literature regarding motivation and success strategies for those who persist to graduation is limited. This study was designed to identify the motivation and success strategies used by African American females to graduate from community colleges in Minnesota.…

  9. The History and Future of the Southern Bible Institute: A Post-Secondary School of Biblical Studies for African Americans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooks, Michael

    2010-01-01

    The United States of America has a long history in higher education, but one area of its history not exhausted through research involves higher education for African Americans. Specifically, higher education for African Americans in the area of theology or biblical studies presents numerous opportunities for further research. Soon after the…

  10. A Study Comparing the Academic Achievement of African American Male Students Enrolled in Two Types of Nontraditional High Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rutledge, Anthony B.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the relationship of the achievement of African American male students enrolled in an early college high school to those enrolled in a performing arts high school. The Georgia High School Graduation Test (GHSGT) scores of the 11th-grade African American male students from an early college high school were compared to the GHSGT…

  11. Teaching Them All: An Exploratory Mixed Methods Study of African American Students' Perceptions of Their Middle School's Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hankerson, Henry

    2009-01-01

    Research indicates school culture impacts student achievement. At Teach Them All Middle School (TTA), an achievement gap exists between African American and White students. The purpose of the current study was to examine the perceptions of African American students concerning the school culture at TTA. The research questions explored the…

  12. Message Quality and Standing to Support: A Qualitative Study of Support Messages Given to African-American HIV Survivors.

    PubMed

    Hample, Dale; Na, Ling

    2014-09-01

    We interviewed 25 African American HIV survivors who were as much as 25 years distant from their original diagnoses. We asked them to tell us about both supportive and non-supportive messages they received upon learning of their HIV status. Their interviews showed evidence of the importance of what we call standing to support. This idea is that particular roles (e.g., medical or family) imply a duty to offer constructive support. Anyone without such a standing is essentially irrelevant to the provision of support. Successful performance of a standing requires ability (to give information, to be empathetic, etc.) but the performance must be activated by the person who needs support. We found contrasts in the quality of messages originating in each of the standings we studied: medical, family, friends, relational partners, churches, and community centers. Dual consideration of supportive and non-supportive messages is productive in understanding the different standings to support. PMID:24228640

  13. A focus group study of factors influencing African-American men's prostate cancer screening behavior.

    PubMed Central

    Odedina, Folakemi T.; Scrivens, John; Emanuel, Angela; LaRose-Pierre, Margareth; Brown, James; Nash, Rowena

    2004-01-01

    This study was conducted to identify the factors perceived by African-American men as influencing their behavior relative to prostate cancer screening. A total of 49 African-American men, age 40 and above, participated in 10 focus group discussions in Florida. Data collection was between October 12, 2001 and March 9, 2002 in Tallahassee, Tampa, and Miami. Data analysis was conducted using a comprehensive ethnographical analysis, including the use of an ethnographical retrieval program, Nonnumerical Unstructured Data Indexing Searching and Theorizing (QSR NUD*IST 4.0) software. Factors identified as influencing prostate cancer screening participation by African-American men were impediments to prostate cancer screening; positive outcome beliefs associated with prostate cancer screening; social influence; negative outcome beliefs associated with prostate cancer screening; resources or opportunities that facilitate prostate cancer screening; prostate cancer knowledge; perceived susceptibility to prostate cancer; perceived threat of prostate cancer; perceived severity of prostate cancer; positive health activities; illness experience; and prostate cancer screening intervention message concept, message source, and message channel. The results of this study may offer an excellent guide to designing effective, culturally sensitive, and relevant interventions, which would increase African-American men's participation in prostate cancer screening. PMID:15233488

  14. Self-estimates of intelligence: a study in two African countries.

    PubMed

    Furnham, Adrian; Callahan, Ines; Akande, Debo

    2004-05-01

    Black and White South Africans (n = 181) and Nigerians (n = 135) completed a questionnaire concerning the estimations of their own and their relatives' (father, mother, sister, brother) multiple intelligences as well as beliefs about the IQ concept. In contrast to previous results (A. Furnham, 2001), there were few gender differences in self-estimates. In a comparison of Black and White South Africans, it was clear the Whites gave higher estimates for self, parents, and brothers. However, overall IQ estimates for self and all relatives hovered around the mean of 100. When Black South Africans and Nigerians were compared, there were both gender and nationality differences on the self-estimates with men giving higher self-estimates than women and Nigerians higher self-estimates than South Africans. There were also gender and nationality differences in the answers to questions about IQ. The authors discuss possible reasons for the relatively few gender differences in this study compared with other studies as well as possible reasons for the cross-cultural difference. PMID:15264443

  15. "Cor"recting the underachievement and underrepresentation of African-Americans in science: A case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eaglin, Phillip G.

    This dissertation research focuses on the most powerful influence on the school science learning of African-American students--inequitable science teachers' beliefs and actions. It is my intent in this study to understand, describe, and present in model form a European-American science teacher's change from an educational paradigm/world view that promotes limited or inequitable learning opportunities for African-American students to one that is grounded in equitable teaching, resulting in rich opportunities to learn science. Making sense of one teacher's change towards equity, the central theme of US science education reform, contributes towards understanding one effort that may advance a goal of the national reform efforts-- "cor"recting the underachievement and under-representation of African Americans in science. Of particular concern to this research is that teachers' beliefs and action produce uneven distribution of opportunities to learn science that is contributing to inequitable outcomes. In regards to African-American students, science teachers' beliefs, attitudes, expectations, and actions are powerful influences on learning and student achievement. Negative teacher beliefs, attitudes, limited expectations, and resulting actions, or lack thereof, promote inequitable access to science learning opportunities for African-American students. Thus, this problem is the most powerful influence on African-American students' school science learning and, thus, pursuit of careers in science. In Phase I of the study, the focus is on the teacher's actions before his change and then on the teacher's subconscious change in beliefs and actions (lived world view) in his natural setting, i.e., a biology class at a local high school where technology-enhanced science instruction is being used. The focus of Phase II is on the teacher's reported beliefs before his change and then on the teacher's conscious change in reported beliefs (articulated world view), which completes the

  16. Sexual protective strategies and condom use in middle-age African American women: A qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Tanyka K.

    2015-01-01

    The heterosexual transmission of HIV has affected middle-age African American women at alarming rates; yet there is a paucity of research and interventions focused on this population. This study used a qualitative approach to understand middle-age urban African American women’s experiences with HIV-related sexual risk behaviors and to identify the sexual protective strategies they employed to reduce their risk for HIV infection. Ten African American women, ages 45 to 56, were recruited from low-income neighborhoods in New York City. Data were collected using in-depth interviews and analyzed using content analysis. Investigator triangulation and member checking were used to ensure rigor. Five salient themes emerged that highlighted the individual, gender/relationship power factors, and the sociocultural elements that influenced sexual protection or risk-taking behavior. Findings provide new insight into the complexities of HIV sexual risk behavior and can guide future HIV prevention interventions for middle-age, African American, urban women. PMID:26194973

  17. A genome-wide association study of breast cancer in women of African ancestry

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Fang; Chen, Gary K.; Stram, Daniel O.; Millikan, Robert C.; Ambrosone, Christine B.; John, Esther M.; Bernstein, Leslie; Zheng, Wei; Palmer, Julie R.; Hu, Jennifer J.; Rebbeck, Tim R.; Ziegler, Regina G.; Nyante, Sarah; Bandera, Elisa V.; Ingles, Sue A.; Press, Michael F.; Ruiz-Narvaez, Edward A.; Deming, Sandra L.; Rodriguez-Gil, Jorge L.; DeMichele, Angela; Chanock, Stephen J.; Blot, William; Signorello, Lisa; Cai, Qiuyin; Li, Guoliang; Long, Jirong; Huo, Dezheng; Zheng, Yonglan; Cox, Nancy J.; Olopade, Olufunmilayo I.; Ogundiran, Temidayo O.; Adebamowo, Clement; Nathanson, Katherine L.; Domchek, Susan M.; Simon, Michael S.; Hennis, Anselm; Nemesure, Barbara; Wu, Suh-Yuh; Leske, M. Cristina; Ambs, Stefan; Hutter, Carolyn M.; Young, Alicia; Kooperberg, Charles; Peters, Ulrike; Rhie, Suhn K.; Wan, Peggy; Sheng, Xin; Pooler, Loreall C.; Van Den Berg, David J.; Le Marchand, Loic; Kolonel, Laurence N.; Henderson, Brian E.; Haiman, Christopher A.

    2013-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) in diverse populations are needed to reveal variants that are more common and/or limited to defined populations. We conducted a GWAS of breast cancer in women of African ancestry, with genotyping of > 1,000,000 SNPs in 3,153 African American cases and 2,831 controls, and replication testing of the top 66 associations in an additional 3,607 breast cancer cases and 11,330 controls of African ancestry. Two of the 66 SNPs replicated (p < 0.05) in stage 2, which reached statistical significance levels of 10−6 and 10−5 in the stage 1 and 2 combined analysis (rs4322600 at chromosome 14q31: OR = 1.18, p = 4.3×10−6; rs10510333 at chromosome 3p26: OR = 1.15, p = 1.5×10−5). These suggestive risk loci have not been identified in previous GWAS in other populations and will need to be examined in additional samples. Identification of novel risk variants for breast cancer in women of African ancestry will demand testing of a substantially larger set of markers from stage 1 in a larger replication sample. PMID:22923054

  18. African American Suicide

    MedlinePlus

    ... accounted for 83.8% of Caucasian elderly suicides. • Firearms were the predominant method of suicide among African ... per 100,000 annually. Source: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. National Vital Statistics System. Mortality Data. ...

  19. THE AFRICAN DESCENT AND GLAUCOMA EVALUATION STUDY (ADAGES): PREDICTORS OF VISUAL FIELD DAMAGE IN GLAUCOMA SUSPECTS

    PubMed Central

    Khachatryan, Naira; Medeiros, Felipe A.; Sharpsten, Lucie; Bowd, Christopher; Sample, Pamela A.; Liebmann, Jeffrey M.; Girkin, Christopher A.; Weinreb, Robert N.; Miki, Atsuya; Hammel, Na’ama; Zangwill, Linda M.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate racial differences in the development of visual field (VF) damage in glaucoma suspects. Design Prospective, observational cohort study. Methods Six hundred thirty six eyes from 357 glaucoma suspects with normal VF at baseline were included from the multicenter African Descent and Glaucoma Evaluation Study (ADAGES). Racial differences in the development of VF damage were examined using multivariable Cox Proportional Hazard models. Results Thirty one (25.4%) of 122 African descent participants and 47 (20.0%) of 235 European descent participants developed VF damage (p=0.078). In multivariable analysis, worse baseline VF mean deviation, higher mean arterial pressure during follow up, and a race *mean intraocular pressure (IOP) interaction term were significantly associated with the development of VF damage suggesting that racial differences in the risk of VF damage varied by IOP. At higher mean IOP levels, race was predictive of the development of VF damage even after adjusting for potentially confounding factors. At mean IOPs during follow-up of 22, 24 and 26 mmHg, multivariable hazard ratios (95%CI) for the development of VF damage in African descent compared to European descent subjects were 2.03 (1.15–3.57), 2.71 (1.39–5.29), and 3.61 (1.61–8.08), respectively. However, at lower mean IOP levels (below 22 mmHg) during follow-up, African descent was not predictive of the development of VF damage. Conclusion In this cohort of glaucoma suspects with similar access to treatment, multivariate analysis revealed that at higher mean IOP during follow-up, individuals of African descent were more likely to develop VF damage than individuals of European descent. PMID:25597839

  20. African American women and breast cancer: notes from a study of narrative.

    PubMed

    Moore, R J

    2001-02-01

    Survival after breast cancer and after all cancers is significantly worse for African American women than for others. Although many reasons have been proposed, no studies have explored the reception of messages about breast cancer by African American survivors of this disease, and how public images and discourses about breast cancer affects both their perceived risk for this disease and their experiences of illness. Narrative accounts of their lived experiences with breast cancer were collected from 23 African American survivors of breast cancer. Three themes have emerged: (a) Breast cancer is perceived to be a white woman's disease; (b) cancer is caused by experiences of repeated traumatic heartbreak; and finally, (c) there is a perceived lack of social support and understanding for the unique life experiences of the African American survivor of breast cancer. Nurses are on the front line of patient care. In the context of the managed care environment, they spend more time with patients than other health care providers and are soundboards for many patient concerns. As such, they can use the information provided in this study to inform high-risk women, current patients, partners, and other individuals in the medical community of how African American women might inaccurately access their personal risks for breast cancer, despite the public emphasis on this disease. Through the use of culturally sensitive pamphlets, nurses and other medical practitioners can also open discussions with underserved and minority patients as a means of realistically addressing some of these women's fears about breast cancer. These fears are barriers to effective cancer prevention because these individuals may consciously or unconsciously link a diagnosis of breast cancer, or even behaviors related to cancer prevention, to a potential death sentence. PMID:11219421

  1. Concurrent validity of the Learning and Study Strategies Inventory (LASSI): a study of African American precollege students.

    PubMed

    Flowers, Lamont A; Bridges, Brian K; Moore III, James L

    2012-01-01

    Concurrent validation procedures were employed, using a sample of African American precollege students, to determine the extent to which scale scores obtained from the first edition of the Learning and Study Strategies Inventory (LASSI) were appropriate for diagnostic purposes. Data analysis revealed that 2 of the 10 LASSI scales (i.e., Anxiety and Test Strategies) significantly correlated with a measure of academic ability. These results suggested that scores obtained from these LASSI scales may provide valid assessments of African American precollege students’ academic aptitude. Implications for teachers, school counselors, and developmental studies professionals were discussed. PMID:22454973

  2. A Holistic Emphasis: The UCLA American Indian Studies Research Center.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Champagne, Duane

    2001-01-01

    At UCLA, the American Indian Studies Center's structure as an organized research unit allows a platform for many activities not normally within the purview of departments. The Center implements a holistic, Native view of research, policy, community engagement, and education; has a library and publications; and is a gathering place for American…

  3. Case Study: The Evolution of a Center of Pedagogy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurley, Sandra R.; Pacheco, Arturo; Pitts, Swanya; Daudistel, Howard C.; Tinajero, Josefina

    This case study describes the evolution of a center of pedagogy in El Paso, Texas, to prepare teachers in and for exemplary schools, sustain dialogue among partners, pursue the center's agenda, and critique and revise the undertaking. The paper provides a historical context, examining the role of state public policy and outside grant funding and…

  4. Handbook. Midwest Center for Off-Campus Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Midwest Center for Off-Campus Studies, Lincoln, IL.

    The Midwest Center for Off-Campus Studies offers students the opportunity to learn in a holistic manner by inserting them into a new community, either domestic or foreign, so that they can not only see the physical characteristics of the site, but can experience learning. Although the Center is at present an association of five Illinois two-year…

  5. Patient-Centered Community Diabetes Education Program Improves Glycemic Control in African-American Patients with Poorly Controlled Type 2 Diabetes: Importance of Point of Care Metabolic Measurements.

    PubMed

    Gaillard, Trudy; Amponsah, Grace; Osei, Kwame

    2015-07-01

    African-Americans with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) have higher morbidity and mortality partly attributed to poor glucose control and lack of formal diabetes self-management education and support (DSMES) programs compared to Whites. Therefore, the objective of this study was to compare the clinical and metabolic parameters during DSMES vs. standard care in African-Americans with T2DM attending primary care inner city clinics. We recruited 124 African-American patients with T2DM, randomized into Group 1-DSMES (n = 58) and Group 2-standard care group (n = 38) for 6 months. Body weight, blood pressure, random blood sugars and point-of-care (POC) hemoglobin A1C (A1C) and lipids/lipoproteins were measured at 0, 3, and 6 months. At 6 months, Group 1 had significant reduction in A1C (8.2 ± 1.4% vs. 7.5 ± 1.5%, p = 0.02) and random glucose (190.4 ± 77.6 vs. 160.6 ± 59.8 mg/dl, p = 0.03). However, there were no changes in body weight, blood pressure, or lipids/lipoprotein levels. We found no significant changes in the clinical/metabolic parameters in Group 2. We concluded that DSMES, supplemented with POC testing, was associated with significant improvements in glycemic control without changes in body weight, blood pressure, or lipids/lipoproteins. We recommend the inclusion of DSMES with POC testing in managing African-American patients with T2DM attending inner city primary care clinics. PMID:26371360

  6. The African Connection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oguntoyinbo, Lekan

    2012-01-01

    From student and faculty exchanges to joint research projects, U.S. universities maintain a broad spectrum of collaborative relationships with African universities. It's unclear how many U.S. colleges and universities have partnerships with African universities. The African Studies Association, an organization of scholars, doesn't keep that kind…

  7. Fibrosis and coronary perfusion - a cardiovascular disease risk in an African male cohort: The SABPA study.

    PubMed

    Jansen van Vuren, Esmé; Malan, Leoné; Cockeran, Marike; Scheepers, Jacobus D; Oosthuizen, Woudri; Malan, Nicolaas T

    2016-01-01

    Low-grade inflammation has been correlated with risk factors of cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Whether the pro-inflammatory and thrombotic ratio (fibrosis) may contribute to CVD is not known. We therefore aimed to assess whether Cornell Product left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) is associated with fibrosis and coronary perfusion (silent ischemia) in a bi-ethnic male cohort from South Africa. A cross sectional study was conducted including 165 African and Caucasian men between the ages of 20-65. Fasting blood samples were obtained to measure fibrinogen, C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α). Ambulatory blood pressure, ECG and 12 lead ECG measures were obtained to determine silent ischemic events (ST events) and LVH, respectively. Africans revealed more silent ischemia, higher 24 h blood pressure, inflammatory, coagulation as well as fibrosis levels than Caucasians. In a low-grade inflammatory state (CRP > 3 mg/l), Africans revealed higher fibrosis (p ≤ 0.01) values, but lower IL-6 and TNF-α values than Caucasians. Linear regression analyses in several models demonstrated positive associations between silent ischemia and fibrosis [Adj. R(2) 0.23; ß 0.35 (95% CI 0.13, 0.58), p ≤ 0.01]. In a low-grade inflammatory state (CRP>3mg/l), fibrinogen predicted AV-block in African men [OR 3.38 (95% CI 2.24, 4.53); p = 0.04]. Low-grade inflammation may induce AV-block through mechanisms involving fibrosis and ischemia to increase the burden on the heart in African men. PMID:27380493

  8. Child Day Care Center Licensing Study, 1996.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Children's Foundation, Washington, DC.

    The information contained in this report was compiled by The Children's Foundation in fall 1995 and reflects data provided by the regulatory offices in the 50 states, the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, and the Virgin Islands. The study is organized in alphabetical order of the states and territories. The requirements, regulations, and policies…

  9. Child Day Care Center Licensing Study, 1994.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Children's Foundation, Washington, DC.

    An update of information first compiled by the Children's Foundation in 1991 and updated in 1993, this 1994 day care licensing study presents the results of a survey of the regulatory offices of the 50 states, the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, and the Virgin Islands. Following a summary of results in question-answer format, the entries for…

  10. Child Day Care Center Licensing Study, 1993.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Children's Foundation, Washington, DC.

    This study contains the results of a nationwide survey concerning day care regulations and licensing procedures throughout the United States. The regulatory offices of the 50 states, the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, and the Virgin Islands were surveyed. The listings, which are arranged according to location, provide the address and telephone…

  11. Adult Skills Training Center: Feasibility Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skalski, John M.; Baratta, Anthony N.

    A 4-phase project, this study was conducted to determine the feasibility of a bilingual vocational skill training program for out-of-school youth and adults of the Perth Amboy Hispanic community. Sampled were 494 out-of-school youth and adults in the area. Findings include: (1) There is a significant need for an adult vocational skills training…

  12. Expecting the Unexpected: a Comparative Study of African-American Women's Experiences in Science during the High School Years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanson, Sandra L.; Johnson, Elizabeth Palmer

    Data from the National Educational Longitudinal Study (NELS) for the years 1988 to 1992 are used to explore the science experiences of young African-American women during the high school years. The comparison groups we use in trying to understand these experiences involve White women (for a race contrast) and African-American men (for a gender contrast). Within the context of a critical feminist perspective, it is argued that gender is constructed in a different way in White and African-American communities. Instead of expecting a disadvantage for young African-American women because of their gender and minority statuses, it is suggested that unique gender ideologies and work-family arrangements in the African-American community give these young women the resources and agency that allow them to compete with their White female counterparts and their African-American male counterparts in the science domain. Results from our analyses of the NELS data confirm these expectations. We find that on a majority of science measures, African-American women do as well as - and sometimes better than - White women and African-American men. For example, there are no differences between African-American women and men on attitudes toward science. And when compared with White women, African-American women tend to have more positive attitudes. When disadvantages appear for these young African-American women, they are more likely to be race effects then gender effects. The minimal gender effects in the science experiences of young African-Americans is in contrast to the more frequent male advantage in the White sample. A careful examination of family and individual resources shows that African-American families compensate for disadvantages on some resources (e.g., family socioeconomic status) by providing young women with an excess of other resources (e.g., unique gender ideologies, work expectations, and maternal expectations and involvement). And, unlike White parents, they sometimes

  13. An Exploratory Study of Staff Capture at the South African Inspectorate of Prisons

    PubMed Central

    Wood, Steven

    2012-01-01

    When prison inspectorates are co-opted or “captured” by those they are monitoring, their ability to bring transparency, accountability, and a human rights culture to prisons becomes harder. Using survey data from 102 staff at the South African Judicial Inspectorate of Prisons (JIOP), this exploratory study measured the severity of staff capture (i.e. they were not protecting the exclusive interests of prisoners) and potential correlates of capture. Overall, study participants exhibited significant levels of capture with Ordinary Least Squares regression indicating higher levels of capture among staff that were African, thought about someday working for the Department of Correctional Services, felt powerless when prison officials ignored them, and if prison officials respected their work (p’s < .05). Length of JIOP employment was not associated with capture. These findings suggest that the JIOP’s policy of not renewing many staffs’ three year contracts could ironically be putting them at risk for capture. PMID:22581999

  14. In vivo Studies on Antidiabetic Plants Used in South African Herbal Medicine.

    PubMed

    J Afolayan, Anthony; O Sunmonu, Taofik

    2010-09-01

    Diabetes is one of the most common metabolic disorders worldwide. It is a major health problem with its frequency increasing every day in most countries. The disease is generally believed to be incurable; and the few orthodox drugs available to manage the disease are not readily affordable to the poor. Based on the historical success of natural products as antidiabetic agents and the ever increasing need for new antidiabetics, a number of South African medicinal plants have been evaluated for their antidiabetic properties. In this article, we review the major studies conducted based on ethnobotanical surveys carried out between 2005 and 2008 in South Africa on plants that are traditionally used for the treatment of diabetes. Overall, the results of the studies conducted confirmed the potential of South African medicinal plants in antidiabetic drug discovery and identified a number of promising taxa for further in vivo investigation as plant-based antidiabetic agents. PMID:20838564

  15. The Plant Information Center (PIC): A Web-Based Learning Center for Botanical Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenberg, J.; Daniel, E.; Massey, J.; White, P.

    The Plant Information Center (PIC) is a project funded under the Institute of Museum and Library Studies that aims to provide global access to both primary and secondary botanical resources via the World Wide Web. Central to the project is the development and employment of a series of applications that facilitate resource discovery, interactive…

  16. Spirituality, Religiosity, and Weight Management Among African American Adolescent Males: The Jackson Heart KIDS Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Bruce, Marino A; Beech, Bettina M; Griffith, Derek M; Thorpe, Roland J

    2016-01-01

    Spirituality and religion have been identified as important determinants of health for adults; however, the impact of faith-oriented factors on health behaviors and outcomes among African American adolescent males has not been well studied. The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between religiosity and spirituality and obesity-related behaviors among 12-19 year old African American males (N = 105) in the Jackson Heart KIDS Pilot Study. Key variables of interest are church attendance, prayer, daily spirituality, weight status, attempts to lose weight, nutrition, physical activity, and stress. Daily spirituality is associated with whether an individual attempts to lose weight. The results from logistic regression models suggest that daily spirituality increases the odds that African American male adolescents attempt to lose weight (OR = 1.22, CI: 1.07-1.41) and have a history of diet-focused weight management (OR = 1.13, CI: 1.02-1.26). Future studies are needed to further explore the association between religion, spirituality, and obesity-related behaviors. PMID:27337622

  17. In Order to Teach Me, You Have to Know Me: A Mixed-Methods Study of African-American Male Classroom Engagement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, Jack L.

    2013-01-01

    Nationally, 30% of high school students do not graduate. Among this percentage, 50% are African-American. This study focused on at-promise African-American male classroom engagement where the researcher employed a mixed-methods methodology. Findings reveal that in order to engage and keep at-promise African-American males in high school, educators…

  18. Assessment of genotype imputation performance using 1000 Genomes in African American studies.

    PubMed

    Hancock, Dana B; Levy, Joshua L; Gaddis, Nathan C; Bierut, Laura J; Saccone, Nancy L; Page, Grier P; Johnson, Eric O

    2012-01-01

    Genotype imputation, used in genome-wide association studies to expand coverage of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), has performed poorly in African Americans compared to less admixed populations. Overall, imputation has typically relied on HapMap reference haplotype panels from Africans (YRI), European Americans (CEU), and Asians (CHB/JPT). The 1000 Genomes project offers a wider range of reference populations, such as African Americans (ASW), but their imputation performance has had limited evaluation. Using 595 African Americans genotyped on Illumina's HumanHap550v3 BeadChip, we compared imputation results from four software programs (IMPUTE2, BEAGLE, MaCH, and MaCH-Admix) and three reference panels consisting of different combinations of 1000 Genomes populations (February 2012 release): (1) 3 specifically selected populations (YRI, CEU, and ASW); (2) 8 populations of diverse African (AFR) or European (AFR) descent; and (3) all 14 available populations (ALL). Based on chromosome 22, we calculated three performance metrics: (1) concordance (percentage of masked genotyped SNPs with imputed and true genotype agreement); (2) imputation quality score (IQS; concordance adjusted for chance agreement, which is particularly informative for low minor allele frequency [MAF] SNPs); and (3) average r2hat (estimated correlation between the imputed and true genotypes, for all imputed SNPs). Across the reference panels, IMPUTE2 and MaCH had the highest concordance (91%-93%), but IMPUTE2 had the highest IQS (81%-83%) and average r2hat (0.68 using YRI+ASW+CEU, 0.62 using AFR+EUR, and 0.55 using ALL). Imputation quality for most programs was reduced by the addition of more distantly related reference populations, due entirely to the introduction of low frequency SNPs (MAF≤2%) that are monomorphic in the more closely related panels. While imputation was optimized by using IMPUTE2 with reference to the ALL panel (average r2hat = 0.86 for SNPs with MAF>2%), use of the ALL

  19. Center for the Study of Plasma Microturbulence

    SciTech Connect

    Parker, Scott E.

    2012-03-02

    We have discovered a possible "natural fueling" mechanism in tokamak fusion reactors using large scale gyrokinetic turbulence simulation. In the presence of a heat flux dominated tokamak plasma, cold ions naturally pinch radially inward. If cold DT fuel is introduced near the edge using shallow pellet injection, the cold fuel will pinch inward, at the expense of hot helium ash going radially outward. By adjusting the cold DT fuel concentration, the core DT density profiles can be maintained. We have also shown that cold source ions from edge recycling of cold neutrals are pinched radially inward. This mechanism may be important for fully understanding the edge pedestal buildup after an ELM crash. Work includes benchmarking the gyrokinetic turbulence codes in the electromagnetic regime. This includes cyclone base case parameters with an increasing plasma beta. The code comparisons include GEM, GYRO and GENE. There is good linear agreement between the codes using the Cyclone base case, but including electromagnetics and scanning the plasma beta. All the codes have difficulty achieving nonlinear saturation as the kinetic ballooning limit is approached. GEM does not saturate well when beta gets above about 1/2 of the ideal ballooning limit. We find that the lack of saturation is due to the long wavelength k{sub y} modes being nonlinearly pumped to high levels. If the fundamental k{sub y} mode is zeroed out, higher values of beta nonlinearly saturate well. Additionally, there have been studies to better understand CTEM nonlinear saturation and the importance of zonal flows. We have continued our investigation of trapped electron mode (TEM) turbulence. More recently, we have focused on the nonlinear saturation of TEM turbulence. An important feature of TEM is that in many parameter regimes, the zonal flow is unimportant. We find that when zonal flows are unimportant, zonal density is the dominant saturation mechanism. We developed a simple theory that agrees with the

  20. The Genetics of POAG in Black South Africans: A Candidate Gene Association Study

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Susan E. I.; Carmichael, Trevor R.; Allingham, R. Rand; Hauser, Michael; Ramsay, Michele

    2015-01-01

    Multiple loci have been associated with either primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) or heritable ocular quantitative traits associated with this condition. This study examined the association of these loci with POAG, with central corneal thickness (CCT), vertical cup-to-disc ratio (VCDR) and with diabetes mellitus in a group of black South Africans (215 POAG cases and 214 controls). The population was homogeneous and distinct from other African and European populations. Single SNPs in the MYOC, COL8A2, COL1A1 and ZNF469 gene regions showed marginal associations with POAG. No association with POAG was identified with tagging SNPs in TMCO1, CAV1/CAV2, CYP1B1, COL1A2, COL5A1, CDKN2B/CDKN2BAS-1, SIX1/SIX6 or the chromosome 2p16 regions and there were no associations with CCT or VCDR. However, SNP rs12522383 in WDR36 was associated with diabetes mellitus (p = 0.00008). This first POAG genetic association study in black South Africans has therefore identified associations that require additional investigation in this and other populations to determine their significance. This highlights the need for larger studies in this population if we are to achieve the goal of facilitating early POAG detection and ultimately preventing irreversible blindness from this condition. PMID:25669751

  1. The genetics of POAG in black South Africans: a candidate gene association study.

    PubMed

    Williams, Susan E I; Carmichael, Trevor R; Allingham, R Rand; Hauser, Michael; Ramsay, Michele

    2015-01-01

    Multiple loci have been associated with either primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) or heritable ocular quantitative traits associated with this condition. This study examined the association of these loci with POAG, with central corneal thickness (CCT), vertical cup-to-disc ratio (VCDR) and with diabetes mellitus in a group of black South Africans (215 POAG cases and 214 controls). The population was homogeneous and distinct from other African and European populations. Single SNPs in the MYOC, COL8A2, COL1A1 and ZNF469 gene regions showed marginal associations with POAG. No association with POAG was identified with tagging SNPs in TMCO1, CAV1/CAV2, CYP1B1, COL1A2, COL5A1, CDKN2B/CDKN2BAS-1, SIX1/SIX6 or the chromosome 2p16 regions and there were no associations with CCT or VCDR. However, SNP rs12522383 in WDR36 was associated with diabetes mellitus (p = 0.00008). This first POAG genetic association study in black South Africans has therefore identified associations that require additional investigation in this and other populations to determine their significance. This highlights the need for larger studies in this population if we are to achieve the goal of facilitating early POAG detection and ultimately preventing irreversible blindness from this condition. PMID:25669751

  2. Intuitive Eating Practices Among African-American Women Living With Type 2 Diabetes: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Willig, Amanda L.; Richardson, Brittany S.; Agne, April; Cherrington, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    Intuitive Eating programs that improve self-efficacy and dietary habits could enhance glycemic control in African-American women with type 2 diabetes. The goal of this study was to investigate how current eating practices and beliefs of African-American women living with diabetes aligned with intuitive eating concepts. African-American women with type 2 diabetes referred for diabetes education class in 2009–2012 were recruited for a qualitative study using focus groups for data collection. Verbatim group transcriptions were analyzed by two independent reviewers for themes using a combined inductive-deductive approach. Participants (n=35) had an average age of 52±9 years, mean body mass index of 39±7, and mean time with a type 2 diabetes diagnosis of 10±10 years. Participants’ self-reported dietary practices were poorly aligned with intuitive eating concepts. The women reported a lack of self-control with food and regularly eating in the absence of hunger, yet stated that the determinant factor for when to stop eating was to recognize a feeling of fullness. Participants reported knowing they were full when they felt physically uncomfortable or actually became sick. Women frequently cited the belief that individuals with diabetes have to follow a different diet than that recommended for the general public. Many women also discussed diabetes-related stigma from family/friends, and often did not tell others about their diabetes diagnosis. These findings demonstrate that intuitive eating techniques are not currently applied by the women in this sample. Future studies should assess the impact of intuitive eating interventions on dietary habits among low-income African-American women with type 2 diabetes. PMID:24699138

  3. Centering the Educational and Social Significance of HBCUs: A Focus on the Educational Journeys and Thoughts of African American Scholars

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bettez, Silvia Cristina; Suggs, Vickie L.

