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Sample records for african territories sat

  1. Predicting antigenic sites on the foot-and-mouth disease virus capsid of the South African Territories (SAT) types using virus neutralization data

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) outer capsid proteins 1B, 1C and 1D contribute to the virus serotype distribution and antigenic variants that exist within each of the seven serotypes. This study presents a phylogenetic, genetic and antigenic analysis of the South African Territories (SAT) seroty...

  2. Crystal structure of the 3C protease from Southern African Territories type 2 foot-and-mouth disease virus

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jingjie; Leen, Eoin N.; Maree, Francois F.

    2016-01-01

    The replication of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) is dependent on the virus-encoded 3C protease (3Cpro). As in other picornaviruses, 3Cpro performs most of the proteolytic processing of the polyprotein expressed from the large open reading frame in the RNA genome of the virus. Previous work revealed that the 3Cpro from serotype A—one of the seven serotypes of FMDV—adopts a trypsin-like fold. On the basis of capsid sequence comparisons the FMDV serotypes are grouped into two phylogenetic clusters, with O, A, C, and Asia 1 in one, and the three Southern African Territories serotypes, (SAT-1, SAT-2 and SAT-3) in another, a grouping pattern that is broadly, but not rigidly, reflected in 3Cpro amino acid sequences. We report here the cloning, expression and purification of 3C proteases from four SAT serotype viruses (SAT2/GHA/8/91, SAT1/NIG/5/81, SAT1/UGA/1/97, and SAT2/ZIM/7/83) and the crystal structure at 3.2 Å resolution of 3Cpro from SAT2/GHA/8/91. PMID:27168976

  3. Crystal structure of the 3C protease from Southern African Territories type 2 foot-and-mouth disease virus.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jingjie; Leen, Eoin N; Maree, Francois F; Curry, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    The replication of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) is dependent on the virus-encoded 3C protease (3C(pro)). As in other picornaviruses, 3C(pro) performs most of the proteolytic processing of the polyprotein expressed from the large open reading frame in the RNA genome of the virus. Previous work revealed that the 3C(pro) from serotype A-one of the seven serotypes of FMDV-adopts a trypsin-like fold. On the basis of capsid sequence comparisons the FMDV serotypes are grouped into two phylogenetic clusters, with O, A, C, and Asia 1 in one, and the three Southern African Territories serotypes, (SAT-1, SAT-2 and SAT-3) in another, a grouping pattern that is broadly, but not rigidly, reflected in 3C(pro) amino acid sequences. We report here the cloning, expression and purification of 3C proteases from four SAT serotype viruses (SAT2/GHA/8/91, SAT1/NIG/5/81, SAT1/UGA/1/97, and SAT2/ZIM/7/83) and the crystal structure at 3.2 Å resolution of 3C(pro) from SAT2/GHA/8/91. PMID:27168976

  4. Cultural Disparities of SAT Scores and the Influence on Higher Education Opportunities for African American and Latino Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoover, Nichelle

    2007-01-01

    Inequalities in the distribution of education resources and cultural identification can lead to lower SAT scores for African American and Latino students. By using SAT scores as one of the primary sources to determine admission to institutions of higher education, educators may be denying minority students admission to a variety of colleges and…

  5. Genome sequences of SAT 2 foot-and-mouth disease viruses from Egypt and Palestinian Autonomous Territories (Gaza Strip).

    PubMed

    Valdazo-González, Begoña; Knowles, Nick J; Hammond, Jef; King, Donald P

    2012-08-01

    Two foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) genome sequences have been determined for isolates collected from recent field outbreaks in North Africa (Egypt) and the Middle East (Palestinian Autonomous Territories). These data represent the first examples of complete genomic sequences for the FMDV SAT 2 topotype VII, which is thought to be endemic in countries immediately to the south of the Sahara desert. Further studies are now urgently required to provide insights into the epidemiological links between these outbreaks and to define the pathogenicity of this emerging lineage. PMID:22843860

  6. Genome Sequences of SAT 2 Foot-and-Mouth Disease Viruses from Egypt and Palestinian Autonomous Territories (Gaza Strip)

    PubMed Central

    Valdazo-González, Begoña; Knowles, Nick J.; Hammond, Jef

    2012-01-01

    Two foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) genome sequences have been determined for isolates collected from recent field outbreaks in North Africa (Egypt) and the Middle East (Palestinian Autonomous Territories). These data represent the first examples of complete genomic sequences for the FMDV SAT 2 topotype VII, which is thought to be endemic in countries immediately to the south of the Sahara desert. Further studies are now urgently required to provide insights into the epidemiological links between these outbreaks and to define the pathogenicity of this emerging lineage. PMID:22843860

  7. Complex Cooperative Strategies in Group-Territorial African Lions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinsohn, Robert; Packer, Craig

    1995-09-01

    Female lions (Panthera leo) showed persistent individual differences in the extent to which they participated in group-territorial conflict. When intergroup encounters were simulated by playback of aggressive vocalizations, some individuals consistently led the approach to the recorded intruder, whereas others lagged behind and avoided the risks of fighting. The lead females recognized that certain companions were laggards but failed to punish them, which suggests that cooperation is not maintained by reciprocity. Modification of the "odds" in these encounters revealed that some females joined the group response when they were most needed, whereas other lagged even farther behind. The complexity of these responses emphasizes the great diversity of individual behavior in this species and the inadequacy of current theory to explain cooperation in large groups.

  8. Complex cooperative strategies in group-territorial African lions.

    PubMed

    Heinsohn, R; Packer, C

    1995-09-01

    Female lions (Panthera leo) showed persistent individual differences in the extent to which they participated in group-territorial conflict. When intergroup encounters were simulated by playback of aggressive vocalizations, some individuals consistently led the approach to the recorded intruder, whereas others lagged behind and avoided the risks of fighting. The lead females recognized that certain companions were laggards but failed to punish them, which suggests that cooperation is not maintained by reciprocity. Modification of the "odds" in these encounters revealed that some females joined the group response when they were most needed, whereas other lagged even farther behind. The complexity of these responses emphasizes the great diversity of individual behavior in this species and the inadequacy of current theory to explain cooperation in large groups. PMID:7652573

  9. Genetic relationships between southern African SAT-2 isolates of foot-and-mouth-disease virus.

    PubMed Central

    Vosloo, W.; Knowles, N. J.; Thomson, G. R.

    1992-01-01

    Sequencing of part of the 1D gene of foot-and-mouth disease virus was used to determine the relationships between SAT-2 viruses isolated from outbreaks which occurred in cattle in Zimbabwe and Namibia and in impala in South Africa between 1979 and 1989. The results demonstrated that the outbreaks in different countries were unrelated. Surprisingly close relationships were shown between all SAT-2 viruses isolated from cattle in Zimbabwe since 1983 but the two major epizootics which occurred in 1989 were caused by viruses which were clearly different. Conversely, two apparently unrelated outbreaks in impala in South Africa were caused by viruses which could not be distinguished. PMID:1334842

  10. SAT Type Foot-and-Mouth Disease (FMD) Chimeric Vaccine Elicits Protection in Pigs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The recent development of infectious cDNA clone technology for foot-and-mouth disease (FMD), Southern African Territories (SAT) viruses has provided a valuable tool for genetic and biological characterization of field and laboratory strains. Recombinant chimeric viruses, containing the capsid-coding...

  11. Analysis of sat type foot-and-mouth disease virus capsid proteins: influence of receptor usage on the properties of virus particles

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The viral mechanism involved in foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) tissue tropism, host range and the events during viral entry into susceptible cells is not well understood. Using infectious cDNA clones of the three South African Territories (SAT) type viruses prevalent in sub-Saharan Africa, the biologi...

  12. Influence of prey dispersion on territory and group size of African lions: a test of the resource dispersion hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Valeix, Marion; Loveridge, Andrew J; MacDonald, David W

    2012-11-01

    Empirical tests of the resource dispersion hypothesis (RDH), a theory to explain group living based on resource heterogeneity, have been complicated by the fact that resource patch dispersion and richness have proved difficult to define and measure in natural systems. Here, we studied the ecology of African lions Panthera leo in Hwange National Park, Zimbabwe, where waterholes are prey hotspots, and where dispersion of water sources and abundance of prey at these water sources are quantifiable. We combined a 10-year data set from GPS-collared lions for which information of group composition was available concurrently with data for herbivore abundance at waterholes. The distance between two neighboring waterholes was a strong determinant of lion home range size, which provides strong support for the RDH prediction that territory size increases as resource patches are more dispersed in the landscape. The mean number of herbivore herds using a waterhole, a good proxy of patch richness, determined the maximum lion group biomass an area can support. This finding suggests that patch richness sets a maximum ceiling on lion group size. This study demonstrates that landscape ecology is a major driver of ranging behavior and suggests that aspects of resource dispersion limit group sizes. PMID:23236920

  13. Cloud properties during active and break spells of the West African summer monsoon from CloudSat-CALIPSO measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Efon, E.; Lenouo, A.; Monkam, D.; Manatsa, D.

    2016-07-01

    High resolution of daily rainfall dataset from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) was used to identify active and break cloud formation periods. The clouds were characterized based on CloudSat-CALIPSO satellite images over West Africa during the summer monsoon during the period 2006-2010. The active and break periods are defined as the periods during the peak monsoon months of June to August when the normalized anomaly of rainfall over the monsoon core zone is greater than 0.9 or less than -0.9 respectively, provided the criteria is satisfied for at least three consecutive days. It is found that about 90% of the break period and 66.7% of the active spells lasted 3-4 days. Active spells lasting duration of about a week were observed while no break spell had such a long span. Cloud macrophysical (cloud base height (CBH), cloud top height (CTH) and cloud geometric depth (∆H), microphysical (cloud liquid water content, (LWC), liquid number concentration (LNC), liquid effective radius, ice water content (IWC), ice number concentration (INC) and ice effective radius) and radiative (heating rate properties) over South Central West Africa (5-15°N; 15°W-10°E) during the active and break spells were also analyzed. High-level clouds are more predominant during the break periods compared to the active periods. Active spells have lower INC compared to the break spells. Liquid water clouds are observed to have more radiative forcing during the active than break periods while ice phase clouds bring more cooling effect during the break spells compared to the active spells.

  14. Antigenic analysis of SAT 2 serotype foot-and-mouth disease virus isolates from Zimbabwe using monoclonal antibodies.

    PubMed Central

    Davidson, F. L.; Crowther, J. R.; Nqindi, J.; Knowles, N. J.; Thevasagayam, S. J.; Van Vuuren, C. J.

    1995-01-01

    This paper compares strains of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) serotype SAT (South African Territories) 2 viruses isolated from Zimbabwe and other African countries using monoclonal antibodies (MAb). A sandwich-ELISA was used to examine the relative binding of anti-SAT 2 MAb to the various viruses. The MAb-binding profiles of viruses isolated from field samples were compared using hierarchical cluster analysis. Viruses were obtained from game animals, mainly African buffalo (Syncerus caffer) which is the natural host and reservoir for SAT serotypes in Africa, and from cattle showing clinical signs of FMD, as well as from animals suspected of carrying the virus subclinically. Some isolates have been adapted for use as vaccine strains. The results showed that most of the Zimbabwe isolates collected between 1989 and 1992 were an antigenically closely-related group. Although differences were observed between Zimbabwe isolates collected between 1989 and 1992 and those collected in 1987, there was no correlation with the different MAb binding patterns within the 1987 group and the epidemiological information received from the field. Similar profiles were observed for many SAT 2 viruses, including viruses isolated over a 50-year period and from geographically distant areas. This indicates an inherent stability in antigenic profiles of SAT 2 viruses. The MAb panel was capable of assessing antigenic variation, since very different profiles were obtained for some isolates. The work also allowed comparison and characterization of anti-type SAT 2 MAb from different laboratories. The findings are discussed with reference to selection of vaccine strains. PMID:7543860

  15. Evaluation of different adjuvants for foot-and-mouth disease vaccine containing all the SAT serotypes.

    PubMed

    Cloete, M; Dungu, B; Van Staden, L I; Ismail-Cassim, N; Vosloo, W

    2008-03-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is an economically important disease of cloven-hoofed animals that is primarily controlled by vaccination of susceptible animals and movement restrictions for animals and animal-derived products in South Africa. Vaccination using aluminium hydroxide gel-saponin (AS) adjuvanted vaccines containing the South African Territories (SAT) serotypes has been shown to be effective both in ensuring that disease does not spread from the endemic to the free zone and in controlling outbreaks in the free zone. Various vaccine formulations containing antigens derived from the SAT serotypes were tested in cattle that were challenged 1 year later. Both the AS and ISA 206B vaccines adjuvanted with saponin protected cattle against virulent virus challenge. The oil-based ISA 206B-adjuvanted vaccine with and without stimulators was evaluated in a field trial and both elicited antibody responses that lasted for 1 year. Furthermore, the ISA 206 adjuvanted FMD vaccine protected groups of cattle against homologous virus challenge at very low payloads, while pigs vaccinated with an emergency ISA 206B-based FMD vaccine containing the SAT 1 vaccine strains were protected against the heterologous SAT 1 outbreak strain. PMID:18575060

  16. Substituting SAT II: Subject Tests for SAT I: Reasoning Tests: Impact on Admitted Class Composition and Quality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bridgeman, Brent; Burton, Nancy; Cline, Frederick

    2003-01-01

    Simulated the effects of making admission decisions using SAT II subject scores in place of SAT I reasoning scores. Found that success rates, in terms of first-year grade point averages, were virtually identical for students selected by the different models. The percentage of African American, Asian American, and White students selected varied…

  17. Growth Determination for Genetic Engineered SAT Type Foot-and-Mouth Disease Viruses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) is endemic throughout large parts of Africa where six of the seven serotypes, viz. A, C, O, SAT (South Africa Territories) 1, 2, 3, occur. The SAT types, usually confined to sub-Saharan Africa, show marked genomic and antigenic variation, with the ID-coding sequen...

  18. Effective preprocessing in #SAT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Qin; Sang, Juan; He, Yong-mei

    2011-12-01

    Preprocessing #SAT instances can reduce their size considerably and decrease the solving time. In this paper we investigate the use of the hyper-binary resolution and equality reduction to preprocess the #SAT instances. And a preprocessing algorithm Preprocess MC is presented, which combines the unit propagation, the hyper-binary resolution, and the equality reduction together. The experiment shows that these excellent technologies not only reduce the size of the #SAT formula, but also improve the ability of the model counters to solve #SAT problems.

  19. Surviving Without the SAT

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDermott, Ann

    2008-01-01

    Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT) scores still wield a mighty force in American culture and in the psyches of teenagers, even though 760 American colleges and universities have made standardized testing an optional part of the admissions process. Three years ago, after the new writing portion of the SAT was unveiled, the author's college, the College…

  20. Disabling the SAT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freedman, Miriam Kurtzig

    2003-01-01

    Argues the College Boards' decision to stop flagging the SAT scores of students with disabilities given extended time to take the test will compromise the test's validity. A civil rights organization urged the College Board to stop flagging SAT scores because the practice violated the rights of students with disabilities. Proposes three…

  1. SmallSat Database

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petropulos, Dolores; Bittner, David; Murawski, Robert; Golden, Bert

    2015-01-01

    The SmallSat has an unrealized potential in both the private industry and in the federal government. Currently over 70 companies, 50 universities and 17 governmental agencies are involved in SmallSat research and development. In 1994, the U.S. Army Missile and Defense mapped the moon using smallSat imagery. Since then Smart Phones have introduced this imagery to the people of the world as diverse industries watched this trend. The deployment cost of smallSats is also greatly reduced compared to traditional satellites due to the fact that multiple units can be deployed in a single mission. Imaging payloads have become more sophisticated, smaller and lighter. In addition, the growth of small technology obtained from private industries has led to the more widespread use of smallSats. This includes greater revisit rates in imagery, significantly lower costs, the ability to update technology more frequently and the ability to decrease vulnerability of enemy attacks. The popularity of smallSats show a changing mentality in this fast paced world of tomorrow. What impact has this created on the NASA communication networks now and in future years? In this project, we are developing the SmallSat Relational Database which can support a simulation of smallSats within the NASA SCaN Compatability Environment for Networks and Integrated Communications (SCENIC) Modeling and Simulation Lab. The NASA Space Communications and Networks (SCaN) Program can use this modeling to project required network support needs in the next 10 to 15 years. The SmallSat Rational Database could model smallSats just as the other SCaN databases model the more traditional larger satellites, with a few exceptions. One being that the smallSat Database is designed to be built-to-order. The SmallSat database holds various hardware configurations that can be used to model a smallSat. It will require significant effort to develop as the research material can only be populated by hand to obtain the unique data

  2. Characterization of monoclonal antibodies against a type SAT 2 foot-and-mouth disease virus.

    PubMed Central

    Crowther, J. R.; Rowe, C. A.; Butcher, R.

    1993-01-01

    This paper is the first to describe characterization of monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against a South African Territories 2 (SAT 2) foot-and-mouth disease virus (isolate Rho 1/48). Twelve MAbs which neutralized homologous virus were characterized in indirect and sandwich ELISA using purified Rho 1/48 virus particles, subunits, trypsin-treated, and chemically denatured virus. All the MAbs inhibited haemagglutination by parental virus. Binding of the MAbs to 73 SAT 2 field isolates was measured in a sandwich ELISA and defined four distinct antigenic regions. Preliminary characterization of escape mutants selected with some of the MAbs using virus neutralization tests, ELISA, and amino acid sequencing is included. MAbs 2, 25, 40, 48 and 64, reacted with a linear epitope on the VP1 loop region. An amino acid change at position 149 (valine to glutamic acid) was detected in mutants selected by MAb 2 and 40 and this eliminated binding and neutralization by all the other MAb. This epitope was conformation-dependent and was conserved in all 73 isolates of SAT 2 examined. Escape mutants isolated with MAb 41 and 44, had changes at positions 156 (glycine to aspartic acid), or 158 (serine to leucine) respectively. These MAbs bound with Rho 1/48 only out of 73 field strain viruses studies and the reactions of MAbs from the other groups was unaltered. MAb 27, 28 and 37 reacted with a conformation-dependent epitope on VP1 which was not conserved in field isolates. All mutants selected by these MAbs had a single amino acid substitution at position 149 (valine to alanine). The same change was always found in field isolates which did not bind MAbs from this group. MAb 11 reacted with a linear epitope associated with amino acids 147 or 148 on VP1 and showed similar binding characteristics to a conformation dependent MAb 7, no amino acid residue changes were found within VP1 for monoclonal antibody 7 mutants. PMID:7691630

  3. The Amma-Sat Database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramage, K.; Desbois, M.; Eymard, L.

    2004-12-01

    The African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analysis project is a French initiative, which aims at identifying and analysing in details the multidisciplinary and multi-scales processes that lead to a better understanding of the physical mechanisms linked to the African Monsoon. The main components of the African Monsoon are: Atmospheric Dynamics, the Continental Water Cycle, Atmospheric Chemistry, Oceanic and Continental Surface Conditions. Satellites contribute to various objectives of the project both for process analysis and for large scale-long term studies: some series of satellites (METEOSAT, NOAA,.) have been flown for more than 20 years, ensuring a good quality monitoring of some of the West African atmosphere and surface characteristics. Moreover, several recent missions, and several projects will strongly improve and complement this survey. The AMMA project offers an opportunity to develop the exploitation of satellite data and to make collaboration between specialist and non-specialist users. In this purpose databases are being developed to collect all past and future satellite data related to the African Monsoon. It will then be possible to compare different types of data from different resolution, to validate satellite data with in situ measurements or numerical simulations. AMMA-SAT database main goal is to offer an easy access to satellite data to the AMMA scientific community. The database contains geophysical products estimated from operational or research algorithms and covering the different components of the AMMA project. Nevertheless, the choice has been made to group data within pertinent scales rather than within their thematic. In this purpose, five regions of interest where defined to extract the data: An area covering Tropical Atlantic and Africa for large scale studies, an area covering West Africa for mesoscale studies and three local areas surrounding sites of in situ observations. Within each of these regions satellite data are projected on

  4. Active CryoCubeSat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swenson, Charles

    2016-01-01

    The Active CryoCubeSat project will demonstrate an advanced thermal control system for a 6-Unit (6U) CubeSat platform. A miniature, active thermal control system, in which a fluid is circulated in a closed loop from thermal loads to radiators, will be developed. A miniature cryogenic cooler will be integrated with this system to form a two-stage thermal control system. Key components will be miniaturized by using advanced additive manufacturing techniques resulting in a thermal testbed for proving out these technologies. Previous CubeSat missions have not tackled the problem of active thermal control systems nor have any past or current CubeSat missions included cryogenic instrumentation. This Active CryoCubeSat development effort will provide completely new capacities for CubeSats and constitutes a major advancement over the state-of-the-art in CubeSat thermal control.

  5. CarbonSat Constellation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Wei; Tobehn, Carsten; Ernst, Robert; Bovensmann, Heinrich; Buchwitz, Michael; Burrows, John P.; Notholt, John

    1 Carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) are the most important manmade greenhouse gases (GHGs) which are driving global climate change. Currently, the CO2 measurements from the ground observing network are still the main sources of information but due to the limited number of measurement stations the coverage is limited. In addition, CO2 monitoring and trading is often based mainly on bottom-up calculations and an independent top down verification is limited due to the lack of global measurement data with local resolution. The first CO2 and CH4 mapping from SCIAMACHY on ENVISAT shows that satellites add important missing global information. Current GHG measurement satellites (GOSAT)are limited either in spatial or temporal resolution and coverage. These systems have to collect data over a year or even longer to produce global regional fluxes products. Conse-quently global, timely, higher spatial resolution and high accuracy measurement are required for: 1. A good understanding of the CO2 and CH4 sources and sinks for reliable climate predic-tion; and 2. Independent and transparent verification of accountable sources and sinks in supporting Kyoto and upcoming protocols The CarbonSat constellation idea comes out the trade off of resolution and swath width during CarbonSat mission definition studies. In response to the urgent need to support the Kyoto and upcoming protocols, a feasibility study has been carried out. The proposed solution is a constellation of five CarbonSat satellites in 614km LTAN 13:00, which is able to provide global, daily CO2 and CH4 measurement everywhere on the Earth with high spatial resolution 2 × 2 km and low uncertainty lt;2ppm (CO2) and lt;8ppb (CH4). The unique global daily measurement capability significantly increases the number of cloud free measurements, which enables more reliable services associated with reduced uncertainty, e.g. to 0.15ppm (CO2) per month in 10km and even more timely products. The CarbonSat Constellation in

  6. CubeSat Launch Initiative

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Higginbotham, Scott

    2016-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) recognizes the tremendous potential that CubeSats (very small satellites) have to inexpensively demonstrate advanced technologies, collect scientific data, and enhance student engagement in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM). The CubeSat Launch Initiative (CSLI) was created to provide launch opportunities for CubeSats developed by academic institutions, non-profit entities, and NASA centers. This presentation will provide an overview of the CSLI, its benefits, and its results.

  7. Evaluation of laboratory tests for SAT serotypes of foot-and-mouth disease virus with specimens collected from convalescent cattle in Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Sammin, D J; Paton, D J; Parida, S; Ferris, N P; Hutchings, G H; Reid, S M; Shaw, A E; Holmes, C; Gibson, D; Corteyn, M; Knowles, N J; Valarcher, J-F; Hamblin, P A; Fleming, L; Gwaze, G; Sumption, K J

    2007-05-12

    During a field study in Zimbabwe, clinical specimens were collected from 403 cattle in six herds, in which the history of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) vaccination and infection appeared to be known with some certainty. Five herds had reported outbreaks of disease one to five months previously but clinical FMD had not been observed in the sixth herd. A trivalent vaccine (South African Territories [SAT] types 1, 2 and 3) had been used in some of the herds at various times either before and/or after the recent outbreaks of FMD. The primary aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of serological tests for the detection of SAT-type FMD virus infection, particularly elisas for antibodies to non-structural proteins (NSPs) of FMD virus and solid phase competition ELISAS (SPCEs) for serotypes SAT1 and SAT2. Secondary aims were to examine NSP seroconversion rates in cattle that had been exposed to infection and to compare virus detection rates by virus isolation and real-time reverse transcriptase-PCR (rtRT-PCR) tests on both oesophagopharyngeal fluids and nasopharyngeal brush swabbings. In addition, the hooves of sampled animals were examined for growth arrest lines as clinical evidence of FMD convalescence. Laboratory tests provided evidence of FMD virus infection in all six herds; SAT2 viruses were isolated from oesophagopharyngeal fluids collected from two herds in northern Zimbabwe, and SAT1 viruses were isolated from three herds in southern Zimbabwe. Optimised rtRT-PCR was more sensitive than virus isolation at detecting FMD virus persistence and when the results of the two methods were combined for oesophagopharyngeal fluids, between 12 and 35 per cent of the cattle sampled in the convalescent herds were deemed to be carriers. In contrast, nasopharyngeal swabs yielded only two virus-positive specimens. The overall seroprevalence in the five affected herds varied with the different NSPS from 56 per cent to 75 per cent, compared with 81 per cent and 91 per cent

  8. SDO FlatSat Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Amason, David L.

    2008-01-01

    The goal of the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) is to understand and, ideally, predict the solar variations that influence life and society. It's instruments will measure the properties of the Sun and will take hifh definition images of the Sun every few seconds, all day every day. The FlatSat is a high fidelity electrical and functional representation of the SDO spacecraft bus. It is a high fidelity test bed for Integration & Test (I & T), flight software, and flight operations. For I & T purposes FlatSat will be a driver to development and dry run electrical integration procedures, STOL test procedures, page displays, and the command and telemetry database. FlatSat will also serve as a platform for flight software acceptance and systems testing for the flight software system component including the spacecraft main processors, power supply electronics, attitude control electronic, gimbal control electrons and the S-band communications card. FlatSat will also benefit the flight operations team through post-launch flight software code and table update development and verification and verification of new and updated flight operations products. This document highlights the benefits of FlatSat; describes the building of FlatSat; provides FlatSat facility requirements, access roles and responsibilities; and, and discusses FlatSat mechanical and electrical integration and functional testing.

  9. ACT/SAT College Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stafford, John E.

    1998-01-01

    Reports on findings of a survey designed to discover whether higher education institutions' admission standards accept SAT I or ACT and if there is preference for either, and whether ACT could be submitted in lieu of SAT II subject tests. Eighty-six percent of the reporting schools indicated no preference; 28 schools indicated that the ACT was an…

  10. Development of cooperative territoriality in juvenile lions.

    PubMed

    Heinsohn, R; Packer, C; Pusey, A E

    1996-04-22

    African lions, Panthera leo, engage in many cooperative activities including hunting, care of young, and group territoriality, but the contribution of juvenile lions to these activities has never been documented. Here we present experimental evidence that juvenile lionesses make a gradual transition to group-territorial defence between weaning (8 months) and sexual maturity (42 months). When challenged by simulated intruders played from a loud-speaker, juvenile females (but not males) become progressively more likely to join the adult females in territorial defence with age, and their behaviour is affected by both the number of defending adults and the number of intruders. We interpret the ability of juveniles to assess relative numbers as an adaptation for assessing the risk of territorial conflict according to their own fighting ability, and the ability of their pride of successfully defend the territory. The difference between the sexes reflects the greater value of the natal territory to philopatric females. Adult females display a variety of strategies when defending the territory, including unconditional and conditional forms of cooperation. We show here that individuals display the rudiments of these strategies as juveniles. PMID:8637927

  11. NASA Facts: SporeSat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martinez, Andres; Cappuccio, Gelsomina; Tomko, David

    2013-01-01

    SporeSat is an autonomous, free-flying three-unit (3U) spacecraft that will be used to conduct scientific experiments to gain a deeper knowledge of the mechanisms of plant cell gravity sensing. SporeSat is being developed through a partnership between NASAs Ames Research Center and the Department of Agricultural and Biological Engineering at Purdue University. Amani Salim and Jenna L. Rickus are the Purdue University Principal Investigators. The SporeSat mission will be flown using a 3U nanosatellite weighing approximately 12 pounds and measuring 14 inches long by 4 inches wide by 4 inches tall. SporeSat will utilize flight-proven spacecraft technologies demonstrated on prior Ames nanosatellite missions such as PharmaSat and OrganismOrganic Exposure to Orbital Stresses (OOREOS) as well as upgrades that increase the hardware integration capabilities with SporeSat science instrumentation. In addition, the SporeSat science payload will serve as a technology platform to evaluate new microsensor technologies for enabling future fundamental biology missions.

  12. SATS HVO Concept Validation Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Consiglio, Maria; Williams, Daniel; Murdoch, Jennifer; Adams, Catherine

    2005-01-01

    A human-in-the-loop simulation experiment was conducted at the NASA Langley Research Center s (LaRC) Air Traffic Operations Lab (ATOL) in an effort to comprehensively validate tools and procedures intended to enable the Small Aircraft Transportation System, Higher Volume Operations (SATS HVO) concept of operations. The SATS HVO procedures were developed to increase the rate of operations at non-towered, non-radar airports in near all-weather conditions. A key element of the design is the establishment of a volume of airspace around designated airports where pilots accept responsibility for self-separation. Flights operating at these airports, are given approach sequencing information computed by a ground based automated system. The SATS HVO validation experiment was conducted in the ATOL during the spring of 2004 in order to determine if a pilot can safely and proficiently fly an airplane while performing SATS HVO procedures. Comparative measures of flight path error, perceived workload and situation awareness were obtained for two types of scenarios. Baseline scenarios were representative of today s system utilizing procedure separation, where air traffic control grants one approach or departure clearance at a time. SATS HVO scenarios represented approaches and departure procedures as described in the SATS HVO concept of operations. Results from the experiment indicate that low time pilots were able to fly SATS HVO procedures and maintain self-separation as safely and proficiently as flying today's procedures.

  13. Molecular characterization of SAT-2 foot-and-mouth disease virus isolates obtained from cattle during a four-month period in 2001 in Limpopo Province, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Phologane, B S; Dwarka, R M; Haydon, D T; Gerber, L J; Vosloo, W

    2008-12-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is an acute, highly contagious viral infection of domestic and wild cloven-hoofed animals. The virus is a single-stranded RNA virus that has a high rate of nucleotide mutation and amino acid substitution. In southern Africa the South African Territories (SAT) 1-3 serotypes of FMD virus are maintained by large numbers of African buffaloes (Syncerus caffer), which provide a potential source of infection for domestic livestock and wild animals. During February 2001, an outbreak of SAT-2 was recorded in cattle in the FMD control zone of South Africa, adjacent to the Kruger National Park (KNP). They had not been vaccinated against the disease since they form the buffer between the vaccination and free zones but in the face of the outbreak, they were vaccinated as part of the control measures to contain the disease. The virus was, however, isolated from some of them on several occasions up to May 2001. These isolates were characterized to determine the rate of genetic change in the main antigenic determinant, the 1 D/2A gene. Nucleotide substitutions at 12 different sites were identified of which five led to amino acid changes. Three of these occurred in known antigenic sites, viz. the GH-loop and C-terminal part of the protein, and two of these have previously been shown to be subject to positive selection. Likelihood models indicated that the ratio of non-synonymous to synonymous changes among the outbreak sequences recovered from cattle was four times higher than among comparable sequences isolated from wildlife, suggesting that the virus may be under greater selective pressure during rapid transmission events. PMID:19294983

  14. Unfair Treatment? The Case of Freedle, the SAT, and the Standardization Approach to Differential Item Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santelices, Maria Veronica; Wilson, Mark

    2010-01-01

    In 2003, the "Harvard Educational Review" published a controversial article by Roy Freedle that claimed bias against African American students in the SAT college admissions test. Freedle's work stimulated national media attention and faced an onslaught of criticism from experts at the Educational Testing Service (ETS), the agency responsible for…

  15. COLD-SAT dynamic model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, Neil S.; Bollenbacher, Gary

    1992-12-01

    This report discusses the development and underlying mathematics of a rigid-body computer model of a proposed cryogenic on-orbit liquid depot storage, acquisition, and transfer spacecraft (COLD-SAT). This model, referred to in this report as the COLD-SAT dynamic model, consists of both a trajectory model and an attitudinal model. All disturbance forces and torques expected to be significant for the actual COLD-SAT spacecraft are modeled to the required degree of accuracy. Control and experimental thrusters are modeled, as well as fluid slosh. The model also computes microgravity disturbance accelerations at any specified point in the spacecraft. The model was developed by using the Boeing EASY5 dynamic analysis package and will run on Apollo, Cray, and other computing platforms.

  16. COLD-SAT dynamic model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, Neil S.; Bollenbacher, Gary

    1992-01-01

    This report discusses the development and underlying mathematics of a rigid-body computer model of a proposed cryogenic on-orbit liquid depot storage, acquisition, and transfer spacecraft (COLD-SAT). This model, referred to in this report as the COLD-SAT dynamic model, consists of both a trajectory model and an attitudinal model. All disturbance forces and torques expected to be significant for the actual COLD-SAT spacecraft are modeled to the required degree of accuracy. Control and experimental thrusters are modeled, as well as fluid slosh. The model also computes microgravity disturbance accelerations at any specified point in the spacecraft. The model was developed by using the Boeing EASY5 dynamic analysis package and will run on Apollo, Cray, and other computing platforms.

  17. DebriSat Project Update and Planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sorge, M.; Krisko, P. H.

    2016-01-01

    DebriSat Reporting Topics: DebriSat Fragment Analysis Calendar; Near-term Fragment Extraction Strategy; Fragment Characterization and Database; HVI (High-Velocity Impact) Considerations; Requirements Document.

  18. EMC Test Report: StangSat - CubeSat Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carmody, Lynne M.; Aragona, Peter S.

    2013-01-01

    This report documents the Electromagnetic Interference E M I testing performed on the StangSat; the unit under test (UUT). Testing was per the requirements of MIL STD-461F. The UUT was characterized and passed the radiated emissions (RE102 limit for Spacecraft) testing.

  19. What Have the Pilot SATs Taught Us?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearson, Lea

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes pilot testing of Great Britain's standard assessment tasks (SATs), focusing on children with special educational needs. Two SATs were produced (Change and Movement) to assess three core subjects (English, mathematics, and science.) The need for SAT adaptations to allow children with disabilities equal access is stressed. (JDD)

  20. Epidemiological analysis of an outbreak of foot-and-mouth disease (serotype SAT2) on a large dairy farm in Kenya using regular vaccination.

    PubMed

    Lyons, N A; Stärk, K D C; van Maanen, C; Thomas, S L; Chepkwony, E C; Sangula, A K; Dulu, T D; Fine, P E M

    2015-03-01

    During August-September 2012, an outbreak of Foot-and-mouth Disease (FMD) due to serotype Southern African Territories-2 (SAT2) occurred on a large, extensively grazed dairy farm in Nakuru County, Kenya. Over 29 days, 400/644 (62.1%) cattle were recorded as displaying clinical signs consistent with FMD. Out of the 18 management groups present, 17 had clinical cases (weighted mean incidence rate 3.5 per 100 cattle-days, 95% CI 2.4, 5.1; range 0.064-10.9). Transmission may have been encouraged when an infected group was moved to a designated isolation paddock. A four to five day minimum incubation period was apparent in five groups for which a point source exposure was evident. Further transmission was associated with the movement of individual animals incubating infection, use of a common dip and milking parlour, and grazing of susceptible groups in paddocks neighbouring to infectious cases. Animals over 18 months old appeared to be at highest risk of disease possibly due to milder clinical signs seen among younger animals resulting in reduced transmission or cases not being recorded. Cows with a breeding pedigree containing a greater proportion of zebu appeared to be at lower risk of disease. The outbreak occurred despite regular vaccination (three times per year) last performed approximately three months before the index case. Incidence risk by the lifetime number of doses received indicated limited or no vaccine effectiveness against clinical disease. Reasons for poor vaccine effectiveness are discussed with antigenic diversity of the SAT2 serotype and poor match between the field and vaccine strain as a likely explanation. Detailed field-derived epidemiological data based on individual animals are rarely presented in the literature for FMD, particularly in East-Africa and with the SAT2 serotype. This study provides a detailed account and therefore provides a greater understanding of FMD outbreaks in this setting. Additionally, this is the first study to provide

  1. Tensor Network Contractions for #SAT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biamonte, Jacob D.; Morton, Jason; Turner, Jacob

    2015-09-01

    The computational cost of counting the number of solutions satisfying a Boolean formula, which is a problem instance of #SAT, has proven subtle to quantify. Even when finding individual satisfying solutions is computationally easy (e.g. 2-SAT, which is in ), determining the number of solutions can be #-hard. Recently, computational methods simulating quantum systems experienced advancements due to the development of tensor network algorithms and associated quantum physics-inspired techniques. By these methods, we give an algorithm using an axiomatic tensor contraction language for n-variable #SAT instances with complexity where c is the number of COPY-tensors, g is the number of gates, and d is the maximal degree of any COPY-tensor. Thus, n-variable counting problems can be solved efficiently when their tensor network expression has at most COPY-tensors and polynomial fan-out. This framework also admits an intuitive proof of a variant of the Tovey conjecture (the r,1-SAT instance of the Dubois-Tovey theorem). This study increases the theory, expressiveness and application of tensor based algorithmic tools and provides an alternative insight on these problems which have a long history in statistical physics and computer science.

  2. Independent Schools and the SAT

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torres, Amada

    2016-01-01

    In September 2015, when the College Board released its average SAT scores for the 2015 graduating class, two details stood out for many educators: (1) the record participation and diversity numbers (close to 1.7 million students took the test, with 50 percent being students of color); and (2) the test's lower average scores compared with previous…

  3. SAT Future: Alignment to Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gewertz, Catherine

    2012-01-01

    One of the chief architects of the Common Core State Standards was named the next president of the College Board and said one of his top priorities is to reshape the organization's influential college-admissions test, the SAT, to better reflect the new standards. David Coleman will assume his new duties on Oct. 15, replacing Gaston Caperton, who…

  4. CS2SAT Desktop Tool

    2006-03-15

    The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) has developed a Control System Cyber Security Self-Assessment Tool (CS2SAT) desktop tool that provides a repeatable and systematic approach for control system users to assess the cyber security posture of their control system networks. The tool assists users in identifying the cyber security parameters of their systems and then offers security objectives, in the form of requirements, for improving the security of their specific network. Each requirement is linked tomore » a series of associated recommendations for compliance dependent upon the desired level of security protection. Each requirement is supported by links to the original standards document and recommendations are supported by links to whitepapers and other help documents. Package also includes two back-end supporting codes: CS2SAT Requirements Matrix and Control System Security Information System.« less

  5. The COLD-SAT program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, William J.

    1990-01-01

    The Cryogenic On-Orbit Liquid Depot Storage, Acquisition and Transfer (COLD-SAT) satellite is an experimental spacecraft launched from an expendable launch vehicle which is designed to investigate the systems and technologies required for efficient and reliable management of cryogenic fluid in the reduced-gravity space environment. Future applications such as Space Station, Space Transportation Vehicle (STV), external tank (ET), aft cargo carrier (ACC) propellant scavenging, storage depots, and lunar and interplanetary missions, among others, have provided the impetus to pursue this technology in a timely manner to support the design efforts. A refined conceptual approach has been developed and an overview of the COLD-SAT program is described which includes the following: (1) a definition of the technology needs and the accompanying experimental six-month baseline mission; (2) a description of the experiment subsystem, major features, and rationale for satisfaction of primary and secondary experiment requirements using LH2 as the test fluid; and (3) a presentation of the conceptual design of the COLD-SAT spacecraft subsystems which support the on-orbit experiment with emphasis on those areas which posed the greatest technical challenge.

  6. The New SAT: The Future of Transition Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graff, A. Steven

    1993-01-01

    Describes changes being made in the Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT) and other standardized tests. Highlights include a history of standardized college entrance testing; the change process of the SAT; descriptions of the new SAT I Reasoning Tests and SAT II Subject Tests; comparisons between the old and the new SAT; and future possibilities. (LRW)

  7. France: Africans and the French Revolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fatunde, Tunde

    1989-01-01

    The French Revolution had profound and long-term effects for Africans, both in Africa and throughout the Western hemisphere. Revolutionary leaders not only opposed the emancipation of slaves in French territories but supported an intensified slave trade, sparking numerous rebellions. French exploitation of Africans extended well into the twentieth…

  8. Improving Resource-Unaware SAT Solvers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hölldobler, Steffen; Manthey, Norbert; Saptawijaya, Ari

    The paper discusses cache utilization in state-of-the-art SAT solvers. The aim of the study is to show how a resource-unaware SAT solver can be improved by utilizing the cache sensibly. The analysis is performed on a CDCL-based SAT solver using a subset of the industrial SAT Competition 2009 benchmark. For the analysis, the total cycles, the resource stall cycles, the L2 cache hits and the L2 cache misses are traced using sample based profiling. Based on the analysis, several techniques - some of which have not been used in SAT solvers so far - are proposed resulting in a combined speedup up to 83% without affecting the search path of the solver. The average speedup on the benchmark is 60%. The new techniques are also applied to MiniSAT2.0 improving its runtime by 20% on average.

  9. A Case for Not Going SAT-Optional: Students with Discrepant SAT and HSGPA Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mattern, Krista D.; Shaw, Emily J.; Kobrin, Jennifer L.

    2010-01-01

    Presented at the national conference for the American Educational Research Association (AERA) in 2010. This presentation describes an alternative way of presenting the unique information provided by the SAT over HSGPA, namely examining students with discrepant SAT-HSGPA performance.

  10. Repeated Test Taking on the SAT: The Effects of Ethnicity, Gender, Financial Aid, and High School Location

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynch, Lian

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether there was a significant relationship between repeated test taking on the SAT and several demographic measures. These measures included ethnicity (American Indian/Alaskan Native, Asian/Asian American/Pacific Islander, Black/African American, Mexican/Mexican American, Puerto Rican, Other…

  11. Different Tests, Same Flaws: Examining the SAT I, SAT II, and ACT

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perez, Christina

    2002-01-01

    Spurred in part by University of California (UC) President Richard Atkinson's February 2001 proposal to drop the SAT I for UC applicants, more attention is being paid to other tests such as the SAT II and ACT. Proponents of these alternative exams argue that the SAT I is primarily an aptitude test measuring some vague concept of "inherent…

  12. Non-territorial nightingales prospect territories during the dawn chorus.

    PubMed

    Amrhein, Valentin; Kunc, Hansjoerg P; Naguib, Marc

    2004-05-01

    Male songbirds usually sing when they have occupied a territory, but the territory prospecting of non-territorial males is more elusive and has been rarely studied. Here, we simulated newly arriving, non-territorial males by translocating unmated male nightingales (Luscinia megarhynchos) to our study site. We show that territory prospecting of translocated males was largely confined to the hour before sunrise. The radio-tagged males made extensive excursions visiting several singing males at dawn, but after dawn they remained stationary outside occupied territories. As in many other songbird species, dawn was also the time when resident males sang the most. These results suggest that nonterritorial male nightingales use the dawn chorus to assess singing residents or territory occupancy. For resident males, dawn singing may be important to announce territory occupancy to prospecting males and may thus play a role in territory maintenance. PMID:15252973

  13. Non-territorial nightingales prospect territories during the dawn chorus.

    PubMed Central

    Amrhein, Valentin; Kunc, Hansjoerg P; Naguib, Marc

    2004-01-01

    Male songbirds usually sing when they have occupied a territory, but the territory prospecting of non-territorial males is more elusive and has been rarely studied. Here, we simulated newly arriving, non-territorial males by translocating unmated male nightingales (Luscinia megarhynchos) to our study site. We show that territory prospecting of translocated males was largely confined to the hour before sunrise. The radio-tagged males made extensive excursions visiting several singing males at dawn, but after dawn they remained stationary outside occupied territories. As in many other songbird species, dawn was also the time when resident males sang the most. These results suggest that nonterritorial male nightingales use the dawn chorus to assess singing residents or territory occupancy. For resident males, dawn singing may be important to announce territory occupancy to prospecting males and may thus play a role in territory maintenance. PMID:15252973

  14. A Small Aircraft Transportation System (SATS) Demand Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Long, Dou; Lee, David; Johnson, Jesse; Kostiuk, Peter; Yackovetsky, Robert (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The Small Aircraft Transportation System (SATS) demand modeling is a tool that will be useful for decision-makers to analyze SATS demands in both airport and airspace. We constructed a series of models following the general top-down, modular principles in systems engineering. There are three principal models, SATS Airport Demand Model (SATS-ADM), SATS Flight Demand Model (SATS-FDM), and LMINET-SATS. SATS-ADM models SATS operations, by aircraft type, from the forecasts in fleet, configuration and performance, utilization, and traffic mixture. Given the SATS airport operations such as the ones generated by SATS-ADM, SATS-FDM constructs the SATS origin and destination (O&D) traffic flow based on the solution of the gravity model, from which it then generates SATS flights using the Monte Carlo simulation based on the departure time-of-day profile. LMINET-SATS, an extension of LMINET, models SATS demands at airspace and airport by all aircraft operations in US The models use parameters to provide the user with flexibility and ease of use to generate SATS demand for different scenarios. Several case studies are included to illustrate the use of the models, which are useful to identify the need for a new air traffic management system to cope with SATS.

  15. Test anxiety and performance-avoidance goals explain gender differences in SAT-V, SAT-M, and overall SAT scores.

    PubMed

    Hannon, Brenda

    2012-11-01

    This study uses analysis of co-variance in order to determine which cognitive/learning (working memory, knowledge integration, epistemic belief of learning) or social/personality factors (test anxiety, performance-avoidance goals) might account for gender differences in SAT-V, SAT-M, and overall SAT scores. The results revealed that none of the cognitive/learning factors accounted for gender differences in SAT performance. However, the social/personality factors of test anxiety and performance-avoidance goals each separately accounted for all of the significant gender differences in SAT-V, SAT-M, and overall SAT performance. Furthermore, when the influences of both of these factors were statistically removed simultaneously, all non-significant gender differences reduced further to become trivial by Cohen's (1988) standards. Taken as a whole, these results suggest that gender differences in SAT-V, SAT-M, and overall SAT performance are a consequence of social/learning factors. PMID:23997382

  16. Test anxiety and performance-avoidance goals explain gender differences in SAT-V, SAT-M, and overall SAT scores

    PubMed Central

    Hannon, Brenda

    2013-01-01

    This study uses analysis of co-variance in order to determine which cognitive/learning (working memory, knowledge integration, epistemic belief of learning) or social/personality factors (test anxiety, performance-avoidance goals) might account for gender differences in SAT-V, SAT-M, and overall SAT scores. The results revealed that none of the cognitive/learning factors accounted for gender differences in SAT performance. However, the social/personality factors of test anxiety and performance-avoidance goals each separately accounted for all of the significant gender differences in SAT-V, SAT-M, and overall SAT performance. Furthermore, when the influences of both of these factors were statistically removed simultaneously, all non-significant gender differences reduced further to become trivial by Cohen's (1988) standards. Taken as a whole, these results suggest that gender differences in SAT-V, SAT-M, and overall SAT performance are a consequence of social/learning factors. PMID:23997382

  17. Computer as a Tool in SAT Preparation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coffin, Gregory C.

    Two experimental programs, designed to increase Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT) scores of inner city, low achieving students by using computer-assisted SAT preparation, produced differing results. Forty volunteers from a nearby high school were assigned to two groups of 20 each--one experimental and one control group. The first program provided six…

  18. Ace the Verbal on the SAT

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meierding, Loren

    2005-01-01

    Many students are not accepted in to certain colleges and universities because of low SAT scores. Loren Meierding has written Ace the Verbal on the SAT to help students with minimal preparation do well by improving their vocabulary and use better techniques for finding the answers to the questions. This book provides strategies needed to score…

  19. Colleges Making SAT Optional as Admissions Requirement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilroy, Marilyn

    2007-01-01

    This article reports that more colleges are dropping the SAT as a requirement for admission and, in many cases, these institutions are attracting a larger and more diverse pool of applicants. According to the National Center for Fair & Open Testing (FairTest), 740 schools have made the SATs optional. The list includes some of the nation's most…

  20. Space Environmental NanoSat Experiment (SENSE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalamaroff, K. I.; Thompson, D. C.; Gentile, L. C.; Cooke, D. L.; Bonito, N.; La Tour, P.

    2012-12-01

    The Space Environmental NanoSat Experiment (SENSE) program is a rapid development effort of the USAF Space and Missiles Center Development Planning Directorate (SMC/XR) which will demonstrate the capability of NanoSats to perform space missions in an affordable and resilient manner. The three primary objectives for the SENSE mission are: 1) to develop best practices for operational CubeSat/NanoSat procurement, development, test, and operations; 2) to mature CubeSat bus and sensor component technology readiness levels; and 3) to demonstrate the operational utility of CubeSat measurements by flowing validated, low-latency data into operational space weather models. SENSE consists of two 3-U CubeSats scheduled for launch in summer 2013. Both satellites are 3-axis stabilized with star cameras for attitude determination and are equipped with a Compact Total Electron Density Sensor (CTECS) to provide radio occultation measurements of total electron content and L-band scintillation. One satellite has a Cubesat Tiny Ionospheric Photometer (CTIP) monitoring 135.6 nm photons produced by the recombination of O+ ions and electrons. The other satellite has a Wind Ion Neutral Composite Suite (WINCS) to acquire simultaneous co-located, in situ measurements of atmospheric and ionospheric density, composition, temperature and winds/drifts. Mission data will be used to improve current and future space weather models and demonstrate the utility of data from CubeSats for operational weather requirements.

  1. Territoriality in Carrel Design.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spangenberg, Ronald W.

    Three factors which may impact upon carrel design are cloistering, social interaction, and territory-related behaviors. Level and manner of seclusion are discussed, and related literature findings are reviewed in this report. Social interaction, both student-to-student and instructor-to-student, are surveyed and the group size factor is carefully…

  2. Southern African AIDS Training Programme.

    PubMed

    Dafoe, G H

    1994-01-01

    The Canadian Public Health Association (CPHA) with the Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA), in a little over 2 years, have established a Southern African AIDS Training Programme (SAT) that is effective in developing community-based responses to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Based in Harare, Zimbabwe, the program provides financial assistance, training, monitoring, and advice and information to 120 project partners. The average grant size is $40,000. In a second phase of the project, SAT will attempt to meet the requests of its partners for more services. Currently, to meet needs for rapid, responsive training, and novel approaches to skill building, SAT has developed a collaborative nongovernmental organization (NGO) initiative, "The School Without Walls". This program identifies and amplifies what has worked effectively for organizations and programs. Other similar organizations and programs learn from these experiences. Site visits, apprenticeships, mentor organizations, and skills-building based on shared problem-diagnosis and resolution are some of the techniques employed. A draft report of the CIDA midterm external evaluation of SAT recommends renewal of the program, resourcing of the program to meet its regional responsibilities, and adoption of "The School Without Walls" as a central strategy for southern Africa. PMID:8180923

  3. Evaluation of WindSat Land Surface Data over West Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steele-Dunne, S. C.; Li, L.; Gaiser, P.; van de Giesen, N.