    2012-01-01

    In this article we provide a brief history of historically Black colleges and universities (HBCUs) as a part of the sociopolitical context framing this special issue. The aim of this issue is to situate HBCUs as centers of leadership, change, and influence as well as repositories of Black education and the Black American experience through their…

  4. African American Opportunities in Higher Education: What Are the Racial Goals of the Center for Individual Rights?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cross, Theodore

    1999-01-01

    Describes the work of the Center for Individual Rights (CIR), a "public interest" law firm that has been highly successful in stamping out the use of affirmative action in the admissions process of some major universities. Summarizes CIR tactics to eliminate affirmative action. (SLD)

  5. Text-Messaging-Enhanced HIV Intervention for African American Adolescents: A Feasibility Study

    PubMed Central

    Cornelius, Judith B.; Dmochowski, Jacek; Boyer, Cherrie; St Lawrence, Janet; Lightfoot, Marguerita; Moore, Michael

    2013-01-01

    We examined the feasibility and acceptability of an HIV prevention intervention for African American adolescents delivered via mobile cell phones and looked at intervention-related changes in beliefs and sexual behaviors. We used a longitudinal one-group comparison design with data collected at three points. Forty adolescents, 13–18 years old, participated in the Becoming a Responsible Teen intervention followed by the delivery of daily multimedia messages for 3 months. The mobile-cell-phone enhanced intervention was feasible and acceptable to the participants. Greater HIV knowledge, improved attitudes toward condoms, and increased perceived HIV risk scores were observed with older adolescents (16–18 years old). Behavior trends showed a decrease in the number of times participants reported engaging in unprotected sexual intercourse over the previous 2 months. Mobile-cell-phone multimedia-text-messaging boosters tested in this study provided preliminary evidence of efficacy of the enhanced HIV prevention intervention for African American youth. PMID:23122907

  6. SWAHILI GRAMMAR AND SYNTAX. DUQUESNE STUDIES, AFRICAN SERIES 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LOOGMAN, ALFONS

    THIS COMPREHENSIVE STUDY OF SWAHILI, ONE OF THE BANTU LANGUAGES IN THE NIGER-CONGO GROUP, IS BASED ON THE AUTHOR'S 37 YEARS OF WRITING AND TEACHING EXPERIENCE IN EAST AFRICA. THE STUDY IS INTENDED TO PRESENT THE SWAHILI LANGUAGE IN TERMS OF ITS OWN STRUCTURE, RATHER THAN IN TERMS OF LATIN OR ENGLISH GRAMMARS. A PRELIMINARY SECTION IN PART ONE…

  7. City Children in African Children's Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuntz, Patricia S.

    A descriptive study identified titles and features of children's books set in an African city. Data were collected from various reviews of children's literature for titles published since 1980. In addition, the Cooperative Children's Book Center's log list of acquired titles for Africa from 1990 to 1996 was reviewed. Results showed that authors…

  8. Cohort Profile: Sympathetic activity and Ambulatory Blood Pressure in Africans (SABPA) prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Malan, Leoné; Hamer, Mark; Frasure-Smith, Nancy; Steyn, Hendrik S; Malan, Nicolaas T

    2015-12-01

    Adapting to an over-demanding stressful urban environment may exhaust the psychophysiological resources to cope with these demands, and lead to sympathetic nervous system dysfunction. The evidence that an urban-dwelling lifestyle may be detrimental to the cardiometabolic health of Africans motivated the design of the Sympathetic activity and Ambulatory Blood Pressure in African Prospective cohort study. We aimed to determine neural mechanistic pathways involved in emotional distress and vascular remodelling. The baseline sample included 409 teachers representing a bi-ethnic sex cohort from South Africa. The study was conducted in 2008-09 and repeated after 3-year follow-up in 2011-12, with an 87.8% successful follow-up rate. Seasonal changes were avoided and extensive clinical assessments were performed in a well-controlled setting. Data collection included sociodemographics, lifestyle habits, psychosocial battery and genetic analysis, mental stress responses mimicking daily life stress (blood pressure and haemostatic, cardiometabolic, endothelial and stress hormones). Target organ damage was assessed in the brain, heart, kidney, blood vessels and retina. A unique highly phenotyped cohort is presented that can address the role of a hyperactive sympathetic nervous system and neural response pathways contributing to the burden of cardiometabolic diseases in Africans. PMID:25344943

  9. Increasing HIV/AIDS awareness among African-American women: an exploratory study.

    PubMed

    Brown, Ludella; Tabi, Marian M

    2013-07-01

    This exploratory study was conducted to assess the effect of an HIV/AIDS prevention program on producing positive changing attitudes among African-American women in Southeast Georgia. This study used a faith-based approach. Data were collected from 23 respondents recruited from a local African-American church. HIV training was conducted over four 1-hour sessions using web-based interactive videos and lectures on HIV/AIDS. Constructs from the Social Cognitive Theory comprised the framework upon which the women received HIV/AIDS prevention training. Participants completed a 25-item pre- and post-intervention questionnaire to measure any changes that occurred in their attitudes regarding HIV/AIDS. Results showed a statistically significant difference in mean scores of individual knowledge and attitudes about HIV. The difference in mean scores for the remaining items was found to be statistically insignificant. The overall change in attitudes was also statistically significant, t = 2.27, df = 22, p < 0.05, which provided further evidence that when peers educate their communities on HIV/AIDS, it makes a significant difference in changing their attitudes about this disease. Although findings were positive, further data is needed to substantiate and validate the use of community peers to increase knowledge and awareness about HIV/AIDS among the African-American population. PMID:24218873

  10. Lower prevalence of intraventricular block in African-American patients compared with Caucasian patients: an electrocardiographic study II.

    PubMed Central

    Upshaw, Charles B.

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Electrocardiographic (ECG) differences occur between African-American and white persons. METHODS: Intraventricular conduction abnormalities of ECGs of 2,123 African-American and white hospital patients ages 20-99 years were studied in a consecutive manner. RESULTS: Intraventricular conduction abnormalities develop later in life and are less common in African-American patients, compared with white patients. The prevalence of conduction abnormalities increases with advancing age in both races. Left- and right ventricular conduction abnormalities begin to rise at age 50 for white patients but begin to rise at age 70 for African-American patients. The prevalence of left ventricular conduction abnormalities peaks in the ninth decade of life in both races but declines in both races in the tenth decade of life. The prevalence of right ventricular conduction abnormalities gradually increases and peaks in the tenth decade of life in both races. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of intraventricular block is significantly less in African-American patients, compared with white patients--occurring in 8.6% of African-American patients and in 15.2% of white patients. The prevalence of intraventricular block is lowest in African-American women at 6.5% and highest in white men at 16.8%. PMID:14527049

  11. African Americans in Adult Education: The Harlem Renaissance Revisited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson-Bailey, Juanita

    2006-01-01

    This study examined a 25-year period of African Americans in adult education by accessing the archival holdings of three major data centers: the Schomburg Center for Research in Black Culture, the Moorland-Spingarn Archives, and the Hollis Burke Frissell Library. The sociopolitical context of the data was analyzed using a Black feminist…

  12. Bullying during the Intermediate School Phase: A South African Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greeff, P.; Grobler, A. A.

    2008-01-01

    Bullying in the intermediate school phase was studied, using the Revised Olweus Bully/Victim Questionnaire (R-OBVQ). The total sample comprised 360 grade 4 to 6 pupils from English-medium, single-sex schools in Bloemfontein, South Africa. To ensure a more homogeneous sample, the grade (grades 4 to 6) and race (black and white) of the participants…

  13. Nonshaved cranial surgery in black Africans: technical report and a medium-term prospective outcome study.

    PubMed

    Adeleye, Amos O

    2016-07-01

    Nonshaved neurosurgery, cranial or spinal, is well reported among Caucasians but hardly among native Africans. The ungroomed scalp hairs of black Africans have unique anthropological characteristics needing special attention for shaveless cranial surgery. A technical report of the execution of this surgical procedure among an indigenous patient population in a sub-Sahara African country is presented, as well as an outcome analysis in a prospective cohort over a 7-year period. A total of 303 patients (211 males, 70 %) fulfilled the criteria for this study. The surgical procedure was primary in 278 (92 %) and redo in 8 %. It was emergency surgery in 153 (51 %). They were trauma craniotomies or decompressive craniectomies in 95 cases (31 %), craniotomies for tumour resections in 86 (28 %), and the surgical dissections for other conditions in 122 (41 %). The duration of surgery ranged from 30 min to 8.5 h, mean 2.5 (SD, 1.6), median 2. In-hospital clinical outcome was good (normal status or moderate deficit on dichotomized Glasgow outcome scale (GOS)) in 273 (90.1 %) cases while surgical site infections occurred in only 10 cases (3.3 %). The type of surgery, redo or primary, did not have any significant association with the in-hospital outcome (p = 0.5), nor with the presence of surgical site infection (SSI) (p = 0.7). The length of follow-up ranged from 2 to 63 months (mean, 7) with no untoward complications reported so far. Medium-term outcome of nonshaved neurosurgery in this indigenous black Africans remains favourable with no attendant significant adverse after-effects. PMID:26873745

  14. A qualitative study of factors affecting pregnancy weight gain in African American women.

    PubMed

    Goodrich, Kara; Cregger, Mary; Wilcox, Sara; Liu, Jihong

    2013-04-01

    African Americans and overweight or obese women are at increased risk for excessive gestational weight gain (GWG) and postpartum weight retention. Interventions are needed to promote healthy GWG in this population; however, research on exercise and nutritional barriers during pregnancy in African American women is limited. The objective of this qualitative study is to better inform intervention messages by eliciting information on perceptions of appropriate weight gain, barriers to and enablers of exercise and healthy eating, and other influences on healthy weight gain during pregnancy in overweight or obese African American women. In-depth interviews were conducted with 33 overweight or obese African American women in Columbia, South Carolina. Women were recruited in early to mid-pregnancy (8-23 weeks gestation, n = 10), mid to late pregnancy (24-36 weeks, n = 15), and early postpartum (6-12 weeks postpartum, n = 8). Interview questions and data analysis were informed using a social ecological framework. Over 50 % of women thought they should gain weight in excess of the range recommended by the Institute of Medicine. Participants were motivated to exercise for personal health benefits; however they also cited many barriers to exercise, including safety concerns for the fetus. Awareness of the maternal and fetal benefits of healthy eating was high. Commonly cited barriers to healthy eating include cravings and availability of unhealthy foods. The majority of women were motivated to engage in healthy behaviors during pregnancy. However, the interviews also uncovered a number of misconceptions and barriers that can serve as future intervention messages and strategies. PMID:22527762

  15. Association studies in QTL regions linked to bovine trypanotolerance in a West African crossbred population.

    PubMed

    Dayo, G K; Gautier, M; Berthier, D; Poivey, J P; Sidibe, I; Bengaly, Z; Eggen, A; Boichard, D; Thevenon, S

    2012-04-01

    African animal trypanosomosis is a parasitic blood disease transmitted by tsetse flies and is widespread in sub-Saharan Africa. West African taurine breeds have the ability, known as trypanotolerance, to limit parasitaemia and anaemia and remain productive in enzootic areas. Several quantitative trait loci (QTL) underlying traits related to trypanotolerance have been identified in an experimentally infected F(2) population resulting from a cross between taurine and zebu cattle. Although this information is highly valuable, the QTL remain to be confirmed in populations subjected to natural conditions of infection, and the corresponding regions need to be refined. In our study, 360 West African cattle were phenotyped for the packed cell volume control under natural conditions of infection in south-western Burkina Faso. Phenotypes were assessed by analysing data from previous cattle monitored over 2 years in an area enzootic for trypanosomosis. We further genotyped for 64 microsatellite markers mapping within four previously reported QTL on BTA02, BTA04, BTA07 and BTA13. These data enabled us to estimate the heritability of the phenotype using the kinship matrix between individuals computed from genotyping data. Thus, depending on the estimators considered and the method used, the heritability of anaemia control ranged from 0.09 to 0.22. Finally, an analysis of association identified an allele of the MNB42 marker on BTA04 as being strongly associated with anaemia control, and a candidate gene, INHBA, as being close to that marker. PMID:22404348

  16. Early life experiences linked to diabetes mellitus: a study of African-American migration.

    PubMed Central

    Schneider, D.; Greenberg, M.; Lu, L.

    1997-01-01

    African Americans experienced massive internal migrations that shifted more than 6 million Southern-born blacks to other sections of the United States over the past century, a trend that only recently has been reversed. Whenever mass migration takes place, there is an opportunity to examine the role of the native and relocated environments in the development of disease. This article examines those relationships for diabetes mellitus, a group of diseases that disproportionately affect African-Americans relative to other racial and ethnic groups in the United States. Age-specific and age-adjusted rates with 95% confidence intervals were calculated for males and females for combinations of five regions of birth and four regions of residence at time of death. Southern-born males had statistically significantly higher death rates from diabetes than did their counterparts who died in the same regions in 9 of 16 comparisons. For females, those born in the South had statistically significantly higher rates in 15 of 16 comparisons. The results of this study indicate that place of birth and early life experiences are statistically associated with diabetes mortality among African Americans regardless of place of residence at time of death. PMID:9002414

  17. Partner Incarceration and African-American Women's Sexual Relationships and Risk: A Longitudinal Qualitative Study.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Hannah L F; Caruso, Bethany; Barham, Terrika; Embry, Venita; Dauria, Emily; Clark, Claire D; Comfort, Megan L

    2015-06-01

    Racialized mass incarceration is associated with racial/ethnic disparities in HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in the US. The purpose of this longitudinal qualitative study was to learn about the processes through which partner incarceration affects African-American women's sexual risk. Four waves of in-depth qualitative interviews were conducted in 2010-2011 with 30 women in Atlanta, Georgia (US) who had recently incarcerated partners. Approximately half the sample misused substances at baseline. Transcripts were analyzed using grounded theory. For over half the sample (N = 19), partner incarceration resulted in destitution, and half of this group (N = 9) developed new partnerships to secure shelter or food; most misused substances. Other women (N = 9) initiated casual relationships to meet emotional or sexual needs. When considered with past research, these findings suggest that reducing incarceration rates among African-American men may reduce HIV/STIs among African-American women, particularly among substance-misusing women, as might rapidly linking women with recently incarcerated partners to housing and economic support and drug treatment. PMID:25694224

  18. Assessing and Promoting Physical Activity in African American Barbershops: Results of the FITStop Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Linnan, Laura A.; Reiter, Paul L.; Duffy, Courtney; Hales, Derek; Ward, Dianne S.; Viera, Anthony J.

    2011-01-01

    This study assessed the feasibility of recruiting African American men in barbershops, assessing their physical activity, conducting physical measurements, and gauging their interest in barbershop-based health research. The authors recruited African American shop owners (n = 4), barbers (n = 6), and customers (n = 90) from four barbershops in Raleigh and Durham, North Carolina, during 2009. The participation levels were high among owners (100%), barbers (67%), and customers (81%). In addition to completing a self-administered survey, 57% (51/90) of the customers completed physical measurements. According to self-reported data, 34% (30/88) of the customers met national physical activity recommendations within the last week. Customers expressed moderately high interest in learning more about health at barbershops and joining a barbershop-based physical activity contest. The estimated recruiting cost per customer was $105.92. Barbershops offer an effective setting for recruiting African American men and conducting physical measurements as well as an interesting possible location for conducting future interventions. PMID:20413387

  19. Remote Sensing and Wetland Ecology: a South African Case Study

    PubMed Central

    De Roeck, Els R.; Verhoest, Niko E.C.; Miya, Mtemi H.; Lievens, Hans; Batelaan, Okke; Thomas, Abraham; Brendonck, Luc

    2008-01-01

    Remote sensing offers a cost efficient means for identifying and monitoring wetlands over a large area and at different moments in time. In this study, we aim at providing ecologically relevant information on characteristics of temporary and permanent isolated open water wetlands, obtained by standard techniques and relatively cheap imagery. The number, surface area, nearest distance, and dynamics of isolated temporary and permanent wetlands were determined for the Western Cape, South Africa. Open water bodies (wetlands) were mapped from seven Landsat images (acquired during 1987 – 2002) using supervised maximum likelihood classification. The number of wetlands fluctuated over time. Most wetlands were detected in the winter of 2000 and 2002, probably related to road constructions. Imagery acquired in summer contained fewer wetlands than in winter. Most wetlands identified from Landsat images were smaller than one hectare. The average distance to the nearest wetland was larger in summer. In comparison to temporary wetlands, fewer, but larger permanent wetlands were detected. In addition, classification of non-vegetated wetlands on an Envisat ASAR radar image (acquired in June 2005) was evaluated. The number of detected small wetlands was lower for radar imagery than optical imagery (acquired in June 2002), probably because of deterioration of the spatial information content due the extensive pre-processing requirements of the radar image. Both optical and radar classifications allow to assess wetland characteristics that potentially influence plant and animal metacommunity structure. Envisat imagery, however, was less suitable than Landsat imagery for the extraction of detailed ecological information, as only large wetlands can be detected. This study has indicated that ecologically relevant data can be generated for the larger wetlands through relatively cheap imagery and standard techniques, despite the relatively low resolution of Landsat and Envisat imagery

  20. Climatology of the African Easterly Jet and Subtropical Highs over North Africa and Arabian Peninsula and a Numerical Case Study of an Intense African Easterly Wave

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spinks, James D.

    North African climate is analyzed between 1979 and 2010 with an emphasis on August using the European Center for Medium Range Weather Forecast (ECMWF) global dataset to investigate the effects of the subtropical anticyclones over North Africa and the Arabian Peninsula on the Africa easterly jet (AEJ). It was found that the AEJ encloses a core with a local wind maximum (LWM) in both West and East Africa, in which the west LWM core has a higher zonal wind speed. The strength of both cores is distinctly different by way of thermal wind balance. The variability of these synoptic weather features is higher in East Africa. The most noticeable variability of intensity occurred with easterly waves. Maintenance of easterly waves from the Arabian Peninsula into East Africa is dependent on strong zonal gradients from the AEJ. These zonal gradients were induced by the strengthening of the subtropical highs and the presence of a westerly jet in Central Africa and south of the Arabian Peninsula. During positive ENSO periods, these systems are generally weaker while in negative periods are stronger. The origins of an intense African easterly wave (AEW) and mesoscale convective system (MCS) in August 2004 (A04) were traced back to the southern Arabian Peninsula, Asir Mountains, and Ethiopian Highlands using gridded satellite (GridSat) data, ERA-I, and the WRF-ARW model. A vorticity budget was developed to investigate the dynamics and mechanisms that contribute to the formation of A04's vorticity perturbation.

  1. An Interdisciplinary Outreach Model of African American Recruitment for Alzheimer's Disease Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Monique M.; Meisel, Marie M.; Williams, James; Morris, John C.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The African American Outreach Satellite (Satellite) provides educational outreach to facilitate African American recruitment for longitudinal studies at the Washington University Alzheimer's Disease Research Center (ADRC). This descriptive article characterizes the Satellite's recruitment methods, plan for community engagement, results of…

  2. Help-Seeking Behaviors and Depression among African American Adolescent Boys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindsey, Michael A.; Korr, Wynne S.; Broitman, Marina; Bone, Lee; Green, Alan; Leaf, Philip J.

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the help-seeking behaviors of depressed, African American adolescents. Qualitative interviews were conducted with 18 urban, African American boys, ages 14 to 18, who were recruited from community-based mental health centers and after-school programs for youths. Interviews covered sociodemographic information, questions…

  3. Associations of Fast Food Restaurant Availability With Dietary Intake and Weight Among African Americans in the Jackson Heart Study, 2000–2004

    PubMed Central

    Diez Roux, Ana V.; Smith, Adam E.; Tucker, Katherine L.; Gore, Larry D.; Zhang, Lei; Wyatt, Sharon B.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives. We examined the associations of fast food restaurant (FFR) availability with dietary intake and weight among African Americans in the southeastern United States. Methods. We investigated cross-sectional associations of FFR availability with dietary intake and body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference in 4740 African American Jackson Heart Study participants (55.2 ±12.6 years, 63.3% women). We estimated FFR availability using circular buffers with differing radii centered at each participant's geocoded residential location. Results. We observed no consistent associations between FFR availability and BMI or waist circumference. Greater FFR availability was associated with higher energy intake among men and women younger than 55 years, even after adjustment for individual socioeconomic status. For each standard deviation increase in 5-mile FFR availability, the energy intake increased by 138 kilocalories (confidence interval [CI] = 70.53, 204.75) for men and 58 kilocalories (CI = 8.55, 105.97) for women. We observed similar associations for the 2-mile FFR availability, especially in men. FFR availability was also unexpectedly positively associated with total fiber intake. Conclusions. FFR availability may contribute to greater energy intake in younger African Americans who are also more likely to consume fast food. PMID:21551382

  4. African Savanna-Forest Boundary Dynamics: A 20-Year Study.

    PubMed

    Cuni-Sanchez, Aida; White, Lee J T; Calders, Kim; Jeffery, Kathryn J; Abernethy, Katharine; Burt, Andrew; Disney, Mathias; Gilpin, Martin; Gomez-Dans, Jose L; Lewis, Simon L

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies show widespread encroachment of forest into savannas with important consequences for the global carbon cycle and land-atmosphere interactions. However, little research has focused on in situ measurements of the successional sequence of savanna to forest in Africa. Using long-term inventory plots we quantify changes in vegetation structure, above-ground biomass (AGB) and biodiversity of trees ≥10 cm diameter over 20 years for five vegetation types: savanna; colonising forest (F1), monodominant Okoume forest (F2); young Marantaceae forest (F3); and mixed Marantaceae forest (F4) in Lopé National Park, central Gabon, plus novel 3D terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) measurements to assess forest structure differences. Over 20 years no plot changed to a new stage in the putative succession, but F1 forests strongly moved towards the structure, AGB and diversity of F2 forests. Overall, savanna plots showed no detectable change in structure, AGB or diversity using this method, with zero trees ≥10 cm diameter in 1993 and 2013. F1 and F2 forests increased in AGB, mainly as a result of adding recruited stems (F1) and increased Basal Area (F2), whereas F3 and F4 forests did not change substantially in structure, AGB or diversity. Critically, the stability of the F3 stage implies that this stage may be maintained for long periods. Soil carbon was low, and did not show a successional gradient as for AGB and diversity. TLS vertical plant profiles showed distinctive differences amongst the vegetation types, indicating that this technique can improve ecological understanding. We highlight two points: (i) as forest colonises, changes in biodiversity are much slower than changes in forest structure or AGB; and (ii) all forest types store substantial quantities of carbon. Multi-decadal monitoring is likely to be required to assess the speed of transition between vegetation types. PMID:27336632

  5. African Savanna-Forest Boundary Dynamics: A 20-Year Study

    PubMed Central

    Cuni-Sanchez, Aida; White, Lee J. T.; Calders, Kim; Jeffery, Kathryn J.; Abernethy, Katharine; Burt, Andrew; Disney, Mathias; Gilpin, Martin; Gomez-Dans, Jose L.; Lewis, Simon L.

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies show widespread encroachment of forest into savannas with important consequences for the global carbon cycle and land-atmosphere interactions. However, little research has focused on in situ measurements of the successional sequence of savanna to forest in Africa. Using long-term inventory plots we quantify changes in vegetation structure, above-ground biomass (AGB) and biodiversity of trees ≥10 cm diameter over 20 years for five vegetation types: savanna; colonising forest (F1), monodominant Okoume forest (F2); young Marantaceae forest (F3); and mixed Marantaceae forest (F4) in Lopé National Park, central Gabon, plus novel 3D terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) measurements to assess forest structure differences. Over 20 years no plot changed to a new stage in the putative succession, but F1 forests strongly moved towards the structure, AGB and diversity of F2 forests. Overall, savanna plots showed no detectable change in structure, AGB or diversity using this method, with zero trees ≥10 cm diameter in 1993 and 2013. F1 and F2 forests increased in AGB, mainly as a result of adding recruited stems (F1) and increased Basal Area (F2), whereas F3 and F4 forests did not change substantially in structure, AGB or diversity. Critically, the stability of the F3 stage implies that this stage may be maintained for long periods. Soil carbon was low, and did not show a successional gradient as for AGB and diversity. TLS vertical plant profiles showed distinctive differences amongst the vegetation types, indicating that this technique can improve ecological understanding. We highlight two points: (i) as forest colonises, changes in biodiversity are much slower than changes in forest structure or AGB; and (ii) all forest types store substantial quantities of carbon. Multi-decadal monitoring is likely to be required to assess the speed of transition between vegetation types. PMID:27336632

  6. A feasibility study for a manufacturing technology deployment center

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-10-31

    The Automation & Robotics Research Institute (ARRI) and the Texas Engineering Extension Service (TEEX) were funded by the U.S. Department of Energy to determine the feasibility of a regional industrial technology institute to be located at the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) Central Facility in Waxahachie, Texas. In response to this opportunity, ARRI and TEEX teamed with the DOE Kansas City Plant (managed by Allied Signal, Inc.), Los Alamos National Laboratory (managed by the University of California), Vought Aircraft Company, National Center for Manufacturing Sciences (NCMS), SSC Laboratory, KPMG Peat Marwick, Dallas County Community College, Navarro Community College, Texas Department of Commerce (TDOC), Texas Manufacturing Assistance Center (TMAC), Oklahoma Center for the Advancement of Science and Technology, Arkansas Science and Technology Authority, Louisiana Productivity Center, and the NASA Mid-Continent Technology Transfer Center (MCTTC) to develop a series of options, perform the feasibility analysis and secure industrial reviews of the selected concepts. The final report for this study is presented in three sections: Executive Summary, Business Plan, and Technical Plan. The results from the analysis of the proposed concept support the recommendation of creating a regional technology alliance formed by the states of Texas, New Mexico, Oklahoma, Arkansas and Louisiana through the conversion of the SSC Central facility into a Manufacturing Technology Deployment Center (MTDC).

  7. Center for Advanced Technology Training (CATT) Feasibility Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albuquerque Technical Vocational Inst., NM.

    A study of the feasibility of establishing a Center for Advanced Technology Training (CATT) at the Albuquerque Technical Vocational Institute (TVI Community College, New Mexico) was conducted by members of the Albuquerque business community, government representatives, and college administrators. Phase 1 of the study was an examination of the…

  8. The Center for Coastal Studies: Sustainable Development Education in Mexico

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ollervides, F.; Farrell, T.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to present The School for Field Studies-Center for Coastal Studies (SFS-CCS) as a success story in sustainable development education. This success is based on a unique academic model, which incorporates sustainable development opportunities and challenges faced by the local community into the program…

  9. Center of Discovery I Study Guide. Education 302.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cain, Robert B.; And Others

    This study guide contains the objectives, design, and evaluation in plan for Center of Discovery I, and lists topics, directives, and basic readings and in-depth references and the self-tests for an 11-week program of independent study within the first of four education courses in a 2-year program. The major part of the guide is devoted to a…

  10. Association between childhood adversities and long-term suicidality among South Africans from the results of the South African Stress and Health study: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Bruwer, Belinda; Govender, Ravi; Bishop, Melanie; Williams, David R; Stein, Dan J; Seedat, Soraya

    2014-01-01

    Objective Suicide and suicidal behaviours are significant public health problems and a leading cause of death worldwide and in South Africa. We examined the association between childhood adversities and suicidal behaviour over the life course. Methods A national probability sample of 4351 South African adult participants (aged 18 years and older) in the South African Stress and Health (SASH) study was interviewed as part of the World Mental Health Surveys initiative. Respondents provided sociodemographic and diagnostic information, as well as an account of suicide-related thoughts and behaviours. Suicidality or suicidal behaviour were defined as were defined as suicide attempts and suicidal ideation in the total sample, and suicide plans and attempts among ideators. Childhood adversities included physical abuse, sexual abuse, parental death, parental divorce, other parental loss, family violence, physical illness and financial adversity. The association between suicidality and childhood adversities was examined using discrete-time survival models. Results More than a third of the respondents with suicidal behaviour experienced at least one childhood adversity, with physical abuse, parental death and parental divorce being the most prevalent adversities. Physical abuse, sexual abuse and parental divorce were identified as significant risk markers for lifetime suicide attempts, while physical abuse and parental divorce were significantly correlated with suicidal ideation. Two or more childhood adversities were associated with a twofold higher risk of lifetime suicide attempts. Sexual abuse (OR 9.3), parental divorce (OR 3.1) and childhood physical abuse (OR 2.2) had the strongest associations with lifetime suicide attempts. The effect of childhood adversities on suicidal tendencies varied over the life course. For example, sexual abuse was significantly associated with suicide attempts during childhood and teen years, but not during young and later adulthood

  11. A Longitudinal Study of Household Change on African American Adolescents1

    PubMed Central

    Barnett, Tracey E.; Rowley, Stephanie; Zimmerman, Marc A.; Vansadia, Preeti; Caldwell, Cleopatra Howard

    2013-01-01

    Few studies have examined the effects of household change on adolescent development. We study household composition change and its effect on development, as measured by both internalizing symptoms and externalizing behaviors, in a sample of urban African American adolescents. Household change was defined based on the movement in or out of the household of one of the two most important adults adolescents named. We found 25% of adolescents reported changes in their household composition over the four years of high school. Youth who experienced change reported more internalizing symptoms and externalizing behavior than youth who did not experience change. Those reporting important people leaving their household had the greatest negative outcomes. PMID:23761941

  12. Fine-Mapping in African Americans of Eight Recently Discovered Genetic Loci for Plasma Lipids: The Jackson Heart Study

    PubMed Central

    Keebler, Mary E.; Deo, Rahul C.; Surti, Aarti; Konieczkowski, David; Guiducci, Candace; Burtt, Noel; Buxbaum, Sarah G.; Sarpong, Daniel F.; Steffes, Michael W.; Wilson, James G.; Taylor, Herman A.; Kathiresan, Sekar

    2011-01-01

    Background Genome-wide association studies in cohorts of European descent have identified novel genomic regions as associated with lipids, but their relevance in African Americans remains unclear. Methods and Results We genotyped 8 index SNPs and 488 tagging SNPs across 8 novel lipid loci in the Jackson Heart Study, a community-based cohort of 4605 African Americans. For each trait, we calculated residuals adjusted for age, sex, and global ancestry and performed multivariable linear regression to detect genotype-phenotype association with adjustment for local ancestry. To explore admixture effects, we conducted stratified analyses in individuals with a high probability of 2 African ancestral alleles or at least 1 European allele at each locus. We confirmed 2 index SNPs as associated with lipid traits in African Americans, with suggestive association for 3 more. However, the effect sizes for 4 of the 5 associated SNPs were larger in the European local ancestry subgroup compared to the African local ancestry subgroup, suggesting that the replication is driven by European ancestry segments. Through fine-mapping, we discovered 3 new SNPs with significant associations, two with consistent effect on triglyceride levels across ancestral groups: rs636523 near DOCK7/ANGPTL3 and rs780093 in GCKR. African LD patterns did not assist in narrowing association signals. Conclusions We confirm that 5 genetic regions associated with lipid traits in European-derived populations are relevant in African Americans. To further evaluate these loci, fine-mapping in larger African American cohorts and/or resequencing will be required. PMID:20570916

  13. 34 CFR 413.33 - What substantive studies must the National Center or Centers conduct and submit?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF VOCATIONAL AND ADULT EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION NATIONAL CENTER OR CENTERS FOR RESEARCH IN VOCATIONAL EDUCATION What Conditions Must Be Met After an Award? § 413... 34 Education 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false What substantive studies must the National Center...

  14. 34 CFR 413.33 - What substantive studies must the National Center or Centers conduct and submit?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF VOCATIONAL AND ADULT EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION NATIONAL CENTER OR CENTERS FOR RESEARCH IN VOCATIONAL EDUCATION What Conditions Must Be Met After an Award? § 413... 34 Education 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What substantive studies must the National Center...

  15. 34 CFR 413.33 - What substantive studies must the National Center or Centers conduct and submit?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF VOCATIONAL AND ADULT EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION NATIONAL CENTER OR CENTERS FOR RESEARCH IN VOCATIONAL EDUCATION What Conditions Must Be Met After an Award? § 413... 34 Education 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What substantive studies must the National Center...

  16. 34 CFR 413.33 - What substantive studies must the National Center or Centers conduct and submit?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF VOCATIONAL AND ADULT EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION NATIONAL CENTER OR CENTERS FOR RESEARCH IN VOCATIONAL EDUCATION What Conditions Must Be Met After an Award? § 413... 34 Education 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false What substantive studies must the National Center...

  17. The relationship between immigration and depression in South Africa: evidence from the first South African National Income Dynamics Study.

    PubMed

    Tomita, Andrew; Labys, Charlotte A; Burns, Jonathan K

    2014-12-01

    Few studies have examined depression among immigrants in post-apartheid South Africa, and factors that strengthen the relationship between immigration and depression. The first wave of the National Income Dynamics Study was used to investigate links between immigration and depression (n = 15,205). Depression symptoms were assessed using a 10-item version of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression (CES-D) Scale. Immigrants in South Africa had fewer depressive symptoms (CES-D ≥ 10) than locally-born participants (17.1 vs. 32.4%, F = 13.5, p < 0.01). Multilevel mixed-effects logistic regression analyses found that among immigrant populations, younger age (adjusted OR 1.03, 95% CI 1.01-1.05) and black African ethnicity (adjusted OR 3.72, 95% CI 1.29-10.7) were associated with higher depression. Younger age was associated with lower depression among locally-born study participants (adjusted OR 0.98, 95% CI 0.97-0.98). The varying relationship between certain demographic factors, depression and the different mental health challenges among these groups requires closer attention. PMID:24526432

  18. The relationship between immigration and depression in South Africa: Evidence from the first South African National Income Dynamics Study

    PubMed Central

    Tomita, Andrew; Labys, Charlotte A.; Burns, Jonathan K.

    2014-01-01

    Few studies have examined depression among immigrants in post-apartheid South Africa, and factors that strengthen the relationship between immigration and depression. The first wave of the National Income Dynamics Study was used to investigate links between immigration and depression (n=15,205). Depression symptoms were assessed using a 10-item version of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression (CES-D) Scale. Immigrants in South Africa had fewer depressive symptoms (CES-D ≥ 10) than locally-born participants (17.1% vs. 32.4%, F = 13.5, p<0.01). Multilevel mixed-effects logistic regression analyses found that among immigrant populations, younger age (adjusted OR=1.03, 95% CI = 1.01-1.05) and black African ethnicity (adjusted OR=3.72, 95% CI = 1.29-10.7) were associated with higher depression. Younger age was associated with lower depression among locally-born study participants (adjusted OR=0.98, 95% CI = 0.97-0.98). The varying relationship between certain demographic factors, depression and the different mental health challenges among these groups requires closer attention. PMID:24526432

  19. Mentoring and Professional Identity Development for African American Female Doctoral Students: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curry, Nettavia Doreen

    2011-01-01

    This dissertation examines the impact mentoring relationships, between African American women doctoral students and faculty members, has on the students' professional identity development. Of particular interest is an examination of whether matched mentoring relationships between African American women doctoral students and African American female…

  20. A Case Study of the Development of African American Women Executives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks Greaux, Lisa

    2010-01-01

    Even in an era when the country elected an African American man as President of the United States, there is still a paucity of African American women executives within Fortune 500 companies. Although more African American women have joined the ranks of corporate management over the last two decades, the numbers, when compared to those of White…

  1. A study of the lived experiences of African American women STEM doctoral degree completers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Squires, Stephanie Michelle

    This study examined the lived experiences of African American women (AAW) who completed doctoral degrees in a STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) discipline in the United States. This study sought to fill the gap in the literature by examining how AAW described and made meaning of lived STEM educational experiences during doctoral degree completion in the context of the intersection of being African American and a woman. This study utilized a theoretical perspective based upon three theories: (a) critical race theory as a framework to gather AAW's narratives about STEM doctorate education, (b) Black feminist thought as a framework to view the intersection of being African American and a woman in the United States, and (c) the science identity model as a framework to view how women of color successfully complete scientific graduate degrees. Participants revealed that being an African American and a woman in a STEM doctoral program often complicated an already difficult process of completing the doctoral degree. The participants described the educational experience as challenging, particularly the writing of the dissertation. The challenges that the participants faced were due to various factors such as difficult advisor/advisee relationships, tedious writing and revision processes, politics, and lack of information regarding the doctoral degree process. The findings suggested that AAW participants confronted intrinsic bias while completing STEM doctoral degrees, which led to isolation and feelings of being an impostor---or feelings of not belonging in scientific studies. The findings also indicated that the women in this study ascribed success in dissertation writing and degree completion to one or more of the following attributes: (a) having a clear plan, (b) taking ownership of the writing process, (c) having an engaged advisor, (d) learning the writing style of the advisor, (e) understanding the temperament of the advisor, (f) personal will

  2. The Woodlands Metro Center energy study. Case studies of project planning and design for energy conservation

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-03-01

    Appendix II of The Woodlands Metro Center Energy Study near Houston consists of the following: Metro Center Program, Conventional Plan Building Prototypes and Detail Parcel Analysis, Energy Plan Building Prototypes, and Energy Plan Detail Parcel Analysis.

  3. Culturally Sensitive Approaches to Identification and Treatment of Depression among HIV Infected African American Adults: A Qualitative Study of Primary Care Providers’ Perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Le, Huynh-Nhu; Hipolito, Maria Mananita S; Lambert, Sharon; Terrell-Hamilton, Flora; Rai, Narayan; McLean, Charlee; Kapetanovic, Suad; Nwulia, Evaristus

    2016-01-01

    Background Major depressive disorder (MDD) is highly prevalent among HIV-infected (HIV+) individuals, and is associated with non-adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART), and accelerated disease progression. MDD is underdiagnosed and undertreated among low-income African Americans, who are disproportionately impacted by the HIV epidemic. To improve detection and treatment of depression among African Americans living with HIV/AIDS, it is important to understand culturally and contextually relevant aspects of MDD and attitudes about mental health treatment. Methods A focus group session was conducted with seven providers and staff at a primary care center that serves a largely African-American community heavily impacted by the HIV epidemic in Washington, DC. Data were analyzed using an inductive approach to distill prominent themes, perspectives, and experiences among participating providers. Results Five themes emerged to characterize the lived experiences of HIV+ African-American patients: (a) Changes in perceptions of HIV over time; (b) HIV is comorbid with mental illness, particularly depression and substance abuse; (c) Stigma is associated with both HIV and depression; (d) Existing mental health services vary and are insufficient and (e) Suggestions for optimal treatment for comorbid HIV and depression. Limitation This study reflects the views of providers from one clinic in this community. Conclusion Substantial economic disadvantage, pervasive childhood adversity, limited education and limited resources jointly put members of this community at risk for acquisition of HIV and for development of depression and addictions. These contextual factors provide an important reminder that any patient-level depression identification or intervention in this community will have to be mindful of such circumstances. PMID:27347445

  4. National Traffic Safety Documentation Center Project Definition Study. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    System Development Corp., Falls Church, VA.

    A project definition study was conducted for the development, implementation and operation of a National Traffic Safety Documentation Center. Included in this final comprehensive report are: (1) the results of nationwide surveys of users and sources of traffic safety information; (2) a review of relevant information technology in terms of the…

  5. Social Work Information Center 2.0: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xu, F. Grace

    2009-01-01

    The social work library at USC provides a case study of an academic library's transition to an information center service model. Analysis of the collection, user community, Web 2.0 applications, and Web usage data demonstrates how the changes facilitated library services and information literacy instruction. (Contains 6 tables and 3 figures.)

  6. Environmental Studies Center Teacher Books. 6th Grade - River Investigation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin County Schools, Jensen Beach, FL. Environmental Studies Center.

    This teacher's guide, one of nine teacher packages developed for use in the sequential, hands-on, field-oriented, K-8 environmental education program of the Martin County Schools in Florida, was developed for use with elementary children in grade six prior to and after a visit to an environmental studies center located near an estuarine area. The…

  7. Environmental Studies Center Teacher Books. 8th Grade - Beach Investigation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin County Schools, Jensen Beach, FL. Environmental Studies Center.

    This teacher's guide, one of nine teacher packages developed for use in the sequential, hands-on, field-oriented, K-8 environmental education program of the Martin County Schools in Florida, was developed for use with secondary children in grade eight prior to and after a visit to an environmental studies center located near an estuarine area. The…

  8. Environmental Studies Center Teacher Books. 4th Grade - Mangrove Communities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin County Schools, Jensen Beach, FL. Environmental Studies Center.

    This teacher's guide, one of nine teacher packages developed for use in the sequential, hands-on, field-oriented, K-8 environmental education program of the Martin County Schools in Florida, was developed for use with elementary children in grade four prior to and after a visit to an environmental studies center located near an estuarine area. The…

  9. Usability Studies and User-Centered Design in Digital Libraries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Comeaux, David J.

    2008-01-01

    Digital libraries continue to flourish. At the same time, the principles of user-centered design and the practice of usability testing have been growing in popularity, spreading their influence into the library sphere. This article explores the confluence of these two trends by surveying the current literature on usability studies of digital…

  10. Study on the microstructure of African wild silk cocoon shells and fibers.

    PubMed

    Teshome, Addis; Vollrath, Fritz; Raina, Suresh K; Kabaru, J M; Onyari, J

    2012-01-01

    Silk fibers and cocoon shells from four African wild silkmoths Gonometa postica, Anaphe panda, Argema mimosae and Epiphora bauhiniae-were studied to gain insight into the structure-property-function relations and potential commercial application. The surface and cross-section of cocoon shells and fibers revealed the presence of prominent structural variations. Cocoon shells were multilayered and porous structures constructed from highly cross-linked fibers that are densely packed within the sericin/gum. Fibers had fibrillar sub-structures running along the fiber axis and with greater number and size of voids. The ecological significance and implication of these structures for further application are discussed. PMID:21986544

  11. Text Messaging to Improve Hypertension Medication Adherence in African Americans: BPMED Intervention Development and Study Protocol

    PubMed Central

    Artinian, Nancy T; Schwiebert, Loren; Yarandi, Hossein; Levy, Phillip D

    2015-01-01

    Background Hypertension (HTN) is a major public health concern in the United States, with almost 78 million Americans age 20 years and over suffering from the condition. Moreover, HTN is a key risk factor for health disease and stroke. African Americans disproportionately shoulder the burdens of HTN, with greater prevalence, disease severity, earlier onset, and more HTN-related complications than age-matched whites. Medication adherence for the treatment of HTN is poor, with estimates indicating that only about half of hypertensive patients are adherent to prescribed medication regimens. Although no single intervention for improving medication adherence has emerged as superior to others, text message medication reminders have the potential to help improve medication adherence in African Americans with uncontrolled HTN as mobile phone adoption is very high in this population. Objective The purpose of this two-phased study was to develop (Phase I) and test in a randomized controlled trial (RCT) (Phase II) a text message system, BPMED, to improve the quality of medication management through increasing medication adherence in African Americans with uncontrolled HTN. Methods In Phase I, we recruited 16 target end-users from a primary care clinic, to assist in the development of BPMED through participating in one of three focus groups. Focus groups sought to gain patient perspectives on HTN, medication adherence, mobile phone use, and the use of text messaging to support medication adherence. Potential intervention designs were presented to participants, and feedback on the designs was solicited. In Phase II, we conducted two pilot RCTs to determine the feasibility, acceptability, and preliminary efficacy of BPMED in primary care and emergency department settings. Both pilot studies recruited approximately 60 participants, who were randomized equally between usual care and the BPMED intervention. Results Although data collection is now complete, data analysis from the

  12. Unprotected sex among African-American adolescents: a three-year study.

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiaoming; Stanton, Bonita; Feigelman, Susan; Galbraith, Jennifer

    2002-01-01

    This study examined the cumulative change of unprotected sex over a period of three years among 383 African American youth ages 9 to 15 at baseline who participated in a trial of a Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) risk reduction intervention. Cumulative scores of sexual intercourse and failure to use condoms were compared between intervention and control groups. The results indicate that cumulatively over the three-year period, intervention youth reported significantly lower rates of failure to use a condom. The findings indicate that face-to-face interventions may offer significant cumulative protection from unprotected sex over the long-term. PMID:12392042

  13. Burkitt's lymphoma between African and American types in Turkish children: clinical, viral (EBV), and molecular studies.

    PubMed

    Cavdar, A O; Gözdaşoğlu, S; Yavuz, G; Babacan, E; Unal, E; Uluoğlu, O; Yücesan, S; Magrath, I T; Akar, N

    1993-01-01

    Seventy-two Turkish children with Burkitt's lymphoma (BL) observed during a period of 22 years (1968-1990) have been analysed retrospectively. The diagnosis was established histologically according to WHO criteria. BL represented 50% of NHL in this series. The patients were staged according to Ziegler's system. The median age of patients was 5.5 years with a sex (M/F) ratio of 2.1/1. The most common primary site of tumor involvement was the abdomen (69.4%), which was followed by facial tumors, in particular the jaw and orbit (49.9%). There were 21 cases with jaw (29.1%) and 15 cases with orbital involvement (20.8%) at initial presentation. The majority of the patients (84.4%) were in advanced stages (C and D) at initial diagnosis. Facial tumors observed in Turkish children with BL were more similar to African Burkitt's lymphoma than American or European cases. High titers of antibodies against VCA and EA of EBV were also seen in our recent cases of BL. Two main treatment regimens, namely, single agent chemotherapy with cyclophosphamide (CYX) (1968-1974) and three drug (COM) combination chemotherapy, were used consecutively (1974-1988). COM has been shown to produce better results than single agent therapy. The clinical presentation, mean age, and high antibodies (IgG) to EBV and preliminary molecular studies revealed that BL appears to be in between African and non-African types in Turkish children. This will be further elucidated by direct examination of tumor cells for EBV and investigation of the molecular characteristics of Turkish tumors. Such studies are presently under way. PMID:8381202

  14. The St. Louis African American health-heart study: methodology for the study of cardiovascular disease and depression in young-old African Americans

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Coronary artery disease (CAD) is a major cause of death and disability worldwide. Depression has complex bidirectional adverse associations with CAD, although the mechanisms mediating these relationships remain unclear. Compared to European Americans, African Americans (AAs) have higher rates of morbidity and mortality from CAD. Although depression is common in AAs, its role in the development and features of CAD in this group has not been well examined. This project hypothesizes that the relationships between depression and CAD can be explained by common physiological pathways and gene-environment interactions. Thus, the primary aims of this ongoing project are to: a) determine the prevalence of CAD and depression phenotypes in a population-based sample of community-dwelling older AAs; b) examine the relationships between CAD and depression phenotypes in this population; and c) evaluate genetic variants from serotoninP and inflammatory pathways to discover potential gene-depression interactions that contribute significantly to the presence of CAD in AAs. Methods/design The St. Louis African American Health (AAH) cohort is a population-based panel study of community-dwelling AAs born in 1936–1950 (inclusive) who have been followed from 2000/2001 through 2010. The AAH-Heart study group is a subset of AAH participants recruited in 2009–11 to examine the inter-relationships between depression and CAD in this population. State-of-the-art CAD phenotyping is based on cardiovascular characterizations (coronary artery calcium, carotid intima-media thickness, cardiac structure and function, and autonomic function). Depression phenotyping is based on standardized questionnaires and detailed interviews. Single nucleotide polymorphisms of selected genes in inflammatory and serotonin-signaling pathways are being examined to provide information for investigating potential gene-depression interactions as modifiers of CAD traits. Information from the parent AAH

  15. African American Advanced Placement chemistry students and their developing study habits: A phenomenologically-based interpretive study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rasmussen, Natalie D.

    The academic achievement gap between African American and White students has gained much attention in recent years. Much has been written about the causes of and reasons for this problem ranging from the vestigial effects of slavery to poor parenting. Much less has been written or understood about its solution. While it is impossible for educators to change the pasts of their African American students, it is possible to effect change for the few minutes in which they are in direct contact with them each day. If African American science students are taught effective study skills and habits, then perhaps they might have the tools to close the achievement gap themselves. The participants in this phenomenologically based interpretive study were five African American Advanced Placement Chemistry students from an inner-city high school. Three in-depth interviews were conducted with each of the participants during the beginning, middle and end of a semester. The purpose of the interviews was to locate the students in terms of their thought processes, experiences and perceived barriers concerning the nature and practice of effective study and retention of chemistry content. The interviews were recorded and transcribed. The texts were then analyzed for common themes. Five common themes emerged from the interviews. These were: (1) Homework vs. Study: a distinction between homework---which students knew how to approach; and study---which they did not. (2) Student Effort: their changing perception of adequate and effective study practices while in a rigorous course. (3) Teacher Rigor: they perceived high expectations and challenging work as a sign of respect from their teachers. (4) Parental Involvement: students' admission that they desired more input from parents regarding their academic performance. (5) Racial Considerations: their need to disprove negative stereotypes and their personal observations regarding racial differences in studying. A discussion of the themes and

  16. Photosynthetic reaction center of green sulfur bacteria studied by EPR

    SciTech Connect

    Nitschke, W.; Rutherford, A.W. ); Fieler, U. )

    1990-04-24

    Membrane preparations of two species of the green sulfur bacteria Chlorobium have been studied be EPR. Three signals were detected which were attributed to iron-sulfur centers acting as electron acceptors in the photosynthetic reaction center. (1) A signal from a center designated F{sub B}, was photoinduced at 4K. (2) A similar signal, F{sub A}, was photoinduced in addition to the F{sub B} signal upon a short period of illumination at 200 K. (3) Further illumination at 200 K resulted in the appearance of a broad feature at g=1.78. This is attributed to the g{sub x} component of an iron-sulfur center designated F{sub X}. The designations of these signals as F{sub B}, F{sub A}, and F{sub X} are based on their spectroscopic similarities to signals in photosystem I (PS I). The orientation dependence of these EPR signals in ordered Chlorobium membrane multilayers is remarkably similar to that of their PS I homologues. A magnetic interaction between the reduced forms of F{sub B} and F{sub A} occurs, which is also very similar to that seen in PS I. The triplet state of P{sub 840}, the primary electron donor, could be photoinduced at 4 K in samples which had been preincubated with sodium dithionite and methyl viologen and then preilluminated at 200 K. The preillumination reduces the iron-sulfur centers while the preincubation is thought to result in the inactivation of an earlier electron acceptor. Orientation studies of the triplet signal in ordered multilayers indicate that the bacteriochlorophylls which act as the primary electron donor in Chlorobium are arranged with a structural geometry almost identical with that of the special pair in purple bacteria. The Chlorobium reaction center appears to be similar in some respects to both PS I and to the purple bacterial reaction center. This is discussed with regard to the evolution of the different types of reaction centers from a common ancestor.

  17. Stroke in HIV-infected African Americans: a retrospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Thakur, Kiran T; Lyons, Jennifer L; Smith, Bryan R; Shinohara, Russell T; Mateen, Farrah J

    2016-02-01

    The risk of having a first stroke is nearly twice as high among African Americans compared to Caucasians. HIV/AIDS is an independent risk factor for stroke. Our study aimed to report the risk factors and short-term clinical outcomes of African Americans with HIV infection and new-onset stroke admitted at the Johns Hopkins Hospitals (2000-2012). Multivariate linear regression was used to examine the association between potential predictors and odds of an unfavorable outcome, defined as a higher modified Rankin Scale (mRS) score on hospital discharge. African Americans comprised 105/125 (84%) of HIV-infected new-onset stroke inpatients (median age 50 years; 69% men; median CD4 140/mL; ischemic 77%; 39% taking highly active antiretroviral therapy). Vascular risk factors were common: hypertension (67%), cigarette smoking (66%), dyslipidemia (42%), hepatitis C (48%), intravenous drug abuse (32%), and prior myocardial infarction (29%). Prior aspirin and statin use were uncommon (18%, 9%). Unfavorable outcome (mRS score 4-6, n = 22 of 90 available records) was noted in 24% of patients, including seven in-hospital deaths. On multivariate analyses, higher CD4 count on hospital admission was associated with a lower mRS (-0.2 mRS points per 1 unit increase in CD4, 95% CI (-0.3, 0), p = 0.03). Intracerebral hemorrhage was also associated with a lower mRS (1.0 points lower, 95% CI (0.2, 1.8) compared to ischemic stroke, p = 0.01) after adjustment for other potential predictors. This underscores the importance of HIV infection on functional stroke outcomes beyond its recognized influence on stroke risk. PMID:26155903

  18. Overview of the JPL Center for NEO Studies (CNEOS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chodas, Paul

    2015-11-01

    Concurrent with the reformulation of NASA’s Near-Earth Object (NEO) program at NASA Headquarters, the Jet Propulsion Laboratory has formed the Center for NEO Studies (CNEOS), which will continue the technical work on NEOs that JPL has performed in the past, and expand on that work. The poster will provide a brief history of NEO activities at JPL, including the establishment of the original NEO Program Office at JPL in 1998 to provide a central node of critical expertise in the area of trajectory dynamics of Near-Earth Objects (NEOs). With the reformulation of the NEO program at NASA HQ, that office has become the Center for NEO Studies. The poster will review some of the Center’s key activities, such as: the computation of high precision orbits for NEOs, tabulation of their close approaches, and calculation of impact probabilities by all known NEOs over the next century via the Sentry and Scout impact monitoring systems. The Center will continue to host the website for NASA’s NEO Program, providing detailed information on the orbits and physical characteristics of all known NEOs. Other technical activities of the Center will also be outlined, including the Horizons on-line ephemeris service, the development of hypothetical impact scenarios and online kinetic-impactor deflection analysis tools, and the detection and mapping of keyholes.

  19. Studying and Incorporating Efficiency into Gastrointestinal Endoscopy Centers

    PubMed Central

    Day, Lukejohn W.; Belson, David

    2015-01-01

    Efficiency is defined as the use of resources in such a way as to maximize the production of goods and services. Improving efficiency has been the focus of management in many industries; however, it has not been until recently that incorporating efficiency models into healthcare has occurred. In particular, the study and development of improvement projects aimed at enhancing efficiency in GI have been growing rapidly in recent years. This focus on improving efficiency in GI has been spurred by the dramatic rise in the demand for endoscopic procedures as well as the rising number of insured patients requiring GI care coupled at the same time with limited resources in terms of staffing and space in endoscopy centers. This paper will critically review the history of efficiency in endoscopy centers, first by looking at other healthcare industries that have extensively studied and improved efficiency in their fields, examine a number of proposed efficiency metrics and benchmarks in endoscopy centers, and finally discuss opportunities where endoscopy centers could improve their efficiency. PMID:26101525

  20. The NASA Lewis Research Center: An Economic Impact Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Austrian, Ziona

    1996-01-01

    The NASA Lewis Research Center (LeRC), established in 1941, is one of ten NASA research centers in the country. It is situated on 350 acres of land in Cuyahoga County and occupies more than 140 buildings and over 500 specialized research and test facilities. Most of LeRC's facilities are located in the City of Cleveland; some are located within the boundaries of the cities of Fairview Park and Brookpark. LeRC is a lead center for NASA's research, technology, and development in the areas of aeropropulsion and selected space applications. It is a center of excellence for turbomachinery, microgravity fluid and combustion research, and commercial communication. The base research and technology disciplines which serve both aeronautics and space areas include materials and structures, instrumentation and controls, fluid physics, electronics, and computational fluid dynamics. This study investigates LeRC's economic impact on Northeast Ohio's economy. It was conducted by The Urban Center's Economic Development Program in Cleveland State University's Levin College of Urban Affairs. The study measures LeRC's direct impact on the local economy in terms of jobs, output, payroll, and taxes, as well as the indirect impact of these economic activities when they 'ripple' throughout the economy. To fully explain LeRC's overall impact on the region, its contributions in the areas of technology transfer and education are also examined. The study uses a highly credible and widely accepted research methodology. First, regional economic multipliers based on input-output models were used to estimate the effect of LERC spending on the Northeast Ohio economy. Second, the economic models were complemented by interviews with industrial, civic, and university leaders to qualitatively assess LeRC's impact in the areas of technology transfer and education.

  1. Drug Addiction and Stress-Response Genetic Variability: Association Study in African Americans

    PubMed Central

    Levran, Orna; Randesi, Matthew; Li, Yi; Rotrosen, John; Ott, Jurg; Adelson, Miriam; Kreek, Mary Jeanne

    2014-01-01

    Summary Stress is a significant risk factor in the development of drug addictions and in addiction relapse susceptibility. This hypothesis-driven study was designed to determine if specific SNPs in genes related to stress response are associated with heroin and/or cocaine addiction in African Americans. The analysis included 27 genes (124 SNPs) and was performed independently for each addiction. The sample consisted of former heroin addicts in methadone maintenance treatment (n = 314), cocaine addicts (n = 281), and controls (n = 208). Fourteen SNPs showed nominally significant association with heroin addiction (p < 0.05), including the African-specific, missense SNP rs5376 (Asn334Ser) in the galanin receptor type 1 gene (GALR1) and the functional FKBP5 intronic SNP rs1360780. Thirteen SNPs showed association with cocaine addiction, including the synonymous SNPs rs237902, in the oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR), and rs5374 in GALR1. No signal remained significant after correction for multiple testing. Four additional SNPs (GALR1 rs2717162, AVP rs2282018, CRHBP rs1875999, and NR3C2 rs1040288) were associated with both addictions and may indicate common liability. The study provides preliminary evidence for novel association of variants in several stress related genes with heroin and/or cocaine addictions and may enhance the understanding of the interaction between stress and addictions. PMID:24766650

  2. A critical hermeneutic study: Third grade elementary African American students' views of the nature of science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walls, Leon

    Nature of Science is one of the most fundamental aspects of understanding science. How different cultures, races and ethnicities see and interpret science differently is critical. However, the NOS views specific to African American teachers and learners have gone largely unresearched. The views of a purposeful sample of African American third grade children reported in this study contribute to efforts to make science equitable for all students. Conducted in two Midwest urban settings, within the students' regular classrooms, three instruments were employed: Views of Nature of Science Elementary (an interview protocol), Elementary Draw a Scientist Test (a drawing activity supplemented by an explicating narrative), and Identify a Scientist (a simple select-a-photo technique supported by Likert-measured sureness). The responses provided by twenty-three students were coded using qualitative content analysis. The findings are represented in three main categories: Science - is governed by experimentation, invention and discovery teach us about the natural world, school is not the only setting for learning science; Scientists - intelligent, happy, studious men and women playing multiple roles, with distinct physical traits working in laboratories; Students - capable users and producers of science and who view science as fun. This study advocates for: use of such instruments for constant monitoring of student views, using the knowledge of these views to construct inquiry based science lessons, and increased research about students of color.

  3. African-American community attitudes and perceptions toward schizophrenia and medical research: an exploratory study.

    PubMed Central

    Hamilton, Lynnae A.; Aliyu, Muktar H.; Lyons, Paul D.; May, Roberta; Swanson, Charlie L.; Savage, Robert; Go, Rodney C. P.

    2006-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Ensuring adequate representation of all demographic groups in medical research is necessary in order to ensure that the benefits associated with participation are equitably shared. Mental health research is unique in that the stigma associated with mental illness, such as schizophrenia, further hinders participation. Using focus groups, we set out to explore the attitudes and views of African Americans with regard to schizophrenia and medical research. METHODS: Four focus group discussions were conducted, with 23 participants divided into two groups of working and retired adults, and two groups of full- and part-time students selected from inner-city residents of Birmingham, AL, and surrounding counties. Data obtained were analyzed using the content analysis method. RESULTS: Diverse views were expressed about the cause of mental illness, and much of this was influenced by cultural beliefs. There was considerable misunderstanding of schizophrenia, and the majority of participants described the disease in terms of positive symptoms only. Whereas for older participants the Tuskegee syphilis study experience was an important factor in their reluctance to participate in medical research, younger participants expressed no knowledge of the study. Among younger participants an assumed level of social distrust was evident, with prominent fear of participating in research that employs physically intrusive methods. CONCLUSION: The provision of accurate information through trusted community sources and open dialogue will help to dispel myths, correct faulty assumptions and increase African-American participation in schizophrenia research. PMID:16532974

  4. African American perspectives: A qualitative study of an informal science enrichment program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simpson, Jamila Rashida

    The purposes of this study were to determine what program characteristics African American parents consider when they enroll their children into an informal science education enrichment program, the parents' evaluation of a program called Jordan Academy in which they enrolled their children, and the alignment of the parents' perspectives with Black Cultural Ethos (BCE). BCE refers to nine dimensions posited by Wade Boykin, a psychologist, as comprising African American culture. Participants were parents of students that attended Jordan Academy, an informal science enrichment program designed for third through sixth grade students from underserved populations. Qualitative methodologies were utilized to perform a thorough assessment of parents' perspectives. Data sources included classroom observations, student surveys, academy curriculum, photos and video-taped class sessions. Data included teachers and parents' responses to semi-structured, audio recorded interviews and students' written responses to open-ended items on the program's evaluation instrument. The data were analyzed for themes and the findings compared to Black Cultural Ethos. Findings revealed that the participants believed that informal science education offered their children opportunities not realized in the formal school setting - a means of impacting their children holistically. The parents expressed the academic, cultural, and personal development of their children in their characterizations of the ideal informal science education experience and in their evaluations of Jordan Academy. Overall, the parents' views emphasized the BCE values of harmony, affect, verve, movement, orality and communalism. The study has important implications for practices within and research on informal science education.

  5. Drug addiction and stress-response genetic variability: association study in African Americans.

    PubMed

    Levran, Orna; Randesi, Matthew; Li, Yi; Rotrosen, John; Ott, Jurg; Adelson, Miriam; Kreek, Mary Jeanne

    2014-07-01

    Stress is a significant risk factor in the development of drug addictions and in addiction relapse susceptibility. This hypothesis-driven study was designed to determine if specific SNPs in genes related to stress response are associated with heroin and/or cocaine addiction in African Americans. The analysis included 27 genes (124 SNPs) and was performed independently for each addiction. The sample consisted of former heroin addicts in methadone maintenance treatment (n = 314), cocaine addicts (n = 281), and controls (n = 208). Fourteen SNPs showed nominally significant association with heroin addiction (p < 0.05), including the African-specific, missense SNP rs5376 (Asn334Ser) in the galanin receptor type 1 gene (GALR1) and the functional FKBP5 intronic SNP rs1360780. Thirteen SNPs showed association with cocaine addiction, including the synonymous SNPs rs237902, in the oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR), and rs5374 in GALR1. No signal remained significant after correction for multiple testing. Four additional SNPs (GALR1 rs2717162, AVP rs2282018, CRHBP rs1875999, and NR3C2 rs1040288) were associated with both addictions and may indicate common liability. The study provides preliminary evidence for novel association of variants in several stress-related genes with heroin and/or cocaine addictions and may enhance the understanding of the interaction between stress and addictions. PMID:24766650

  6. Association between witnessing traumatic events and psychopathology in the South African Stress and Health Study

    PubMed Central

    Platt, Jonathan; Williams, David R.; Stein, Dan J.; Koenen, Karestan C.

    2016-01-01

    Background The high burden of witnessing traumatic events has been demonstrated in previous research in South Africa. However, previous work has focused on PTSD rather than a broader range of psychopathological outcomes. This study examined the association between witnessing trauma and multiple outcomes including mood, anxiety, and substance use disorders. Methods Regression models measured the odds of mood, anxiety, and substance use disorders among those who reported witnessing in the South African Stress and Health Study. Discrete-time survival analysis was used to examine whether witnessing was associated with earlier onset of mental disorders. Results Witnessing trauma was more commonly reported among males and those with low-average education. Posttraumatic stress disorder, mood, and anxiety disorders varied significantly with witnessing status, and witnessing was associated with exposure to a higher number of traumatic events compared to other types of traumatic events. Respondents reporting witnessing trauma had elevated odds of mood and anxiety disorders, but not substance use disorders. Conclusion Witnessing trauma is common in the South African population and results in increased risk of mood and anxiety disorders. Interventions aimed at reducing the burden of trauma and its outcomes must now increase their focus on bystanders and other observers, rather than just focusing on those directly affected. PMID:25773525

  7. A study of religiosity and psychological well-being among african americans: implications for counseling and psychotherapeutic processes.