    2009-12-01

    The WindSat instrument is a spaceborne polarimetric microwave radiometer, data from which has been used in a wide range of ocean and land-based applications. Li et al. (2009) developed a physically based algorithm, based on maximum likelihood estimation, which uses vertical and horizontal polarization data at 10, 18.7 and 37 GHz to simultaneously retrieve soil moisture, vegetation water content and land surface temperature. In this research, the performance of these Windsat land products is evaluated over West Africa, from February 2003 to May 2006, through comparison with both in-situ and remote-sensing data. Though the in-situ data and WindSat soil moisture produce showed the same general temporal pattern, it is important to note that the in-situ observations were collected at a single point while the WindSat soil moisture is a 25km gridded product. For a more complete view, WindSat soil moisture and vegetation water content products were also analyzed alongside precipitation data (TRMM), vegetation indices (e.g. NDVI) and other soil moisture products (e.g. ERS) from remote-sensing to determine how well the WindSat data could capture the soil moisture and vegetation response to observed precipitation. Our analysis shows that WindSat clearly detects the north-south gradient in soil moisture due to the West African monsoon. The difference in regime between tropical forest, savanna and desert is plainly discernible in both the soil moisture and vegetation water content data. The soil moisture dynamics of the Niger Inland Delta can also be seen in the WindSat data. The modest impact of local rainfall is seen during the rainy season, while a significant rise in soil moisture is detected in October when rainfall from the Niger and Bani headwaters reaches the inland delta. The main growing season follows, and the soil moisture is seen to decrease slowly due to infiltration and evapotranspiration. These results support those of the global WindSat validation, and

  4. NextSat on-orbit experiences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Randall, Christopher R.; Porter, Bradley S.; Stokley, Catherine; Epstein, Kenneth; Kaufman, David

    2008-04-01

    The NextSat spacecraft was designed and built by Ball Aerospace & Technologies Corp. as part of the DARPA-funded Orbital Express mission. Orbital Express, launched in March of 2007, was a highly successful demonstration mission proving the feasibility of autonomous on-orbit refueling and servicing of spacecraft. The Orbital Express mission consisted of the Ball-built NextSat/CSC satellite and the Boeing-built ASTRO satellite. Both satellites launched mated into a 492km circular orbit on board a Lockheed-Martin Atlas V 401 launch vehicle from Cape Canaveral. The NextSat satellite acted as both the next generation "serviceable" satellite and the commodities satellite. This paper discusses the on-orbit mission experiences of the NextSat satellite. Key experiences include: launch and early orbit operations in which the NextSat satellite was called on to perform critical attitude control functions for the mated stack, functionality which was never tested or planned for; autonomous fluid transfers between ASTRO and NextSat; autonomous ORU transfers between ASTRO and NextSat; autonomous separation, free-flying and rendezvous operations; and end-of-life operations.

  5. Territorial Decentration and Geographic Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoltman, Joseph P.

    Territorial decentration is a question of major significance to geographic educators. This paper reports the findings of a research project designed to determine the territorial decentration of an American sample of children. The primary purpose of the research was to determine if Piaget's territorial decentration stages are appropriate for…

  6. Reentry Experiment SAT-X

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woods, Maurice; Kuhns, Casey; Honda, Motoaki; Shiely, Robert; Adamson, Aaron; Aken, Jordan; Walch, Robert; Galovich, Cynthia; Semak, Matthew

    2011-10-01

    The challenge of reentering the Earth's atmosphere is not new. For years, NASA has successfully designed vessels that have endured the harsh process of reentry. However, in most cases, this is made possible only through the act of over-engineering; designing to withstand conditions far beyond what is expected to be encountered. Though this method has been effective, there would be benefit in knowing more precisely what to expect upon atmospheric reentry. The University of Northern Colorado Reentry Experiment SAT-X project, launched from Wallops Island, Virginia on July 21, 2011, was designed to shed light on the reentry process by collecting motion data for a capsule ejected from a rocket. Moreover, a secondary objective was to test the capability of the prototype capsule to serve as a platform for future reentry experiments. The mission and preliminary results from the launch will be described.

  7. PhoneSat - The Smartphone Nanosatellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cockrell, James J.; Yost, Bruce; Petro, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    NASAs PhoneSat project will test whether spacecraft can be built using smartphones to launch the lowest-cost satellites ever flown in space. Each PhoneSat nanosatellite is one cubesat unit - a satellite in a 10 cm (approx. 4 inches) cube or about the size of a tissue box - and weighs approximately three pounds. Engineers believe PhoneSat technology will enable NASA to launch multiple new satellites capable of conducting science and exploration missions at a small fraction of the cost of conventional satellites.

  8. PhoneSat - The Smartphone Nanosatellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cockrell, James J.; Yost, Bruce; Petro, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    NASA's PhoneSat project tests whether spacecraft can be built using smartphones to launch the lowest-cost satellites ever flown in space. Each PhoneSat nanosatellite is one cubesat unit - a satellite in a 10 cm (approx. 4 inches) cube or about the size of a tissue box - and weighs approximately 1 kg (2.2 pounds). Engineers believe PhoneSat technology will enable NASA to launch multiple new satellites capable of conducting science and exploration missions at a small fraction of the cost of conventional satellites.

  9. SAT-Solving Based on Boundary Point Elimination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldberg, Eugene; Manolios, Panagiotis

    We study the problem of building structure-aware SAT-solvers based on resolution. In this study, we use the idea of treating a resolution proof as a process of Boundary Point Elimination (BPE). We identify two problems of using SAT-algorithms with Conflict Driven Clause Learning (CDCL) for structure-aware SAT-solving. We introduce a template of resolution based SAT-solvers called BPE-SAT that is based on a few generic implications of the BPE concept. BPE-SAT can be viewed as a generalization of CDCL SAT-solvers and is meant for building new structure-aware SAT-algorithms. We give experimental results substantiating the ideas of the BPE approach. In particular, to show the importance of structural information we compare an implementation of BPE-SAT and state-of-the-art SAT-solvers on narrow CNF formulas.

  10. When and why do territorial coalitions occur? Experimental evidence from a fiddler crab.

    PubMed

    Detto, Tanya; Jennions, Michael D; Backwell, Patricia R Y

    2010-05-01

    Neighboring territory owners are often less aggressive toward each other than to strangers ("dear enemy" effect). There is, however, little evidence for territorial defense coalitions whereby a neighbor will temporarily leave his/her own territory, enter that of a neighbor, and cooperate in repelling a conspecific intruder. This is surprising, as theoreticians have long posited the existence of such coalitions and the circumstances under which they should evolve. Here we document territorial defense coalitions in the African fiddler crab Uca annulipes, which lives in large colonies wherein each male defends a burrow and its surrounding area against neighbors and "floaters" (burrowless males). Fights between a resident and a floater sometimes involve another male who has left his territory to fight the floater challenging his neighbor. Using simple experiments, we provide the first evidence of the rules determining when territorial coalitions form. Our results support recent models that suggest that these coalitions arise from by-product mutualism. PMID:20302425

  11. HaloSat- A CubeSat to Study the Hot Galactic Halo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaaret, Philip

    We propose to develop, build, and fly HaloSat, a CubeSat capable of measuring the oxygen line emission from the hot Galactic halo. A dedicated CubeSat enables an instrument design and observing strategy to maximize the halo signal while minimizing foregrounds from solar wind charge exchange interactions within the solar system. We will use HaloSat to map the distribution of hot gas in the Milky Way and determine whether it fills an extended, and thus massive halo, or whether the halo is compact, and thus does not contribute significantly to the total mass of the Milky Way. HaloSat can be accomplished at modest cost using a CubeSat, a novel platform for space astrophysics missions. We will use a commercially available CubeSat bus and commercially available X-ray detectors to reduce development risk and minimize overall mission cost. HaloSat builds on the initiatives of GSFC/Wallops Flight Facility (WFF) in the development of CubeSats for low cost access to space and relies on the technical expertise of WFF personnel for spacecraft and mission design and operations. The team, from University of Iowa (UI), GSFC, Johns Hopkins, and CNRS (France), contains experts in X-ray detector development and data analysis and the astrophysics of hot plasmas and Galactic structure. The UI team will include a number of junior researchers (undergraduates, graduate students, and a postdoc) and help train them for future leadership roles on NASA space flight missions.

  12. CloudSat View of Flossie

    NASA Video Gallery

    CloudSat passed directly over Tropical Storm Flossie on July 29 and showed cumulus and stratocumulus clouds in northern Hawaii and cumulonimbus clouds over the southern part. Large amounts of liqui...

  13. Score Trends, SAT Validity and Subgroup Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Camara, Wayne

    2008-01-01

    Presented at the Summer Institute on College Admissions at Harvard in June 2008. The presentation explores whether the SAT validity has changed with the test changes and if those changes affect specific subgroups.

  14. PhoneSat - The Smartphone Nanosatellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Westley, Deborah; Yost, Bruce; Petro, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    PhoneSat 2.4, carried into space on November 19, 2013 aboard a Minotaur I rocket from the Mid-Atlantic Regional Spaceport at NASAs Wallops Flight Facility in Virginia, is the first of the PhoneSat family to use a two-way S-band radio to allow engineers to command the satellite from Earth. This mission also serves as a technology demonstration for a novel attitude determination and control system (ADCS) that establishes and stabilizes the satellites attitude relative to Earth. Unlike the earlier PhoneSats that used a Nexus One, PhoneSat 2.4 uses the Nexus S smartphone, which runs Googles Android operating system, and is made by Samsung Electronics Co., Suwon, So. Korea. The smartphone provides many of the functions needed by the satellite such as a central computer, data memory, ready-made interfaces for communications, navigation and power all pre-assembled in a rugged electronics package.

  15. The SAT: An Essay in Uncertainty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mlodinow, Leonard

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the author talks about the release of the most comprehensive study of SAT exams. The headline on the Web site of the College Board, the maker of the test, was, "SAT Studies Show Test's Strength in Predicting College Success." At the same time, a headline on the Web site of the group FairTest, a 23-year-old, nonprofit watchdog…

  16. Synchrotrons in cyclotron territory

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, D.J.; Gough, R.A.

    1986-10-01

    Synchrotrons and cyclotrons have an overlap in their particle and energy ranges. In proton radiotherapy, synchrotrons are proposed at 250 MeV, an energy usually served by cyclotrons. Heavy ion therapy has been synchrotron territory, but cyclotrons may be competitive. In nuclear science, heavy ion synchrotrons can be used in the cyclotron energy range of 10-200 MeV/u. Storage rings are planned to increase the flexibility of several cyclotrons. For atomic physics research, several storage rings are under construction for the energy range of 10 MeV/u and below.

  17. Tishomingo folio, Indian Territory

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Taff, Joseph A.

    1903-01-01

    The Tishomingo quadrangle is bounded by meridians 96° 30' and 97° and parallels 34° and 34° 30', and occupies one-quarter of a square degree of the earth's surface.  It is 34.5 miles long north and south and 28.58 miles wide, and contains about 986 square miles.  It lies in the southeastern part of the Chickasaw Nation, Indian Territory, the eastern edge being nearly 3 miles west of the Choctaw-Chickasaw boudary line, and the southern side about 3 miles north of the nearest approach of Red River.

  18. KidSat: Image User's Manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Way, JoBea; Andres, Paul; Baker, John; Goodson, Greg; Marshall, William; McGuire, John; Rackley, Kathleen; Stork, Elizabeth Jones; Yiu, Lisa

    1999-01-01

    The goal of KidSat was to provide young students with the opportunity to participate directly in the NASA space program and to enhance learning in the process. The KidSat pilot project was focused on using a color digital camera, mounted on the space shuttle, to take pictures of the Earth. These could be used to enhance middle school curricula. The project not only benefited middle school students, who were essentially the Science Team, responsible for deciding where to take pictures, but it also benefited high school students and undergraduates, who were essentially the Project Team, responsible for the development and implementation of the project. KidSat flew on three missions as part of the pilot project: STS-76, STS-81, and STS-86. This document describes the goals, project elements, results, and data for the three KidSat missions that made up the pilot program. It serves as a record for this pilot project and may be used as a reference for similar projects. It can also be a too] in using the data to its fullest extent. The KidSat Web page remains on-line at http://kidsat.jpl.nasa.gov/kidsat, and the images may be downloaded in their full resolution.

  19. TemperSAT: A new efficient fair-sampling random k-SAT solver

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Chao; Zhu, Zheng; Katzgraber, Helmut G.

    The set membership problem is of great importance to many applications and, in particular, database searches for target groups. Recently, an approach to speed up set membership searches based on the NP-hard constraint-satisfaction problem (random k-SAT) has been developed. However, the bottleneck of the approach lies in finding the solution to a large SAT formula efficiently and, in particular, a large number of independent solutions is needed to reduce the probability of false positives. Unfortunately, traditional random k-SAT solvers such as WalkSAT are biased when seeking solutions to the Boolean formulas. By porting parallel tempering Monte Carlo to the sampling of binary optimization problems, we introduce a new algorithm (TemperSAT) whose performance is comparable to current state-of-the-art SAT solvers for large k with the added benefit that theoretically it can find many independent solutions quickly. We illustrate our results by comparing to the currently fastest implementation of WalkSAT, WalkSATlm.

  20. Administration and the Territorial Imperative.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moser, Robert P.

    This paper explores some of the evidence relating similarities between lower animal behavior in defense of territory and administrative behavior in defense of position prerogative. The bureaucratic organization has a system of sanctions to penalize those who would infringe upon the territory of superordinates. Humans mark their domains by audio…

  1. Territorial Interests and Educational Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Paul; Love, Julie

    Congress is often ambiguous on legislation involving the interests of society's functional groups but is more specific on legislation involving territorial interests. Researchers tested three propositions about congressional action on territorial versus functional matters in education. The three propositions are that Congress (1) is more explicit…

  2. Partitioning SAT Instances for Distributed Solving

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hyvärinen, Antti E. J.; Junttila, Tommi; Niemelä, Ilkka

    In this paper we study the problem of solving hard propositional satisfiability problem (SAT) instances in a computing grid or cloud, where run times and communication between parallel running computations are limited.We study analytically an approach where the instance is partitioned iteratively into a tree of subproblems and each node in the tree is solved in parallel.We present new methods for constructing partitions which combine clause learning and lookahead. The methods are incorporated into the iterative approach and its performance is demonstrated with an extensive comparison against the best sequential solvers in the SAT competition 2009 as well as against two efficient parallel solvers.

  3. Two CubeSats Deployed from the International Space Station

    NASA Video Gallery

    This movie of a CubeSat deployment from the International Space Station shows a compilation of photos taken by astronauts on May 16, 2016. The bottom-most CubeSat is the NASA-funded MinXSS CubeSat,...

  4. Overestimation Bias in Self-Reported SAT Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayer, Richard E.; Stull, Andrew T.; Campbell, Julie; Almeroth, Kevin; Bimber, Bruce; Chun, Dorothy; Knight, Allan

    2007-01-01

    The authors analyzed self-reported SAT scores and actual SAT scores for five different samples of college students (N = 650). Students overestimated their actual SAT scores by an average of 25 points (SD = 81, d = 0.31), with 10% under-reporting, 51% reporting accurately, and 39% over-reporting, indicating a systematic bias towards over-reporting.…

  5. Issues of Validity of SAT Subject Test: Korean with Listening

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Saekyun H.; Han, Hyunjoo

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated some issues regarding the validity of the Scholastic Achievement Test (SAT) Subject Test: Korean with Listening. The SAT Korean has been administered just once a year since its inception in 1997. As of March 2006, it had been administered nine times. However, SAT foreign language tests are not as rigorously researched as…

  6. SAT Participation and Performance for the Class of 2014. Memorandum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanderson, Geoffrey T.

    2014-01-01

    SAT participation and performance are milestones on the path to college and career readiness. This report provides the results for SAT participation and performance in Montgomery County (Maryland) Public Schools (MCPS) for the class of 2014. Analysis of postsecondary outcomes for MCPS graduates indicates that graduates who took the SAT were more…

  7. HaloSat - A CubeSat to Study the Hot Galactic Halo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaaret, Philip

    2016-04-01

    Observations of the nearby universe fail to locate about half of the normal matter (baryons) observed in the early universe. The missing baryons may be in hot galactic halos. HaloSat is a CubeSat designed to map oxygen line emission (O VII and O VIII) around the Milky Way in order to constrain the mass and spatial distribution of hot gas in the halo. HaloSat has a grasp competitive with current X-ray observatories. Its observing program will be optimized to minimize contributions from solar wind charge exchange (SWCX) emission that limit the accuracy of current measurements. We will describe the HaloSat mission concept, progress towards its implementation, and plans for archiving and distribution of the data.

  8. Generating Combinatorial Test Cases by Efficient SAT Encodings Suitable for CDCL SAT Solvers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banbara, Mutsunori; Matsunaka, Haruki; Tamura, Naoyuki; Inoue, Katsumi

    Generating test cases for combinatorial testing is to find a covering array in Combinatorial Designs. In this paper, we consider the problem of finding optimal covering arrays by SAT encoding. We present two encodings suitable for modern CDCL SAT solvers. One is based on the order encoding that is efficient in the sense that unit propagation achieves the bounds consistency in CSPs. Another one is based on a combination of the order encoding and Hnich's encoding. CDCL SAT solvers have an important role in the latest SAT technology. The effective use of them is essential for enhancing efficiency. In our experiments, we found solutions that can be competitive with the previously known results for the arrays of strength two to six with small to moderate size of components and symbols. Moreover, we succeeded either in proving the optimality of known bounds or in improving known lower bounds for some arrays.

  9. Unflagged SATs: Who Benefits from Special Accommodations?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abrams, Samuel J.

    2005-01-01

    When the College Board announced, in the summer of 2002, that it would stop "flagging" the test scores of students who were given special accommodations for the SAT, the gold standard exam for college admission, disability advocates were thrilled. "A triumphant day for millions of people with dyslexia and other disabilities," exclaimed Thomas…

  10. Pre- to Post- CubeSats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cutler, J.

    2015-12-01

    CubeSats sprung from a formative picosatellite effort at a university in the heart of Silicon Valley, took root in a university-led university environment, and have grown into complex-shaped explorers in both near and soon-to-be deep space. Private citizens, businesses, government are building and launching a variety of science, technology demonstration, and service missions. A new generation of space explorers is gaining first hand experience in space missions at all educational levels. There is new life and new energy in the space program. However, space is still difficult. The environment is harsh. Funding is sparse. This talk explores this history and the future of CubeSats from the context of a university-centric laboratory that emphasizes teaching, research, and entrepreneurial impact. It will explore the following questions: What sparked the CubeSat innovation? What are longer lasting lessons of this community? Where are places we can go next? What does it take to get there? The talk will draw on lessons learned from building over six on-orbit CubeSat missions and training hundreds of space engineers.

  11. The RadioSat (sm) network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noreen, Gary K.

    1991-01-01

    The RadioSat network under development by radio Satellite Corporation will use mobile satellite (MSAT) technology to provide diverse personal communications, broadcast, and navigation services. The network will support these services simultaneously for integrated mobile radios throughout Canada and the United States. The RadioSat network takes advantage of several technological breakthroughs, all coming to fruition by the time the first MSAT satellite is launched in 1994. The most important of these breakthroughs is the enormous radiated power of each MSAT spacecraft - orders of magnitude greater than the radiated power of previous L-band spacecraft. Another important breakthrough is the development of advanced digital audio compression algorithms, enabling the transmission of broadcast quality music at moderate data rates. Finally, continuing dramatic increases in VLSI capabilities permit the production of complex, multi-function mobile satellite radios in very large quantities at prices little more than those of conventional car radios. In addition to performance breakthroughs and their economic implications to RadioSat, the design of the RadioSat network is reviewed.

  12. Investigating SATS-36 for a Matriculation Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krishnan, Saras; Idris, Noraini

    2015-01-01

    Students' attitudes towards statistics have been more often negative due to many factors such as initial perception of the subject, low ability in mathematics and lack of motivation to study statistics. Studies involving SATS-36 included investigation of the different factors in relation to students' attitude towards statistics. Other studies have…

  13. COLD-SAT Dynamic Model Computer Code

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bollenbacher, G.; Adams, N. S.

    1995-01-01

    COLD-SAT Dynamic Model (CSDM) computer code implements six-degree-of-freedom, rigid-body mathematical model for simulation of spacecraft in orbit around Earth. Investigates flow dynamics and thermodynamics of subcritical cryogenic fluids in microgravity. Consists of three parts: translation model, rotation model, and slosh model. Written in FORTRAN 77.

  14. SAT Scores at NAIS Member Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torres, Amada

    2015-01-01

    Between March and June 2014, more than 1.67 million students from the 2014 graduating class took the SAT, marking a new participation record for the test. At the request of the National Association of Independent Schools (NAIS), the College Board created a special report that allows the association to compare how independent school students fared…

  15. SAT's Next Chapter about to Be Written

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Honawar, Vaishali

    2005-01-01

    Starting in March 2005, the SAT, taken annually by more than 1.4 million college-bound students, will undergo its most significant change since 1994, when the College Board, which sponsors the test, first allowed calculators into test rooms, added open-ended math questions, and eliminated antonyms and added more critical-reading passages in the…

  16. SAT: a Late NS Protein of Porcine Parvovirus

    PubMed Central

    Zádori, Zoltán; Szelei, József; Tijssen, Peter

    2005-01-01

    The genomes of all members of the Parvovirus genus were found to contain a small open reading frame (ORF), designated SAT, with a start codon four or seven nucleotides downstream of the VP2 initiation codon. Green fluorescent protein or FLAG fusion constructs of SAT demonstrated that these ORFs were expressed. Although the SAT proteins of the different parvoviruses are not particularly conserved, they were all predicted to contain a membrane-spanning helix, and mutations in this hydrophobic stretch affected the localization of the SAT protein. SAT colocalized with calreticulin in the membranes of the endoplasmic reticulum and the nucleus. A knockout mutant (SAT−), with an unmodified VP sequence, showed a “slow-spreading” phenotype. These knockout mutants could be complemented with VP2− SAT+ mutant. The SAT protein is a late nonstructural (NS) protein, in contrast to previously identified NS proteins, since it is expressed from the same mRNA as VP2. PMID:16189014

  17. Achievements and Future Plan of Interplanetary CubeSats and Micro-Sats in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Funase, Ryu

    2016-07-01

    This paper introduces Japanese achievements and future plans of CubeSats and Micro-Sats for deep space exploration. As the first step toward deep space mission by such tiny spacecraft, University of Tokyo and Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) developed the world's first deep space micro-spacecraft PROCYON (Proximate Object Close flYby with Optical Navigation). Its mission objective is to demonstrate a micro-spacecraft bus technology for deep space exploration and proximity flyby to asteroids performing optical measurements. PROCYON was launched into the Earth departure trajectory on December 3, 2014 together with Japanese asteroid sample return mission Hayabusa-2. PROCYON successfully completed the bus system demonstration mission in its interplanetary flight. Currently, Japan is not only pursuing the improvement and utilization of the demonstrated micro-sat deep space bus system with a weight of tens of kg or more for more practical scientific deep space missions, but also trying to develop smaller spacecraft with a weight of less than tens of kg, namely CubeSats, for deep space exploration. We are proposing a self-contained 6U CubeSat mission for the rideshare opportunity on the USA's SLS EM-1 mission, which will fly to a libration orbit around Earth-Moon L2 point and perform scientific observations of the Earth and the Moon. We are also seeking the possibility of CubeSats which is carried by a larger spacecraft to the destination and supports the mission by taking advantage of its low-cost and risk-tolerable feature. As an example of such style of CubeSat missions, we are studying a CubeSat for close observations of an asteroid, which will be carried to the target asteroid by a larger mother spacecraft. This CubeSat is released from the mother spacecraft to make a close flyby for scientific observations, which is difficult to be performed by the mother spacecraft if we consider the risk of the collision to the target asteroid or dust particles ejected

  18. COLD-SAT feasibility study safety analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mchenry, Steven T.; Yost, James M.

    1991-01-01

    The Cryogenic On-orbit Liquid Depot-Storage, Acquisition, and Transfer (COLD-SAT) satellite presents some unique safety issues. The feasibility study conducted at NASA-Lewis desired a systems safety program that would be involved from the initial design in order to eliminate and/or control the inherent hazards. Because of this, a hazards analysis method was needed that: (1) identified issues that needed to be addressed for a feasibility assessment; and (2) identified all potential hazards that would need to be controlled and/or eliminated during the detailed design phases. The developed analysis method is presented as well as the results generated for the COLD-SAT system.

  19. SAT Encoding of Unification in EL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baader, Franz; Morawska, Barbara

    Unification in Description Logics has been proposed as a novel inference service that can, for example, be used to detect redundancies in ontologies. In a recent paper, we have shown that unification in EL is NP-complete, and thus of a complexity that is considerably lower than in other Description Logics of comparably restricted expressive power. In this paper, we introduce a new NP-algorithm for solving unification problems in EL, which is based on a reduction to satisfiability in propositional logic (SAT). The advantage of this new algorithm is, on the one hand, that it allows us to employ highly optimized state-of-the-art SAT solvers when implementing an EL-unification algorithm. On the other hand, this reduction provides us with a proof of the fact that EL-unification is in NP that is much simpler than the one given in our previous paper on EL-unification.

  20. CubeSat deformable mirror demonstration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cahoy, Kerri; Marinan, Anne; Kerr, Caitlin; Cheng, Kezi; Jamil, Sara

    2012-09-01

    The goal of the CubeSat Deformable Mirror Demonstration (DeMi) is to characterize the performance of a small deformable mirror over a year in low-Earth orbit. Small form factor deformable mirrors are a key technology needed to correct optical system aberrations in high contrast, high dynamic range space telescope applications such as space-based coronagraphic direct imaging of exoplanets. They can also improve distortions and reduce bit error rates for space-based laser communication systems. While follow-on missions can take advantage of this general 3U CubeSat platform to test the on-orbit performance of several different types of deformable mirrors, this first design accommodates a 32-actuator Boston Micromachines MEMS deformable mirror.

  1. ExoplanetSat: detecting transiting exoplanets using a low-cost CubeSat platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Matthew W.; Seager, Sara; Pong, Christopher M.; Villaseñor, Jesus S.; Ricker, George R.; Miller, David W.; Knapp, Mary E.; Farmer, Grant T.; Jensen-Clem, Rebecca

    2010-07-01

    Nanosatellites, i.e. spacecraft that weigh between 1 and 10 kg, are drawing increasing interest as platforms for conducting on-orbit science. This trend is primarily driven by the ability to piggyback nanosatellites on the launch of large spacecraft and hence achieve orbit at greatly reduced cost. The CubeSat platform is a standardized nanosatellite configuration, consisting of one, two, or three 10 cm x 10 cm x 10 cm units (1, 2, or 3 "U"s) arranged in a row. We present a CubeSat-based concept for the discovery of transiting exoplanets around the nearest and brightest Sun-like stars. The spacecraft prototype - termed ExoplanetSat - is a 3U space telescope capable of monitoring a single target star from low Earth orbit. Given the volume limitations of the CubeSat form factor, designing a capable spacecraft requires overcoming significant challenges. This work presents the initial satellite configuration along with several subsystem-specific solutions to the aforementioned constraints. An optical design based on a modified commercial off-the-shelf camera lens is given. We also describe a novel two-stage attitude control architecture that combines 3-axis reaction wheels for coarse pointing with a piezoelectric translation stage at the focal plane for fine pointing. Modeling and simulation results are used to demonstrate feasibility by quantifying ExoplanetSat pointing precision, signal-to-noise ratio, guide star magnitude, and additional design parameters which determine system performance.

  2. Big Software for SmallSats: Adapting CFS to CubeSat Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cudmore, Alan P.; Crum, Gary; Sheikh, Salman; Marshall, James

    2015-01-01

    Expanding capabilities and mission objectives for SmallSats and CubeSats is driving the need for reliable, reusable, and robust flight software. While missions are becoming more complicated and the scientific goals more ambitious, the level of acceptable risk has decreased. Design challenges are further compounded by budget and schedule constraints that have not kept pace. NASA's Core Flight Software System (cFS) is an open source solution which enables teams to build flagship satellite level flight software within a CubeSat schedule and budget. NASA originally developed cFS to reduce mission and schedule risk for flagship satellite missions by increasing code reuse and reliability. The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter, which launched in 2009, was the first of a growing list of Class B rated missions to use cFS. Large parts of cFS are now open source, which has spurred adoption outside of NASA. This paper reports on the experiences of two teams using cFS for current CubeSat missions. The performance overheads of cFS are quantified, and the reusability of code between missions is discussed. The analysis shows that cFS is well suited to use on CubeSats and demonstrates the portability and modularity of cFS code.

  3. LifeSat - A new research vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilbreath, William P.; Dunning, Robert W.

    1990-01-01

    LifeSat is a reusable recoverable satellite that will support research in the gravitation and radiation biology fields. It can provide sustained lower gravitational levels than manned vehicles and can access orbits where specimens can be exposed to cosmic radiation. The satellite design encompasses environmental support for vertebrate, invertebrate and plant specimens ranging from cells and tissues up to small mammals. The first launch, in a series of 7 satellite flights, is planned for late 1995.

  4. A second order parameter for 3SAT

    SciTech Connect

    Sandholm, T.W.

    1996-12-31

    The 3-satisfiability problem (3SAT) has had a central role in the study of complexity. It was recently found that 3SAT instances transition sharply from satisfiable to nonsatisfiable as the ratio of clauses to variables increases. Because this phase transition is so sharp, the ratio - an order parameter - can be used to predict satisfiability. This paper describes a second order parameter for 3SAT. Like the classical order parameter, it can be computed in linear time, but it analyzes the structure of the problem instance more deeply. We present an analytical method for using this new order parameter in conjunction with the classical one to enhance satisfiability prediction accuracy. The assumptions of the method are verified by rigorous statistical testing. The method significantly increases the satisfiability prediction accuracy over using the classical order parameter alone. Hardness - i.e. how long it takes to determine satisfiability - results for one complete and one incomplete algorithm from the literature are also presented as a function of the two order parameters. The importance of new order parameters lies in the fact that they refine the locating of satisfiable vs. nonsatisfiable and hard vs. easy formulas in the space of all problem instances by adding a new dimension in the analysis.

  5. Physics First: Impact on SAT Math Scores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouma, Craig E.

    Improving science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) education has become a national priority and the call to modernize secondary science has been heard. A Physics First (PF) program with the curriculum sequence of physics, chemistry, and biology (PCB) driven by inquiry- and project-based learning offers a viable alternative to the traditional curricular sequence (BCP) and methods of teaching, but requires more empirical evidence. This study determined impact of a PF program (PF-PCB) on math achievement (SAT math scores) after the first two cohorts of students completed the PF-PCB program at Matteo Ricci High School (MRHS) and provided more quantitative data to inform the PF debate and advance secondary science education. Statistical analysis (ANCOVA) determined the influence of covariates and revealed that PF-PCB program had a significant (p < .05) impact on SAT math scores in the second cohort at MRHS. Statistically adjusted, the SAT math means for PF students were 21.4 points higher than their non-PF counterparts when controlling for prior math achievement (HSTP math), socioeconomic status (SES), and ethnicity/race.

  6. SAT Monitor Program. High School Students View the SAT and College Admissions Process. Report on Wave of Completed Questionnaires Associated with December 1977 SAT Administration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Response Analysis Corp., Princeton, NJ.

    College applicants taking the Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT) and the Test of Standard Written English (TSWE) were surveyed regarding the tests, college admission in general, and the communications received concerning the test and their scores. Separate questionnaires were administered before taking the SAT or TSWE, after taking the test, and after…

  7. A first molecular epidemiological study of SAT-2 type foot-and-mouth disease viruses in West Africa.

    PubMed Central

    Sangaré, O.; Bastos, A. D.; Venter, E. H.; Vosloo, W.

    2004-01-01

    Thirty-one viruses causing SAT-2 outbreaks in seven West African countries between 1974 and 1991, and four viruses representative of East and Central Africa were genetically characterized in this study. Four major viral lineages (I-IV) were identified by phylogenetic analysis of an homologous 480 nucleotide region corresponding to the C-terminus end of VP1. Lineage I comprised two West African genotypes with viruses clustering according to year of isolation rather than geographical origin. Lineage II was represented by viruses isolated between 1979 and 1983 in two neighbouring West African countries, Senegal and The Gambia. Viruses from Nigeria and Eritrea, representative of West and East Africa respectively, constituted lineage III, whilst lineage IV, comprising viruses from Central and East Africa, was regionally and genetically distinct. This study revealed that unrestricted animal movement in West Africa is a major factor in disease dissemination and has also provided the first indication of trans-regional virus transmission. PMID:15188721

  8. Advances in Ka-Band Communication System for CubeSats and SmallSats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kegege, Obadiah; Wong, Yen F.; Altunc, Serhat

    2016-01-01

    A study was performed that evaluated the feasibility of Ka-band communication system to provide CubeSat/SmallSat high rate science data downlink with ground antennas ranging from the small portable 1.2m/2.4m to apertures 5.4M, 7.3M, 11M, and 18M, for Low Earth Orbit (LEO) to Lunar CubeSat missions. This study included link analysis to determine the data rate requirement, based on the current TRL of Ka-band flight hardware and ground support infrastructure. Recent advances in Ka-band transceivers and antennas, options of portable ground stations, and various coverage distances were included in the analysis. The link/coverage analysis results show that Cubesat/Smallsat missions communication requirements including frequencies and data rates can be met by utilizing Near Earth Network (NEN) Ka-band support with 2 W and high gain (>6 dBi) antennas.

  9. Big Software for SmallSats: Adapting cFS to CubeSat Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cudmore, Alan P.; Crum, Gary Alex; Sheikh, Salman; Marshall, James

    2015-01-01

    Expanding capabilities and mission objectives for SmallSats and CubeSats is driving the need for reliable, reusable, and robust flight software. While missions are becoming more complicated and the scientific goals more ambitious, the level of acceptable risk has decreased. Design challenges are further compounded by budget and schedule constraints that have not kept pace. NASA's Core Flight Software System (cFS) is an open source solution which enables teams to build flagship satellite level flight software within a CubeSat schedule and budget. NASA originally developed cFS to reduce mission and schedule risk for flagship satellite missions by increasing code reuse and reliability. The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter, which launched in 2009, was the first of a growing list of Class B rated missions to use cFS.

  10. TechEdSat Nano-Satellite Series Fact Sheet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murbach, Marcus; Martinez, Andres; Guarneros Luna, Ali

    2014-01-01

    TechEdSat-3p is the second generation in the TechEdSat-X series. The TechEdSat Series uses the CubeSat standards established by the California Polytechnic State University Cal Poly), San Luis Obispo. With typical blocks being constructed from 1-unit (1U 10x10x10 cm) increments, the TechEdSat-3p has a 3U volume with a 30 cm length. The project uniquely pairs advanced university students with NASA researchers in a rapid design-to-flight experience lasting 1-2 semesters.The TechEdSat Nano-Satellite Series provides a rapid platform for testing technologies for future NASA Earth and planetary missions, as well as providing students with an early exposure to flight hardware development and management.

  11. Finite-Size Scaling in Random K-SAT Problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ha, Meesoon; Lee, Sang Hoon; Jeon, Chanil; Jeong, Hawoong

    2010-03-01

    We propose a comprehensive view of threshold behaviors in random K-satisfiability (K-SAT) problems, in the context of the finite-size scaling (FSS) concept of nonequilibrium absorbing phase transitions using the average SAT (ASAT) algorithm. In particular, we focus on the value of the FSS exponent to characterize the SAT/UNSAT phase transition, which is still debatable. We also discuss the role of the noise (temperature-like) parameter in stochastic local heuristic search algorithms.

  12. Flood resilience urban territories. Flood resilience urban territories.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beraud, Hélène; Barroca, Bruno; Hubert, Gilles

    2010-05-01

    The flood's impact during the last twenty years on French territory reveals our lack of preparation towards large-extended floods which might cause the stopping of companies' activity, services, or lead to housing unavailability during several months. New Orleans' case has to exemplify us: four years after the disaster, the city still couldn't get back its dynamism. In France, more than 300 towns are flood-exposed. While these towns are the mainspring of territory's development, it is likely that the majority of them couldn't get up quickly after a large-extended flood. Therefore, to understand and improve the urban territory's resilience facing floods is a real stake for territory's development. Urban technical networks supply, unify and irrigate all urban territories' constituents. Characterizing their flood resilience can be interesting to understand better urban resilience. In this context, waste management during and after floods is completely crucial. During a flood, the waste management network can become dysfunctional (roads cut, waste storage installations or waste treatment flooded). How can the mayor respect his obligation to guarantee salubrity and security in his city? In post flood the question is even more problematic. The waste management network presents a real stake for territory's restart. After a flood, building materials, lopped-of branches, furniture, business stocks, farm stocks, mud, rubbles, animal cadavers are wet, mixed, even polluted by hydrocarbons or toxic substances. The waste's volume can be significant. Sanitary and environmental risks can be crucial. In view of this situation, waste's management in post crisis period raises a real problem. What to make of this waste? How to collect it? Where to stock it? How to process it? Who is responsible? Answering these questions is all the more strategic since this waste is the mark of disaster. Thus, cleaning will be the first population's and local actor's reflex in order to forget the

  13. Development of Novel Integrated Antennas for CubeSats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, David; Fink, Patrick W.; Martinez, Andres; Petro, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    The Development of Novel Integrated Antennas for CubeSats project is directed at the development of novel antennas for CubeSats to replace the bulky and obtrusive antennas (e.g., whip antennas) that are typically used. The integrated antennas will not require mechanical deployment and thus will allow future CubeSats to avoid potential mechanical problems and therefore improve mission reliability. Furthermore, the integrated antennas will have improved functionality and performance, such as circular polarization for improved link performance, compared with the conventional antennas currently used on CubeSats.

  14. Validity of the SAT for Predicting First-Year Grades: 2008 SAT Validity Sample. Statistical Report No. 2011-5

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patterson, Brian F.; Mattern, Krista D.

    2011-01-01

    The findings for the 2008 sample are largely consistent with the previous reports. SAT scores were found to be correlated with FYGPA (r = 0.54), with a magnitude similar to HSGPA (r = 0.56). The best set of predictors of FYGPA remains SAT scores and HSGPA (r = 0.63), as the addition of the SAT sections to the correlation of HSGPA alone with FYGPA…

  15. Selecting Students with a General Reasoning Test (SAT I) or Tests in Academic Subjects (SAT II): Does It Matter for Non-Native Speakers of English?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bridgeman, Brent; Burton, Nancy; Cline, Frederick

    Using data from a sample of 10 colleges at which most students had taken both the SAT I: Reasoning Test and SAT II: Subject Tests researchers simulated the effects of making selection decisions using SAT II scores in place of SAT I scores. Students in each college were treated as forming the applicant pool for a more select college, and the top…

  16. Boys' Literacy: Negotiating the Territory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sawyer, Wayne; Singh, Michael; Zhao, Dacheng

    2009-01-01

    The issue of boys' literacy has been explicitly named as "dangerous territory"--difficult to negotiate in terms of the validity of "failure" rhetoric, the stereotyping of boys' abilities and interests and the intersection of gender with factors such as class and geographical location. In this article, we address the issue of boys' literacy through…

  17. Review of "Charting New Territory"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trujillo, Tina

    2011-01-01

    "Charting New Territory: Tapping Charter Schools to Turn Around the Nation's Dropout Factories" argues for a more prominent role for charter operators in turning around perennially low-performing high schools. However, the report's ultimate findings and conclusions are out of proportion to the strength of the research evidence on school…

  18. Comparability of Scores on the New and Prior Versions of the SAT Reasoning Test™. Research Notes. RN-31

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kobrin, Jennifer L.; Melican, Gerald J.

    2007-01-01

    This report synthesizes the research to date addressing the construct comparability of the SAT Reasoning Test and prior SAT I: Reasoning Test and the series of research studies addressing the equatability and subpopulation invariance of the SAT and SAT I.

  19. SAT-Based Model Checking without Unrolling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bradley, Aaron R.

    A new form of SAT-based symbolic model checking is described. Instead of unrolling the transition relation, it incrementally generates clauses that are inductive relative to (and augment) stepwise approximate reachability information. In this way, the algorithm gradually refines the property, eventually producing either an inductive strengthening of the property or a counterexample trace. Our experimental studies show that induction is a powerful tool for generalizing the unreachability of given error states: it can refine away many states at once, and it is effective at focusing the proof search on aspects of the transition system relevant to the property. Furthermore, the incremental structure of the algorithm lends itself to a parallel implementation.

  20. The FedSat Microsatellite Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fraser, B. J.

    2003-04-01

    An Australian research microsatellite, FedSat with a complement of four payloads was launched from Tanegashima, Japan on 14 December 2002 into a near-circular sun synchronous 10:30 LT polar orbit at an inclination of 98.7° and altitude 800 km. Scientific experiments include a triaxial fluxgate magnetometer with a frequency response up to 100 Hz and a GPS receiver to monitor total electron content (TEC) and provide a precise orbit determination. Communications experiments include a Ka-band transponder and a UHF packet data service. A high performance computer payload will test reconfigurable computing technology.

  1. Territoriality in the Red-winged Blackbird

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newhouse, Chris

    1977-01-01

    Reports findings on research in Red-winged Blackbird territoriality and describes the educational potential of use of similar studies in the classroom. Territorial mapping and observational techniques are explained. (CS)

  2. Appraising the Implications of the SAT for Educational Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steelman, Lala Carr; Powell, Brian

    1985-01-01

    Differences in the corrected state rankings on Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT) scores are explained by the percentage of students taking the test and by student composition by sex, race, and average family income. Higher state per capita educational expenditures are significantly related to higher average SAT scores. Policy implications are…

  3. Money Improves Test Scores--Even State-Level SATs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bracey, Gerald W.

    1996-01-01

    Three former secretaries of education--William Bennett, Lauro Cavazos, and Terrel Bell--have touted state-level SAT scores as proof that educational financing does not matter. Recently, Brian Powell and Lala Carr Steelman adjusted scores for participation rate and detected a very strong relationship between expenditures and SAT scores. Bigger…

  4. Variations in State SAT Performance: Meaningful or Misleading?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, Brian; Steelman, Lala Carr

    1984-01-01

    The authors attempt to show how the dissemination of uncorrected state Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT) scores may have created an inaccurate public and governmental perception of the variation in educational quality. Their research demonstrates that comparing state SAT averages is ill-advised unless these ratings are corrected for compositional and…

  5. Mathematical SAT Test Scores and College Chemistry Grades.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spencer, Harry E.

    1996-01-01

    Explores the comparative performance of various segments of the student sample in general chemistry courses relative to their scores on the mathematical SAT test. Results indicate that mathematical skill measured by the SAT scores is an important factor in determining grades while factors that are not important in determining grades are gender…

  6. First-Year Chemistry Grades and SAT Math Scores.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrews, Marjorie H.; Andrews, Lester

    1979-01-01

    Comparison of SAT math scores, high school grade point averages (GPAs), and final chemistry grades for both the 1972 and 1976 fall semester classes of the first-year chemistry course at the University of Virginia showed that SAT math scores were a much better predictor of final chemistry grades than were high school GPAs. (BB)

  7. Comparing State SAT Scores Using a Mixture Modeling Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, YoungKoung Rachel

    2009-01-01

    Presented at the national conference for AERA (American Educational Research Association) in April 2009. The large variability of SAT taker population across states makes state-by-state comparisons of the SAT scores challenging. Using a mixture modeling approach, therefore, the current study presents a method of identifying subpopulations in terms…

  8. The Revised SAT: No Better, No Worse at Its Job

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoover, Eric

    2008-01-01

    The latest word about the new SAT is this: It gives colleges about the same information as the old one did. Last week, the College Board announced that the recent changes in the SAT had not substantially altered how accurately it predicts first-year grades. The news prompted applause from the test's proponents, scorn from its critics, and little…

  9. CloudSat Anomaly Recovery and Operational Lessons Learned

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nayak, Michael; Witkowski, Mona

    2012-01-01

    Nov 2011: NASA/JPL declared CloudSat fully operational in DO ]OP Mode . CloudSat collects science data during sunlit portion of orbit, stable spin hibernation in eclipse . New CONOPS requires constant monitoring of thermal and power profiles, while allowing collection of 54 mins of science data per sunlit orbit

  10. Manual--Territorial Decentration Test (Revised Edition).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoltman, Joseph P.

    A test for assessing the child's ability to identify territories and their relationship to each other--the Territorial Decentration Test--is discussed. In addition to a description of the test, the administration and scoring of the test and the assignment of score ranges and criterion levels (Territorial Stages) are described. A directions Form…

  11. 33 CFR 2.22 - Territorial sea.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Territorial sea. 2.22 Section 2... Jurisdictional Terms § 2.22 Territorial sea. (a) With respect to the United States, the following apply— (1) Territorial sea means the waters, 12 nautical miles wide, adjacent to the coast of the United States...

  12. Raising African American Student Graduation Rates: A Best Practices Study of Predominantly White Liberal Arts Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pool, Robert W.

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative study sought to explore best practices at small, private liberal arts institutions that experienced large increases in African American graduation rates. Particular focus was on institutions that enrolled less than 17% minority students whose overall enrollment fell within the middle 50% of all SAT scores and the middle 50% of…

  13. Estimation of CT-Derived Abdominal Visceral and Subcutaneous Adipose Tissue Depots from Anthropometry in Europeans, South Asians and African Caribbeans

    PubMed Central

    Eastwood, Sophie V.; Tillin, Therese; Wright, Andrew; Heasman, John; Willis, Joseph; Godsland, Ian F.; Forouhi, Nita; Whincup, Peter; Hughes, Alun D.; Chaturvedi, Nishi

    2013-01-01

    Background South Asians and African Caribbeans experience more cardiometabolic disease than Europeans. Risk factors include visceral (VAT) and subcutaneous abdominal (SAT) adipose tissue, which vary with ethnicity and are difficult to quantify using anthropometry. Objective We developed and cross-validated ethnicity and gender-specific equations using anthropometrics to predict VAT and SAT. Design 669 Europeans, 514 South Asians and 227 African Caribbeans (70±7 years) underwent anthropometric measurement and abdominal CT scanning. South Asian and African Caribbean participants were first-generation migrants living in London. Prediction equations were derived for CT-measured VAT and SAT using stepwise regression, then cross-validated by comparing actual and predicted means. Results South Asians had more and African Caribbeans less VAT than Europeans. For basic VAT prediction equations (age and waist circumference), model fit was better in men (R2 range 0.59-0.71) than women (range 0.35-0.59). Expanded equations (+ weight, height, hip and thigh circumference) improved fit for South Asian and African Caribbean women (R2 0.35 to 0.55, and 0.43 to 0.56 respectively). For basic SAT equations, R2 was 0.69-0.77, and for expanded equations it was 0.72-0.86. Cross-validation showed differences between actual and estimated VAT of <7%, and SAT of <8% in all groups, apart from VAT in South Asian women which disagreed by 16%. Conclusion We provide ethnicity- and gender-specific VAT and SAT prediction equations, derived from a large tri-ethnic sample. Model fit was reasonable for SAT and VAT in men, while basic VAT models should be used cautiously in South Asian and African Caribbean women. These equations will aid studies of mechanisms of cardiometabolic disease in later life, where imaging data are not available. PMID:24069381

  14. CubeSat Integration into the Space Situational Awareness Architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morris, K.; Wolfson, M.; Brown, J.

    2013-09-01

    Lockheed Martin Space Systems Company has recently been involved in developing GEO Space Situational Awareness architectures, which allows insights into how cubesats can augment the current national systems. One hole that was identified in the current architecture is the need for timelier metric track observations to aid in the chain of custody. Obtaining observations of objects at GEO can be supported by CubeSats. These types of small satellites are increasing being built and flown by government agencies like NASA and SMDC. CubeSats are generally mass and power constrained allowing for only small payloads that cannot typically mimic traditional flight capability. CubeSats do not have a high reliability and care must be taken when choosing mission orbits to prevent creating more debris. However, due to the low costs, short development timelines, and available hardware, CubeSats can supply very valuable benefits to these complex missions, affordably. For example, utilizing CubeSats for advanced focal plane demonstrations to support technology insertion into the next generation situational awareness sensors can help to lower risks before the complex sensors are developed. CubeSats can augment the planned ground and space based assets by creating larger constellations with more access to areas of interest. To aid in maintaining custody of objects, a CubeSat constellation at 500 km above GEO would provide increased point of light tracking that can augment the ground SSA assets. Key features of the Cubesat include a small visible camera looking along the GEO belt, a small propulsion system that allows phasing between CubeSats, and an image processor to reduce the data sent to the ground. An elegant communications network will also be used to provide commands to and data from multiple CubeSats. Additional CubeSats can be deployed on GSO launches or through ride shares to GEO, replenishing or adding to the constellation with each launch. Each CubeSat would take images of

  15. ProSAT+: visualizing sequence annotations on 3D structure.

    PubMed

    Stank, Antonia; Richter, Stefan; Wade, Rebecca C

    2016-08-01

    PRO: tein S: tructure A: nnotation T: ool-plus (ProSAT(+)) is a new web server for mapping protein sequence annotations onto a protein structure and visualizing them simultaneously with the structure. ProSAT(+) incorporates many of the features of the preceding ProSAT and ProSAT2 tools but also provides new options for the visualization and sharing of protein annotations. Data are extracted from the UniProt KnowledgeBase, the RCSB PDB and the PDBe SIFTS resource, and visualization is performed using JSmol. User-defined sequence annotations can be added directly to the URL, thus enabling visualization and easy data sharing. ProSAT(+) is available at http://prosat.h-its.org. PMID:27284084

  16. Temporary Territories?: Responses to Intrusions in a Public Setting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Debra Kaye; Taylor, Ralph B.

    1980-01-01

    This article describes a study concerning temporary territories in public settings. Implications of the results for territorial typologies, animal-human territorial differences, and future research on human territoriality are outlined. (Author/SA)

  17. Massively Clustered CubeSats NCPS Demo Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robertson, Glen A.; Young, David; Kim, Tony; Houts, Mike

    2013-01-01

    Technologies under development for the proposed Nuclear Cryogenic Propulsion Stage (NCPS) will require an un-crewed demonstration mission before they can be flight qualified over distances and time frames representative of a crewed Mars mission. In this paper, we describe a Massively Clustered CubeSats platform, possibly comprising hundreds of CubeSats, as the main payload of the NCPS demo mission. This platform would enable a mechanism for cost savings for the demo mission through shared support between NASA and other government agencies as well as leveraged commercial aerospace and academic community involvement. We believe a Massively Clustered CubeSats platform should be an obvious first choice for the NCPS demo mission when one considers that cost and risk of the payload can be spread across many CubeSat customers and that the NCPS demo mission can capitalize on using CubeSats developed by others for its own instrumentation needs. Moreover, a demo mission of the NCPS offers an unprecedented opportunity to invigorate the public on a global scale through direct individual participation coordinated through a web-based collaboration engine. The platform we describe would be capable of delivering CubeSats at various locations along a trajectory toward the primary mission destination, in this case Mars, permitting a variety of potential CubeSat-specific missions. Cameras on various CubeSats can also be used to provide multiple views of the space environment and the NCPS vehicle for video monitoring as well as allow the public to "ride along" as virtual passengers on the mission. This collaborative approach could even initiate a brand new Science, Technology, Engineering and Math (STEM) program for launching student developed CubeSat payloads beyond Low Earth Orbit (LEO) on future deep space technology qualification missions. Keywords: Nuclear Propulsion, NCPS, SLS, Mars, CubeSat.