    PubMed

    Colbert, Linda K; Jefferson, Joseph L; Gallo, Ralph; Davis, Ronnie

    2009-09-01

    This study examined whether a relationship exists between religious orientation as a therapy intervention and the degree of depression, coping behavior and self-esteem among African American adults. In addition, the relationship and predictive power of selected religious and socio-demographic variables and religious orientation as a therapy intervention were studied. African American adults were randomly selected to participate in this empirical study. Age had a significant independent effect on intrinsic religiosity and extrinsic religiosity and a linear relationship was found between extrinsic religiosity and the seven demographic predictor variables at the .05 level of significance. PMID:19639417

  8. SAID Partial Wave Analyses from CNS DAC (Center for Nuclear Studies Data Analysis Center)

    DOE Data Explorer

    George Washington University (GW) has one of the largest university-based nuclear-physics groups in the nation. Many of the current and future projects are geared to Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (JLab) at Newport News, VA. JLab is the world's premier electron accelerator for nuclear physics, and GW is one of the charter members of the governing body of JLab, the Southeastern Universities Research Association (SURA). The George Washington Data Analysis Center (DAC) was created in 1998 by an agreement among the Department of Energy, Jefferson Lab, and the GW Center for Nuclear Studies.The activities of the DAC fall into four distinct categories: 1) Performing partial-wave analyses of fundamental two- and three-body reactions; 2) Maintenance of databases associated with these reactions; 3) Development of software to disseminate DAC results (as well as the results of competing model-independent analyses and potential approaches); and 4) Phenomenological and theoretical investigations which bridge the gap between theory and experiment; in particular, the extraction of N* and D * hadronic and electromagnetic couplings. Partial Wave Analyses (and the associated databases) available at GW are: Pion-Nucleon, Kaon-Nucleon, Nucleon-Nucleon, Pion Photoproduction, Pion Electroproduction, Kaon Photoproduction, Eta Photoproduction, Eta-Prime Photoproduction, Pion-Deuteron (elastic), and Pion-Deuteron to Proton+Proton. [Taken from http://www.gwu.edu/~ndl/dac.htm">http://www.gwu.edu/~ndl/dac.htm

  9. The Academic Achievement Gap between African American and White Students: An Exploratory Study on Reading Achievement and Intrinsic Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herron-McCoy, La-Monica

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the academic achievement gap between upper elementary African American and White students. This study sought to assess any relationships between whether academic reading, students attitudes toward reading, and academic intrinsic motivation related to ethnicity. This study also sought to assess whether…

  10. A Study of First-Generation African American and Latino Undergraduates Developing Sociopolitical Consciousness in Introductory Sociology Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castillo-Montoya, Milagros

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the development of first-generation African American and Latino college students' sociopolitical consciousness in the context of their learning of sociology as a component of their liberal education studies. Given the paucity of research on how college students develop sociopolitical consciousness, this study addresses: (1) the…

  11. The Portrayal of African Americans and Hispanics at National Council for the Social Studies Annual Meetings, 1997-2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia, Jesus; Madden, Robert

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the portrayal of African Americans and Latinos over a twelve-year time period (1997-2008) at National Council for the Social Studies (NCSS) annual meetings. NCSS was selected because it is the largest organization responsible for social studies education in America's schools. Like U.S. history textbooks, the authors assumed…

  12. African American Male Elementary Teachers' Perceptions on Factors That Influence Their Retention and Attrition: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Lemanski Chante'

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to describe and explore American male elementary teachers' perceptions on factors that contribute to decisions to remain in or exit the teaching field, specifically elementary education. Ten African American male elementary teachers participated in the study. The theory from this study was the…

  13. African and non-African admixture components in African Americans and an African Caribbean population.

    PubMed

    Murray, Tanda; Beaty, Terri H; Mathias, Rasika A; Rafaels, Nicholas; Grant, Audrey Virginia; Faruque, Mezbah U; Watson, Harold R; Ruczinski, Ingo; Dunston, Georgia M; Barnes, Kathleen C

    2010-09-01

    Admixture is a potential source of confounding in genetic association studies, so it becomes important to detect and estimate admixture in a sample of unrelated individuals. Populations of African descent in the US and the Caribbean share similar historical backgrounds but the distributions of African admixture may differ. We selected 416 ancestry informative markers (AIMs) to estimate and compare admixture proportions using STRUCTURE in 906 unrelated African Americans (AAs) and 294 Barbadians (ACs) from a study of asthma. This analysis showed AAs on average were 72.5% African, 19.6% European and 8% Asian, while ACs were 77.4% African, 15.9% European, and 6.7% Asian which were significantly different. A principal components analysis based on these AIMs yielded one primary eigenvector that explained 54.04% of the variation and captured a gradient from West African to European admixture. This principal component was highly correlated with African vs. European ancestry as estimated by STRUCTURE (r(2)=0.992, r(2)=0.912, respectively). To investigate other African contributions to African American and Barbadian admixture, we performed PCA on approximately 14,000 (14k) genome-wide SNPs in AAs, ACs, Yorubans, Luhya and Maasai African groups, and estimated genetic distances (F(ST)). We found AAs and ACs were closest genetically (F(ST)=0.008), and both were closer to the Yorubans than the other East African populations. In our sample of individuals of African descent, approximately 400 well-defined AIMs were just as good for detecting substructure as approximately 14,000 random SNPs drawn from a genome-wide panel of markers. PMID:20717976

  14. An exploratory study of sexual assertiveness and characteristics of African American women in negotiating condom use at an HBCU.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, Chalice C; Kennedy, Bernice Roberts

    2013-01-01

    The transmission of HIV/AIDS among African American women through heterosexual sex is an epidemic. Critical themes extracted from the HIV/AIDS sexual assertiveness literature revealed that: (a) sexual assertiveness is related to HIV risk, (b) sexual assertiveness is related to communication, and (c) women with low sexual assertiveness are at risk for HIV. This descriptive study sought to answer the following research question: What do young adult college attending African American women self-report about asking information about their partner's sexual history? The multifaceted model of HIV risk is the theoretical framework which guided this descriptive study. A basic tenet of the multifaceted model of HIV risk is that there is no single predictor of women's HIV risk behavior. Results revealed that 104 young adult college attending African American women who volunteered to attend a one day HIV prevention training overall scored high on a Sexual Assertive Scale on subscales of Information Communication, Refusal, and Pregnancy/STD Prevention Subscale, and scored in the medium range on the Initiation Subscales. The Information Communication and Pregnancy/ STD Prevention Subscale received the highest scores. More research is needed targeting diverse African American females with different socioeconomic status, various locations, and educated to determine their sexual assertiveness with partners which are essential in developing specific programs for diverse groups of African American females. PMID:24279130

  15. Novel genetic risk factors for asthma in African American children: Precision Medicine and the SAGE II Study.

    PubMed

    White, Marquitta J; Risse-Adams, O; Goddard, P; Contreras, M G; Adams, J; Hu, D; Eng, C; Oh, S S; Davis, A; Meade, K; Brigino-Buenaventura, E; LeNoir, M A; Bibbins-Domingo, K; Pino-Yanes, M; Burchard, E G

    2016-07-01

    Asthma, an inflammatory disorder of the airways, is the most common chronic disease of children worldwide. There are significant racial/ethnic disparities in asthma prevalence, morbidity, and mortality among US children. This trend is mirrored in obesity, which may share genetic and environmental risk factors with asthma. The majority of asthma biomedical research has been performed in populations of European decent. We sought to identify genetic risk factors for asthma in African American children. We also assessed the generalizability of genetic variants associated with asthma in European and Asian populations to African American children. Our study population consisted of 1227 (812 asthma cases, 415 controls) African American children with genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) data. Logistic regression was used to identify associations between SNP genotype and asthma status. We identified a novel variant in the PTCHD3 gene that is significantly associated with asthma (rs660498, p = 2.2 × 10(-7)) independent of obesity status. Approximately 5 % of previously reported asthma genetic associations identified in European populations replicated in African Americans. Our identification of novel variants associated with asthma in African American children, coupled with our inability to replicate the majority of findings reported in European Americans, underscores the necessity for including diverse populations in biomedical studies of asthma. PMID:27142222

  16. Attenuated NOx responses and myocardial ischemia, a possible risk for structural vascular disease in African men: the SABPA study.

    PubMed

    Uys, A S; Malan, L; van Rooyen, J M; Steyn, H S; Reimann, M; Ziemssen, T

    2014-07-01

    Chronically elevated blood pressure has been associated with impaired NO-mediated vasodilation and structural vascular disease risk. This study aimed to determine whether significant associations exist regarding NO metabolite (NOx) responses, cardiovascular function and structural vascular disease in a cohort of African and Caucasian men. The study included 81 African and 94 Caucasian male teachers stratified via median splits into low and high NOx ethnic groups. Ambulatory blood pressure, electrocardiogram monitoring and ultrasound carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) images were obtained. Cardiovascular measurements and fasting blood for NOx responses were measured during rest and on challenging the cardiovascular system with the Stroop colour-word conflict test. African men displayed significantly higher resting NOx as well as higher number of 24 h silent ischemic events than their Caucasian counterparts. Low NOx African men displayed enhanced α-adrenergic and ECG ST segment depression acute mental stress responses as well as 24 h silent ischemic events associated with CIMT (adjusted R(2) = 0.47; β = 0.25; confidence interval (CI) = 0.13, 0.41). African men demonstrated a vulnerable cardiovascular profile. Novel findings revealed α-adrenergic-driven blood pressure responses and less NO bioavailability during acute stress. The association between myocardial ischemia and CIMT in this group emphasized their risk for future coronary artery disease and cerebrovascular events. PMID:24401953

  17. Evaluation of microsatellite markers for populations studies and forensic identification of African lions (Panthera leo).

    PubMed

    Miller, Susan M; Harper, Cindy K; Bloomer, Paulette; Hofmeyr, Jennifer; Funston, Paul J

    2014-01-01

    The South African lion (Panthera leo) population is highly fragmented. One-third of its wild lions occur in small (<1000 km(2)) reserves. These lions were reintroduced from other areas of the species' historical range. Management practices on these reserves have not prioritized genetic provenance or heterozygosity. These trends potentially constrain the conservation value of these lions. To ensure the best management and long-term survival of these subpopulations as a viable collective population, the provenance and current genetic diversity must be described. Concurrently, poaching of lions to supply a growing market for lion bones in Asia may become a serious conservation challenge in the future. Having a standardized, validated method for matching confiscated lion parts with carcasses will be a key tool in investigating these crimes. We evaluated 28 microsatellites in the African lion using samples from 18 small reserves and 1 captive facility in South Africa, two conservancies in Zimbabwe, and Kruger National and Kgalagadi Transfrontier Parks to determine the loci most suited for population management and forensic genetic applications. Twelve microsatellite loci with a match probability of 1.1×10(-5) between siblings were identified for forensics. A further 10 could be added for population genetics studies. PMID:25151647

  18. An approach to heroin use disorder intervention within the South African context: A content analysis study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The field of heroin use disorder intervention has been in transition in South Africa since the outbreak of the heroin epidemic. Yet despite growing evidence of an association between heroin users' use of supplementary intervention services and intervention outcomes, heroin use disorder intervention programmes in South Africa generally fail to meet international research-based intervention standards. Methods Semi-structured interviews with ten heroin use disorder specialists were conducted and the interviews were subjected to content analysis. Results and Discussion In terms of theory and practice, findings of the study suggest that the field of heroin use disorder intervention in South Africa remains fragmented and transitional. Specifically, limited strategic public health care polices that address the syndromes' complexities have been implemented within the South Africa context. Conclusions Although many interventions and procedures have begun to be integrated routinely into heroin use disorder clinical practice within the South African context, comorbidity factors, such as psychiatric illness and HIV/AIDS, need to be more cogently addressed. Pragmatic and evidence-based public health care policies designed to reduce the harmful consequences associated with heroin use still needs to be implemented in the South African context. PMID:20569481

  19. The Bibliographical Center for Research, Rocky Mountain Regions, Inc.: A Cost Study of the Center's Present Operations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maier, Joan M.; And Others

    This cost study analyzes the operating costs of the Bibliographical Center so that the Center can adopt the best possible combination of procedures with which to achieve its service objectives at the lowest possible cost to its members. This study provides data, upon which a fee schedule can be based, that is derived from the form of the input and…

  20. Facilitators and barriers to adherence to urate-lowering therapy in African-Americans with gout: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Limited literature exists for qualitative studies of medication adherence in gout, especially in African-Americans. The aim of this study was to examine the facilitators and barriers to adherence to urate-lowering therapy (ULT) in African-Americans with gout. Methods In this study, nine nominal groups lasting 1 to 1.5 hours each were conducted in African-Americans with gout, six with low ULT and three with high ULT adherence (medication possession ratios of <0.80 or ≥0.80, respectively). Patients presented, discussed, combined and rank ordered their concerns. A qualitative analysis was performed. Results This study included 43 patients with mean age 63.9 years (standard deviation, 9.9), 67% men, who participated in nine nominal groups (seven in men, two in women): African-American men (n = 30); African-American women (n = 13). The main facilitators to ULT adherence (three groups) were the recognition of the need to take ULT regularly to prevent gout flares, prevent pain from becoming chronic/severe and to have less dietary restriction; the lack of side effects from ULT; trust in physicians; and avoiding the need to seek emergent/urgent care for flares. Patients achieved high ULT adherence by organizing their pills using the pillbox and the incorporation of ULT intake into their routine to prevent forgetting. The main barriers to optimal ULT adherence were (six groups): doubts about effectiveness of ULT, concerns about cost and side effects, concomitant medications, forgetfulness, refilling the prescriptions on time, pill size and difficulty in swallowing, competing priorities, patient preference for alternative medicines (that is, cherry juice) and frequent travel. Conclusions Identification of facilitators and barriers to high ULT adherence in African-Americans with gout in this study lays the foundation for designing interventions to improve ULT adherence in racial minorities. PMID:24678765

  1. A study of HIV positive undocumented African migrants' access to health services in the UK.

    PubMed

    Whyte, James; Whyte, Maria D; Hires, Kimberly

    2015-01-01

    Newly immigrated persons, whatever their origin, tend to fall in the lower socioeconomic levels. In fact, failure of an asylum application renders one destitute in a large proportion of cases, often resulting in a profound lack of access to basic necessities. With over a third of HIV positive failed asylum seekers reporting no income, and the remainder reporting highly limited resources, poverty is a reality for the vast majority. The purpose of the study was to determine the basic social processes that guide HIV positive undocumented migrant's efforts to gain health services in the UK. The study used the Grounded Theory Approach. Theoretical saturation occurred after 16 participants were included in the study. The data included reflections of the prominent factors related to the establishment of a safe and productive life and the ability of individuals to remain within the UK. The data reflected heavily upon the ability of migrants to enter the medical care system during their asylum period, and on an emerging pattern of service denial after loss on immigration appeal. The findings of this study are notable in that they have demonstrated sequence of events along a timeline related to the interaction between the asylum process and access to health-related services. The results reflect that African migrants maintain a degree of formal access to health services during the period that they possess legal access to services and informal access after the failure of their asylum claim. The purpose of this paper is to examine the basic social processes that characterize efforts to gain access to health services among HIV positive undocumented African migrants to the UK. The most recent estimates indicate that there are a total of 618,000 migrants who lack legal status within the UK. Other studies have placed the number of undocumented migrants within the UK in the range of 525,000-950,000. More than 442,000 are thought to dwell in the London metropolitan area. Even in

  2. CENTER FOR PULSED POWER DRIVEN HIGH ENERGY DENSITY PLASMA STUDIES

    SciTech Connect

    Professor Bruce R. Kusse; Professor David A. Hammer

    2007-04-18

    This annual report summarizes the activities of the Cornell Center for Pulsed-Power-Driven High-Energy-Density Plasma Studies, for the 12-month period October 1, 2005-September 30, 2006. This period corresponds to the first year of the two-year extension (awarded in October, 2005) to the original 3-year NNSA/DOE Cooperative Agreement with Cornell, DE-FC03-02NA00057. As such, the period covered in this report also corresponds to the fourth year of the (now) 5-year term of the Cooperative Agreement. The participants, in addition to Cornell University, include Imperial College, London (IC), the University of Nevada, Reno (UNR), the University of Rochester (UR), the Weizmann Institute of Science (WSI), and the P.N. Lebedev Physical Institute (LPI), Moscow. A listing of all faculty, technical staff and students, both graduate and undergraduate, who participated in Center research activities during the year in question is given in Appendix A.

  3. Mathematics: Self-Efficacy, Identity, and Achievement among African American Males from the High School Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Briggs, Calvin

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if a relationship existed between mathematics self-efficacy and mathematics identity to mathematics achievement among African American males from High School Longitudinal Study of 2009 (HSLS:09). Subsequently, the extent to which mathematics self-efficacy and mathematics identity accounted for low and…

  4. Factors That Contribute to the Completion of Programs of Study at Arkansas Institutions of Higher Education for African American Males

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petty, Barrett Wade McCoy

    2015-01-01

    The study examined factors that predicted the completion of programs of study at Arkansas institutions of higher education for African American males. Astin's (1993a) Input-Environment-Output (I-E-O) Model was used as the theoretical foundation. Descriptive analyses and hierarchical logistic regression analyses were performed on the data. The…

  5. Identifying Effective Pedagogical Approaches for Online Workplace Training: A Case Study of the South African Wood Products Manufacturing Sector

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macdonald, Ian S.; Bullen, Mark; Kozak, R. A.

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated appropriate pedagogical techniques for workplace e-learning programs in the South African wood products (furniture) manufacturing sector. The study found that learners responded favourably to constructivist teaching approaches, such as asynchronous discussions, open-ended task-based activities, and assignments incorporating…

  6. Marriage and Health in the Transition to Adulthood: Evidence for African Americans in the Add Health Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Kathleen Mullan; Lee, Hedwig; DeLeone, Felicia Yang

    2010-01-01

    This article explores the relationships among early marriage (before age 26 years), cohabitation, and health for African Americans and Whites during the transition to adulthood using the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health). The study examines three categories of health outcomes relevant to young adulthood: physical…

  7. Collective Memory: The African Presence in Latin America. A Study Guide on the Maroon Community of Esmeraldas, Ecuador.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belkin, Allen; And Others

    In this brief study guide, the focus is on the "maroons," those Africans who bravely threw off the chains of slavery and established independent communities within colonial Latin America. The specific study is of the history and culture of Esmeraldas, a province in northwestern Ecuador and home to one of the most interesting maroon communities,…

  8. Recruitment and Retention Strategies among Older African American Women Enrolled in an Exercise Study at a PACE Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan-Marx, Eileen M.; Mangione, Kathleen K.; Ackerson, Theimann; Sidorov, Ingrid; Maislin, Greg; Volpe, Stella L.; Craik, Rebecca

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined employment of specific recruitment and retention strategies in a study evaluating outcomes of a moderate activity exercise program for older African American women with functional impairments attending a Program for All-Inclusive Care of Elders (PACE). Design and Methods: Recruitment and retention strategies focused on…

  9. The Contribution of HBCUS to the Preparation of African American Women for STEM Careers: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perna, Laura; Lundy-Wagner, Valerie; Drezner, Noah D.; Gasman, Marybeth; Yoon, Susan; Bose, Enakshi; Gary, Shannon

    2009-01-01

    This study uses case study analysis to explore the ways that Spelman College, a historically Black women's college, promotes the attainment of African American women in STEM fields. Although limited to one institution, the findings shed light on the ways that institutional characteristics, policies, and practices may mitigate the barriers that…

  10. "I Worry about My Community": African American Women Utilizing Communal Notions of Citizenship in the Social Studies Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vickery, Amanda E.

    2016-01-01

    This qualitative multiple case study utilizes a Black feminist ethic of caring (Collins, 2009; Thompson, 1998) to explore how three African American women social studies teachers draw on their personal and community knowledge to conceptualize and teach the construct of citizenship to their students of color. Instead of conveying traditional…

  11. Intergenerational Transmission of Chronic Illness Self-Care: Results from the Caring for Hypertension in African American Families Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warren-Findlow, Jan; Seymour, Rachel B.; Shenk, Dena

    2011-01-01

    Purpose of the study: African Americans often experience early onset of hypertension that can result in generations of adults managing high blood pressure concurrently. Using a model based on the Theory of Interdependence, this study examined whether intergenerational transmission of hypertension knowledge and self-efficacy would affect…

  12. Texas Public School Counselors' Perceptions of Family Strengths in African American Hurricane Katrina Evacuee Children and Adolescents: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Patricia Marie

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to determine Texas Public School counselors' perceptions of family strengths in Hurricane Katrina African American evacuee children and adolescents and in their families. An additional purpose of this study was to determine how these counselors may have called upon these perceived strengths to intervene in…

  13. Longitudinal Study of Perceived Negative Impact in African American and Caucasian Mothers of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carr, Themba; Lord, Catherine

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the stability of mothers' perceptions of the negative impact of having a child with ASD in a sample of African American and Caucasian families as their children transitioned to early adolescence. Participants were mothers and children participating in an ongoing longitudinal study of children referred…

  14. Healthcare reconsidered: forging community wellness among African Americans in the south.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Jennifer

    2007-01-01

    This article details the history of Slossfield Hospital, an African American hospital and community center founded in Birmingham, Alabama, in 1937. During its New Deal-era existence it provided African American physicians institutional support for their medical practices. Additionally, as a community center, it addressed the socioeconomics of good health. This paper uses Slossfield as a case study to explore how some African Americans included the socioeconomic in their definition of public health during the New Deal, as well as to understand how these ideas were subsumed by more mainstream ideas about public health promulgated by black and white physicians and the local and federal governments. PMID:17873453

  15. Methods for Identifying Neisseria meningitidis Carriers: A Multi-Center Study in the African Meningitis Belt

    PubMed Central

    Basta, Nicole E.; Stuart, James M.; Nascimento, Maria C.; Manigart, Olivier; Trotter, Caroline; Hassan-King, Musa; Chandramohan, Daniel; Sow, Samba O.; Berthe, Abdoulaye; Bedru, Ahmed; Tekletsion, Yenenesh K.; Collard, Jean-Marc; Jusot, Jean-François; Diallo, Aldiouma; Basséne, Hubert; Daugla, Doumagoum M.; Gamougam, Khadidja; Hodgson, Abraham; Forgor, Abudulai A.; Omotara, Babatunji A.; Gadzama, Galadima B.; Watkins, Eleanor R.; Rebbetts, Lisa S.; Diallo, Kanny; Weiss, Noel S.; Halloran, M. Elizabeth; Maiden, Martin C. J.; Greenwood, Brian

    2013-01-01

    Objective Detection of meningococcal carriers is key to understanding the epidemiology of Neisseria meningitidis, yet no gold standard has been established. Here, we directly compare two methods for collecting pharyngeal swabs to identify meningococcal carriers. Methods We conducted cross-sectional surveys of schoolchildren at multiple sites in Africa to compare swabbing the posterior pharynx behind the uvula (U) to swabbing the posterior pharynx behind the uvula plus one tonsil (T). Swabs were cultured immediately and analyzed using molecular methods. Results One thousand and six paired swab samples collected from schoolchildren in four countries were analyzed. Prevalence of meningococcal carriage was 6.9% (95% CI: 5.4-8.6%) based on the results from both swabs, but the observed prevalence was lower based on one swab type alone. Prevalence based on the T swab or the U swab alone was similar (5.2% (95% CI: 3.8-6.7%) versus 4.9% (95% CI: 3.6-6.4%) respectively (p=0.6)). The concordance between the two methods was 96.3% and the kappa was 0.61 (95% CI: 0.50-0.73), indicating good agreement. Conclusions These two commonly used methods for collecting pharyngeal swabs provide consistent estimates of the prevalence of carriage, but both methods misclassified carriers to some degree, leading to underestimates of the prevalence. PMID:24194921

  16. Fine mapping of breast cancer genome-wide association studies loci in women of African ancestry identifies novel susceptibility markers.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Yonglan; Ogundiran, Temidayo O; Falusi, Adeyinka G; Nathanson, Katherine L; John, Esther M; Hennis, Anselm J M; Ambs, Stefan; Domchek, Susan M; Rebbeck, Timothy R; Simon, Michael S; Nemesure, Barbara; Wu, Suh-Yuh; Leske, Maria Cristina; Odetunde, Abayomi; Niu, Qun; Zhang, Jing; Afolabi, Chibuzor; Gamazon, Eric R; Cox, Nancy J; Olopade, Christopher O; Olopade, Olufunmilayo I; Huo, Dezheng

    2013-07-01

    Numerous single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with breast cancer susceptibility have been identified by genome-wide association studies (GWAS). However, these SNPs were primarily discovered and validated in women of European and Asian ancestry. Because linkage disequilibrium is ancestry-dependent and heterogeneous among racial/ethnic populations, we evaluated common genetic variants at 22 GWAS-identified breast cancer susceptibility loci in a pooled sample of 1502 breast cancer cases and 1378 controls of African ancestry. None of the 22 GWAS index SNPs could be validated, challenging the direct generalizability of breast cancer risk variants identified in Caucasians or Asians to other populations. Novel breast cancer risk variants for women of African ancestry were identified in regions including 5p12 (odds ratio [OR] = 1.40, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.11-1.76; P = 0.004), 5q11.2 (OR = 1.22, 95% CI = 1.09-1.36; P = 0.00053) and 10p15.1 (OR = 1.22, 95% CI = 1.08-1.38; P = 0.0015). We also found positive association signals in three regions (6q25.1, 10q26.13 and 16q12.1-q12.2) previously confirmed by fine mapping in women of African ancestry. In addition, polygenic model indicated that eight best markers in this study, compared with 22 GWAS-identified SNPs, could better predict breast cancer risk in women of African ancestry (per-allele OR = 1.21, 95% CI = 1.16-1.27; P = 9.7 × 10(-16)). Our results demonstrate that fine mapping is a powerful approach to better characterize the breast cancer risk alleles in diverse populations. Future studies and new GWAS in women of African ancestry hold promise to discover additional variants for breast cancer susceptibility with clinical implications throughout the African diaspora. PMID:23475944

  17. Diabetes, gender, and left ventricular structure in African-Americans: the atherosclerosis risk in communities study

    PubMed Central

    Foppa, Murilo; Duncan, Bruce B; Arnett, Donna K; Benjamin, Emelia J; Liebson, Philip R; Manolio, Teri A; Skelton, Thomas N

    2006-01-01

    Background Cardiovascular risk associated with diabetes may be partially attributed to left ventricular structural abnormalities. However, the relations between left ventricular structure and diabetes have not been extensively studied in African-Americans. Methods We studied 514 male and 965 female African-Americans 51 to 70 years old, in whom echocardiographic left ventricular mass measurements were collected for the ARIC Study. In these, we investigated the independent association of diabetes with left ventricular structural abnormalities. Results Diabetes, hypertension and obesity prevalences were 22%, 57% and 45%, respectively. Unindexed left ventricular mass was higher with diabetes in both men (238.3 ± 79.4 g vs. 213.7 ± 58.6 g; p < 0.001) and women (206.4 ± 61.5 g vs. 176.9 ± 50.1 g; p < 0.001), respectively. Prevalence of height-indexed left ventricular hypertrophy was higher in women while increased relative wall thickness was similar in men and women. Those with diabetes had higher prevalences of height-indexed left ventricular hypertrophy (52% vs. 32%; p < 0.001), and of increased relative wall thickness (73% vs. 64%; p = 0.002). Gender-adjusted associations of diabetes with left ventricular hypertrophy (OR = 2.29 95%CI:1.79–2.94) were attenuated after multiple adjustments in logistic regression (OR = 1.50 95%CI:1.12–2.00). Diabetes was associated with higher left ventricle diameter (OR = 2.13 95%CI:1.28–3.53) only in men and with higher wall thickness (OR = 1.89 95%CI:1.34–2.66) only in women. Attenuations in diabetes associations were frequently seen after adjustment for obesity indices. Conclusion In African-Americans, diabetes is associated with left ventricular hypertrophy and, with different patterns of left ventricular structural abnormalities between genders. Attenuation seen in adjusted associations suggests that the higher frequency of structural abnormalities seen in diabetes may be due to factors other than hyperglycemia. PMID

  18. Mathematical modeling approaches in the study of glaucoma disparities among people of African and European descents

    PubMed Central

    Guidoboni, Giovanna; Harris, Alon; Arciero, Julia C.; Siesky, Brent A.; Amireskandari, Annahita; Gerber, Austin L.; Huck, Andrew H.; Kim, Nathaniel J.; Cassani, Simone; Carichino, Lucia

    2014-01-01

    Open angle glaucoma (OAG) is a severe ocular disease characterized by progressive and irreversible vision loss. While elevated intraocular pressure (IOP) is a well-established risk factor for OAG, the progression of OAG in many cases, despite IOP treatment, suggests that other risk factors must play significant roles in the development of the disease. For example, various structural properties of the eye, ocular blood flow properties, and systemic conditions have been identified as risk factors for OAG. Ethnicity has also been indicated as a relevant factor that affects the incidence and prevalence of OAG; in fact, OAG is the leading cause of blindness among people of African descent. Numerous clinical studies have been designed to examine the possible correlation and causation between OAG and these factors; however, these studies are met with the challenge of isolating the individual role of multiple interconnected factors. Over the last decade, various mathematical modeling approaches have been implemented in combination with clinical studies in order to provide a mechanical and hemodynamical description of the eye in relation to the entire human body and to assess the contribution of single risk factors to the development of OAG. This review provides a summary of the clinical evidence of ocular structural differences, ocular vascular differences and systemic vascular differences among people of African and European descent, describes the mathematical approaches that have been proposed to study ocular mechanics and hemodynamics while discussing how they could be used to investigate the relevance to OAG of racial disparities, and outlines possible new directions of research. PMID:24501718

  19. Trichomonas vaginalis, HIV, and African-Americans.

    PubMed Central

    Sorvillo, F.; Smith, L.; Kerndt, P.; Ash, L.

    2001-01-01

    Trichomonas vaginalis may be emerging as one of the most important cofactors in amplifying HIV transmission, particularly in African-American communities of the United States. In a person co-infected with HIV, the pathology induced by T. vaginalis infection can increase HIV shedding. Trichomonas infection may also act to expand the portal of entry for HIV in an HIV-negative person. Studies from Africa have suggested that T. vaginalis infection may increase the rate of HIV transmission by approximately twofold. Available data indicate that T. vaginalis is highly prevalent among African-Americans in major urban centers of the United States and is often the most common sexually transmitted infection in black women. Even if T. vaginalis increases the risk of HIV transmission by a small amount, this could translate into an important amplifying effect since Trichomonas is so common. Substantial HIV transmission may be attributable to T. vaginalis in African-American communities of the United States. PMID:11747718

  20. Vegetation studies, National Training Center, Fort Irwin, California

    SciTech Connect

    Brandt, C.A.; Rickard, W.H.; Cadoret, N.A.

    1997-09-01

    During the spring of 1992, the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) conducted surveys of the Avawatz and Granite mountains springs for the National Training Center (NTC) to evaluate the occurrence of sensitive plant species in these areas. PNNL also conducted a survey of the eastern outwash of the Paradise Range for the occurrence of Lane Mountain milk vetch (Astragalus jaegerianus). In spring of 1993, PNNL conducted an additional study of Lane Mountain milk vetch on the NTC to determine habitat characteristics for this plant and to develop a method for predicting its potential occurrence, based on simple habitat attributes. The results of these studies are itemized.

  1. Factors that Promote and Inhibit the Academic Achievement of Rural Elementary African American Males in a Mississippi School: A Qualitative Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson-Jones, Linda

    This study investigated factors that promote and inhibit the academic success of elementary African American males in grades 3 through 6 in a rural school in Mississippi. The qualitative study analyzed interview data gathered in 6 face-to-face interviews with 16 African American males over a 3-month period in the 2002-2003 academic year. All…

  2. Contributing Factors That Affect the Achievement of African-American Females Taught by Caucasian Teachers on the Arkansas Literacy Exam: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Felicia R.

    2013-01-01

    This qualitative intrinsic case study was designed to assist Caucasian educators with the researched academic skills and behaviors to engage African-American females in the learning environment. The study provided strategies and recommendations to promote self-worth, self-motivation, self-efficacy, and morale in African-American females when they…

  3. A Case Study: How Do Social and Academic Experiences of African American Nontraditional Female Students on HBCU Campuses Influence Their Motivation to Graduate?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson-Golden, Cheryl D.

    2013-01-01

    Through a qualitative collective case study research design, the study captured the social and academic experiences of 13 African American nontraditional undergraduate female students enrolled in a historically Black college campus (HBCU) located in the southern United States. Experiences of 13 African American nontraditional undergraduate female…

  4. A Qualitative Study Examining the Best Practices of Effective Teachers of African American Elementary School Students in a Midwestern Urban District

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crawford, Angelina

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is twofold. First, this research seeks to illuminate best practices of teachers who advance learning and achievement of African American students. Second, this study seeks to provide educators and administrators strategies they might utilize to increase the achievement of their African-American students in order to…

  5. Lessons in Success: A Multi-Campus Study of Factors Influencing Academic Accomplishment among High-Achieving African American Students at Private Liberal Arts Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Ryan A.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the academic experiences of highly successful African-American male graduates of small, private liberal arts colleges using a qualitative approach. Fourteen highly successful alumni from selective, private colleges were purposefully selected for the study, including seven African-American males and seven…

  6. Feasibility Study of Engaging Barbershops for Prostate Cancer Education in Rural African-American Communities.

    PubMed

    Luque, John S; Roy, Siddhartha; Tarasenko, Yelena N; Ross, Levi; Johnson, Jarrett; Gwede, Clement K

    2015-12-01

    The barbershop is a promising setting where African-American men might receive information and education about prostate cancer. In this study, we assessed the feasibility of engaging rural barbershops as venues for barbers to deliver a prostate cancer education intervention to increase informed decision-making for prostate cancer screening among customers. Twelve barbershops were recruited from two separate micropolitan areas in Georgia as intervention and control sites. Structured interviews were conducted with 11 barbers in both sites about customer characteristics as well as their willingness to participate in the study. The interviews were audio recorded and transcribed for analysis. In the intervention site, six barbers completed a survey and a pre-/posttest prostate cancer knowledge instrument following training classes. Barbers reported a wide average range of customers served per week (50 to 300). African-American men made up an average of 87% of customers. Barbers thought prostate cancer was an important discussion topic, felt they would be comfortable discussing it, and supported the participation of their barbershop in the study. For intervention group barbers, there was a statistically significant difference between the average pretest knowledge score of 72% (mean 12.2, SD=3.2) and the posttest knowledge score of 89% (mean 15.2, SD=1.1) (P=0.03) on the 17-item prostate cancer knowledge instrument. Based on the multiple interactions with the barbers, there was high receptivity to the topic and consensus about the importance of addressing prostate cancer with their customers. Rural barbershops represent feasible venues for delivering a prostate cancer education intervention. PMID:25288347

  7. Developing Long-Term Physical Activity Participation: A Grounded Theory Study with African American Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harley, Amy E.; Buckworth, Janet; Katz, Mira L.; Willis, Sharla K.; Odoms-Young, Angela; Heaney, Catherine A.

    2009-01-01

    Regular physical activity is linked to a reduced risk of obesity and chronic disease. African American women bear a disproportionate burden from these conditions and many do not get the recommended amount of physical activity. Long-term success of interventions to initiate and maintain a physically active lifestyle among African American women has…

  8. Aldosterone, Renin, and Diabetes Mellitus in African Americans: The Jackson Heart Study.

    PubMed

    Joseph, Joshua J; Echouffo-Tcheugui, Justin B; Kalyani, Rita R; Yeh, Hsin-Chieh; Bertoni, Alain G; Effoe, Valery S; Casanova, Ramon; Sims, Mario; Correa, Adolfo; Wu, Wen-Chih; Wand, Gary S; Golden, Sherita H

    2016-04-01

    We examined the association of both aldosterone and renin, with insulin resistance, β-cell function, and incident diabetes in a large African American cohort. Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system with higher levels of aldosterone and renin is associated with insulin resistance, compensatory increased β-cell function and incident diabetes in African Americans. PMID:26908112

  9. "Together, We Are Strong": A Qualitative Study of Happy, Enduring African American Marriages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marks, Loren D.; Hopkins, Katrina; Chaney, Cassandra; Monroe, Pamela A.; Nesteruk, Olena; Sasser, Diane D.