  18. An Application of Score Equity Assessment: Invariance of Linkage of New SAT[R] to Old SAT across Gender Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Jinghua; Cahn, Miriam F.; Dorans, Neil J.

    2006-01-01

    The College Board's SAT[R] data are used to illustrate how the score equity assessment (SEA) can help inform the program about equatability. SEA is used to examine whether the content change(s) to the revised new SAT result in differential linking functions across gender groups. Results of population sensitivity analyses are reported on the…

  19. Chromosome Territory Modeller and Viewer

    PubMed Central

    Idziak-Helmcke, Dominika; Robaszkiewicz, Ewa; Hasterok, Robert

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents ChroTeMo, a tool for chromosome territory modelling, accompanied by ChroTeVi–a chromosome territory visualisation software that uses the data obtained by ChroTeMo. These tools have been developed in order to complement the molecular cytogenetic research of interphase nucleus structure in a model grass Brachypodium distachyon. Although the modelling tool has been initially created for one particular species, it has universal application. The proposed version of ChroTeMo allows for generating a model of chromosome territory distribution in any given plant or animal species after setting the initial, species-specific parameters. ChroTeMo has been developed as a fully probabilistic modeller. Due to this feature, the comparison between the experimental data on the structure of a nucleus and the results obtained from ChroTeMo can indicate whether the distribution of chromosomes inside a nucleus is also fully probabilistic or is subjected to certain non-random patterns. The presented tools have been written in Python, so they are multiplatform, portable and easy to read. Moreover, if necessary they can be further developed by users writing their portions of code. The source code, documentation, and wiki, as well as the issue tracker and the list of related articles that use ChroTeMo and ChroTeVi, are accessible in a public repository at Github under GPL 3.0 license. PMID:27505434

  20. Chromosome Territory Modeller and Viewer.

    PubMed

    Tkacz, Magdalena A; Chromiński, Kornel; Idziak-Helmcke, Dominika; Robaszkiewicz, Ewa; Hasterok, Robert

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents ChroTeMo, a tool for chromosome territory modelling, accompanied by ChroTeVi-a chromosome territory visualisation software that uses the data obtained by ChroTeMo. These tools have been developed in order to complement the molecular cytogenetic research of interphase nucleus structure in a model grass Brachypodium distachyon. Although the modelling tool has been initially created for one particular species, it has universal application. The proposed version of ChroTeMo allows for generating a model of chromosome territory distribution in any given plant or animal species after setting the initial, species-specific parameters. ChroTeMo has been developed as a fully probabilistic modeller. Due to this feature, the comparison between the experimental data on the structure of a nucleus and the results obtained from ChroTeMo can indicate whether the distribution of chromosomes inside a nucleus is also fully probabilistic or is subjected to certain non-random patterns. The presented tools have been written in Python, so they are multiplatform, portable and easy to read. Moreover, if necessary they can be further developed by users writing their portions of code. The source code, documentation, and wiki, as well as the issue tracker and the list of related articles that use ChroTeMo and ChroTeVi, are accessible in a public repository at Github under GPL 3.0 license. PMID:27505434

  1. The Brazilian INPE-UFSM NANOSATC-BR CubeSat Development Capacity Building Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuch, Nelson Jorge; Cupertino Durao, Otavio S.

    The Brazilian INPE-UFSM NANOSATC-BR CubeSat Development Capacity Building Program (CBP) and the results of the NANOSATC-BR1, the first Brazilian CubeSat launching, expected for 2014's first semester, are presented. The CBP consists of two CubeSats, NANOSATC-BR 1 (1U) & 2 (2U) and is expected operate in orbit for at least 12 months each, with capacity building in space science, engineering and computer sciences for the development of space technologies using CubeSats satellites. The INPE-UFSM’s CBP Cooperation is basically among: (i) the Southern Regional Space Research Center (CRS), from the Brazilian INPE/MCTI, where acts the Program's General Coordinator and Projects NANOSATC-BR 1 & 2 Manager, having technical collaboration and management of the Mission’s General Coordinator for Engineering and Space Technology at INPE’s Headquarter (HQ), in São José dos Campos, São Paulo; (ii) the Santa Maria Space Science Laboratory (LACESM/CT) from the Federal University of Santa Maria - (UFSM); (iii) the Santa Maria Design House (SMDH); (iv) the Graduate Program in Microelectronics from the Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul (MG/II/UFRGS); and (v) the Aeronautic Institute of Technology (ITA/DCTA/CA-MD). The INPE-UFSM’s CBP has the involvement of UFSM' undergraduate students and graduate students from: INPE/MCTI, MG/II/UFRGS and ITA/DCTA/CA-MD. The NANOSATC-BR 1 & 2 Projects Ground Stations (GS) capacity building operation with VHF/UHF band and S-band antennas, are described in two specific papers at this COSPAR-2014. This paper focuses on the development of NANOSATC-BR 1 & 2 and on the launching of NANOSATC-BR1. The Projects' concepts were developed to: i) monitor, in real time, the Geospace, the Ionosphere, the energetic particle precipitation and the disturbances at the Earth's Magnetosphere over the Brazilian Territory, and ii) the determination of their effects on regions such as the South American Magnetic Anomaly (SAMA) and the Brazilian sector of the

  2. Approximate Solutions in Planted 3-SAT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Benjamin; Laumann, Christopher; Moessner, Roderich; Sondhi, Shivaji

    2013-03-01

    In many computational settings, there exists many instances where finding a solution requires a computing time that grows exponentially in the number of variables. Concrete examples occur in combinatorial optimization problems and cryptography in computer science or glassy systems in physics. However, while exact solutions are often known to require exponential time, a related and important question is the running time required to find approximate solutions. Treating this problem as a problem in statistical physics at finite temperature, we examine the computational running time in finding approximate solutions in 3-satisfiability for randomly generated 3-SAT instances which are guaranteed to have a solution. Analytic predictions are corroborated by numerical evidence using stochastic local search algorithms. A first order transition is found in the running time of these algorithms.

  3. Space radiation incident on SATS missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stassinopoulos, E. G.

    1973-01-01

    A special orbital radiation study was conducted in order to evaluate mission encountered energetic particle fluxes. This information is to be supplied to the project subsystem engineers for their guidance in designing flight hardware to withstand the expected radiation levels. Flux calculations were performed for a set of 20 nominal trajectories placed at several altitudes and inclinations. Temporal variations in the ambient electron environment were considered and partially accounted for. Magnetic field calculations were performed with a current field model, extrapolated to the tentative SATS launch epoch with linear time terms. Orbital flux integrations ware performed with the latest proton and electron environment models, using new computational methods. The results are presented in graphical and tabular form. Estimates of energetic solar proton fluxes are given for a one year mission at selected integral energies ranging from 10 to 100 Mev, calculated for a year of maximum solar activity during the next solar cycle.

  4. Reconstructing Geographical Movements and Host Species Transitions of Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus Serotype SAT 2

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Matthew D.; Knowles, Nick J.; Wadsworth, Jemma; Rambaut, Andrew; Woolhouse, Mark E. J.

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Of the three foot-and-mouth-disease virus SAT serotypes mainly confined to sub-Saharan Africa, SAT 2 is the strain most often recorded in domestic animals and has caused outbreaks in North Africa and the Middle East six times in the last 25 years, with three apparently separate events occurring in 2012. This study updates the picture of SAT 2 phylogenetics by using all available sequences for the VP1 section of the genome available at the time of writing and uses phylogeographic methods to trace the origin of all outbreaks occurring north of the Sahara since 1990 and identify patterns of spread among countries of endemicity. Transitions between different host species are also enumerated. Outbreaks in North Africa appear to have origins in countries immediately south of the Sahara, whereas those in the Middle East are more often from East Africa. The results of the analysis of spread within sub-Saharan Africa are consistent with it being driven by relatively short-distance movements of animals across national borders, and the analysis of host species transitions supports the role of the African buffalo (Syncerus caffer) as an important natural reservoir. PMID:24149511

  5. 3D Printing the Complete CubeSat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kief, Craig

    2015-01-01

    The 3D Printing the Complete CubeSat project is designed to advance the state-of-the-art in 3D printing for CubeSat applications. Printing in 3D has the potential to increase reliability, reduce design iteration time and provide greater design flexibility in the areas of radiation mitigation, communications, propulsion, and wiring, among others. This project is investigating the possibility of including propulsion systems into the design of printed CubeSat components. One such concept, an embedded micro pulsed plasma thruster (mPPT), could provide auxiliary reaction control propulsion for a spacecraft as a means to desaturate momentum wheels.

  6. Optimal cooperative CubeSat maneuvers obtained through parallel computing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, Alexander; Coverstone, Victoria

    2015-02-01

    CubeSats, the class of small standardized satellites, are quickly becoming a prevalent scientific research tool. The desire to perform ambitious missions using multiple CubeSats will lead to innovations in thruster technology and will require new tools for the development of cooperative trajectory planning. To meet this need, a new software tool was created to compute propellant-minimizing maneuvers for two or more CubeSats. By including parallelization techniques, this tool is shown to run significantly faster than its serial counterpart.

  7. Solving SAT Problem Based on Hybrid Differential Evolution Algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Kunqi; Zhang, Jingmin; Liu, Gang; Kang, Lishan

    Satisfiability (SAT) problem is an NP-complete problem. Based on the analysis about it, SAT problem is translated equally into an optimization problem on the minimum of objective function. A hybrid differential evolution algorithm is proposed to solve the Satisfiability problem. It makes full use of strong local search capacity of hill-climbing algorithm and strong global search capability of differential evolution algorithm, which makes up their disadvantages, improves the efficiency of algorithm and avoids the stagnation phenomenon. The experiment results show that the hybrid algorithm is efficient in solving SAT problem.

  8. Function analysis of a new type I PKS-SAT domain by SAT-EAT domain replacement.

    PubMed

    Jiao, Y L; Wang, L H; Jiao, B H; Wang, S J; Fang, Y W; Liu, S

    2010-01-01

    The function of a new starter unit acyltransferase (SAT) domain SAT-EF080951 (GenBank accession number) encoded in a new type I polyketide synthase (PKS) gene cluster EF568935 (GenBank accession number) isolated for this study was analyzed by domain replacement with an extender unit AT (EAT) domain of avermectin PKS. It was shown that the SAT-EF080951 incorporated malonyl-CoA specifically in vivo, which contradicted the specificity that we had previously determined by substrate binding test in vitro. The result of this study indicates that type I PKS-SAT can alter its specificity in vivo and functions well in extender units and proved the feasibility of the SAT-EAT domain replacement in type I PKS. We propose that SAT-EAT replacement strategy could be a novel route for increasing the diversity of new polyketides combinatorially biosynthesized. The new type I PKS-SAT-EF080951 studied herein may be further employed for related studies on enzymology or combinatorial biosynthesis of polyketides. PMID:20391758

  9. African Aesthetics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abiodun, Rowland

    2001-01-01

    No single traditional discipline can adequately supply answers to the many unresolved questions in African art history. Because of the aesthetic, cultural, historical, and, not infrequently, political biases, already built into the conception and development of Western art history, the discipline of art history as defined and practiced in the West…

  10. FalconSAT-7: a membrane space telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andersen, Geoff; Asmolova, Olha; Dickinson, Thomas

    2014-06-01

    The USAF Academy Department of Physics is building FalconSAT-7, a membrane solar telescope to be deployed from a 3U CubeSat in LEO. The primary optic is a 0.2m photon sieve.—a diffractive element consisting of billions of tiny holes in an otherwise opaque polymer sheet. The membrane, its support structure, secondary optics, two imaging cameras and associated control/recording electronics are all packaged within half the CubeSat volume. Once in space the supporting pantograph structure is deployed, pulling the membrane flat under tension. The telescope will then be steered towards the Sun to gather images at H-alpha for transmission to the ground. Due for launch in 2016, FalconSAT-7 will serve as a pathfinder for future surveillance missions.

  11. Skunk Works type approach for F-SAT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turner, Gary F.

    The topics are presented in viewgraph form and include the following: the F-SAT Program, the classic program organization, design/configuration management, procurement/material, manufacturing, quality assurance, the facility, and personnel management.

  12. Skunk Works type approach for F-SAT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turner, Gary F.

    1992-01-01

    The topics are presented in viewgraph form and include the following: the F-SAT Program, the classic program organization, design/configuration management, procurement/material, manufacturing, quality assurance, the facility, and personnel management.

  13. Onboard autonomy on the Three Corner Sat Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chien, S.; Engelhardt, B.; Knight, R.; Rabideau, G.; Sherwood, R.

    2001-01-01

    Three Corner Sat (3CS) is a mission of three university nanosatellites scheduled for launch on September 2002. The 3CS misison will utilize significan onboard autonomy to perform onboard science data validation and replanning.

  14. Atmospheric Entry Aerothermodynamics Flight Test on CubeSat Platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakraker, I.; Umit, E.; van der Haegen, V.; Chazot, O.

    2014-06-01

    The challenging aerothermochemistry of atmospheric entry is aimed to be experimented on a triple CubeSat platform having ablative TPS in the front unit and ceramic TPS on the side panels. Five aerothermodynamics payloads are presented in this paper.

  15. A SAT Encoding for Multi-dimensional Packing Problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grandcolas, Stéphane; Pinto, Cédric

    The Orthogonal Packing Problem (OPP) consists in determining if a set of items can be packed into a given container. This decision problem is NP-complete. Fekete et al. modelled the problem in which the overlaps between the objects in each dimension are represented by interval graphs. In this paper we propose a SAT encoding of Fekete et al. characterization. Some results are presented, and the efficiency of this approach is compared with other SAT encodings.

  16. SAT Encoding and CSP Reduction for Interconnected Alldiff Constraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lardeux, Frederic; Monfroy, Eric; Saubion, Frederic; Crawford, Broderick; Castro, Carlos

    Constraint satisfaction problems (CSP) or Boolean satisfiability problem (SAT) are two well known paradigm to model and solve combinatorial problems. Modeling and resolution of CSP is often strengthened by global constraints (e.g., Alldiff constraint). This paper highlights two different ways of handling specific structural information: a uniform propagation framework to handle (interleaved) Alldiff constraints with some CSP reduction rules; and a SAT encoding of these rules that preserves the reduction properties of CSP.

  17. Miniature scientific-grade magnetic sensors for CubeSats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pronenko, Vira; Belyayev, Serhiy

    2016-07-01

    Micro- and nanosatellites have become more attractive due to their low development and launch cost. A class of nanosatellites defined by the CubeSat standard allows standardizing CubeSat preparation and launch, thus making the projects more affordable. Because of the complexity of sensors miniaturization to install them onboard CubeSat, the majority of CubeSat launches are aimed the technology demonstration or education missions. The scientific success of CubeSat mission depends on the sensors quality. In spite that the sensitivity of the magnetic sensors strongly depends on their size, the recent development in this branch allows us to propose tiny but sensitive both AC and DC magnetometers. The goal of the present report is to introduce the new design of miniature three-component sensors for measurement of vector magnetic fields - for quasi-stationary and slowly fluctuating - flux-gate magnetometer (FGM) - and for alternative ones - search-coil magnetometer (SCM). In order to create magnetometers with the really highest possible level of parameters, a set of scientific and technological problems, mostly aimed at the sensor construction improvement, was solved. The most important parameter characterizing magnetometer quality is its own magnetic noise level (NL). The analysis of the NL influencing factors is made and the ways to decrease it are discussed in the report. Construction details and technical specifications of miniature but sensitive FGM and SCM for the CubeSat mission are presented. This work is supported by EC Framework 7 funded project 607197.

  18. PhoneSat In-flight Experience Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salas, Alberto Guillen; Attai, Watson; Oyadomari, Ken Y.; Priscal, Cedric; Schimmin, Rogan S.; Gazulla, Oriol Tintore; Wolfe, Jasper L.

    2014-01-01

    Over the last decade, consumer technology has vastly improved its performances, become more affordable and reduced its size. Modern day smartphones offer capabilities that enable us to figure out where we are, which way we are pointing, observe the world around us, and store and transmit this information to wherever we want. These capabilities are remarkably similar to those required for multi-million dollar satellites. The PhoneSat project at NASA Ames Research Center is building a series of CubeSat-size spacecrafts using an off-the-shelf smartphone as its on-board computer with the goal of showing just how simple and cheap space can be. Since the PhoneSat project started, different suborbital and orbital flight activities have proven the viability of this revolutionary approach. In early 2013, the PhoneSat project launched the first triage of PhoneSats into LEO. In the five day orbital life time, the nano-satellites flew the first functioning smartphone-based satellites (using the Nexus One and Nexus S phones), the cheapest satellite (a total parts cost below $3,500) and one of the fastest on-board processors (CPU speed of 1GHz). In this paper, an overview of the PhoneSat project as well as a summary of the in-flight experimental results is presented.

  19. 31 CFR 515.322 - Authorized trade territory; member of the authorized trade territory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Authorized trade territory; member of the authorized trade territory. 515.322 Section 515.322 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations... CUBAN ASSETS CONTROL REGULATIONS General Definitions § 515.322 Authorized trade territory; member of...

  20. 31 CFR 515.322 - Authorized trade territory; member of the authorized trade territory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Authorized trade territory; member of the authorized trade territory. 515.322 Section 515.322 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations... CUBAN ASSETS CONTROL REGULATIONS General Definitions § 515.322 Authorized trade territory; member of...

  1. 31 CFR 515.322 - Authorized trade territory; member of the authorized trade territory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Authorized trade territory; member of the authorized trade territory. 515.322 Section 515.322 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations... CUBAN ASSETS CONTROL REGULATIONS General Definitions § 515.322 Authorized trade territory; member of...

  2. 31 CFR 515.322 - Authorized trade territory; member of the authorized trade territory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Authorized trade territory; member of the authorized trade territory. 515.322 Section 515.322 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations... CUBAN ASSETS CONTROL REGULATIONS General Definitions § 515.322 Authorized trade territory; member of...

  3. Validity of the SAT for Predicting Second-Year Grades: 2006 SAT Validity Sample. Statistical Report No. 2011-1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mattern, Krista D.; Patterson, Brian F.

    2011-01-01

    This report presents the validity of the SAT for predicting two second-year outcomes: (1) second-year cumulative GPA (2nd Yr Cum GPA), and (2) second-year grade point average (2nd Yr GPA). Similar to the results for first-year grade point average (1st Yr GPA), the SAT is strongly correlated with second year outcomes. For many significant…

  4. Validity of the SAT for Predicting Third-Year Grades: 2006 SAT Validity Sample. Statistical Report No. 2011-3

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mattern, Krista D.; Patterson, Brian F.

    2006-01-01

    This report presents the validity of the SAT for predicting two third-year college outcomes: (1) third-year cumulative GPA (3rd Yr Cum GPA), and (2) third-year grade point average (3rd Yr GPA). Similar to the results for first- and second-year outcomes (1st Yr GPA, 2nd Yr GPA, 2nd Yr Cum GPA), the SAT is strongly correlated with third year…

  5. Description of Events Where African Buffaloes (Syncerus caffer) Strayed from the Endemic Foot-and-Mouth Disease Zone in South Africa, 1998-2008.

    PubMed

    van Schalkwyk, O L; Knobel, D L; De Clercq, E M; De Pus, C; Hendrickx, G; Van den Bossche, P

    2016-06-01

    African buffaloes (Syncerus caffer) are reservoir hosts of Southern African Territories (SAT) foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) virus strains. In South Africa, infected buffaloes are found in the FMD-infected zone comprising the Kruger National Park (KNP) and its adjoining reserves. When these buffaloes stray into livestock areas, they pose a risk of FMD transmission to livestock. We assessed 645 records of stray buffalo events (3124 animals) from the FMD infected zone during 1998-2008 for (i) their temporal distribution, (ii) group size, (iii) age and gender composition, (iv) distance from the infected zone fence and (v) outcome reported for each event. A maximum entropy model was developed to evaluate spatial predictors of stray buffalo events and assess current disease control zones. Out of all buffaloes recorded straying, 38.5% escaped from the FMD infected zone during 2000/2001, following floods that caused extensive damage to wildlife fences. Escape patterns were not apparently influenced by season. The median size of stray groups was a single animal (IQR [1-2]). Adult animals predominated, comprising 90.4% (620/686) of the animals for which age was recorded. Of the 315 events with accurate spatial information, 204 (64.8%) were recorded within 1 km from the FMD infected zone. During late winter/spring (June-October), stray buffaloes were found significantly closer to the FMD infected zone (median = 0.3 km, IQR [0.1-0.6]). Less than 13% (40/315) of stray groups reached the FMD protection zone without vaccination, posing a higher risk of spreading FMD to these more susceptible livestock. Model outputs suggest that distance from the FMD infected zone, urban areas and permanent water sources contributed almost 85% to the spatial probability of stray buffalo events. Areas with a high probability for stray buffalo events were well covered by current disease control zones, although FMD risk mitigation could be improved by expanding the vaccination zone in certain areas

  6. Topside Ionospheric Sounder for CubeSats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swenson, C.; Pratt, J.; Fish, C. S.; Winkler, C.; Pilinski, M.; Azeem, I.; Crowley, G.; Jeppesen, M.; Martineau, R.

    2014-12-01

    This presentation will outline the design of a Topside Ionospheric Sounder (TIS) for CubeSats. In the same way that an ionosonde measures the ionospheric profile from the ground, a Topside Sounder measures the ionospheric profile from a location above the F-region peak. The TIS will address the need for increased space situational awareness and environmental monitoring by estimating electron density profiles in the topside of the ionosphere. The TIS will measure topside electron density profiles for plasma frequencies ranging from 0.89 MHz to 28.4 MHz below the satellite altitude. The precision of the measurement will be 5% or 10,000 p/cm^3. The TIS average power consumption will be below 10 W and a mass of less than 10 kg, so it is appropriate for a 6U Cubesat (or multiple of that size). The sounder will operate via a transmitted frequency sweep across the desired plasma frequencies which, upon reception, can be differenced to determine range and density information of the topside ionosphere. The velocity of the spacecraft necessitates careful balancing of range resolution and frequency knowledge requirements as well as novel processing techniques to correctly associate the return signal with the correct plasma frequency. TIS is being designed to provide a low cost, low mass spacecraft that can provide accurate topside profiles of the ionospheric electron density in order to further understanding of ionospheric structure and dynamic processes in the ionosphere.

  7. Memorial consequences of answering SAT II questions.

    PubMed

    Marsh, Elizabeth J; Agarwal, Pooja K; Roediger, Henry L

    2009-03-01

    Many thousands of students take standardized tests every year. In the current research, we asked whether answering standardized test questions affects students' later test performance. Prior research has shown both positive and negative effects of multiple-choice testing on later tests, with negative effects arising from students selecting incorrect alternatives on multiple-choice tests and then believing they were correct (Roediger & Marsh, 2005). In the current experiments, undergraduates and high school students answered multiple-choice questions retired from SAT II tests (that are no longer in the testing pool) on biology, chemistry, U.S. history, and world history, and later answered cued-recall questions about these subjects. In 3 experiments, we observed positive testing effects: More final cued-recall questions were answered correctly if the items had appeared on the initial multiple-choice test. We also sometimes observed negative testing effects: intrusions of multiple-choice distractors as answers on the final cued-recall test. Students who scored well on the initial test benefited from taking the test, but lower achieving students showed either less benefit (undergraduates) or costs from the testing (high school students). PMID:19309212

  8. 27 CFR 4.2 - Territorial extent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Territorial extent. 4.2 Section 4.2 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF WINE Scope § 4.2 Territorial extent. This...

  9. 27 CFR 4.2 - Territorial extent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Territorial extent. 4.2 Section 4.2 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF WINE Scope § 4.2 Territorial extent. This...

  10. 27 CFR 25.2 - Territorial extent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Territorial extent. 25.2 Section 25.2 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL BEER Scope of Regulations § 25.2 Territorial extent. This part applies to...

  11. 27 CFR 25.2 - Territorial extent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Territorial extent. 25.2 Section 25.2 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Scope of Regulations § 25.2 Territorial extent. This part applies to...

  12. 27 CFR 25.2 - Territorial extent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Territorial extent. 25.2 Section 25.2 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Scope of Regulations § 25.2 Territorial extent. This part applies to...

  13. 27 CFR 25.2 - Territorial extent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Territorial extent. 25.2 Section 25.2 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL BEER Scope of Regulations § 25.2 Territorial extent. This part applies to...

  14. 27 CFR 25.2 - Territorial extent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Territorial extent. 25.2 Section 25.2 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Scope of Regulations § 25.2 Territorial extent. This part applies to...

  15. Wyoming: Territory to Statehood, Unit VI.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Terry

    Designed for elementary school students, this unit on the Wyoming evolution from territory to statehood provides concepts, activities, stories, resources, and maps. Concepts stress the five national flags which have flown over Wyoming, several other territories Wyoming was a part of, construction of the Union Pacific railroad, problems of the new…

  16. 27 CFR 16.2 - Territorial extent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Territorial extent. 16.2 Section 16.2 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGE HEALTH WARNING STATEMENT Scope § 16.2 Territorial...

  17. 27 CFR 16.2 - Territorial extent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Territorial extent. 16.2 Section 16.2 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGE HEALTH WARNING STATEMENT Scope § 16.2 Territorial...

  18. 27 CFR 16.2 - Territorial extent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Territorial extent. 16.2 Section 16.2 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGE HEALTH WARNING STATEMENT Scope § 16.2 Territorial...

  19. 27 CFR 16.2 - Territorial extent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Territorial extent. 16.2 Section 16.2 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGE HEALTH WARNING STATEMENT Scope § 16.2 Territorial...

  20. 27 CFR 16.2 - Territorial extent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Territorial extent. 16.2 Section 16.2 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGE HEALTH WARNING STATEMENT Scope § 16.2 Territorial...

  1. Science-Driven NanoSats Design for Deep Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klesh, A. T.; Castillo, J. C.

    2012-12-01

    CubeSat-based exploration of Earth has driven the development of miniaturized systems and research-grade instruments. The current performance of CubeSats raises the question of their potential contribution to planetary exploration. Two possible applications can be foreseen. One would take advantage of the readily availability of the CubeSat deployer Poly Picosatellite Orbital Deployer (P-POD) for planetary-related observations around Earth (e.g., O/OREOS mission, ExoPlanetSat), and, when propulsion systems develop, for interplanetary exploration. However, the CubeSat formfactor restricts payloads to be in an undeployed volume of 10x10x10 (1U) to 10x20x30 (6U) cm, based on the qualified and accepted P-POD. As a possible alternative, one may leverage the CubeSat-tailored subsystems to operate that platform as a secondary payload on a deep space mission. Whether the CubeSat formfactor constraint might be adjusted to accommodate a broader range of science applications or specific tailoring is required remains to be quantified. Through consultation with a wide range of scientists and engineers, we have examined the possible applications of secondary deep space NanoSats, and what derived requirements stem from these missions. Applications and requirements, together with existing technology, inform on common formfactors that could be useful for future planetary missions. By examining these formfactors, we have identified different categories of NanoSat explorer (additionally imposing discrete requirements on the mothership) that directly support scientific endeavors. In this paper, we outline some of the scientific applications that would drive the NanoSat formfactor design, as well as describe how the requirements affect programmatic issues. Several mission types are considered: passive deployment, active propulsion, targeted landing, and sample return. Each scenario changes the risk posture, and can impose additional considerations. Our goal has been to identify

  2. CubeSat Material Limits for Design for Demise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelley, R. L.; Jarkey, D. R.

    2014-01-01

    The CubeSat form factor of nano-satellite (a satellite with a mass between one and ten kilograms) has grown in popularity due to their ease of construction and low development and launch costs. In particular, their use as student led payload design projects has increased due to the growing number of launch opportunities. CubeSats are often deployed as secondary or tertiary payloads on most US launch vehicles or they may be deployed from the ISS. The focus of this study will be on CubeSats launched from the ISS. From a space safety standpoint, the development and deployment processes for CubeSats differ significantly from that of most satellites. For large satellites, extensive design reviews and documentation are completed, including assessing requirements associated with re-entry survivability. Typical CubeSat missions selected for ISS deployment have a less rigorous review process that may not evaluate aspects beyond overall design feasibility. CubeSat design teams often do not have the resources to ensure their design is compliant with re-entry risk requirements. A study was conducted to examine methods to easily identify the maximum amount of a given material that can be used in the construction of a CubeSats without posing harm to persons on the ground. The results demonstrate that there is not a general equation or relationship that can be used for all materials; instead a limiting value must be defined for each unique material. In addition, the specific limits found for a number of generic materials that have been previously used as benchmarking materials for re-entry survivability analysis tool comparison will be discussed.

  3. Solar neutron observations with ChubuSat-2 satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamaoka, Kazutaka

    2016-07-01

    Solar neutron observation is a key in understanding of ion accerelation mechanism in the Sun surface since neutrons are hardly affected by magnetic field around the Sun and intersteller mediums unlike charged particles. However, there was only a few tenth detections so far since its discovery in 1982. Actually SEDA-AP Fiber detector (FIB) onboard the International Space Station (ISS) was suffered from a high neutron background produced by the ISS itself. ChubuSat is a series of 50-kg class microsatellite jointly depeloped by universities (Nagoya university and Daido university) and aerospace companies at the Chubu area of central Japan. The ChubuSat-2 is the second ChubuSat following the ChubuSat-1 which was launched by Russian DNEPR rocket on November 6, 2014. It was selected as one of four piggyback payloads of the X-ray astronomy satellite ASTRO-H in 2014 summer, and will be launched by the H-IIA launch vehcles from from JAXA Tanegashima Space Center (TNSC) in February 2016. The ChubuSat-2 carries a mission instrument, radiation detector (RD). The main mission of ChubuSat-2 is devoted for monitoring neutrons and gamma-rays which can be background source for ASTRO-H celestrial observations with the RD. The mission also involves a function of solar neutron observations which were originally proposed by graduate students who join the leadership development program for space exploration and research, program for leading graduate schools at Nagoya University. The RD has a similar detection area and efficiency to those of the SEDA-AP FIB, but is expected to have lower backgrounthan the ISS thanks to much smaller mass of the micro-satellite. In this paper, we will describe details of ChubuSat-2 satellite and RD, and in-orbit performance of RD.

  4. CubeSat Material Limits For Design for Demise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelley, R. L.; Jarkey, D. R.

    2014-01-01

    The CubeSat form factor of nano-satellite (a satellite with a mass between one and ten kilograms) has grown in popularity due to their ease of construction and low development and launch costs. In particular, their use as student led payload design projects has increased due to the growing number of launch opportunities. CubeSats are often deployed as secondary or tertiary payloads on most US launch vehicles or they may be deployed from the ISS. The focus of this study will be on CubeSats launched from the ISS. From a space safety standpoint, the development and deployment processes for CubeSats differ significantly from that of most satellites. For large satellites, extensive design reviews and documentation are completed, including assessing requirements associated with reentry survivability. Typical CubeSat missions selected for ISS deployment have a less rigorous review process that may not evaluate aspects beyond overall design feasibility. CubeSat design teams often do not have the resources to ensure their design is compliant with reentry risk requirements. A study was conducted to examine methods to easily identify the maximum amount of a given material that can be used in the construction of a CubeSats without posing harm to persons on the ground. The results demonstrate that there is not a general equation or relationship that can be used for all materials; instead a limiting value must be defined for each unique material. In addition, the specific limits found for a number of generic materials that have been previously used as benchmarking materials for reentry survivability analysis tool comparison will be discussed.

  5. CloudSat as a Global Radar Calibrator

    SciTech Connect

    Protat, Alain; Bouniol, Dominique; O'Connor, E. J.; Baltink, Henk K.; Verlinde, J.; Widener, Kevin B.

    2011-03-01

    The calibration of the CloudSat spaceborne cloud radar has been thoroughly assessed using very accurate internal link budgets before launch, comparisons with predicted ocean surface backscatter at 94 GHz, direct comparisons with airborne cloud radars, and statistical comparisons with ground-based cloud radars at different locations of the world. It is believed that the calibration of CloudSat is accurate to within 0.5 to 1 dB. In the present paper it is shown that an approach similar to that used for the statistical comparisons with ground-based radars can now be adopted the other way around to calibrate other ground-based or airborne radars against CloudSat and / or detect anomalies in long time series of ground-based radar measurements, provided that the calibration of CloudSat is followed up closely (which is the case). The power of using CloudSat as a Global Radar Calibrator is demonstrated using the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement cloud radar data taken at Barrow, Alaska, the cloud radar data from the Cabauw site, The Netherlands, and airborne Doppler cloud radar measurements taken along the CloudSat track in the Arctic by the RASTA (Radar SysTem Airborne) cloud radar installed in the French ATR-42 aircraft for the first time. It is found that the Barrow radar data in 2008 are calibrated too high by 9.8 dB, while the Cabauw radar data in 2008 are calibrated too low by 8.0 dB. The calibration of the RASTA airborne cloud radar using direct comparisons with CloudSat agrees well with the expected gains and losses due to the change in configuration which required verification of the RASTA calibration.

  6. Expanding CubeSat Capabilities with a Low Cost Transceiver

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palo, Scott; O'Connor, Darren; DeVito, Elizabeth; Kohnert, Rick; Schaire, Scott H.; Bundick, Steve; Crum, Gary; Altunc, Serhat; Winkert, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    CubeSats have developed rapidly over the past decade with the advent of a containerized deployer system and ever increasing launch opportunities. These satellites have moved from an educational tool to teach students about engineering challenges associated with satellite design, to systems that are conducting cutting edge earth, space and solar science. Early variants of the CubeSat had limited functionality and lacked sophisticated attitude control, deployable solar arrays and propulsion. This is no longer the case and as CubeSats mature, such systems are becoming commercially available. The result is a small satellite with sufficient power and pointing capabilities to support a high rate communication system. Communications systems have matured along with other CubeSat subsystems. Originally developed from amateur radio systems, CubeSats have generally operated in the VHF and UHF bands at data rates below 10 kbps (kilobits per second). More recently higher rate UHF systems have been developed, however these systems require a large collecting area on the ground to close the communications link at 3 Mbps (megabits per second). Efforts to develop systems that operate with similar throughput at S-Band (2-4 GHz (gigaherz)) and C-Band (4-8 GHz (gigaherz)) have also recently evolved. In this paper we outline an effort to develop a high rate CubeSat communication system that is compatible with the NASA Near Earth Network and can be accommodated by a CubeSat. The system will include a 200 kbps (kilobits per second) S-Band receiver and a 12.5 Mbps (megabits per second).X-Band transmitter. This paper will focus on our design approach and initial results associated with the 12.5 Mbps (megabits per second) X-band transmitter.

  7. Obesity and African Americans

    MedlinePlus

    ... Data > Minority Population Profiles > Black/African American > Obesity Obesity and African Americans African American women have the ... ss6304.pdf [PDF | 3.38MB] HEALTH IMPACT OF OBESITY More than 80 percent of people with type ...

  8. A novel solid-angle tomosynthesis (SAT) scanning scheme

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Jin; Yu, Cedric

    2010-08-15

    Purpose: Digital tomosynthesis (DTS) recently gained extensive research interests in both diagnostic and radiation therapy fields. Conventional DTS images are generated by scanning an x-ray source and flat-panel detector pair on opposite sides of an object, with the scanning trajectory on a one-dimensional curve. A novel tomosynthesis method named solid-angle tomosynthesis (SAT) is proposed, where the x-ray source scans on an arbitrary shaped two-dimensional surface. Methods: An iterative algorithm in the form of total variation regulated expectation maximization is developed for SAT image reconstruction. The feasibility and effectiveness of SAT is corroborated by computer simulation studies using three-dimensional (3D) numerical phantoms including a 3D Shepp-Logan phantom and a volumetric CT image set of a human breast. Results: SAT is able to cover more space in Fourier domain more uniformly than conventional DTS. Greater coverage and more isotropy in the frequency domain translate to fewer artifacts and more accurately restored features in the in-plane reconstruction. Conclusions: Comparing with conventional DTS, SAT allows cone-shaped x-ray beams to project from more solid angles, thus provides more coverage in the spatial-frequency domain, resulting in better quality of reconstructed image.

  9. Extravehicular Activity System Sizing Analysis Tool (EVAS_SAT)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Cheryl B.; Conger, Bruce C.; Miranda, Bruno M.; Bue, Grant C.; Rouen, Michael N.

    2007-01-01

    An effort was initiated by NASA/JSC in 2001 to develop an Extravehicular Activity System Sizing Analysis Tool (EVAS_SAT) for the sizing of Extravehicular Activity System (EVAS) architecture and studies. Its intent was to support space suit development efforts and to aid in conceptual designs for future human exploration missions. Its basis was the Life Support Options Performance Program (LSOPP), a spacesuit and portable life support system (PLSS) sizing program developed for NASA/JSC circa 1990. EVAS_SAT estimates the mass, power, and volume characteristics for user-defined EVAS architectures, including Suit Systems, Airlock Systems, Tools and Translation Aids, and Vehicle Support equipment. The tool has undergone annual changes and has been updated as new data have become available. Certain sizing algorithms have been developed based on industry standards, while others are based on the LSOPP sizing routines. The sizing algorithms used by EVAS_SAT are preliminary. Because EVAS_SAT was designed for use by members of the EVA community, subsystem familiarity on the part of the intended user group and in the analysis of results is assumed. The current EVAS_SAT is operated within Microsoft Excel 2003 using a Visual Basic interface system.

  10. Mathematical SAT Test Scores and College Chemistry Grades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spencer, Harry E.

    1996-12-01

    The relationships between mathematical SAT scores (SAT-M) and grades earned by students in eight consecutive years of first- and second-semester general chemistry courses at Oberlin College are reported. The academic years surveyed are 1987-1988 through 1994-1995. SAT-M scores are grouped within seven ranges from 450 and less to 710-800. Within any range of scores, students in both courses earned a wide variety of grades, but those within the higher ranges tended to earn higher grades and fewer failures relative to students in the lower ranges. For all students within each range of SAT-M scores, the fraction earning each grade are calculated. These fractions along with the numbers of students and their SAT-M scores in a subset are used to calculate grades expected for that subset. In the first-semester course, the expected and actual grades for subsets of males, females, first-year students, non-first-year students, Asians, Blacks, and Latinos are not significantly different. Those who eventually majored in chemistry or biochemistry attained grades very significantly higher than expected. Most students tended to achieve grades in the second-semester course that were similar to those earned in the first-semester course.

  11. A novel solid-angle tomosynthesis (SAT) scanning scheme

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jin; Yu, Cedric

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Digital tomosynthesis (DTS) recently gained extensive research interests in both diagnostic and radiation therapy fields. Conventional DTS images are generated by scanning an x-ray source and flat-panel detector pair on opposite sides of an object, with the scanning trajectory on a one-dimensional curve. A novel tomosynthesis method named solid-angle tomosynthesis (SAT) is proposed, where the x-ray source scans on an arbitrary shaped two-dimensional surface. Methods: An iterative algorithm in the form of total variation regulated expectation maximization is developed for SAT image reconstruction. The feasibility and effectiveness of SAT is corroborated by computer simulation studies using three-dimensional (3D) numerical phantoms including a 3D Shepp–Logan phantom and a volumetric CT image set of a human breast. Results: SAT is able to cover more space in Fourier domain more uniformly than conventional DTS. Greater coverage and more isotropy in the frequency domain translate to fewer artifacts and more accurately restored features in the in-plane reconstruction. Conclusions: Comparing with conventional DTS, SAT allows cone-shaped x-ray beams to project from more solid angles, thus provides more coverage in the spatial-frequency domain, resulting in better quality of reconstructed image. PMID:20879579

  12. Forecasting Evaluation of WindSat in the Coastal Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Thomas F.; Bettenhausen, Mike H.; Hawkins, Jeffrey D.; Richardson, Kim; Jedlovec, Gary; Smith, Matt

    2012-01-01

    WindSat has demonstrated that measurements from polarimetric space-based microwave radiometers can be used to retrieve global ocean surface vector winds. Since the date of launch in 2003, substantial incremental improvements have been made to WindSat data processing, calibration, and retrieval algorithms. The retrievals now have higher resolution, improved wind vector ambiguity removal, and enhanced capability to represent high winds. Utilization of WindSat retrievals (wind vectors, total precipitable water, rainrate and sea surface temperature) will be demonstrated in the context of operational weather forecasting applications, especially the monitoring of topographically-forced winds. Examples will be presented from various parts of the world, including inland seas, midlatitude oceans, the tropics, and the United States. We will illustrate retrievals in extreme high- and extreme low-wind regimes, both of which can be problematic. Rain contamination will be addressed. We will include a comparison of WindSat vector maps to corresponding maps from the QuikScat scatterometer. We will discuss how near-realtime data from WindSat is being transitioned to specific offices within the National Weather Service.

  13. HaloSat: A CubeSat to Map the Distribution of Baryonic Matter in the Galactic Halo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miles, Drew M.

    2016-04-01

    Approximately half of predicted baryonic matter in the Milky Way remains unidentified. One possible explanation for the location of this missing matter is in an extended Galactic halo. HaloSat is a CubeSat that aims to constrain the mass and distribution of the halo’s baryonic matter by obtaining an all-sky map of O VII and O VIII emission in the hot gas associated with the halo of the Milky Way. HaloSat offers an improvement in the quality of measurements of oxygen line emission over existing X-ray observatories and an observation plan dedicated to mapping the hot gas in the Galactic halo. In addition to the missing baryon problem, HaloSat will assign a portion of its observations to the solar wind charge exchange (SWCX) in order to calibrate models of SCWX emission. We present here the current status of HaloSat and the progression of instrument development in anticipation of a 2018 launch.

  14. Experimental infection of giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis) with SAT-1 and SAT-2 foot-and-mouth disease virus.

    PubMed

    Vosloo, W; Swanepoel, S P; Bauman, M; Botha, B; Esterhuysen, J J; Boshoff, C I; Keet, D F; Dekker, A

    2011-04-01

    The potential role of giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis) in the epidemiology and spread of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) SAT types was investigated by experimental infection and detection of virus in excretions using virus isolation on primary pig kidney cell cultures. In two experiments separated by a period of 24 months, groups of four animals were needle infected with a SAT-1 or SAT-2 virus, respectively and two in-contact controls were kept with each group. Viraemia was detected 3-9 days post-infection and virus isolated from mouth washes and faeces only occasionally up to day 13. The SAT-1 virus was transmitted to only one in-contact control animal, probably via saliva that contained virus from vesicles in the mouth of a needle-infected animal. None of the animals infected with the SAT-2 virus had any vesicles in the mouth, and there was no evidence of transmission to the in-contact controls. No virus was detected in probang samples for the duration of the experiments (60 days post-infection), indicating that persistent infection probably did not establish with either of these isolates. Giraffe most likely do not play an important role in FMD dissemination. Transmission of infection would possibly occur only during close contact with other animals when mouth vesicles are evident. PMID:26353052

  15. Phased array antenna investigation for CubeSat size satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dang, Kien

    Increasing bandwidth of the communication link has been a challenge for CubeSat class satellite. Traditional satellites usually utilizes high gain antennas for this purpose, but these antenna are rarely seen in CubeSat because of its power, volume and weight constraints. To solve these issues, this dissertation presents a phased array antenna system prototyped at 2.45 GHz with 17.7 dBi gain at broadside, 14.2 dBi at +/-40°, 50 MHz bandwidth, and fits on a side of a 3U CubeSat. The gain can be increased by adding more antenna elements into the array as needed. Testing for electronic beam steering has been completed and detailed results will be presented.

  16. Origami NanoSat Telescopes: Planetary Astronomy's Future unfolds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marchis, F.; Castillo-Rogez, J.; Jenkins, J.; Dissly, R.; Klesh, A.

    2013-09-01

    We will present a concept to develop a key technology to expand the application of NanoSats to astronomy. The NanoSat size intrinsically constrains the aperture diameter of an onboard telescope to a few centimeters; consequently it limits the sensitivity of the instruments and the scientific return of the mission. An obvious but challenging solution is to encapsulate a deployable telescope in a NanoSat platform and deploy it in space after launch. A revolutionary advance is to add state-of-the-art wavefront sensing and control to a large deployable aperture, and then combine this with excellent pointing stability on such a small platform. We focus this study on a few significant science drivers, which appear to be the most beneficial to the planetary science science decadal survey, the astrophysics decadal survey NASA Strategic goals and plans, and will drive the design of the satellite.

  17. COLD-SAT orbital experiment configured for Atlas launch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shuster, J. R.; Bennett, F. O.; Wachter, J. P.

    1989-01-01

    The design and requirements for the proposed cryogenic on-orbit liquid depot storage, acquisition, and transfer (COLD-SAT) satellite experiment, which is to be launched by Atlas I, are examined. The COLD-SAT experiments are categorized as class I and II; class I involves technology related to space transportation missions and class II represents alternative fluid management operations and data. The hardware for the COLD-SAT experiments consists of three hydrogen tanks contained in the experimental module; the experimental module is connected to a three-axis-controlled spacecraft bus, and thrusters are positioned on the forward and aft ends of the spacecraft and on the cylindrical portion of the experimental module. The components and systems of the experiment module and the types of experiments that can be conducted in each tank are described. Diagrams of the spacecraft configuration are provided.

  18. Solving SAT and Hamiltonian Cycle Problem Using Asynchronous P Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tagawa, Hirofumi; Fujiwara, Akihiro

    In the present paper, we consider fully asynchronous parallelism in membrane computing, and propose two asynchronous P systems for the satisfiability (SAT) and Hamiltonian cycle problem. We first propose an asynchronous P system that solves SAT with n variables and m clauses, and show that the proposed P system computes SAT in O(mn2n) sequential steps or O(mn) parallel steps using O(mn) kinds of objects. We next propose an asynchronous P system that solves the Hamiltonian cycle problem with n nodes, and show that the proposed P system computes the problem in O(n!) sequential steps or O(n2) parallel steps using O(n2) kinds of objects.

  19. iSat Surface Charging and Thruster Plume Interactions Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, L. Neergaard; Willis, E.; Minow, J.

    2016-01-01

    NASA is designing the Iodine Satellite (iSAT) cubesat mission to demonstrate operations of an iodine electric thruster system. The spacecraft will be deployed as a secondary payload from a launch vehicle which has not yet been identified so the program must plan for the worst case environments over a range of orbital inclinations. We present results from a NASA and Air Force Charging Analyzer Program (NASCAP-2K) surface charging calculation used to evaluate the effects of charging on the spacecraft and to provide the charging levels at other locations in orbit for a thruster plume interaction analysis for the iSAT mission. We will then discuss results from the thruster interactions analysis using the Electric Propulsion Interactions Code (EPIC). The results of these analyses are being used by the iSAT program for a range of environments that could be encountered when the final mission orbit is selected.

  20. LifeSat - A satellite for space biological research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halstead, Thora W.; Morey-Holton, Emily R.

    1990-01-01

    The LifeSat Program addresses the need for continuing access by biological scientists to space experimentation by accommodating a wide range of experiments involving animals and plants for durations up to 60 days in an unmanned satellite. The program will encourage interdisciplinary and international cooperation at both the agency and scientist levels, and will provide a recoverable, reusable facility for low-cost missions addressing key scientific issues that can only be answered by space experimentation. It will provide opportunities for research in gravitational biology and on the effects of cosmic radiation on life systems. The scientific aspects of LifeSat are addressed here.

  1. Radiation Tolerant, FPGA-Based SmallSat Computer System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    LaMeres, Brock J.; Crum, Gary A.; Martinez, Andres; Petro, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    The Radiation Tolerant, FPGA-based SmallSat Computer System (RadSat) computing platform exploits a commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) with real-time partial reconfiguration to provide increased performance, power efficiency and radiation tolerance at a fraction of the cost of existing radiation hardened computing solutions. This technology is ideal for small spacecraft that require state-of-the-art on-board processing in harsh radiation environments but where using radiation hardened processors is cost prohibitive.

  2. Mars Moons Prospector Mission with CubeSats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Udrea, Bogdan; Nayak, Mikey; Allen, Brett; Bourke, Justin; Casariego, Gabriela; Gosselin, Steven; Hiester, Evan; Maier, Margaret; Melchert, Jeanmarie; Patel, Chitrang; Reis, Leslie; Smith, Gregory; Snow, Travis; Williams, Sarah; Franquiz, Francsico

    2015-04-01

    The preliminary design of a low-cost Discovery class mission for prospecting Mars moons Phobos and Deimos is undertaken as capstone senior design class in spacecraft design. The mission design is centred on a mothership that carries a dozen of 12U CubeSats, each of 22x22x34cm in size and 24kg in mass. The mothership is equipped with a set of instruments for the investigation of regolith samples, similar to those with identical functions on the Curiosity and the Mars 2020 rovers. The mothership also serves as a telecommunication hub with Earth. Six of the CubeSats have the role of touching down and picking up soil samples for delivery to the mothership for analysis and the six have the role of visually inspecting the moon at close proximity in visible and near and mid infrared light and deploying instruments on the surface of the moons. A suite of miniaturized instruments are investigated for deployment on the CubeSats. The CubeSats are designed to dock with the mothership to be refueled and they heavily leverage the design of the ARAPAIMA (www.eraucubesat.org) proximity operations 6U CubeSat currently in development at ERAU for the Air Force University Nanosatellite Program. The concept of operations envisions the launch of the mothership as a primary payload on a Mars transfer trajectory. After performing a Mars capture maneuver the mothership undertakes autonomous aerobraking to achieve a highly elliptic orbit with the apoapsis at Deimos altitude of 23,460km. Further maneuvering places the mothership in a relative orbit about Deimos from which the CubeSats are deployed. Once the investigation of Deimos is completed the mothership retrieves its CubeSats and maneuver to achieve a relative orbit about Phobos. An investigation similar to that of Deimos is performed. If the mass margins allow it then an extended mission will attempt to confirm the presence of a dust ring between Phobos and Deimos and conduct multi-point atmospheric investigations with supplemental 3U

  3. Integrated Solar-Panel Antenna Array for CubeSats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baktur, Reyhan

    2016-01-01

    The goal of the Integrated Solar-Panel Antenna Array for CubeSats (ISAAC) project is to design and demonstrate an effective and efficien toptically transparent, high-gain, lightweight, conformal X-band antenna array that is integrated with the solar panels of a CubeSat. The targeted demonstration is for a Near Earth Network (NEN)radio at X-band, but the design can be easilyscaled to other network radios for higher frequencies. ISAAC is a less expensive and more flexible design for communication systemscompared to a deployed dish antenna or the existing integrated solar panel antenna design.

  4. Some results for k-SAT on trees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sumedha; Krishnamurthy, Supriya

    2015-09-01

    Phase transitions in random k-SAT problems are connected to their computational complexity. While polynomical time algorithms are known to solve the problem for k = 2, for k ≥ 3 the problem is known to be NP-complete. Recently we have studied random k-SAT and many of its variants on regular infinite trees. We find that the solvability threshold for k = 2 matches the exact value of the threshold on regular random graphs. For higher k, the values are very close to those predicted using other techniques like cavity method.

  5. Preliminary analysis of a radiobiological experiment for LifeSat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, John W.; Townsend, Lawrence W.; Nealy, John E.; Hardy, Alva C.; Atwell, William; Schimmerling, Walter

    1991-01-01

    With the possibility of performing radiation life science experiments on a dedicated satellite (LifeSat) in space, a combined effort in radiation physics and radiation dosimetry, in addition to radiation biology, is clearly required to ensure that meaningful biological experiments can be performed. To better understand the relationship of these disciplines, some possible LifeSat missions are examined. As a trial biological system, tumorigenesis is considered in the Harderian gland of mice, a system of sufficient radiosensitivity for which relative biological effectiveness (RBE) is well defined by laboratory experiments.

  6. A New Assay for Determining Ganglioside Sialyltransferase Activities Lactosylceramide-2,3-Sialyltransferase (SAT I) and Monosialylganglioside-2,3-Sialyltransferase (SAT IV)

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Cynthia Q.; Hubl, Ulrike; Hoefakker, Petra; Vasudevamurthy, Madhusudan K.; Johnson, Keryn D.

    2014-01-01

    A new assay for the determination of lactosylceramide-2,3-sialyltransferase (SAT I, EC 2.4.99.9) and monosialoganglioside sialyltransferase (SAT IV, EC 2.4.99.2) is described. The assay utilised the commercially available fluorophore labelled sphingolipids, boron dipyrromethene difluoride (BODIPY) lactosylceramide (LacCer), and BODIPY-monosialotetrahexosylganglioside (GM1) as the acceptor substrates, for SAT I and SAT IV, respectively. HPLC coupled with fluorescence detection was used to analyse product formation. The analysis was performed in a quick and automated fashion. The assay showed good linearity for both BODIPY sphingolipids with a quantitative detection limit of 0.05 pmol. The high sensitivity enabled the detection of SAT I and SAT IV activities as low as 0.001 μU, at least 200 fold lower than that of most radiometric assays. This new assay was applied to the screening of SAT I and SAT IV activities in ovine and bovine organs (liver, heart, kidney, and spleen). The results provided evidence that young animals, such as calves, start to produce ganglioside sialyltransferases as early as 7 days after parturition and that levels change during maturation. Among the organs tested from a bovine source, spleen had the highest specific ganglioside sialyltransferase activity. Due to the organ size, the greatest total ganglioside sialyltransferase activities (SAT I and SAT IV) were detected in the liver of both bovine and ovine origin. PMID:24718572

  7. A new assay for determining ganglioside sialyltransferase activities lactosylceramide-2,3-sialyltransferase (SAT I) and monosialylganglioside-2,3-sialyltransferase (SAT IV).

    PubMed

    Sun, Cynthia Q; Hubl, Ulrike; Hoefakker, Petra; Vasudevamurthy, Madhusudan K; Johnson, Keryn D

    2014-01-01

    A new assay for the determination of lactosylceramide-2,3-sialyltransferase (SAT I, EC 2.4.99.9) and monosialoganglioside sialyltransferase (SAT IV, EC 2.4.99.2) is described. The assay utilised the commercially available fluorophore labelled sphingolipids, boron dipyrromethene difluoride (BODIPY) lactosylceramide (LacCer), and BODIPY-monosialotetrahexosylganglioside (GM1) as the acceptor substrates, for SAT I and SAT IV, respectively. HPLC coupled with fluorescence detection was used to analyse product formation. The analysis was performed in a quick and automated fashion. The assay showed good linearity for both BODIPY sphingolipids with a quantitative detection limit of 0.05 pmol. The high sensitivity enabled the detection of SAT I and SAT IV activities as low as 0.001 μU, at least 200 fold lower than that of most radiometric assays. This new assay was applied to the screening of SAT I and SAT IV activities in ovine and bovine organs (liver, heart, kidney, and spleen). The results provided evidence that young animals, such as calves, start to produce ganglioside sialyltransferases as early as 7 days after parturition and that levels change during maturation. Among the organs tested from a bovine source, spleen had the highest specific ganglioside sialyltransferase activity. Due to the organ size, the greatest total ganglioside sialyltransferase activities (SAT I and SAT IV) were detected in the liver of both bovine and ovine origin. PMID:24718572

  8. 24 CFR 576.303 - Territories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... substantial amendment to its consolidated plan in accordance with 24 CFR part 91. (e) Restrictions that apply... COMMUNITY FACILITIES EMERGENCY SOLUTIONS GRANTS PROGRAM Reallocations § 576.303 Territories. (a)...

  9. 24 CFR 576.303 - Territories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... recipient must submit to HUD a substantial amendment to its consolidated plan in accordance with 24 CFR part... DEVELOPMENT COMMUNITY FACILITIES EMERGENCY SOLUTIONS GRANTS PROGRAM Reallocations § 576.303 Territories....

  10. 24 CFR 576.303 - Territories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... recipient must submit to HUD a substantial amendment to its consolidated plan in accordance with 24 CFR part... DEVELOPMENT COMMUNITY FACILITIES EMERGENCY SOLUTIONS GRANTS PROGRAM Reallocations § 576.303 Territories....

  11. Territorial Invasion in the Classroom: Invadee Response.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haber, Gilda Moss

    1980-01-01

    Reported are the results of a study testing dominance and subordination among the spatially central and peripheral in 14 college classrooms. Differences in the defense of territory, upon invasion, between spatially central and spatially peripheral humans were investigated. (BT)

  12. Seismic of the territory Toktogul reservoir, Kyrgyzstan

    SciTech Connect

    Kamchybekov, Murataly; Yegemberdiyeva, Kuliya

    2008-07-08

    In connection with that this seismic in the territory of Naryn cascade maybe has its peculiarity in cludding in the territory Toktogul reservoir before of the building of the Toktogul dam, during of the building and after accordingly was decided to consider the seismic in this space of times. The arm of the present paper is estimation seismic of the territory Toktogul reservoir for different times: before of the building of the Toktogul dam (1960-1973), during its filling (1974-1980) and since start it's of the uninterruptedly exploitation to present time (1981-2006). The territory in that located the cascade of Naryn River is considered that seismic active in the Central part of the Tien Shan. The tectonic motions are become here intensity. The presence of the large faults is complicating significantly the seismic situation of the study region.

  13. Africans in America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hart, Ayanna; Spangler, Earl

    This book introduces African-American history and culture to children. The first Africans in America came from many different regions and cultures, but became united in this country by being black, African, and slaves. Once in America, Africans began a long struggle for freedom which still continues. Slavery, the Civil War, emancipation, and the…

  14. African Outreach Workshop 1974.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Nancy J.

    This report discusses the 1974 African Outreach Workshop planned and coordinated by the African Studies Program at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. Its major aim was to assist teachers in developing curriculum units on African using materials available in their local community. A second aim was for the African Studies Program to…

  15. CryoSat Plus For Oceans: an ESA Project for CryoSat-2 Data Exploitation Over Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benveniste, J.; Cotton, D.; Clarizia, M.; Roca, M.; Gommenginger, C. P.; Naeije, M. C.; Labroue, S.; Picot, N.; Fernandes, J.; Andersen, O. B.; Cancet, M.; Dinardo, S.; Lucas, B. M.

    2012-12-01

    The ESA CryoSat-2 mission is the first space mission to carry a space-borne radar altimeter that is able to operate in the conventional pulsewidth-limited (LRM) mode and in the novel Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) mode. Although the prime objective of the Cryosat-2 mission is dedicated to monitoring land and marine ice, the SAR mode capability of the Cryosat-2 SIRAL altimeter also presents the possibility of demonstrating significant potential benefits of SAR altimetry for ocean applications, based on expected performance enhancements which include improved range precision and finer along track spatial resolution. With this scope in mind, the "CryoSat Plus for Oceans" (CP4O) Project, dedicated to the exploitation of CryoSat-2 Data over ocean, supported by the ESA STSE (Support To Science Element) programme, brings together an expert European consortium comprising: DTU Space, isardSAT, National Oceanography Centre , Noveltis, SatOC, Starlab, TU Delft, the University of Porto and CLS (supported by CNES),. The objectives of CP4O are: - to build a sound scientific basis for new scientific and operational applications of Cryosat-2 data over the open ocean, polar ocean, coastal seas and for sea-floor mapping. - to generate and evaluate new methods and products that will enable the full exploitation of the capabilities of the Cryosat-2 SIRAL altimeter , and extend their application beyond the initial mission objectives. - to ensure that the scientific return of the Cryosat-2 mission is maximised. In particular four themes will be addressed: -Open Ocean Altimetry: Combining GOCE Geoid Model with CryoSat Oceanographic LRM Products for the retrieval of CryoSat MSS/MDT model over open ocean surfaces and for analysis of mesoscale and large scale prominent open ocean features. Under this priority the project will also foster the exploitation of the finer resolution and higher SNR of novel CryoSat SAR Data to detect short spatial scale open ocean features. -High Resolution Polar

  16. 27 CFR 6.2 - Territorial extent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Territorial extent. 6.2 Section 6.2 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS âTIED-HOUSEâ Scope of Regulations § 6.2 Territorial extent. This part applies to the several States of the United...

  17. 27 CFR 6.2 - Territorial extent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Territorial extent. 6.2 Section 6.2 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS âTIED-HOUSEâ Scope of Regulations § 6.2 Territorial extent. This part applies to the several States of the United...

  18. 27 CFR 6.2 - Territorial extent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Territorial extent. 6.2 Section 6.2 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL âTIED-HOUSEâ Scope of Regulations § 6.2 Territorial extent. This part applies to the several States of the United...

  19. 27 CFR 6.2 - Territorial extent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Territorial extent. 6.2 Section 6.2 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS âTIED-HOUSEâ Scope of Regulations § 6.2 Territorial extent. This part applies to the several States of the United...

  20. 27 CFR 6.2 - Territorial extent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Territorial extent. 6.2 Section 6.2 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL âTIED-HOUSEâ Scope of Regulations § 6.2 Territorial extent. This part applies to the several States of the United...

  1. Validity Comparison of PCAT and SAT in the Prediction of First-Year GPA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kotzan, Jeffrey A.; Entrekin, Durward N.

    1977-01-01

    University of Georgia pharmacy students were studied to determine whether (1) SAT factor scores related to a measure of pharmacy student performance as well as PCAT factor scores, and (2) a combination of PCAT factors, SAT factors, and other available applicant information improved the validity of the singular use of SAT or PCAT. (LBH)

  2. The Shrinking Black-White Gap on SAT II Achievement Tests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Blacks in Higher Education, 2002

    2002-01-01

    Recent research shows that the SAT II test is a much better predictor of college success than the standard SAT. In recent years, black students appear to be making progress in closing the racial scoring gap on the wide variety of academic subjects (particularly chemistry, world history, and biology) that are measured by the SAT II test. (SM)

  3. The Rise and Demise of the SAT: The University of California Generates Change for College Admissions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berger, Susan J.

    2012-01-01

    Over the past few months, news about the Scholastic Assessment Test (SAT) has made national headlines and not in a good way: "Large SAT Score Decline Shows Failure of No Child Left Behind and State High-Stakes Testing Strategy" (FairTest 2011); "Eshaghoff, Emory University Student, Allegedly Took SAT For Other Students" (Huffington Post 2011); and…

  4. The Effect of Personality Preferences on the 2005 Version of the SAT

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burrs, Ashley

    2013-01-01

    Some researchers suggest the Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT) is biased toward certain personality types. Extant literature lacked examination of personality constructs and their relationship with SAT scores of the newly revised SAT. The purpose of this study was two-fold. First, this study examined the relationship between the Sensing and Intuition…

  5. An Alternative Presentation of Incremental Validity: Discrepant SAT and HSGPA Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mattern, Krista D.; Shaw, Emily J.; Kobrin, Jennifer L.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined discrepant high school grade point average (HSGPA) and SAT performance as measured by the difference between a student's standardized SAT composite score and standardized HSGPA. The SAT-HSGPA discrepancy measure was used to examine whether certain students are more likely to exhibit discrepant performance and in what direction.…

  6. A CubeSat for Calibrating Ground-Based and Sub-Orbital Millimeter-Wave Polarimeters (CalSat)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Bradley R.; Vourch, Clement J.; Drysdale, Timothy D.; Kalman, Andrew; Fujikawa, Steve; Keating, Brian; Kaufman, Jon

    2015-10-01

    We describe a low-cost, open-access, CubeSat-based calibration instrument that is designed to support ground-based and sub-orbital experiments searching for various polarization signals in the cosmic microwave background (CMB). All modern CMB polarization experiments require a robust calibration program that will allow the effects of instrument-induced signals to be mitigated during data analysis. A bright, compact and linearly polarized astrophysical source with polarization properties known to adequate precision does not exist. Therefore, we designed a space-based millimeter-wave calibration instrument, called CalSat, to serve as an open-access calibrator, and this paper describes the results of our design study. The calibration source on board CalSat is composed of five “tones” with one each at 47.1, 80.0, 140, 249 and 309GHz. The five tones we chose are well matched to (i) the observation windows in the atmospheric transmittance spectra, (ii) the spectral bands commonly used in polarimeters by the CMB community and (iii) the Amateur Satellite Service bands in the Table of Frequency Allocations used by the Federal Communications Commission. CalSat would be placed in a polar orbit allowing visibility from observatories in the Northern Hemisphere, such as Mauna Kea in Hawaii and Summit Station in Greenland, and the Southern Hemisphere, such as the Atacama Desert in Chile and the South Pole. CalSat also would be observable by balloon-borne instruments launched from a range of locations around the world. This global visibility makes CalSat the only source that can be observed by all terrestrial and sub-orbital observatories, thereby providing a universal standard that permits comparison between experiments using appreciably different measurement approaches.

  7. Wolf pack spacing: Howling as a territory-independent spacing mechanism in a territorial population

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harrington, F.H.; Mech, L.D.

    1983-01-01

    Howling is a principle means of spacing in wolf populations. The relationship between a pack's responses to howling (replies, movements) and its location within its home range, was studied using human-simulated howling in a territorial population in northeastern Minnesota. The results indicated the responses were independent of the pack's location, or the locations of the pack and playback relation to the territory center. These results indicate that howling serves as a territory-independent spacing mechanism, that will result in the use of exclusive territories when coupled with strong, year-round site attachment, but with floating, exclusive, buffer-areas about migratory packs.

  8. REDUCED GLUTEAL EXPRESSION OF ADIPOGENIC AND LIPOGENIC GENES IN BLACK SOUTH AFRICAN WOMEN IS ASSOCIATED WITH OBESITY-RELATED INSULIN RESISTANCE

    PubMed Central

    Goedecke, Julia H.; Evans, Juliet; Keswell, Dheshnie; Stimson, Roland H.; Livingstone, Dawn E.W.; Hayes, Philip; Adams, Kevin; Dave, Joel A.; Victor, Hendriena; Levitt, Naomi S.; Lambert, Estelle V.; Walker, Brian R.; Seckl, Jonathan R.; Olsson, Tommy; Kahn, Steven E.

    2014-01-01

    Context Black South African women are less insulin sensitive than their white counterparts, despite less central and greater peripheral fat deposition. We hypothesized that this paradox may be explained, in part, by differences in the adipogenic capacity of subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT). Objective To measure adipogenic and lipogenic gene expression in abdominal and gluteal SAT depots, and determine their relationships with insulin sensitivity (SI) in South African women. Design Cross-sectional. Participants 14 normal-weight (BMI <25 kg/m2) black, 13 normal-weight white, 14 obese (BMI >30 kg/m2) black and 13 obese white premenopausal South African women. Main outcomes SI (frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance test) in relation to expression of adipogenic and lipogenic genes in abdominal and gluteal SAT depots. Results With increasing BMI, black women had less visceral fat (P=0.03) and more abdominal (P=0.017) and gynoid (P=0.041) SAT but had lower SI (P<0.01) than white women. The expression of adipogenic and lipogenic genes was proportionately lower with obesity in black, but not white women in the gluteal and deep SAT depots (P<0.05 for ethnicity x BMI effect). In black women only, the expression of these genes correlated positively with SI (all P<0.05), independently of age and fat mass. Conclusions Obese black women have reduced SAT expression of adipogenic and lipogenic genes compared to white women, which associates with reduced SI. These findings suggest that obesity in black women impairs SAT adipogenesis and storage, potentially leading to insulin resistance and increased risk of type 2 diabetes. PMID:21956425

  9. 33 CFR 2.20 - Territorial sea baseline.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Territorial sea baseline. 2.20... JURISDICTION Jurisdictional Terms § 2.20 Territorial sea baseline. Territorial sea baseline means the line defining the shoreward extent of the territorial sea of the United States drawn according to the...

  10. Malaria Early Warning: The MalarSat project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roca, M.; Escorihuela, M. J.; Martínez, D.; Torrent, M.; Aponte, J.; Nunez, F.; Garcia, J.

    2009-04-01

    Malaria is one of the major public health challenges undermining development in the world. The aim of MalarSat Project is to provide a malaria risks infection maps at global scale using Earth Observation data to support and prevent epidemic episodes. The proposed service for creating malaria risk maps would be critically useful to improve the efficiency in insecticide programs, vaccine campaigns and the logistics epidemic treatment. Different teams have already carried out studies in order to exploit the use of Earth Observation (EO) data with epidemiology purposes. In the case of malaria risk maps, it has been shown that meteorological data is not sufficient to fulfill this objective. In particular being able to map the malaria mosquito habitat would increase the accuracy of risk maps. The malaria mosquitoes mainly reproduce in new water puddles of very reduced dimensions (about 1 meter wide). There is no instrument that could detect such small patches of water unless there are many of them spread in an area of several hundreds of meters. MalarSat aims at using the radar altimeter data from the EnviSat, RA-2, to try and build indicators of mosquitoes existence. This presentation will show the scientific objectives and principles of the MalarSat project.

  11. Project ELaNa and NASA's CubeSat Initiative

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Skrobot, Garrett Lee

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the NASA program to use expendable lift vehicles (ELVs) to launch nanosatellites for the purpose of enhancing educational research. The Education Launch of Nanosatellite (ELaNa) project, run out of the Launch Services Program is requesting proposals for CubeSat type payload to provide information that will aid or verify NASA Projects designs while providing higher educational research

  12. Smart Sat experiment for the L5 mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akioka, M.; Ohtaka, K.; Nagatsuma, T.; Miyake, W.; Goka, T.; Matsumoto, H.; Koshiishi, H.

    We have proposed the L5 mission for space weather research and operational forecasting experiment. The spacecraft will be deployed at the L5 Point of the Sun - Earth system for remote sensing of the Sun and the interplanetary space and for in situ measurement of the solar wind plasma and high energy solar particle event. For the L5 mission, CRL and JAXA develop wide field imager for CME tracking and advanced high energy particle sensor. We plan orbital demonstration in near earth orbit before the L5 mission as the Smart Sat program. The Smart Sat is a pair of small satellites about 150Kg, which will be a collaborative program of government agency (CRL,JAXA) and private sector (MHI) in Japan. The space weather experiment of the Smart Sat consists of Wide field imager for CME tracking (WCI) and Space Environment Data Acquisition equipment (SEDA). Both of the instruments will be principal components of the L5 mission. In this article, we report an overview of the space weather experiment of Smart Sat program.

  13. Analysis of WindSat Data over Arctic Sea Ice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The radiation of the 3rd and 4th Stokes components emitted by Arctic sea ice and observed by the spaceborne fully polarimetric radiometer WindSat is investigated. Two types of analysis are carried out, spatial (maps of different quadrants of azimuth look angles) and temporal (time series of daily av...

  14. WindSat Global Soil Moisture Retrieval and Validation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A physically based six-channel land algorithm is developed to simultaneously retrieve the global soil moisture, vegetation water content and land surface temperature. The algorithm is based on a maximum-likelihood estimation and uses WindSat passive microwave data at 10, 18.7 and 37 GHz. The global ...

  15. WindSat Passive Microwave Soil Moisture Retrievals

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Technical Abstract: WindSat is a spaceborne fully polarimetric conical scanning microwave radiometer. It operates at frequencies and polarizations that match other radiometers such as the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer (AMSR-E) and in addition it acquires additional polarimetric measurements...

  16. Student Change, Program Change: Why SAT Scores Kept Falling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turnbull, William W.

    This paper analyzes Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT) score declines of two decades--the 1960s and 1970s. The importance of pervasive societal influences is accepted. A variety of data suggests, however, that the increase in school retention rates of poorly prepared students and the resulting heterogeneity of the high school population is a unifying…

  17. Patterns of SAT Scores, Choice of STEM Major, and Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davison, Mark L.; Jew, Gilbert B.; Davenport, Ernest C., Jr.

    2014-01-01

    Using Baccalaureate and Beyond 2001 data, we found that STEM major was associated with an SAT pattern less common among females than males, in which the student's quantitative score exceeded the verbal score. Verbal ability was negatively associated with STEM major. Implications for career theory and test interpretation are discussed.

  18. CloudSat Reflectivity Data Visualization Inside Hurricanes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suzuki, Shigeru; Wright, John R.; Falcon, Pedro C.

    2011-01-01

    We have presented methods to rapidly produce visualization and outreach products from CloudSat data for science and the media These methods combine data from several sources in the product generation process In general, the process can be completely automatic, producing products and notifying potential users

  19. S.A.T. Drop: Let's Ban the Bomb Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American School Board Journal, 1983

    1983-01-01

    Questions radiological physicist Ernest J. Sternglass's theory that links falling Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT) scores in the 1960s and '70s to nuclear weapons testing in the late '40s, the '50s, and early '60s. Notes other scientists' contention that Sternglass's theory only establishes a correlation, not a cause and effect relationship. (JBM)

  20. Interpreting Force Concept Inventory Scores: Normalized Gain and SAT Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coletta, Vincent P.; Phillips, Jeffrey A.; Steinert, Jeffrey J.

    2007-01-01

    Preinstruction SAT scores and normalized gains (G) on the force concept inventory (FCI) were examined for individual students in interactive engagement (IE) courses in introductory mechanics at one high school (N=335) and one university (N=292), and strong, positive correlations were found for both populations (r=0.57 and r=0.46, respectively).…

  1. The COLD-SAT experiment for cryogenic fluid management technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schuster, J. R.; Wachter, J. P.; Vento, D. M.

    1990-01-01

    The COLD-SAT spacecraft design experiments are described. COLD-SAT will be placed into an initial 1300 km circular orbit by an Atlas commercial launch vehicle. Electric power, experiment control and data management, attitude control, and propulsive accelarations for the experiments will be provided by the three-axis-controlled spacecraft bus. To provide data on the effects that low gravity levels might have on the heat and mass transfer processes involved, low levels of accelaration will be created. The COLD-SAT experiment will be configured into a module. The spacecraft experiment module will include three liquid hydrogen tanks; fluid transfer, pressurization and venting equipment; and instrumentation. Since the largest tank has helium-purged MLI to prevent ingress and freezing of air on the launchpad, it will contain all the liquid hydrogen at the point of launching. The hydrogen tanking system used for the Centaur upper stage of the Atlas will load and top off this tank. Atlas, with its liquid hydrogen upper stage, large payload fairing, and large launch margin, simplifies COLD-SAT design and integration.

  2. A Better SAT Starts with a Better College Board

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katzman, John

    2014-01-01

    It is so easy to criticize the SAT that most observers overlook the weaknesses of its architect, the College Board. This author contents that, until the latter is replaced, however, the former will never be fixed. The College Board has every incentive to create a complex, stressful, expensive college admissions system. Because it is accountable to…

  3. Improving Plan Quality in SAT-Based Planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giunchiglia, Enrico; Maratea, Marco

    Planning as Satisfiability (SAT) is the best approach for optimally (wrt makespan) solving classical planning problems. SAT-based planners, like SATPLAN, can thus return plans having minimal makespan guaranteed. However, the returned plan does not take into account plan quality issues introduced in the last two International Planning Competitions (IPCs): such issues include minimal-actions plans and plans with "soft" goals, where a metric has to be optimized over actions/goals. Recently, an approach to address such issues has been presented, in the framework of planning as satisfiability with preferences: by modifying the heuristic of the underlying SAT solver, the related system (called SATPLAN(P)) is guaranteed to return plans with minimal number of actions, or with maximal number of soft goals satisfied. But, besides such feature, it is well-known that introducing ordering in SAT heuristics can lead to significant degradation in performances. In this paper, we present a generate-and-test approach to tackle the problem of dealing with such optimization issues: without imposing any ordering, a (candidate optimal) plan is first generated, and then a constraint is added imposing that the new plan (if any) has to be "better" than the last computed, i.e., the plan quality is increased at each iteration. We implemented this idea in SATPLAN, and compared the resulting systems wrt SATPLAN(P) and SGPlan on planning problems coming from IPCs. The analysis shows performance benefits for the new approach, in particular on planning problems with many preferences.

  4. Behind the SAT-Optional Movement: Context and Controversy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Epstein, Jonathan P.

    2009-01-01

    The advent of the modern form of the Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT), brought to bear by the combination of the Educational Testing Service (ETS) and Harvard's former president James Bryant Conant (Lemann 1999), was designed to promote the recognition of talent and intellect, wherever they may be found. Their aim was to provide greater educational…

  5. FalconSAT-7: a membrane space telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andersen, Geoff P.; Asmolova, Olha

    2014-08-01

    The USAF Academy Department of Physics has built FalconSAT-7, a membrane solar telescope to be deployed from a 3U CubeSat in LEO. The primary optic is a 0.2m photon sieve - a diffractive element consisting of billions of tiny circular dimples etched into a Kapton sheet. The membrane, its support structure, secondary optics, two imaging cameras and associated control/recording electronics are all packaged within half the CubeSat volume. Once in space, the supporting pantograph structure is deployed, extending out and pulling the membrane flat under tension. The telescope will then be directed at the Sun to gather images at H-alpha for transmission to the ground. Due for launch in 2015, FalconSAT-7 will serve as a pathfinder for future surveillance missions consisting of a 0.3m aperture deployed from a 12U satellite. Such a telescope would be capable of providing sub-meter resolution of ground-based objects.

  6. Two Professors Retake the SAT: Is It a Good Test?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harper, Christopher; Vanderbei, Robert J.

    2009-01-01

    In this article, two professors retake the college-entrance exam and arrive at very different conclusions about its performance. Even though Christopher Harper has worked as a college professor for 15 years, he decided last winter to take the SAT and ACT examinations that his students needed to enter the institution where he teaches, Temple…

  7. WindSat Soil Moisture Algorithm and Validation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A WindSat land algorithm that retrieves global soil moisture and vegetation water content simultaneously using the physically-based multi-channel maximum-likelihood estimation was developed and evaluated. The retrievals agree well with soil moisture climatology, and in-situ data collected from a ser...

  8. Gender differences in the association of visceral and subcutaneous adiposity with adiponectin in African Americans: the Jackson Heart Study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Adiponectin, paradoxically reduced in obesity and with lower levels in African Americans (AA), modulates several cardiometabolic risk factors. Because abdominal visceral adipose tissue (VAT), known to be reduced in AA, and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) compartments may confer differential metabolic risk profiles, we investigated the associations of VAT and SAT with serum adiponectin, separately by gender, with the hypothesis that VAT is more strongly inversely associated with adiponectin than SAT. Methods Participants from the Jackson Heart Study, an ongoing cohort of AA (n = 2,799; 64% women; mean age, 55 ± 11 years) underwent computer tomography assessment of SAT and VAT volumes, and had stored serum specimens analyzed for adiponectin levels. These levels were examined by gender in relation to increments of VAT and SAT. Results Compared to women, men had significantly lower mean levels of adiponectin (3.9 ± 3.0 μg/mL vs. 6.0 ± 4.4 μg/mL; p < 0.01) and mean volume of SAT (1,721 ± 803 cm3 vs. 2,668 ± 968 cm3; p < 0.01) but significantly higher mean volume of VAT (884 ± 416 cm3 vs. 801 ± 363 cm3; p < 0.01). Among women, a one standard deviation increment in VAT was inversely associated with adiponectin (β = − 0.13; p < 0.0001) after controlling for age, systolic blood pressure, fasting plasma glucose, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, education, pack-years of smoking and daily intake of alcohol. The statistically significant inverse association of VAT and adiponectin persisted after additionally adjusting for SAT, body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC), suggesting that VAT provides significant information above and beyond BMI and WC. Among men, after the same multivariable adjustment, there was a direct association of SAT and adiponectin (β = 0.18; p = 0.002) that persisted when controlling for BMI and WC, supporting a beneficial effect of

  9. X-Band CubeSat Communication System Demonstration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Altunc, Serhat; Kegege, Obadiah; Bundick, Steve; Shaw, Harry; Schaire, Scott; Bussey, George; Crum, Gary; Burke, Jacob C.; Palo, Scott; O'Conor, Darren

    2015-01-01

    Today's CubeSats mostly operate their communications at UHF- and S-band frequencies. UHF band is presently crowded, thus downlink communications are at lower data rates due to bandwidth limitations and are unreliable due to interference. This research presents an end-to-end robust, innovative, compact, efficient and low cost S-band uplink and X-band downlink CubeSat communication system demonstration between a balloon and a Near Earth Network (NEN) ground system. Since communication systems serve as umbilical cords for space missions, demonstration of this X-band communication system is critical for successfully supporting current and future CubeSat communication needs. This research has three main objectives. The first objective is to design, simulate, and test a CubeSat S- and X-band communication system. Satellite Tool Kit (STK) dynamic link budget calculations and HFSS Simulations and modeling results have been used to trade the merit of various designs for small satellite applications. S- and X-band antennas have been tested in the compact antenna test range at Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) to gather radiation pattern data. The second objective is simulate and test a CubeSat compatible X-band communication system at 12.5Mbps including S-band antennas, X-band antennas, Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics (LASP) /GSFC transmitter and an S-band receiver from TRL-5 to TRL-8 by the end of this effort. Different X-band communication system components (antennas, diplexers, etc.) from GSFC, other NASA centers, universities, and private companies have been investigated and traded, and a complete component list for the communication system baseline has been developed by performing analytical and numerical analysis. This objective also includes running simulations and performing trades between different X-band antenna systems to optimize communication system performance. The final objective is to perform an end-to-end X-band CubeSat communication system

  10. Shields-1, A SmallSat Radiation Shielding Technology Demonstration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomsen, D. Laurence, III; Kim, Wousik; Cutler, James W.

    2015-01-01

    The NASA Langley Research Center Shields CubeSat initiative is to develop a configurable platform that would allow lower cost access to Space for materials durability experiments, and to foster a pathway for both emerging and commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) radiation shielding technologies to gain spaceflight heritage in a relevant environment. The Shields-1 will be Langleys' first CubeSat platform to carry out this mission. Radiation shielding tests on Shields-1 are planned for the expected severe radiation environment in a geotransfer orbit (GTO), where advertised commercial rideshare opportunities and CubeSat missions exist, such as Exploration Mission 1 (EM-1). To meet this objective, atomic number (Z) graded radiation shields (Zshields) have been developed. The Z-shield properties have been estimated, using the Space Environment Information System (SPENVIS) radiation shielding computational modeling, to have 30% increased shielding effectiveness of electrons, at half the thickness of a corresponding single layer of aluminum. The Shields-1 research payload will be made with the Z-graded radiation shields of varying thicknesses to create dose-depth curves to be compared with baseline materials. Additionally, Shields-1 demonstrates an engineered Z-grade radiation shielding vault protecting the systems' electronic boards. The radiation shielding materials' performances will be characterized using total ionizing dose sensors. Completion of these experiments is expected to raise the technology readiness levels (TRLs) of the tested atomic number (Z) graded materials. The most significant contribution of the Z-shields for the SmallSat community will be that it enables cost effective shielding for small satellite systems, with significant volume constraints, while increasing the operational lifetime of ionizing radiation sensitive components. These results are anticipated to increase the development of CubeSat hardware design for increased mission lifetimes, and enable

  11. Spacecraft Charging Analysis of a CubeSat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Willis, Emily M.; Minow, Joseph I.; Parker, Linda Neergaard

    2014-01-01

    Spacecraft charging occurs when charged particles from the surrounding space plasma environment contact a spacecraft and unequal charging currents result in a net charge density accumulation on or in spacecraft materials. Charging becomes a threat when differential potentials between two points on the spacecraft or between the spacecraft and the ambient space environment build to the level that electric fields associated with the potentials exceed the electric breakdown strength of the spacecraft materials and electrostatic discharge arcs are generated. Electrostatic discharges resulting from spacecraft charging can adversely affect telemetry and cause irreparable damage to electronics. Other spacecraft charging effects include damage of solar arrays and thermal protection, enhancement of contamination of surfaces, and degradation of optics. Typically, the large government and commercial space programs include spacecraft charging analysis as part of the design process. CubeSat projects, however, usually do not have the time or funding to include a spacecraft charging analysis due to their low budget and quick-turnaround requirements. CubeSat projects also tend to rely heavily on commercial "off-the-shelf" products, many of which are not qualified for use in space, and are particularly vulnerable to the effects of the space environment. As the demand for longer and more complex CubeSat missions increases, it is becoming more and more important to consider the effects of spacecraft charging in the design process. Results of surface charging analysis using Nascap-2k on a typical CubeSat design for a polar orbit scenario are illustrated. These results show that for a polar orbiting CubeSat, spacecraft charging could be an issue and steps should be taken to mitigate the effects for these small satellites.

  12. CloudSat Education Network: Partnerships for Outreach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    TeBockhorst, D.

    2014-12-01

    CloudSat Education Network (CEN): Partnerships to improve the understanding of clouds in formal and informal settings. Since The CloudSat satellite launched in 2006 the Formal and Informal education programs for the mission have been focused on bringing an understanding about the mission science and the importance of clouds, climate & weather science. This has been done by creating and strengthening partnership and collaboration within scientific and educational communities around the country and the world. Because CloudSat was formally recognized as a Earth System Science Pathfinder campaign with the GLOBE program, the CEN developed a set of field protocols for student observations that augmented the GLOBE atmosphere protocols when there was a satellite overpass. This shared process between GLOBE & CloudSat resulted in the training & creation of CEN schools that are both GLOBE schools and CloudSat schools, and also produced three GLOBE partnerships that specialize in cloud science education and outreach. In addition, the CEN has developed productive relationships with other NASA missions and EPO teams. Specifically, in collaboration with the NASA CERES mission projects S'Cool and MyNASAData, we have co-presented at NSTA conferences and with schools participating in a NASA EPOESS-funded formal education project. This collaborative work has been a very real benefit to a wide variety of audiences needing to strengthen their understanding of clouds and their roles in the earth system, and we hope will serve as a model to future missions looking to involve the public in mission science.

  13. CloudSat Anomaly Recovery and Operational Lessons Learned

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Witkowski, Mona; Vane, Deborah; Livermore, Thomas; Rokey, Mark; Barthuli, Marda; Gravseth, Ian J.; Pieper, Brian; Rodzinak, Aaron; Silva, Steve; Woznick, Paul; Nayak, Michael

    2012-01-01

    In April 2011, NASA's pioneering cloud profiling radar satellite, CloudSat, experienced a battery anomaly that placed it into emergency mode and rendered it operations incapable. All initial attempts to recover the spacecraft failed as the resultant power limitations could not support even the lowest power mode. Originally part of a six-satellite constellation known as the "A-Train", CloudSat was unable to stay within its assigned control box, posing a threat to other A-Train satellites. CloudSat needed to exit the constellation, but with the tenuous power profile, conducting maneuvers was very risky. The team was able to execute a complex sequence of operations which recovered control, conducted an orbit lower maneuver, and returned the satellite to safe mode, within one 65 minute sunlit period. During the course of the anomaly recovery, the team developed several bold, innovative operational strategies. Details of the investigation into the root-cause and the multiple approaches to revive CloudSat are examined. Satellite communication and commanding during the anomaly are presented. A radical new system of "Daylight Only Operations" (DO-OP) was developed, which cycles the payload and subsystem components off in tune with earth eclipse entry and exit in order to maintain positive power and thermal profiles. The scientific methodology and operational results behind the graduated testing and ramp-up to DO-OP are analyzed. In November 2011, the CloudSat team successfully restored the vehicle to consistent operational collection of cloud radar data during sunlit portions of the orbit. Lessons learned throughout the six-month return-to-operations recovery effort are discussed and offered for application to other R&D satellites, in the context of on-orbit anomaly resolution efforts.

  14. Interpreting force concept inventory scores: Normalized gain and SAT scores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coletta, Vincent P.; Phillips, Jeffrey A.; Steinert, Jeffrey J.

    2007-06-01

    Preinstruction SAT scores and normalized gains (G) on the force concept inventory (FCI) were examined for individual students in interactive engagement (IE) courses in introductory mechanics at one high school (N=335) and one university (N=292) , and strong, positive correlations were found for both populations ( r=0.57 and r=0.46 , respectively). These correlations are likely due to the importance of cognitive skills and abstract reasoning in learning physics. The larger correlation coefficient for the high school population may be a result of the much shorter time interval between taking the SAT and studying mechanics, because the SAT may provide a more current measure of abilities when high school students begin the study of mechanics than it does for college students, who begin mechanics years after the test is taken. In prior research a strong correlation between FCI G and scores on Lawson’s Classroom Test of Scientific Reasoning for students from the same two schools was observed. Our results suggest that, when interpreting class average normalized FCI gains and comparing different classes, it is important to take into account the variation of students’ cognitive skills, as measured either by the SAT or by Lawson’s test. While Lawson’s test is not commonly given to students in most introductory mechanics courses, SAT scores provide a readily available alternative means of taking account of students’ reasoning abilities. Knowing the students’ cognitive level before instruction also allows one to alter instruction or to use an intervention designed to improve students’ cognitive level.

  15. 31 CFR 515.322 - Authorized trade territory; member of the authorized trade territory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Authorized trade territory; member of the authorized trade territory. 515.322 Section 515.322 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CUBAN ASSETS CONTROL REGULATIONS...

  16. Differential effects of moving versus stationary territorial intruders on territory defence in a songbird.

    PubMed

    Amrhein, Valentin; Lerch, Sabine

    2010-01-01

    1. In territorial contests, not only acoustic or other signals, but also the movements of a territorial intruder are likely to influence the response of a resident. 2. We tested this movement hypothesis by simulating moving vs. stationary intruders into the territories of winter wrens Troglodytes troglodytes, using the same non-interactive song playbacks in both treatments. 3. Male winter wrens showed a different long-term singing reaction in response to a moving than to a stationary intruder. 4. One day after experiencing an intruder that was switching between three locations, residents started to sing earlier before sunrise, and they sang more and longer songs at dawn than before the intrusion. 5. Residents receiving the same playback from one location only reacted by starting to sing later relative to sunrise, and by singing fewer and shorter songs than before the intrusion. 6. We could not discriminate between the treatments when examining the short-term singing reactions during and immediately after the playbacks. However, our results clearly demonstrate an effect of the spatial behaviour of territorial intruders on the long-term territory defence of residents at dawn, about 24 h after an intrusion. 7. We argue that spatial behaviour of territorial intruders should be an integral part of the study of animal territory defence behaviour. Investigating long-term changes in territory defence at dawn is a sensitive tool for discriminating between different types of intruders. PMID:19891714

  17. 31 CFR 500.322 - Authorized trade territory; member of the authorized trade territory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...); E.O. 9193, 3 CFR 1943 Cum. Supp.; Treas. Dept. Order No. 128, 32 FR 3472) ... authorized trade territory. (a) The term authorized trade territory shall include: (1) North, South and..., Lebanon, Macao, Malaysia, Nepal, Oman, Pakistan, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Singapore, South Korea, Sri...

  18. Scholastic Assessment Test (SAT) Results, 1997-98. Measuring Up: E&R Report No. 99.11.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fejoku, Caroline Gay

    The Scholastic Assessment Tests (SAT) are national examinations designed to assess a student's chances of success at the college level. There are two SAT examinations, the SAT I, a reasoning assessment of students' verbal and mathematics skills, and the SAT II, in which students are tested in specific subject areas. In Wake County (North…

  19. California and the SAT: A Reanalysis of University of California Admissions Data. Research & Occasional Paper Series: CSHE.8.04

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zwick, Rebecca; Brown, Terran; Sklar, Jeffrey C.

    2004-01-01

    As part of the University of California's recent reconsideration of the role of the SAT in admissions, the UC Office of the President published an extensive report, "UC and the SAT" (2001), which examined the value of SAT I Reasoning Test scores, SAT II Subject Test scores, and high school grades in predicting the grade-point averages of UC…

  20. The Revised SAT Score and Its Potential Benefits for the Admission of Minority Students to Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santelices, Maria Veronica; Wilson, Mark

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates the predictive validity of the Revised SAT (R-SAT) score, proposed by Freedle (2003) as an alternative to compensate minority students for the potential harm caused by the relationship between item difficulty and ethnic DIF observed in the SAT. The R-SAT score is the score minority students would have received if only the…

  1. SAT predicts GPA better for high ability subjects: Implications for Spearman's Law of Diminishing Returns.

    PubMed

    Coyle, Thomas; Snyder, Anissa; Pillow, David; Kochunov, Peter

    2011-04-01

    This research examined the predictive validity of the SAT (formerly, the Scholastic Aptitude Test) for high and low ability groups. SAT scores and college GPAs were obtained from the 1997 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. Subjects were classified as high or low ability by g factor scores from the Armed Services Vocational Aptitude Battery. SAT correlations with GPA were higher for high than low ability subjects. SAT g loadings (i.e., SAT correlations with g) were equivalent for both groups. This is the first study to show that the predictive validity of the SAT varies for ability groups that differ in g. The results contradict a presumption, based on Spearman's Law of Diminishing Returns, that a test's predictive validity should be lower for high ability subjects. Further research is needed to identify factors that contribute to the predictive validity of the SAT for groups that differ in g. PMID:21562615

  2. Secreted autotransporter toxin (Sat) triggers autophagy in epithelial cells that relies on cell detachment.

    PubMed

    Liévin-Le Moal, Vanessa; Comenge, Yannick; Ruby, Vincent; Amsellem, Raymonde; Nicolas, Valérie; Servin, Alain L

    2011-07-01

    The secreted autotransporter toxin, Sat, which belongs to the subfamily of serine protease autotransporters of Enterobacteriaceae, acts as a virulence factor in extraintestinal and intestinal pathogenic strains of Escherichia coli. We observed that HeLa cells exposed to the cell-free culture supernatant of recombinant strain AAEC185p(Sat-IH11128) producing the Sat toxin (CFCS(Sat) ), displayed dramatic disorganization of the F-actin cytoskeleton before loosening cell-to-cell junctions and detachment. Examination of the effect of Sat on GFP-microtubule-associated protein light chain 3 (LC3) HeLa cells revealed that CFCS(Sat) -induced autophagy follows CFCS(Sat) -induced F-actin cytoskeleton rearrangement. The induced autophagy shows an acceleration of the autophagy flux soon after Sat treatment, followed later by a blockade of the flux leading to the accumulation of large GFP-LC3-positive vacuoles in the cell cytoplasm. CFCS(Sat) did not induce cell detachment in autophagy-deficient mouse embryonic fibroblasts in contrast with wild-type mouse embryonic fibroblasts. The CFCS(Sat) -induced large GFP-LC3 dots do not display the characteristics of autophagolysosomes including expression of cathepsin D and Lamp-1 and 2 proteins, and Lysotracker Red- and DQ-BSA-positive labelling. We provide evidences that CFCS(Sat) -induced autophagy is not a cell response intended to get rid of the intracellular toxin. By a pharmacological blockers approach, we found that the blockade of Erk1/2 and p38 MAPKs, but not JNK, inhibited the CFCS(Sat) -induced autophagy and cell detachment whereas phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase blockers inhibiting canonical autophagy were inactive. When attached CFCS(Sat) -treated cells start to detach they showed caspase-independent cell death and rearrangements of the focal adhesion-associated vinculin and paxillin. Collectively, our results support that Sat triggers autophagy in epithelial cells that relies on its cell-detachment effect. PMID:21501364

  3. Improved Oceanographic Measurements with CryoSat SAR Altimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cotton, David; Benveniste, Jérôme; Cipollini, Paolo; Andersen, Ole; Cancet, Mathilde; Ambrózio, Américo; Restano, Marco; Nilo Garcia, Pablo; Martin, Francisco

    2016-07-01

    The ESA CryoSat mission is the first space mission to carry a radar altimeter that can operate in Synthetic Aperture Radar "SAR" (or delay-Doppler) and interferometric SAR (SARin) modes. Studies on CryoSat data have analysed and confirmed the improved ocean measuring capability offered by SAR mode altimetry, through increased resolution and precision in sea surface height and wave height measurements, and have also added significantly to our understanding of the issues around the processing and interpretation of SAR altimeter echoes. We present work in four themes, building on work initiated in the CryoSat Plus for Oceans project (CP4O), each investigating different aspects of the opportunities offered by this new technology. The first two studies address the coastal zone, a critical region for providing a link between open-ocean and shelf sea measurements with those from coastal in-situ measurements, in particular tide gauges. Although much has been achieved in recent years through the Coastal Altimetry community, (http://www.coastalt.eu/community) there is a limit to the capabilities of pulse-limited altimetry, which often leaves an un-measured "white strip" right at the coastline. Firstly, a thorough analysis was made of the performance of "SAR" altimeter data (delay-Doppler processed) in the coastal zone. This quantified the performance, confirming the significant improvement over "conventional" pulse-limited altimetry. In the second study a processing scheme was developed with CryoSat SARin mode data to enable the retrieval of valid oceanographic measurements in coastal areas with complex topography. Thanks to further development of the algorithms, a new approach was achieved that can also be applied to SAR and conventional altimetry data (e.g., Sentinel-3, Jason series, Envisat). The third part of the project developed and evaluated improvements to the SAMOSA altimeter re-tracker that is implemented in the Sentinel-3 processing chain. The modifications to the

  4. Uncooled emissive infrared imagers for CubeSats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puschell, Jeffery J.; Masini, Paolo

    2014-09-01

    Raytheon's fourth generation uncooled microbolometer array technology with digital output, High Definition (HD) 1920 × 1200 format and 12 μm cell size enables uncooled thermal infrared (TIR) multispectral imagers with the sensitivity and spatial sampling needed for a variety of Earth observation missions in LEO, GEO and HEO. A powerful combination of small detector cell size, fast optics and high sensitivity achieved without cryogenic cooling leads to instruments that are much smaller than current TIR systems, while still offering the capability to meet challenging measurement requirements for Earth observation missions. To consider how this technology could be implemented for Earth observation missions, we extend our previous studies with visible wavelength CubeSat imagers for environmental observations from LEO and examine whether small thermal infrared imagers based on fourth generation uncooled technology could be made small enough to fit onboard a 3U CubeSat and still meet challenging requirements for legacy missions. We found that moderate spatial resolution (~200 m) high sensitivity cloud and surface temperature observations meeting legacy MODIS/VIIRS requirements could be collected successfully with CubeSat-sized imagers but that multiple imagers are needed to cover the full swath for these missions. Higher spatial resolution land imagers are more challenging to fit into the CubeSat form factor, but it may be possible to do so for systems that require roughly 100 m spatial resolution. Regardless of whether it can fit into a CubeSat or not, uncooled land imagers meeting candidate TIR requirements can be implemented with a much smaller instrument than previous imagers. Even though this technology appears to be very promising, more work is needed to qualify this newly available uncooled infrared technology for use in space. If these new devices prove to be as space worthy as the first generation arrays that Raytheon qualified and built into the THEMIS imager

  5. Black African Traditional Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zaslavsky, Claudia

    1970-01-01

    Discusses the traditional number systems and the origin of the number names used by several African peoples living south of the Sahara. Also included are limitations in African mathematical development, and possible topics for research. (RP)

  6. Transmission of Foot-and-Mouth Disease SAT2 Viruses at the Wildlife-Livestock Interface of Two Major Transfrontier Conservation Areas in Southern Africa.

    PubMed

    Brito, Barbara P; Jori, Ferran; Dwarka, Rahana; Maree, Francois F; Heath, Livio; Perez, Andres M

    2016-01-01

    Over a decade ago, foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) re-emerged in Southern Africa specifically in beef exporting countries that had successfully maintained disease-free areas in the past. FMD virus (FMDV) serotype SAT2 has been responsible for a majority of these outbreaks. Epidemiological studies have revealed the importance of the African buffalo as the major wildlife FMD reservoir in the region. We used phylogeographic analysis to study dynamics of FMD transmission between buffalo and domestic cattle at the interface of the major wildlife protected areas in the region currently encompassing two largest Transfrontier conservation areas: Kavango-Zambezi (KAZA) and Great Limpopo (GL). Results of this study showed restricted local occurrence of each FMDV SAT2 topotypes I, II, and III, with occasional virus migration from KAZA to GL. Origins of outbreaks in livestock are frequently attributed to wild buffalo, but our results suggest that transmission from cattle to buffalo also occurs. We used coalescent Bayesian skyline analysis to study the genetic variation of the virus in cattle and buffalo, and discussed the association of these genetic changes in the virus and relevant epidemiological events that occurred in this area. Our results show that the genetic diversity of FMDV SAT2 has decreased in buffalo and cattle population during the last decade. This study contributes to understand the major dynamics of transmission and genetic variation of FMDV SAT2 in Southern Africa, which will could ultimately help in designing efficient strategies for the control of FMD at a local and regional level. PMID:27148217

  7. Transmission of Foot-and-Mouth Disease SAT2 Viruses at the Wildlife–Livestock Interface of Two Major Transfrontier Conservation Areas in Southern Africa

    PubMed Central

    Brito, Barbara P.; Jori, Ferran; Dwarka, Rahana; Maree, Francois F.; Heath, Livio; Perez, Andres M.