    2008-01-01

    Thirty African American married couples (N = 60 individuals) were interviewed regarding the challenges and benefits of their happy, enduring marriages. Qualitative coding and analysis revealed 4 key themes: (1) Challenges in African American Marriages, (2) Overcoming External Challenges to Marriage, (3) Resolving Intramarital Conflict, and (4)…

  10. Trio Student Support Services: A Comparative Study of African American Students at Three Texas Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, Hattie Marie

    2013-01-01

    Although access to postsecondary education for ethnic minorities has increased since desegregation in 1954, the college completion rates for these groups have not, particularly for African Americans. For this reason, it is important to continue to examine strategies that contribute to increases in completion rates for African Americans. The…

  11. Overcoming Workplace Barriers: A Focus Group Study Exploring African American Mothers' Needs for Workplace Breastfeeding Support

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Angela Marie; Kirk, Rosalind; Muzik, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Background Persistent racial disparities in breastfeeding show that African American women breastfeed at the lowest rates. Return to work is a critical breastfeeding barrier for African American women who return to work sooner than other ethnic groups and more often encounter unsupportive work environments. They also face psychosocial burdens that make breastfeeding at work uniquely challenging. Participants share personal struggles with combining paid employment and breastfeeding and suggest workplace and personal support strategies that they believe will help continue breastfeeding after a return to work. Objective To explore current perspectives on ways to support African American mothers' workplace breastfeeding behavior. Methods Pregnant African American women (n = 8), African American mothers of infants (n = 21), and lactation support providers (n = 9) participated in 1 of 6 focus groups in the Greater Detroit area. Each focus group audiotape was transcribed verbatim. Thematic analysis was used to inductively analyze focus group transcripts and field notes. Focus groups explored thoughts, perceptions, and behavior on interventions to support African American women's breastfeeding. Results Participants indicate that they generally believed breastfeeding was a healthy option for the baby; however, paid employment is a critical barrier to successful breastfeeding for which mothers receive little help. Participants felt breastfeeding interventions that support working African American mothers should include education and training for health care professionals, regulation and enforcement of workplace breastfeeding support policies, and support from peers who act as breastfeeding role models. Conclusion Culturally appropriate interventions are needed to support breastfeeding among working African American women. PMID:25714345

  12. A Critical Hermeneutic Study: Third Grade Elementary African American Students' Views of the Nature of Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walls, Leon

    2009-01-01

    Nature of Science is one of the most fundamental aspects of understanding science. How different cultures, races and ethnicities see and interpret science differently is critical. However, the NOS views specific to African American teachers and learners have gone largely unresearched. The views of a purposeful sample of African American third…

  13. Digital History: Using the Internet to Enhance African American Studies in the Secondary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scheuerell, Scott; Jaeger, Matt

    2015-01-01

    The authors discuss how high school students participated in a unit in which they learned about African American history in a 1:1 computer classroom--in particular, how they were able to use digital history to learn about a variety of African American leaders who are not frequently covered in the traditional American History textbook. In addition,…

  14. Cardiac Assessment Risk Evaluation (Care Study) of African American College Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Sandra C.; Geiselman, Paula J.; Copeland, Amy L.; Gordon, Carol; Dudley, Mary; Manogin, Toni; Backstedt, Carol; Pourciau, Cathi; Ghebretatios, Ghenet

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To identify physiological and psychosocial variables of young African American women that may serve as a risk factor for heart disease and to assess their health promotion programme preferences. Method: A descriptive design was used to assess the cardiovascular risk factors of 100 African American women ages 18 to 40 years, enrolled in…

  15. The Significance of the African Historical Contribution and Foreign Language Study in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Shirley

    1991-01-01

    Discusses the benefits of incorporating African-Caribbean contributions to U.S. history and culture at the level of higher education, such as promoting global interconnectedness, correcting misinformation about African Americans, recognizing and profiting from knowledge acquired by ancient civilizations, and strengthening economic competitiveness.…

  16. Portraits by African-American Male University Students: A Retrospective Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fissori, Lauren

    2010-01-01

    African-American male students are systematically forced to confine themselves to the social construct that European-American society has developed for them. Actions, behaviors, and words that communicate this message spread both interracially and intraracially within schools and affect African-American males tremendously in terms of their…

  17. African American Students' Graphic Understanding of the Derivative: Critical Case Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stringer, Eddy W., III.

    2011-01-01

    Data suggests that a significant loss of African American students from STEM majors occur between their freshmen and sophomore year. This attrition corresponds to the time period when students encounter the calculus sequence. For this reason, calculus persists as a serious barrier preventing African American students from entering STEM fields.…

  18. Studying a population undergoing nutrition transition: a practical case study of dietary assessment in urban South African adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Zingoni, Chiedza; Norris, Shane A.; Griffiths, Paula L.; Cameron, Noël

    2010-01-01

    The South African Medical Research Council food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) and protocol was used to determine food intake in 83 adolescents from the Birth To Twenty study. The FFQ was piloted on a small group (n=8). Specific problems which resulted in overestimation of energy intake were identified. The protocol was modified and administered to the remainder of the adolescents and their caregivers. Reasonable energy intakes were obtained, and time spent completing the FFQ was reduced. The modified protocol was more successful in determining habitual food intake although it would benefit from validation against other dietary intake techniques. PMID:20852725

  19. Problematic situations associated with dating experiences and relationships among urban African American adolescents: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Terri N; Erwin, Elizabeth H; Helms, Sarah W; Masho, Saba W; Farrell, Albert D

    2010-12-01

    This qualitative study focused on the identification of problem situations associated with adolescent dating experiences and relationships, including those that placed youth at risk for dating violence perpetration or victimization. Interviews were conducted with 44 African American middle and high school students in an urban school system. Qualitative analysis identified 18 individual themes representing six categories of problem situations: (a) approach and initiation; (b) conflict, conflict resolution, and break-ups; (c) communication, connection, and emotion; (d) aggression and victimization; (e) the role of others; and (f) media and technology. Identification of these problem situation themes has important implications for developing and evaluating prevention efforts designed to foster healthy adolescent dating relationships. PMID:20931286

  20. Urban African American Parents’ Messages about Violence: A Mixed Methods Study

    PubMed Central

    Lindstrom Johnson, Sarah; Finigan, Nadine; Bradshaw, Catherine; Haynie, Denise; Cheng, Tina L.

    2015-01-01

    Family socialization, which includes parental control and support, plays an important role in reducing the likelihood of adolescent involvement in conflict. This study examined the strategies that urban parents living in neighborhoods with high crime rates suggest to help their adolescent children avoid or deescalate conflict. Data come from 48 African American parent/adolescent dyads recruited through the youths’ middle school. Dyads responded to three video-taped scenarios depicting youth in potential conflict situations. Qualitative methods were used to identify 11 strategies parents suggested to help youth avoid or deescalate conflict. Although the majority of parents advocated for non-violent solutions, these same parents described situations in which their child may need to use violence. These findings have important implications for family-focused violence prevention programs. PMID:26726283

  1. Stimulating cancer screening among Latinas and African-American women. A community case study.

    PubMed

    Yancey, A K; Walden, L

    1994-01-01

    Recent studies have attributed underutilization of early cancer detection programs among the disadvantaged to knowledge deficits and myths, lack of belief in cancer susceptibility (denial), and such attitudinal barriers as fear and embarrassment. Video modalities have been demonstrated to be effective in increasing knowledge and promoting health-protective behavior in low-income people of color. Waiting rooms of public health clinic facilities in large urban areas provide a captive audience of predominantly African Americans and Latinos with a preference for obtaining health information from audiovisual media. The development of a culturally sensitive, cost-effective documentary format is described. An experience of rapid acceleration in demand for Pap smears in an underserved Latino community of East Los Angeles following the showing of one of these videos is chronicled as a spontaneous and informal evaluation of this approach to health education/promotion video production. PMID:8204458

  2. Exploring Artistic Practice in Global Communities of the African Diaspora

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Auburn E.

    2014-01-01

    In 2012 an African Centered single case study was conducted in the United States. The problem is as follows: K-12 practitioners in urban areas are faced with unique circumstances while serving marginalized students in urban areas. As a response to this issue, the purpose of this study was to identify and describe curricula used in three African…

  3. AfricaArray seismological studies of the structure and evolution of the African continent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durrheim, Raymond; Nyblade, Andrew; Brandt, Martin; Tugume, Fred; Mulibo, Gabriel; Kgaswane, Eldridge; Mangongolo, Azangi; Manzi, Musa; El Tahir, Nada; Loots, Letticia

    2014-05-01

    The AfricaArray programme was launched in 2005 to conduct research that promotes development in Africa by building human and infrastructural capacity in support of the mineral exploration, mining, geohazard and environmental sectors. The AfricaArray "backbone" network now consists of 51 geophysical observatories in 20 sub-Saharan countries. Most stations are equipped with broadband seismometers, while 25 stations have continuous GPS sensors and 22 stations have meteorological packs. In addition, several temporary seismic arrays have been deployed to investigate the seismotectonics of the East African Rift System, the extent of the Congo craton, and the rifting of Mozambique and Madagascar. In this paper we will present results pertinent to large-scale crustal and mantle geodynamic processes that have been obtained by AfricaArray researchers. Brandt and Mulibo elucidated the relationship between the African Superplume, Superswell and the East African Rift System by studying the seismic velocity structure of the mantle. Kgaswane jointly inverted P-wave receiver functions (PRFs) and surface waves, and found that the Kalahari Craton lower crust is largely mafic, except for a few terrains such as the Kimberley. Kgaswane also produced evidence that supports a link between the eastern and western lobes of the Bushveld Complex. Mangongolo used surface wave tomography to define the south-western boundary of the Congo Craton. El Tahir used PRFs to investigate the crustal structure of the Khartoum Basin, while Tugume determined the Moho depths and Poisson's ratios of the Precambrian crust in East Africa. Manzi reprocessed 3D reflection seismic data covering part of the Witwatersrand goldfields using seismic attribute analysis methods, and has provided new constraints on the evolution of the Basin during the Neoarchean. Loots interpreted a 105 km 2D seismic reflection profile immediately to the north of the Cape Fold Belt, imaging the Karoo and Cape Supergroup rocks and the

  4. Masked hypertension and its associated cardiovascular risk in young individuals: the African-PREDICT study.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Jane E S; Smith, Wayne; Ware, Lisa J; M C Mels, Carina; van Rooyen, Johannes M; Huisman, Hugo W; Malan, Leone; Malan, Nico T; Lammertyn, Leandi; Schutte, Aletta E

    2016-03-01

    Hypertension prevalence is increasing globally, yet little is known about the occurrence of masked hypertension (MHT) in young, sub-Saharan African adults, and how it relates to elevated cardiovascular risk. The African-PREDICT study (recruitment based on normotensive clinic blood pressure (BP)) determined the frequency of MHT and its relationship with arterial stiffness and biochemical markers of inflammation and endothelial activation. We included men and women (n=352), 20-30 years, screened for normotensive clinic BP (54% white, 40% men). Clinic BP, ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM), central systolic pressure, aortic pulse wave velocity (aPWV), augmentation index, anthropometry, physical activity and biochemical markers of cardiovascular risk were assessed (lipids, glucose, insulin, markers of endothelial activation and inflammation). Eighteen percent of the study population had MHT (60% white, 68% men). Those with MHT had increased adiposity, clinic-, ABPM- (24-h, day and night) and central-BP (within normal ranges), heart rate, aPWV and biochemical markers of cardiovascular risk, compared with normotensives (all P<0.05). Using multivariable adjusted odds ratios, we found that MHT was associated with increased likelihood for higher aPWV (odds ratio (OR)=1.567, P=0.010), insulin (OR=1.499, P=0.049), monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (OR=1.499, P=0.026), vascular cellular adhesion molecule (OR=1.409, P=0.042) and C-reactive protein (OR=1.440, P=0.044). In a young adult (supposedly healthy) cohort, the occurrence of MHT is alarming, especially since MHT further demonstrated elevated cardiovascular risk via increased adiposity, arterial stiffness, endothelial activation and inflammation. Detection of MHT is crucial to increase awareness of elevated cardiovascular risk, and to ensure the required lifestyle and/or pharmaceutical interventions. PMID:26606873

  5. Genome-wide association study identifies novel loci association with fasting insulin and insulin resistance in African Americans.

    PubMed

    Chen, Guanjie; Bentley, Amy; Adeyemo, Adebowale; Shriner, Daniel; Zhou, Jie; Doumatey, Ayo; Huang, Hanxia; Ramos, Edward; Erdos, Michael; Gerry, Norman; Herbert, Alan; Christman, Michael; Rotimi, Charles

    2012-10-15

    Insulin resistance (IR) is a key determinant of type 2 diabetes (T2D) and other metabolic disorders. This genome-wide association study (GWAS) was designed to shed light on the genetic basis of fasting insulin (FI) and IR in 927 non-diabetic African Americans. 5 396 838 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were tested for associations with FI or IR with adjustments for age, sex, body mass index, hypertension status and first two principal components. Genotyped SNPs (n = 12) with P < 5 × 10(-6) in African Americans were carried forward for de novo genotyping in 570 non-diabetic West Africans. We replicated SNPs in or near SC4MOL and TCERG1L in West Africans. The meta-analysis of 1497 African Americans and West Africans yielded genome-wide significant associations for SNPs in the SC4MOL gene: rs17046216 (P = 1.7 × 10(-8) and 2.9 × 10(-8) for FI and IR, respectively); and near the TCERG1L gene with rs7077836 as the top scoring (P = 7.5 × 10(-9) and 4.9 × 10(-10) for FI and IR, respectively). In silico replication in the MAGIC study (n = 37 037) showed weak but significant association (adjusted P-value of 0.0097) for rs34602777 in the MYO5A gene. In addition, we replicated previous GWAS findings for IR and FI in Europeans for GCKR, and for variants in four T2D loci (FTO, IRS1, KLF14 and PPARG) which exert their action via IR. In summary, variants in/near SC4MOL, and TCERG1L were associated with FI and IR in this cohort of African Americans and were replicated in West Africans. SC4MOL is under-expressed in an animal model of T2D and plays a key role in lipid biosynthesis, with implications for the regulation of energy metabolism, obesity and dyslipidemia. TCERG1L is associated with plasma adiponectin, a key modulator of obesity, inflammation, IR and diabetes. PMID:22791750

  6. Genomic African and Native American Ancestry and Chagas Disease: The Bambui (Brazil) Epigen Cohort Study of Aging

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background The influence of genetic ancestry on Trypanosoma cruzi infection and Chagas disease outcomes is unknown. Methodology/Principal Findings We used 370,539 Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) to examine the association between individual proportions of African, European and Native American genomic ancestry with T. cruzi infection and related outcomes in 1,341 participants (aged ≥ 60 years) of the Bambui (Brazil) population-based cohort study of aging. Potential confounding variables included sociodemographic characteristics and an array of health measures. The prevalence of T. cruzi infection was 37.5% and 56.3% of those infected had a major ECG abnormality. Baseline T. cruzi infection was correlated with higher levels of African and Native American ancestry, which in turn were strongly associated with poor socioeconomic circumstances. Cardiomyopathy in infected persons was not significantly associated with African or Native American ancestry levels. Infected persons with a major ECG abnormality were at increased risk of 15-year mortality relative to their counterparts with no such abnormalities (adjusted hazard ratio = 1.80; 95% 1.41, 2.32). African and Native American ancestry levels had no significant effect modifying this association. Conclusions/Significance Our findings indicate that African and Native American ancestry have no influence on the presence of major ECG abnormalities and had no influence on the ability of an ECG abnormality to predict mortality in older people infected with T. cruzi. In contrast, our results revealed a strong and independent association between prevalent T. cruzi infection and higher levels of African and Native American ancestry. Whether this association is a consequence of genetic background or differential exposure to infection remains to be determined. PMID:27182885

  7. Pathways to Adult Marijuana and Cocaine Use: A Prospective Study of African Americans from Age 6 to 42

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fothergill, Kate E.; Ensminger, Margaret E.; Green, Kerry M.; Robertson, Judith A.; Juon, Hee Soon

    2009-01-01

    This study examines pathways to adult marijuana and cocaine use in a cohort of African Americans from Woodlawn, an inner city community in Chicago. Assessments were conducted in first grade (age 6), adolescence (age 16), early adulthood (age 32), and in mid-adulthood (age 42). The "social adaptation life course" framework guided the focus on…

  8. Addressing the Local in Localization: A Case Study of Open Textbook Adoption by Three South African Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jimes, Cynthia; Weiss, Shenandoah; Keep, Renae

    2013-01-01

    This article presents a case study of the adoption and use of open textbooks by three high school teachers in the KwaZulu-Natal province of South Africa. The textbooks, collaboratively authored and distributed through the South African initiative, Siyavula, are available online and are openly licensed, allowing teachers to freely use, modify,…

  9. A Mixed Methods Study: African American Students' Performance Trends and Perceptions Towards Advanced Placement Literature Courses and Examinations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buford, Brandie J.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this mixed methods study was to describe the perceptions of African American students pertaining to their engagement in Advanced Placement English Literature and Composition course and Advanced Placement English Literature and Composition examination. A purposive sampling design was employed to select 12 participants from one urban…

  10. A Study of Teachers, Students, and Parents' Perceptions of How School Climate Affects African-American and Latino Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Susan M.

    2009-01-01

    Nationally, educational disparities have resulted in a significant achievement gap among African American and Latino students compared to European American students. Cognitive theorists including Piaget, Bruner, and Vygotsky believe that one's environment has an effect on learning. This qualitative case study examined teacher, student, and parent…

  11. Health Information-Seeking Practices of African American Young Men Who Have Sex with Men: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rose, India D.; Friedman, Daniela B.; Spencer, S. Melinda; Annang, Lucy; Lindley, Lisa L.

    2016-01-01

    The current study used a qualitative, phenomenological approach to investigate the health information-seeking practices of African American young men who have sex with men (AAYMSM). Forty-two self-identified AAYMSM, aged 18 to 21, residing in a Southeastern U.S. city participated in a qualitative focus group or face-to-face interview to examine…

  12. Exposure to Community Violence and Protective and Risky Contexts among Low Income Urban African American Adolescents: A Prospective Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldner, Jonathan; Peters, Tracy L.; Richards, Maryse H.; Pearce, Steven

    2011-01-01

    This study examined protective and risky companionship and locations for exposure to community violence among African American young adolescents living in high crime, urban areas. The Experience Sampling Method (ESM), an in vivo data collection method, was employed to gather information from 233 students (62% female) over 3 years, beginning in the…

  13. Living Circumstances of Suicide Mortality in a South African City: An Ecological Study of Differences across Race Groups and Sexes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burrows, Stephanie; Laflamme, Lucie

    2005-01-01

    In this study the importance of living area circumstances for suicide mortality was explored. Suicide mortality was assessed across race and sex groups in a South African city and the influence of area-based compositional and sociophysical characteristics on suicide risk was considered. Suicide mortality rates are highest among Whites, in…

  14. Individual Factors Influencing Effective Nonviolent Behavior and Fighting in Peer Situations: A Qualitative Study with Urban African American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farrell, Albert D.; Erwin, Elizabeth H.; Bettencourt, Amie; Mays, Sally; Vulin-Reynolds, Monique; Sullivan, Terri; Allison, Kevin W.; Kliewer, Wendy; Meyer, Aleta

    2008-01-01

    This qualitative study examined individual-level factors that influence adolescents' responses to problem situations involving peers. Interviews were conducted with 106 middle school students (97% African American) from an urban school system. Participants described factors that would make it easier and those that would make it more difficult for…

  15. A Case Study of the Academic Achievement of African American Males in Single-Sex Classrooms in Rural South Carolina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pannell, Lynette Martin

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the differences of Measures of Academic Progress (MAP) scores between fourth-grade African American male students who were enrolled in single-sex classrooms and their counterparts who were enrolled in coeducational classrooms. The research provided descriptive data concerning one Title I school in rural…

  16. Using Poetry as a Communication Multimodality to Encourage Reading Engagement of Selected African-American Learners: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Cherie A.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the use of poetry as a multimodal communicative text to encourage reading engagement in selected African-American learners with mild intellectual disabilities. Framed by critical discourse theory, genre theory, and Gardner's theory of multiple intelligences, this investigation presented poetry as an alternative text…

  17. Social Integration as a Factor in Academic Achievements of Children: A Case Study of African Immigrants in Louisville, Kentucky

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Odetunde, Florence Olayinka

    2013-01-01

    This study explored how social integration of African immigrants in the Louisville metropolitan area of Kentucky could be a factor in the academic achievements of their children. It involved critically investigating how the process of their adjustments as immigrants might have been shaped by various personal and environmental factors such as…

  18. College Athletic Reputation and College Choice among African American High School Seniors: Evidence from the Educational Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braddock, Jomills Henry, II; Lv, Hua; Dawkins, Marvin P.

    2008-01-01

    This study extends research on college choice, with recent national survey data, by examining what African American students say about the importance of college athletic reputation in choosing which school to attend. We use the Educational Longitudinal Survey to examine the overall distribution of self-reported factors that shape college choices…

  19. Achieving Equity through Critical Science Agency: An Ethnographic Study of African American Students in a Health Science Career Academy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haun-Frank, Julie

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the potential of a High School Health Science Career Academy to support African American students' science career trajectories. I used three key theoretical tools---critical science agency (Basu, 2007; Calabrese Barton & Tan, 2008), power (Nespor, 1994), and cultural production (Carlone, 2004; Eisenhart &…

  20. A Pilot Study to Estimate the Cost of a Telephone Survey of Rare Populations: African Americans and Persons with Angina.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bertram, Dennis A.

    1994-01-01

    This pilot study provides information on the effort required to conduct a telephone survey on access to care of persons with angina. Allowing for noncontact calls, refusal to participate, and ineligibility, the response rate for whites was 23.4% (2,724 of 11,559), and that of African Americans was 24.3% (2,003 of 8,242). (SLD)

  1. Internationalization of an African University in the Post-Colonial Era: A Case Study of the University of Nairobi

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Otieno, Iddah Aoko

    2012-01-01

    This case study uses post-colonial and dependency theoretical lenses to investigate the forces influencing policy, procedures, and participation in international activity in the post-colonial African university environment of Kenya's first national public university-the University of Nairobi (UoN). The research addresses (1) the approaches and…

  2. New Mexico Center for Particle Physics: Studies of fundamental interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Matthews, J.A.J.

    1992-01-01

    The New Mexico Center/UNM group research program includes the CDF experiment at Fermilab and the SDC experiment at the SSC. In both experiments the UNM group research focuses on silicon strip tracking systems. The present research goals are to develop and utilize precision silicon tracking to increase significantly the physics reach of the Tevatron, and to make possible the study of high-P[sub t] physics at the SSC. The search for the t-quark in CDF is the primary goal of the upcoming Tevatron runs. This Progress Report summarizes our research accomplishments from the last year.

  3. Case study: a data warehouse for an academic medical center.

    PubMed

    Einbinder, J S; Scully, K W; Pates, R D; Schubart, J R; Reynolds, R E

    2001-01-01

    The clinical data repository (CDR) is a frequently updated relational data warehouse that provides users with direct access to detailed, flexible, and rapid retrospective views of clinical, administrative, and financial patient data for the University of Virginia Health System. This article presents a case study of the CDR, detailing its five-year history and focusing on the unique role of data warehousing in an academic medical center. Specifically, the CDR must support multiple missions, including research and education, in addition to administration and management. Users include not only analysts and administrators but clinicians, researchers, and students. PMID:11452578

  4. HIV misconceptions associated with condom use among black South Africans: an exploratory study

    PubMed Central

    Bogart, Laura M; Skinner, Donald; Weinhardt, Lance S; Glasman, Laura; Sitzler, Cheryl; Toefy, Yoesrie; Kalichman, Seth C

    2011-01-01

    In South Africa, approximately 20% of 15–49-year-olds are infected with HIV. Among black South Africans, high levels of HIV/AIDS misconceptions (e.g. HIV is manufactured by whites to reduce the black African population; AIDS is caused by supernatural forces or witchcraft) may be barriers to HIV prevention. We conducted a cross-sectional study of 150 young, black adults (aged 18–26; 56% males) visiting a public clinic for sexually transmitted infections, to investigate whether HIV/AIDS misconceptions were related to low condom use in main partner relationships. We assessed agreement with HIV/AIDS misconceptions relating to the supernatural (e.g. witchcraft as a cause of HIV) and to genocide (e.g. the withholding of a cure). In multivariate models, agreement that ‘Witchcraft plays a role in HIV transmission’ was significantly related to less positive attitudes about condoms, less belief in condom effectiveness for HIV prevention, and lower intentions to use condoms among men. The belief that ‘Vitamins and fresh fruits and vegetables can cure AIDS’ was associated with lower intentions among men to use condoms. Women who endorsed the belief linking HIV to witchcraft had a higher likelihood of unprotected sex with a main partner, whereas women who endorsed the belief that a cure for AIDS was being withheld had a lower likelihood of having had unprotected sex. Knowledge about distinct types of HIV/AIDS misconceptions and their correlates can help in the design of culturally appropriate HIV-prevention messages that address such beliefs. PMID:21804784

  5. Religious Participation is Associated with Increases in Religious Social Support in a National Longitudinal Study of African Americans.

    PubMed

    Le, Daisy; Holt, Cheryl L; Hosack, Dominic P; Huang, Jin; Clark, Eddie M

    2016-08-01

    This study reports on the association between religious beliefs and behaviors and the change in both general and religious social support using two waves of data from a national sample of African Americans. The Religion and Health in African Americans (RHIAA) study is a longitudinal telephone survey designed to examine relationships between various aspects of religious involvement and psychosocial factors over time. RHIAA participants were 3173 African American men (1281) and women (1892). A total of 1251 men (456) and women (795) participated in wave 2 of data collection. Baseline religious behaviors were associated with increased overall religious social support from baseline to wave 2 (p < .001) and with increased religious social support from baseline to wave 2 in each of the following religious social support subscales: emotional support received (p < .001), emotional support provided (p < .001), negative interaction (p < .001), and anticipated support (p < .001). Religious beliefs did not predict change in any type of support, and neither beliefs nor behaviors predicted change in general social support. African Americans who are active in faith communities showed increases in all types of religious social support, even the negative aspects, over a relatively modest longitudinal study period. This illustrates the strength of the church as a social network and the role that it plays in people's lives. PMID:26493343

  6. A Hermeneutic Phenomenological Study of the Experiences of Female African American Undergraduate Engineering Students at a Predominantly White and an Historically Black Institution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frillman, Sharron Ann

    2011-01-01

    This phenomenological study examined the experiences of twelve female African Americans enrolled as fulltime undergraduate engineering students at North Carolina Agricultural and Technical State University, an historically Black university, and seven female African Americans enrolled as undergraduate engineering students at Purdue University in…

  7. The Underrepresentation of African American Women Faculty: A Phenomenological Study Exploring the Experiences of McKnight Doctoral Fellow Alumna Serving in the Professoriate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferguson, Dionne J.

    2013-01-01

    While African American women have been participating in higher education for more than a century, they remain significantly underrepresented among college and university professors in America. This study was pursued in an attempt to address the underrepresentation of African American women faculty at public and private universities within the…

  8. A Descriptive Qualitative Study Exploring Teacher and Parental Perceptions of African-American Middle School Male Students Related to Mathematics Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fowler, Crystal Nicole

    2013-01-01

    This qualitative descriptive case study explored the perceptions of parents and teachers of the academic achievement gap in mathematics between African-American middle school males and their White counterparts. Ten parents, both African-American and White, with students attending middle school in the Cherokee County School District and 5 teachers…

  9. The Effects of Music and Movement Opportunity on the Analogical Reasoning Performance of African American and White School Children: A Preliminary Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Brenda A.; Butler, Lisa

    1996-01-01

    Studies contextual factors informed by cultural experiences and their influence on learning task performance in 15 African American and 13 white children. The African American children performed better when allowed to coordinate movement and music to the learning task while white students had the opposite results. (GR)

  10. The Problems in the Classification of the African Languages; Methodological and Theoretical Conclusions Concerning the Classification System of Joseph H. Greenberg. Studies on Developing Countries No.5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fodor, Istvan

    The present work deals with Africanistic problems, raising questions of interest for general linguists, and linguists working in Indo-European, Finno-Ugric, and other special branches. The first two chapters deal with the field and difficulties of African studies and the general characterization of the African languages. Following chapters discuss…

  11. A Case Study of the Historically Successful Roles of African American Teachers in Contemporary, Selected, Urban Charter Schools in New York

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benson, Shanelle R.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose. The purpose of this study was to determine, to what degree, African American teachers in five selected, urban charter schools in New York performed the historical roles of counselor, advocate, disciplinarian, surrogate parent, and role model in, to determine how African American Teachers perceived the importance of performing the…

  12. African and African American Children's and Adolescent Literature in the Classroom: A Critical Guide. Black Studies and Critical Thinking. Volume 11

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yenika-Agbaw, Vivian, Ed.; Napoli, Mary, Ed.

    2011-01-01

    The essays in this collection discuss multicultural issues in children's and adolescent literature, focusing particularly on African and African American cultures. They challenge everyone's understanding of what, in an age of globalization, multicultural texts really are. Cumulatively, these essays illustrate multicultural literature's power to…

  13. “If you don’t have honesty in a relationship, then there is no relationship”: African American Girls’ Characterization of Healthy Dating Relationships, A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Garza, Mary A.

    2014-01-01

    The quality of dating relationships in adolescence can have long lasting effects on identity development, self-esteem, and interpersonal skills, and can shape values and behaviors related to future intimate relationships. The aims of this study were to: 1) investigate how African American adolescent girls characterize healthy relationships; and 2) describe the meanings of these characteristics in the context of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s (CDC) 12 healthy dating relationship qualities. We conducted semi-structured one-on-one in-depth interviews with 33 African American high school girls in the mid-Atlantic region. Trained staff transcribed interviews verbatim and entered the data into ATLAS.ti for coding and analysis. Participants’ specified and vividly described eight healthy relationship characteristics: good communication, honesty, trust, respect, compromise, understanding, individuality, and self-confidence. Of these characteristics, three (good communication, compromise, and respect) were described in ways discordant with CDC’s definitions. Findings highlight a need to better understand how girls develop values and ascribe characteristics of healthy relationships in order to reduce their risk for teen dating violence. PMID:25168629

  14. The Genetic Structure and History of Africans and African Americans

    PubMed Central

    Tishkoff, Sarah A.; Reed, Floyd A.; Friedlaender, Françoise R.; Ehret, Christopher; Ranciaro, Alessia; Froment, Alain; Hirbo, Jibril B.; Awomoyi, Agnes A.; Bodo, Jean-Marie; Doumbo, Ogobara; Ibrahim, Muntaser; Juma, Abdalla T.; Kotze, Maritha J.; Lema, Godfrey; Moore, Jason H.; Mortensen, Holly; Nyambo, Thomas B.; Omar, Sabah A.; Powell, Kweli; Pretorius, Gideon S.; Smith, Michael W.; Thera, Mahamadou A.; Wambebe, Charles; Weber, James L.; Williams, Scott M.

    2010-01-01

    Africa is the source of all modern humans, but characterization of genetic variation and of relationships among populations across the continent has been enigmatic. We studied 121 African populations, four African American populations, and 60 non-African populations for patterns of variation at 1327 nuclear microsatellite and insertion/deletion markers. We identified 14 ancestral population clusters in Africa that correlate with self-described ethnicity and shared cultural and/or linguistic properties. We observed high levels of mixed ancestry in most populations, reflecting historical migration events across the continent. Our data also provide evidence for shared ancestry among geographically diverse hunter-gatherer populations (Khoesan speakers and Pygmies). The ancestry of African Americans is predominantly from Niger-Kordofanian (~71%), European (~13%), and other African (~8%) populations, although admixture levels varied considerably among individuals. This study helps tease apart the complex evolutionary history of Africans and African Americans, aiding both anthropological and genetic epidemiologic studies. PMID:19407144

  15. Community Involvement: A Case Study of the Education Resource Center.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Stephen; And Others

    The Education Resource Center (ERC) is a community-based teachers' resource center located in Chicago (Illinois). Its conceptual base is broader than that of a typical teachers center as ERC represents a community-based social movement with a wider orientation than teacher training. ERC's policy board reflects community organizations and the…

  16. A case-control study of menstrual factors in relation to breast cancer risk in African-American women.

    PubMed Central

    Beiler, Jessica S. B.; Zhu, Kangmin; Hunter, Sandra; Payne-Wilks, Kathleen; Roland, Chanel L.; Chinchilli, Vernon M.

    2003-01-01

    Menstrual characteristics may serve as surrogate measures of endogenous estrogen and may be related to breast cancer risk. No previous studies have systematically investigated menstrual factors in relation to the disease in African-American women. This case-control study is aimed to assess the relationship between menstrual factors and breast cancer in African-American women. Cases were 304 African-American women, aged 20-64 living in three Tennessee counties, diagnosed with breast cancer between 1995 and 1998. Controls were selected through random-digit dialing and frequency matched to cases (n=305). Phone interviews were conducted on menstrual factors--age at menarche, time to regularity, cycle length, flow length, age at menopause--and other risk factors. Logistic regression showed that compared to women with short cycle length (<28 days), women with average cycle length > or =28 had decreased risk of breast cancer (odds ratio (OR)=0.60, 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.38-0.94). Dose-response analyses showed decreasing risk with longer cycle length. Results by menopausal status revealed an inverse relationship was shown only in postmenopausal women. No significant associations were observed for other menstrual factors. Findings suggest that cycle length has an inverse association with breast cancer in African-American women that may primarily exist for post-menopausal tumors. PMID:14620704

  17. Awareness of Human Papillomavirus Vaccine Among Adolescent African American Males Who Have Sex with Males: a Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Onyeabor, Onyekachi S; Martin, Nicolle; Orish, Verner N; Sanyaolu, Adekunle O; Iriemenam, Nnaemeka C

    2015-09-01

    African American adolescent males who have sex with males (MSMs) have a high prevalence of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) that has been directly linked to lack of access to primary care providers and reluctance to disclose their sexuality. The human papillomavirus (HPV) is the most common STD with more than 40 different serotypes and can lead to anal/genital warts as well as oral and genital cancers. The HPV vaccine if taken prior to an adolescent becoming sexually active serves a prophylactic function. The HPV vaccine is approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for girls and boys; however, HPV vaccination rates among adolescents within different minority and underserved communities have been disappointing even though these groups are disproportionately infected with the HPV virus and certain male-specific cancers. Little is known about the uptake of the vaccine among African American MSMs and thus the aim of this study. This qualitative study is based on the health belief model and assessed participants' level of awareness of HPV, the HPV vaccine, and HPV-related illnesses among 24 African American male adolescents between 16 and 18 years old who self identify as MSMs. As part of a larger study, two focus groups were conducted for African American MSMs. Participants failed to understand their potential risk for HPV given the higher rates of STD infection experienced by MSMs. They expressed very little knowledge of the HPV vaccine and are also not aware of the complications of HPV virus infection. However, they were very eager to know more about the virus and the vaccine. This study demonstrates the need for the development of health communication intervention and more research targeting African American MSMs and also the need for policy change towards making the HPV vaccine routine for males especially adolescents at no cost. PMID:26863459

  18. New paradigms for transcultural nursing: frameworks for studying African American women.

    PubMed

    Shambley-Ebron, Donna Z; Boyle, Joyceen S

    2004-01-01

    African American women continue to experience disparities in health status when compared to their European American counterparts, yet, often their unique perspectives are not presented in the nursing literature. This article will discuss various theoretical frameworks arising from Black women's thought and reality that can be used to enhance and expand transcultural nursing knowledge. Historical, sociocultural, and literary perspectives will be used to illuminate the realities of African American women's lives. Selected frameworks arising from these realities will be discussed that recognize the impact of race, class, and gender on the lives of African American women and have the potential to guide nursing research and practice. PMID:14768411

  19. Transthyretin isoleucine-122 mutation in African and American blacks.

    PubMed

    Afolabi, I; Hamidi Asl, K; Nakamura, M; Jacobs, P; Hendrie, H; Benson, M D

    2000-06-01

    The gene frequency of the transthyretin (TTR) mutation (Val122Ile) was studied in African and African-American populations. The African populations analyzed included the Zulu and Xhosa of South Africa, and Yorubas from the city of Ibadan, Nigeria. The African-American population included patients at the Veterans Affairs (VA) Medical Center, Indianapolis, and newborns from a local hospital in Indianapolis. The Val122Ile TTR mutation was identified in 1 of 55 Zulu, 0 of 34 Xhosa, 0 of 9 Nigerian subjects, 5 of 51 Veteran patients, and 3 of 103 newborns. Assuming the 2.91% prevalence in newborns to be the norm, there is a significant increased prevalence in the VA patient population. PMID:10842715

  20. Study of Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center utility systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Redding, T. E.; Huber, W. C.