    2016-01-01

    Over a decade ago, foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) re-emerged in Southern Africa specifically in beef exporting countries that had successfully maintained disease-free areas in the past. FMD virus (FMDV) serotype SAT2 has been responsible for a majority of these outbreaks. Epidemiological studies have revealed the importance of the African buffalo as the major wildlife FMD reservoir in the region. We used phylogeographic analysis to study dynamics of FMD transmission between buffalo and domestic cattle at the interface of the major wildlife protected areas in the region currently encompassing two largest Transfrontier conservation areas: Kavango–Zambezi (KAZA) and Great Limpopo (GL). Results of this study showed restricted local occurrence of each FMDV SAT2 topotypes I, II, and III, with occasional virus migration from KAZA to GL. Origins of outbreaks in livestock are frequently attributed to wild buffalo, but our results suggest that transmission from cattle to buffalo also occurs. We used coalescent Bayesian skyline analysis to study the genetic variation of the virus in cattle and buffalo, and discussed the association of these genetic changes in the virus and relevant epidemiological events that occurred in this area. Our results show that the genetic diversity of FMDV SAT2 has decreased in buffalo and cattle population during the last decade. This study contributes to understand the major dynamics of transmission and genetic variation of FMDV SAT2 in Southern Africa, which will could ultimately help in designing efficient strategies for the control of FMD at a local and regional level. PMID:27148217

  8. Science Case for Planetary Exploration with Planetary CubeSats and SmallSats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castillo-Rogez, Julie; Raymond, Carol; Jaumann, Ralf; Vane, Gregg; Baker, John

    2016-07-01

    Nano-spacecraft and especially CubeSats are emerging as viable low cost platforms for planetary exploration. Increasing miniaturization of instruments and processing performance enable smart and small packages capable of performing full investigations. While these platforms are limited in terms of payload and lifetime, their form factor and agility enable novel mission architectures and a refreshed relationship to risk. Leveraging a ride with a mothership to access far away destinations can significantly augment the mission science return at relatively low cost. Depending on resources, the mothership may carry several platforms and act as telecom relay for a distributed network or other forms of fractionated architectures. In Summer 2014 an international group of scientists, engineers, and technologists started a study to define investigations to be carried out by nano-spacecrafts. These applications flow down from key science priorities of interest across space agencies: understanding the origin and organization of the Solar system; characterization of planetary processes; assessment of the astrobiological significance of planetary bodies across the Solar system; and retirement of strategic knowledge gaps (SKGs) for Human exploration. This presentation will highlight applications that make the most of the novel architectures introduced by nano-spacecraft. Examples include the low cost reconnaissance of NEOs for science, planetary defense, resource assessment, and SKGs; in situ chemistry measurements (e.g., airless bodies and planetary atmospheres), geophysical network (e.g., magnetic field measurements), coordinated physical and chemical characterization of multiple icy satellites in a giant planet system; and scouting, i.e., risk assessment and site reconnaissance to prepare for close proximity observations of a mothership (e.g., prior to sampling). Acknowledgements: This study is sponsored by the International Academy of Astronautics (IAA). Part of this work is

  9. The Relationship between SAT Scores and Retention to the Second Year: Replication with 2009 SAT Validity Sample. Statistical Report 2011-3

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mattern, Krista D.; Patterson, Brian F.

    2012-01-01

    The College Board formed a research consortium with four-year colleges and universities to build a national higher education database with the primary goal of validating the revised SAT for use in college admission. A study by Mattern and Patterson (2009) examined the relationship between SAT scores and retention to the second year of college. The…

  10. The Relationship between SAT Scores and Retention to the Second Year: 2007 SAT Validity Sample. Statistical Report No. 2011-4

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mattern, Krista D.; Patterson, Brian F.

    2011-01-01

    This report presents the findings from a replication of the analyses from the report, "Is Performance on the SAT Related to College Retention?" (Mattern & Patterson, 2009). The tables presented herein are based on the 2007 sample and the findings are largely the same as those presented in the original report, and show SAT scores are…

  11. SAT Performance: Understanding the Contributions of Cognitive/Learning and Social/Personality Factors

    PubMed Central

    HANNON, BRENDA; MCNAUGHTON-CASSILL, MARY

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY This study identifies a number of sources of individual differences in SAT performance by examining the simultaneous contributions of factors from two otherwise disparate research areas, namely cognition/learning and social/personality. Preliminary analysis revealed that just the cognitive/learning measures accounted for 37.8, 41.4 and 21.9% of the variance in SAT, V-SAT and Q-SAT performance, respectively while just the social/personality measures accounted for 21.4, 18.2 and 17.3% of the variance. When combined, cognitive/learning and social/personality factors accounted for even larger amounts of variance in performance; specifically 43.4, 44.6 and 28% for the SAT, V-SAT and Q-SAT, respectively. Finally, the results revealed that three measures consistently predicted performance on the SAT, V-SAT and Q-SAT; two measures were the learning/cognitive factors of working memory and integration of new text-based information with information from long-term memory and one measure was the social/personality factor, test anxiety. PMID:21804694

  12. SAT Performance: Understanding the Contributions of Cognitive/Learning and Social/Personality Factors.

    PubMed

    Hannon, Brenda; McNaughton-Cassill, Mary

    2011-07-01

    This study identifies a number of sources of individual differences in SAT performance by examining the simultaneous contributions of factors from two otherwise disparate research areas, namely cognition/learning and social/personality. Preliminary analysis revealed that just the cognitive/learning measures accounted for 37.8, 41.4 and 21.9% of the variance in SAT, V-SAT and Q-SAT performance, respectively while just the social/personality measures accounted for 21.4, 18.2 and 17.3% of the variance. When combined, cognitive/learning and social/personality factors accounted for even larger amounts of variance in performance; specifically 43.4, 44.6 and 28% for the SAT, V-SAT and Q-SAT, respectively. Finally, the results revealed that three measures consistently predicted performance on the SAT, V-SAT and Q-SAT; two measures were the learning/cognitive factors of working memory and integration of new text-based information with information from long-term memory and one measure was the social/personality factor, test anxiety. PMID:21804694

  13. The African Connection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oguntoyinbo, Lekan

    2012-01-01

    From student and faculty exchanges to joint research projects, U.S. universities maintain a broad spectrum of collaborative relationships with African universities. It's unclear how many U.S. colleges and universities have partnerships with African universities. The African Studies Association, an organization of scholars, doesn't keep that kind…

  14. CarbonSat: ESA's Earth Explorer 8 Candidate Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meijer, Y. J.; Ingmann, P.; Löscher, A.

    2012-04-01

    The CarbonSat candidate mission is part of ESA's Earth Explorer Programme. In 2010, two candidate opportunity missions had been selected for feasibility and preliminary definition studies. The missions, called FLEX and CarbonSat, are now in competition to become ESA's eighth Earth Explorer, both addressing key climate and environmental change issues. In this presentation we will provide a mission overview of CarbonSat with a focus on science. CarbonSat's primary mission objective is the quantification and monitoring of CO2 and CH4 sources and sinks from the local to the regional scale for i) a better understanding of the processes that control carbon cycle dynamics and ii) an independent estimate of local greenhouse gas emissions (fossil fuel, geological CO2 and CH4, etc.) in the context of international treaties. A second priority objective is the monitoring/derivation of CO2 and CH4 fluxes on regional to global scale. These objectives will be achieved by a unique combination of frequent, high spatial resolution (2 x 2 km2) observations of XCO2 and XCH4 coupled to inverse modelling schemes. The required random error of a single measurement at ground-pixel resolution is of the order of between 1 and 3 ppm for XCO2 and between 9 and 17 ppb for XCH4. High spatial resolution is essential in order to maximize the probability for clear-sky observations and to identify flux hot spots. Ideally, CarbonSat shall have a wide swath allowing a 6-day global repeat cycle. The CarbonSat observations will enable CO2 emissions from coal-fired power plants, localized industrial complexes, cities, and other large emitters to be objectively assessed at a global scale. Similarly, the monitoring of natural gas pipelines and compressor station leakage will become feasible. The detection and quantification of the substantial geological greenhouse gas emission sources such as seeps, volcanoes and mud volcanoes will be achieved for the first time. CarbonSat's Greenhouse Gas instrument will

  15. CloudSat Reflectivity Data Visualization Inside Hurricanes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suzuki, Shigeru; Wright, John R.; Falcon, Pedro C.

    2011-01-01

    Animations and other outreach products have been created and released to the public quickly after the CloudSat spacecraft flew over hurricanes. The automated script scans through the CloudSat quicklook data to find significant atmospheric moisture content. Once such a region is found, data from multiple sources is combined to produce the data products and the animations. KMZ products are quickly generated from the quicklook data for viewing in Google Earth and other tools. Animations are also generated to show the atmospheric moisture data in context with the storm cloud imagery. Global images from GOES satellites are shown to give context. The visualization provides better understanding of the interior of the hurricane storm clouds, which is difficult to observe directly. The automated process creates the finished animation in the High Definition (HD) video format for quick release to the media and public.

  16. CloudSat Image of Tropical Thunderstorms Over Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1

    CloudSat image of a horizontal cross-section of tropical clouds and thunderstorms over east Africa. The red colors are indicative of highly reflective particles such as water (rain) or ice crystals, which the blue indicates thinner clouds (such as cirrus). The flat green/blue lines across the bottom represent the ground signal. The vertical scale on the CloudS at Cloud Profiling Radar image is approximately 30 kilometers (19 miles). The brown line below the image indicates the relative elevation of the land surface. The inset image shows the CloudSat track relative to a Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) visible image taken at nearly the same time.

  17. CubeSats to Explore Volatiles in Comets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hewagama, T.; Aslam, S.; Châteauneuf, F.; Clark, P.; Folta, D.; Feaga, L.; Gorius, N.; Hurford, T.; Keidar, M.; Livengood, T.; Malphrus, B.; Mumma, M.; Nixon, C.; Villanueva, G.

    2015-10-01

    Close approach comets (<0.4 AU to Earth) are accessible to CubeSat and NanoSat missions that can return unique data not obtainable from ground-based telescopes. Primitive bodies such as comets are key to understanding Solar System formation. A low-risk, versatile, multispectral camera with integrated filters in a 6U spacecraft bus is capable of high spatial resolution mapping of the four primary volatile species CO2, H2O, CO, and organics. Simultaneous mmapping of these bands and two thermal channels will enable studying the dynamical activity of the nucleus. Assuming deployment from a launch platform above the Earth's gravity well, we find intercept trajectories using current propulsion systems.

  18. Rotary Percussive Sample Acquisition Tool (SAT): Hardware Development and Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klein, Kerry; Badescu, Mircea; Haddad, Nicolas; Shiraishi, Lori; Walkemeyer, Phillip

    2012-01-01

    In support of a potential Mars Sample Return (MSR) mission an Integrated Mars Sample Acquisition and Handling (IMSAH) architecture has been proposed to provide a means for Rover-based end-to-end sample capture and caching. A key enabling feature of the architecture is the use of a low mass sample Acquisition Tool (SAT) that is capable of drilling and capturing rock cores directly within a sample tube in order to maintain sample integrity and prevent contamination across the sample chain. As such, this paper will describe the development and testing of a low mass rotary percussive SAT that has been shown to provide a means for core generation, fracture, and capture.

  19. Max 2-SAT with up to 108 qubits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santra, Siddhartha; Quiroz, Gregory; Ver Steeg, Greg; Lidar, Daniel A.

    2014-04-01

    We experimentally study the performance of a programmable quantum annealing processor, the D-Wave One (DW1) with up to 108 qubits, on maximum SAT problem with 2 variables per clause (MAX 2-SAT) problems. We consider ensembles of random problems characterized by a fixed clause density, an external parameter which we tune through its critical value in our experiments. We demonstrate that the DW1 is sensitive to the critical value of the clause density. The DW1 results are verified and compared with akmaxsat, an exact, state-of-the-art algorithm. We study the relative performance of the two solvers and how they correlate in terms of problem hardness. We find that the DW1 performance scales more favorably with problem size and that problem hardness correlation is essentially non-existent. We discuss the relevance and limitations of such a comparison.

  20. UoSAT: A decade of experience pioneering microsatellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radbone, J. M.; Sweeting, M. N.

    1993-01-01

    Two satellites constructed as examples of low cost missions are examined and the technical and management techniques employed are described. Following first UoSAT missions, KITSAT-A is an experimental mission, S80/T a demonstration mission to evaluate the use of VHF frequencies for future low Earth orbit systems and CERISE, a modified microsatellite platform, will carry a classified payload. All these satellites are based on UoSAT-5 platform. Key technical and management issues for successful microsatellite missions are reviewed: simple interfaces, flexible design, control of requirements and modularity, quality and product assurance for the technical aspect, contract conditions, project length, efficient communications, integrated and co-located team, flexibility of organization and personnel for the management conditions.

  1. Soft X-Ray Polarimetry with a CubeSat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaaret, Philip

    2016-07-01

    We describe an instrument capable of measuring the polarization of astrophysical sources in soft X-rays that can be accomplished at modest cost by exploiting CubeSats as novel vehicles for high energy astrophysics. The instrument would re-use technologies that will be demonstrated on the HaloSat cubesat that is currently under construction. Potential target include thermally-emitting isolated neutron stars and blazars. Measurement of the polarization of X-rays emitted from the surface of a highly magnetized neutron star provides a means to test a unique signature of strong-field quantum electrodynamics and probe the neutron star magnetic field and X-ray emission geometry. Polarization measurements of blazars should strongly constrain jet emission models.

  2. Microparticle impact detector experiment on MightySat I

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serna, Patrick J.; Liechty, Gary H.; Neslen, Craig L.; del Frate, Renzo; Draper, Edwin

    1997-10-01

    The purpose of this report is to present the engineering design of a spaceborne micro particle impact detector (MPID) experiment. This experiment is manifested on a Phillips Laboratory spacecraft called MightySat I scheduled for launch in July 1998. A follow-on report will present the resulting particle impact data. The objective of this experiment is to measure direction and time of impact of spaceborne micron size particles with time of impact resolution of 0.1 seconds. The primary element in this experiment consists of two metal- oxide-semiconductor (MOS) discharge capacitor detectors that discharge upon hypervelocity particle impact. The detectors were developed by Prof. J. J. Wortman from North Carolina State University. Each MOS particle detector is 3 in by 1-1/2 in and approximately 0.013 in thick. Each particle detector is bonded to a detector assembly that is in turn mechanically fastened to the external bottom plate of the MightySat I spacecraft. The detector assembly and associated electronics weigh less than 0.4 lb and have a total impact detection area of 3.7 in(superscript 2). Each particle impact causes an impact event record to be stored in the spacecraft control unit for later downlink. Each impact event record will store time of impact and output from two coarse sun sensors. Data from the coarse sun sensors is used to help determine attitude of the spacecraft. The Phillips Laboratory MightySat I spacecraft, developed largely by CTA Space Systems in McLean, Virginia, designed for ejection from the Space Shuttle is a 6-sided composite structure, 20.5 in (height) by 19.0 in (diameter), 150 lb., and spin stabilized with 5 degree attitude knowledge. The MightySat I spacecraft is scheduled for orbit injection using a standard hitchhiker ejection system from space shuttle flight STS-88. (Ref. 1)

  3. Onboard autonomy on the Three Corner Sat mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chien, S. A.; Sherwood, R.

    2002-01-01

    In 2003, the student-built three satellite constellation Three Corner Sat (3CS) Mission will demonstrate onboard autonomy including: science data validation and prioritization, mission re-planning, and robust execution. Future observations will be planned onboard based on the quality of aquired science, available memory and power, and anticipated downlinks. These capabilities will allow 3CS to aquire additional science data if resources are available and to return only the highest quality science data.

  4. Maker of SAT Aims New Test at 8th Graders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cech, Scott J.

    2008-01-01

    Officials at the New York City-based College Board last week rolled out their newest product: ReadiStep. No, it is not a new piece of exercise equipment or a whipped dessert topping--it is a test for 8th graders that some critics are calling a pre-PSAT, referring to the Preliminary SAT assessment taken by 9th and 10th graders and owned by the…

  5. A quantum differentiation of k-SAT instances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamir, B.; Ortiz, G.

    2010-07-01

    We present a quantum adiabatic algorithm to differentiate between k-SAT instances, those with no solutions and those that have many solutions. The time complexity of the algorithm is a function of the energy gap between the subspace of all 0-eigenvectors (ground states) and the first excited states manifold, and scales polynomially with the number of resources. The idea of gaps between subspaces suggests a new tool to analyze time complexity in adiabatic quantum machines.

  6. Quantum algorithm for SAT problem andquantum mutual entropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohya, Masanori

    2005-02-01

    It is von Neumann who opened the window for today's information epoch. He definedquantum entropy including Shannon's information more than 20 years ahead of Shannon, and he explained what computation means mathematically. In this paper I discuss two problems studied recently by me and my coworkers. One of them concerns a quantum algorithm in a generalized sense solving the SAT problem (one of NP complete problems) and another concerns quantum mutual entropy properly describing quantum communication processes.

  7. Dellingr- A Path to Compelling Science with CubeSats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, M.; Bonalsky, T.; Chornay, D.; Clagett, C.; Cudmore, A.; Ericsson, A.; Hesh, S.; Jones, S.; Kepko, L.; Rodriguez, J.; Sittler, E.; Starin, S.; Santos, L.; Sheikh, S.; Uribe, P.; Zesta, E.

    2015-10-01

    Advancements in the capabilities of miniaturized systems are dramatically increasing interest in achieving science from CubeSats. The Dellingr project targets this interest. It will realize compelling science from a 6U spacecraft while developing human and spacecraft systems required to cost-efficiently deliver small satellites capable of reliably achieving mission objectives in divers environments—from low earth orbit to challenging radiation and thermal environments associated with lunar and planetary missions.

  8. 21 CFR 26.79 - Territorial application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Territorial application. 26.79 Section 26.79 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL MUTUAL RECOGNITION OF PHARMACEUTICAL GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE REPORTS, MEDICAL DEVICE QUALITY SYSTEM AUDIT...

  9. 21 CFR 26.79 - Territorial application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Territorial application. 26.79 Section 26.79 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL MUTUAL RECOGNITION OF PHARMACEUTICAL GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE REPORTS, MEDICAL DEVICE QUALITY SYSTEM AUDIT...

  10. Probabilistic Simulation of Territorial Seismic Scenarios

    SciTech Connect

    Baratta, Alessandro; Corbi, Ileana

    2008-07-08

    The paper is focused on a stochastic process for the prevision of seismic scenarios on the territory and developed by means of some basic assumptions in the procedure and by elaborating the fundamental parameters recorded during some ground motions occurred in a seismic area.

  11. The Northwest Territories. Reference Series No. 35.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of External Affairs, Ottawa (Ontario).

    This booklet, one of a series featuring the Canadian provinces, presents a brief overview of Northwest Territories and is suitable for teacher reference or student reading. Separate sections discuss geography, history and people, land claims, the economy, the government, and recreation and the arts. Specific topics include the expansive size and…

  12. Paleozoic oil in Uzbekistan and adjacent territories

    SciTech Connect

    Ryzhkov, O.A.; Khaimov, R.N.; Vitchinkin, M.M.; Zuev, Yu.N.

    1983-01-01

    Direct evidence of the presence of oil in the region is characteristically widespread within a broad stratigraphic span as well as territorially. This Paleozoic oil is of the naphthene aromatic type, in contrast with the Mesozoic and Tertiary oils of Uzbekistan, suggesting a justifiable hypothesis of an independent Paleozoic cycle of oleogenesis involving accumulation of hydrocarbons.

  13. Gaming and Territorial Negotiations in Family Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aarsand, Pal Andre; Aronsson, Karin

    2009-01-01

    This article examines territorial negotiations concerning gaming, drawing on video recordings of gaming practices in middle-class families. It explores how private vs public gaming space was co-construed by children and parents in front of the screen as well as through conversations about games. Game equipment was generally located in public…

  14. Child Homicide on the Territory of Belgrade

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baralic, Ivanka; Savic, Slobodan; Alempijevic, Djordje M.; Jecmenica, Dragan S.; Sbutega-Milosevic, Gorica; Obradovic, Miroljub

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This study examines the incidence and other epidemiological and medico-legal characteristics of child homicide in the territory of Belgrade, Republic of Serbia. Methods: We performed a retrospective analysis of all autopsies carried out at the Institute of Forensic Medicine in Belgrade during a 15 year period between 1991 and 2005,…

  15. 27 CFR 646.142 - Territorial extent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Territorial extent. 646.142 Section 646.142 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO, FIREARMS, AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE MISCELLANEOUS REGULATIONS RELATING TO ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO...

  16. 27 CFR 646.142 - Territorial extent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Territorial extent. 646.142 Section 646.142 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO, FIREARMS, AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE MISCELLANEOUS REGULATIONS RELATING TO ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO...

  17. Area Handbook for the Indian Ocean Territories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoddard, Theodore L.; And Others

    This volume, one of a series of handbooks on foreign culture, is intended as a reference tool for military and other personnel requiring an objective, comprehensive, and balanced description of the Indian Ocean Territories, namely, the two republics of Meldives and Mauritius, and the two European dependencies of Seychelles and Reunion. An…

  18. Politics, Global Territories and Educational Spaces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buenfil-Burgos, Rosa Nidia

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, the author argues that the problematization of territorial movements in the process of globalization can provide important insights to understand some educational aspects of contemporary migration, especially if the theoretical ingredients involved in the political analysis of the signifying dimension of this process are articulated…

  19. [Backup territorial coordination, nursing roles and skills].

    PubMed

    Benyahia, Amina; Abraham, Éliane

    2016-06-01

    Backup territorial coordination provides accompaniment and support for professionals who work with the fragile elderly people in an area. It aligns the sanitary, medical-social and social approaches, and mobilizes useful resources to optimize the treatment pathway. It has been implemented in the Nancy urban area by an operational team including nurses and a geriatric physician. PMID:27338688

  20. Vocational Training and the Territorial Context.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vocational Training, 1993

    1993-01-01

    This document contains nine articles about vocational training (VT) policy and the impact of decentralization and issues of territory on VT in the European Community (EC) member states. The following articles are included: "Vocational Training and Regional Policies: The Same Challenge..." (Landaburu); "Vocational Training in a Regional Europe:…

  1. Aspects of Territorial Inequality in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryba, Raymond

    1976-01-01

    Draws attention to two territorial aspects of educational inequality and considers the implications which studying them helps to highlight. The two aspects are: (1) the high degree of success which researchers have experienced in dealing with educational phenomena in this way; (2) the fact that these inequalities prevail from the international to…

  2. The e-st@r CubeSat: Antennas system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fanchini, G.; Gagliostro, D.

    2011-12-01

    In this paper the design of a deployable antenna system for CubeSats is proposed. Its manufacturing and test for the use on e-st@r CubeSat (developed at Politecnico di Torino by students' team of the Aerospace Engineering Courses) is then reported. The design procedure is based on analyzing the CubeSat standard and defining the physical and geometrical constraints, both for a general Cubesat and the particular case of e-st@r, multiple possible configurations are analyzed and compared to define the most suitable one. The use of Components Off-The-Shelf (COTS) materials is considered for the manufacturing of all parts of the system and utilized if acceptable. The lock system can be seen as one of the critical points of the system because it has to ensure that the antenna will not open during launch, but also that it opens when in orbit, so an optimization of already existing lock systems is pursued. We considered a two fault tolerant system to have an acceptable level of confidence. Briefly the manufacturing of all parts and the tests campaign of the assembled system is then proposed with some conclusive considerations on the environmental impact of the system.

  3. LAICE CubeSat mission for gravity wave studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Westerhoff, John; Earle, Gregory; Bishop, Rebecca; Swenson, Gary R.; Vadas, Sharon; Clemmons, James; Davidson, Ryan; Fanelli, Lucy; Fish, Chad; Garg, Vidur; Ghosh, Alex; Jagannatha, Bindu B.; Kroeker, Erik; Marquis, Peter; Martin, Daniel; Noel, Stephen; Orr, Cameron; Robertson, Robert

    2015-10-01

    The Lower Atmosphere/Ionosphere Coupling Experiment (LAICE) CubeSat mission will focus on understanding the interaction of atmospheric gravity waves generated by weather systems in the lower atmosphere with the mesosphere, lower thermosphere, and ionosphere (MLTI). Specifically, LAICE will focus on the energy and momentum delivered by these waves and attempt to connect the wave sources and the wave effects in three widely different altitude ranges, substantially adding to our knowledge of critical coupling processes between disparate atmospheric regions. The LAICE mission consists of a 6U CubeSat with a four-instrument payload. The retarding potential analyzer (RPA) will provide in-situ ion density and temperature measurements. A four-channel photometer will measure density and temperature variations in the mesosphere through observations of O2 (0, 0) Atmospheric band and O2 Herzberg I band airglows. There are two pressure sensors that comprise the Space Pressure Suite (SPS): the Space Neutral Pressure Instrument (SNeuPI) and the LAICE Ionization gauge Neutral Atmosphere Sensor (LINAS). Both will provide neutral density measurements, but SNeuPI is a prototype sensor that will be validated by LINAS. This CubeSat mission, scheduled for launch in early 2016 from the International Space Station, provides a cost-effective approach to measuring low altitude in-situ parameters along with simultaneous imaging that is capable of addressing the fundamental questions of atmospheric gravity wave coupling in the MLTI region.

  4. MitoSatPlant: mitochondrial microsatellites database of viridiplantae.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Manjeet; Kapil, Aditi; Shanker, Asheesh

    2014-11-01

    Microsatellites also known as simple sequence repeats (SSRs) consist of 1-6 nucleotide long repeating units. The importance of mitochondrial SSRs (mtSSRs) in fields like population genetics, plant phylogenetics and genome mapping motivated us to develop MitoSatPlant, a repository of plant mtSSRs. It contains information for perfect, imperfect and compound SSRs mined from 92 mitochondrial genomes of green plants, available at NCBI (as of 1 Feb 2014). A total of 72,798 SSRs were found, of which PCR primers were designed for 72,495 SSRs. Among all sequences, tetranucleotide repeats (26,802) were found to be most abundant whereas hexanucleotide repeats (2751) were detected with least frequency. MitoSatPlant was developed using SQL server 2008 and can be accessed through a front end designed in ASP.Net. It is an easy to use, user-friendly database and will prove to be a useful resource for plant scientists. To the best of our knowledge MitoSatPlant is the only database available for plant mtSSRs and can be freely accessed at http://compubio.in/mitosatplant/. PMID:24561221

  5. iSat Surface Charging and Thruster Plume Interactions Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, L. Neergaard; Willis, E. M.; Minow, J. I.

    2016-01-01

    Characterizing the electromagnetic interaction of a satellite in low Earth, high inclination orbit with the space plasma environment and identifying viable charging mitigation strategies is a critical mission design task. High inclination orbits expose the vehicle to auroral charging environments that can potentially charge surfaces to kilovolt potentials and electric thruster propulsion systems will interact with the ambient plasma environment throughout the orbit. NASA is designing the Iodine Satellite (iSAT) cubesat mission to demonstrate operations of an iodine electric thruster system. The spacecraft will be deployed as a secondary payload from a launch vehicle which has not yet been identified so the program must plan for the worst case environments over a range of orbital inclinations. We will first present results from a NASA and Air Force Charging Analyzer Program (Nascap) -2k surface charging calculation used to evaluate the effects of auroral charging on the spacecraft and to provide the charging levels at other locations in orbit for a thruster plume interaction analysis for the iSAT mission. We will then discuss results from the thruster interactions analysis using the Electric Propulsion Interactions Code (EPIC) with inputs from Nascap-2k. The results of these analyses are being used by the iSAT program to better understand how their spacecraft will interact with the space plasma environment in the range of environments that could be encountered when the final mission orbit is selected.

  6. The natural satellites ephemerides facility MULTI-SAT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emel'Yanov, N. V.; Arlot, J.-E.

    2008-08-01

    Context: There is a need in some research facilities for deriving ephemerides, controlling observations, verifying various models of motion, and calculating the coordinates in space of natural planetary satellites. Aims: The goal of our work is to elaborate the ephemerides of all natural satellites based upon all observations available to date and readily accessible for any user via the Internet. Methods: For all outer planetary satellites, original numerical models of motion are used that are based on all published observations. For other satellites, the theoretical models of the motion are taken from publications that are as recent as possible. Complete collection of the theories and models of motion is realized as a software for the ephemerides of natural satellites available on the web pages of the so-called server MULTI-SAT. Results: A new facility for producing ephemerides of all natural satellites of planets (except the Moon) has been created at IMCCE and SAI. Special features of the ephemerides are realized, such as predicting the phenomena and providing configurations useful for the observers. The server MULTI-SAT is accessible through the Internet. The URL addresses are http://www.imcce.fr/sat (English and French versions at IMCCE) and http://www.sai.msu.ru/neb/nss/index.htm (English, French, and Russian versions at SAI). This paper includes a complete review of the most precise theories of motion of all natural satellites that we used and an analysis of the precision of the proposed ephemerides.

  7. Generation of Minimum-Consistent DFA Using SAT Solver

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inui, Nobuo; Aizawa, Akiko

    The purpose of this study is to develop efficient methods for the minimum-consistent DFA (deterministic finite state automaton) problem. The graph-coloring based SAT (satisfiability) approach proposed by Heule is a state of the art method for this problem. It specially achieves high performance computing in dense problems such as in a popular benchmark problem where rich information about labels is included. In contrast, to solve sparse problems is a challenge for the minimum-consistent DFA problem. To solve sparse problems, we propose three approaches to the SAT formulation: a) the binary color representation, b) the dynamic symmetry breaking and c) the hyper-graph coloring constraint. We organized an experiment using the existing benchmark problems and sparse problems made from them. We observed that our symmetry breaking constraints made the speed up the running time of SAT solver. In addition with this, our other proposed methods were showing the possibility to improve the performance. Then we simulated the perfomance of our methods under the condition that we executed the several program set-ups in parallel. Compared with the previous research results, we finally could reduce the average relative time by 66.5% and the total relative time by 7.6% for sparse problems and by 79.7% and 38.5% for dense problems, respectively. These results showed that our proposed methods were effective for difficult problems.

  8. The FedSat Experience: An Australian Research Satellite Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fraser, B. J.

    In December 2002 FedSat, Australia's first satellite mission in thirty years, was launched from the Tanegashima Space Centre on the H11A-F4 rocket as a secondary payload. FedSat carries a complement of four scientific and engineering payloads in a near-circular sun synchronous 10:30 LT polar orbit at an altitude 800 km and an inclination of 98.7. Scientific experiments include a triaxial fluxgate magnetometer with a frequency response up to 100 Hz and a GPS receiver to monitor total electron content (TEC) and provide a precise orbit determination. A star camera provides precise attitude information. Communications experiments include a Ka-band transponder and a UHF packet data service. A high performance computer payload is testing reconfigurable computing technology. This paper will outline the design and development of FedSat commencing in 1998, and the unique funding situation under which the satellite and some of the payloads were successfully fabricated tested and launched.

  9. The ecological and evolutionary stability of interspecific territoriality.

    PubMed

    Losin, Neil; Drury, Jonathan P; Peiman, Kathryn S; Storch, Chaya; Grether, Gregory F

    2016-03-01

    Interspecific territoriality may play an important role in structuring ecological communities, but the causes of this widespread form of interference competition remain poorly understood. Here, we investigate the phenotypic, ecological and phylogenetic correlates of interspecific territoriality in wood warblers (Parulidae). Interspecifically territorial species have more recent common ancestors and are more similar phenotypically, and are more likely to hybridise, than sympatric, non-interspecifically territorial species. After phylogenetic corrections, however, similarity in plumage and territorial song are the only significant predictors of interspecific territoriality besides syntopy (fine-scale geographic overlap). Our results do not support the long-standing hypothesis that interspecific territoriality occurs only under circumstances in which niche divergence is restricted, which combined with the high incidence of interspecific territoriality in wood warblers (39% of species), suggests that this interspecific interaction is more stable, ecologically and evolutionarily, than commonly assumed. PMID:26757047

  10. Arctic and Antarctic Sea-Ice Freeboard and Thickness Retrievals from CryoSat-2 and EnviSat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ricker, Robert; Hendricks, Stefan; Schwegmann, Sandra; Helm, Veit; Rinne, Eero

    2016-04-01

    The CryoSat-2 satellite is now in the 6th year of data acquisition. With its synthetic aperture radar altimeter, CryoSat-2 achieves great improvements in the along track resolution compared to previous radar altimeter missions like ERS or Envisat. The latitudinal coverage contains major parts of the Arctic marine ice fields where previous missions left a big data gap around the North Pole and especially over the multiyear ice zone north of Greenland. With this unique data set, changes in sea-ice thickness can be investigated in the context of the rapid reduction of the Arctic sea-ice cover which has been observed during the last decades. We present the current state of the CryoSat-2 Arctic sea-ice thickness retrieval that is processed at the Alfred Wegener Institute and available via seaiceportal.de (originally: meereisportal.de). Though biases in sea-ice thickness may occur due to the interpretation of waveforms, airborne and ground-based validation measurements give confidence that the retrieval algorithm enables us to capture the actual distributions of sea-ice regimes. Nevertheless, long time series of data retrievals are essential to estimate trends in sea-ice thickness and volume. Today, more than 20 years of radar altimeter data are potentially available and capable to derive sea ice thickness. However, data originate from satellites with different sensor characteristics. Therefore, it is crucial to study the consistency between single sensors to derive long and consistent time series. We present results from the tested consistency between Antarctic freeboard measurements of the radar altimeters on-board of Envisat and CryoSat-2 for their overlap period in 2011.

  11. Achieving Science Goals with CubeSats: a Study by the National Academies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zurbuchen, T.; Sheffer, A.

    2015-12-01

    We will discuss an ongoing study by the National Academies' Space Studies Board focused on CubeSats, and in particular their scientific potential and technological promise. Through this study, several US agencies seek inputs on the current status of CubeSat programs in government, academic and industrial sectors. The study will also make recommendations about additional investments that are needed to further increase the value of CubeSats to the science community. Furthermore, the committee will provide sample priority science goals that describe near-term opportunities, such as providing continuity of key measurements to mitigate potential gaps in measurements of key parameters- and that can be accomplished given the current state of CubeSat capabilities. We will summarize some data in the public domain about CubeSats our study is based on, and also focus on some selected science opportunities that can be addressed by CubeSats and which are part of Decadal Survey priorities.

  12. Florida Tech CubeSat Experiment Feasibility Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arrasmith, William W.; Bucaille, Stephane; Rusovici, Razvan; Platt, Don; Guidry, Todd; Bandar, Deepika; Coots, Everett; Davidson, Russ

    2010-01-01

    CubeSats are a relatively new type of satellite. Smaller than long-term (5+ year life expectancy) satellites, these pico-satellites are comparatively cheap, small (10x10x10 cm), and are very versatile. Universities world-wide are using CubeSats to conduct a variety of experiments in space without the need for a large experimental platform. Today CubeSats are considered to be one of the most effective ways to send a small payload into space and has attracted the attention of many educational and non-profit organizations. As this pico-satellite model continues to gain penetration into the satellite build and launch industry, it is expected that more governmental, educational, and commercial interests will emerge. As an example, more of the space-related items of high interest to the National Science Foundation may be tackled with a CubeSat platform resulting in lower life cycle costs than traditional satellite options. NASA LSP, in cooperation with the Florida Institute of Technology, has initiated a feasibility study to investigate the technical aspects of measuring and transferring vibration, acceleration, temperature, and video data from a CubeSat to NASA Hanger AE on Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS) a.k.a. Kennedy Space Center (KSC). This report provides a technical feasibility analysis to determine whether-or-not a specific set of NASA/LSP requirements can be accomplished. Our approach has been to provide a "notional" component layout to determine the feasibility of the NASA/LSP stakeholder requirements. The notional layout is used to consider component level technical issues such as size, weight, & power (SWaP), bandwidth, and other critical technical parameters. Even though the notional components may satisfy the stated requirements and thereby demonstrate feasibility, the notional layout is NOT considered a design since no component optimization and design trade-off analysis has taken place. This activity should be accomplished in an appropriate

  13. Chinese Carbon Dioxide Satellite (TanSat) Status and Plans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Y.; Duan, M.; cai, Z.; Yang, D.; Lu, D.; Yin, Z.; Zheng, Y.; Yan, C.; Yang, Z.

    2012-12-01

    The Chinese carbon dioxide observation satellite (TanSat) project is the national high technology research and development program. It is funded by the ministry of science and technology of the people's republic of China and the Chinese Academy of Sciences. The TanSat will be launched in 2015, which is going to monitor the carbon dioxide in Sun-Synchronous orbit. The object of TanSat is to monitor XCO2 from space with precision of 1~4ppm. Two instruments will be onboard the TanSat, the main instrument is a high resolution grating spectrometer that measure reflected sunlight with the 0.76 μm O2 A-band and two CO2 bands at 1.61 and 2.06 μm, an airborne prototype of main instrument will be built and tested in the aircraft experiment. The second instrument is the Cloud and Aerosol Polarization Imager (CAPI), which is a wide field of view moderate resolution imaging spectrometer, it include 0.38, 0.67, 0.87, 1.375 and 1.64μm channels, with two polarization channels in 0.67μm and 1.64μm. A full physical optimal estimation method has being developed to retrieve the column-averaged CO2 dry air mole fraction (XCO2), and the data from CAPI will be used to correct cloud and aerosol interference. Currrently, the GOSAT data have been applied in the XCO2 retrieval system and reasonable results have been obtained. Global and regional surface CO2 flux will be derived from XCO2 observations with inverse modeling. Ground based validation stations are being established around China to observe CO2, Aerosol and Cloud. The CO2 observation consist of 3 Bruker IFS125 and 3 Optical Spectrum Analyzer over Beijing, Shenzhen, Shangdong, Inner Mongol, and Hainan Island, etc. Four phases of TanSat development is scheduled: design phase from Jan. 2011 to Aug. 2012, initial prototypes phase from Sept. 2012 to Sept. 2013, final prototypes phase from Oct. 2013 to Oct. 2014, launching and on-board testing phase from Nov. 2014 to June 2015.

  14. Pseudo LRM waveforms from CryoSat SARin acquisition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scagliola, Michele; Fornari, Marco; Bouffard, Jerome; Parrinello, Tommaso; Féménias, Pierre

    2016-04-01

    CryoSat was launched on the 8th April 2010 and is the first European ice mission dedicated to the monitoring of precise changes in the thickness of polar ice sheets and floating sea ice. The main payload of CryoSat is a Ku-band pulsewidth limited radar altimeter, called SIRAL (Synthetic interferometric radar altimeter). When commanded in SARIn (synthetic aperture radar interferometry) mode, through coherent along-track processing of the returns received from two antennas, the interferometric phase related to the first arrival of the echo is used to retrieve the angle of arrival of the scattering in the across-track direction. When SIRAL operates in SAR or SARin mode, the obtained waveforms have an along-track resolution and a speckle reduction which is increased with respect to the pulse-limited waveforms. Anyway, in order to analyze the continuity of the geophysical retrieved parameters among different acquisition modes, techniques to transform SARin mode data to pseudo-LRM mode data are welcome. The transformation process is known as SAR reduction and it is worth recalling here that only approximate pseudo-LRM waveforms can be obtained in case of closed burst acquisitions, as SIRAL operates. A SAR reduction processing scheme has been developed to obtain pseudo-LRM waveforms from CryoSat SARin acquisition. As a trade-off between the along-track length on Earth surface contributing to one SARin pseudo-LRM waveform and the noisiness of the waveform itself, it has been chosen a SAR reduction approach based on the averaging of all the SARin echoes received each 20Hz, resulting in one pseudo-LRM waveform for each SARin burst given the SARin burst repetition period. SARin pseudo-LRM waveforms have been produced for CryoSat acquisition both on ice and sea surfaces, aiming at verifying the continuity of the retracked surface height over the ellipsoid between genuine LRM products and pseudo-LRM products. Moreover, the retracked height from the SARin pseudo-LRM has been

  15. CryoSat-2: A new perspective on the Cryosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shepherd, A.; Armitage, T.; Briggs, K.; Flament, T.; Hogg, A. E.; McMillan, M.; Muir, A.; Ridout, A.; Sundal, A.; Tilling, R.; Wingham, D.

    2014-12-01

    CryoSat-2 is ESA's first satellite mission dedicated to measuring changes in the polar land ice and sea ice cover. Following its launch in April 2010, we have examined the performance of the instrument over the continental ice sheets of Antarctica and Greenland, the Artic Ocean, and, for the purposes of calibration, over the oceans. We have confirmed the engineering performance at system level of the interferometer demonstrating that it measures across-track surface slopes with a precision of 25 micro-radians and an accuracy of 10 micro-radians, greatly exceeding the pre-launch specifications (100 micro-radians). Over the polar ice sheets, we have examined the performance of the range estimation, and determined the range precision to be 19 cm RMS at 20 Hz. We have examined the retrieval of the phase information over the ice sheets, and found the phase estimates to be robust and little affected by the uncertain ice sheet topography. Based on the calibration of the interferometer, the contribution of the across track slope error is, at 0.4 mm, negligible. Over marine sea ice, we have verified the discrimination of sea ice and ocean lead returns using contemporaneous SAR imagery from ENVISAT, and we have estimated the precision of individual (20 Hz) measurements to be 2 cm. In summary, with the corrected data products, we are able to confirm that the system performance of CryoSat-2 will meet or exceed its specification over the continental and marine ice sheets. This presenetation sumamrises the key outcomes of the mission performance, and presents a series of example case studies where CryoSat-2 data have been applied to study changes in Earth's land and sea ice cover. We show that in 4 years CryoSat has been able to detect changes in the mass of the Antarctic and Greenland ice sheets with an accuracy comparable to that of the past 20 years of conventional satellite altimetry and that important changes have occured in these regions, we show that CryoSat has been able

  16. A review of planetary and space science projects presented at iCubeSat, the Interplanetary CubeSat Workshop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Michael

    2015-04-01

    iCubeSat, the Interplanetary CubeSat Workshop, is an annual technical workshop for researchers working on an exciting new standardised platform and opportunity for planetary and space scientists. The first workshop was held in 2012 at MIT, 2013 at Cornell, 2014 at Caltech with the 2015 workshop scheduled to take place on the 26-27th May 2015 at Imperial College London. Mission concepts and flight projects presented since 2012 have included orbiters and landers targeting asteroids, the moon, Mars, Venus, Saturn and their satellites to perform science traditionally reserved for flagship missions at a fraction of their cost. Some of the first missions proposed are currently being readied for flight in Europe, taking advantage of multiple ride share launch opportunities and technology providers. A review of these and other interplanetary CubeSat projects will be presented, covering details of their science objectives, instrument capabilities, technology, team composition, budget, funding sources, and the other programattic elements required to implement this potentially revolutionary new class of mission.

  17. Phosphorylation of bamboo mosaic virus satellite RNA (satBaMV)-encoded protein P20 downregulates the formation of satBaMV-P20 ribonucleoprotein complex.

    PubMed

    Vijayapalani, Paramasivan; Chen, Jeff Chien-Fu; Liou, Ming-Ru; Chen, Hsin-Chuan; Hsu, Yau-Heiu; Lin, Na-Sheng

    2012-01-01

    Bamboo mosaic virus (BaMV) satellite RNA (satBaMV) depends on BaMV for its replication and encapsidation. SatBaMV-encoded P20 protein is an RNA-binding protein that facilitates satBaMV systemic movement in co-infected plants. Here, we examined phosphorylation of P20 and its regulatory functions. Recombinant P20 (rP20) was phosphorylated by host cellular kinase(s) in vitro, and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry and mutational analyses revealed Ser-11 as the phosphorylation site. The phosphor-mimic rP20 protein interactions with satBaMV-translated mutant P20 were affected. In overlay assay, the Asp mutation at S11 (S11D) completely abolished the self-interaction of rP20 and significantly inhibited the interaction with both the WT and S11A rP20. In chemical cross-linking assays, S11D failed to oligomerize. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay and subsequent Hill transformation analysis revealed a low affinity of the phospho-mimicking rP20 for satBaMV RNA. Substantial modulation of satBaMV RNA conformation upon interaction with nonphospho-mimic rP20 in circular dichroism analysis indicated formation of stable satBaMV ribonucleoprotein complexes. The dissimilar satBaMV translation regulation of the nonphospho- and phospho-mimic rP20 suggests that phosphorylation of P20 in the ribonucleoprotein complex converts the translation-incompetent satBaMV RNA to messenger RNA. The phospho-deficient or phospho-mimicking P20 mutant of satBaMV delayed the systemic spread of satBaMV in co-infected Nicotiana benthamiana with BaMV. Thus, satBaMV likely regulates the formation of satBaMV RNP complex during co-infection in planta. PMID:21965537

  18. The Territorial Sea: Prospects for the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Littleton, Richard K.

    The history of the territorial sea and legislative practices associated with its boundaries are examined in this study. The survey includes information related to: (l) the history of territorial zones (tracing evolutionary development and impacts); (2) United States practices (examining the purpose of authority asserted in the territorial sea);…

  19. 12 CFR 616.6200 - Out-of-territory leasing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Out-of-territory leasing. 616.6200 Section 616.6200 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM LEASING § 616.6200 Out-of-territory leasing. A System institution may make leases outside its chartered territory....

  20. Negotiation of territorial boundaries in a songbird.

    PubMed

    Vehrencamp, Sandra L; Ellis, Jesse M; Cropp, Brett F; Koltz, John M

    2014-11-01

    How do territorial neighbors resolve the location of their boundaries? We addressed this question by testing the predictions of 2 nonexclusive game theoretical models for competitive signaling: the sequential assessment game and the territorial bargaining game. Our study species, the banded wren, is a neotropical nonmigratory songbird living in densely packed territorial neighborhoods. The males possess repertoires of approximately 25 song types that are largely shared between neighbors and sequentially delivered with variable switching rates. Over 3 days, boundary disputes among pairs of neighboring males were synchronously recorded, their perch positions were marked, and their behavioral interactions were noted. For each countersinging interaction between 2 focal males, we quantified approach and retreat order, a variety of song and call patterns, closest approach distance, distance from the territorial center, and female presence. Aggressors produced more rattle-buzz songs during the approaching phase of interactions, whereas defenders overlapped their opponent's songs. During the close phase of the interaction, both males matched frequently, but the key determinant of which one retreated first was song-type diversity-first retreaters sang with a higher diversity. Retreaters also produced more unshared song types during the interaction, and in the retreating phase of the interaction, they overlapped more. A negative correlation between song-type diversity asymmetry and contest duration suggested sequential assessment of motivational asymmetry. The use of this graded signal, which varied with distance from the center and indicated a male's motivation to defend a particular position, supported the bargaining model. The bargaining game could be viewed as a series of sequential assessment contests. PMID:25419086

  1. Negotiation of territorial boundaries in a songbird

    PubMed Central

    Ellis, Jesse M.; Cropp, Brett F.; Koltz, John M.

    2014-01-01

    How do territorial neighbors resolve the location of their boundaries? We addressed this question by testing the predictions of 2 nonexclusive game theoretical models for competitive signaling: the sequential assessment game and the territorial bargaining game. Our study species, the banded wren, is a neotropical nonmigratory songbird living in densely packed territorial neighborhoods. The males possess repertoires of approximately 25 song types that are largely shared between neighbors and sequentially delivered with variable switching rates. Over 3 days, boundary disputes among pairs of neighboring males were synchronously recorded, their perch positions were marked, and their behavioral interactions were noted. For each countersinging interaction between 2 focal males, we quantified approach and retreat order, a variety of song and call patterns, closest approach distance, distance from the territorial center, and female presence. Aggressors produced more rattle-buzz songs during the approaching phase of interactions, whereas defenders overlapped their opponent’s songs. During the close phase of the interaction, both males matched frequently, but the key determinant of which one retreated first was song-type diversity—first retreaters sang with a higher diversity. Retreaters also produced more unshared song types during the interaction, and in the retreating phase of the interaction, they overlapped more. A negative correlation between song-type diversity asymmetry and contest duration suggested sequential assessment of motivational asymmetry. The use of this graded signal, which varied with distance from the center and indicated a male’s motivation to defend a particular position, supported the bargaining model. The bargaining game could be viewed as a series of sequential assessment contests. PMID:25419086

  2. Territorial behavior in Taiwanese kukrisnakes (Oligodon formosanus)

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Wen-San; Greene, Harry W.; Chang, Tien-Jye; Shine, Richard

    2011-01-01

    The independent evolutionary origin of a complex trait, within a lineage otherwise lacking it, provides a powerful opportunity to test hypotheses on selective forces. Territorial defense of an area containing resources (such as food or shelter) is widespread in lizards but not snakes. Our studies on an insular population of Taiwanese kukrisnakes (Oligodon formosanus) show that females of this species actively defend sea turtle nests by repelling conspecifics for long periods (weeks) until the turtle eggs hatch or are consumed. A clutch of turtle eggs comprises a large, long-lasting food resource, unlike the prey types exploited by other types of snakes. Snakes of this species have formidable weaponry (massively enlarged teeth that are used for slitting eggshells), and when threatened, these snakes wave their tails toward the aggressor (an apparent case of head-tail mimicry). Bites to the tail during intraspecific combat bouts thus can have high fitness costs for males (because the hemipenes are housed in the tail). In combination, unusual features of the species (ability to inflict severe damage to male conspecifics) and the local environment (a persistent prey resource, large relative to the snakes consuming it) render resource defense both feasible and advantageous for female kukrisnakes. The (apparently unique) evolution of territorial behavior in this snake species thus provides strong support for the hypothesis that resource defensibility is critical to the evolution of territoriality. PMID:21502515

  3. Birth Territory: a theory for midwifery practice.

    PubMed

    Fahy, Kathleen M; Parratt, Jenny Anne

    2006-07-01

    The theory of Birth Territory describes, explains and predicts the relationships between the environment of the individual birth room, issues of power and control, and the way the woman experiences labour physiologically and emotionally. The theory was synthesised inductively from empirical data generated by the authors in their roles as midwives and researchers. It takes a critical post-structural feminist perspective and expands on some of the ideas of Michel Foucault. Theory synthesis was also informed by current research about the embodied self and the authors' scholarship in the fields of midwifery, human biology, sociology and psychology. In order to demonstrate the significance of the theory, it is applied to two clinical stories that both occur in hospital but are otherwise different. This analysis supports the central proposition that when midwives use 'midwifery guardianship' to create and maintain the ideal Birth Territory then the woman is most likely to give birth naturally, be satisfied with the experience and adapt with ease in the post-birth period. These benefits together with the reduction in medical interventions also benefit the baby. In addition, a positive Birth Territory is posited to have a broader impact on the woman's partner, family and society in general. PMID:16890902

  4. Concepts for an Enhanced CubeSat GEO Space Situational Awareness Architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morris, K.; Rice, C.