    1977-01-01

    The results of an engineering study of potential energy saving utility system modifications for the NASA Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center are presented. The objective of the study was to define and analyze utility options that would provide facility energy savings in addition to the approximately 25 percent already achieved through an energy loads reduction program. A systems engineering approach was used to determine total system energy and cost savings resulting from each of the ten major options investigated. The results reported include detailed cost analyses and cost comparisons of various options. Cost are projected to the year 2000. Also included are a brief description of a mathematical model used for the analysis and the rationale used for a site survey to select buildings suitable for analysis.

  1. A static data flow simulation study at Ames Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barszcz, Eric; Howard, Lauri S.

    1987-01-01

    Demands in computational power, particularly in the area of computational fluid dynamics (CFD), led NASA Ames Research Center to study advanced computer architectures. One architecture being studied is the static data flow architecture based on research done by Jack B. Dennis at MIT. To improve understanding of this architecture, a static data flow simulator, written in Pascal, has been implemented for use on a Cray X-MP/48. A matrix multiply and a two-dimensional fast Fourier transform (FFT), two algorithms used in CFD work at Ames, have been run on the simulator. Execution times can vary by a factor of more than 2 depending on the partitioning method used to assign instructions to processing elements. Service time for matching tokens has proved to be a major bottleneck. Loop control and array address calculation overhead can double the execution time. The best sustained MFLOPS rates were less than 50% of the maximum capability of the machine.

  2. Successfully Educating Our African-American Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moncree-Moffett, Kareem

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this empirical study was to explore the lived experiences of African American retired female teachers who have prior experience with educating urban African American students in public schools. Also explored are the experiences of active African American female teachers of urban African American students and comparisons are…

  3. HIV-Associated Oral Mucosal Melanin Hyperpigmentation: A Clinical Study in a South African Population Sample

    PubMed Central

    Chandran, R.; Feller, L.; Lemmer, J.; Khammissa, R. A. G.

    2016-01-01

    Objective. The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of HIV-associated oral mucosal melanin hyperpigmentation (HIV-OMH) in a specific population of HIV-seropositive South Africans and to analyse the associations between HIV-OMH clinical features and the demographic and immunological characteristics of the study cohort. Material and Methods. This cross-sectional study included 200 HIV-seropositive Black subjects. The collected data comprised age, gender, CD4+ T cell count, viral load, systemic disease, medications, oral site affected by HIV-OMH, extent (localized or generalized), intensity of the pigmentation (dark or light), and smoking and snuff use. Results. Overall, 18.5% of the study cohort had HIV-OMH. Twenty-two and a half percent had OMH that could not with confidence be attributed to HIV infection, and 59% did not have any OMH. There was a significant but weak association between smoking and the presence of HIV-OMH. Conclusions. The prevalence of HIV-OMH in the study population was 18.5%, the gingiva being the most commonly affected site. It appears that the CD4+ T cell count does not play any role in the biopathology of HIV-OMH. PMID:27006825

  4. HIV-Associated Oral Mucosal Melanin Hyperpigmentation: A Clinical Study in a South African Population Sample.

    PubMed

    Chandran, R; Feller, L; Lemmer, J; Khammissa, R A G

    2016-01-01

    Objective. The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of HIV-associated oral mucosal melanin hyperpigmentation (HIV-OMH) in a specific population of HIV-seropositive South Africans and to analyse the associations between HIV-OMH clinical features and the demographic and immunological characteristics of the study cohort. Material and Methods. This cross-sectional study included 200 HIV-seropositive Black subjects. The collected data comprised age, gender, CD4+ T cell count, viral load, systemic disease, medications, oral site affected by HIV-OMH, extent (localized or generalized), intensity of the pigmentation (dark or light), and smoking and snuff use. Results. Overall, 18.5% of the study cohort had HIV-OMH. Twenty-two and a half percent had OMH that could not with confidence be attributed to HIV infection, and 59% did not have any OMH. There was a significant but weak association between smoking and the presence of HIV-OMH. Conclusions. The prevalence of HIV-OMH in the study population was 18.5%, the gingiva being the most commonly affected site. It appears that the CD4+ T cell count does not play any role in the biopathology of HIV-OMH. PMID:27006825

  5. Data Center Energy Benchmarking: Part 2 - Case Studies on TwoCo-location Network Data Centers (No. 18 and 19)

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Tengfang; Greenberg, Steve

    2007-08-01

    Two data centers in this study were within a co-location facility located on the sixth floor of a multi-story building in downtown Los Angeles, California. The facility had 37,758 gross square feet floor area with 2-foot raised-floors in the data services area. The two data centers were designated as the west data center (DC No.18) and the east data center (DC No.19). The study found that 56% of the overall electric power was consumed by sixth floor critical loads in both data centers, 33% of the power was consumed by HVAC systems, 3% of the power was consumed by UPS units, 3% of the power was for generator losses, and the remaining 5% was used by lighting and miscellaneous loads in the building. The power density of installed computer loads (rack load) in the two data centers was 20 W/ft{sup 2} and 56 W/ft{sup 2}, respectively. The power density was relatively lower in DC No.18 compared to other data centers previously studied. In addition, HVAC to IT power demand ratio was 0.6 in DC No.18 in this study, and was 0.4 in DC No.19. Two out of three chillers were running at a low partial load, making the operation very energy inefficient. The operation and control of the chillers and air-handling units should be optimized while providing sufficient cooling to the data centers. Although arranging hot aisle/cold aisle design to separate airflow streams would be difficult in such a co-location data center, optimizing air distribution should be pursued. General recommendations for improving overall data center energy efficiency include improving the design, operation, and control of mechanical systems serving the data centers with various critical loads in place. This includes chiller operation, chilled water system, AHUs, airflow management and control in data centers. Additional specific recommendations or considerations to improve energy efficiency are provided in this report.

  6. Correlates of African American and Latino parents' messages to children about ethnicity and race: a comparative study of racial socialization.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Diane

    2003-03-01

    Recently, social scientists have become increasingly interested in the nature of communications from parents to children regarding ethnicity and race. Termed racial socialization, race-related messages to children may have important consequences for children's identity development and well-being. This study examined the frequency and correlates of two dimensions of racial socialization-messages about ethnic pride, history, and heritage (Cultural Socialization) and messages about discrimination and racial bias (Preparation for Bias)--among 273 urban African American, Puerto Rican, and Dominican parents. Parents reported more frequent Cultural Socialization than Preparation for Bias. There were no significant ethnic group differences in the frequency of Cultural Socialization. However, African American parents reported more frequent Preparation for Bias than did Dominican parents who, in turn, reported more frequent messages of this sort than did Puerto Rican parents Ethnic identity was a stronger predictor of Cultural Socialization among Puerto Rican and Dominican parents than among their African American counterparts. In contrast, perceived discrimination experiences was a stronger predictor of Preparation for Bias among African American and Dominican parents than among Puerto Rican parents. Finally, race-related phenomenon accounted for more variance in both Cultural Socialization and Preparation for Bias among parents reporting on their behaviors with children 10-17 years old as compared to parents reporting on their behaviors with children 6-9 years old. PMID:12741687

  7. Developmental Origins of Perfectionism among African American Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herman, Keith C.; Trotter, Reid; Reinke, Wendy M.; Ialongo, Nicholas

    2011-01-01

    The present study used a person-centered latent variable approach to classify types of perfectionism among 6th-grade African American children living in an urban setting. In particular, the authors were interested in determining whether an adaptive subtype could be found and validated against external criteria. The authors also attempted to…

  8. Young African American Boys Narrating Identities in Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kane, Justine M.

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this study is to bring the voices of African American boys front and center in science education research in an effort to strengthen our understandings of their experiences of school and science. Using an interpretivist perspective within a narrative inquiry approach, I focus on the student and science-student identities two African…

  9. The KhoeSan Early Learning Center Pilot Project: Negotiating Power and Possibility in a South African Institute of Higher Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Wet, Priscilla

    2011-01-01

    As we search for a new paradigm in post-apartheid South Africa, the knowledge base and worldview of the KhoeSan first Indigenous peoples is largely missing. The South African government has established various mechanisms as agents for social change. Institutions of higher learning have implemented transformation programs. KhoeSan peoples, however,…

  10. An integrated geophysical study of north African and Mediterranean lithospheric structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dial, Paul Joseph

    1998-07-01

    This dissertation utilizes gravity and seismic waveform modeling techniques to: (1) determine models of lithospheric structure across northern African through gravity modeling and (2) determine lithospheric and crustal structure and seismic wave propagation characteristics across northern Africa and the Mediterranean region. The purpose of the gravity investigation was to construct models of lithospheric structure across northern Africa through the analysis of gravity data constrained by previous geological and geophysical studies. Three lithospheric models were constructed from Bouguer gravity data using computer modeling, and the gravity data was wavelength-filtered to investigate the relative depth and extent of the structures associated with the major anomalies. In the Atlas Mountains area, the resulting earth models showed slightly greater crustal thickness than those of previous studies if a low density mantle region is not included in the models. However, if a low density mantle region (density = 3.25 g/cm3) was included beneath the Atlas, the earth models showed little crustal thickening (38 km), in accord with previous seismic studies. The second portion of the research consisted of seismic waveform modeling of regional and teleseismic events to determine crustal and lithospheric structure across northern Africa and the Mediterranean. A total of 174 seismograms (145 at regional distances (200--1400 km) and 29 with epicentral distances exceeding 1900 km) were modeled using 1-D velocity models and a reflectivity code. At regional distances from four stations surrounding the western Mediterranean basin (MAL, TOL, PTO and AQU) and one station near the Red Sea (HLW), 1-D velocity models can satisfactorily model the relative amplitudes of both the Pnl and surface wave portions of the seismograms. Modeling of propagation paths greater than 1900 km was also conducted across northern Africa and the Mediterranean. The results indicate that the S-wave velocity model

  11. Life Sciences Division and Center for Human Genome Studies 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Cram, L.S.; Stafford, C.

    1995-09-01

    This report summarizes the research and development activities of the Los Alamos National Laboratory`s Life Sciences Division and the biological aspects of the Center for Human Genome Studies for the calendar year 1994. The technical portion of the report is divided into two parts, (1) selected research highlights and (2) research projects and accomplishments. The research highlights provide a more detailed description of a select set of projects. A technical description of all projects is presented in sufficient detail so that the informed reader will be able to assess the scope and significance of each project. Summaries useful to the casual reader desiring general information have been prepared by the group leaders and appear in each group overview. Investigators on the staff of the Life Sciences Division will be pleased to provide further information.

  12. Case study: Community Engagement and Clinical Trial Success: Outreach to African American Women

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, D.A.; Joosten, Y.A.; Wilkins, C.H.; Shibao, C

    2015-01-01

    This brief report examines how the use of community engagement principles and approaches enhanced clinical trial recruitment and retention. The Community Engaged Research Core (CERC), a CTSA-supported resource designed to facilitate community involvement in clinical and translational research, was consulted to provide assistance with the implementation of the clinical trial, and specifically to enhance participation of the target population- African American women. CERC's key recommendations included 1) convene a Community Engagement Studio (CES), 2) redesign the recruitment advertisement, 3) simplify the language used to explain the scope of the study, and 4) provide transportation for participants. As a result of these interventions, a comprehensive strategy to recruit, enroll, and retain participants was formulated. After implementation of the plan by the study team, enrollment increased 78% and recruitment goals were met 16 months ahead of schedule. Participant retention and study drug adherence was 100%. We conclude that community engagement is essential to the development of an effective multi-faceted plan to improve recruitment of underrepresented groups in clinical trials. PMID:25752995

  13. Case Study: Community Engagement and Clinical Trial Success: Outreach to African American Women.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Davalynn A; Joosten, Yvonne A; Wilkins, Consuelo H; Shibao, Cyndya A

    2015-08-01

    This brief report examines how the use of community engagement principles and approaches enhanced clinical trial recruitment and retention. The Community-Engaged Research Core (CERC), a CTSA-supported resource designed to facilitate community involvement in clinical and translational research, was consulted to provide assistance with the implementation of the clinical trial, and specifically to enhance participation of the target population-African American women. CERC's key recommendations included: (1) convene a Community Engagement Studio, (2) redesign the recruitment advertisement, (3) simplify the language used to explain the scope of the study, and (4) provide transportation for participants. As a result of these interventions, a comprehensive strategy to recruit, enroll, and retain participants was formulated. After implementation of the plan by the study team, enrollment increased 78% and recruitment goals were met 16 months ahead of schedule. Participant retention and study drug adherence was 100%. We conclude that community engagement is essential to the development of an effective multifaceted plan to improve recruitment of underrepresented groups in clinical trials. PMID:25752995

  14. Beliefs about Racism and Health among African American Women with Diabetes: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, Julie A.; Osborn, Chandra Y.; Mendenhall, Emily A.; Budris, Lisa M.; Belay, Sophia; Tennen, Howard A.

    2011-01-01

    Exposure to racism has been linked to poor health outcomes. Little is known about the impact of racism on diabetes outcomes. This study explored African American (AA) women’s beliefs about how racism interacts with their diabetes self-management and control. Four focus groups were conducted with a convenience sample of 28 adult AA women with type 2 diabetes who were recruited from a larger quantitative study on racism and diabetes. The focus group discussions were transcribed verbatim and analyzed by the authors. Women reported that exposure to racism was a common phenomenon, and their beliefs did in fact link racism to poor health. Specifically, women reported that exposure to racism caused physiological arousal including cardiovascular and metabolic perturbations. There was consensus that physiological arousal was generally detrimental to health. Women also described limited, and in some cases maladaptive, strategies to cope with racist events including eating unhealthy food choices and portions. There was consensus that the subjective nature of perceiving racism and accompanying social prohibitions often made it impossible to address racism directly. Many women described anger in such situations, and the tendency to internalize anger and other negative emotions, only to find that the negative emotions would be reactivated repeatedly with exposure to novel racial stressors, even long after the original racist event remitted. AA women in this study believed that racism affects their diabetes self-management and control. Health beliefs can exert powerful effects on health behaviors and may provide an opportunity for health promotion interventions in diabetes. PMID:21528110

  15. Health workforce development: a needs assessment study in French speaking African countries.

    PubMed

    Chastonay, Philippe; Moretti, Roberto; Zesiger, Véronique; Cremaschini, Marco; Bailey, Rebecca; Pariyo, George; Kabengele, Emmanuel Mpinga

    2013-05-01

    In 2006, WHO alerted the world to a global health workforce crisis, demonstrated through critical shortages of health workers, primarily in Sub-Saharan Africa (WHO in World Health Report, 2006). The objective of our study was to assess, in a participative way, the educational needs for public health and health workforce development among potential trainees and training institutions in nine French-speaking African countries. A needs assessment was conducted in the target countries according to four approaches: (1) Review at national level of health challenges. (2) Semi-directed interviews with heads of relevant training institutions. (3) Focus group discussions with key-informants. (4) A questionnaire-based study targeting health professionals identified as potential trainees. A needs assessment showed important public health challenges in the field of health workforce development among the target countries (e.g. unequal HRH distribution in the country, ageing of HRH, lack of adequate training). It also showed a demand for education and training institutions that are able to offer a training programme in health workforce development, and identified training objectives and core competencies useful to potential employers and future trainees (e.g. leadership, planning/evaluation, management, research skill). In combining various approaches our study was able to show a general demand for health managers who are able to plan, develop and manage a nation's health workforce. It also identified specific competencies that should be developed through an education and training program in public health with a focus on health workforce development. PMID:22453358

  16. Gauging Students' Untutored Ability in Argumentation about Experimental Data: A South African case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lubben, Fred; Sadeck, Melanie; Scholtz, Zena; Braund, Martin

    2010-11-01

    This paper reports on a study into the untutored ability of Grade 10 students to engage in argumentation about the interpretation of experimental data, and the effect of unsupported small group discussions on this ability. In this study, argumentation intends to promote critical thinking. The sample includes 266 students from five South African schools across the resource spectrum, forming 70 friendship groups. Students are required to provide written interpretations of experimental data, and justify these interpretations based on the evidence and concepts of measurement. Individual responses form the basis of small group discussions after which students again provide written justified interpretations of the readings. The data show an initial low level of argumentation, with significant variation according to school resource levels. Considerable improvement in the level of argumentation occurs merely through small group discussions unsupported by the teacher. The findings suggest several factors influencing argumentation ability such as experience with practical work, perceptions of the purpose of small group discussions, the language ability to articulate ideas and cultural influences. Methodological issues arising from the study and implications for teaching and assessment are discussed.

  17. Cancer Prevalence among Physicians in Korea: A Single Center Study

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hye Lin; Park, Hae Jin; Sim, Yun Hye; Choi, Eun Young; Shim, Kyung Won; Lee, Sang Wha; Lee, Hong Soo

    2016-01-01

    Background There is little research regarding whether working as a physician affects cancer risk. Moreover, there is no research on cancer prevalence among physicians in Korea. This study utilized the Korea National Cancer Incidence Database to determine whether the prevalence of cancer among physicians differs from the prevalence of cancer within the general population. Methods We analyzed the medical records of a representative sample of 382 doctors who underwent a health examination between 2010 and 2013 at a health examination center in a Ewha Womans University Medical Center.Cancer incidence was measured as cases that were eventually diagnosed as cancer according to a biopsy. Results We collected medical records from 382 physicians (mean age, 51.9±8.1 years) and calculated the standardized prevalence ratios compared to the general population. Thirty physicians (9 male and 21 female) were identified as having cancer. Physicians had a significantly higher prevalence of cancer compared to the general population.Cancer prevalence in male physicians was found to be 2.47 times higher than the prevalence expected within the general population (P=0.006). Among female physicians, cancer prevalence was 3.94 times higher than that in the general population (P<0.001). Conclusion This study revealed that physicians had a higher prevalence of cancer compared to the general population in Korea, which suggests that there may be a problem present in the health care of physicians. Changes to the working environment of physicians will be needed to reduce the high prevalence of cancer among physicians. PMID:27073607

  18. Improved Bowel Preparation with Multimedia Education in a Predominantly African-American Population: A Randomized Study

    PubMed Central

    Garg, Shashank; Girotra, Mohit; Chandra, Lakshya; Verma, Vipin; Kaur, Sumanjit; Allawy, Allawy; Secco, Alessandra; Anand, Rohit; Dutta, Sudhir K.

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aim. Inadequate bowel preparation is a major impediment in colonoscopy quality outcomes. Aim of this study was to evaluate the role of multimedia education (MME) in improving bowel preparation quality and adenoma detection rate. Methods. This was an IRB-approved prospective randomized study that enrolled 111 adult patients undergoing outpatient screening or surveillance colonoscopy. After receiving standard colonoscopy instructions, the patients were randomized into MME group (n = 48) and control group (n = 46). The MME group received comprehensive multimedia education including an audio-visual program, a visual aid, and a brochure. Demographics, quality of bowel preparation, and colonoscopy findings were recorded. Results. MME group had a significantly better bowel preparation in the entire colon (OR 2.65, 95% CI 1.16–6.09) and on the right side of the colon (OR 2.74, 95% CI 1.12–6.71) as compared to control group (p < 0.05). Large polyps (>1 cm) were found more frequently in the MME group (11/31, 35.5% versus 0/13; p < 0.05). More polyps and adenomas were detected in MME group (57 versus 39 and 31 versus 13, resp.) but the difference failed to reach statistical significance. Conclusion. MME can lead to significant improvement in the quality of bowel preparation and large adenoma detection in a predominantly African-American population. PMID:27006590

  19. A study of the medical causes of absence from duty aboard South African merchant ships

    PubMed Central

    Levy, Samuel

    1972-01-01

    Levy, S. (1972).Brit. J. industr. Med.,29, 196-200. A study of the medical causes of absence from duty aboard South African merchant ships. Over a period of four and a half years 556 instances occurred in which crew members were put off duty on medical grounds for a period of four or more days. Illness accounted for 297 cases whereas accidents were responsible for 259 cases. Illiness and accident cases were off duty for an average period of 28 and 34 days respectively. Slightly more working days were thus lost on account of accidents. Admission to hospital was required in 90% of illnesses compared with only 36% of accidents. Appendicitis (of questionable veracity), peptic ulceration, and psychiatric disturbances were among the more common causes of incapacity. Forty percent of accidents occurred on deck and in the cargo holds. Fractures occurred most commonly in the upper limbs, especially the hand. Eleven percent of the accidents occurred ashore, mostly due to assault. Further study is required to elucidate whether the emotional problems encountered are brought to sea by the personnel or are a result of life on board ship. The high incidence of accidents stresses the fact that a sea career is one of the more dangerous occupations. PMID:5067298

  20. Within guild co-infections influence parasite community membership: a longitudinal study in African Buffalo.

    PubMed

    Henrichs, Brian; Oosthuizen, Marinda C; Troskie, Milana; Gorsich, Erin; Gondhalekar, Carmen; Beechler, Brianna R; Ezenwa, Vanessa O; Jolles, Anna E

    2016-07-01

    Experimental studies in laboratory settings have demonstrated a critical role of parasite interactions in shaping parasite communities. The sum of these interactions can produce diverse effects on individual hosts as well as influence disease emergence and persistence at the population level. A predictive framework for the effects of parasite interactions in the wild remains elusive, largely because of limited longitudinal or experimental data on parasite communities of free-ranging hosts. This 4-year study followed a community of haemoparasites in free-ranging African buffalo (Syncerus caffer). We detected infection by 11 haemoparasite species using PCR-based diagnostic techniques, and analyzed drivers of infection patterns using generalized linear mixed models to understand the role of host characteristics and season on infection likelihood. We tested for (i) effects of co-infection by other haemoparasites (within guild) and (ii) effects of parasites infecting different tissue types (across guild). We found that within guild co-infections were the strongest predictors of haemoparasite infections in the buffalo; but that seasonal and host characteristics also had important effects. In contrast, the evidence for across-guild effects of parasites utilizing different tissue on haemoparasite infection was weak. These results provide a nuanced view of the role of co-infections in determining haemoparasite infection patterns in free living mammalian hosts. Our findings suggest a role for interactions among parasites infecting a single tissue type in determining infection patterns. PMID:27084785

  1. Thriving, Managing, and Struggling: A Mixed Methods Study of Adolescent African Refugees’ Psychosocial Adjustment

    PubMed Central

    Weine, Stevan Merrill; Ware, Norma; Tugenberg, Toni; Hakizimana, Leonce; Dahnweih, Gonwo; Currie, Madeleine; Wagner, Maureen; Levin, Elise

    2013-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this mixed method study was to characterize the patterns of psychosocial adjustment among adolescent African refugees in U.S. resettlement. Methods A purposive sample of 73 recently resettled refugee adolescents from Burundi and Liberia were followed for two years and qualitative and quantitative data was analyzed using a mixed methods exploratory design. Results Protective resources identified were the family and community capacities that can promote youth psychosocial adjustment through: 1) Finances for necessities; 2) English proficiency; 3) Social support networks; 4) Engaged parenting; 5) Family cohesion; 6) Cultural adherence and guidance; 7) Educational support; and, 8) Faith and religious involvement. The researchers first inductively identified 19 thriving, 29 managing, and 25 struggling youths based on review of cases. Univariate analyses then indicated significant associations with country of origin, parental education, and parental employment. Multiple regressions indicated that better psychosocial adjustment was associated with Liberians and living with both parents. Logistic regressions showed that thriving was associated with Liberians and higher parental education, managing with more parental education, and struggling with Burundians and living parents. Qualitative analysis identified how these factors were proxy indicators for protective resources in families and communities. Conclusion These three trajectories of psychosocial adjustment and six domains of protective resources could assist in developing targeted prevention programs and policies for refugee youth. Further rigorous longitudinal mixed-methods study of adolescent refugees in U.S. resettlement are needed. PMID:24205467

  2. Political will, traditional leaders and the fight against HIV/AIDS: a South African case study.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Catherine

    2010-01-01

    "Political will" and leadership are increasingly considered key contextual influences on the outcomes of HIV/AIDS programmes in sub-Saharan Africa. Such debates tend to focus on the role of national leadership in shaping responses to the epidemic, with little attention to local leaders. Yet many of the settings in which HIV/AIDS flourishes are geographically distant from the reach of national leadership and policies. Furthermore, local leaders often play a key role in shaping how national policies and decisions are interpreted and implemented in local areas. Against this background, we present a case study of the impact of the leadership style of a traditional Chief on a community-based AIDS programme in a South African rural community, which sought to build community-level "AIDS competence", using the "empowerment via participation" approach. The case study involved 134 interviews and 57 focus groups conducted over three years. Thematic content analysis revealed a number of direct and indirect ways in which his leadership style impacted on project outcomes. Despite his strong support for the programme, the Chief's "traditional" attitudes towards women and youth, his celebration of polygamy, and his authoritarian governance style undermined the project's "empowerment via participation" agenda - especially the programme's attempts to reduce AIDS stigma, to build female and youth capacity to control their sexual health, and to encourage men to take responsibility for their role in tackling AIDS. PMID:21161769

  3. Firearm and Nonfirearm Homicide in 5 South African Cities: A Retrospective Population-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Mary Lou; Myers, Jonathan E.

    2014-01-01

    Objective. We assessed the effectiveness of South Africa’s Firearm Control Act (FCA), passed in 2000, on firearm homicide rates compared with rates of nonfirearm homicide across 5 South African cities from 2001 to 2005. Methods. We conducted a retrospective population-based study of 37 067 firearm and nonfirearm homicide cases. Generalized linear models helped estimate and compare time trends of firearm and nonfirearm homicides, adjusting for age, sex, race, day of week, city, year of death, and population size. Results. There was a statistically significant decreasing trend regarding firearm homicides from 2001, with an adjusted year-on-year homicide rate ratio of 0.864 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.848, 0.880), representing a decrease of 13.6% per annum. The year-on-year decrease in nonfirearm homicide rates was also significant, but considerably lower at 0.976 (95% CI = 0.954, 0.997). Results suggest that 4585 (95% CI = 4427, 4723) lives were saved across 5 cities from 2001 to 2005 because of the FCA. Conclusions. Strength, timing and consistent decline suggest stricter gun control mediated by the FCA accounted for a significant decrease in homicide overall, and firearm homicide in particular, during the study period. PMID:24432917

  4. Genomic and Proteomic Studies on the Mode of Action of Oxaboroles against the African Trypanosome

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Deuan C.; Foth, Bernardo J.; Urbaniak, Michael D.; Patterson, Stephen; Ong, Han B.; Berriman, Matthew; Fairlamb, Alan H.

    2015-01-01

    SCYX-7158, an oxaborole, is currently in Phase I clinical trials for the treatment of human African trypanosomiasis. Here we investigate possible modes of action against Trypanosoma brucei using orthogonal chemo-proteomic and genomic approaches. SILAC-based proteomic studies using an oxaborole analogue immobilised onto a resin was used either in competition with a soluble oxaborole or an immobilised inactive control to identify thirteen proteins common to both strategies. Cell-cycle analysis of cells incubated with sub-lethal concentrations of an oxaborole identified a subtle but significant accumulation of G2 and >G2 cells. Given the possibility of compromised DNA fidelity, we investigated long-term exposure of T. brucei to oxaboroles by generating resistant cell lines in vitro. Resistance proved more difficult to generate than for drugs currently used in the field, and in one of our three cell lines was unstable. Whole-genome sequencing of the resistant cell lines revealed single nucleotide polymorphisms in 66 genes and several large-scale genomic aberrations. The absence of a simple consistent mechanism among resistant cell lines and the diverse list of binding partners from the proteomic studies suggest a degree of polypharmacology that should reduce the risk of resistance to this compound class emerging in the field. The combined genetic and chemical biology approaches have provided lists of candidates to be investigated for more detailed information on the mode of action of this promising new drug class. PMID:26684831

  5. Objectively determined habitual physical activity in South African adolescents: the PAHL study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background There is limited data on objectively determined habitual physical activity (PA) in 16-year old South African adolescents. The purpose of this study was to objectively determine the habitual PA of adolescents from the North West Province of South Africa by race and gender. Methods Adolescents (137 girls, 89 boys) from the ongoing Physical Activity and Health Longitudinal Study (PAHL study), participated in the present study. Habitual PA was objectively recorded by means of the Actiheart® over a period of 7 days. Time spent in moderate-to-vigorous intensity physical activity (MVPA) was assessed. Results Average MVPA for the study sample was 50.9 ± 40.3 minutes/day. Girls were significantly more active than boys expending more time in MVPA (61.13 ± 52.2 minutes/day; p < 0.05) than boys (35.0 ± 32.9 minutes/day). Although white adolescents spent more time in MVPA than black adolescents, there was no significant difference in MVPA between black (47.87 ± 39.6 minutes/day; p = 0.58) and white adolescents (59.5 ± 41.8 minutes/day). Conclusion Physical activity varies by both gender and race in adolescents from the North West Province of South Africa. Objectively determined data from our study indicates that girls habitually spend more time in MVPA per day than boys, and that white adolescents habitually engage in more MVPA than black adolescents. Seeing as the average MVPA per day for the entire study sample falls below the recommended daily average of 60minutes/day, adolescents should be the foremost targets of interventions aimed at enhancing habitual PA. PMID:24885503

  6. Say It Loud: An Action Research Project Examining the Afrivisual and Africology, Looking for Alternative African American Community College Teaching Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Daniel E.

    2012-01-01

    For this study, the researcher sought to implement a visual arts-based Afrivisual to help inspire, motivate and empower African American students in gaining a culturally relevant education in Euro-American-centered schools. Using the Afrivisual in this work as an action-oriented tool the researcher sought to expose African American students to an…

  7. A Market Study for the Center for the Performing Arts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rae, John; And Others

    In fall 1983, a telephone survey was conducted by Macomb Community College (MCC) to assess community perceptions of the college's Center for the Performing Arts (CPA) and to aid in developing marketing strategies for the Center. Interviews were conducted with 500 randomly selected Macomb County (Michigan) residents to determine if they had…

  8. A Planning Study for the Billerica Human Service Center.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boston Coll., Chestnut Hill, MA.

    This document discusses the development and implementation of a multiservice center that could offer a variety of human social services in a single location. The paper focuses on seven components of the center's operation: governance, organizational structure, core services, joint funding, joint planning, joint programming, and evaluation. The…

  9. Training African-American residents in the 20th century.

    PubMed

    Green-McKenzie, Judith

    2004-03-01

    Bellevue Hospital, the oldest public hospital in the United States and a lineal descendant of an infirmary for slaves, accepted its first African-American resident, Dr. Ubert Conrad Vincent, in 1918. This occurred at a time when many medical centers were not accepting African-American residents. At the end of WWII, one-third of the accredited medical schools still barred African Americans. However, Bellevue Hospital continued to train African-American residents. Between the 1920s and 1940s four African Americans matriculated at Bellevue Hospital. There were six in the 1950s, four in the 1960s, and 25 in the 1970s. By the 1980s, 40 African Americans matriculated, and between 1990 and 1995, 61 matriculated. Despite its historic first, Bellevue lagged slightly behind the national average. While the number of African-American residents occupying U.S. residency slots increased from 2.8% in 1978 to 6.5% in 1996, African Americans comprised 3.6% of residency slots at Bellevue between 1985-1995. Currently, only 7% of practicing physicians and 5% in faculty positions are latino, African-American, and Native American. Increasing the number of under-represented minority (URM) physicians is important to the United States, as URM physicians are more likely to serve the poor and uninsured, therefore improving the overall healthcare of the underprivileged. A study by the Association of American Medical Colleges indicated that minority medical school graduates were five times more likely to report that they planned to serve minority populations than other graduates. In their position paper, the American College of Physicians expressed the belief that increasing the number of URM physicians will help reduce healthcare disparities that can hurt minority populations and lead to poor health outcomes. The Supreme Court acknowledged the importance of racial diversity by upholding the University of Michigan affirmative action admissions policy in its June 2003 ruling. URM physicians are

  10. African-American Fathers’ Perspectives on Their Children’s Health Education: A Qualitative, Exploratory Study

    PubMed Central

    Odum, Mary; Smith, Matthew Lee; McKyer, E. Lisako J.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate African-American fathers’ (AAF) perceptions regarding the applicability and need for their involvement as a health connection for their children and describe how participating fathers’ behavior was affected by their attitudes, knowledge, and perceptions of their influence on their children’s health. Methods: This exploratory study gathered data via semi-structured focus groups (n = 3) and thematically analyzed it utilizing a grounded theory approach. Participants included AAF (n = 20) with a mean age of 37 years (SD 11.79), with at least one child between 6 and 18 years old. Results: Four major themes were revealed: (1) appropriate health education for participants’ children (should first and foremost be delivered by parents); (2) participants’ paternal health-related guidance approach (reactive, rather than proactive); (3) participants’ perceived influences on health-related communication with their children (gender roles, efficacy constraints); and (4) paternal definitions of health (most often associated with diet). Conclusion: Understanding AAFs’ perceived and desired role in their children’s health edification can inform initiatives that actively engage these men, and nurture their level of involvement, to promote positive health behaviors among their children; this is necessary to realize their potential to actively improve the health of their children, families, and communities. PMID:25538938

  11. Risk factors for isolated sleep paralysis in an African American sample: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Ramsawh, Holly J; Raffa, Susan D; White, Kamila S; Barlow, David H

    2008-12-01

    Isolated sleep paralysis (ISP) is a temporary period of involuntary immobility that can occur at sleep onset or offset. It has previously been reported in association with both panic disorder (PD) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The current study examined the association between ISP and several possible risk factors--anxiety sensitivity, trauma exposure, life stress, and paranormal beliefs--in a sample of African American participants with and without a history of ISP. Significant between-group differences were found for PD and PTSD diagnoses, anxiety sensitivity, life stress, and certain aspects of paranormal belief, with the ISP group being higher on all of these indices. No differences were found with regard to trauma exposure. Hierarchical regression analyses indicated that PD, anxiety sensitivity, and life stress each contributed unique variance to ISP cognitive symptoms, whereas PTSD and paranormal beliefs did not. These results provide preliminary support for an association between ISP and anxiety sensitivity and corroborate previous reports of ISP's association with PD and life stress. The current trauma/PTSD findings are mixed, however, and warrant future research. PMID:19027435

  12. Occupational epidemiology in agriculture: a case study in the southern African context.

    PubMed

    London, L

    1998-01-01

    Some challenges facing occupational epidemiology in developing countries are outlined in this case study of agriculture drawing on Southern African research. These include the characterization of exposures in resource- and data-poor environments typical of developing countries, the assessment of outcomes where cross-cultural and socio-environmental confounders may be substantial obstacles, and the impact of environmental exposures on workplace health. Traditional assignment of low priority to the chronic effects of low-dose exposures relative to acute morbidity in developing countries must be critically examined, as must the gender bias of much occupational epidemiology in agriculture. Advocacy issues involving child labor and the ethics of research among vulnerable groups deserve rigorous attention. It is argued that, if occupational epidemiology is to have meaningful impact on the health of the most marginalized groups of workers in developing countries, it must redefine itself in terms of a public health approach. The boundaries of epidemiologic inquiry need to be broad, and amenable to interfacing with policy research, using qualitative methods and participatory approaches. More so than in order industrial settings, epidemiologists must move from research to practice, seeking to take action where interventions are needed, and to evaluate such actions. PMID:9876634

  13. Studies on plant regeneration and somaclonal variation in Saintpaulia ionantha Wendl. (African violet).

    PubMed

    Daud, Norhayati; Taha, Rosna Mat; Hasbullah, Nor Azlina

    2008-05-01

    Efficient plant regeneration of Saintpaulia ionantha (African violet) has been obtained in the present study. MS medium supplemented with 1.0 mg L(-1) IAA and 2.0 mg L(-1) Zeatin resulted in 100% shoot regeneration and induced the highest number of shoots (average 15.0 +/- 0.8 shoots per explant) after being cultured for 8 weeks. The above hormone combination was optimum for shoot regeneration. Most of Saintpaulia ionantha plantlets derived from tissue culture system could be hardened and transferred to the greenhouse conditions with 84.0 +/- 1.6% success rate. However, regenerated plantlets of Saintpaulia ionantha (even after 12-months-old) failed to flower. Morphological characters of regenerated plantlets of Saintpaulia ionantha were observed and compared with in vivo (intact) plants. Regenerated plantlets showed some differences in morphological characters, such as height and leaf size, texture and colour, but the plantlets showed no variation in leaf arrangement and leaf margin. However, the morphological characters of the regenerated plantlets were found to be unstable. PMID:18819532

  14. Prioritising in situ conservation of crop resources: A case study of African cowpea (Vigna unguiculata)

    PubMed Central

    Moray, C.; Game, E. T.; Maxted, N.

    2014-01-01

    Conserving crop wild relatives (CWR) is critical for maintaining food security. However, CWR-focused conservation plans are lacking, and are often based on the entire genus, even though only a few taxa are useful for crop improvement. We used taxonomic and geographic prioritisation to identify the best locations for in situ conservation of the most important (priority) CWR, using African cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) as a case study. Cowpea is an important crop for subsistence farmers in sub-Saharan Africa, yet its CWR are under-collected, under-conserved and under-utilised in breeding. We identified the most efficient sites to focus in situ cowpea CWR conservation and assessed whether priority CWR would be adequately represented in a genus-based conservation plan. We also investigated whether priority cowpea CWR are likely to be found in existing conservation areas and in areas important for mammal conservation. The genus-based method captured most priority CWR, and the distributions of many priority CWR overlapped with established conservation reserves and targets. These results suggest that priority cowpea CWR can be conserved by building on conservation initiatives established for other species. PMID:24936740

  15. Equatorial plasma bubbles studied using African slant total electron content observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Portillo, A.; Herraiz, M.; Radicella, S. M.; Ciraolo, L.

    2008-04-01

    Equatorial plasma bubbles (EPBs) are field-aligned depletions of F-region ionospheric plasma density that grow from irregularities caused by the generalized Rayleigh-Taylor instability mechanism in the postsunset equatorial sector. Although they have been studied for some decades, they continue to be an important subject of both experimental and theoretical investigations because of their effects on trans-ionospheric radio communications. In this work, calibrated data of slant total electron content (sTEC) taken every 10 min from EGNOS System Test Bed Brazzaville (Congo), Douala (Cameroon), Lome (Togo) and N'Djamena (Chad), and International GNSS Service Ascension Island, Malindi (Kenya), and Libreville (Gabon), stations are used to detect plasma bubbles in the African equatorial region during the first 6 months of 2004. To identify these irregularities, the trend of every curve of sTEC against time is subtracted from the original data. The size of the EPBs is estimated by measuring its amplitude in the de-trended time variation of sTEC.

  16. Prioritising in situ conservation of crop resources: a case study of African cowpea (Vigna unguiculata).

    PubMed

    Moray, C; Game, E T; Maxted, N

    2014-01-01

    Conserving crop wild relatives (CWR) is critical for maintaining food security. However, CWR-focused conservation plans are lacking, and are often based on the entire genus, even though only a few taxa are useful for crop improvement. We used taxonomic and geographic prioritisation to identify the best locations for in situ conservation of the most important (priority) CWR, using African cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) as a case study. Cowpea is an important crop for subsistence farmers in sub-Saharan Africa, yet its CWR are under-collected, under-conserved and under-utilised in breeding. We identified the most efficient sites to focus in situ cowpea CWR conservation and assessed whether priority CWR would be adequately represented in a genus-based conservation plan. We also investigated whether priority cowpea CWR are likely to be found in existing conservation areas and in areas important for mammal conservation. The genus-based method captured most priority CWR, and the distributions of many priority CWR overlapped with established conservation reserves and targets. These results suggest that priority cowpea CWR can be conserved by building on conservation initiatives established for other species. PMID:24936740

  17. Silica exposure, silicosis, and lung cancer: a mortality study of South African gold miners.

    PubMed Central

    Hnizdo, E; Sluis-Cremer, G K

    1991-01-01

    The effects of exposure to gold mining dust with a high concentration of free silica and tobacco smoking on mortality from lung cancer was assessed in a sample of 2209 white South African gold miners who started mining exposure during 1936-43, and were selected for a study of respiratory disorders in 1968-71 when they were aged 45-54. The mortality follow up was from 1968-71 to 30 December 1986. The relative risk for the effect of dust cumulated to the start of the follow up period was estimated as 1.023 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.005-1.042) for a unit of 1000 particle-years. The combined effect of dust and tobacco smoking was better fitted by the multiplicative model than the additive model, suggesting that the two exposures act synergistically. No association between lung cancer and silicosis of the parenchyma or pleura was found, but a positive association existed between silicosis of the hilar glands and lung cancer. PMID:1847069

  18. Association Between Adolescent Drinking and Adult Violence: Evidence From a Longitudinal Study of Urban African Americans*

    PubMed Central

    Green, Kerry M.; Doherty, Elaine E.; Zebrak, Katarzyna A.; Ensminger, Margaret E.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This study examined the relationship between adolescent alcohol use and adult violence from a developmental perspective, specifically whether frequent adolescent drinking predicts adult violence once shared risk factors are taken into account through propensity score matching. The research considered multiple types of violence, including assault, robbery, and suicidal behavior, as well as other types of offending. It tested whether educational attainment and adult alcohol use and problems contribute to the adolescent drinking–adult violence relationship. Method: Data came from a longitudinal epidemiological study of a community cohort of urban African Americans followed from age 6 to 42 (N = 702; 51% female). Frequent adolescent drinking was operationalized as 20 times or more by age 16. Data on violent arrests and offenses were collected throughout adulthood from self-reports and official criminal records. Matching variables came from childhood and adolescence and included such shared risk factors as childhood externalizing behaviors, school achievement, and family functioning. Results: Adjusted logistic regression analyses on the sample matched on childhood and adolescent risk factors showed that frequent adolescent drinking was associated with an increased risk of violence in young adulthood (in particular assault) but not with other types of crime, self-directed violence, or violence in midlife. Findings varied by gender. Heavy episodic drinking in adulthood seemed to account for some of the association between frequent adolescent drinking and adult assault. Conclusions: The results of this study suggest that preventing frequent adolescent drinking could potentially decrease adult assault. This study adds to the growing body of literature suggesting long-term negative consequences of adolescent alcohol use. PMID:21906497

  19. Metabolomics and Incidence of Atrial Fibrillation in African Americans: The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study

    PubMed Central

    Alonso, Alvaro; Yu, Bing; Qureshi, Waqas T.; Grams, Morgan E.; Selvin, Elizabeth; Soliman, Elsayed Z.; Loehr, Laura R.; Chen, Lin Y.; Agarwal, Sunil K.; Alexander, Danny; Boerwinkle, Eric

    2015-01-01

    Background Atrial fibrillation (AF) is a common arrhythmia. Application of metabolomic approaches, which may identify novel pathways and biomarkers of disease risk, to a longitudinal epidemiologic study of AF has been limited. Methods We determined the prospective association of 118 serum metabolites identified through untargeted metabolomics profiling with the incidence of newly-diagnosed AF in 1919 African-American men and women from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities study without AF at baseline (1987–1989). Incident AF cases through 2011 were ascertained from study electrocardiograms, hospital discharge codes, and death certificates. Results During a median follow-up of 22 years, we identified 183 incident AF cases. In Cox proportional hazards models adjusted for age, sex, smoking, body mass index, systolic blood pressure, use of antihypertensive medication, diabetes, prevalent heart failure, prevalent coronary heart disease, and kidney function, two conjugated bile acids (glycolithocholate sulfate and glycocholenate sulfate) were significantly associated with AF risk after correcting for multiple comparisons (p<0.0004). Multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios (95% confidence intervals) of AF were 1.22 (1.12–1.32) for glycolithocholate sulfate and 1.22 (1.10–1.35) for glycocholenate sulfate per 1-standard deviation higher levels. Associations were not appreciably different after additional adjustment for alcohol consumption or concentrations of circulating albumin and liver enzymes. Conclusion We found an association of higher levels of two bile acids with an increased risk of AF, pointing to a potential novel pathway in AF pathogenesis. Replication of results in independent studies is warranted. PMID:26544570

  20. Data Information for Global Change Studies: NASA's Distributed Active Archive Centers and Cooperating Data Centers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The Earth Observing System (EOS) is an integral part of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA's) Earth Science Enterprise (ESE). ESE is a long-term global change research program designed to improve our understanding of the Earth's interrelated processes involving the atmosphere, oceans, land surfaces, and polar regions. Data from EOS instruments and other Earth science measurement systems are useful in understanding the causes and processes of global climate change and the consequences of human activities. The EOS Data and Information System (EOSDIS) provides a structure for data management and user services for products derived from EOS satellite instruments and other NASA Earth science data. Within the EOSDIS framework, the Distributed Active Archive Centers (DAACs) have been established to provide expertise in one or more Earth science disciplines. The DAACs and cooperating data centers provide data and information services to support the global change research community. Much of the development of the DAACs has been in anticipation of the enormous amount of data expected from EOS instruments to be launched within the next two decades. Terra, the EOS flagship launched in December 1999, is the first of a series of EOS satellites to carry several instruments with multispectral capabilities. Some data products from these instruments are now available from several of the DAACs. These and other data products can be ordered through the EOS Data Gateway (EDG) and DAAC-specific online ordering systems.

  1. Compliance with infection control recommendations in South African dental practices: a review of studies published between 1990 and 2007.

    PubMed

    Oosthuysen, J; Potgieter, E; Blignaut, E

    2010-06-01

    In a country where the prevalence of infectious diseases ranks among the highest in the world, infection control in health care facilities should not be debatable. This unfortunately does not seem to be the case in South African oral health care facilities. This study is a systematic review of available literature on the adherence of South African oral health care professionals to infection control recommendations. Nine focus areas were investigated with regard to infection control practices: knowledge of infectious occupational hazards; personal hygiene and care of hands; correct application of personal protective equipment; use of environmental barriers and disposable items; sterilisation (recirculation) of instruments and handpieces; disinfection (surfaces) and sound housekeeping; management of waste disposal; quality control of dental unit waterlines, biofilms and water; as well as other special considerations. Although South African studies are limited and most of them relied on self-reports, which could have resulted in a serious overestimation of compliance, even these studies indicate serious shortcomings with regard to infection control practices in oral health care facilities in this country. This review highlights opportunity for improvement. Furthermore, it identifies possibilities for future research in infection control and also opportunities to improve infection control education for all oral health care workers in the country. PMID:20684444

  2. A Genome-wide study of blood pressure in African Americans accounting for gene-smoking interaction

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Jacquelyn Y.; Schwander, Karen; Kardia, Sharon L. R.; Arnett, Donna; Liang, Jingjing; Hunt, Steven C.; Rao, D.C.; Sun, Yan V.

    2016-01-01

    Cigarette smoking has been shown to be a health hazard. In addition to being considered a negative lifestyle behavior, studies have shown that cigarette smoking has been linked to genetic underpinnings of hypertension. Because African Americans have the highest incidence and prevalence of hypertension, we examined the joint effect of genetics and cigarette smoking on health among this understudied population. The sample included African Americans from the genome wide association studies of HyperGEN (N = 1083, discovery sample) and GENOA (N = 1427, replication sample), both part of the FBPP. Results suggested that 2 SNPs located on chromosomes 14 (NEDD8; rs11158609; raw p = 9.80 × 10−9, genomic control-adjusted p = 2.09 × 10−7) and 17 (TTYH2; rs8078051; raw p = 6.28 × 10−8, genomic control-adjusted p = 9.65 × 10−7) were associated with SBP including the genetic interaction with cigarette smoking. These two SNPs were not associated with SBP in a main genetic effect only model. This study advances knowledge in the area of main and joint effects of genetics and cigarette smoking on hypertension among African Americans and offers a model to the reader for assessing these risks. More research is required to determine how these genes play a role in expression of hypertension. PMID:26752167

  3. Health disparities and culturally specific treatment: perspectives and expectancies of African American smokers.

    PubMed

    Webb, Monica S; Francis, Joan; Hines, Bill C; Quarles, Frankie B

    2007-06-01

    Researchers suggest that culturally specific (CS) interventions are important in addressing smoking-related health disparities. Yet, little research has examined the perspectives of African American smokers regarding these efforts. This qualitative study sought to gain insight into perceptions related to (a) the smoking prevalence among African Americans, (b) smoking-related health disparities, (c) expectancies for CS interventions, (d) methods of recruiting research participants, and (e) key intervention components. Six focus groups were conducted with 41 African American smokers (aged 21-64) at a community health center. Content analyses revealed several themes, including the perception that smoking is normative among African Americans, limited knowledge of racial health disparities, mixed perceptions regarding race as a risk factor for illness, and mixed expectancies for the efficacy of CS interventions. In conclusion, individual differences, such as smoking norms, knowledge of health disparities, and intervention expectations may influence receptivity to CS treatments. Implications for tobacco interventions among African Americans are discussed. PMID:17457845

  4. A study of a culturally enhanced EatRight dietary intervention in a predominately African American workplace

    PubMed Central

    Ard, Jamy D.; Cox, Tiffany L.; Zunker, Christie; Wingo, Brooks C.; Jefferson, Wendy K.; Brakhage, Cora

    2013-01-01

    The workplace may be an ideal venue for engaging African American women in behavioral interventions for weight reduction. This study examines the effectiveness of a culturally-enhanced EatRight dietary intervention among a group of predominately African American women in a workplace setting. Thirty-nine women volunteered for this cross-over design study, with 27 completing. The control period involved observation of participants for 22 weeks after receiving standard counseling on lifestyle methods to achieve a healthy weight; following the control period, participants crossed over to the 22-week intervention period. The intervention was culturally-enhanced using feedback derived from formative assessment and delivered as 15 group sessions. The primary outcome measure was the difference in weight change between the control and intervention periods; changes in waist circumference and quality of life were secondary outcomes. Most participants were obese with a mean baseline body mass index of 36 kg/m2, weight of 97.9 kg and waist circumference of 111 cm. Weight increased during the control period by 0.7 kg but decreased by 2.6 kg during the intervention (net difference = −3.4 kg, p<0.001), with 30% of participants losing ≥5% of body weight. Compared to the control period, there was a significant decrease in waist circumference (−3.6 cm, p = 0.006) and improvement in weight-related quality of life (5.7, p = 0.03). This pilot study demonstrated the feasibility of a culturally-enhanced behavioral weight loss intervention in a predominately African American workplace setting. The workplace may be conducive for targeting African American women who are disproportionately affected by obesity. PMID:20885173

  5. FGFR2 variants and breast cancer risk: fine-scale mapping using African American studies and analysis of chromatin conformation.

    PubMed

    Udler, Miriam S; Meyer, Kerstin B; Pooley, Karen A; Karlins, Eric; Struewing, Jeffery P; Zhang, Jinghui; Doody, David R; MacArthur, Stewart; Tyrer, Jonathan; Pharoah, Paul D; Luben, Robert; Bernstein, Leslie; Kolonel, Laurence N; Henderson, Brian E; Le Marchand, Loic; Ursin, Giske; Press, Michael F; Brennan, Paul; Sangrajrang, Suleeporn; Gaborieau, Valerie; Odefrey, Fabrice; Shen, Chen-Yang; Wu, Pei-Ei; Wang, Hui-Chun; Kang, Daehee; Yoo, Keun-Young; Noh, Dong-Young; Ahn, Sei-Hyun; Ponder, Bruce A J; Haiman, Christopher A; Malone, Kathleen E; Dunning, Alison M; Ostrander, Elaine A; Easton, Douglas F

    2009-05-01

    Genome-wide association studies have identified FGFR2 as a breast cancer (BC) susceptibility gene in populations of European and Asian descent, but a causative variant has not yet been conclusively identified. We hypothesized that the weaker linkage disequilibrium across this associated region in populations of African ancestry might help refine the set of candidate-causal single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) previously identified by our group. Eight candidate-causal SNPs were evaluated in 1253 African American invasive BC cases and 1245 controls. A significant association with BC risk was found with SNP rs2981578 (unadjusted per-allele odds ratio = 1.20, 95% confidence interval 1.03-1.41, P(trend) = 0.02), with the odds ratio estimate similar to that reported in European and Asian subjects. To extend the fine-mapping, genotype data from the African American studies were analyzed jointly with data from European (n = 7196 cases, 7275 controls) and Asian (n = 3901 cases, 3205 controls) studies. In the combined analysis, SNP rs2981578 was the most strongly associated. Five other SNPs were too strongly correlated to be excluded at a likelihood ratio of < 1/100 relative to rs2981578. Analysis of DNase I hypersensitive sites indicated that only two of these map to highly accessible chromatin, one of which, SNP rs2981578, has previously been implicated in up-regulating FGFR2 expression. Our results demonstrate that the association of SNPs in FGFR2 with BC risk extends to women of African American ethnicity, and illustrate the utility of combining association analysis in datasets of diverse ethnic groups with functional experiments to identify disease susceptibility variants. PMID:19223389

  6. The IMS Satellite Situation Center. [International Magnetospheric Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sugiura, M.; Vette, J. I.

    1977-01-01

    Following a brief historical review of the SSC (Satellite Situation Center), created by the U.S. for the IMS (International Magnetospheric Study), its main functions are discussed. The services of the SSC include the accurate orbit determination of the satellites, 12-18 months in advance and the coordination of simultaneous observations by a multispacecraft system, which are essential for the optimization of the scientific gains from experiments conducted with limited resources. For 1976 SSC generated plots of the satellites Vela 5B, Vela 6A, Vela 6B, Hawkeye 1, Imp H (7), Imp J (8) by computing certain projections of the solar ecliptic, solar magnetospheric, and solar magnetic coordinate systems. The SSC system was automated by the addition of a computer system capable of interactive graphics. The SSC can also provide the ground-based campaigns with a graphical or tabular information about the position low-altitude satellites in any coordinate system. The possible participation of the SSC in future Electrodynamics Explorer mission, Space Shuttle programs is also being explored.

  7. Center for Advanced Energy Studies (CAES) Strategic Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Kevin Kostelnik; Keith Perry

    2007-07-01

    Twenty-first century energy challenges include demand growth, national energy security, and global climate protection. The Center for Advanced Energy Studies (CAES) is a public/private partnership between the State of Idaho and its academic research institutions, the federal government through the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) managed by the Battelle Energy Alliance (BEA). CAES serves to advance energy security for our nation by expanding the educational opportunities at the Idaho universities in energy-related areas, creating new capabilities within its member institutions, and delivering technological innovations leading to technology-based economic development for the intermountain region. CAES has developed this strategic plan based on the Balanced Scorecard approach. A Strategy Map (Section 7) summarizes the CAES vision, mission, customers, and strategic objectives. Identified strategic objectives encompass specific outcomes related to three main areas: Research, Education, and Policy. Technical capabilities and critical enablers needed to support these objectives are also identified. This CAES strategic plan aligns with and supports the strategic objectives of the four CAES institutions. Implementation actions are also presented which will be used to monitor progress towards fulfilling these objectives.

  8. Associations of adiponectin with individual European ancestry in African Americans: the Jackson Heart Study

    PubMed Central

    Bidulescu, Aurelian; Choudhry, Shweta; Musani, Solomon K.; Buxbaum, Sarah G.; Liu, Jiankang; Rotimi, Charles N.; Wilson, James G.; Taylor, Herman A.; Gibbons, Gary H.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Compared with European Americans, African Americans (AAs) exhibit lower levels of the cardio-metabolically protective adiponectin even after accounting for adiposity measures. Because few studies have examined in AA the association between adiponectin and genetic admixture, a dense panel of ancestry informative markers (AIMs) was used to estimate the individual proportions of European ancestry (PEA) for the AAs enrolled in a large community-based cohort, the Jackson Heart Study (JHS). We tested the hypothesis that plasma adiponectin and PEA are directly associated and assessed the interaction with a series of cardio-metabolic risk factors. Methods: Plasma specimens from 1439 JHS participants were analyzed by ELISA for adiponectin levels. Using pseudo-ancestral population genotype data from the HapMap Consortium, PEA was estimated with a panel of up to 1447 genome-wide preselected AIMs by a maximum likelihood approach. Interaction assessment, stepwise linear and cubic multivariable-adjusted regression models were used to analyze the cross-sectional association between adiponectin and PEA. Results: Among the study participants (62% women; mean age 48 ± 12 years), the median (interquartile range) of PEA was 15.8 (9.3)%. Body mass index (BMI) (p = 0.04) and insulin resistance (p = 0.0001) modified the association between adiponectin and PEA. Adiponectin was directly and linearly associated with PEA (β = 0.62 ± 0.28, p = 0.03) among non-obese (n = 673) and insulin sensitive participants (n = 1141; β = 0.74 ± 0.23, p = 0.001), but not among those obese or with insulin resistance. No threshold point effect was detected for non-obese participants. Conclusions: In a large AA population, the individual proportion of European ancestry was linearly and directly associated with plasma adiponectin among non-obese and non insulin-resistant participants, pointing to the interaction of genetic and metabolic factors influencing adiponectin levels. PMID:24575123

  9. Rationale and design of the African group A streptococcal infection registry: the AFROStrep study

    PubMed Central

    Barth, Dylan D; Engel, Mark E; Whitelaw, Andrew; Alemseged, Abdissa; Sadoh, Wilson E; Ali, Sulafa K M; Sow, Samba O; Dale, James; Mayosi, Bongani M

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Group A β-haemolytic Streptococcus (GAS), a Gram-positive bacterium, also known as Streptococcus pyogenes, causes pyoderma, pharyngitis and invasive disease. Repeated GAS infections may lead to autoimmune diseases such as acute post-streptococcal glomerulonephritis, acute rheumatic fever (ARF) and rheumatic heart disease (RHD). Invasive GAS (iGAS) disease is an important cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide. The burden of GAS infections is, however, unknown in Africa because of lack of surveillance systems. Methods and analysis The African group A streptococcal infection registry (the AFROStrep study) is a collaborative multicentre study of clinical, microbiological, epidemiological and molecular characteristics for GAS infection in Africa. The AFROStrep registry comprises two components: (1) active surveillance of GAS pharyngitis cases from sentinel primary care centres (non-iGAS) and (2) passive surveillance of iGAS disease from microbiology laboratories. Isolates will also be subjected to DNA isolation to allow for characterisation by molecular methods and cryopreservation for long-term storage. The AFROStrep study seeks to collect comprehensive data on GAS isolates in Africa. The biorepository will serve as a platform for vaccine development in Africa. Ethics and dissemination Ethics approval for the AFROStrep registry has been obtained from the Human Research Ethics Committee at the University of Cape Town (HREC/REF: R006/2015). Each recruiting site will seek ethics approval from their local ethics’ committee. All participants will be required to provide consent for inclusion into the registry as well as for the storage of isolates and molecular investigations to be conducted thereon. Strict confidentiality will be applied throughout. Findings and updates will be disseminated to collaborators, researchers, health planners and colleagues through peer-reviewed journal articles, conference publications and proceedings. PMID:26916694

  10. Genome-wide association study of age at menarche in African-American women

    PubMed Central

    Demerath, Ellen W.; Liu, Ching-Ti; Franceschini, Nora; Chen, Gary; Palmer, Julie R.; Smith, Erin N.; Chen, Christina T.L.; Ambrosone, Christine B.; Arnold, Alice M.; Bandera, Elisa V.; Berenson, Gerald S.; Bernstein, Leslie; Britton, Angela; Cappola, Anne R.; Carlson, Christopher S.; Chanock, Stephen J.; Chen, Wei; Chen, Zhao; Deming, Sandra L.; Elks, Cathy E.; Evans, Michelle K.; Gajdos, Zofia; Henderson, Brian E.; Hu, Jennifer J.; Ingles, Sue; John, Esther M.; Kerr, Kathleen F.; Kolonel, Laurence N.; Le Marchand, Loic; Lu, Xiaoning; Millikan, Robert C.; Musani, Solomon K.; Nock, Nora L.; North, Kari; Nyante, Sarah; Press, Michael F.; Rodriquez-Gil, Jorge L.; Ruiz-Narvaez, Edward A.; Schork, Nicholas J.; Srinivasan, Sathanur R.; Woods, Nancy F.; Zheng, Wei; Ziegler, Regina G.; Zonderman, Alan; Heiss, Gerardo; Gwen Windham, B.; Wellons, Melissa; Murray, Sarah S.; Nalls, Michael; Pastinen, Tomi; Rajkovic, Aleksandar; Hirschhorn, Joel; Adrienne Cupples, L.; Kooperberg, Charles; Murabito, Joanne M.; Haiman, Christopher A.

    2013-01-01

    African-American (AA) women have earlier menarche on average than women of European ancestry (EA), and earlier menarche is a risk factor for obesity and type 2 diabetes among other chronic diseases. Identification of common genetic variants associated with age at menarche has a potential value in pointing to the genetic pathways underlying chronic disease risk, yet comprehensive genome-wide studies of age at menarche are lacking for AA women. In this study, we tested the genome-wide association of self-reported age at menarche with common single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in a total of 18 089 AA women in 15 studies using an additive genetic linear regression model, adjusting for year of birth and population stratification, followed by inverse-variance weighted meta-analysis (Stage 1). Top meta-analysis results were then tested in an independent sample of 2850 women (Stage 2). First, while no SNP passed the pre-specified P < 5 × 10−8 threshold for significance in Stage 1, suggestive associations were found for variants near FLRT2 and PIK3R1, and conditional analysis identified two independent SNPs (rs339978 and rs980000) in or near RORA, strengthening the support for this suggestive locus identified in EA women. Secondly, an investigation of SNPs in 42 previously identified menarche loci in EA women demonstrated that 25 (60%) of them contained variants significantly associated with menarche in AA women. The findings provide the first evidence of cross-ethnic generalization of menarche loci identified to date, and suggest a number of novel biological links to menarche timing in AA women. PMID:23599027

  11. Genome-wide association study of age at menarche in African-American women.

    PubMed

    Demerath, Ellen W; Liu, Ching-Ti; Franceschini, Nora; Chen, Gary; Palmer, Julie R; Smith, Erin N; Chen, Christina T L; Ambrosone, Christine B; Arnold, Alice M; Bandera, Elisa V; Berenson, Gerald S; Bernstein, Leslie; Britton, Angela; Cappola, Anne R; Carlson, Christopher S; Chanock, Stephen J; Chen, Wei; Chen, Zhao; Deming, Sandra L; Elks, Cathy E; Evans, Michelle K; Gajdos, Zofia; Henderson, Brian E; Hu, Jennifer J; Ingles, Sue; John, Esther M; Kerr, Kathleen F; Kolonel, Laurence N; Le Marchand, Loic; Lu, Xiaoning; Millikan, Robert C; Musani, Solomon K; Nock, Nora L; North, Kari; Nyante, Sarah; Press, Michael F; Rodriquez-Gil, Jorge L; Ruiz-Narvaez, Edward A; Schork, Nicholas J; Srinivasan, Sathanur R; Woods, Nancy F; Zheng, Wei; Ziegler, Regina G; Zonderman, Alan; Heiss, Gerardo; Gwen Windham, B; Wellons, Melissa; Murray, Sarah S; Nalls, Michael; Pastinen, Tomi; Rajkovic, Aleksandar; Hirschhorn, Joel; Adrienne Cupples, L; Kooperberg, Charles; Murabito, Joanne M; Haiman, Christopher A

    2013-08-15

    African-American (AA) women have earlier menarche on average than women of European ancestry (EA), and earlier menarche is a risk factor for obesity and type 2 diabetes among other chronic diseases. Identification of common genetic variants associated with age at menarche has a potential value in pointing to the genetic pathways underlying chronic disease risk, yet comprehensive genome-wide studies of age at menarche are lacking for AA women. In this study, we tested the genome-wide association of self-reported age at menarche with common single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in a total of 18 089 AA women in 15 studies using an additive genetic linear regression model, adjusting for year of birth and population stratification, followed by inverse-variance weighted meta-analysis (Stage 1). Top meta-analysis results were then tested in an independent sample of 2850 women (Stage 2). First, while no SNP passed the pre-specified P < 5 × 10(-8) threshold for significance in Stage 1, suggestive associations were found for variants near FLRT2 and PIK3R1, and conditional analysis identified two independent SNPs (rs339978 and rs980000) in or near RORA, strengthening the support for this suggestive locus identified in EA women. Secondly, an investigation of SNPs in 42 previously identified menarche loci in EA women demonstrated that 25 (60%) of them contained variants significantly associated with menarche in AA women. The findings provide the first evidence of cross-ethnic generalization of menarche loci identified to date, and suggest a number of novel biological links to menarche timing in AA women. PMID:23599027

  12. Heroin addiction in African Americans: a hypothesis-driven association study.

    PubMed

    Levran, O; Londono, D; O'Hara, K; Randesi, M; Rotrosen, J; Casadonte, P; Linzy, S; Ott, J; Adelson, M; Kreek, M J

    2009-07-01

    Heroin addiction is a chronic complex disease with a substantial genetic contribution. This study was designed to identify gene variants associated with heroin addiction in African Americans. The emphasis was on genes involved in reward modulation, behavioral control, cognitive function, signal transduction and stress response. We have performed a case-control association analysis by screening with 1350 variants of 130 genes. The sample consisted of 202 former severe heroin addicts in methadone treatment and 167 healthy controls with no history of drug abuse. Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), haplotype and multi-SNP genotype pattern analyses were performed. Seventeen SNPs showed point-wise significant association with heroin addiction (nominal P< 0.01). These SNPs are from genes encoding several receptors: adrenergic (ADRA1A), arginine vasopressin (AVPR1A), cholinergic (CHRM2), dopamine (DRD1), GABA-A (GABRB3), glutamate (GRIN2A) and serotonin (HTR3A) as well as alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH7), glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD1 and GAD2), the nucleoside transporter (SLC29A1) and diazepam-binding inhibitor (DBI). The most significant result of the analyses was obtained for the GRIN2A haplotype G-A-T (rs4587976-rs1071502-rs1366076) with protective effect (P(uncorrected) = 9.6E- 05, P(corrected) = 0.058). This study corroborates several reported associations with alcohol and drug addiction as well as other related disorders and extends the list of variants that may affect the development of heroin addiction. Further studies will be necessary to replicate these associations and to elucidate the roles of these variants in drug addiction vulnerability. PMID:19500151

  13. National health policies: sub-Saharan African case studies (1980-1990).

    PubMed

    Dugbatey, K

    1999-07-01

    changes in the sub-Saharan African region as a whole and in some of the case countries in particular. Political leadership has changed in Ghana and Cote d'Ivoire with some course corrections in Ghana's health plans. Health sector financing in the region has become more dependent on external donors. The World Bank leads the external donor community in promoting policy-based lending. The complexity of a number of health problems has changed while the problems themselves remain the same as before. Essentially, building viable public health infrastructures to address basic public health needs must still be high on the agenda of action for most governments in the region. Thus, notwithstanding some course corrections and reasonable shifts in priorities, all the PHC principles are still applicable, indeed, much needed in the sub-Saharan African region. This study's findings, underscoring the fact that significant improvements in health are possible even where financial resources are limited, still hold true. PMID:10414831

  14. A Qualitative Study of Barriers to the Utilization of HIV Testing Services Among Rural African American Cocaine Users

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Patricia B.; Stewart, Katharine E.; Curran, Geoffrey M.; Booth, Brenda M.