    2014-09-01

    With space becoming more congested, competitive, and contested, new space situational awareness architectures are required to maintain the US advantage in space. This, along with government budget concerns, requires new and potentially radical approaches for performing Space Situational Awareness (SSA). Previous studies have shown that CubeSats can fill holes in the GEO SSA architecture and provide point of light observations of objects. The next logical step is to develop a CubeSat constellation that provides complete coverage of the GEO belt while minimizing the cost to field the architecture. CubeSats provide value to the GEO SSA mission by hosting optical systems and taking pictures along the GEO belt, however, CubeSats do have limitations when it comes to mission assurance. Because of this, mission orbits must be chosen such that failed CubeSats do not become pieces of debris. In addition, recent advances in CubeSat propulsion systems open up new orbits and constellations due to the increased thrust and Delta V. Analyzing the CubeSat capabilities along with launch rideshare options determined the most cost effective architecture to provide high accuracy tracks to all objects at GEO with minimal gaps between observations. Several mission orbits are combined to provide the access and coverage required. The few launches direct to GEO can accommodate CubeSats that can be place in a GEO +500 km orbit. The CubeSats would image the GEO belt as they drift with respect to GEO performing the track and custody missions. More launches occur to the GEO transfer orbit during the and CubeSats ridesharing on these launches reside in an elliptical orbit with the apogee at GEO and the CubeSat propulsion system can be used to raise perigee to maintain a reasonable mission life. CubeSats in this orbit can image the GEO belt near apogee from different angles than the +500 km orbits that contributes to higher accuracy tracks. Finally, ridesharing as hosted payloads on commercial

  5. Diverse Attitudes to and Understandings of Spontaneous Awakening Trials (SAT): Results from a Statewide Quality Improvement Collaborative

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Melissa A; Krein, Sarah L; George, Christine T; Watson, Sam R; Hyzy, Robert C; Iwashyna, Theodore J

    2013-01-01

    Objective Spontaneous awakening trials (SATs) improve outcomes in mechanically ventilated patients, but implementation remains erratic. We examined variation in reported practice, prevalence of attitudes and fears regarding SATs, and organizational practices associated with routine implementation of SATs in an ICU quality improvement collaborative. Design Written survey. Setting Michigan Health and Hospital Association’s Keystone ICU, a quality improvement collaborative of 73 hospitals. Subjects Attendees of the yearly Keystone ICU meeting, January 2011, including nurses, physicians, hospital administrators, and other healthcare professionals. Intervention Respondents were asked about institutional characteristics, SAT practice, attitudes and barriers regarding SATs, and organizational cultural characteristics that might influence SAT practice. The association of organizational cultural characteristics and attitudes with reported SAT use was evaluated using logistic regression. Measurements and Main Results 319 participants attended the meeting. The survey response rate was 83.4%. Respondents reported wide variation in approach to SAT performance and patient selection. 48.6% of respondents reported regular SAT use, defined as >75% of mechanically ventilated patients undergoing SATs each day. In bivariable analysis, addressing sedation goals routinely in rounds and having SATs as part of unit culture were positively associated with regular SAT use, while the perception that SATs increased short term adverse effects, staff fears of SATs, and the perception that SATs are hard work were negatively associated with regular SAT use. In multivariable analysis, only addressing sedation in rounds (OR 2.85 [95%CI 1.55–5.23]), incorporation of SATs into unit culture (OR 3.36 [95% CI 1.75–6.43]), and the perception that SATs are hard work (OR 0.53 [95% CI 0.30–0.96]) remained statistically significantly associated with regular SAT use. Respondents in managerial

  6. From Napkin to Orbit in 9 Months; The TechEdSat Spacecraft Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, Aaron; Hoppins, Nicholas; Trinh, Greenfield; Schulte, Jan; Bruhn, Fredrik; Loefgren, Henrik; Selin, Per

    2013-01-01

    The TechEdSat spacecraft mission saw one of the fastest turn around times for concept through launch of a CubeSat. On 26 October 2011, John Hines sketched on a brown paper napkin the outline for which components would be in this 1U CubeSat, and how they would be stacked; 269 days later that spacecraft launched from Tanegashima Space Center aboard the HTV-3 ISS resupply mission, with a total development time of only eight months. TechEdSat was among the first of five CubeSats deployed from the ISS. The goals of the TechEdSat mission were to explore the use of the Space Plug-n-Play Architecture (SPA) in a CubeSat, and to evaluate Commercial Off The Shelf (COTS) space-to-space communication solutions. TechEdSat featured an array of processors from ÅAC Microtec including four NanoRTU's and the RTULite main processor, all communicating using the SPA-1 protocol. TechEdSat featured two primary payloads: an Iridium 9602 Modem, and a Quake Global Q1000 OrbComm modem. After a successful deployment on 4 October 2012 from the ISS, over 2000 packets of 122 bytes each (250 kB total) were received in the first four months of the mission. In this paper we discuss the challenges to rapid CubeSat development, the experience of having a CubeSat approved for deployment from the ISS, the ongoing results of the mission and lessons learned.

  7. Introduction of Chinese Carbon Dioxide Satellite (TanSat) Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yi

    It is well known that the increase in atmospheric CO2 and CH4 (long-lived greenhouse gases; GHG) due to anthropogenic activity is the dominant process driving global climate change. Space-based measurements of GHGs with high precision, resolution, and global coverage are urgently needed to characterize the geographic distribution of their sources and sinks and quantify their roles in the atmospheric CO2 budget. As a large developing country, China has the highest level of GHG emissions. The Chinese government is seeking sustainable development and hence is trying to reduce GHG emissions. The ministry of science and technology of the people’s republic of China had started the Chinese carbon dioxide observation satellite (TanSat) mission 3 years ago, currently the science requirement review and preliminary design review phases had been finished. The prototype of 3 channel high resolution grating spectrometer for CO2 measurement has been manufactured and tested, and the Cloud and Aerosol Polarization Imager (CAPI) is manufactured on schedule. To support TanSat mission, a full physical optimal estimation method has being developed to retrieve the column-averaged CO2 dry air mole fraction (XCO2), and the GOSAT data have been applied in the XCO2 retrieval system and reasonable results have been achieved. Global and regional CO2 flux will be derived from XCO2 observations with inverse modeling- Chinese Carbon Cycle Data Assimilation System (Tan-Tracker). Ground based measurement stations have being established around China to validate satellite observation. They consist of 3 Bruker IFS125, 3 Optical Spectrum Analyzer (OSA) and other instruments over different parts of China. TanSat is scheduled to be launched at the end of 2015.

  8. Thermal Analysis of Iodine Satellite (iSAT)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mauro, Stephanie

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the progress of the thermal analysis and design of the Iodine Satellite (iSAT). The purpose of the iSAT spacecraft (SC) is to demonstrate the ability of the iodine Hall Thruster propulsion system throughout a one year mission in an effort to mature the system for use on future satellites. The benefit of this propulsion system is that it uses a propellant, iodine, that is easy to store and provides a high thrust-to-mass ratio. The spacecraft will also act as a bus for an earth observation payload, the Long Wave Infrared (LWIR) Camera. Four phases of the mission, determined to either be critical to achieving requirements or phases of thermal concern, are modeled. The phases are the Right Ascension of the Ascending Node (RAAN) Change, Altitude Reduction, De-Orbit, and Science Phases. Each phase was modeled in a worst case hot environment and the coldest phase, the Science Phase, was also modeled in a worst case cold environment. The thermal environments of the spacecraft are especially important to model because iSAT has a very high power density. The satellite is the size of a 12 unit cubesat, and dissipates slightly more than 75 Watts of power as heat at times. The maximum temperatures for several components are above their maximum operational limit for one or more cases. The analysis done for the first Design and Analysis Cycle (DAC1) showed that many components were above or within 5 degrees Centigrade of their maximum operation limit. The battery is a component of concern because although it is not over its operational temperature limit, efficiency greatly decreases if it operates at the currently predicted temperatures. In the second Design and Analysis Cycle (DAC2), many steps were taken to mitigate the overheating of components, including isolating several high temperature components, removal of components, and rearrangement of systems. These changes have greatly increased the thermal margin available.

  9. African and non-African admixture components in African Americans and an African Caribbean population.

    PubMed

    Murray, Tanda; Beaty, Terri H; Mathias, Rasika A; Rafaels, Nicholas; Grant, Audrey Virginia; Faruque, Mezbah U; Watson, Harold R; Ruczinski, Ingo; Dunston, Georgia M; Barnes, Kathleen C

    2010-09-01

    Admixture is a potential source of confounding in genetic association studies, so it becomes important to detect and estimate admixture in a sample of unrelated individuals. Populations of African descent in the US and the Caribbean share similar historical backgrounds but the distributions of African admixture may differ. We selected 416 ancestry informative markers (AIMs) to estimate and compare admixture proportions using STRUCTURE in 906 unrelated African Americans (AAs) and 294 Barbadians (ACs) from a study of asthma. This analysis showed AAs on average were 72.5% African, 19.6% European and 8% Asian, while ACs were 77.4% African, 15.9% European, and 6.7% Asian which were significantly different. A principal components analysis based on these AIMs yielded one primary eigenvector that explained 54.04% of the variation and captured a gradient from West African to European admixture. This principal component was highly correlated with African vs. European ancestry as estimated by STRUCTURE (r(2)=0.992, r(2)=0.912, respectively). To investigate other African contributions to African American and Barbadian admixture, we performed PCA on approximately 14,000 (14k) genome-wide SNPs in AAs, ACs, Yorubans, Luhya and Maasai African groups, and estimated genetic distances (F(ST)). We found AAs and ACs were closest genetically (F(ST)=0.008), and both were closer to the Yorubans than the other East African populations. In our sample of individuals of African descent, approximately 400 well-defined AIMs were just as good for detecting substructure as approximately 14,000 random SNPs drawn from a genome-wide panel of markers. PMID:20717976

  10. Launch and Early Orbit Operations for CryoSat-2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mardel, Nic; Marchese, Franco

    2010-12-01

    CryoSat-2 was launched from Baikonur on 8th of April 2010 aboard a modified Dnepr ICBM, the so-called SS18 Satan. Following the ascent and separation from the launch vehicle the Flight Operations Segment (FOS) in ESOC, Darmstadt started the operations to configure the satellite into the correct mode to acquire science; switching on units, configuring software and ensuring that the satellite health and performance was as expected. This paper will describe the operations performed by the FOS during the first weeks in orbit, including the unexpected problems encountered, their implications and solutions.

  11. CubeSat Remote Sensing: A Survey of Current Capabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hegel, D.

    2014-12-01

    Recent years have seen dramatic growth in the availability and capability of very small satellites for atmospheric sensing, and other space-based science, as the simplicity of integration and low cost of these platforms enables projects that would otherwise be prohibitively expensive, or demand excessive expertise/infrastructure to execute. This paper surveys the current state-of-the-art for CubeSat performance, including pointing accuracy, geolocation, available power, and data downlink capacity. Applications for up-coming missions, such as CeREs, MinXSS, and HARP will also be discussed.

  12. Diagnosing AIRS Sampling with CloudSat Cloud Classes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fetzer, Eric; Yue, Qing; Guillaume, Alexandre; Kahn, Brian

    2011-01-01

    AIRS yield and sampling vary with cloud state. Careful utilization of collocated multiple satellite sensors is necessary. Profile differences between AIRS and ECMWF model analyses indicate that AIRS has high sampling and excellent accuracy for certain meteorological conditions. Cloud-dependent sampling biases may have large impact on AIRS L2 and L3 data in climate research. MBL clouds / lower tropospheric stability relationship is one example. AIRS and CloudSat reveal a reasonable climatology in the MBL cloud regime despite limited sampling in stratocumulus. Thermodynamic parameters such as EIS derived from AIRS data map these cloud conditions successfully. We are working on characterizing AIRS scenes with mixed cloud types.

  13. Enhanced electromagnetic sounding of Europa's ocean using CubeSats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crary, Frank; Holmes, Justin; Malaspina, David; Mason, James; Ranquist, Drake; Schiller, Quintin; Sturner, Andrew; Kohnert, Rick

    2015-04-01

    Diagnosing the properties of Europa's ocean is a key objective of the planned Europa Clipper mission. Magnetic field measurements reveal the inductive signatures of the ocean, but also contain perturbations from the magnetospheric interaction with Europa. Determining the properties of the ocean using this technique requires separating the induced field from that of the magnetospheric interaction. One solution is to use magnetometer-bearing CubeSats to make simultaneous flybys along trajectories separated from that of the Europa Clipper. We describe a concept for such nanosatellites and how they could greatly enhance the precision of induced magnetic field ocean soundings.

  14. A CubeSat deployable solar panel system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGuire, Thomas; Hirsch, Michael; Parsons, Michael; Leake, Skye; Straub, Jeremy

    2016-05-01

    The power usage of CubeSat's onboard systems has increased with the complexity of the systems included. This paper presents a deployment system design which creates a plane of solar panels to collect energy. This allows more panels to be in direct normal sunlight at any given point (in conjunction with the onboard attitude determination and control system), facilitating increased power generation. The deployable system is comprised of a printed circuit board (holding the solar cells) which is attached to an aluminum hinge. The efficacy of this approach for power generation and its simplicity, as compared to other prospective approaches, are assessed herein.

  15. Preliminary thermal design of the COLD-SAT spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arif, Hugh

    1991-01-01

    The COLD-SAT free-flying spacecraft was to perform experiments with LH2 in the cryogenic fluid management technologies of storage, supply and transfer in reduced gravity. The Phase A preliminary design of the Thermal Control Subsystem (TCS) for the spacecraft exterior and interior surfaces and components of the bus subsystems is described. The TCS was composed of passive elements which were augmented with heaters. Trade studies to minimize the parasitic heat leakage into the cryogen storage tanks are described. Selection procedure for the thermally optimum on-orbit spacecraft attitude was defined. TRASYS-2 and SINDA'85 verification analysis was performed on the design and the results are presented.

  16. Technology maturation process: the NASA Strategic Astrophysics Technology (SAT) program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perez, Mario R.; Pham, Bruce T.; Lawson, Peter R.

    2014-08-01

    In 2009 the Astrophysics Division at NASA Headquarters established the Strategic Astrophysics Technology (SAT) solicitation as a new technology maturation program to fill the needed gap for mid-Technology Readiness Level (TRL) levels (3≤ TRL <6). In three full proposal selection cycles since the inception of this program, more than 40 investigations have been selected, many meritorious milestones have been met and advances have been achieved. In this paper, we review the process of establishing technology priorities, the management of technology advancements and milestones, and the incipient success of some of these investigations in light of the need of future space missions.

  17. Solving Open Job-Shop Scheduling Problems by SAT Encoding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koshimura, Miyuki; Nabeshima, Hidetomo; Fujita, Hiroshi; Hasegawa, Ryuzo

    This paper tries to solve open Job-Shop Scheduling Problems (JSSP) by translating them into Boolean Satisfiability Testing Problems (SAT). The encoding method is essentially the same as the one proposed by Crawford and Baker. The open problems are ABZ8, ABZ9, YN1, YN2, YN3, and YN4. We proved that the best known upper bounds 678 of ABZ9 and 884 of YN1 are indeed optimal. We also improved the upper bound of YN2 and lower bounds of ABZ8, YN2, YN3 and YN4.

  18. LARES/WEBER-SAT and the equivalence principle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iorio, L.

    2007-11-01

    It has often been claimed that the proposed Earth artificial satellite LARES/WEBER-SAT —whose primary goal is, in fact, the measurement of the general relativistic Lense-Thirring effect at a some percent level— would allow greatly improving, among (many) other things, the present-day (10-13) level of accuracy in testing the equivalence principle as well. Recent claims point towards even two orders of magnitude better, i.e. 10-15. In this letter we show that such a goal is, in fact, unattainable by many orders of magnitude being, instead, the achievable level ≈10-9.

  19. The SBP-SAT technique for initial value problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lundquist, Tomas; Nordström, Jan

    2014-08-01

    A detailed account of the stability and accuracy properties of the SBP-SAT technique for numerical time integration is presented. We show how the technique can be used to formulate both global and multi-stage methods with high order of accuracy for both stiff and non-stiff problems. Linear and non-linear stability results, including A-stability, L-stability and B-stability are proven using the energy method for general initial value problems. Numerical experiments corroborate the theoretical properties.

  20. The African superswell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nyblade, Andrew A.; Robinson, Scott W.

    1994-01-01

    Maps of residual bathymetry in the ocean basins around the African continent reveal a broad bathymetric swell in the southeastern Atlantic Ocean with an amplitude of about 500 m. We propose that this region of anomalously shallow bathymetry, together with the contiguous eastern and southern African plateaus, form a superswell which we refer to as the African superswell. The origin of the African superswell is uncertain. However, rifting and volcanism in eastern Africa, as well as heat flow measurements in southern Africa and the southeastern Atlantic Ocean, suggest that the superswell may be attributed, at least in part, to heating of the lithosphere.

  1. Structural study of Wamba and Environs, north-central Nigeria using aeromagnetic data and NigeriaSat-X image

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogunmola, J. K.; Gajere, E. N.; Ayolabi, E. A.; Olobaniyi, S. B.; Jeb, D. N.; Agene, I. J.

    2015-11-01

    Wamba 1:100,000 sheet 210 covers Wamba and Nassarawa Eggon area of North-Central Nigeria and consists of basement rocks, biotite granites and Older Granites in most parts of the northern part and by sedimentary rocks of the Cretaceous Middle Benue Trough in the southern part. High resolution aeromagnetic data was interpreted and the results integrated in a GIS environment with data from NigeriaSat-X image to map out the major structural trends within the area. Reduction-to-the-equator (RTE) operation was carried out on the aeromagnetic data after which several data transforms/derivatives such as horizontal derivative, analytical signal, and tilt derivative were calculated to highlight subsurface boundaries and the major structures within the area. Several digital image enhancement techniques such as general contrast stretching and edge enhancement were applied to the NigeraSat-X image in ERDAS IMAGINE 9.2 after which structures from the interpreted magnetic data and the image were mapped out on-screen using ArcMap 10. The results show that the RTE produced a reasonable geological picture of the area. Also the basement configuration consists of several NE-SW and NW-SE structures that range from 1 km to about 17 km in length with the NE-SW structures being the major trend within the area. The lineaments are mainly within the basement and the Older granites and may be related to the Pan-African Orogeny. This study was also able to map out more accurately the contact between the basement and the sediments hence a modified geological map of the area was produced.

  2. A Comparison of an Introductory Course to SAT/ACT Scores in Predicting Student Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marsh, Crystale M.; Vandehey, Michael A.; Diekhoff, George M.

    2008-01-01

    We assessed students in General Psychology classes and examined their SAT/ACT scores, GPAs, and attempted and earned hours. Exams in General Psychology were superior to the SAT/ACT in predicting GPA, supporting the use of an introductory course as a "gateway" for identifying at-risk students and engaging them in academic services. (Contains 3…

  3. CloudSat Preps for Launch at Vandenberg Air Force Base, CA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    The CloudSat spacecraft sits encapsulated within its Boeing Delta launch vehicle dual payload attach fitting at Vandenberg Air Force Base, Calif. CloudSat will share its ride to orbit late next month with NASA's CALIPSO spacecraft. The two spacecraft are designed to reveal the secrets of clouds and aerosols.

  4. PowerSat: A technology demonstration of a solar power satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sigler, Douglas L. (Editor); Riedman, John; Duracinski, Jon; Edwards, Joe; Brown, Garry; Webb, Ron; Platzke, Mike; Yuan, Xiaolin; Rogers, Pete; Khan, Afsar

    1994-01-01

    PowerSat is a preliminary design strategy for microwave wireless power transfer of solar energy. Solar power satellites convert solar power into microwave energy and use wireless power transmission to transfer the power to the Earth's surface. The PowerSat project will show how new developments in inflatable technology can be used to deploy solar panels and phased array antennas.

  5. The Relationship of High School Graduation Exams to Graduation Rates and SAT Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marchant, Gregory J.; Paulson, Sharon E.

    2005-01-01

    The current study examined the effect of high school graduation exams on states' graduation rates, states' aggregated SAT scores, and individual students' SAT scores. Three data sources were used: One source identified states requiring a standardized test for graduation; the NCES provided state aggregated data on graduation rates for the class of…

  6. Life with the SAT: Assessing Our Young People and Our Times.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanford, George H.

    The history and nature of the Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT) and issues that continue to be raised in the context of its use are discussed by a former president of the College Entrance Examination Board. This book provides insights into the changing role of college admissions testing since World War II; and considers the role of the SAT in…

  7. The SAT Trap. Why Do We Make So Much of One 3-Hour Test?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adelman, Clifford

    1999-01-01

    The Scholastic Assessment Tests (SAT) measures students' general learned abilities, but student test performance is influenced as much by family environment as it is by formal education. Many colleges use SAT scores in admissions decisions. Students would be far better served if there was a concentration on other ways of predicting success in…

  8. Non-"g" Residuals of the SAT and ACT Predict Specific Abilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coyle, Thomas R.; Purcell, Jason M.; Snyder, Anissa C.; Kochunov, Peter

    2013-01-01

    This research examined whether non-"g" residuals of the SAT and ACT subtests, obtained after removing g, predicted specific abilities. Non-"g" residuals of the verbal and math subtests of the SAT and ACT were correlated with academic (verbal and math) and non-academic abilities (speed and shop), both based on the Armed Services Vocational Aptitude…

  9. Tooth and Nail: A Novel Approach to the New SAT. A Harvest Test Preparation Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elster, Charles Harrington; Elliot, Joseph

    "Tooth and Nail" is a novel that teaches vocabulary for the Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT) in context. Rather than presenting lists of vocabulary words to memorize, the mystery novel presents some 1,200 words, which have appeared in past SATs, in context. The story, about going off to college, features a literacy treasure hunt involving rare books…

  10. Does Quantity Equal Quality?: The Relationship between Length of Response and Scores on the SAT Essay

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kobrin, Jennifer L.; Deng, Hui; Shaw, Emily J.

    2007-01-01

    This study was designed to address two frequent criticisms of the SAT essay--that essay length is the best predictor of scores, and that there is an advantage in using more "sophisticated" examples as opposed to personal experience. The study was based on 2,820 essays from the first three administrations of the new SAT. Each essay was coded for…

  11. Why Do Women Have Lower Average SAT-Math Scores than Men?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Navarro, Cristina

    A study involving 716 male and 1,113 female first-year students admitted to the University of Delaware in the fall of 1985 was conducted to investigate the differential performance of men and women on the mathematics section of the Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT). Data collected included SAT math scores; gender; and number of years of high school…

  12. Socio-Economic Family Background Still a Significant Influence on SAT Scores.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawkins, B. Denise

    1993-01-01

    An analysis of trends in Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT) scores looks at SAT verbal and mathematics averages by racial group and gender, reports racial group percentages of examinees by state, and charts relationships between ethnic group, parental education, family income, student years of postsecondary study, and scores. (MSE)

  13. The SAT® and SAT Subject Tests™: Discrepant Scores and Incremental Validity. Research Report 2012-2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kobrin, Jennifer L.; Patterson, Brian F.

    2012-01-01

    This study examines student performance on the SAT and SAT Subject Tests in order to identify groups of students who score differently on these two tests, and to determine whether certain demographic groups score higher on one test compared to the other. Discrepancy scores were created to capture individuals' performance differences on the…

  14. Reconsidering the SAT-I for College Admissions: Analysis of Alternate Predictors of College Success.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armstrong, William B.; Carty, Heidi M.

    The University of California is engaged in the elimination of the Scholastic Assessment Test I (SAT-I) Verbal and Mathematics tests as a requirement for freshman admission. Opponents of the SAT-I argue that the tests do not measure the outcomes of the high school curriculum and hence do not reflect student learning in secondary school. Proponents…

  15. The Relationship between SAT Scores and Retention to the Third Year: 2006 Cohort. Statistical Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mattern, Krista D.; Patterson, Brian F.

    2010-01-01

    Results show that SAT performance is related to third year retention rates. Even after controlling for student and institutional characteristics, returners had higher SAT total scores than non-returners, and the performance gap is not due to differences in the demographic makeup of the two groups. Furthermore, while differences in retention can be…

  16. An Open-Source GUI for Calculating Icy Moon Tidal Stresses Using SatStress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kay, J. P.; Kattenhorn, S. A.

    2010-03-01

    We have used the open-source program SatStress to develop a graphic user interface (GUI) for calculating tidal stresses on the surface of a satellite with both elastic and viscoelastic rheology. SatStress GUI will eventually be open-source.

  17. WindSat passive microwave polarimetric observations of soil moisture and land variables

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    WindSat is a spaceborne multi-frequency polarimetric microwave radiometer and has the potential of contributing to the retrieval of land variables and complementing efforts directed at the Aqua AMSR-E. In this study, a previously established algorithm was applied to WindSat data to estimate global s...

  18. Observations of Land Surface Passive Polarimetry with the WindSat Instrument

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    WindSat provides an opportunity to explore the passive microwave polarimetric signatures of land surfaces. In order to accommodate the large sensor footprint, large homogeneous regions with unique features were used. These included forest, rangeland, desert and agricultural conditions. WindSat obser...

  19. Gum chewing improves adolescents’ math performance in an SAT preparatory course

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The purpose of the current study was to determine the effect of gum chewing on students’ performance in a preparatory course for the Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT). A total of 182 adolescents enrolled in an SAT preparatory class were randomized into one of two treatments: 1) gum chewing condition (G...

  20. The Rainbow Project: Enhancing the SAT through Assessments of Analytical, Practical, and Creative Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sternberg, Robert J.

    2006-01-01

    This article describes the formulation and execution of the Rainbow Project, Phase I, funded by the College Board. Past data suggest that the SAT is a good predictor of performance in college. But in terms of the amount of variance explained by the SAT, there is room for improvement, as there would be for virtually any single test battery. Phase I…

  1. Examining science achievement of African American females in suburban middle schools: A mixed methods study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Topping, Kecia C.

    This dissertation examined factors that affected the science achievement of African American females in suburban middle schools. The research literature informed that African American females are facing the barriers of race, gender, socioeconomic status, and cultural learning style preferences. Nationally used measurements of science achievement such as the Standardized Achievement Test, Tenth edition (SAT-10), National Assessment for Educational Progress, and National Center for Educational Statistics showed that African American females are continuing to falter in the areas of science when compared to other ethnic groups. This study used a transformative sequential explanatory mixed methods design. In the first, quantitative, phase, the relationships among the dependent variables, science subscale SAT-10 NCE scores, yearly averages, and the independent variables, attitude toward science scores obtained from the Modified Fennema-Sherman Attitudes toward Science Scale, socioeconomics, and caregiver status were tested. The participants were 150 African American females in grades 6 through 8 in four suburban middle schools located in the Southeastern United States. The results showed a positive, significant linear relationship between the females' attitude and their science subscale SAT-10 NCE scores and a positive, significant linear relationship between the females' attitudes and their yearly averages in science. The results also confirmed that attitude was a significant predictor of science subscale SAT-10 NCE scores for these females and that attitude and socioeconomics were significant predictors of the females' yearly averages in science. In the second, qualitative, phase, nine females purposefully selected from those who had high and low attitude towards science scores on the scale in the quantitative phase were interviewed. The themes that emerged revealed seven additional factors that impacted the females' science achievement. They were usefulness of science

  2. NASAs EDSN Aims to Overcome the Operational Challenges of CubeSat Constellations and Demonstrate an Economical Swarm of 8 CubeSats Useful for Space Science Investigations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Harrison Brodsky; Hu, Steven Hung Kee; Cockrell, James J.

    2013-01-01

    Operators of a constellation of CubeSats have to confront a number of daunting challenges that can be cost prohibitive, or operationally prohibitive, to missions that could otherwise be enabled by a satellite constellation. Challenges including operations complexity, intersatellite communication, intersatellite navigation, and time sharing tasks between satellites are all complicated by operating with the usual CubeSat size, power, and budget constraints. EDSN pioneers innovative solutions to these problems as they are presented on the nano-scale satellite platform.

  3. The promise of scientific CubeSat missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moretto Jorgensen, Therese

    In 2008, The US National Science Foundation (NSF) started a program in support of CubeSat-based science missions for space weather and atmospheric research. This program implements a new and very different approach to providing needed scientific space measurements. It builds on recent engineering and system developments of CubeSat technology that have established the technical feasibility of tiny spacecraft missions that can be launched as secondary payloads at very low cost and rapid time scales as they pose virtually no risk to the launch vehicle or its primary payload. This makes space measurements achievable within the scope of the traditional NSF grants programs and greatly enhances the participation of the larger university community in space activities. Equally importantly, such projects offer unique opportunities for hands-on education and training for students and young professionals in aerospace engineering and experimental space science. Currently, the program supports 6 projects, the first one of which is scheduled for launch in May 2010. The presentation will describe the creation of the program, current projects, and future plans and will discuss successes and challenges encountered so far.

  4. Characterization of Debris from the DebriSat Hypervelocity Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rivero, M.; Kleespies, J.; Patankar, K.; Fitz-Coy, N.; Liou, J.-C.; Sorge, M.; Huynh, T.; Opiela, J.; Krisko, P.; Cowardin, H.

    2015-01-01

    The DebriSat project is an effort by NASA and the DoD to update the standard break-up model for objects in orbit. The DebriSat object, a 56 kg representative LEO satellite, was subjected to a hypervelocity impact in April 2014. For the hypervelocity test, the representative satellite was suspended within a "soft-catch" arena formed by polyurethane foam panels to minimize the interactions between the debris generated from the hypervelocity impact and the metallic walls of the test chamber. After the impact, the foam panels and debris not caught by the panels were collected and shipped to the University of Florida where the project has now advanced to the debris characterization stage. The characterization effort has been divided into debris collection, measurement, and cataloguing. Debris collection and cataloguing involves the retrieval of debris from the foam panels and cataloguing the debris in a database. Debris collection is a three-step process: removal of loose debris fragments from the surface of the foam panels; X-ray imaging to identify/locate debris fragments embedded within the foam panel; extraction of the embedded debris fragments identified during the X-ray imaging process. As debris fragments are collected, they are catalogued into a database specifically designed for this project. Measurement involves determination of size, mass, shape, material, and other physical properties and well as images of the fragment. Cataloguing involves a assigning a unique identifier for each fragment along with the characterization information.

  5. Multi-sensor Observations of the SpinSat Satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, D.

    The Naval Research Laboratory developed and launched the spherical SpinSat satellite to accomplish two primary goals: 1) study the performance of a new class of micro-thrusters, and 2) provide a calibrated drag experiment to characterize Earth's upper atmosphere during the current period of relatively high solar activity. The 55.9 cm diameter aluminum sphere is equipped with a set of Electrically-Controlled Solid Propellant (ESP) thrusters, oriented to allow both translational and spin-up/spin-down maneuvers. To facilitate remote observations of the satellite's spin rate, the sphere's exterior features a reflectance pattern much like that of a beach-ball, as well as an ensemble of light-emitting diodes (LEDs) arranged along a meridian (i.e., a line of longitude) which can be turned on for brief periods. The Air Force Research Laboratory has conducted optical observations of SpinSat from several ground-based sensors, and more are planned. The observational goals include: 1) obtaining time-resolved, multi-band measurements of the satellite actively firing its micro-thrusters, 2) characterizing the detectability and spatial/temporal morphology of the ESP thruster plumes, 3) measuring the spin rate of the satellite with the LEDs turned on, ideally before and after a spin rate adjustment maneuver, and 4) measuring the spin rate of the satellite in its completely inactive mode, using only passive observations of reflected light and/or thermal emissions.

  6. South Atlantic anomaly and CubeSat design considerations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fennelly, Judy A.; Johnston, William R.; Ober, Daniel M.; Wilson, Gordon R.; O'Brien, T. Paul; Huston, Stuart L.

    2015-09-01

    Effects of the South Atlantic Anomaly (SAA) on spacecraft in low Earth orbit (LEO) are well known and documented. The SAA exposes spacecraft in LEO to high dose of ionizing radiation as well as higher than normal rates of Single Event Upsets (SEU) and Single Event Latch-ups (SEL). CubeSats, spacecraft built around 10 x 10 x 10 cm cubes, are even more susceptible to SEUs and SELs due to the use of commercial off-the-shelf components for electronics and payload instrumentation. Examination of the SAA using both data from the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) and a new set of models for the flux of particles is presented. The models, AE9, AP9, and SPM for energetic electrons, energetic protons and space plasma, were developed for use in space system design. These models introduce databased statistical constraints on the uncertainties from measurements and climatological variability. Discussion of the models' capabilities and limitations with regard to LEO CubeSat design is presented.

  7. Validation of CryoSat-2 derived lake levels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nielsen, Karina; Stenseng, Lars; Andersen, Ole; Villadsen, Heidi; Knudsen, Per

    2015-04-01

    The SIRAL altimeter on-board the ESA satellite CryoSat-2 is the first radar altimeter that is capable of operating in synthetic aperture radar (SAR) mode. The SAR technology provides a much higher along-track resolution compared to conventional altimetry. The higher resolution makes it possible to accurately monitor much smaller water bodies than previously. In this study, which is part of the FP7 project Land and Ocean take up from Sentinel-3 (LOTUS), we examine and validate Cryosat-2 derived lake levels and as a reference we compare our results with lake levels based on Envisat data. As a test case we consider 5 lakes; Vänern (Sweden), Okeechobee (Florida, US), Arresø, Mossø, and Skanderborgsø (Denmark), which are ranging from approximately 9 km2 to 5655 km2. We estimate the along-track precision and the accuracy by validating the estimated lake levels with gauge data from Okeechobee and Vänern. We find that the precision based on CryoSat-2 increase significantly for small lakes compared to Envisat. Despite the spatially varying lake crossings, Cryosat-2 is able to provide lake level time series of a quality that is comparable to or better than Envisat. Hence, these results demonstrate the promising possibilities of the upcoming mission Sentinel-3, which potentially will be able to provide accurate time series for small lakes.

  8. The COLD-SAT Experiment for Cryogenic Fluid Management Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schuster, J. R.; Wachter, J. P.; Vento, D. M.

    1990-01-01

    Future national space transportation missions will depend on the use of cryogenic fluid management technology development needs for these missions. In-space testing will be conducted in order to show low gravity cryogenic fluid management concepts and to acquire a technical data base. Liquid H2 is the preferred test fluid due to its propellant use. The design of COLD-SAT (Cryogenic On-orbit Liquid Depot Storage, Acquisition, and Transfer Satellite), an Expendable Launch Vehicle (ELV) launched orbital spacecraft that will perform subcritical liquid H2 storage and transfer experiments under low gravity conditions is studied. An Atlas launch vehicle will place COLD-SAT into a circular orbit, and the 3-axis controlled spacecraft bus will provide electric power, experiment control, and data management, attitude control, and propulsive accelerations for the experiments. Low levels of acceleration will provide data on the effects that low gravity might have on the heat and mass transfer processes used. The experiment module will contain 3 liquid H2 tanks; fluid transfer, pressurization and venting equipment; and instrumentation.

  9. COLD-SAT: A technology satellite for cryogenic experimentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arif, H.; Kroeger, E. W.

    1989-01-01

    NASA-Lewis (LeRC) is involved in the development and validation of analytical models which describe the fluid dynamic and thermodynamic processes associated with the storage, acquisition and transfer of subcritical cryogenic fluids in low gravity. Four concurrent studies, including one in-house at LeRC, are underway to determine the feasibility of performing model validation experiments aboard a free-flying spacecraft (S/C) called Cryogenic On-Orbit Liquid Depot-Storage, Acquisition and Transfer (COLD-SAT), using liquid hydrogen as the cryogen. The technology requirements for the experiments are described along with the initial LeRC concepts for the S/C and an experiment subsystem comprising of cryogenic tankage (a supply dewar and three receiver tanks), gas pressurization bottles (both helium and autogenous hydrogen), their associated plumbing, and instrumentation for data collection. Experiments were categorized into enabling/high priority Class 1 technologies and component/system Class 2 demonstrations. As initially envisioned by LeRC, COLD-SAT would have had a 1997 launch aboard a Delta-2 for a 6 month active lifetime in a 925 km orbit with a pseudo-inertial attitude.

  10. COLD-SAT: An orbital cryogenic hydrogen technology experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schuster, J. R.; Wachter, Joseph P.; Powers, Albert G.

    1989-01-01

    The COLD-SAT spacecraft will perform subcritical liquid hydrogen storage and transfer experiments under low-gravity conditions to provide engineering data for future space transportation missions. Consisting of an experiment module mated to a spacecraft bus, COLD-SAT will be placed in an initial 460 km circular orbit by an Atlas I commercial launch vehicle. After deployment, the three-axis-controlled spacecraft bus will provide electric power, experiment control and data management, communications, and attitude control along with propulsive acceleration levels ranging from 10(-6) to 10(-4)g. These accelerations are an important aspect of some of the experiments, as it is desired to know the effects that low gravity levels might have on the heat and mass transfer processes involved. The experiment module will contain the three liquid hydrogen tanks, valves, pressurization equipment, and instrumentation. At launch all the hydrogen will be in the largest tank, which has helium-purged MLI and is loaded and topped off by the hydrogen tanking system used for the Centaur upper stage of the Atlas. The two smaller tanks will be utilized in orbit for performing some of the experiments. The experiments are grouped into two classes on the basis of their priority, and include six regarded as enabling technology and nine regarded as enhancing technology.

  11. COLD-SAT - A technology satellite for cryogenic experimentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arif, H.; Kroeger, E. W.

    1990-01-01

    NASA-Lewis (LeRC) is involved in the development and validation of analytical models which describe the fluid dynamic and thermodynamic processes associated with the storage, acquisition and transfer of subcritical cryogenic fluids in low gravity. Four concurrent studies, including one in-house at LeRC, are underway to determine the feasibility of performing model validation experiments aboard a free-flying spacecraft (S/C) called Cryogenic On-Orbit Liquid Depot-Storage, Acquisition and Transfer (COLD-SAT), using liquid hydrogen as the cryogen. The technology requirements for the experiments are described along with the initial LeRC concepts for the S/C and an experiment subsystem comprising of cryogenic tankage (a supply dewar and three receiver tanks), gas pressurization bottles (both helium and autogenous hydrogen), their associated plumbing, and instrumentation for data collection. Experiments were categorized into enabling/high priority Class 1 technologies and component/system Class 2 demonstrations. As initially envisioned by LeRC, COLD-SAT would have had a 1997 launch aboard a Delta-2 for a 6 month active lifetime in a 925 km orbit with a pseudo-inertial attitude.

  12. COLD-SAT - An orbital cryogenic hydrogen technology experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schuster, J. R.; Wachter, Joseph P.; Powers, Albert G.

    1989-01-01

    The COLD-SAT spacecraft will perform subcritical liquid hydrogen storage and transfer experiments under low-gravity conditions to provide engineering data for future space transportation missions. Consisting of an experiment module mated to a spacecraft bus, COLD-SAT will be placed in an initial 460 km circular orbit by an Atlas I commercial launch vehicle. After deployment, the three-axis-controlled spacecraft bus will provide electric power, experiment control and data management, communications, and attitude control along with propulsive acceleration levels ranging from 10 (-6) to 10(-4) g. These accelerations are an important aspect of some of the experiments, as it is desired to know the effects that low gravity levels might have on the heat and mass transfer processes involved. The experiment module will contain the three liquid hydrogen tanks, valves, pressurization equipment, and instrumentation. At launch all the hydrogen will be in the largest tank, which has helium-purged MLI and is loaded and topped off by the hydrogen tanking system used for the Centaur upper stage of the Atlas. The two smaller tanks will be utilized in orbit for performing some of the experiments. The experiments are grouped into two classes on the basis of their priority, and include six regarded as enabling technology and nine regarded as enhancing technology.

  13. Report: antibiotic production by thermophilic Bacillus specie SAT-4.

    PubMed

    Muhammad, Syed Aun; Ahmad, Safia; Hameed, Abdul

    2009-07-01

    Production of antimicrobial compounds seems to be a general phenomenon for most bacteria. The prevalence of antimicrobial resistance among key microbial pathogens is increasing at an alarming rate worldwide. Current solutions involve development of a more rationale approach to antibiotic use and discover of new antimicrobials. Bacillus species produce a large number of biological compounds active against bacteria, fungi, protozoa and viruses. The process of production usually involves screening of wide range of microorganisms, testing and modification. Production is carried out using fermentation. Thermophilic spore-forming, gram positive, motile rod bacterial strains were isolated from the Thar Desserts, Sindh Province, Pakistan. These strains were screened and checked for antibacterial activity. The best activity was observed by SAT4 against Micrococcus luteus, Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeroginosa. The activity was only observed against gram positive bacteria and no activity was seen against Pseudomonas aeroginosa. Thermophilic Bacillus specie SAT4 was found to be active in the fermentation process to produce the antimicrobial agents. Further optimizations of different conditions (time of incubation, media, pH, glucose concentrations, nitrogen concentrations, and temperature) for antimicrobial production by the selected bacterial strain was performed. Agar diffusion assay was performed to evaluate the antibacterial activity. Optimum conditions for the production of antimicrobials by selected isolate were observed to be 48 hour, pH 5, temperature 55 degrees C, 2% glucose and 1.5% nitrogen concentration. This newly isolated bacterial strain has great potential for antimicrobial production at industrial scale. PMID:19553186

  14. Changes in Ocean Wind Retrieval Performance During the WindSat Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bettenhausen, M. H.; Gaiser, P. W.; Adams, I. S.; Truesdale, D.

    2014-12-01

    Numerous improvements have been made to WindSat ground data processing software and retrieval algorithms since the initial evaluations of WindSat capabilities were published in 2006. These improvements include higher resolution retrievals, improved wind vector ambiguity selection, improved instrument characterization, better brightness temperature calibration and improved high wind speed retrievals. We briefly describe some of these improvements and provide statistical comparisons of the current WindSat ocean vector wind products to the older versions of the WindSat products. We also present comparisons for individual wind fields including examples of gap wind events and cyclonic storms. Limitations of the WindSat products and the underlying causes such as resolution and rain effects will be discussed.

  15. Effects of a hyperbaric environment on subcutaneous adipose tissue topography (SAT-top).

    PubMed

    Möller, Reinhard; Horejsi, Renate; Tafeit, Erwin; Fraidl, Michaela; Dietmaier, Gabriele; Anegg, Udo; Klemen, Huberta; Wallner-Liebmann, Sandra

    2010-12-01

    The physiological reactions of the body in scuba diving situation can be simulated in a pressure chamber by increasing the ambient pressure. In this study the influence of a hyperbaric environment of 6 bar on the changes of the subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) thicknesses on different body sites in 68 voluntary men with undersea diving experience was investigated. Measurements of SAT-topography (SAT-Top) were performed with the optical device Lipometer before and after hyperbaric exposure. We observed a significant increase of the SAT-layers of the upper body zones, upper abdomen (+24.5%), lower abdomen (+21%) and front chest (+19%) after hyperbaric exposure. This increase of volume can be assumed to the nitrogen accumulation in fat cells at increased ambient pressures. In conclusion we describe for the first time in detail the influence of a hyperbaric environment on quantitative and topographic changes of SAT. PMID:21874714

  16. SmallSats, Iodine Propulsion Technology, Applications to Low-Cost Lunar Missions, and the Iodine Satellite (iSAT) Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dankanich, John W.

    2014-01-01

    Closing Remarks: ?(1) SmallSats hold significant potential for future low cost high value missions; (2) Propulsion remains a key limiting capability for SmallSats that Iodine can address: High ISP * Density for volume constrained spacecraft; Indefinite quiescence, unpressurized and non-hazardous as a secondary payload; (3) Iodine enables MicroSat and SmallSat maneuverability: Enables transfer into high value orbits, constellation deployment and deorbit; (4) Iodine may enable a new class of planetary and exploration class missions: Enables GTO launched secondary spacecraft to transit to the moon, asteroids, and other interplanetary destinations for approximately 150 million dollars full life cycle cost including the launch; (5) ESPA based OTVs are also volume constrained and a shift from xenon to iodine can significantly increase the transfer vehicle change in volume capability including transfers from GTO to a range of Lunar Orbits; (6) The iSAT project is a fast pace high value iodine Hall technology demonstration mission: Partnership with NASA GRC and NASA MSFC with industry partner - Busek; (7) The iSAT mission is an approved project with PDR in November of 2014 and is targeting a flight opportunity in FY17.

  17. High Data Rates for AubieSat-2 A & B, Two CubeSats Performing High Energy Science in the Upper Atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sims, William H.

    2015-01-01

    This paper will discuss a proposed CubeSat size (3 Units / 6 Units) telemetry system concept being developed at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in cooperation with Auburn University. The telemetry system incorporates efficient, high-bandwidth communications by developing flight-ready, low-cost, PROTOFLIGHT software defined radio (SDR) payload for use on CubeSats. The current telemetry system is slightly larger in dimension of footprint than required to fit within a 0.75 Unit CubeSat volume. Extensible and modular communications for CubeSat technologies will provide high data rates for science experiments performed by two CubeSats flying in formation in Low Earth Orbit. The project is a collaboration between the University of Alabama in Huntsville and Auburn University to study high energy phenomena in the upper atmosphere. Higher bandwidth capacity will enable high-volume, low error-rate data transfer to and from the CubeSats, while also providing additional bandwidth and error correction margin to accommodate more complex encryption algorithms and higher user volume.

  18. Validity of the SAT® for Predicting Fourth-Year Grades: 2006 SAT Validity Sample. Statistical Report 2011-7

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mattern, Krista D.; Patterson, Brian F.

    2006-01-01

    The College Board formed a research consortium with four-year colleges and universities to build a national higher education database with the primary goal of validating the SAT®, which is used in college admission and consists of three sections: critical reading (SAT-CR), mathematics (SAT-M) and writing (SAT-W). This report builds on a body of…

  19. Propulsion System and Orbit Maneuver Integration in CubeSats: Trajectory Control Strategies Using Micro Ion Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hudson, Jennifer; Martinez, Andres; Petro, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    The Propulsion System and Orbit Maneuver Integration in CubeSats project aims to solve the challenges of integrating a micro electric propulsion system on a CubeSat in order to perform orbital maneuvers and control attitude. This represents a fundamentally new capability for CubeSats, which typically do not contain propulsion systems and cannot maneuver far beyond their initial orbits.

  20. The SAT[R] I and High School Grades: Utility in Predicting Success in College. Research Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Camara, Wayne J.; Echternacht, Gary

    For more than 70 years researchers have studied the validity of the Scholastic Assessment Test I (SAT I) and its predecessor, the Scholastic Aptitude Test, through hundreds of validity studies conducted at various colleges using the SAT in their admission process. The majority of these studies use high school records and SAT scores as predictors…

  1. The Relationship between SAT® Scores and Retention to the Second Year: 2008 SAT Validity Sample. Statistical Report 2012-1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mattern, Krista D.; Patterson, Brian F.

    2012-01-01

    The College Board formed a research consortium with four-year colleges and universities to build a national higher education database with the primary goal of validating the revised SAT®, which consists of three sections: critical reading (SAT-CR), mathematics (SAT-M), and writing (SAT-W), for use in college admission. A study by Mattern and…

  2. Evaluating SAT® II: Mathematics IC Items in the SAT I Population. Research Report No. 2005-3

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Jinghua; Schuppan, Fred; Walker, Michael E.

    2005-01-01

    This study explored whether the addition of the items with more advanced math content to the SAT Reasoning Test™ (SAT®) would impact test-taker performance. Two sets of SAT math equating sections were modified to form four subforms each. Different numbers of items with advanced content, taken from the SAT II: Mathematics Level IC Test (Math IC),…

  3. 16 Extraordinary African Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lobb, Nancy

    This collection for children tells the stories of 16 African Americans who helped make America what it is today. African Americans can take pride in the heritage of these contributors to society. Biographies are given for the following: (1) Sojourner Truth, preacher and abolitionist; (2) Frederick Douglass, abolitionist; (3) Harriet Tubman, leader…

  4. African Studies Computer Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuntz, Patricia S.

    African studies computer resources that are readily available in the United States with linkages to Africa are described, highlighting those most directly corresponding to African content. Africanists can use the following four fundamental computer systems: (1) Internet/Bitnet; (2) Fidonet; (3) Usenet; and (4) dial-up bulletin board services. The…

  5. African Literature as Celebration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Achebe, Chinua

    1989-01-01

    Describes the Igbo tradition of "Mbari," a communal creative enterprise that celebrates the world and the life lived in it through art. Contrasts the cooperative, social dimension of pre-colonial African culture with the exclusion and denial of European colonialism, and sees new African literature again celebrating human presence and dignity. (AF)

  6. Educating African American Males

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Edward E.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Schools across America spend money, invest in programs, and sponsor workshops, offer teacher incentives, raise accountability standards, and even evoke the name of Obama in efforts to raise the academic achievement of African American males. Incarceration and college retention rates point to a dismal plight for many African American…

  7. Africans Away from Home.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarke, John Henrik

    Africans who were brought across the Atlantic as slaves never fully adjusted to slavery or accepted its inevitability. Resistance began on board the slave ships, where many jumped overboard or committed suicide. African slaves in South America led the first revolts against tyranny in the New World. The first slave revolt in the Caribbean occurred…

  8. Keeping African Masks Real

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waddington, Susan

    2012-01-01

    Art is a good place to learn about our multicultural planet, and African masks are prized throughout the world as powerfully expressive artistic images. Unfortunately, multicultural education, especially for young children, can perpetuate stereotypes. Masks taken out of context lose their meaning and the term "African masks" suggests that there is…

  9. Diabetes in African Americans

    PubMed Central

    Marshall, M

    2005-01-01

    African Americans have a high risk for type 2 diabetes. Genetic traits, the prevalence of obesity, and insulin resistance all contribute to the risk of diabetes in the African American community. African Americans have a high rate of diabetic complications, because of poor glycaemic control and racial disparities in health care in the USA. African Americans with diabetes may have an atypical presentation that simulates type 1 diabetes, but then their subsequent clinical course is typical of type 2 diabetes. Culturally sensitive strategies, structured disease management protocols, and the assistance of nurses, diabetic educators, and other health care professionals are effective in improving the outcome of diabetes in the African American community. PMID:16344294

  10. CubeSat Cloud: A framework for distributed storage, processing and communication of remote sensing data on cubesat clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Challa, Obulapathi Nayudu

    CubeSat Cloud is a novel vision for a space based remote sensing network that includes a collection of small satellites (including CubeSats), ground stations, and a server, where a CubeSat is a miniaturized satellite with a volume of a 10x10x10 cm cube and has a weight of approximately 1 kg. The small form factor of CubeSats limits the processing and communication capabilities. Implemented and deployed CubeSats have demonstrated about 1 GHz processing speed and 9.6 kbps communication speed. A CubeSat in its current state can take hours to process a 100 MB image and more than a day to downlink the same, which prohibits remote sensing, considering the limitations in ground station access time for a CubeSat. This dissertation designs an architecture and supporting networking protocols to create CubeSat Cloud, a distributed processing, storage and communication framework that will enable faster execution of remote sensing missions on CubeSat clusters. The core components of CubeSat Cloud are CubeSat Distributed File System, CubeSat MapMerge, and CubeSat Torrent. The CubeSat Distributed File System has been created for distributing of large amounts of data among the satellites in the cluster. Once the data is distributed, CubeSat MapReduce has been created to process the data in parallel, thereby reducing the processing load for each CubeSat. Finally, CubeSat Torrent has been created to downlink the data at each CubeSat to a distributed set of ground stations, enabling faster asynchronous downloads. Ground stations send the downlinked data to the server to reconstruct the original image and store it for later retrieval. Analysis of the proposed CubeSat Cloud architecture was performed using a custom-designed simulator, called CubeNet and an emulation test bed using Raspberry Pi devices. Results show that for cluster sizes ranging from 5 to 25 small satellites, faster download speeds up to 4 to 22 times faster - can be achieved when using CubeSat Cloud, compared to a

  11. African bees to control African elephants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vollrath, Fritz; Douglas-Hamilton, Iain

    2002-11-01

    Numbers of elephants have declined in Africa and Asia over the past 30 years while numbers of humans have increased, both substantially. Friction between these two keystone species is reaching levels which are worryingly high from an ecological as well as a political viewpoint. Ways and means must be found to keep the two apart, at least in areas sensitive to each species' survival. The aggressive African bee might be one such method. Here we demonstrate that African bees deter elephants from damaging the vegetation and trees which house their hives. We argue that bees can be employed profitably to protect not only selected trees, but also selected areas, from elephant damage.