    2013-01-01

    This qualitative study is about barriers to the utilization of HIV testing as perceived by African Americans who have recently used cocaine and who live in the rural Delta region of Arkansas. Affordability, physical accessibility, and geographic availability were not perceived as barriers to HIV testing in this sample, yet acceptability was still perceived as poor. Acceptability due to social mores and norms was a major barrier. Many said testing was unacceptable because of fear of social costs. Many were confident of being HIV-negative based on risky assumptions about testing and the notification process. Small-town social and sexual networks added to concerns about reputation and risk. System approaches may fail if they focus solely on improving access to HIV services but do not take into consideration deeply internalized experiences of rural African Americans as well as involvement of the community in developing programs and services. PMID:24039279

  15. African Easterly Waves in 30-day High-Resolution Global Simulations: A Case Study During the 2006 NAMMA Period

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shen, Bo-Wen; Tao, Wei-Kuo; Wu, Man-Li C.

    2010-01-01

    In this study, extended -range (30 -day) high-resolution simulations with the NASA global mesoscale model are conducted to simulate the initiation and propagation of six consecutive African easterly waves (AEWs) from late August to September 2006 and their association with hurricane formation. It is shown that the statistical characteristics of individual AEWs are realistically simulated with larger errors in the 5th and 6th AEWs. Remarkable simulations of a mean African easterly jet (AEJ) are also obtained. Nine additional 30 -day experiments suggest that although land surface processes might contribute to the predictability of the AEJ and AEWs, the initiation and detailed evolution of AEWs still depend on the accurate representation of dynamic and land surface initial conditions and their time -varying nonlinear interactions. Of interest is the potential to extend the lead time for predicting hurricane formation (e.g., a lead time of up to 22 days) as the 4th AEW is realistically simulated.

  16. A Qualitative Study of Barriers to the Utilization of HIV Testing Services Among Rural African American Cocaine Users.

    PubMed

    Wright, Patricia B; Stewart, Katharine E; Curran, Geoffrey M; Booth, Brenda M

    2013-07-01

    This qualitative study is about barriers to the utilization of HIV testing as perceived by African Americans who have recently used cocaine and who live in the rural Delta region of Arkansas. Affordability, physical accessibility, and geographic availability were not perceived as barriers to HIV testing in this sample, yet acceptability was still perceived as poor. Acceptability due to social mores and norms was a major barrier. Many said testing was unacceptable because of fear of social costs. Many were confident of being HIV-negative based on risky assumptions about testing and the notification process. Small-town social and sexual networks added to concerns about reputation and risk. System approaches may fail if they focus solely on improving access to HIV services but do not take into consideration deeply internalized experiences of rural African Americans as well as involvement of the community in developing programs and services. PMID:24039279

  17. Identifying the Local Impacts of National ATE Centers on Their Host Institutions: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, Charles; Fynewever, Herb; Petcovic, Heather; Bierema, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to identify the local impacts of national advanced technological education (ATE) centers on their host institutions. A sample of three mature, national ATE centers are chosen, with each center serving as a case for a mixed-methods, collective case study research design. Results, drawn from interviews and surveys,…

  18. African American Preschoolers' Language, Emergent Literacy Skills, and Use of African American English: A Complex Relation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connor, Carol McDonald; Craig, Holly K.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined the relation between African American preschoolers' use of African American English (AAE) and their language and emergent literacy skills in an effort to better understand the perplexing and persistent difficulties many African American children experience learning to read proficiently. Method: African American…

  19. Meeting the Expectations of the Social Studies Teacher at a Teacher Center.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schober, Helen

    1984-01-01

    Teacher centers respond to a teacher's own defined needs by offering assistance, instruction, and materials to help enrich classroom learning experiences. Services provided social studies educators by the Teacher Center in Humboldt County, California, are described. (RM)

  20. Residential Proximity to Major Roadways Is Not Associated with Cardiac Function in African Americans: Results from the Jackson Heart Study

    PubMed Central

    Weaver, Anne M.; Wellenius, Gregory A.; Wu, Wen-Chih; Hickson, DeMarc A.; Kamalesh, Masoor; Wang, Yi

    2016-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD), including heart failure, is a major cause of morbidity and mortality, particularly among African Americans. Exposure to ambient air pollution, such as that produced by vehicular traffic, is believed to be associated with heart failure, possibly by impairing cardiac function. We evaluated the cross-sectional association between residential proximity to major roads, a marker of long-term exposure to traffic-related pollution, and echocardiographic indicators of left and pulmonary vascular function in African Americans enrolled in the Jackson Heart Study (JHS): left ventricular ejection fraction, E-wave velocity, isovolumic relaxation time, left atrial diameter index, and pulmonary artery systolic pressure. We examined these associations using multivariable linear or logistic regression, adjusting for potential confounders. Of 4866 participants at study enrollment, 106 lived <150 m, 159 lived 150–299 m, 1161 lived 300–999 m, and 3440 lived ≥1000 m from a major roadway. We did not observe any associations between residential distance to major roads and these markers of cardiac function. Results were similar with additional adjustment for diabetes and hypertension, when considering varying definitions of major roadways, or when limiting analyses to those free from cardiovascular disease at baseline. Overall, we observed little evidence that residential proximity to major roads was associated with cardiac function among African Americans. PMID:27304962

  1. Residential Proximity to Major Roadways Is Not Associated with Cardiac Function in African Americans: Results from the Jackson Heart Study.

    PubMed

    Weaver, Anne M; Wellenius, Gregory A; Wu, Wen-Chih; Hickson, DeMarc A; Kamalesh, Masoor; Wang, Yi

    2016-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD), including heart failure, is a major cause of morbidity and mortality, particularly among African Americans. Exposure to ambient air pollution, such as that produced by vehicular traffic, is believed to be associated with heart failure, possibly by impairing cardiac function. We evaluated the cross-sectional association between residential proximity to major roads, a marker of long-term exposure to traffic-related pollution, and echocardiographic indicators of left and pulmonary vascular function in African Americans enrolled in the Jackson Heart Study (JHS): left ventricular ejection fraction, E-wave velocity, isovolumic relaxation time, left atrial diameter index, and pulmonary artery systolic pressure. We examined these associations using multivariable linear or logistic regression, adjusting for potential confounders. Of 4866 participants at study enrollment, 106 lived <150 m, 159 lived 150-299 m, 1161 lived 300-999 m, and 3440 lived ≥1000 m from a major roadway. We did not observe any associations between residential distance to major roads and these markers of cardiac function. Results were similar with additional adjustment for diabetes and hypertension, when considering varying definitions of major roadways, or when limiting analyses to those free from cardiovascular disease at baseline. Overall, we observed little evidence that residential proximity to major roads was associated with cardiac function among African Americans. PMID:27304962

  2. Appetite regulation genes are associated with body mass index in black South African adolescents: a genetic association study

    PubMed Central

    Crowther, Nigel J; van der Merwe, Lize; Pitamber, Punita; Norris, Shane A; Ramsay, Michèle

    2012-01-01

    Background Obesity is a complex trait with both environmental and genetic contributors. Genome-wide association studies have identified several variants that are robustly associated with obesity and body mass index (BMI), many of which are found within genes involved in appetite regulation. Currently, genetic association data for obesity are lacking in Africans—a single genome-wide association study and a few replication studies have been published in West Africa, but none have been performed in a South African population. Objective To assess the association of candidate loci with BMI in black South Africans. The authors focused on single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the FTO, LEP, LEPR, MC4R, NPY2R and POMC genes. Design A genetic association study. Participants 990 randomly selected individuals from the larger Birth to Twenty cohort (a longitudinal birth cohort study of health and development in Africans). Measures The authors genotyped 44 SNPs within the six candidate genes that included known BMI-associated SNPs and tagSNPs based on linkage disequilibrium in an African population for FTO, LEP and NPY2R. To assess population substructure, the authors included 18 ancestry informative markers. Weight, height, sex, sex-specific pubertal stage and exact age collected during adolescence (13 years) were used to identify loci that predispose to obesity early in life. Results Sex, sex-specific pubertal stage and exact age together explain 14.3% of the variation in log(BMI) at age 13. After adjustment for these factors, four SNPs were individually significantly associated with BMI: FTO rs17817449 (p=0.022), LEP rs10954174 (p=0.0004), LEP rs6966536 (p=0.012) and MC4R rs17782313 (p=0.045). Together the four SNPs account for 2.1% of the variation in log(BMI). Each risk allele was associated with an estimated average increase of 2.5% in BMI. Conclusions The study highlighted SNPs in FTO and MC4R as potential genetic markers of obesity risk in South Africans. The

  3. Biology, literacy, and the African American voice: A case study of meaningful learning in the biology classroom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reese, Keturah

    Under the direction of Sharon Murphy Augustine, Ph.D./Ph.D Curriculum and Instruction There was a substantial performance gap among African Americans and other ethnic groups. Additionally, African American students in a Title I school were at a significantly high risk of not meeting or exceeding on performance tests in science. Past reports have shown average gains in some subject areas, and declines in others (NCES, 2011; GADOE, 2012). Current instructional strategies and the lack of literacy within the biology classroom created a problem for African American high school students on national and state assessments. The purpose of this study was to examine the perceptions of African American students and teachers in the context of literacy and biology through the incorporation of an interactive notebook and other literacy strategies. The data was collected three ways: field notes for a two week observation period within the biology classroom, student and teacher interviews, and student work samples. During the observations, student work collection, and interviews, I looked for the following codes: active learning, constructive learning, collaborative learning, authentic learning, and intentional learning. In the process of coding for the pre-determined codes, three more codes emerged. The three codes that emerged were organization, studying/student ownership, and student teacher relationships. Students and teachers both solidified the notion that literacy and biology worked well together. The implemented literacy strategies were something that both teachers and students appreciated in their learning of biology. Overall students and teachers perceived that the interactive notebook along Cornell notes, Thinking maps, close reads, writing, lab experiments, and group work created meaningful learning experiences within the biology classroom.

  4. Caregiver's education level and child's dental caries in African Americans: a path analytic study.

    PubMed

    Heima, Masahiro; Lee, Wonik; Milgrom, Peter; Nelson, Suchita

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of caregiver education level on children's dental caries mediated by both caregiver and child oral health behaviors. Participants were 423 low-income African American kindergarteners and their caregivers who were part of a school-based randomized clinical trial. Path analysis tested the hypothesis that caregiver education level affected untreated dental caries and cumulative overall caries experience (decayed or filled teeth) through the mediating influence of frequency of dental visits, use of routine care, and frequency of toothbrushing for both the caregiver and the child. The results supported the hypothesis: caregivers who completed high school were 1.76 times more likely to visit dentists compared with those who did not complete high school (e(0.56) = 1.76, 95% CI: 1.03-2.99), which in turn was associated with 5.78 times greater odds of dental visits among their children (e(1.76) = 5.78, 95% CI: 3.53-9.48). Children's dental visits, subsequently, were associated with 26% fewer untreated decayed teeth compared with children without dental visits (e(-0.31) = 0.74, 95% CI: 0.60-0.91). However, this path was not present in the model with overall caries experience. Additionally, caregiver education level was directly associated with 34% less untreated decayed teeth (e(-0.42) = 0.66, 95% CI: 0.54-0.79) and 28% less decayed or filled teeth (e(-0.32) = 0.72, 95% CI: 0.60-0.88) among the children. This study overcomes important conceptual and analytic limitations in the existing literature. The findings confirm the role of caregiver education in child dental caries and indicate that caregiver's behavioral factors are important mediators of child oral health. PMID:25661111

  5. Attitudes and Beliefs of African Immigrant Mothers Living in the US Towards Providing Comprehensive Sex Education to Daughters Aged 12-17 Years: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Agbemenu, Kafuli; Terry, Martha Ann; Hannan, Margaret; Kitutu, Julius; Doswell, Willa

    2016-10-01

    The literature currently contains no comprehensive sex education (CSE) interventions targeting the African immigrant population. African immigrant mothers have been inhibited by several factors from providing their daughters with CSE. The primary aim of this study was to identify attitudes and beliefs of Sub-Saharan immigrant mothers living in the United States towards providing comprehensive sex education to their daughters aged 12-17 years. The study utilized a one-time anonymous nine-question survey. Fifteen women who met the inclusion criteria completed the study survey online or via paper format. African immigrant mothers are willing to allow comprehensive sex to be taught in schools and at home. Accepted education appears to range from religious and moral teaching to some factual information. This research will potentially assist in the designing of more culturally appropriate comprehensive sex education programs for African immigrant mothers and their daughters. PMID:26438661

  6. 34 CFR 413.33 - What substantive studies must the National Center or Centers conduct and submit?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Secretary of Labor, the Secretary of Health and Human Services, the Committee on Labor and Human Resources... apprenticeship or mentoring approaches. (b) The National Center conducting dissemination and training activities shall annually prepare a study of its dissemination and training activities. (c) Annual...

  7. Making the Change: From a Teacher-Centered to a Learner-Centered Environment--A Phenomenological Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roof, Patty L.

    2012-01-01

    Nursing education is calling for transformation in teaching practices which includes learner-centered environments. The purpose of this qualitative phenomenological study was to explore 15 nursing faculty life experiences as they relate to the choice of a learning environment. Participants expressed their life experiences through interview…

  8. The Acculturation of Adult African Refugees Language Learners in Israel: An Ethnographic Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blake, Charles Carlos, III

    2012-01-01

    The number of refugees from Africa seeking asylum in Israel has recently skyrocketed, raising issues as to how to integrate them into Israeli society. Education is one of the mediums being used to encourage the cultural integration and inclusion of the refugees into Israeli society; very little is known, however, about how Africans are…

  9. Afrocentricity as a Generative Idea in the Study of African American Drama.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okur, Nilgun Anadolu

    1993-01-01

    The Afrocentric theories of Molefi Kete Asante are examined as they relate to drama. It is argued that the fundamental principle in understanding African-American drama rests on viewing it as a means of total creation deriving power from the interaction of the self, the community, and the cosmos. (SLD)

  10. Can Authoritarian Separatism Give Way to Linguistic Rights? A South African Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heugh, Kathleen

    2003-01-01

    This paper provides a background to recent developments in language planning in South Africa. Following a historical review, it focuses on a Bill of Rights in the new constitution which has, since 1993, demanded a shift towards rights-based language policy within a liberal framework. Debates within the Pan South African Language Board (PANSALB)…

  11. School Attendance Revisited: A Study of Urban African American Students' Grade Point Averages and Coping Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steward, Robbie J.; Steward, Astin Devine; Blair, Jonathan; Jo, Hanik; Hill, Martin F.

    2008-01-01

    Urban African American first-year high school students' absenteeism was found to be negatively related to grade point average (GPA) and avoidance as a means of coping (use of substances as a way to escape--food, alcohol, smoking, caffeine, etc.) and positively related to use of social support as a means of coping (efforts to stay emotionally…

  12. Elderly African Immigrants in Minnesota: A Case Study of Needs Assessment in Eight Cities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darboe, Kebba; Ahmed, Lul S.

    2007-01-01

    Needs assessment is the process of identifying the gap between a target population's needs and its services. If a gap exists, a program can be designed to effectively respond to those needs. This article explores the needs of elderly African immigrants in Minnesota through the use of qualitative interviews. A convenience sampling was used to…

  13. Parenting Practices and Child Adjustment in Different Types of Households: A Study of African American Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simons, Leslie Gordon; Chen, Yi-Fu; Simons, Ronald L.; Brody, Gene; Cutrona, Carolyn

    2006-01-01

    This article uses a sample of 867 African American households to investigate differences in parenting practices and child outcomes by type of household. Results indicate that mothers provide similar levels of parenting regardless of family structure. Secondary caregivers, however, show a great deal of variation in quality of parenting. Fathers and…

  14. Barriers and Supports to Postsecondary Transition: Case Studies of African American Students with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banks, Joy

    2014-01-01

    Upon exiting high school, some African American students with disabilities experience difficulty accessing disability support services and appropriate accommodations. Many of these difficulties in access can be traced to high school transition planning as the source. To understand the underlying transitional barriers and sources of support, case…

  15. African Americans. [Multicultural Studies for Grades 3 and 4, Reproducible Workbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maher, Jan; Selwyn, Doug

    This workbook is designed for use with third, fourth, or fifth grade elementary school students and focuses on African American history and culture. Of the workbook's 14 lessons, Lesson 1 asks students to consider what they already know about Africa. Lesson 2 focuses on the geography of Africa. Lesson 3 presents current scientific theory about the…

  16. African Virtual University: The Case of Kenyatta University, Kenya. Commonwealth Case Studies in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Juma, Magdallen N.

    This booklet describes the African Virtual University (AVU), an interactive instructional telecommunications network established to provide distance education to the countries of sub-Saharan Africa. The AVU was piloted in 1997-1998, and in the 1998-1999 academic year, 27 institutions were slated to offer AVU courses. Supported by the World Bank,…

  17. A Descriptive Study of African American Male Students at Peaks University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patton, Jamie S.

    2012-01-01

    As the governing board is calling for increased persistence and graduation rates, Peaks University (a pseudonym) in the southwestern United States will need to incorporate strategies to improve the perseverance to graduation of specific student groups including African American males. In a state where "Hispanics constitute 25 percent and Whites 63…

  18. Her Story: A Qualitative Study of the Journey of the African American Woman Superintendent

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Jamill Ray

    2013-01-01

    The superintendency is the most male-dominated position in education (Alston, 2000; Brunner, 2000). Although statistical data reveal the disproportion between males and women in superintendent positions, the data also report a greater discrepancy in the number of African American women who have obtained superintendent positions. This qualitative…

  19. African American Grandchildren Raised in Grandparent-Headed Families: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelch-Oliver, Karia

    2011-01-01

    There has been an increase in grandparents raising their grandchildren due to parental absence. This family structure has affected urban, single, low-income African Americans at a higher rate than any other racial group. Research on grandchildren reared in grandparent-headed families (GHF) states these children are at risk of significant…

  20. Autobiographical Narrative in a Language Classroom: A Case Study in a South African School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Msila, Vuyisile

    2012-01-01

    There are still many South African teachers who are challenged by the implementation of the relatively new system of education. They have to explore a variety of strategies as they try to transform their pedagogy to enhance learning in their classrooms. This post-apartheid system also challenges educators to be transformative individuals who…

  1. "Rewind the World!": An Ethnographic Study of Inner-City African American Children's Perceptions of Violence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Towns, Donna Penn

    1996-01-01

    Reports findings and conclusions from taped discussions with third- and sixth-grade African-American, inner-city students concerning their response to violent events in their communities. By using the triangulated methodology of ethnographers, it reveals how these experiences affected children's school performance, behaviors, and aspirations. (GR)

  2. Political Studies: An Entry into "Social Science Thought" in the South African Academy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tselapedi, Thapelo

    2016-01-01

    This paper briefly examines the epistemic orientation of the Politics discipline in South Africa, and specifically in "formerly white universities". The focus is to expose the disparity between this epistemic orientation and the South African locale that it finds itself in; that is, a locale whose history is different from its…

  3. Feasibility Study for the Establishment of Experimental Field Study Centers (Beachhead Colleges). Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Antioch Coll., Yellow Springs, OH.

    The Union for Research and Experimentation in Higher Education, a consortium of 10 colleges, initiated an experimental study of a new model for off-campus education in selected problematic areas. The model places students and faculty members in Field Study Centers-- or Beachhead Colleges --to help solve local problems through interaction between…

  4. Global and Regional-scale Sst Variability and West African Monsoon. The Role of The Indian Ocean : A Numerical Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trzaska, S.; Fontaine, B.; Janicot, S.

    Interannual to decadal variability of the West African Monsoon has been commonly linked to Tropical Atlantic and Pacific SST variabilities (so called "Atlantic Dipole" and ENSO). Tropical Atlantic is thought to affect West African Monsoon via modi- fication of low-level thermal gradients driving the monsoon thus the location of the rainbelt over the continent. Warm events in the easten Pacific may affect it via up- per level zonal circulation and eventual subsidence over West Africa. However the teleconnections seem to have modified through time : main association with tropi- cal Atlantic during 50's and 60's i.e. the wetter period vs stronger association with ENSO and relative disconnection with tropical Atlantic during recent, dry decades. The role of the Indian Ocean has not been much investigated so far. The variability of this basin is dominated by a slow warming trend which compares well with the global warming. This study is aimed at investigating the possible effects of the Indian Ocean warming on the West African Monsoon dynamics and its teleconnections to ENSO and Tropical Atlantic. It is shown that this warming can potentially modify circulation anomalies related to ENSO in the Atlantic-African region by limiting the zonal extent of the zonal circulation anomalies and shifting the main subsidence branch to Africa and central Atlantic. In non-ENSO case monsoon circulation seems also to have more zonal orientation. The results are documented in the divergent circulation frame since it allows to unify a regional view of the monsoon as a meridional overturning with the global effects of ENSO in the zonal circulation. Modifications in the low-level moisture flux are also presented.

  5. Challenges for Study Centers in an Electronic Age: A Case Study of the Center for Distance Education at the University of Oldenburg, Germany.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernath, Ulrich; Kleinschmidt, Axel; Walti, Christine; Zawacki, Olaf

    2003-01-01

    The Center for Distance Education at the University of Oldenburg began offering online tutorials with mentors in the 1990s. Virtual study centers using Lotus Learning Space as the online learning management system were created in 1999. Appropriate technical support, technology training, and preparation of mentors to be online teachers were…

  6. [Simultaneous association of tubercular meningitis and cryptococcal meningitis in an African with human immunodeficiency virus HIV positive serology. University Hospital Center of Bujumbura,Burundi].

    PubMed

    Niyongabo, T; Aubry, P

    1992-01-01

    The authors report a connection between a meningitis tuberculosis and a meningoencephalitis with cryptococcus in the case of an african VIH+. The diagnostic of a meningitis tuberculosis was retained on an indirect arguments, this of meningoencephalitis of direct arguments (antigen cryptococcus, cultivation on Sabouraud environment). The pulmonary tuberculosis and/or extrapulmonary tuberculosis is current in Central Africa during HIV infection, as well as the crytococcosis during AIDS. But, any observation on neuromeningitis strike of those two infections have been reported up to now. PMID:1406216

  7. Perceived Discrimination is Associated with Health Behaviors among African Americans in the Jackson Heart Study*

    PubMed Central

    Sims, Mario; Diez-Roux, Ana V.; Gebreab, Samson Y.; Brenner, Allison; Dubbert, Patricia; Wyatt, Sharon; Bruce, Marino; Hickson, DeMarc; Payne, Tom; Taylor, Herman

    2016-01-01

    Background Using Jackson Heart Study data, we examined associations of multiple measures of perceived discrimination with health behaviors among African Americans (AA). Methods The cross-sectional associations of everyday, lifetime, and burden of discrimination with odds of smoking and mean differences in physical activity, dietary fat, and sleep were examined among 4,939 35–84 year old participants after adjustment for age and socioeconomic status (SES). Results Men reported slightly higher levels of everyday and lifetime discrimination than women and similar levels of burden of discrimination as women. After adjustment for age and SES, everyday discrimination was associated with more smoking and a greater percentage of dietary fat in men and women (OR for smoking: 1.13, 95%CI 1.00,1.28 and 1.19, 95%CI 1.05,1.34; mean difference in dietary fat: 0.37, p<.05 and 0.43, p<.01, in men and women, respectively). Everyday and lifetime discrimination were associated with fewer hours of sleep in men and women (mean difference for everyday discrimination: −0.08, p<.05 and −0.18, p<.001, respectively; and mean difference for lifetime discrimination: −0.08, p<.05, and −0.24, p<.001, respectively). Burden of discrimination was associated with more smoking and fewer hours of sleep in women only. Conclusions Higher levels of perceived discrimination were associated with select health behaviors among men and women. Health behaviors offer a potential mechanism through which perceived discrimination affects health in AA. PMID:26417003

  8. Genome-wide association study of tick resistance in South African Nguni cattle.

    PubMed

    Mapholi, N O; Maiwashe, A; Matika, O; Riggio, V; Bishop, S C; MacNeil, M D; Banga, C; Taylor, J F; Dzama, K

    2016-04-01

    Ticks and tick-borne diseases are among the main causes of economic loss in the South African cattle industry through high morbidity and mortality rates. Concerns of the general public regarding chemical residues may tarnish their perceptions of food safety and environmental health when the husbandry of cattle includes frequent use of acaricides to manage ticks. The primary objective of this study was to identify single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers associated with host resistance to ticks in South African Nguni cattle. Tick count data were collected monthly from 586 Nguni cattle reared in four herds under natural grazing conditions over a period of two years. The counts were recorded for six species of ticks attached in eight anatomical locations on the animals and were summed by species and anatomical location. This gave rise to 63 measured phenotypes or traits, with results for 12 of these traits being reported here. Tick count (x) data were transformed using log10(x+1) and the resulting values were examined for normality. DNA was extracted from hair and blood samples and was genotyped using the Illumina BovineSNP50 assay. After quality control (call rate >90%, minor allele frequency >0.02), 40,436 SNPs were retained for analysis. Genetic parameters were estimated and association analysis for tick resistance was carried out using two approaches: a genome-wide association (GWA) analysis using the GenABEL package and a regional heritability mapping (RHM) analysis. The Bonferroni genome-wide (P<0.05) corrected significance threshold was 1.24×10(-6), with 2.47×10(-5) as the suggestive significance threshold (P<0.10) (i.e., one false positive per genome scan) in the GWA analysis. Likelihood ratio test (LRT) thresholds for genome-wide and suggestive significance were 13.5 and 9.15 for the RHM analysis. Six ixodid tick species were identified, with Amblyomma hebraeum (the vector for Heartwater disease) being the dominant species. Heritability estimates (h(2

  9. 2005 Workforce Study: Ohio Early Childhood Centers--A Profession Divided

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoneburner, Chris

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to understand the characteristics of the current workforce in early childhood. This report highlights key characteristics of the 2005 early childhood center workforce in Ohio. Survey packets were sent to 3,600 randomly selected centers in April 2005, representing centers licensed by the Ohio Department of Job and…

  10. The Minnesota Project English Center: Selected Materials. Unit 701: Introduction to the Study of Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minnesota Univ., Minneapolis. Center for Curriculum Development in English.

    This Minnesota Curriculum Center report recounts the development of teaching materials on the nature and uses of language for grades 7-12 and presents the first of five seventh-grade units. A description of the origins, purposes, and personnel of the Center is followed by brief discussions of (1) the Center's underlying assumption that a study of…

  11. THE ENGLISH PROGRAM OF THE USOE CURRICULUM STUDY AND DEMONSTRATION CENTER MATERIALS CURRENTLY AVAILABLE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1967

    AFTER FIVE YEARS OF FEDERALLY-SUPPORTED CURRICULUM RESEARCH IN ENGLISH, 14 STUDY CENTERS AND FIVE DEMONSTRATION CENTERS ARE NOW MAKING THE RESULTS OF THEIR WORK AVAILABLE TO THE PUBLIC. THIS PAMPHLET LISTS TITLES OF REPORTS AND INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS PREPARED BY THE FOLLOWING CENTERS--(1) CARNEGIE-MELLON UNIVERSITY, (2) TEACHERS COLLEGE, COLUMBIA…

  12. A Center for Environmental Communication and Education Studies. Periodic Report: 1968-1982.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wisconsin Univ., Madison. Center for Environmental Communications and Education Studies.

    This report summarizes the role of the University of Wisconsin-Madison's Center for Environmental Communication and Education Studies (CECES) in helping to foster teaching, research, and public service programs. Included in the first section are program highlights (1968-1982), Center organization, and lists of Center personnel (executive…

  13. Parent Centers in Urban Schools: Four Case Studies. Report No. 23.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Vivian R.

    In efforts to make parents feel more welcome at school and to increase their involvement, a number of schools are creating parent centers--providing parents with a room of their own in the school. Part I of this report examines the role of parent centers in strengthening family-school relationships through case studies of four parent centers in…

  14. The Center for the Study of Terrestrial and Extraterrestrial Atmospheres (CSTEA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thorpe, Arthur N.; Morris, Vernon R.

    1997-01-01

    The Center for the Study of Terrestrial and Extraterrestrial Atmospheres (CSTEA) was established in 1992. The center began with 14 active Principal Investigators (PI's). The research of the Center's PIs has, for the most part, continued in the same four areas as presented in the original proposal: Remote Sensing, Atmospheric Chemistry, Sensors and Detectors, and Spacecraft Dynamics.

  15. ADVANCED COMPOSITES TECHNOLOGY CASE STUDY AT NASA LANGLEY RESEARCH CENTER

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report summarizes work conducted at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Langley Research Center (NASA-LaRC) in Hampton, VA, under the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA) Waste Reduction Evaluations at Federal Sites (WREAFS) Program. Support for...

  16. Case Study: Randolph County Vocational Technical Center, Elkins, W. Va.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southern Regional Education Board, Atlanta, GA.

    Randolph County Vocational Technical Center, Elkins, West Virginia, received a grant in 1997 for a project that was part of the High Schools That Work (HSTW) initiative to improve academic skills of career-bound students. The superintendent and faculty knew that improving achievement meant reaching out to the three home high schools to bring them…

  17. Centers for Catholic Studies and the Public Voice of Religion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brigham, Erin

    2011-01-01

    This article explores debates about the public role of religion in a secular context. Drawing on the work of critical theorist, Jurgen Habermas, this article claims that the United States requires a viable public sphere in which religious and secular voices can learn from each other. Highlighting the work of the Lane Center for Catholic Studies…

  18. Evaluative Study of the Neighborhood Information Center Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franklin, Hardy R.; Summers, F. William

    The 1972-1974 Neighborhood Information Center (NIC) Project was undertaken in Atlanta, Cleveland, Detroit, Houston, and Queens Borough to demonstrate that urban public libraries could be a vital force in daily living by providing free information and referrals to low income communities, and by adapting in non-traditional ways to meet neighborhood…

  19. Feasibility Study for Expansion of Child Development Center.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitch, Naomi

    This document contains recommendations and the rationale for expansion of existing child care development center facilities at San Joaquin Delta College. Such expansion, in addition to providing immediate child care to children of parents enrolled at the college, would provide vocational training and in-service training opportunities, and would…

  20. REACTOR DOSIMETRY STUDY OF THE RHODE ISLAND NUCLEAR SCIENCE CENTER.

    SciTech Connect

    HOLDEN, N.E.,; RECINIELLO, R.N.; HU, J.-P.

    2005-05-08

    The Rhode Island Nuclear Science Center (RINSC), located on the Narragansett Bay Campus of the University of Rhode Island, is a state-owned and US NRC-licensed nuclear facility constructed for educational and industrial applications. The main building of RINSC houses a two-megawatt (2 MW) thermal power critical reactor immersed in demineralized water within a shielded tank. As its original design in 1958 by the Rhode Island Atomic Energy Commission focused on the teaching and research use of the facility, only a minimum of 3.85 kg fissile uranium-235 was maintained in the fuel elements to allow the reactor to reach a critical state. In 1986 when RINSC was temporarily shutdown to start US DOE-directed core conversion project for national security reasons, all the U-Al based Highly-Enriched Uranium (HEU, 93% uranium-235 in the total uranium) fuel elements were replaced by the newly developed U{sub 3}Si{sub 2}-Al based Low Enriched Uranium (LEU, {le}20% uranium-235 in the total uranium) elements. The reactor first went critical after the core conversion was achieved in 1993, and feasibility study on the core upgrade to accommodate Boron Neutron-Captured Therapy (BNCT) was completed in 2000 [3]. The 2-MW critical reactor at RINSC which includes six beam tubes, a thermal column, a gamma-ray experimental station and two pneumatic tubes has been extensive utilized as neutron-and-photon dual source for nuclear-specific research in areas of material science, fundamental physics, biochemistry, and radiation therapy. After the core conversion along with several major system upgrade (e.g. a new 3-MW cooling tower, a large secondary piping system, a set of digitized power-level instrument), the reactor has become more compact and thus more effective to generate high beam flux in both the in-core and ex-core regions for advance research. If not limited by the manpower and operating budget in recent years, the RINSC built ''in concrete'' structure and control systems should have