  12. Interpretation of MODIS Cloud Images by CloudSat/CALIPSO Cloud Vertical Profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, T.; Fetzer, E. J.; Wong, S.; Yue, Q.

    2015-12-01

    Clouds observed by passive remote-sensing imager (Aqua-MODIS) are collocated to cloud vertical profiles observed by active profiling sensors (CloudSat radar and CALIPSO lidar) at the pixel-scale. By comparing different layers of cloud types classified in the 2B-CLDCLASS-LIDAR product from CloudSat+CALIPSO to those cloud properties observed by MODIS, we evaluate the occurrence frequencies of cloud types and cloud-overlap in CloudSat+CALIPSO for each MODIS cloud regime defined by cloud optical depth (τ) and cloud-top pressure (P) histograms. We find that about 70% of MODIS clear sky agrees with the clear category in CloudSat+CALIPSO; whereas the remainder is either single layer (~25%) cirrus (Ci), low-level cumulus (Cu), stratocumulus (Sc), or multi-layer (<5%) clouds in CloudSat+CALIPSO. Under MODIS cloudy conditions, 60%, 28%, and 8% of the occurrences show single-, double-, and triple-layer clouds, respectively in CloudSat+CALIPSO. When MODIS identifies single-layer clouds, 50-60% of the MODIS low-level clouds are categorized as stratus (Sc) in CloudSat+CALIPSO. Over the tropics, ~70% of MODIS high and optically thin clouds (considered as cirrus in the histogram) is also identified as Ci in CloudSat+CALIPSO, and ~40% of MODIS high and optically thick clouds (considered as convective in the histogram) agrees with CloudSat+CALIPSO deep convections (DC). Over mid-latitudes these numbers drop to 45% and 10%, respectively. The best agreement occurs in tropical single-layer cloud regimes, where 90% of MODIS high-thin clouds are identified as Ci by CloudSat+CALIPSO and 60% of MODIS high-thick clouds are identified as DC. Worst agreement is found for multi-layer clouds, where cirrus on top of low- and mid-level clouds in MODIS are frequently categorized as high-thick clouds by passive imaging - among these only 5-12% are DC in CloudSat+CALIPSO. It is encouraging that both MODIS low-level clouds (regardless of optical thickness) and high-level thin clouds are consistently

  13. Serotonin modulates vocalizations and territorial behavior in an amphibian.

    PubMed

    Ten Eyck, Gary R

    2008-11-01

    It is well established that the serotonergic system modulates social and aggressive behaviors. This study employed field experiments to examine the effects of serotonin on male social structure and behavior in the Puerto Rican coquí frog, Eleutherodactylus coqui. This frog displays three types of male behavioral phenotypes: territorial, satellite, and paternal males. Territorial males produce advertisement calls that delineate territories and actively defend these areas. Satellite males typically do not call or defend given areas but are commonly within given conspecific territories. Paternal males brood and defend developing embryos typically in isolation. The objective of this investigation was to focus on territorial and satellite males to determine the impact of the serotonergic system on territorial behavior, specifically with regard to advertisement calling. Serotonin receptor subtype systems 5-HT(1A) and 5-HT(2A/C) were chosen due to their known function in behavioral regulation. Fifteen territorial and satellite males were injected with the 5-HT(1A) agonist 8-OH-DPAT and 15 territorial and satellite males were injected with the 5-HT(2A/C) agonist DOI. Control territorial and satellite males received saline injections. Results indicated that a significant number of territorial males injected with 8-OH-DPAT and DOI failed to emit territorial vocalizations and did not display dominant postural behaviors. It is hypothesized that 8-OH-DPAT and DOI activate 5-HT(1A) and 5-HT(2A/C) receptor systems, respectively, and this activation results in the elimination of territorial behavior resulting in subordinate status. It is concluded that the serotonergic system is essential for the manifestation of male social behavior in E. coqui. PMID:18554729

  14. Territorial expansion and primary state formation.

    PubMed

    Spencer, Charles S

    2010-04-20

    A major research problem in anthropology is the origin of the state and its bureaucratic form of governance. Of particular importance for evaluating theories of state origins are cases of primary state formation, whereby a first-generation state evolves without contact with any preexisting states. A general model of this process, the territorial-expansion model, is presented and assessed with archaeological data from six areas where primary states emerged in antiquity: Mesoamerica, Peru, Egypt, Mesopotamia, the Indus Valley, and China. In each case, the evidence shows a close correspondence in time between the first appearance of state institutions and the earliest expansion of the state's political-economic control to regions lying more than a day's round-trip from the capital. Although additional research will add detail and clarity to the empirical record, the results to date are consistent with the territorial-expansion model, which argues that the success of such long-distance expansion not only demanded the bureaucratization of central authority but also helped provide the resources necessary to underwrite this administrative transformation. PMID:20385804

  15. Territorial expansion and primary state formation

    PubMed Central

    Spencer, Charles S.

    2010-01-01

    A major research problem in anthropology is the origin of the state and its bureaucratic form of governance. Of particular importance for evaluating theories of state origins are cases of primary state formation, whereby a first-generation state evolves without contact with any preexisting states. A general model of this process, the territorial-expansion model, is presented and assessed with archaeological data from six areas where primary states emerged in antiquity: Mesoamerica, Peru, Egypt, Mesopotamia, the Indus Valley, and China. In each case, the evidence shows a close correspondence in time between the first appearance of state institutions and the earliest expansion of the state's political-economic control to regions lying more than a day's round-trip from the capital. Although additional research will add detail and clarity to the empirical record, the results to date are consistent with the territorial-expansion model, which argues that the success of such long-distance expansion not only demanded the bureaucratization of central authority but also helped provide the resources necessary to underwrite this administrative transformation. PMID:20385804

  16. Golden Eagle Territories and Ecology at Site 300

    SciTech Connect

    Fratanduono, M.

    2015-09-29

    Garcia and Associates (GANDA) was contracted by the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) to collect information on golden eagle (Aquila chrysaetos) use of Site 300. During 2014, we conducted surveys at Site 300 and for an area including a 10-mile radius of Site 300. Those surveys documented 42 golden eagle territories including two territories that overlapped with Site 300. These were named ‘Tesla’ and ‘Linac Road’. In 2015, we conducted surveys to refine the territory boundaries of golden eagle territories that overlapped with Site 300 and to document eagle activity at Site 300.

  17. CpSAT-1, a transcribed satellite sequence from the codling moth, Cydia pomonella.

    PubMed

    Věchtová, Pavlína; Dalíková, Martina; Sýkorová, Miroslava; Žurovcová, Martina; Füssy, Zoltán; Zrzavá, Magda

    2016-08-01

    Satellite DNA (satDNA) is a non-coding component of eukaryotic genomes, located mainly in heterochromatic regions. Relevance of satDNA began to emerge with accumulating evidence of its potential yet hardly comprehensible role that it can play in the genome of many organisms. We isolated the first satDNA of the codling moth (Cydia pomonella, Tortricidae, Lepidoptera), a species with holokinetic chromosomes and a single large heterochromatic element, the W chromosome in females. The satDNA, called CpSAT-1, is located on all chromosomes of the complement, although in different amounts. Surprisingly, the satellite is almost missing in the heterochromatic W chromosome. Additionally, we isolated mRNA from all developmental stages (1st-5th instar larva, pupa, adult), both sexes (adult male and female) and several tissues (Malpighian tubules, gut, heart, testes, and ovaries) of the codling moth and showed the CpSAT-1 sequence was transcribed in all tested samples. Using CpSAT-1 specific primers we amplified, cloned and sequenced 40 monomers from cDNA and gDNA, respectively. The sequence analysis revealed a high mutation rate and the presence of potentially functional motifs, mainly in non-conserved regions of the monomers. Both the chromosomal distribution and the sequence analysis suggest that CPSAT-1 has no function in the C. pomonella genome. PMID:27236660

  18. Orthogonal factor coefficient development of subcutaneous adipose tissue topography (SAT-Top) in girls and boys.

    PubMed

    Tafeit, E; Möller, R; Sudi, K; Horejsi, R; Berg, A; Reibnegger, G

    2001-05-01

    The new optical device Lipometer allows noninvasive, quick, and safe determination of the thickness of subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) layers (in mm) at any site of the human body. The specification of 15 evenly distributed body sites enables the precise measurement of subcutaneous body fat distribution, so-called subcutaneous adipose tissue topography (SAT-Top). SAT-Top was measured in 980 children aged 7-19 years. In this paper we describe the degree to which SAT-Top body sites are intercorrelated. We consider whether a meaningful reduction of data is possible using factor analysis, which factors can be extracted, and how SAT-Top data of children can be added to a factor value plot, depicting the essential results of age-dependent subcutaneous fat development. SAT layers situated on the same body area provide correlation coefficients up to +r = 0.91. Two factors are extracted: factor 1, containing all upper body sites (from neck to hip); and factor 2, consisting of all leg body sites. When all 980 children are divided into three age groups in a factor value plot, the first age group (7-11 years) shows almost equal SAT-Top development in boys and girls. Afterwards, for the consecutive age groups 2 (11-15 years) and 3 (15-19 years), the age-dependent subcutaneous fat development of boys and girls progresses into nearly orthogonal directions. PMID:11309750

  19. EarthSat spring wheat yield system test 1975

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    The results of an operational test of the EarthSat System during the period 1 June - 30 August 1975 over the spring wheat regions of North Dakota, South Dakota, and Minnesota are presented. The errors associated with each sub-element of the system during the operational test and the sensitivity of the complete system and each major functional sub-element of the system to the observed errors were evaluated. Evaluations and recommendations for future operational users of the system include: (1) changes in various system sub-elements, (2) changes in the yield model to affect improved accuracy, (3) changes in the number of geobased cells needed to develop an accurate aggregated yield estimate, (4) changes associated with the implementation of future operational satellites and data processing systems, and (5) detailed system documentation.

  20. Implementation and validation of a CubeSat laser transmitter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kingsbury, R. W.; Caplan, D. O.; Cahoy, K. L.

    2016-03-01

    The paper presents implementation and validation results for a CubeSat-scale laser transmitter. The master oscillator power amplifier (MOPA) design produces a 1550 nm, 200mW average power optical signal through the use of a directly modulated laser diode and a commercial fiber amplifier. The prototype design produces high-fidelity M-ary pulse position modulated (PPM) waveforms (M=8 to 128), targeting data rates > 10 Mbit/s while meeting a constraining 8W power allocation. We also present the implementation of an avalanche photodiode (APD) receiver with measured transmitter-to-receiver performance within 3 dB of theory. Via loopback, the compact receiver design can provide built-in self-test and calibration capabilities, and supports incremental on-orbit testing of the design.

  1. ATMOSUV-CanSat (Atmospheric Thunderstorms's Monitor Optical Signal & UV)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calvo, David; Navarro-González, Javier; Carrió, Fernando; Blay, Pere; Espinós, Héctor; Connell, Paul; Eyles, Chris; Reglero, Víctor

    2014-05-01

    The ATMOSUV-CanSat is a small instrument aimed to study the Optical and UV signal in a TGF (Terrestrial Gamma-ray Flash) process, as a complementary ground monitor facility in the study of thunderstorms at high altitude in the atmosphere. The main goal is to take complementary data to that of the MXGS/ASIM (Modular X-ray and Gamma-ray Sensor in the Atmosphere-Space Interactions Monitor) mission, taken from the ISS (International Space Station). The detector is planed to be launch in a baloon during severe thunderstorms and take measurements of air conditions and to perform fast imaging with high temporal accuracy. We expect to measure UV emision, optical signal, temperature, presure, and accurate 3D location, with FPGA controlled high velocity imaging devices and sensors.

  2. Efficient SAT Techniques for Relative Encoding of Permutations with Constraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velev, Miroslav N.; Gao, Ping

    We present new techniques for relative SAT encoding of permutations with constraints, resulting in improved scalability compared to the previous approach by Prestwich, when applied to searching for Hamiltonian cycles. We observe that half of the ordering variables and two-thirds of the transitivity constraints can be eliminated. We exploit minimal enumeration of transitivity, based on 12 triangulation heuristics, and 11 heuristics for selecting the first node in the Hamiltonian cycle. We propose the use of inverse transitivity constraints. We achieve 3 orders of magnitude average speedup on satisfiable random graphs from the phase transition region, 2 orders of magnitude average speedup on unsatisfiable random graphs, and up to 4 orders of magnitude speedup on satisfiable structured graphs from the DIMACS graph coloring instances.

  3. The Scanning Ionospheric Photometer for CubeSats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fish, C. S.; Crowley, G.; Pilinski, M.; Azeem, I.; Reynolds, A.; Noto, J.; Migliozzi, M.; Doe, R.

    2015-12-01

    Sponsored by the Air Force, our team is developing a system capable of providing night-time images of the ionosphere from a 6U CubeSat. Called SIPS (Scanning Ionospheric Photometer System), it integrates a photometer with a scanning mirror providing almost continuous monitoring of the night-side ionosphere. SIPS will be able to monitor features such as plasma irregularities, which can have deleterious effects on satellite positioning and HF communications. SIPS will help understand the nature of geospace perturbations as well as predict space weather. Requiring minimal power and volume, SIPS enables a number of research and science missions for NSF and NASA, as well as space situational awareness operational missions for the Air Force, that can be conducted from low cost to access to space platforms. In this paper we review the novel sensor observation technique and the modular design which makes SIPS compatible with nano and μsatellites, enabling big missions from small packages.

  4. Satellite Telemetry Analyzer Tool for DubaiSat-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al Hammadi, Omran; Amin, Amel; Al Rais, Adnan; Alloghani, Majid

    2013-08-01

    LEO Satellite telemetry is transmitted to the ground station once it passes over it. This telemetry contains readings of different parameters of various subsystems within the spacecraft. These readings must be analyzed on daily basis to assure the satellite health. Detection of any anomaly occurred or a prediction of possible future problem is a time-consuming task and requires a lot of manpower resources. Satellite operators and engineers need a system that visualizes these massive amounts of readings and automatically detects any anomaly occurred. The Ground Systems Development of EIAST has developed a system that analyzes the received telemetry from DubaiSat-1. It searches for already archived telemetry and stores it into the system database. The end-user interface enhances the telemetry visualization by plotting different parameters of a subsystem during different satellite operation modes. It also clearly notifies the operators of the satellite if any value exceeds its maximum level or drops down to its minimum value.

  5. Pi-Sat: A Low Cost Small Satellite and Distributed Spacecraft Mission System Test Platform

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cudmore, Alan

    2015-01-01

    Current technology and budget trends indicate a shift in satellite architectures from large, expensive single satellite missions, to small, low cost distributed spacecraft missions. At the center of this shift is the SmallSatCubesat architecture. The primary goal of the Pi-Sat project is to create a low cost, and easy to use Distributed Spacecraft Mission (DSM) test bed to facilitate the research and development of next-generation DSM technologies and concepts. This test bed also serves as a realistic software development platform for Small Satellite and Cubesat architectures. The Pi-Sat is based on the popular $35 Raspberry Pi single board computer featuring a 700Mhz ARM processor, 512MB of RAM, a flash memory card, and a wealth of IO options. The Raspberry Pi runs the Linux operating system and can easily run Code 582s Core Flight System flight software architecture. The low cost and high availability of the Raspberry Pi make it an ideal platform for a Distributed Spacecraft Mission and Cubesat software development. The Pi-Sat models currently include a Pi-Sat 1U Cube, a Pi-Sat Wireless Node, and a Pi-Sat Cubesat processor card.The Pi-Sat project takes advantage of many popular trends in the Maker community including low cost electronics, 3d printing, and rapid prototyping in order to provide a realistic platform for flight software testing, training, and technology development. The Pi-Sat has also provided fantastic hands on training opportunities for NASA summer interns and Pathways students.

  6. Mothership - Affordable Exploration of Planetary Bodies through Individual Nano-Sats and Swarms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DiCorcia, James D.; Ernst, Sebastian M.; Grace, J. Mike; Gump, David P.; Lewis, John S.; Foulds, Craig F.; Faber, Daniel R.

    2015-04-01

    One concept to enable broad participation in the scientific exploration of small bodies is the Mothership mission architecture which delivers third-party nano-sats, experiments, and sensors to a near Earth asteroid or comet. Deep Space Industries' Mothership service includes delivery of nano-sats, communication to Earth, and visuals of the asteroid surface and surrounding area. It allows researchers to house their instruments in a low-cost nano-sat platform that does not require the high-performance propulsion or deep space communication capabilities that otherwise would be required for a solo asteroid mission. This enables organizations with relatively low operating budgets to closely examine an asteroid with highly specialized sensors of their own choosing, while the nano-sats can be built or commissioned by a variety of smaller institutions, companies, or agencies. In addition, the Mothership and its deployed nano-sats can offer a platform for instruments which need to be distributed over multiple spacecraft. The Mothership is designed to carry 10 to 12 nano-sats, based upon a variation of the Cubesat standard, with some flexibility on the specific geometry. The Deep Space Nano-Sat reference design is a 14.5 cm cube, which accomodates the same volume as a traditional 3U Cubesat. This design was found to be more favorable for deep space due to its thermal characteristics. The CubeSat standard was originally designed with operations in low Earth orbit in mind. By deliberately breaking the standard, Deep Space Nano-Sats offer better performance with less chance of a critical malfunction in the more hostile deep space environment. The first mission can launch as early as Q4 2017, with subsequent, regular launches through the 2020's.

  7. Whole-gene sequencing investigation of SAT1 in attempted suicide.

    PubMed

    Monson, Eric T; de Klerk, Kelly; Gaynor, Sophia C; Wagner, Alex H; Breen, Marie E; Parsons, Meredith; Casavant, Thomas L; Zandi, Peter P; Potash, James B; Willour, Virginia L

    2016-09-01

    Suicidal behavior imposes a tremendous cost, with current US estimates reporting approximately 1.3 million suicide attempts and more than 40,000 suicide deaths each year. Several recent research efforts have identified an association between suicidal behavior and the expression level of the spermidine/spermine N1-acetyltransferase 1 (SAT1) gene. To date, several SAT1 genetic variants have been inconsistently associated with altered gene expression and/or directly with suicidal behavior. To clarify the role SAT1 genetic variation plays in suicidal behavior risk, we present a whole-gene sequencing effort of SAT1 in 476 bipolar disorder subjects with a history of suicide attempt and 473 subjects with bipolar disorder but no suicide attempts. Agilent SureSelect target enrichment was used to sequence all exons, introns, promoter regions, and putative regulatory regions identified from the ENCODE project within 10 kb of SAT1. Individual variant, haplotype, and collapsing variant tests were performed. Our results identified no variant or assessed region of SAT1 that showed a significant association with attempted suicide, nor did any assessment show evidence for replication of previously reported associations. Overall, no evidence for SAT1 sequence variation contributing to the risk for attempted suicide could be identified. It is possible that past associations of SAT1 expression with suicidal behavior arise from variation not captured in this study, or that causal variants in the region are too rare to be detected within our sample. Larger sample sizes and broader sequencing efforts will likely be required to identify the source of SAT1 expression level associations with suicidal behavior. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27229768

  8. First results on GlioLab/GlioSat Precursors Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cappelletti, Chantal; Notarangelo, Angelo; Demoss, Darrin; Carella, Massimo

    2012-07-01

    Since 2009 GAUSS group is involved in a joint collaboration with Morehead State University (MSU) Space Science Center and IRCCS Casa Sollievo della Sofferenza (CSS) research labs with the aim to design a biomedical project in order to investigate if the combined effects of microgravity conditions and ionizing radiation increase or decrease the survival rate of cancer cells. The biological sample consists of Glioblastoma cancer cell line ANGM-CSS. Glioblastoma is a kind of cancer that can be treated after surgery only by radiotherapy using ionizing radiation. This treatment, anyway, results in a very low survival rate. This project uses different university space platforms: a CubeLab, named GlioLab, on board the International Space Station and the university microsatellite UniSat-5 designed by GAUSS. In addition a GlioLab/GlioSat precursor experiment has already flown two times with the Space Shuttle during the missions STS-134 and STS-135. The phase 0 or the precursor of GlioLab uses a COTS system, named Liquid Mixing Apparatus (LMA), to board the biological samples inside the Space Shuttle for thirty day . The LMA allows to board liquids inside a vial but is not equipped with environment control system. After landing the samples were investigated by researchers at CSS in Italy and at MSU in Kentucky. This paper deals with the experimental set up and the results obtained during the STS-134 and STS-135 missions and with the new evidences on the behavior of this kind of cancer. In particular the results obtained on the DNA analysis give a confirmation of the original idea of GLioLab/Gliosat project justifying the development of the two systems.

  9. Development of Chinese Carbon Dioxide Satellite (TanSat)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, Liu; Cai, Zhaonan; Yang, Dongxu; Duan, Minzheng; Lv, Daren; Yin, Zengshan; Zhang, Yonghe; Yang, Zhongdong; Zhang, Xingying; Zheng, Yuquan; Yan, Changxiang

    2013-04-01

    The Chinese carbon dioxide observation satellite (TanSat) project is the national high technology research and development program. It is funded by the ministry of science and technology of the people's republic of China and the Chinese Academy of Sciences. The TanSat is going to monitor the carbon dioxide in Sun-Synchronous orbit with XCO2 precision of 1~4ppm over regional scale. Two detectors are under design, the main instrument is a high resolution grating spectrometer that measure reflected sunlight with the 0.76 μm O2 A-band and two CO2 bands at 1.61 and 2.06 μm, the second one is the Cloud and Aerosol Polarization Imager (CAPI), which is a wide field of view moderate resolution imaging spectrometer, it include 0.38, 0.67, 0.87, 1.375 and 1.64μm channels, with two polarization channels in 0.67μm and 1.64μm. A full physical optimal estimation method has being developed to retrieve the column-averaged CO2 dry air mole fraction (XCO2), and the data from CAPI will be used to correct cloud and aerosol interference. Global and regional surface CO2 flux will be derived from XCO2 observations with inverse modeling. Ground based validation network are being established around China. The CO2 observation consist of 3 Bruker IFS125 and 3 Optical Spectrum Analyzer over Beijing, Shenzhen, Shangdong, Inner Mongol, and Hainan Island, etc. Currently, we are passing through the preliminary design review and will finish critical design review at the end of 2014, satellite readiness review and launching will be scheduled from Dec. 2014 to June 2015.

  10. Globally Gridded Satellite (GridSat) Observations for Climate Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knapp, Kenneth R.; Ansari, Steve; Bain, Caroline L.; Bourassa, Mark A.; Dickinson, Michael J.; Funk, Chris; Helms, Chip N.; Hennon, Christopher C.; Holmes, Christopher D.; Huffman, George J.; Kossin, James P.; Lee, Hai-Tien; Loew, Alexander; Magnusdottir, Gudrun

    2012-01-01

    Geostationary satellites have provided routine, high temporal resolution Earth observations since the 1970s. Despite the long period of record, use of these data in climate studies has been limited for numerous reasons, among them: there is no central archive of geostationary data for all international satellites, full temporal and spatial resolution data are voluminous, and diverse calibration and navigation formats encumber the uniform processing needed for multi-satellite climate studies. The International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project set the stage for overcoming these issues by archiving a subset of the full resolution geostationary data at approx.10 km resolution at 3 hourly intervals since 1983. Recent efforts at NOAA s National Climatic Data Center to provide convenient access to these data include remapping the data to a standard map projection, recalibrating the data to optimize temporal homogeneity, extending the record of observations back to 1980, and reformatting the data for broad public distribution. The Gridded Satellite (GridSat) dataset includes observations from the visible, infrared window, and infrared water vapor channels. Data are stored in the netCDF format using standards that permit a wide variety of tools and libraries to quickly and easily process the data. A novel data layering approach, together with appropriate satellite and file metadata, allows users to access GridSat data at varying levels of complexity based on their needs. The result is a climate data record already in use by the meteorological community. Examples include reanalysis of tropical cyclones, studies of global precipitation, and detection and tracking of the intertropical convergence zone.

  11. Substituting SAT® II: Subject Tests for SAT I: Reasoning Test: Impact on Admitted Class Composition and Quality. Research Report No. 2001-3. ETS RR-01-07

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bridgeman, Brent; Burton, Nancy; Cline, Frederick

    2001-01-01

    Using data from a sample of 10 colleges at which most students had taken both SAT I: Reasoning Test and SAT II: Subject Tests, the authors simulated the effects of making selection decisions using SAT II scores in place of SAT I scores. Specifically, they treated the students in each college as forming the applicant pool for a more select college,…

  12. SAT predicts GPA better for high ability subjects: Implications for Spearman’s Law of Diminishing Returns

    PubMed Central

    Coyle, Thomas; Snyder, Anissa; Pillow, David; Kochunov, Peter

    2011-01-01

    This research examined the predictive validity of the SAT (formerly, the Scholastic Aptitude Test) for high and low ability groups. SAT scores and college GPAs were obtained from the 1997 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. Subjects were classified as high or low ability by g factor scores from the Armed Services Vocational Aptitude Battery. SAT correlations with GPA were higher for high than low ability subjects. SAT g loadings (i.e., SAT correlations with g) were equivalent for both groups. This is the first study to show that the predictive validity of the SAT varies for ability groups that differ in g. The results contradict a presumption, based on Spearman’s Law of Diminishing Returns, that a test’s predictive validity should be lower for high ability subjects. Further research is needed to identify factors that contribute to the predictive validity of the SAT for groups that differ in g. PMID:21562615

  13. Black versus Black: The Relationship among African, African American, and African Caribbean Persons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Jennifer V.; Cothran, Mary E.

    2003-01-01

    Surveyed people of African descent regarding relationships among African, African-American, and African-Caribbean persons, focusing on contact and friendship, travel to countries of the diaspora, cross-cultural communication, thoughts and stereotypes, and education. Most respondents had contacts with the other groups, but groups had preconceived…

  14. Fires in the Australian Capital Territory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    The height and extent of billowing smoke plumes from bushfires near Canberra, the Australian capital, are illustrated by these views from the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR). The images were acquired on January 18, 2003. Never before had fires of this magnitude come so close to Australia's capital. Four people lost their lives and over 500 homes were destroyed, mostly in the southwestern suburbs. Australia's famous Mount Stromlo Observatory, located immediately west of the city, was also incinerated by the fires.

    The top panel portrays a natural-color view from MISR's nadir camera, in which the eastern portion of the Australian Capital Territory is located south of a pale, ephemeral lake in the upper left-hand corner (Lake George). Several smoke plumes originate within the eastern part of the Australian Capital Territory, while the major plumes originate to the west of the image area. The Australian Capital Territory and much of New South Wales are completely obscured by the smoke, which is driven by fierce westerly winds and extends eastward to the coast and over the Pacific Ocean.

    The lower panel provides a stereoscopically retrieved height field of the clouds and smoke plumes. The greenish areas indicate where smoke plumes extend several kilometers above a bank of patchy stratus clouds below. A few high clouds appear near the bottom of the image. Wind retrievals were excluded from this image in order to generate a smooth and continuous field. Although relative height variations are well-represented here, the inclusion of wind retrievals for this scene reduces the actual cloud height results by 1 to 2 kilometers. Areas where heights could not be retrieved are shown as dark gray.

    The Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer observes the daylit Earth continuouslyand every 9 days views the entire globe between 82 degrees north and 82 degrees south latitude. This data product was generated from a portion of the imagery acquired during Terra

  15. On-orbit low gravity cryogenic scientific investigations using the COLD-SAT Satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, W. J.

    1990-01-01

    The Cryogenic On-Orbit Liquid Depot Storage, Acquisition and Transfer (COLD-SAT) Satellite is an experimental spacecraft designed to investigate the systems and technologies required for an efficient, effective, and reliable management of cryogenic fluids in reduced-gravity space environment. This paper defines the technology needs and the accompanying experimental three-month baseline mission of the COLD-SAT Satellite; describes the experiment subsystems, major features, and rationale for satisfying primary and secondary experimental requirements, using LH2 as the test fluid; and presents the conceptual design of the COLD-SAT spacecraft subsystems which support the on-orbit experiment.

  16. Simulation of Demographic Change in Palestinian Territories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sumour, M. A.; El-Astal, A. H.; Shabat, M. M.; Radwan, M. A.

    Mortality, birth rates and retirement play a major role in demographic changes. In most cases, mortality rates decreased in the past century without noticeable decrease in fertility rates, leading to a significant increase in population growth. In many poor countries like Palestinian Territories the number of births has fallen and the life expectancy increased. In this paper we concentrate on measuring, analyzing and extrapolating the age structure in Palestine a few decades ago into the future. A Fortran program has been designed and used for the simulation and analysis of our statistical data. This study of demographic change in Palestine has shown that Palestinians will have in future problems as the strongest age cohorts are the above-60-year olds. We therefore recommend the increase of both the retirement age and female employment.

  17. Sporotrichosis from the Northern Territory of Australia

    PubMed Central

    Subedi, Shradha; Kidd, Sarah E.; Baird, Robert W.; Coatsworth, Nicholas; Ralph, Anna P.

    2014-01-01

    We report three cases of lymphocutaneous infection caused by the thermally dimorphic fungus, Sporothrix schenckii from Australia's tropical Northern Territory. Two cases were acquired locally, making them the first to be reported from this region. All three cases presented with ulceration in the limb; however, the classical sporotrichoid spread was present only in the first two cases. Their occurrence within several weeks of each other was suggestive of a common source of environmental contamination such as hay used as garden mulch. Diagnoses were delayed in each case, with each patient having substantial exposure to ineffective antibiotics before the correct diagnosis was made. These cases bring the total number of reported sporotrichosis cases in Australia since 1951 to 199. Lessons from these cases are to consider the diagnosis of sporotrichosis in lesions of typical appearance, even in geographical settings from where this pathogen has not previously been reported. PMID:25200259

  18. Astronomy for African development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Govender, Kevindran

    2011-06-01

    In recent years there have been a number of efforts across Africa to develop the field of astronomy as well as to reap benefit from astronomy for African people. This presentation will discuss the case of the SALT (Southern African Large Telescope) Collateral Benefits Programme (SCBP) which was set up to ensure societal benefit from astronomy. With African society as the target, the SCBP has embarked on various projects from school level education to public understanding of science to socio-economic development, the latter mainly being felt in the rural communities surrounding the South African Astronomical Observatory (home to SALT). A development plan for ``Astronomy in Africa'' will also be discussed. This plan has been drawn up with input from all over Africa and themed ``Astronomy for Education''. The Africa case stands as a good example for the IYA cornerstone project ``Developing Astronomy Globally'' which focuses on developing regions.

  19. African American Suicide

    MedlinePlus

    ... accounted for 83.8% of Caucasian elderly suicides. • Firearms were the predominant method of suicide among African ... per 100,000 annually. Source: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. National Vital Statistics System. Mortality Data. ...

  20. Wave power potential in Malaysian territorial waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asmida Mohd Nasir, Nor; Maulud, Khairul Nizam Abdul

    2016-06-01

    Up until today, Malaysia has used renewable energy technology such as biomass, solar and hydro energy for power generation and co-generation in palm oil industries and also for the generation of electricity, yet, we are still far behind other countries which have started to optimize waves for similar production. Wave power is a renewable energy (RE) transported by ocean waves. It is very eco-friendly and is easily reachable. This paper presents an assessment of wave power potential in Malaysian territorial waters including waters of Sabah and Sarawak. In this research, data from Malaysia Meteorology Department (MetMalaysia) is used and is supported by a satellite imaginary obtained from National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and Malaysia Remote Sensing Agency (ARSM) within the time range of the year 1992 until 2007. There were two types of analyses conducted which were mask analysis and comparative analysis. Mask analysis of a research area is the analysis conducted to filter restricted and sensitive areas. Meanwhile, comparative analysis is an analysis conducted to determine the most potential area for wave power generation. Four comparative analyses which have been carried out were wave power analysis, comparative analysis of wave energy power with the sea topography, hot-spot area analysis and comparative analysis of wave energy with the wind speed. These four analyses underwent clipping processes using Geographic Information System (GIS) to obtain the final result. At the end of this research, the most suitable area to develop a wave energy converter was found, which is in the waters of Terengganu and Sarawak. Besides that, it was concluded that the average potential energy that can be generated in Malaysian territorial waters is between 2.8kW/m to 8.6kW/m.

  1. 19 CFR 146.61 - Constructive transfer to Customs territory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Constructive transfer to Customs territory. 146.61 Section 146.61 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... Constructive transfer to Customs territory. The port director shall accept receipt of any entry in proper...

  2. 27 CFR 478.117 - Function outside a customs territory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Function outside a customs... Importation § 478.117 Function outside a customs territory. In the insular possessions of the United States outside customs territory, the functions performed by U.S. Customs officers under this subpart within...

  3. 15 CFR 303.4 - Determination of territorial distribution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... distribution. 303.4 Section 303.4 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade... distribution. (a) Procedure for determination. The Secretaries shall determine the territorial shares... unforeseen at the time of the initial distributions, such as that a territory will use less than 80% of...

  4. 19 CFR 146.61 - Constructive transfer to Customs territory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Constructive transfer to Customs territory. 146.61 Section 146.61 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... Constructive transfer to Customs territory. The port director shall accept receipt of any entry in proper...

  5. 27 CFR 478.117 - Function outside a customs territory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Function outside a customs... Importation § 478.117 Function outside a customs territory. In the insular possessions of the United States outside customs territory, the functions performed by U.S. Customs officers under this subpart within...

  6. 27 CFR 478.117 - Function outside a customs territory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2012-04-01 2010-04-01 true Function outside a customs... Importation § 478.117 Function outside a customs territory. In the insular possessions of the United States outside customs territory, the functions performed by U.S. Customs officers under this subpart within...

  7. 19 CFR 146.61 - Constructive transfer to Customs territory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Constructive transfer to Customs territory. 146.61 Section 146.61 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... Constructive transfer to Customs territory. The port director shall accept receipt of any entry in proper...

  8. 27 CFR 478.117 - Function outside a customs territory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Function outside a customs... Importation § 478.117 Function outside a customs territory. In the insular possessions of the United States outside customs territory, the functions performed by U.S. Customs officers under this subpart within...

  9. 19 CFR 146.61 - Constructive transfer to Customs territory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Constructive transfer to Customs territory. 146.61 Section 146.61 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... Constructive transfer to Customs territory. The port director shall accept receipt of any entry in proper...

  10. 27 CFR 478.117 - Function outside a customs territory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Function outside a customs... Importation § 478.117 Function outside a customs territory. In the insular possessions of the United States outside customs territory, the functions performed by U.S. Customs officers under this subpart within...

  11. 19 CFR 146.61 - Constructive transfer to Customs territory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Constructive transfer to Customs territory. 146.61 Section 146.61 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... Constructive transfer to Customs territory. The port director shall accept receipt of any entry in proper...

  12. Drinking and Smoking Habits of Students at Northern Territory University.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Kathryn L.; Jackson, Adrian S.

    Persons in the Northern Territory who drink have the highest per capita daily consumption of alcohol and the highest rate of tobacco smoking in Australia. This study identifies the drinking patterns and demographic and personal variables that might predict risk levels for Northern Territory University (NTU) students and therefore give direction to…

  13. 42 CFR 423.907 - Treatment of territories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Treatment of territories. 423.907 Section 423.907 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES...-Eligibility Determinations for Subsidies and General Payment Provisions § 423.907 Treatment of territories....

  14. Child Care in Canada: Provinces and Territories 1993.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toronto Univ. (Ontario). Centre for Urban and Community Studies.

    Drawing from existing data and a survey of each provincial or territorial child care office in Canada, this report provides a profile of child care services in each province and territory, and in the country as a whole. Each provincial profile includes information on: (1) relevant legislation; (2) the name and address of the provincial official…

  15. Child Care in Canada: Provinces and Territories 1995.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toronto Univ. (Ontario). Centre for Urban and Community Studies.

    This report presents provincial/territorial and national data on child care in Canada. Data collection methods included document examination for nation-wide statistics, and questionnaires sent to each provincial/territorial child care office, followed by telephone interviews with an official from each jurisdiction to update or clarify data. The…

  16. 26 CFR 44.4404-1 - Territorial extent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Territorial extent. 44.4404-1 Section 44.4404-1... TAXES TAXES ON WAGERING; EFFECTIVE JANUARY 1, 1955 Tax on Wagers § 44.4404-1 Territorial extent. (a) In general. The tax imposed by section 4401 applies to wagers (1) accepted in the United States, or...

  17. Territoriality: Defining the Construct in the Organizational Context of Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henkin, Alan B.; Vineburgh, James H.; Dee, Jay R.

    2010-01-01

    Efforts to make schools more collaborative are likely to evoke concerns and conflicts regarding territory, as administrators, teachers, and staff members are compelled to interact differently in both physical and psychological spaces. Territoriality, as an organizational construct, examines how people negotiate issues of space, ownership,…

  18. 46 CFR 308.504 - Definition of territories and possessions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Definition of territories and possessions. 308.504 Section 308.504 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION EMERGENCY OPERATIONS WAR RISK INSURANCE War Risk Cargo Insurance I-Introduction § 308.504 Definition of territories and possessions. Whenever reference is made to...

  19. The Permeability of Territorial Space: Some Evidence from Military Warfare.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khoury, Robert M.

    1984-01-01

    Investigated military invasions (N=58) of the territorial boundaries of nation-states, and attempted to document empirically the territorial space permeability function. Results showed that the function relating intrusion to discomfort was found to be conspicuously similar to the personal space permeability function described by Hayduk (1981).…

  20. A Directed Research Project Investigating Territoriality and Aggression in Crickets.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darling, Ruth A.

    2001-01-01

    Describes a directed research project that examines the territorial and aggressive behavior of crickets. Presents behavioral ecology laboratory experiments in which students test the hypothesis that crickets with established territories are more likely to win confrontations that intruding crickets. (Contains 11 references.) (ASK)

  1. A preliminary investigation of tuberculosis and other diseases in African buffalo (Syncerus caffer) in Queen Elizabeth National Park, Uganda.

    PubMed

    Kalema-Zikusoka, G; Bengis, R G; Michel, A L; Woodford, M H

    2005-06-01

    A survey to determine the prevalence of bovine tuberculosis caused by Mycobacterium bovis and certain other infectious diseases was conducted on 42 free-ranging African buffaloes, (Syncerus caffer) from May to June 1997 in the Queen Elizabeth National Park, Uganda. Using the gamma interferon test, exposure to M. bovis was detected in 21.6% of the buffaloes. One dead buffalo and an emaciated warthog (Phacochoerus aethiopicus) that was euthanased, were necropsied; both had miliary granulomas from which M. bovis was isolated. None of the buffaloes sampled in Sector A of the park, which has no cattle interface, tested positive for bovine tuberculosis (BTB) exposure. The prevalence and distribution of BTB does not appear to have changed significantly since the 1960s, but this may be due to fluxes in the buffalo population. Serological testing for foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) demonstrated positive exposure of 57.1% of the buffaloes sampled, with types A, O and SAT 1-3, which is the first known report of FMD antibodies to A and O types in free ranging African buffaloes. Foot-and-mouth disease virus types SAT 1 and SAT 3 were isolated from buffalo probang samples. Two percent of the buffaloes had been exposed to brucellosis. None of the buffaloes tested had antibodies to rinderpest, leptospirosis or Q fever. PMID:16137132

  2. Individual Quality Explains Variation in Reproductive Success Better than Territory Quality in a Long-Lived Territorial Raptor

    PubMed Central

    Zabala, Jabi; Zuberogoitia, Iñigo

    2014-01-01

    Evolution by natural selection depends on the relationship between individual traits and fitness. Variation in individual fitness can result from habitat (territory) quality and individual variation. Individual quality and specialization can have a deep impact on fitness, yet in most studies on territorial species the quality of territory and individuals are confused. We aimed to determine if variation in breeding success is better explained by territories, individual quality or a combination of both. We analysed the number of fledglings and the breeding quality index (the difference between the number of fledglings of an individual/breeding pair and the average number of fledglings of the monitored territories in the same year) as part of a long term (16 years) peregrine falcon (Falco peregrinus) monitoring program with identification of individuals. Using individual and territory identities as correlates of quality, we built Generalised Linear Models with Mixed effects, in which random factors depicted different hypotheses for sources of variation (territory/individual quality) in the reproductive success of unique breeding pairs, males and females, and assessed their performance. Most evidence supported the hypothesis that variation in breeding success is explained by individual identity, particularly male identity, rather than territory. There is also some evidence for inter year variations in the breeding success of females and a territory effect in the case of males. We argue that, in territorial species, individual quality is a major source of variation in breeding success, often masked by territory. Future ecological and conservation studies on habitat use should consider and include the effect of individuals, in order to avoid misleading results. PMID:24599280

  3. SANITARY VULNERABILITY OF A TERRITORIAL SYSTEM IN HIGH SEISMIC AREAS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teramo, A.; Termini, D.; de Domenico, D.; Marino, A.; Marullo, A.; Saccà, C.; Teramo, M.

    2009-12-01

    An evaluation procedure of sanitary vulnerability of a territorial system falling within a high seismic risk area, related to casualty treatment capability of hospitals after an earthquake, is proposed. The goal of the study is aimed at highlighting hospital criticalities for the arrangement of a prevention policy on the basis of territorial, demographic and sanitary type specific analyses of a given area. This is the first step of a procedure of territorial context reading within a damage scenario, addressed to a verification of preparedness level of the territorial system to a sanitary emergency referable both to a natural disaster and anthropic one. The results of carried out surveys are shown, at a different scale, on several sample areas of Messina Province (Italy) territory, evaluating the consistency of damage scenario with the number of casualties, medical doctors, available beds for the implementation of a emergency sanitary circuit.

  4. Cattle cults of the Arabian Neolithic and early territorial societies.

    PubMed

    McCorriston, Joy; Harrower, Michael; Martin, Louise; Oches, Eric

    2012-01-01

    At the cusp of food production, Near Eastern societies adopted new territorial practices, including archaeologically visible sedentism and nonsedentary social defenses more challenging to identify archaeologically. New archaeological and paleoenvironmental evidence for Arabia's earliest-known sacrifices points to territorial maintenance in arid highland southern Yemen. Here sedentism was not an option prior to agriculture. Seasonally mobile pastoralists developed alternate practices to reify cohesive identities, maintain alliances, and defend territories. Archaeological and paleoenvironmental evidence implies cattle sacrifices were commemorated with a ring of more than 42 cattle skulls and a stone platform buried by 6,400-year-old floodplain sediments. Associated with numerous hearths, these cattle rites suggest feasting by a large gathering, with important sociopolitical ramifications for territories. A GIS analysis of the early Holocene landscape indicates constrained pasturage supporting small resident human populations. Cattle sacrifice in southern Arabia suggests a model of mid-Holocene Neolithic territorial pastoralism under environmental and cultural conditions that made sedentism unsusta PMID:22662353

  5. Global Hydrometeor Occurrence as Observed by CloudSAT: Initial Observations from Summer 2006

    SciTech Connect

    Mace, Gerald G.; Marchand, Roger T.; Zhang, Qiuqing; Stephens, Graeme L.

    2007-05-08

    Measurements of global hydrometeor coverage and occurrence frequencies as observed by the cloud radar on CloudSat are summarized using data collected during Summer 2006. CloudSat was launched on 28 April 2006 and began collecting data routinely on 7 June 2006. In this article we document the distribution of cloudiness from the ITCZ to the Polar regions as observed by CloudSat during the first summer of operations. The overall global hydrometeor coverage as observed by CloudSat is found to be 0.506. The vertical distribution of zonally averaged hydrometeor occurrence shows the relationship of clouds with components of the atmospheric general circulation such as the Hadley Cell, the ubiquitous storms over the Southern Ocean, and the subtropical stratocumulus regimes.

  6. Pulsed Plasma Propulsion - Making CubeSat Missions Beyond Low Earth Orbit Possible

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Northway, P.

    2015-12-01

    As CubeSat missions become more and more popular means of scientific exploration of space, the current direction of interest is to utilize them in areas beyond low earth orbit. The University of Washington CubeSat program focuses on examining possible mission scenarios in addition to technology development and integration. Specifically, we are developing an inert CubeSat propulsion system in the form of a pulsed plasma thruster (PPT) capable of orbit maneuvers. Such a system would allow for missions at the Earth beyond LEO, extended missions at the Moon, and even missions at Europa, when assisted to the Jovian system. We will discuss how starting with a CubeSat design using PPTs for orbital maneuvers, other developing compact technology can be adapted to create a full suite of systems that would meet the requirements for a mission traveling outside low earth orbit.

  7. Attitude Control System for Low-Speed CubeSat Centrifuge to Simulate Asteroid Surface Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saumil, S.; Cannady, A.; Alizadeh, I.; Thangavelautham, J.; Asphaug, E.

    2015-01-01

    AOSat is a 3U CubeSat based centrifuge that will be launched into low Earth orbit in the 2015-2016 timeframe. This unique platform poses some fundamental challenges and opportunities in attitude control system development.

  8. River flood events in Thailand and Bangladesh observed by CryoSat-2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nielsen, Karina; Villadsen, Heidi; Andersen, Ole; Stenseng, Lars; Knudsen, Per

    2015-04-01

    The high along track resolution of the SIRAL altimeter carried on-board CryoSat-2 offers a wide range of unique opportunities for satellite monitoring. This study focuses on the ability of CryoSat-2 to detect the effects of flood events such as increased river levels and inundation of land. Here we study two flood events; the Bangladesh flood event of June 2012 and the flooding in Thailand that lasted between July 2011 and January 2012. The flooding in these areas was caused by abnormal monsoonal rainfall and affected millions of people. We process CryoSat-2 level 1b SAR mode data to derive water levels for the areas and compare these levels before, during and after the flooding events. Other parameters such as the backscatter coefficient and pulse peakiness are also considered. To verify the extent of the flooding observed by CryoSat-2 we compare with independent sources such as Landsat images.

  9. Flight Technical Error Analysis of the SATS Higher Volume Operations Simulation and Flight Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Daniel M.; Consiglio, Maria C.; Murdoch, Jennifer L.; Adams, Catherine H.

    2005-01-01

    This paper provides an analysis of Flight Technical Error (FTE) from recent SATS experiments, called the Higher Volume Operations (HVO) Simulation and Flight experiments, which NASA conducted to determine pilot acceptability of the HVO concept for normal operating conditions. Reported are FTE results from simulation and flight experiment data indicating the SATS HVO concept is viable and acceptable to low-time instrument rated pilots when compared with today s system (baseline). Described is the comparative FTE analysis of lateral, vertical, and airspeed deviations from the baseline and SATS HVO experimental flight procedures. Based on FTE analysis, all evaluation subjects, low-time instrument-rated pilots, flew the HVO procedures safely and proficiently in comparison to today s system. In all cases, the results of the flight experiment validated the results of the simulation experiment and confirm the utility of the simulation platform for comparative Human in the Loop (HITL) studies of SATS HVO and Baseline operations.

  10. Extending Clause Learning of SAT Solvers with Boolean Gröbner Bases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zengler, Christoph; Küchlin, Wolfgang

    We extend clause learning as performed by most modern SAT Solvers by integrating the computation of Boolean Gröbner bases into the conflict learning process. Instead of learning only one clause per conflict, we compute and learn additional binary clauses from a Gröbner basis of the current conflict. We used the Gröbner basis engine of the logic package Redlog contained in the computer algebra system Reduce to extend the SAT solver MiniSAT with Gröbner basis learning. Our approach shows a significant reduction of conflicts and a reduction of restarts and computation time on many hard problems from the SAT 2009 competition.

  11. Personality predictors of academic outcomes: big five correlates of GPA and SAT scores.

    PubMed

    Noftle, Erik E; Robins, Richard W

    2007-07-01

    The authors examined relations between the Big Five personality traits and academic outcomes, specifically SAT scores and grade-point average (GPA). Openness was the strongest predictor of SAT verbal scores, and Conscientiousness was the strongest predictor of both high school and college GPA. These relations replicated across 4 independent samples and across 4 different personality inventories. Further analyses showed that Conscientiousness predicted college GPA, even after controlling for high school GPA and SAT scores, and that the relation between Conscientiousness and college GPA was mediated, both concurrently and longitudinally, by increased academic effort and higher levels of perceived academic ability. The relation between Openness and SAT verbal scores was independent of academic achievement and was mediated, both concurrently and longitudinally, by perceived verbal intelligence. Together, these findings show that personality traits have independent and incremental effects on academic outcomes, even after controlling for traditional predictors of those outcomes. ((c) 2007 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:17605593

  12. CS2SAT: THE CONTROL SYSTEMS CYBER SECURITY SELF-ASSESSMENT TOOL

    SciTech Connect

    Kathleen A. Lee

    2008-01-01

    The Department of Homeland Security National Cyber Security Division has developed the Control System Cyber Security Self-Assessment Tool (CS2SAT) that provides users with a systematic and repeatable approach for assessing the cyber-security posture of their industrial control system networks. The CS2SAT was developed by cyber security experts from Department of Energy National Laboratories and with assistance from the National Institute of Standards and Technology. The CS2SAT is a desktop software tool that guides users through a step-by-step process to collect facility-specific control system information and then makes appropriate recommendations for improving the system’s cyber-security posture. The CS2SAT provides recommendations from a database of industry available cyber-security practices, which have been adapted specifically for application to industry control system networks and components. Each recommendation is linked to a set of actions that can be applied to remediate-specific security vulnerabilities.

  13. Damselfish territories as a refuge for macroalgae on coral reefs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoey, A. S.; Bellwood, D. R.

    2010-03-01

    Herbivory is widely accepted as a key process determining the benthic community structure and resilience of coral reefs. Recent studies have mostly focused on the importance of roving herbivorous fishes in ecosystem processes. Here, we examine the role of territorial damselfish in shaping patterns of macroalgal distribution based on benthic surveys and macroalgal bioassays. The territory composition and effect of resident damselfish on the removal of Sargassum bioassays were quantified for six species of damselfish on Lizard Island, a mid-shelf reef in the northern Great Barrier Reef (GBR). The functional composition of algal communities within territories varied markedly among species. The territories of four species ( Dischistodus perspicillatus, Dischistodus pseudochrysopoecilus, Plectroglyphidodon lacrymatus, and Stegastes nigricans) were characterized by algal turfs, while the territories of two species ( Dischistodus prosopotaenia and Hemiglyphidodon plagiometopon) were characterized by foliose and leathery brown macroalgae. Sargassum, a generally rare alga on mid-shelf reefs, was a particularly common alga within D. prosopotaenia territories on the leeward side of the island but absent within their territories on the windward side of the island. D. prosopotaenia was the only species to retain the transplanted Sargassum, with only a minimal reduction in Sargassum biomass (1.1%) being recorded within their territories at both leeward and windward sites over a 24-h period. In contrast, reductions in Sargassum biomass were high in areas adjacent to D. prosopotaenia territories (83.8%), and within and adjacent to the territories of the five remaining damselfish species (76.2-92.5%). Overall, only one of the six damselfish species provided a refuge for leathery brown macroalgae and may facilitate the development of this macroalgae on mid-shelf reefs of the GBR.

  14. Subcutaneous adipose tissue topography (SAT-Top) development in children and young adults.

    PubMed

    Tafeit, Erwin; Möller, Reinhard; Jurimae, Toivo; Sudi, Karl; Wallner, Sandra Johanna

    2007-06-01

    The importance of body composition measurements to elucidate the dynamics of related diseases in pediatrics is gaining recognition. The methods used should not expose subjects to high doses of radiation and require substantial cooperation. The Lipometer is a new optical device that enables the non-invasive, quick and safe determination of the thickness of subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) layers (in mm) at any site of the human body. The topographic specification of 15 evenly distributed body sites, which makes it possible to precisely measure subcutaneous body fat distribution, is called subcutaneous adipose tissue topography (SAT-Top). SAT-Top was determined in more than 1000 children and young adults between the ages of 7 and 21. In this paper we describe the SAT-Top development of these subjects through different age groups and the differences between male and female SAT-Top development in each age group. SAT layer profiles (medians of the 15 body sites) for boys and girls in age group 1 (7-9 yrs) show a very similar pattern for both sexes, followed by slightly decreasing SAT layer thicknesses in boys and increasing values in girls in the subsequent age groups. Between age group 3 (11-13 yrs) and age group 7 (19-21 yrs) male and female SAT-Top is significantly different. The discriminating power between male and female SAT-Top was investigated by stepwise discriminant analysis, which provided no significant results for age group 1 (7-9 yrs), about 73% correct classification for age group 2 (9-11 yrs) and 3 (11-13 yrs), 83% for age group 4 (13-15 yrs), and about 91-93% for the following age groups (15-21 yrs). It is known that SAT development is the same in both sexes until puberty, when girls gain relatively more fat mass than boys to reach a higher body-fat percentage as adults. This paper presents a precise description of SAT development in boys and girls from childhood to adolescence, which provides a basis for further investigations. PMID:17847915

  15. SeaSat-A Satellite Scatterometer Mission Summary and Engineering Assessment Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, J. W.; Lee, W. H.; Williams, L. A., Jr.

    1979-01-01

    The SeaSat-A satellite was launched on June 26, 1978 and operated in orbit through October 9, 1978. The SeaSat-A satellite scatterometer ocean surface wind field sensor began taking data on July 10, 1978 with virtually continuous operation for 95-1/2 days. A review of mission events significant to the scatterometer and a report on the hardware and software engineering assessment are presented.

  16. Study Pollution Impacts on Upper-Tropospheric Clouds with Aura, CloudSat, and CALIPSO Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, Dong

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the impact of pollution on clouds in the Upper Troposphere. Using the data from the Aura Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS), CloudSat, CALIPSO the presentation shows signatures of pollution impacts on clouds in the upper troposphere. The presentation demonstrates the complementary sensitivities of MLS , CloudSat and CALIPSO to upper tropospheric clouds. It also calls for careful analysis required to sort out microphysical changes from dynamical changes.

  17. Study of LEO-SAT microwave link for broad-band mobile satellite communication system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fujise, Masayuki; Chujo, Wataru; Chiba, Isamu; Furuhama, Yoji; Kawabata, Kazuaki; Konishi, Yoshihiko

    1993-01-01

    In the field of mobile satellite communications, a system based on low-earth-orbit satellites (LEO-SAT's) such as the Iridium system has been proposed. The LEO-SAT system is able to offer mobile telecommunication services in high-latitude areas. Rain degradation, fading and shadowing are also expected to be decreased when the system is operated at a high elevation angle. Furthermore, the propagation delay generated in the LEO-SAT system is less pronounced than that in the geostationary orbit satellite (GEO-SAT) system and, in voice services, the effect of the delay is almost negligible. We proposed a concept of a broad-band mobile satellite communication system with LEO-SAT's and Optical ISL. In that system, a fixed L-band (1.6/1.5 GHz) multibeam is used to offer narrow band service to the mobile terminals in the entire area covered by a LEO-SAT and steerable Ka-band (30/20 GHz) spot beams are used for the wide band service. In this paper, we present results of a study of LEO-SAT microwave link between a satellite and a mobile terminal for a broad-band mobile satellite communication system. First, the results of link budget calculations are presented and the antennas mounted on satellites are shown. For a future mobile antenna technology, we also show digital beamforming (DBF) techniques. DBF, together with modulation and/or demodulation, is becoming a key technique for mobile antennas with advanced functions such as antenna pattern calibration, correction, and radio interference suppression. In this paper, efficient DBF techniques for transmitting and receiving are presented. Furthermore, an adaptive array antenna system suitable for this LEO-SAT is presented.

  18. Abstract Model of the SATS Concept of Operations: Initial Results and Recommendations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dowek, Gilles; Munoz, Cesar; Carreno, Victor A.

    2004-01-01

    An abstract mathematical model of the concept of operations for the Small Aircraft Transportation System (SATS) is presented. The Concept of Operations consist of several procedures that describe nominal operations for SATS, Several safety properties of the system are proven using formal techniques. The final goal of the verification effort is to show that under nominal operations, aircraft are safely separated. The abstract model was written and formally verified in the Prototype Verification System (PVS).

  19. Space Environment NanoSat Experiment (SENSE) - A New Frontier in Operational Space Environmental Monitoring (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalamaroff, K. I.; Thompson, D. C.; Cooke, D. L.; Gentile, L. C.; Bonito, N. A.; La Tour, P.; Sondecker, G.; Bishop, R. L.; Nicholas, A. C.; Doe, R. A.

    2013-12-01

    The Space Environmental NanoSat Experiment (SENSE) program is a rapid development effort of the USAF Space and Missiles Center Development Planning Directorate (SMC/XR) which will demonstrate the capability of NanoSats to perform space missions in an affordable and resilient manner. The three primary objectives for the SENSE mission are: 1) to develop best practices for operational CubeSat/NanoSat procurement, development, test, and operations; 2) to mature CubeSat bus and sensor component technology readiness levels; and 3) to demonstrate the operational utility of CubeSat measurements by flowing validated, low-latency data into operational space weather models. SENSE consists of two 3-U CubeSats built by Boeing Phantom Works. Both satellites are 3-axis stabilized with star cameras for attitude determination and are equipped with a Compact Total Electron Density Sensor (CTECS) to provide radio occultation measurements of total electron content and L-band scintillation. One satellite has a Cubesat Tiny Ionospheric Photometer (CTIP) monitoring 135.6 nm photons produced by the recombination of O+ ions and electrons. The other satellite has a Wind Ion Neutral Composite Suite (WINCS) to acquire simultaneous co-located, in situ measurements of atmospheric and ionospheric density, composition, temperature and winds/drifts. Mission data will be used to improve current and future space weather models and demonstrate the utility of data from CubeSats for operational weather requirements. Launch is scheduled for November 2013, and we will discuss the first 30 days of on-orbit operations.

  20. Intimate partner violence among African American and African Caribbean women: prevalence, risk factors, and the influence of cultural attitudes

    PubMed Central

    Stockman, Jamila K.; Lucea, Marguerite B.; Bolyard, Richelle; Bertand, Desiree; Callwood, Gloria B.; Sharps, Phyllis W.; Campbell, Doris W.; Campbell, Jacquelyn C.

    2014-01-01

    Background Women of African descent are disproportionately affected by intimate partner abuse; yet, limited data exist on whether the prevalence varies for women of African descent in the United States and those in the US territories. Objective In this multisite study, we estimated lifetime and 2-year prevalence of physical, sexual, and psychological intimate partner abuse (IPA) among 1,545 women of African descent in the United States and US Virgin Islands (USVI). We also examined how cultural tolerance of physical and/or sexual intimate partner violence (IPV) influences abuse. Design Between 2009 and 2011, we recruited African American and African Caribbean women aged 18–55 from health clinics in Baltimore, MD, and St. Thomas and St. Croix, USVI, into a comparative case-control study. Screened and enrolled women completed an audio computer-assisted self-interview. Screening-based prevalence of IPA and IPV were stratified by study site and associations between tolerance of IPV and abuse experiences were examined by multivariate logistic regression analysis. Results Most of the 1,545 screened women were young, of low-income, and in a current intimate relationship. Lifetime prevalence of IPA was 45% in St. Thomas, 38% in St. Croix, and 37% in Baltimore. Lifetime prevalence of IPV was 38% in St. Thomas, 28% in St. Croix, and 30% in Baltimore. Past 2-year prevalence of IPV was 32% in St. Thomas, 22% in St. Croix, and 26% in Baltimore. Risk and protective factors for IPV varied by site. Community and personal acceptance of IPV were independently associated with lifetime IPA in Baltimore and St. Thomas. Conclusions Variance across sites for risk and protective factors emphasizes cultural considerations in sub-populations of women of African descent when addressing IPA and IPV in given settings. Individual-based interventions should be coupled with community/societal interventions to shape attitudes about use of violence in relationships and to promote healthy

  1. Integration of a MicroCAT Propulsion System and a PhoneSat Bus into a 1.5U CubeSat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Agasid, Elwood Floyd; Perez, Andres Dono; Gazulla, Oriol Tintore; Trinh, Greenfield Tran; Uribe, Eddie Anthony; Keidar, Michael; Haque, Samudra; Teel, George

    2014-01-01

    NASA Ames Research Center and the George Washington University have developed an electric propulsion subsystem that can be integrated into the PhoneSat bus. Experimental tests have shown a reliable performance by firing three different thrusters at various frequencies in vacuum conditions. The three thrusters were controlled by a SmartPhone that was running the PhoneSat software. The subsystem is fully operational and it requires low average power to function (about 0.1 W). The interface consists of a microcontroller that sends a trigger pulses to the PPU (Plasma Processing Unit), which is responsible for the thruster operation. Frequencies ranging from 1 to 50Hz have been tested, showing a strong flexibility. A SmartPhone acts as the main user interface for the selection of commands that control the entire system. The micro cathode arc thruster MicroCAT provides a high 1(sub sp) of 3000s that allows a 4kg satellite to obtain a (delta)V of 300m/s. The system mass is only 200g with a total of volume of 200(cu cm). The propellant is based on a solid cylinder made of Titanium, which is the cathode at the same time. This simplicity in the design avoids miniaturization and manufacturing problems. The characteristics of this thruster allow an array of MicroCATs to perform attitude control and orbital correcton maneuvers that will open the door for the implementation of an extensive collection of new mission concepts and space applications for CubeSats. NASA Ames is currently working on the integration of the system to fit the thrusters and PPU inside a 1.5U CubeSat together with the PhoneSat bus into a 1.5U CubeSat. This satellite is intended to be deployed from the ISS in 2015 and test the functionality of the thrusters by spinning the satellite around its long axis and measure the rotational speed with the phone byros. This test flight will raise the TRL of the propulsion system from 5 to 7 and will be a first test for further CubeSats with propulsion systems, a key

  2. Young SAT-Takers: Two Surveys. Survey I: Young SAT-Takers and Their Parents. Survey II: Test-Taking History for 1980-81 Young SAT-Takers. College Board Report No. 88-1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilder, Gita; And Others

    Two surveys were conducted to determine the impact of administration of the Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT) to students under 14 years of age. Survey I provided data from 1,846 students tested in January 1984, and on their parents; there were 1,606 parent-student matches among respondents (i.e., student and parent questionnaires from the same…

  3. Scalability of the surface-based DNA algorithm for 3-SAT.

    PubMed

    Li, Dafa; Li, Xiangrong; Huang, Hongtao; Li, Xinxin

    2006-08-01

    Since Adleman first proposed DNA computing for the Hamiltonian path problem, several authors have reported DNA computing for 3-SAT. Previous research presented DNA computing on surfaces and demonstrated how to solve a four-variable four-clause instance of 3-SAT, and claimed that the surface-based approach was designed to scale up to larger problems. In this paper we establish an error model for the incomplete "mark" and imperfect "destroy" operations. By using the error model we argue that no matter how large the "mark" and "destroy" rates are we can always give satisfiable instances of 3-SAT such that no DNA strands remain on the surface at the end of the computation. By the surface-based approach the satisfiable instances of 3-SAT would be misdetermined to be unsatisfiable. Thus, the error leads to an incorrect result of the SAT computation. Furthermore, given the "mark" rate p and the "not-destroy" rate rho, we find that the approach can only solve at most N-variable instances of 3-SAT problems, where N=[(2+beta(2)+2+2 square root beta (2))/beta(2)] in which beta=1-1/(p+rhoq) and q=1-p and [a] is the greatest integer less than a or equal to a. PMID:16423447

  4. CubeSat-Associated Radiation Belt Research: Recent and Upcoming Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blum, Lauren; Li, Xinlin; Schiller, Quintin

    2016-07-01

    Interest in CubeSats has grown dramatically in the past decade within the space physics community. While CubeSats are generally accepted now to be useful tools for education and technology development/demonstration, their ability to provide scientific value is often still questioned. Radiation belt physics, however, is one area in which the scientific utility of these small platforms has been demonstrated and continues to offer great promise. The Colorado Student Space Weather Experiment (CSSWE) CubeSat, designed, built, tested, and operated by students at University of Colorado with mentoring from LASP professionals, was one of the first of now a long line of CubeSats designed to study radiation belt dynamics. Launched in September 2012, just a few weeks after NASA's Van Allen Probes, CSSWE provided valuable measurements of energetic electrons and protons from low-Earth orbit for two years, well beyond its nominal 3-month mission lifetime. The status of and results from CSSWE will be presented, with an emphasis on how these measurements have been combined with those from balloons and larger satellite missions to better understand radiation belt electron acceleration and loss processes. Some highlights from other radiation belt-related CubeSats will also be presented, along with upcoming missions. Radiation belt studies are a prime example of how small inexpensive CubeSats can be used to provide valuable scientific measurements and complement larger missions.

  5. Comparisons of Satellite-Deduced Overlapping Cloud Properties and CALIPSO CloudSat Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, Fu-Lung; Minnis, Patrick; Lin, Bing; Sun-Mack, Sunny

    2010-01-01

    Introduction to the overlapped cloud properties derived from polar-orbiting (MODIS) and geostationary (GOES-12, -13, Meteosat-8, -9, etc.) meteorological satellites, which are produced at the NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) cloud research & development team (NASA lead scientist: Dr. Patrick Minnis). Comparison of the LaRC CERES MODIS Edition-3 overlapped cloud properties to the CALIPSO and the CloudSat active sensing data. High clouds and overlapped clouds occur frequently as deduced by CALIPSO (44 & 25%), CloudSat (25 & 4%), and MODIS (37 & 6%). Large fractions of optically-thin cirrus and overlapped clouds are deduced from CALIPSO, but much smaller fractions are from CloudSat and MODIS. For overlapped clouds, the averaged upper-layer CTHs are about 12.8 (CALIPSO), 10.9 (CloudSat) and 10 km (MODIS), and the averaged lower-layer CTHs are about 3.6 (CALIPSO), 3.2 (CloudSat) and 3.9 km (MODIS). Based on comparisons of upper and lower-layer cloud properties as deduced from the MODIS, CALIPSO and CloudSat data, more enhanced passive satellite methods for retrieving thin cirrus and overlapped cloud properties are needed and are under development.

  6. Using Additive Manufacturing to Print a CubeSat Propulsion System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marshall, William M.

    2015-01-01

    CubeSats are increasingly being utilized for missions traditionally ascribed to larger satellites CubeSat unit (1U) defined as 10 cm x 10 cm x 11 cm. Have been built up to 6U sizes. CubeSats are typically built up from commercially available off-the-shelf components, but have limited capabilities. By using additive manufacturing, mission specific capabilities (such as propulsion), can be built into a system. This effort is part of STMD Small Satellite program Printing the Complete CubeSat. Interest in propulsion concepts for CubeSats is rapidly gaining interest-Numerous concepts exist for CubeSat scale propulsion concepts. The focus of this effort is how to incorporate into structure using additive manufacturing. End-use of propulsion system dictates which type of system to develop-Pulse-mode RCS would require different system than a delta-V orbital maneuvering system. Team chose an RCS system based on available propulsion systems and feasibility of printing using a materials extrusion process. Initially investigated a cold-gas propulsion system for RCS applications-Materials extrusion process did not permit adequate sealing of part to make this a functional approach.

  7. Characterization of spacecraft and environmental disturbances on a SmallSat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Thomas A.; Nguyen, Dung Phu Chi; Cuda, Vince; Freesland, Doug

    1994-01-01

    The objective of this study is to model the on-orbit vibration environment encountered by a SmallSat. Vibration control issues are common to the Earth observing, imaging, and microgravity communities. A spacecraft may contain dozens of support systems and instruments each a potential source of vibration. The quality of payload data depends on constraining vibration so that parasitic disturbances do not affect the payload's pointing or microgravity requirement. In practice, payloads are designed incorporating existing flight hardware in many cases with nonspecific vibration performance. Thus, for the development of a payload, designers require a thorough knowledge of existing mechanical devices and their associated disturbance levels. This study evaluates a SmallSat mission and seeks to answer basic questions concerning on-orbit vibration. Payloads were considered from the Earth observing, microgravity, and imaging communities. Candidate payload requirements were matched to spacecraft bus resources of present day SmallSats. From the set of candidate payloads, the representative payload GLAS (Geoscience Laser Altimeter System) was selected. The requirements of GLAS were considered very stringent for the 150 - 500 kg class of payloads. Once the payload was selected, a generic SmallSat was designed in order to accommodate the payload requirements (weight, size, power, etc.). This study seeks to characterize the on-orbit vibration environment of a SmallSat designed for this type of mission and to determine whether a SmallSat can provide the precision pointing and jitter control required for earth observing payloads.

  8. Preliminary Characterization Results from the DebriSat Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rivero, M.; Shiotani, B.; Kleespies, J.; Toledo-Burdett, R.; Moraguez, M.; Carrasquila, M.; Fitz-Coy, N.; Liou, J.-C.; Sorge, M.; Huynh, T.

    2016-01-01

    The DebriSat project is a continuing effort sponsored by NASA and DoD to update existing break-up models using data obtained from two separate hypervelocity impact tests used to simulate on-orbit collisions. To protect the fragments resulting from the impact tests, "soft-catch" arenas made of polyurethane foam panels were utilized. After each impact test, the test chamber was cleaned and debris resulting from the catastrophic demise of the test article were collected and shipped to the University of Florida for post-impact processing. The post-impact processing activities include collecting, characterizing, and cataloging of the fragments. Since the impact tests, a team of students has been working to characterize the fragments in terms of their mass, size, shape, color and material content. The focus of the 20 months since the impact tests has been on the collection of 2 millimeters- and larger fragments resulting from impact test on the 56 kilogram-representative LEO (Low Earth Orbit) satellite referred to as DebriSat. To date we have recovered in excess of 115,000 fragments, 30,000 more than the prediction of 85,000 fragments from the existing model. We continue to collect fragments but have transitioned to the characterization phase of the post-impact activities. Since the start of the characterization phase, the focus has been to utilize automation to (i) expedite fragment characterization process and (ii) minimize human-in-the- loop. We have developed and implemented such automated processes; e.g., we have automated the data entry process to reduce operator errors during transcription of the measurement data. However, at all steps of the process, there is human oversight to ensure the integrity of the data. Additionally, we have developed and implemented repeatability and reproducibility tests to ensure that the instrumentation used in the characterization process is accurate and properly calibrated. In this paper, the implemented processes are described and

  9. A territorial understanding of sustainability in public development

    SciTech Connect

    Peti, Marton

    2012-01-15

    Sustainability theories in European Union (EU) development policies are facing significant challenges: it is difficult to transmit context-specific, publicly communicable messages; the recent development policies strengthen the concurrent development paradigm of economic growth and competitiveness; 'climate change' became a more popular environmental integration term than sustainability in the last few years. However, due to the recent crises of the economic growth, there is a great chance to reintroduce a sustainability-based development. A territorial/regional understanding of sustainability can also be an answer for the current challenges, a platform for refreshing the concept with relevant, specific messages that are close to the everyday life. This paper summarises the 'territorial system'-based basic principles of territorial sustainability in a model called AUTHARSIIV (AUTonomy, HARmony, Solidarity, Innovation, Identity and Values). This is a supplementary sustainability content specified for the context of spatial/regional development or planning. The paper also examines the presence of 'general and territorial sustainability' in regional development programmes, and case studies on applying the territorial sustainability principles in planning, assessment, and implementation. According to the results, sustainability is rarely adapted to the conditions of a given sector or a region, and the territorial aspect of sustainability is underrepresented even in territorial programmes. Therefore, the paper proposes a new planning and assessment system that is based on a set of regionally legitimate sustainability values.

  10. Noninvasive genetic sampling reveals intrasex territoriality in wolverines.

    PubMed

    Bischof, Richard; Gregersen, Espen R; Brøseth, Henrik; Ellegren, Hans; Flagstad, Øystein

    2016-03-01

    Due to its conspicuous manifestations and its capacity to shape the configuration and dynamics of wild populations, territorial behavior has long intrigued ecologists. Territoriality and other animal interactions in situ have traditionally been studied via direct observations and telemetry. Here, we explore whether noninvasive genetic sampling, which is increasingly supplementing traditional field methods in ecological research, can reveal territorial behavior in an elusive carnivore, the wolverine (Gulo gulo). Using the locations of genotyped wolverine scat samples collected annually over a period of 12 years in central Norway, we test three predictions: (1) male home ranges constructed from noninvasive genetic sampling data are larger than those of females, (2) individuals avoid areas used by other conspecifics of the same sex (intrasexual territoriality), and (3) avoidance of same-sex territories diminishes or disappears after the territory owner's death. Each of these predictions is substantiated by our results: sex-specific differences in home range size and intrasexual territoriality in wolverine are patently reflected in the spatial and temporal configuration of noninvasively collected genetic samples. Our study confirms that wildlife monitoring programs can utilize the spatial information in noninvasive genetic sampling data to detect and quantify home ranges and social organization. PMID:27087927

  11. Territorial Polymers and Large Scale Genome Organization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grosberg, Alexander

    2012-02-01

    Chromatin fiber in interphase nucleus represents effectively a very long polymer packed in a restricted volume. Although polymer models of chromatin organization were considered, most of them disregard the fact that DNA has to stay not too entangled in order to function properly. One polymer model with no entanglements is the melt of unknotted unconcatenated rings. Extensive simulations indicate that rings in the melt at large length (monomer numbers) N approach the compact state, with gyration radius scaling as N^1/3, suggesting every ring being compact and segregated from the surrounding rings. The segregation is consistent with the known phenomenon of chromosome territories. Surface exponent β (describing the number of contacts between neighboring rings scaling as N^β) appears only slightly below unity, β 0.95. This suggests that the loop factor (probability to meet for two monomers linear distance s apart) should decay as s^-γ, where γ= 2 - β is slightly above one. The later result is consistent with HiC data on real human interphase chromosomes, and does not contradict to the older FISH data. The dynamics of rings in the melt indicates that the motion of one ring remains subdiffusive on the time scale well above the stress relaxation time.

  12. Extra-Territorial Siting of Nuclear Installations

    SciTech Connect

    Shea, Thomas E.; Morris, Frederic A.

    2009-10-07

    Arrangements might be created for siting nuclear installations on land ceded by a host State for administration by an international or multinational organization. Such arrangements might prove useful in terms of resolving suspicions of proliferation in troubled areas of the world, or as a means to introduce nuclear activities into areas where political, financial or technical capabilities might otherwise make such activities unsound, or as a means to enable global solutions to be instituted for major nuclear concerns (e.g., spent fuel management). The paper examines practical matters associated with the legal and programmatic aspects of siting nuclear installations, including diplomatic/political frameworks, engaging competent industrial bodies, protection against seizure, regulation to ensure safety and security, waste management, and conditions related to the dissolution of the extra-territorial provisions as may be agreed as the host State(s) achieve the capabilities to own and operate the installations. The paper considers the potential for using such a mechanism across the spectrum of nuclear power activities, from mining to geological repositories for nuclear waste. The paper considers the non-proliferation dimensions associated with such arrangements, and the pros and cons affecting potential host States, technology vendor States, regional neighbors and the international community. It considers in brief potential applications in several locations today.

  13. Pleistocene vertebrates of the Yukon Territory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harington, C. R.

    2011-08-01

    Unglaciated parts of the Yukon constitute one of the most important areas in North America for yielding Pleistocene vertebrate fossils. Nearly 30 vertebrate faunal localities are reviewed spanning a period of about 1.6 Ma (million years ago) to the close of the Pleistocene some 10 000 BP (radiocarbon years before present, taken as 1950). The vertebrate fossils represent at least 8 species of fishes, 1 amphibian, 41 species of birds and 83 species of mammals. Dominant among the large mammals are: steppe bison ( Bison priscus), horse ( Equus sp.), woolly mammoth ( Mammuthus primigenius), and caribou ( Rangifer tarandus) - signature species of the Mammoth Steppe fauna ( Fig. 1), which was widespread from the British Isles, through northern Europe, and Siberia to Alaska, Yukon and adjacent Northwest Territories. The Yukon faunas extend from Herschel Island in the north to Revenue Creek in the south and from the Alaskan border in the west to Ketza River in the east. The Yukon holds evidence of the earliest-known people in North America. Artifacts made from bison, mammoth and caribou bones from Bluefish Caves, Old Crow Basin and Dawson City areas show that people had a substantial knowledge of making and using bone tools at least by 25 000 BP, and possibly as early as 40 000 BP. A suggested chronological sequence of Yukon Pleistocene vertebrates ( Table 1) facilitates comparison of selected faunas and indicates the known duration of various taxa.

  14. Continental Portuguese Territory Flood Social Susceptibility Index

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grosso, N.; Dias, L.; Costa, H. P.; Santos, F. D.; Garrett, P.

    2015-08-01

    The combination of human exposure, extreme weather events and lack of adaptation strategies to cope with flood-related impacts can potentially increase losses not only on infrastructure but also on human lives. These impacts are usually difficult to quantify due to the lack of data, and for this reason most of the studies developed at the national scale only include the main characteristics that define the societal or individual predisposition to be affected, resist, adapt or recover, when exposed to a flood. The main objective of this work was to develop a flood social susceptibility index for the continental Portuguese territory based on the most representative variables able to characterize different influencing factors. This index is a component of the national vulnerability index developed in the scope of Flood Maps in Climate Change Scenarios (CIRAC) project, supported by the Portuguese Association of Insurers (APS). The main results showed that the proposed index correctly identified populations less prepared to avoid flood effects or able to cope with them, mostly concentrated in rural inland areas with lower income and education levels when compared with the coastal region between Viana do Castelo and Setúbal.

  15. Continental Portuguese Territory Flood Social Susceptibility Index

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grosso, N.; Dias, L.; Costa, H. P.; Santos, F. D.; Garrett, P.

    2014-12-01

    The combination of human exposure, extreme weather events and lack of adaptation strategies to cope with flood related impacts can potentially increase losses not only on infrastructure but also on human lives. These impacts are usually difficult to quantify due to the lack of data and for this reason most of the studies developed at the national scale only include the main characteristics that define the societal or individual predisposition to be affected, resist, adapt or recover, when exposed to a flood. The main objective of this work was to develop a flood social susceptibility index for the continental Portuguese territory based on the most representative variables able to characterize different influencing factors. This index is part of the national vulnerability index developed in the scope of Flood Maps in Climate Change Scenarios (CIRAC) project, supported by the Portuguese Association of Insurers (APS). The main results showed that the proposed index correctly identified populations more socially susceptible to floods, mostly concentrated in rural inland areas with lower income and education levels, when compared with the coastal region between Viana do Castelo and Setúbal.

  16. Strong Earthquake Modelling in Cuban Territory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreno Toiran, B.; Alvarez Gomez, J.; Vaccari, F.

    2013-05-01

    A seismic hazard map for the Cuban territory was obtained by using waveforms modelling methods. The input data set consists of seismogenic zones, focal mechanisms, seismic wave velocity models and earthquake catalogue. Several maps were generated with the predominant periods corresponding to the maximum displacement (Dmax) and maximum velocity (Vmax) as well as the design ground acceleration (DGA). In order to get this result they were computed thousand of synthetic seismograms with the knowledge of the physical processes of earthquake generation, the levels of seismicity and wave propagation in anelastic media. The synthetic seismograms were generated at 1 Hz of frequency at a regular grid of 0.2 x 0.2 degree with the modal summation technique. Considering the strongest earthquake in the catalogue (7.3 magnitude Richter) the DGA maximum amplitudes are between 0.30g and 0.45g in the Santiago de Cuba region. If the maximum possible earthquake (8.0 magnitude Richter) is considered, the DGA can range between 0.6g and 0.9g in the same zone. For the first case (magnitude 7.3) the maximum velocities are between 60 - 84 cm/sec at periods between 1- 3 seconds and the maximum displacements are between 15 - 28 cm at periods between 4 - 5 seconds.

  17. LifeSat engineering in-house vehicle design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adkins, A.; Badhwar, G.; Bryant, L.; Caram, J.; Conley, G.; Crull, T.; Cuthbert, P.; Darcy, E.; Delaune, P.; Edeen, M.

    1992-01-01

    The LifeSat program was initiated to research the effects of microgravity and cosmic radiation on living organisms. The effects of long-term human exposure to free-space radiation fields over a range of gravitational environments has long been recognized as one of the primary design uncertainties for human space exploration. A critical design issue in the radiation biology requirements was the lack of definition of the minimum radiation absorbed dosage required to produce statistically meaningful data. The Phase A study produced a spacecraft conceptual design resembling a Discoverer configuration with a total weight of approximately 2800 pounds that would carry a 525-pound payload module (45 inches in diameter and 36 inches long) and support up to 12 rodents and a general biology module supporting lower life forms for an on-orbit duration of up to 60 days. The phase B conceptual designs focused on gravitational biology requirements and only briefly addressed the design impacts of the shift toward radiobiological science that occurred during the latter half of the Phase B studies.

  18. Satisfiability Threshold for Random Regular nae-sat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Jian; Sly, Allan; Sun, Nike

    2016-01-01

    We consider the random regular k- nae- sat problem with n variables, each appearing in exactly d clauses. For all k exceeding an absolute constant {{k}_0}, we establish explicitly the satisfiability threshold {{{d_star} equiv {d_star(k)}}}. We prove that for {{d < d_star}} the problem is satisfiable with high probability, while for {{d > d_star}} the problem is unsatisfiable with high probability. If the threshold {{d_star}} lands exactly on an integer, we show that the problem is satisfiable with probability bounded away from both zero and one. This is the first result to locate the exact satisfiability threshold in a random constraint satisfaction problem exhibiting the condensation phenomenon identified by Krzakała et al. [Proc Natl Acad Sci 104(25):10318-10323, 2007]. Our proof verifies the one-step replica symmetry breaking formalism for this model. We expect our methods to be applicable to a broad range of random constraint satisfaction problems and combinatorial problems on random graphs.

  19. CryoSat-2 commissioning phase results summary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cullen, R.

    2010-12-01

    CryoSat-2 was launched on 8th April 2010 and following a 3 day LEOP entered its 6 month commissioning phase. The primary payload of the platform consists of the Synthetic Interferometric Radar Altimeter (SIRAL-2) with support for its data processing coming from data acquired from on-board DORIS DGXX and star trackers. We present a description of the payload and provide post-launch performance summaries in terms of SIRAL internal/external calibration in combination with an assessment of global data acquisition achievement in each of the three science modes: Low resolution pulse-width limited mode (LRM) over interior land-ice and ocean to support POD, Synthetic aperture radar mode (SARM) for sea-ice and SAR interferometric mode (SARInM) for higher surface slope land-ice sheet margin acquisitions. Commissioning activities are summarised with examples and we provide conclusions on the experiences gained with the data during this period. Specific issues are highlighted and that Users of the data products should consider taking into account with their analyses. Finally, present performances of the three science modes over transponders and open ocean calibration zones are provided in addition to specific cases over land and sea ice. Preliminary performances of DORIS and star trackers will be provided in the context of overall SIRAL performance.

  20. NMR implementation of adiabatic SAT algorithm using strongly modulated pulses.

    PubMed

    Mitra, Avik; Mahesh, T S; Kumar, Anil

    2008-03-28

    NMR implementation of adiabatic algorithms face severe problems in homonuclear spin systems since the qubit selective pulses are long and during this period, evolution under the Hamiltonian and decoherence cause errors. The decoherence destroys the answer as it causes the final state to evolve to mixed state and in homonuclear systems, evolution under the internal Hamiltonian causes phase errors preventing the initial state to converge to the solution state. The resolution of these issues is necessary before one can proceed to implement an adiabatic algorithm in a large system where homonuclear coupled spins will become a necessity. In the present work, we demonstrate that by using "strongly modulated pulses" (SMPs) for the creation of interpolating Hamiltonian, one can circumvent both the problems and successfully implement the adiabatic SAT algorithm in a homonuclear three qubit system. This work also demonstrates that the SMPs tremendously reduce the time taken for the implementation of the algorithm, can overcome problems associated with decoherence, and will be the modality in future implementation of quantum information processing by NMR. PMID:18376911

  1. On the behaviour of random K-SAT on trees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishnamurthy, Supriya; Sumedha

    2012-05-01

    We consider the K-satisfiability problem on a regular d-ary rooted tree. For this model, we demonstrate how we can calculate in closed form the moments of the total number of solutions as a function of d and K, where the average is over all realizations for a fixed assignment of the surface variables. We find that different moments pick out different 'critical' values of d, below which they diverge as the total number of variables on the tree \\rightarrow \\infty and above which they decay. We show that K-SAT on the random graph also behaves similarly. We also calculate exactly the fraction of instances that have solutions for all K. On the tree, this quantity decays to 0 (as the number of variables increases) for any d > 1. However, the recursion relations for this quantity have a non-trivial fixed point solution which indicates the existence of a different transition in the interior of an infinite rooted tree.

  2. Bounded Semantics of CTL and SAT-Based Verification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Wenhui

    Bounded model checking has been proposed as a complementary approach to BDD based symbolic model checking for combating the state explosion problem, esp. for efficient error detection. This has led to a lot of successful work with respect to error detection in the checking of LTL, ACTL (the universal fragment of CTL) and ACTL* properties by satisfiability testing. The use of bounded model checking for verification (in contrast to error detection) of LTL and ACTL properties has later also been studied. This paper studies the potentials and limitations of bounded model checking for the verification of CTL and CTL* formulas. On the theoretical side, we first provide a framework for discussion of bounded semantics, which serves as the basis for bounded model checking, then extend the bounded semantics of ACTL to a bounded semantics of CTL, and discuss the limitation of developing such a bounded semantics for CTL*. On the practical side, a deduction of a SAT-based bounded model checking approach for ACTL properties from the bounded semantics of CTL is demonstrated, and a comparison of such an approach with BDD-based model checking is presented based on experimental results.

  3. NMR implementation of adiabatic SAT algorithm using strongly modulated pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitra, Avik; Mahesh, T. S.; Kumar, Anil

    2008-03-01

    NMR implementation of adiabatic algorithms face severe problems in homonuclear spin systems since the qubit selective pulses are long and during this period, evolution under the Hamiltonian and decoherence cause errors. The decoherence destroys the answer as it causes the final state to evolve to mixed state and in homonuclear systems, evolution under the internal Hamiltonian causes phase errors preventing the initial state to converge to the solution state. The resolution of these issues is necessary before one can proceed to implement an adiabatic algorithm in a large system where homonuclear coupled spins will become a necessity. In the present work, we demonstrate that by using "strongly modulated pulses" (SMPs) for the creation of interpolating Hamiltonian, one can circumvent both the problems and successfully implement the adiabatic SAT algorithm in a homonuclear three qubit system. This work also demonstrates that the SMPs tremendously reduce the time taken for the implementation of the algorithm, can overcome problems associated with decoherence, and will be the modality in future implementation of quantum information processing by NMR.

  4. CicArMiSatDB: the chickpea microsatellite database

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Chickpea (Cicer arietinum) is a widely grown legume crop in tropical, sub-tropical and temperate regions. Molecular breeding approaches seem to be essential for enhancing crop productivity in chickpea. Until recently, limited numbers of molecular markers were available in the case of chickpea for use in molecular breeding. However, the recent advances in genomics facilitated the development of large scale markers especially SSRs (simple sequence repeats), the markers of choice in any breeding program. Availability of genome sequence very recently opens new avenues for accelerating molecular breeding approaches for chickpea improvement. Description In order to assist genetic studies and breeding applications, we have developed a user friendly relational database named the Chickpea Microsatellite Database (CicArMiSatDB http://cicarmisatdb.icrisat.org). This database provides detailed information on SSRs along with their features in the genome. SSRs have been classified and made accessible through an easy-to-use web interface. Conclusions This database is expected to help chickpea community in particular and legume community in general, to select SSRs of particular type or from a specific region in the genome to advance both basic genomics research as well as applied aspects of crop improvement. PMID:24952649

  5. African-Americans and Alzheimer's

    MedlinePlus

    ... Share Plus on Google Plus African-Americans and Alzheimer's alz.org | IHaveAlz Introduction 10 Warning Signs Brain ... African-Americans are at a higher risk for Alzheimer's disease. Many Americans dismiss the warning signs of ...

  6. Interspecific assistance: fiddler crabs help heterospecific neighbours in territory defence.

    PubMed

    Booksmythe, Isobel; Jennions, Michael D; Backwell, Patricia R Y

    2010-12-23

    Theory predicts that territory owners will help established neighbours to repel intruders, when doing so is less costly than renegotiating boundaries with successful usurpers of neighbouring territories. Here, we show for the first time, to our knowledge, cooperative territory defence between heterospecific male neighbours in the fiddler crabs Uca elegans and Uca mjoebergi. We show experimentally that resident U. elegans were equally likely to help a smaller U. mjoebergi or U. elegans neighbour during simulated intrusions by intermediate sized U. elegans males (50% of cases for both). Helping was, however, significantly less likely to occur when the intruder was a U. mjoebergi male (only 15% of cases). PMID:20534601

  7. Northern Territory Emergency Response: criticism, support and redesign.

    PubMed

    Evans, Brendon W

    2012-06-01

    The recent Federal Government Report and Media release, Stronger Futures in the Northern Territory: Report on Consultations and its claim of 'widespread Indigenous Support' has brought the topic of the Northern Territory Emergency Response (the Intervention) back into the public mind. This article provides a synthesis of four years of debate around the Northern Territory Emergency Response, at a time when the program is nearing the end of its time frame. It outlines the main arguments supporting the Intervention, the central criticisms and the government's response to these evaluations, with the aim of providing a primer or summary for health professionals to the discussion around this important public issue. PMID:22620472

  8. Ad hoc CubeSat constellations: Secondary launch coverage and distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marinan, A.; Nicholas, A.; Cahoy, K.

    The primary purpose of a constellation is to obtain global measurements with improved spatial and temporal resolution. The small size, low cost, standardized form factor, and increasing availability of commercial parts for CubeSats make them ideal for use in constellations. However, without taking advantage of secondary payload opportunities, it would be costly to launch and distribute a CubeSat constellation into a specific configuration. A cost-effective way to launch a constellation of CubeSats is via consecutive secondary payload launch opportunities, but the resulting constellation would be an ad hoc mix of orbit parameters. We focus on the feasibility of cobbling together constellation-like functionality from multiple secondary payload opportunities. Each participating CubeSat (or set of CubeSats) per launch could have completely different orbital parameters, even without propulsion onboard the CubeSats or intermediate transfer carriers. We look at the ground coverages that could be obtained for a constellation of five to six orbital planes with one to six satellites in each plane. We analyze past and announced future launch opportunities for CubeSats, including launch platforms supported by the NASA Educational Launch of Nanosatellites (ELaNa). We consider combinations of possible launch locations and temporal spacings over the course of one year and simulate the resulting ground coverage patterns and revisit times for an ad hoc constellation using these launch opportunities. We perform this analysis for two separate case studies - one with only US launches and one with both US and non-US opportunities - and vary the number of satellites per orbital plane. Typical CubeSat mission lifetimes and deorbit times for low-altitude orbits are included in these analyses. The ad hoc constellation results are compared to coverage from uniformly-placed LEO constellations and are quantified in terms of revisit time, time to 100% global coverage, and response time. For mu

  9. The Struggles over African Languages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maseko, Pam; Vale, Peter

    2016-01-01

    In this interview, African Language expert Pam Maseko speaks of her own background and her first encounter with culture outside of her mother tongue, isiXhosa. A statistical breakdown of South African languages is provided as background. She discusses Western (originally missionary) codification of African languages and suggests that this approach…

  10. Psychological Misdiagnosis of African Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garretson, Deborah J.

    1993-01-01

    Reviews historical and current problems with making accurate psychological diagnoses of African Americans. Suggests that misdiagnosis is strongly related to pathologization of African-American culture itself. Explores diagnostic process, stereotypes of African-American psychopathology, cultural differences in values and life stressors, and…

  11. Ten-Year Trends in SAT Scores and Other Characteristics of High School Seniors Taking the SAT and Planning To Study Mathematics, Science, or Engineering. Research Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grandy, Jerilee

    This study analyzed data from the Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT) taken by high school seniors between 1975 and 1986. Its purpose was to study trends in the numbers, test scores, and other characteristics of examinees planning to major in mathematics, science, and engineering, and to compare these data with comparable data from examinees planning…

  12. Evaluation of SAT-1, SAT-2 and GalNAcT-1 mRNA in colon cancer by real-time PCR.

    PubMed

    Gornati, Rosalba; Chini, Valentina; Rimoldi, Simona; Meregalli, Maurizio; Schiaffino, Eugenio; Bernardini, Giovanni

    2007-04-01

    By qualitative and quantitative PCR, we evaluated the expression of three messengers coding for SAT-1, SAT-2 and GalNAcT-1 in human samples of intestinal cancer and some cell lines (breast cancer and melanomas). Qualitative PCR demonstrated, in human tissues but not in the cell lines examined, the presence of an mRNA that lacks hexon 3; experiments performed on transfected SKMEL-28 excluded a regulative role of this noncanonical mRNA. Data from real-time PCR, statistically analysed by ANOVA indicated that the mRNA expression of all the considered glycosyltransferases (SAT-1, SAT-2 and GalNAcT-1) was significantly different in tumours versus their own control. The ganglioside patterns in the examined samples did not correlate with mRNA expression; this finding demonstrates that ganglioside expression is the result of a very complex balance between anabolic and catabolic enzyme activities. Although this study is still preliminary, it opens a new possibility for neoplastic prognosis finding potential molecular markers among the mRNAs that codify for glycosyltransferases. PMID:17119850

  13. Narcolepsy in African Americans

    PubMed Central

    Kawai, Makoto; O'Hara, Ruth; Einen, Mali; Lin, Ling; Mignot, Emmanuel

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: Although narcolepsy affects 0.02–0.05% of individuals in various ethnic groups, clinical presentation in different ethnicities has never been fully characterized. Our goal was to study phenotypic expression across ethnicities in the United States. Design/Setting: Cases of narcolepsy from 1992 to 2013 were identified from searches of the Stanford Center for Narcolepsy Research database. International Classification of Sleep Disorders, Third Edition diagnosis criteria for type 1 and type 2 narcolepsy were used for inclusion, but subjects were separated as with and without cataplexy for the purpose of data presentation. Information extracted included demographics, ethnicity and clinical data, HLA-DQB1*06:02, polysomnography (PSG), multiple sleep latency test (MSLT) data, and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) hypocretin-1 level. Patients: 182 African-Americans, 839 Caucasians, 35 Asians, and 41 Latinos with narcolepsy. Results: Sex ratio, PSG, and MSLT findings did not differ across ethnicities. Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) score was higher and age of onset of sleepiness earlier in African Americans compared with other ethnicities. HLA-DQB1*06:02 positivity was higher in African Americans (91.0%) versus others (76.6% in Caucasians, 80.0% in Asians, and 65.0% in Latinos). CSF hypocretin-1 level, obtained in 222 patients, was more frequently low (≤ 110 pg/ml) in African Americans (93.9%) versus Caucasians (61.5%), Asians (85.7%) and Latinos (75.0%). In subjects with low CSF hypocretin-1, African Americans (28.3%) were 4.5 fold more likely to be without cataplexy when compared with Caucasians (8.1%). Conclusions: Narcolepsy in African Americans is characterized by earlier symptom onset, higher Epworth Sleepiness Scale score, higher HLA-DQB1*06:02 positivity, and low cerebrospinal fluid hypocretin-1 level in the absence of cataplexy. In African Americans, more subjects without cataplexy have type 1 narcolepsy. Citation: Kawai M, O'Hara R, Einen M, Lin L

  14. Perceptions of doctors and nurses at a Ugandan hospital regarding the introduction and use of the South African Triage Scale

    PubMed Central

    Blitz, Julia

    2016-01-01

    Background International Hospital Kampala (IHK) experienced a challenge with how to standardise the triaging and sorting of patients. There was no triage tool to help to prioritise which patients to attend to first, with very sick patient often being missed. Aim and setting To explore whether the introduction of the South African Triage Scale (SATS) was seen as valuable and sustainable by the IHK’s outpatient department and emergency unit (OPD and EU) staff. Methods The study used qualitative methods to introduce SATS in the OPD and EU at IHK and to obtain the perceptions of doctors and nurses who had used it for 3–6 months on its applicability and sustainability. Specific questions about challenges faced prior to its introduction, strengths and weaknesses of the triage tool, the impact it had on staff practices, and their recommendations on the continued use of the tool were asked. In-depth interviews were conducted with 4 doctors and 12 nurses. Results SATS was found to be necessary, applicable and recommended for use in the IHK setting. It improved the sorting of patients, as well as nurse-patient and nurse-doctor communication. The IHK OPD & EU staff attained new skills, with nurses becoming more involved in-patient care. It is possibly also useful in telephone triaging and planning of hospital staffing. Conclusion Adequate nurse staffing, a computer application for automated coding of patients, and regular training would encourage consistent use and sustainability of SATS. Setting up a hospital committee to review signs and symptoms would increase acceptability and sustainability. SATS is valuable in the IHK setting because it improved overall efficiency of triaging and care, with significantly more strengths than weaknesses. PMID:27247152

  15. The Social Attribution Task-Multiple Choice (SAT-MC): A Psychometric and Equivalence Study of an Alternate Form.

    PubMed

    Johannesen, Jason K; Lurie, Jessica B; Fiszdon, Joanna M; Bell, Morris D

    2013-01-01

    The Social Attribution Task-Multiple Choice (SAT-MC) uses a 64-second video of geometric shapes set in motion to portray themes of social relatedness and intentions. Considered a test of "Theory of Mind," the SAT-MC assesses implicit social attribution formation while reducing verbal and basic cognitive demands required of other common measures. We present a comparability analysis of the SAT-MC and the new SAT-MC-II, an alternate form created for repeat testing, in a university sample (n = 92). Score distributions and patterns of association with external validation measures were nearly identical between the two forms, with convergent and discriminant validity supported by association with affect recognition ability and lack of association with basic visual reasoning. Internal consistency of the SAT-MC-II was superior (alpha = .81) to the SAT-MC (alpha = .56). Results support the use of SAT-MC and new SAT-MC-II as equivalent test forms. Demonstrating relatively higher association to social cognitive than basic cognitive abilities, the SAT-MC may provide enhanced sensitivity as an outcome measure of social cognitive intervention trials. PMID:23864984

  16. The Social Attribution Task-Multiple Choice (SAT-MC): A Psychometric and Equivalence Study of an Alternate Form

    PubMed Central

    Johannesen, Jason K.; Lurie, Jessica B.; Fiszdon, Joanna M.; Bell, Morris D.

    2013-01-01

    The Social Attribution Task-Multiple Choice (SAT-MC) uses a 64-second video of geometric shapes set in motion to portray themes of social relatedness and intentions. Considered a test of “Theory of Mind,” the SAT-MC assesses implicit social attribution formation while reducing verbal and basic cognitive demands required of other common measures. We present a comparability analysis of the SAT-MC and the new SAT-MC-II, an alternate form created for repeat testing, in a university sample (n = 92). Score distributions and patterns of association with external validation measures were nearly identical between the two forms, with convergent and discriminant validity supported by association with affect recognition ability and lack of association with basic visual reasoning. Internal consistency of the SAT-MC-II was superior (alpha = .81) to the SAT-MC (alpha = .56). Results support the use of SAT-MC and new SAT-MC-II as equivalent test forms. Demonstrating relatively higher association to social cognitive than basic cognitive abilities, the SAT-MC may provide enhanced sensitivity as an outcome measure of social cognitive intervention trials. PMID:23864984

  17. Assessing the format of the presentation of text in developing a Reading Strategy Assessment Tool (R-SAT).

    PubMed

    Gilliam, Sara; Magliano, Joseph P; Millis, Keith K; Levinstein, Irwin; Boonthum, Chutima

    2007-05-01

    We are constructing a new computerized test of reading comprehension called the Reading Strategy Assessment Tool (R-SAT). R-SAT elicits and analyzes verbal protocols that readers generate in response to questions as they read texts. We examined whether the amount of information available to the reader when reading and answering questions influenced the extent to which R-SAT accounts for comprehension. We found that R-SAT was most predictive of comprehension when the readers did not have access to the text as they answered questions. PMID:17695345

  18. 20 CFR 655.2 - Territory of Guam.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... provisions of the H-2B visa program provisions in the Territory of Guam. Pursuant to DHS regulations, 8 CFR... Temporary Employment in Occupations Other Than Agriculture or Registered Nursing in the United States...

  19. 20 CFR 655.2 - Territory of Guam.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... provisions of the H-2B visa program provisions in the Territory of Guam. Pursuant to DHS regulations, 8 CFR... Temporary Employment in Occupations Other Than Agriculture or Registered Nursing in the United States...

  20. [Local health promotion plans: intersetoralities created in the territory].

    PubMed

    Moysés, Simone Tetu; Franco de Sá, Ronice

    2014-11-01

    The article highlights the importance of considering the specificities of spaces/territories/ locations of individual and collective life in creating health promotion actions. It explores how this approach has conceptually consolidated respect for territoriality and territorial actions as a principle and an operational health promotion strategy. Based on the literature, the article also points to the need to envision the territory occupied as a locus to put intersetorialities into practice, giving a voice to people who live there, seek to and solve their complex problems, to existing and emerging social networks. It also presents a nationally and internationally validated strategy/method (Bamboo Method) for the development of local health promotion plans, which enables the prioritization of actions by listening to the people and to the managers. PMID:25351299